WorldWideScience

Sample records for factors age sex

  1. The moderating impact of lifestyle factors on sex steroids, sexual activities and aging in Asian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Victor H H; Tong, Terry Y Y

    2011-07-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the relative associations of exercise, sleep and other lifestyle habits with aging, sex hormones, percent body fat (%BF) and sexual activities in men living in the community. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men. The results showed that age is a major determinant for many physiological parameters, including sleep, hormonal and metabolic parameters, some lifestyle factors and sexual activities. Testosterone (T), bioavailable testosterone (BioT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) concentrations decreased with age, while estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and %BF increased with age. In addition, there exist intricate associations among hormonal and lifestyle factors, %BF and age. High-intensity exercise and longer duration of sleep were associated with higher concentrations of T and BioT. T was shown to be associated positively with men who were engaged in masturbation. DHEAS was associated with men wanting more sex and with good morning penile rigidity. Older Singaporean men tended to sleep for shorter duration, but exercised more intensely than younger men. Coital and masturbation frequencies decreased with age, and a significantly greater number of younger men were engaged in masturbation. Relationship between the partners is a key determinant of sexuality in men. It appears that T may have a limited, while dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) have a greater role than previously suggest, as a motivational signal for sexual function in men. Both biological and psychosocial factors interact with each other to influence sexual functions in men. Hence, a biopsychosocial approach may be more appropriate for a more lasting resolution to sexual dysfunctions in men.

  2. Age- and sex-specific causal effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Tove; Hägg, Sara; Ploner, Alexander; Mägi, Reedik; Fischer, Krista; Draisma, Harmen H M; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Benyamin, Beben; Ladenvall, Claes; Åkerlund, Mikael; Kals, Mart; Esko, Tõnu; Nelson, Christopher P; Kaakinen, Marika; Huikari, Ville; Mangino, Massimo; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Kristiansson, Kati; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Kobl, Michael; Grallert, Harald; Dehghan, Abbas; Kuningas, Maris; de Vries, Paul S; de Bruijn, Renée F A G; Willems, Sara M; Heikkilä, Kauko; Silventoinen, Karri; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Legry, Vanessa; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Goumidi, Louisa; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Herder, Christian; Palotie, Aarno; Menni, Cristina; Uitterlinden, André G; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Havulinna, Aki S; Moreno, Luis A; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Evans, Alun; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Yarnell, John W G; Virtamo, Jarmo; Ferrières, Jean; Veronesi, Giovanni; Perola, Markus; Arveiler, Dominique; Brambilla, Paolo; Lind, Lars; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Ikram, M Arfan; Franco, Oscar H; Cottel, Dominique; Dallongeville, Jean; Hall, Alistair S; Jula, Antti; Tobin, Martin D; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Samani, Nilesh J; Montgomery, Grant W; Whitfield, John B; Martin, Nicholas G; Groop, Leif; Spector, Tim D; Magnusson, Patrik K; Amouyel, Philippe; Boomsma, Dorret I; Nilsson, Peter M; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Metspalu, Andres; Strachan, David P; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Pedersen, Nancy L; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I; Ingelsson, Erik

    2015-05-01

    Observational studies have reported different effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors across age and sex. Since cardiovascular risk factors are enriched in obese individuals, it has not been easy to dissect the effects of adiposity from those of other risk factors. We used a Mendelian randomization approach, applying a set of 32 genetic markers to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, glycemic indices, circulating lipid levels, and markers of inflammation and liver disease in up to 67,553 individuals. All analyses were stratified by age (cutoff 55 years of age) and sex. The genetic score was associated with BMI in both nonstratified analysis (P = 2.8 × 10(-107)) and stratified analyses (all P causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, fasting levels of insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in a nonstratified analysis and in the causal effect on total cholesterol (P for difference = 0.015) in the ≥55-year stratum than in the causal estimates on cardiovascular risk factors.

  3. Age and sex differences in factors associated with the onset of cannabis use: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guxens, Mònica; Nebot, Manel; Ariza, Carles

    2007-05-11

    To investigate age and sex differences in factors associated with the onset of cannabis use among adolescents. A representative sample of schoolchildren from secondary schools in Barcelona (n=1056) was selected and followed-up from the first to the fourth year of secondary education (7-10th grades). The participants completed a self-administered lifestyle questionnaire each year. Multilevel logistic regression models were used for each year and sex to analyse predictors of cannabis use; the second level was adjusted by school. Onset of cannabis use during follow-up was associated with a prior history of tobacco smoking [odds ratio (OR)=7.7 in boys; OR=3.8 in girls], alcohol consumption (OR=6.4 in boys; OR=3.2 in girls), antisocial behavior (OR=2.8 in boys; OR=2.2 in girls), intention to use drugs (OR=3.5 in boys; OR=4.2 in girls), drug use among friends (OR=2.5 in boys; OR=3.7 in girls) and spending leisure time in bars or discos (OR=2.1 in boys; OR=3.8 in girls). Moreover, among girls, attending state schools (OR=2.9), low academic performance (OR=5.7) and living in a single-parent family (OR=2.0) also independently predicted cannabis use. This study reveals a wide array of predictive factors in cannabis use onset that largely differed by age and sex. The results support the role of tobacco and alcohol, as well as the influence of drug use among friends, and the importance of leisure time patterns as facilitators of cannabis use.

  4. The moderating impact of lifestyle factors on sex steroids, sexual activities and aging in Asian men

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Victor HH; Tong, Terry YY

    2011-01-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the relative associations of exercise, sleep and other lifestyle habits with aging, sex hormones, percent body fat (%BF) and sexual activities in men living in the community. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men. The results showed that age is a major determinant for many physiological parameters, including sleep, hormonal and me...

  5. Age, sex, and setting factors and labor force in athletic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahanov, Leamor; Eberman, Lindsey E

    2011-01-01

    Occupation or occupational setting shifts might be occurring in the athletic training profession, and differences between sexes might exist; however, little evidence exists to confirm this supposition. To evaluate trends in male and female athletic training employment patterns in terms of age and occupational setting. Cross-sectional study. We requested demographic data from the National Athletic Trainers' Association (October 27, 2009) and obtained frequency totals of members by sex across the occupational life span by occupational setting. Our sample included 18 571 athletic trainers employed in the 3 largest classifications of occupational settings within the profession: college or university, clinical, and secondary school. We calculated frequencies and percentages to determine demographic and descriptive data. We analyzed the data using an analysis of variance to identify the differences between sexes across age and setting. We observed trends in occupational setting and sex across ages 22 to 67 years. We identified differences between sexes across the ages 22 to 67 years (F(1,18569) = 110818.080, P job duties might influence the exodus or shift in athletic training.

  6. Cardiovascular risk factors in rural Kenyans are associated with differential age gradients, but not modified by sex or ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk L.; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Birkegaard, Louise

    2016-01-01

    among rural Kenyans. BP and pulse rate (PR) were measured while sitting and fasting blood samples were taken for analysis of standard lipid profile. Standard anthropometric measurements were collected. Physical activity energy expenditure was obtained objectively and lifestyle data were obtained using......The relationship between metabolic disease and the non-modifiable risk factors sex, age and ethnicity in Africans is not well-established. This study aimed to describe sex, age and ethnicity differences in blood pressure (BP) and lipid status in rural Kenyans. A cross-sectional study was undertaken...... questionnaires. In total, 1139 individuals (61.0% women) participated aged 17-68 years. Age was positively associated with BP and plasma cholesterol levels. Sitting PR was negatively associated with age in women only (sex-interaction p ...

  7. Online newspapers: the impact of culture, sex, and age on the perceived importance of specified quality factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverley G. Hope

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a proliferation of online newspapers over recent years. Despite this, or perhaps because of it, factors affecting the quality of online newspapers remain only partially understood. Based on a two-factor model of hygiene and motivator factors, this paper examines quality for online newspapers giving attention to differences across culture, sex, and age. Hygiene factors are essential requirements whose absence causes dissatisfaction, while motivators are desirable elements that add value and increase user satisfaction. The paper presents findings from an empirical study of eighty-four Web users. Results show that hygiene factors for our respondents were: Timeliness, Content attractiveness, Content coverage, Usefulness, and Navigation, while motivators were: Writing style, Layout, Archives, Services, Interactivity, and Multimedia presentation. Four factors were borderline: Journalism ethics, Ease of use, Front page and headlines, and Locating information. However, the research reveals some differences in classification of factors across culture, sex, and age.

  8. Risk factors for late-life cognitive decline and variation with age and sex in the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M Lipnicki

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: An aging population brings increasing burdens and costs to individuals and society arising from late-life cognitive decline, the causes of which are unclear. We aimed to identify factors predicting late-life cognitive decline. METHODS: Participants were 889 community-dwelling 70-90-year-olds from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study with comprehensive neuropsychological assessments at baseline and a 2-year follow-up and initially without dementia. Cognitive decline was considered as incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI or dementia, as well as decreases in attention/processing speed, executive function, memory, and global cognition. Associations with baseline demographic, lifestyle, health and medical factors were determined. RESULTS: All cognitive measures showed decline and 14% of participants developed incident MCI or dementia. Across all participants, risk factors for decline included older age and poorer smelling ability most prominently, but also more education, history of depression, being male, higher homocysteine, coronary artery disease, arthritis, low health status, and stroke. Protective factors included marriage, kidney disease, and antidepressant use. For some of these factors the association varied with age or differed between men and women. Additional risk and protective factors that were strictly age- and/or sex-dependent were also identified. We found salient population attributable risks (8.7-49.5% for older age, being male or unmarried, poor smelling ability, coronary artery disease, arthritis, stroke, and high homocysteine. DISCUSSION: Preventing or treating conditions typically associated with aging might reduce population-wide late-life cognitive decline. Interventions tailored to particular age and sex groups may offer further benefits.

  9. Age and Sex Specific Reference Intervals for Modifiable Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases for Gujarati Asian Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sibasis; Shah, Komal H; Konat, Ashwati R; Sharma, Kamal H; Tripathi, Payal

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We aimed to establish age and sex specific percentile reference data for cardiovascular risk factors such as lipids, sugar, blood pressure, and BMI in apparently healthy and disease-free Gujarati population. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 3265 apparently healthy and disease-free individuals of both genders residing in Gujarat state. Fasting samples of blood were used for biochemical estimations of lipids and sugar. The measurement of BMI and blood pressure was also done according to the standard guidelines. Age and gender specific 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles were obtained. Results. The mean values of lipids, sugar, blood pressure, and BMI were significantly (p Gujarati Indian population with a propensity of developing dyslipidemia, diabetes, blood pressure, and obesity.

  10. Age and Sex Specific Reference Intervals for Modifiable Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases for Gujarati Asian Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibasis Sahoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We aimed to establish age and sex specific percentile reference data for cardiovascular risk factors such as lipids, sugar, blood pressure, and BMI in apparently healthy and disease-free Gujarati population. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 3265 apparently healthy and disease-free individuals of both genders residing in Gujarat state. Fasting samples of blood were used for biochemical estimations of lipids and sugar. The measurement of BMI and blood pressure was also done according to the standard guidelines. Age and gender specific 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles were obtained. Results. The mean values of lipids, sugar, blood pressure, and BMI were significantly (p<0.001 higher in males as compared to female population. Age-wise distribution trends showed increase in the risk factors from the 2nd decade until the 5th to 6th decade in most of the cases, where loss of premenopausal protection in females was also observed. Specific trends according to gender and age were observed in percentile values of various parameters. Conclusion. The outcome of current study will contribute significantly to proposing clinically important reference values of various lipids, sugar, blood pressure, and BMI that could be used to screen the asymptomatic Gujarati Indian population with a propensity of developing dyslipidemia, diabetes, blood pressure, and obesity.

  11. Is being female a risk factor for shallow anterior chamber? The associations between anterior chamber depth and age, sex, and body height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Cherng Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of Study: To analyze the association between anterior chamber depth (ACD and age, sex, and body height (BH. Materials and Methods: One thousand four hundred eighty eyes of 1480 adults 40 years of age and older receiving preoperative evaluation for cataract surgery were recruited consecutively from June 1, 2006, to December 31, 2010. ACD was measured with the Zeiss IOLMaster. Univariate and multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze the correlations, and receiving operator characteristic (ROC curves and the area under the curve (AUC were used for evaluating the predictability of an ACD less than 2.70 mm. Results: ACD was negatively correlated with age and positively correlated with BH in both univariate and multivariate regression analysis (P < 0.001. Sex was associated with ACD in univariate analysis, but not after adjustment with age and BH. In predicting an ACD less than 2.70 mm, the AUCs of ROC curves for ′age and sex′, ′age and BH′, and ′age, sex, and BH′ were 0.687, 0.689, and 0.689, respectively. Conclusion: Age and BH were independent associating factors of ACD; however, sex was not. Older people and shorter ones likely had shallower ACD, and therefore were predisposed to Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG. The predictability of ACD by age and BH solely was low, and adding sex did not increase it.

  12. Vocabulary, Grammar, Sex, and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscoso Del Prado Martín, Fermín

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the changes in our language abilities along the lifespan is a crucial step for understanding the aging process both in normal and in abnormal circumstances. Besides controlled experimental tasks, it is equally crucial to investigate language in unconstrained conversation. I present an information-theoretical analysis of a corpus of dyadic conversations investigating how the richness of the vocabulary, the word-internal structure (inflectional morphology), and the syntax of the utterances evolves as a function of the speaker's age and sex. Although vocabulary diversity increases throughout the lifetime, grammatical diversities follow a different pattern, which also differs between women and men. Women use increasingly diverse syntactic structures at least up to their late fifties, and they do not deteriorate in terms of fluency through their lifespan. However, from age 45 onward, men exhibit a decrease in the diversity of the syntactic structures they use, coupled with an increased number of speech disfluencies. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  13. Risk Factors Such as Male Sex, Smoking, Metabolic Syndrome, Obesity, and Fatty Liver Do Not Justify Screening Colonoscopies Before Age 45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yoon Suk; Yun, Kyung Eun; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Park, Dong Il

    2016-04-01

    Recently, many studies have reported that male sex, smoking, fatty liver, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and obesity are risk factors for colorectal neoplasia (CRN). However, current guidelines recommend that persons at average risk of colorectal cancer begin screening colonoscopy at age 50 years without consideration of those risk factors. To investigate an appropriate time to start screening colonoscopies in persons with risk factors for CRN. We performed a cross-sectional study on 27,894 Korean aged ≥30 years who underwent a first colonoscopy as part of a health screening program. To compare the efficacy of colonoscopic screening for the detection of advanced CRN among age groups with risk factors, we calculated the number needed to screen (NNS) to identify 1 patient with advanced CRN. The NNS for those 30-39 years old with all risk factors, male gender, smoking (≥10 pack-years), MetS, obesity, and fatty liver, was higher than that for ≥50-year-old female subjects (55.4 vs. 26.4). The NNS for those 40-44 years old with all risk factors (37.1) was also higher than that for ≥50-year-old female subjects. However, the NNS for those 45-49 years old with risk factors (16.9-22.9) was lower than that for ≥50-year-old women. The efficacy of colonoscopic screening in people 30-44 years old with multiple risk factors is lower than that in ≥50-year-old women. Risk factors such as male sex, smoking, MetS, obesity, and fatty liver do not justify starting screening colonoscopies before age 45.

  14. Age- and Sex-Specific Burden of Cardiovascular Disease Attributable to 5 Major and Modifiable Risk Factors in 10 Asian Countries of the Western Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Rachel R; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Hussain, Mohammad Akhtar; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Wang, Xin; Peters, Sanne A E; Mamun, Abdullah; Woodward, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide, causing an estimated 18 million deaths annually. Much of the burden of CVD resides in lower- and middle-income countries, particularly those Asian countries comprising the Western Pacific Region. Epidemiological studies have convincingly shown that up to 90% of all CVD can be explained by a small number of modifiable risk factors, including blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, total cholesterol and excess body weight. However, the relationship between these risk factors and coronary artery disease and stroke often differ by age and sex, and yet these differences are often overlooked in burden of disease estimations. As such, that can result in either an over- or under-estimation of the disease burden in specific population subgroups, which may affect resource allocation of healthcare. In this review, we derive the most reliable and previously unpublished estimates of the age- and sex-specific burden of vascular disease attributable to the aforementioned risk factors for 10 of the most populous Asian countries in the Western Pacific Region. Understanding how the burden of vascular disease is distributed within and between populations is crucial for developing appropriate health policies and effective treatment strategies, particularly in resource-poor settings.

  15. Psychometric properties of the Dresden Body Image Questionnaire: A multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis across sex and age in a Dutch non-clinical sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffers, Mia; van Duijn, Marijtje A. J.; Bosscher, Ruud J.; Wiersma, Durk; Schoevers, Robert A.; van Busschbach, Jooske T.

    2017-01-01

    Background Body image has implications for psychosocial functioning and quality of life and its disturbance is reported in a broad range of psychiatric disorders. In view of the lack of instruments in Dutch measuring body image as a broad concept, we set out to make an instrument available that reflects the multidimensional character of this construct by including more dimensions than physical appearance. The Dresden Körperbildfragebogen (DBIQ, Dresden Body Image Questionnaire) particularly served this purpose. The DBIQ consists of 35 items and five subscales: body acceptance, sexual fulfillment, physical contact, vitality, and self-aggrandizement. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Dutch translation of the Dresden Body Image Questionnaire (DBIQ-NL) in a non-clinical sample. Methods The psychometric properties of the DBIQ-NL were examined in a non-clinical sample of 988 respondents aged between 18 and 65. We investigated the subscales' internal consistency and test-retest reliability. In order to establish construct validity we evaluated the association with a related construct, body cathexis, and with indices of self-esteem and psychological wellbeing. The factor structure of the DBIQ-NL was examined via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The equivalence of the measurement model across sex and age was evaluated by multiplegroup confirmatory factor analyses. Results Confirmatory factor analyses showed a structure in accordance with the original scale, where model fit was improved significantly by moving one item to another subscale. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis across sex and age demonstrated partial strong invariance. Internal consistency was good with little overlap between the subscales. Temporal reliability and construct validity were satisfactory. Conclusion Results indicate that the DBIQ-NL is a reliable and valid instrument for non-clinical subjects. This provides a sound basis for

  16. Early age at first sex: associations with sexual health and sociodemographic factors among a sample of young music festival attendees in Melbourne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Alyce M; Agius, Paul A; Bowring, Anna L; Hellard, Margaret E; Lim, Megan S C

    2014-09-01

    Background Age at first sex (AFS) is associated with adverse outcomes. We explore associated factors and correlates of 'early' AFS (<16 years). In 2009-11, participants (16-29 years) were recruited. Multivariate Cox regression explored correlates of AFS. Logistic regression analysis explored associations between early AFS and risk behaviours. Of 3563 participants, 79% were sexually active. Median AFS was 17 years. Compared with those aged 25-29 years, younger participants reported younger AFS [16-17 years: adjusted hazard ratio (AHR)=1.87, P<0.01; 18-19 years: AHR=1.47, P<0.01, 20-24 years: AHR=1.19, P<0.01]. Of those sexually active, 29% reported early AFS. Early AFS was associated with being male [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.25, P<0.05], being younger (16-17 years: AOR=11.10, P<0.01; 18-19 years: AOR=3.60, P<0.01; 20-24 years: AOR=1.83, P<0.01; compared with 25-29 years), having no education after high school (AOR=1.52, P<0.01), living alone (AOR=1.84, P<0.01) or with a partner (AOR=1.57, P=0.01), having more than five lifetime sex partners (AOR=3.22, P=0.01), inconsistent condom use in the past 12 months (AOR=1.43, P<0.01), ever using illicit drugs (AOR=1.69, P<0.01) and ever injecting drugs (AOR=3.45, P<0.01). The results highlight the importance of comprehensive sex education.

  17. Socioeconomic status and geographical factors associated with active listing in primary care: a cross-sectional population study accounting for multimorbidity, age, sex and primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranstad, Karin; Midlöv, Patrik; Halling, Anders

    2017-06-09

    Socioeconomic status and geographical factors are associated with health and use of healthcare. Well-performing primary care contributes to better health and more adequate healthcare. In a primary care system based on patient's choice of practice, this choice (listing) is a key to understand the system. To explore the relationship between population and practices in a primary care system based on listing. Cross-sectional population-based study. Logistic regressions of the associations between active listing in primary care, income, education, distances to healthcare and geographical location, adjusting for multimorbidity, age, sex and type of primary care practice. Population over 15 years (n=123 168) in a Swedish county, Blekinge (151 731 inhabitants), in year 2007, actively or passively listed in primary care. The proportion of actively listed was 68%. Actively listed in primary care on 31 December 2007. Highest ORs for active listing in the model including all factors according to income had quartile two and three with OR 0.70 (95% CI 0.69 to 0.70), and those according to education less than 9 years of education had OR 0.70 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.70). Best odds for geographical factors in the same model had municipality C with OR 0.85 (95% CI 0.85 to 0.86) for active listing. Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) was 124 801 for a model including municipality, multimorbidity, age, sex and type of practice and including all factors gave AIC 123 934. Higher income, shorter education, shorter distance to primary care or longer distance to hospital is associated with active listing in primary care.Multimorbidity, age, geographical location and type of primary care practice are more important to active listing in primary care than socioeconomic status and distance to healthcare. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Determining age and sex of American coots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddleman, William R.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1985-01-01

    Reliable techniques for age and sex determination of migrating and wintering American Coots (Fulica americana) have not been available. Breeding coots can be ages through age 3 by tarsal color (birds 4 years and older were placed in a 4+ age class) (Crawford 1978), and males and females have sex-specific behaviors and calls while on breeding territories (Gullion 1950, 1952). Externally, juvenile coots differ from adults in having gray (as opposed to white) bills and brown (as opposed to red) eyes to an age of 75 days (Gullion 1954-394). Bill color changes to white by about 120 days. No quantitative data have been available, however, on the proportion of juveniles retaining these traits throughout fall and early winter. Nonbreeding coots can be ages as juvenile or adult by internal examination of the thickness of the wall of the bursa of Fabricius, although bursal depth does not predictably decline with age (Fredrickson 1968). Attempts to sex coots by single external measurements of combinations of measurements have met with mixed success. Eight-five percent of 101 fall migrants in Wisconsin could be sexed by the length of the metatarsus-midtoe including claw by using 139.5 mm as a cutoff point (Burton 1959), whereas 88% of 67 coots in California were correctly sexed by the length of the metatarsus-midtoe without claw using 127.5 mm as the cutoff point (Gullion 1952). Two-hundred-thirty-two of 291 coots collected in Iowa, however, were in the zone of overlap between the sexes for this measurement (Fredrickson 1968). Previous studies attempting to develop aging and sexing techniques for American Coots have been limited to a few study sites or to 1 season or year, often failing to take geographical, annual, and seasonal morphological variation into account (e.g., Visser 1976, Fjeldsa 1977). We designed the present study to refine and quantify external and internal age and sex criteria for postbreeding coots, with the objective of defining techniques applicable for all

  19. Interactions between Age, Sex, and Hormones in Experimental Ischemic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fudong; McCullough, Louise D.

    2012-01-01

    Age, sex, and gonadal hormones have profound effects on ischemic stroke outcomes, although how these factors impact basic stroke pathophysiology remains unclear. There is a plethora of inconsistent data reported throughout the literature, primarily due to differences in the species examined, the timing and methods used to evaluate injury, the models used, and confusion regarding differences in stroke incidence as seen in clinical populations versus effects on acute neuroprotection or neurorepair in experimental stroke models. Sex and gonadal hormone exposure have considerable independent impact on stroke outcome, but these factors also interact with each other, and the contribution of each differs throughout the lifespan. The contribution of sex and hormones to experimental stroke will be the focus of this review. Recent advances and our current understanding of age, sex, and hormone interactions in ischemic stroke with a focus on inflammation will be discussed. PMID:23068990

  20. Brain size, sex, and the aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz; Mérillat, Susan; Liem, Franziskus; Hänggi, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the statistical influence of brain size on cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar compartmental volumes. This brain size influence was especially studied to delineate interactions with Sex and Age. Here, we studied 856 healthy subjects of which 533 are classified as young and 323 as old. Using an automated segmentation procedure cortical (gray and white matter [GM and WM] including the corpus callosum), cerebellar (GM and WM), and subcortical (thalamus, putamen, pallidum, caudatus, hippocampus, amygdala, and accumbens) volumes were measured and subjected to statistical analyses. These analyses revealed that brain size and age exert substantial statistical influences on nearly all compartmental volumes. Analyzing the raw compartmental volumes replicated the frequently reported Sex differences in compartmental volumes with men showing larger volumes. However, when statistically controlling for brain size Sex differences and Sex × Age interactions practically disappear. Thus, brain size is more important than Sex in explaining interindividual differences in compartmental volumes. The influence of brain size is discussed in the context of an allometric scaling of the compartmental volumes.

  1. Primate Innovation: Sex, Age and Social Rank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reader, S.M.; Laland, K.N.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of an exhaustive survey of primate behavior collated from the published literature revealed significant variation in rates of innovation among individuals of different sex, age and social rank. We searched approximately 1,000 articles in four primatology journals, together with other releva

  2. Primate Innovation: Sex, Age and Social Rank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reader, S.M.; Laland, K.N.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of an exhaustive survey of primate behavior collated from the published literature revealed significant variation in rates of innovation among individuals of different sex, age and social rank. We searched approximately 1,000 articles in four primatology journals, together with other releva

  3. China's marriage squeeze: A decomposition into age and sex structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quanbao; Li, Xiaomin; Li, Shuzhuo; Feldman, Marcus W

    2016-06-01

    Most recent studies of marriage patterns in China have emphasized the male-biased sex ratio but have largely neglected age structure as a factor in China's male marriage squeeze. In this paper we develop an index we call "spousal sex ratio" (SSR) to measure the marriage squeeze, and a method of decomposing the proportion of male surplus into age and sex structure effects within a small spousal age difference interval. We project that China's marriage market will be confronted with a relatively severe male squeeze. For the decomposition of the cohort aged 30, from 2010 to 2020 age structure will be dominant, while from 2020 through 2034 the contribution of age structure will gradually decrease and that of sex structure will increase. From then on, sex structure will be dominant. The index and decomposition, concentrated on a specific female birth cohort, can distinguish spousal competition for single cohorts which may be covered by a summary index for the whole marriage market; these can also be used for consecutive cohorts to reflect the situation of the whole marriage market.

  4. Mallard age and sex determination from wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, S.M.; Geis, A.D.

    1960-01-01

    This paper describes characters on the wing plumage of the mallard that indicate age and sex. A key outlines a logical order in which to check age and sex characters on wings. This method was tested and found to be more than 95 percent reliable, although it was found that considerable practice and training with known-age specimens was required to achieve this level of accuracy....The implications of this technique and the sampling procedure it permits are discussed. Wing collections could provide information on production, and, if coupled with a banding program could permit seasonal population estimates to be calculated. In addition, representative samples of wings would provide data to check the reliability of several other waterfowl surveys.

  5. Fish oil supplementation from 9 to 18 months of age affects the insulin-like growth factor axis in a sex-specific manner in Danish infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Harsløf, Laurine B. S.; Andersen, Anders D.

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the effects of fish oil (FO) on infant growth, but little is known about the effects of FO and sex on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), the main regulator of growth in childhood. We explored whether FO v. sunflower oil (SO) supplementation from 9 to 18 months...

  6. Sex-Specific Prevalence of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Middle-Aged Population of China: A Subgroup Analysis of the 2007-2008 China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Shi; Ruan, Danjie; Yang, Zhaojun; Xing, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Wenhui; Wang, Na; Xie, Lingding; Yang, Wenying

    2015-01-01

    The sex difference in the prevalence rates of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) among the middle-aged population in China remain largely unknown. Therefore, we analyzed differences in the prevalence of diabetes, self-reported CVDs, and some CVD risk factors among men and women in the middle-aged population (30-49 years) and in individuals aged 50 years and older using data from the China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study of 2007-2008. Middle-aged men appeared to have significantly a higher prevalence of diabetes and self-reported CVDs than middle-aged women (8.07% vs 5.06% for diabetes, P diet control. The sex-specific differences in prediabetes, CVD, and CVD risk factors between men and women were diminished or even reversed in the population aged 50 years and older. No sex-specific differences were found in the prevalences of a family history of diabetes, coronary heart disease, and hypertension (P > 0.05) in middle-aged population. Specific strategies to reduce modifiable risk factors for the prevention and control of diabetes and CVD may be warranted in this population.

  7. Woodcock age and sex determination from wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, F.W.

    1964-01-01

    Age of woodcock (Philohela minor) can be accurately determined throughout the year by differences in pattern, color, and wear of secondary feathers. Immature woodcock retain most secondaries during the postjuvenal molt that begins in July or August and ends in October. In contrast, subadults (first-year adults) and older woodcock molt all secondaries during the postnuptial molt beginning in June or July and ending in October. Retention of juvenal secondaries by immatures and molt of these feathers by adults form the basis for age determination. Sex of woodcock can be accurately determined by width of the outer three primaries, which are conspicuously narrower on males.

  8. Trends in Triathlon Performance: Effects of Sex and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepers, Romuald; Knechtle, Beat; Stapley, Paul J

    2013-09-01

    The influences of sex and age upon endurance performance have previously been documented for both running and swimming. A number of recent studies have investigated how sex and age influence triathlon performance, a sport that combines three disciplines (swimming, cycling and running), with competitions commonly lasting between 2 (short distance: 1.5-km swim, 40-km cycle and 10-km run) and 8 h (Ironman distance: 3.8-km swim,180-km cycle and 42-km run) for elite triathletes. Age and sex influences upon performance have also been investigated for ultra-triathlons, with distances corresponding to several Ironman distances and lasting several days, and for off-road triathlons combining swimming, mountain biking and trail running. Triathlon represents an intriguing alternative model for analysing the effects of age and sex upon endurance and ultra-endurance ([6 h) performance because sex differences and age-related declines in performance can be analysed in the same individuals across the three separate disciplines. The relative participation of both females and masters athletes (age[40 years) in triathlon has increased consistently over the past 25 years. Sex differences in triathlon performance are also known to differ between the modes of locomotion adopted (swimming, cycling or running) for both elite and non-elite triathletes. Generally, time differences between sexes in swimming have been shown to be smaller on average than during cycling and running. Both physiological and morphological factors contribute to explaining these findings. Performance density (i.e. the time difference between the winner and tenth-placed competitor) has progressively improved (time differences have decreased) for international races over the past two decades for both males and females, with performance density now very similar for both sexes. For age-group triathletes, sex differences in total triathlon performance time increases with age. However,the possible difference in age

  9. Teeth, sex, and testosterone: aging in the world's smallest primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zohdy

    Full Text Available Mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp. are an exciting new primate model for understanding human aging and disease. In captivity, Microcebus murinus develops human-like ailments of old age after five years (e.g., neurodegeneration analogous to Alzheimer's disease but can live beyond 12 years. It is believed that wild Microcebus follow a similar pattern of senescence observed in captive animals, but that predation limits their lifespan to four years, thus preventing observance of these diseases in the wild. Testing whether this assumption is true is informative about both Microcebus natural history and environmental influences on senescence, leading to interpretation of findings for models of human aging. Additionally, the study of Microcebus longevity provides an opportunity to better understand mechanisms of sex-biased longevity. Longevity is often shorter in males of species with high male-male competition, such as Microcebus, but mouse lemurs are sexually monomorphic, suggesting similar lifespans. We collected individual-based observations of wild brown mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus from 2003-2010 to investigate sex-differences in survival and longevity. Fecal testosterone was measured as a potential mechanism of sex-based differences in survival. We used a combination of high-resolution tooth wear techniques, mark-recapture, and hormone enzyme immunoassays. We found no dental or physical signs of senescence in M. rufus as old as eight years (N = 189, ages 1-8, mean = 2.59 ± 1.63 SE, three years older than captive, senescent congeners (M. murinus. Unlike other polygynandrous vertebrates, we found no sex difference in age-dependent survival, nor sex or age differences in testosterone levels. While elevated male testosterone levels have been implicated in shorter lifespans in several species, this is one of the first studies to show equivalent testosterone levels accompanying equivalent lifespans. Future research on captive aged individuals can

  10. Effects of the breed, sex and age on cellular content and growth factor release from equine pure-platelet rich plasma and pure-platelet rich gel

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo Carlos E; López Catalina; Álvarez María E; Samudio Ismael J; Prades Marta; Carmona Jorge U

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background There is no information on the effects of the breed, gender and age on the cellular content and growth factor (GF) release from equine pure-platelet rich plasma (P-PRP) and pure-platelet rich gel (P-PRG). The objectives of this study were: 1) to compare the cellular composition of P-PRP with whole blood and platelet poor plasma (PPP); 2) to compare the concentration of transforming GF beta 1 (TGF-β1) and platelet derived GF isoform BB (PDGF-BB) between P-PRP treated with n...

  11. Effects of the breed, sex and age on cellular content and growth factor release from equine pure-platelet rich plasma and pure-platelet rich gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giraldo Carlos E

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no information on the effects of the breed, gender and age on the cellular content and growth factor (GF release from equine pure-platelet rich plasma (P-PRP and pure-platelet rich gel (P-PRG. The objectives of this study were: 1 to compare the cellular composition of P-PRP with whole blood and platelet poor plasma (PPP; 2 to compare the concentration of transforming GF beta 1 (TGF-β1 and platelet derived GF isoform BB (PDGF-BB between P-PRP treated with non-ionic detergent (P-PRP+NID, P-PRG (activated with calcium gluconate -CG-, PPP+NID, PPP gel (PPG, and plasma and; 3 to evaluate and to correlate the effect of the breed, gender and age on the cellular and GF concentration for each blood component. Forty adult horses, 20 Argentinean Creole Horses (ACH and, 20 Colombian Creole Horses (CCH were included. Data were analyzed by parametric (i.e.: t-test, one way ANOVA and non parametric (Kruskal-Wallis test, Wilcoxon test tests. Correlation analysis was also performed by using the Spearman and Pearson tests. A p ≤ 0.05 was set as significant for all tests. All the blood components were compared for platelet (PLT, leukocyte (WBC, TGF-β1 and PDGF-BB concentrations. The effect of the breed, gender and age on these variables was analyzed. A P ≤ 0.05 was accepted as significant for all the tests. Results PLT counts were 1.8 and 0.6 times higher in P-PRP than in whole blood and PPP, respectively; WBC counts were 0.5 and 0.1 times lower in P-PRP, in comparison with whole blood and PPP, respectively. TGF-β1 and PDGF-BB concentrations were 2.3 and 262 times higher, respectively, in P-PRG than in plasma, and 0.59 and 0.48 times higher, respectively, in P-PRG than in PPG. P-PRG derived from CCH females or young horses presented significantly (P Conclusions Our results indicated that P-PRP obtained by a manual method was affected by intrinsic factors such as the breed, gender and age. Equine practitioners should be

  12. Romanticism as a function of age, sex, and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Pamela C; Anguiano, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the association between romanticism (operationalized as mean score on the Romantic Beliefs Scale) and age, sex, and ethnicity in a large community sample (N = 436). Age was negatively correlated with romanticism scores; as age increased, romanticism scores decreased. No sex differences were found; men and women had similar, moderate scores. Although ethnicity largely was unrelated to romanticism, Asian/Pacific Islander participants were significantly more romantic than were African-American participants.

  13. Sex differences in the effect of aging on dry eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn JH

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Jong Ho Ahn,1 Yoon-Hyeong Choi,2 Hae Jung Paik,1 Mee Kum Kim,3 Won Ryang Wee,3 Dong Hyun Kim1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, 2Department of Preventive Medicine, Gachon University College of Medicine, Incheon, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea Purpose: Aging is a major risk factor in dry eye disease (DED, and understanding sexual differences is very important in biomedical research. However, there is little information about sex differences in the effect of aging on DED. We investigated sex differences in the effect of aging and other risk factors for DED.Methods: This study included data of 16,824 adults from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010–2012, which is a population-based cross-sectional survey. DED was defined as the presence of frequent ocular dryness or a previous diagnosis by an ophthalmologist. Basic sociodemographic factors and previously known risk factors for DED were included in the analyses. Linear regression modeling and multivariate logistic regression modeling were used to compare the sex differences in the effect of risk factors for DED; we additionally performed tests for interactions between sex and other risk factors for DED in logistic regression models.Results: In our linear regression models, the prevalence of DED symptoms in men increased with age (R=0.311, P=0.012; however, there was no association between aging and DED in women (P>0.05. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that aging in men was not associated with DED (DED symptoms/diagnosis: odds ratio [OR] =1.01/1.04, each P>0.05, while aging in women was protectively associated with DED (DED symptoms/diagnosis: OR =0.94/0.91, P=0.011/0.003. Previous ocular surgery was significantly associated with DED in both men and women (men/women: OR =2.45/1.77 [DED symptoms] and 3.17/2.05 [DED diagnosis], each P<0.001. Tests for

  14. Characters of age, sex and sexual maturity in Canada geese

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses the characters of age, sex, and sexual maturity in Canada geese. Present findings are based on trap and/or bag samples of Canada geese. Methods...

  15. Age and sex influences on running mechanics and coordination variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Katherine A; Freedman Silvernail, Julia; Hamill, Joseph

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of age on running mechanics separately for male and female runners and to quantify sex differences in running mechanics and coordination variability for older runners. Kinematics and kinetics were captured for 20 younger (10 male) and 20 older (10 male) adults running overground at 3.5 m · s(-1). A modified vector coding technique was used to calculate segment coordination variability. Lower extremity joint angles, moments and segment coordination variability were compared between age and sex groups. Significant sex-age interaction effects were found for heel-strike hip flexion and ankle in/eversion angles and peak ankle dorsiflexion angle. In older adults, mid-stance knee flexion angle, ankle inversion and abduction moments and hip abduction and external rotation moments differed by sex. Older compared with younger females had reduced coordination variability in the thigh-shank transverse plane couple but greater coordination variability for the shank rotation-foot eversion couple in early stance. These results suggest there may be a non-equivalent aging process in the movement mechanics for males and females. The age and sex differences in running mechanics and coordination variability highlight the need for sex-based analyses for future studies examining injury risk with age.

  16. Genotype by sex and genotype by age interactions with sedentary behavior: the Portuguese Healthy Family Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M V Santos

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior (SB expression and its underlying causal factors have been progressively studied, as it is a major determinant of decreased health quality. In the present study we applied Genotype x Age (GxAge and Genotype x Sex (GxSex interaction methods to determine if the phenotypic expression of different SB traits is influenced by an interaction between genetic architecture and both age and sex. A total of 1345 subjects, comprising 249 fathers, 327 mothers, 334 sons and 325 daughters, from 339 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family Study were included in the analysis. SB traits were assessed by means of a 3-d physical activity recall, the Baecke and IPAQ questionnaires. GxAge and GxSex interactions were analyzed using SOLAR 4.0 software. Sedentary behaviour heritability estimates were not always statistically significant (p>0.05 and ranged from 3% to 27%. The GxSex and GxAge interaction models were significantly better than the single polygenic models for TV (min/day, EEsed (kcal/day, personal computer (PC usage and physical activty (PA tertiles. The GxAge model is also significantly better than the polygenic model for Sed (min/day. For EEsed, PA tertiles, PC and Sed, the GxAge interaction was significant because the genetic correlation between SB environments was significantly different from 1. Further, PC and Sed variance heterogeneity among distinct ages were observed. The GxSex interaction was significant for EEsed due to genetic variance heterogeneity between genders and for PC due to a genetic correlation less than 1 across both sexes. Our results suggest that SB expression may be influenced by the interactions between genotype with both sex and age. Further, different sedentary behaviors seem to have distinct genetic architectures and are differentially affected by age and sex.

  17. Worldwide cutaneous malignant melanoma incidences analyzed by sex, age, and skin type over time (1955–2007): Is HPV infection of androgenic hair follicular melanocytes a risk factor for developing melanoma exclusively in people of European-ancestry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Stephen J.; Subramanian, Madhan; Godar, Dianne E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) incidence has been increasing in an exponential manner in certain populations around the world for over 7 decades. To help illuminate the etiology, we performed worldwide temporal (1955–2007) CMM incidence analysis by sex, age (0–14, 15–29, 30–49, 50–69, 70–85+), and skin type on 6 continents using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We observe an exponential increase in the CMM incidence over time and an increase of about 2 orders of magnitude between age groups 0–14 and 15–29 exclusively in European-ancestry populations around the world independent of skin type (I–III or III–IV). Other populations like the Chinese (III-IV) had much lower CMM incidences that either remained stable or temporally decreased but did not display a dramatic increase between the youngest age groups. The dramatic increase in the incidence between the youngest age groups found only in European-ancestry populations suggests one of the most important risk factors for CMM may be developing androgenic hair, the occurrence of which appears to correlate with the distribution of CMM over male and female body sites. Besides that potential new risk factor, the increasing CMM incidence with increasing age, known not to be from cumulative UV doses, may be associated with age-related changes to skin, i.e., thinning epidermis causing lower vitamin D3 levels, and hair, i.e., whitening from higher reactive oxygen species. The temporal exponential increasing CMM incidence in European-ancestry populations may be due to Human Papilloma Virus infection of follicular hair melanocytes, found in CMM biopsies. PMID:27588159

  18. Factors affecting exhaled nitric oxide measurements: the effect of sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williamson Avis J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exhaled nitric oxide (FENO measurements are used as a surrogate marker for eosinophilic airway inflammation. However, many constitutional and environmental factors affect FENO, making it difficult to devise reference values. Our aim was to evaluate the relative importance of factors affecting FENO in a well characterised adult population. Methods Data were obtained from 895 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study at age 32. The effects of sex, height, weight, lung function indices, smoking, atopy, asthma and rhinitis on FENO were explored by unadjusted and adjusted linear regression analyses. Results The effect of sex on FENO was both statistically and clinically significant, with FENO levels approximately 25% less in females. Overall, current smoking reduced FENO up to 50%, but this effect occurred predominantly in those who smoked on the day of the FENO measurement. Atopy increased FENO by 60%. The sex-related differences in FENO remained significant (p ENO. Conclusion Even after adjustment, FENO values are significantly different in males and females. The derivation of reference values and the interpretation of FENO in the clinical setting should be stratified by sex. Other common factors such as current smoking and atopy also require to be taken into account.

  19. Reducing the noise in behavioral assays: sex and age in adult zebrafish locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Catelyn; Donack, Corey J; Cousin, Margot A; Pierret, Chris

    2012-12-01

    Many assays are used in animal model systems to measure specific human disease-related behaviors. The use of both adult and larval zebrafish as a behavioral model is gaining popularity. As this work progresses and potentially translates into new treatments, we must do our best to improve the sensitivity of these assays by reducing confounding factors. Scientists who use the mouse model system have demonstrated that sex and age can influence a number of behaviors. As a community, they have moved to report the age and sex of all animals used in their studies. Zebrafish work does not yet carry the same mandate. In this study, we evaluated sex and age differences in locomotion behavior. We found that age was a significant factor in locomotion, as was sex within a given age group. In short, as zebrafish age, they appear to show less base level locomotion. With regard to sex, younger (10 months) zebrafish showed more locomotion in males, while older zebrafish (22 months) showed more movement in females. These findings have led us to suggest that those using the zebrafish for behavioral studies control for age and sex within their experimental design and report these descriptors in their methods.

  20. 76 FR 80966 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested 18 Years of Age and Over; Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested Under 18... the form/collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested 18 Years of Age and Over; Age, Sex,...

  1. Age and sex determination of gaur Bos gaurus (Bovidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahrestani, F.S.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2011-01-01

    One reason why the gaur Bos gaurus is a poorly understood species is because there are no reliable data to age and sex individuals. We studied captive gaur for two years in Mysore Zoo, India and Omaha Zoo, USA, and determined age-specific differences in morphological features and physical growth, by

  2. Naked at Our Age: Talking out Loud about Senior Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    "Naked at Our Age" is an excellent resource for sexually interested and/or active adults over the age of 60. The book combines the author's personal reflections, questions and stories shared by older adults, and advice from sex therapists, sexuality educators, the author, and health care providers. The breadth of topics makes the book useful to…

  3. Deception Detection, Transmission, & Modality in Age & Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Dorothy Sweeney

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first to create and use spontaneous (i.e. unrehearsed pro-social lies in an ecological setting. Creation of the stimuli involved fifty-one older adult and forty-four college student senders who lied authentically in that their lies were spontaneous in the service of protecting a research assistant. In the main study, seventy-seven older adult and eighty-four college raters attempted to detect lies in the older adult and college senders in three modalities: audio, visual, and audiovisual. Raters of both age groups were best at detecting lies in the audiovisual and worst in the visual modalities. Overall, college students were better detectors than older adults. There was an age-matching effect for college students but not for older adults. Older adult males were the hardest to detect. The older the adult was the worse the ability to detect deception.

  4. Seeking Sex in an Electronic Age

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The corporal and social arrangements of pornographic images online are only one example of the many ways in which the body participates in creating new media cultures. Understanding these arrangements allows one to map the contours of new forms of sexual sociability in an electronic age. In this way, the Internet does not merely act as a repository for objects. Instead, these objects are relational and dynamic, and their arrangement is socially and culturally embedded. The Internet is, theref...

  5. Sex and Age Effects of Functional Connectivity in Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Cahill, Nathan D; Arbabshirani, Mohammad R; White, Tonya; Baum, Stefi A; Michael, Andrew M

    2016-11-01

    Functional connectivity (FC) in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is widely used to find coactivating regions in the human brain. Despite its widespread use, the effects of sex and age on resting FC are not well characterized, especially during early adulthood. Here we apply regression and graph theoretical analyses to explore the effects of sex and age on FC between the 116 AAL atlas parcellations (a total of 6670 FC measures). rs-fMRI data of 494 healthy subjects (203 males and 291 females; age range: 22-36 years) from the Human Connectome Project were analyzed. We report the following findings. (1) Males exhibited greater FC than females in 1352 FC measures (1025 survived Bonferroni correction; [Formula: see text]). In 641 FC measures, females exhibited greater FC than males but none survived Bonferroni correction. Significant FC differences were mainly present in frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. Although the average FC values for males and females were significantly different, FC values of males and females exhibited large overlap. (2) Age effects were present only in 29 FC measures and all significant age effects showed higher FC in younger subjects. Age and sex differences of FC remained significant after controlling for cognitive measures. (3) Although sex [Formula: see text] age interaction did not survive multiple comparison correction, FC in females exhibited a faster cross-sectional decline with age. (4) Male brains were more locally clustered in all lobes but the cerebellum; female brains had a higher clustering coefficient at the whole-brain level. Our results indicate that although both male and female brains show small-world network characteristics, male brains were more segregated and female brains were more integrated. Findings of this study further our understanding of FC in early adulthood and provide evidence to support that age and sex should be controlled for in FC studies of young adults.

  6. Adaptive immunity to rhinoviruses: sex and age matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritchard Antonia L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhinoviruses (RV are key triggers in acute asthma exacerbations. Previous studies suggest that men suffer from infectious diseases more frequently and with greater severity than women. Additionally, the immune response to most infections and vaccinations decreases with age. Most immune function studies do not account for such differences, therefore the aim of this study was to determine if the immune response to rhinovirus varies with sex or age. Methods Blood mononuclear cells were isolated from 63 healthy individuals and grouped by sex and age (≤50 years old and ≥52 years old. Cells were cultured with rhinovirus 16 at a multiplicity of infection of 1. The chemokine IP-10 was measured at 24 h as an index of innate immunity while IFNγ and IL-13 were measured at 5 days as an index of adaptive immunity. Results Rhinovirus induced IFNγ and IL-13 was significantly higher in ≤50 year old women than in age matched men (p 0.005. There was no sex or age based difference in rhinovirus induced IP-10 expression. Both IFNγ and IL-13 were negatively correlated with age in women but not in men. Conclusions This study suggests that pre-menopausal women have a stronger adaptive immune response to rhinovirus infection than men and older people, though the mechanisms responsible for these differences remain to be determined. Our findings highlight the importance of gender and age balance in clinical studies and in the development of new treatments and vaccines.

  7. Factors associated with sex work involvement among transgender women in Jamaica: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Wang, Ying; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Jones, Nicolette; Ahmed, Uzma; Levermore, Kandasi; Neil, Ava; Ellis, Tyrone; Bryan, Nicolette; Marshall, Annecka; Newman, Peter A

    2017-04-06

    Transgender women are disproportionately impacted by HIV. Transgender women involved in sex work may experience exacerbated violence, social exclusion, and HIV vulnerabilities, in comparison with non-sex work-involved transgender women. Scant research has investigated sex work among transgender women in the Caribbean, including Jamaica, where transgender women report pervasive violence. The study objective was to examine factors associated with sex work involvement among transgender women in Jamaica. In 2015, we implemented a cross-sectional survey using modified peer-driven recruitment with transgender women in Kingston and Ocho Rios, Jamaica, in collaboration with a local community-based AIDS service organization. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses to identify factors associated with paid sex and transactional sex. Exchanging oral, anal or vaginal sex for money only was categorized as paid sex. Exchanging sex for survival needs (food, accommodation, transportation), drugs or alcohol, or for money along with survival needs and/or drugs/alcohol, was categorized as transactional sex. Among 137 transgender women (mean age: 24.0 [SD: 4.5]), two-thirds reported living in the Kingston area. Overall, 25.2% reported being HIV-positive. Approximately half (n = 71; 51.82%) reported any sex work involvement, this included sex in exchange for: money (n = 64; 47.06%); survival needs (n = 27; 19.85%); and drugs/alcohol (n = 6; 4.41%). In multivariable analyses, paid sex and transactional sex were both associated with: intrapersonal (depression), interpersonal (lower social support, forced sex, childhood sexual abuse, intimate partner violence, multiple partners/polyamory), and structural (transgender stigma, unemployment) factors. Participants reporting transactional sex also reported increased odds of incarceration perceived to be due to transgender identity, forced sex, homelessness, and lower resilience, in comparison with participants reporting

  8. Influence of personality, age, sex, and estrous state on chimpanzee problem-solving success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopper, Lydia M; Price, Sara A; Freeman, Hani D;

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of individual problem solvers for group- and individual-level fitness, the correlates of individual problem-solving success are still an open topic of investigation. In addition to demographic factors, such as age or sex, certain personality dimensions have also been revealed...... as reliable correlates of problem-solving by animals. Such correlates, however, have been little-studied in chimpanzees. To empirically test the influence of age, sex, estrous state, and different personality factors on chimpanzee problem-solving, we individually tested 36 captive chimpanzees with two novel...... with the luteinizing hormone surge of a female's estrous cycle) and again when it was detumescent. Although we found no correlation between the chimpanzees' success with either puzzle and their age or sex, the chimpanzees' personality ratings did correlate with responses to the novel foraging puzzles. Specifically...

  9. Fetal Habituation Performance: Gestational Age and Sex Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorry, Noleen K.; Hepper, Peter G.

    2007-01-01

    Habituation is the decrement in response to repeated stimulation. Fetal habituation performance may reflect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS) prenatally. However, basic characteristics of the prenatal habituation phenomena remain unclear, such as the relationship with gestational age (GA) and fetal sex. The current study…

  10. Fetal Habituation Performance: Gestational Age and Sex Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorry, Noleen K.; Hepper, Peter G.

    2007-01-01

    Habituation is the decrement in response to repeated stimulation. Fetal habituation performance may reflect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS) prenatally. However, basic characteristics of the prenatal habituation phenomena remain unclear, such as the relationship with gestational age (GA) and fetal sex. The current study…

  11. Sex and Age Effects of Functional Connectivity in Early Adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, C. (Chao); Cahill, N.D. (Nathan D.); Arbabshirani, M.R. (Mohammad R.); T.J.H. White (Tonya); Baum, S.A. (Stefi A.); Michael, A.M. (Andrew M.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractFunctional connectivity (FC) in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is widely used to find coactivating regions in the human brain. Despite its widespread use, the effects of sex and age on resting FC are not well characterized, especially during early adulthood

  12. Large-scale age-dependent skewed sex ratio in a sexually dimorphic avian scavenger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A Lambertucci

    Full Text Available Age-dependent skewed sex ratios have been observed in bird populations, with adult males generally outnumbering females. This trend is mainly driven by higher female mortality, sometimes associated with anthropogenic factors. Despite the large amount of work on bird sex ratios, research examining the spatial stability of adult sex ratios is extremely scarce. The Andean condor (Vultur gryphus is the only bird of prey with strong sexual dimorphism favouring males (males are 30% heavier than females. By examining data from most of its South-American range, we show that while the juvenile sex ratio is balanced, or even female-skewed, the sex ratio becomes increasing male-skewed with age, with adult males outnumbering females by >20%, and, in some cases by four times more. This result is consistent across regions and independent of the nature of field data. Reasons for this are unknown but it can be hypothesized that the progressive disappearance of females may be associated with mortality caused by anthropogenic factors. This idea is supported by the asymmetric habitat use by the two sexes, with females scavenging in more humanized areas. Whatever the cause, male-skewed adult sex ratios imply that populations of this endangered scavenger face higher risks of extinction than previously believed.

  13. Large-scale age-dependent skewed sex ratio in a sexually dimorphic avian scavenger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertucci, Sergio A; Carrete, Martina; Donázar, José Antonio; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Age-dependent skewed sex ratios have been observed in bird populations, with adult males generally outnumbering females. This trend is mainly driven by higher female mortality, sometimes associated with anthropogenic factors. Despite the large amount of work on bird sex ratios, research examining the spatial stability of adult sex ratios is extremely scarce. The Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) is the only bird of prey with strong sexual dimorphism favouring males (males are 30% heavier than females). By examining data from most of its South-American range, we show that while the juvenile sex ratio is balanced, or even female-skewed, the sex ratio becomes increasing male-skewed with age, with adult males outnumbering females by >20%, and, in some cases by four times more. This result is consistent across regions and independent of the nature of field data. Reasons for this are unknown but it can be hypothesized that the progressive disappearance of females may be associated with mortality caused by anthropogenic factors. This idea is supported by the asymmetric habitat use by the two sexes, with females scavenging in more humanized areas. Whatever the cause, male-skewed adult sex ratios imply that populations of this endangered scavenger face higher risks of extinction than previously believed.

  14. Risk Factors for Domestic Child Sex Trafficking in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedina, Lisa; Williamson, Celia; Perdue, Tasha

    2016-07-27

    Despite increased effort to respond to human trafficking at national and state levels, very little empirical research has been conducted on domestic child sex trafficking. This study retrospectively examines associations between multiple risk factors and domestic child sex trafficking (i.e., entry into the commercial sex industry under the age of 18) in a sample of individuals aged 16 and older currently involved in the commercial sex industry (N = 273). Two primary research questions are addressed: (1) What set of risk factors, prior to entering the commercial sex industry, are associated with domestic child sex trafficking and (2) what group differences, if any, exist in risk factors between current or former domestic child sex-trafficking victims and non-trafficked adults engaged in the commercial sex industry? A cross-sectional survey was administered using Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) in five cities in one Midwestern state. Overall, 115 participants (48.3%) were identified as current or former domestic child sex-trafficking victims. Bivariate results suggest that childhood emotional and sexual abuse, rape, ever running away from home, having family members in sex work, and having friends who purchased sex were significantly associated with domestic child sex trafficking. Multivariate results indicate that domestic child sex trafficking victims were significantly more likely to have ever run away and to be a racial/ethnic minority than non-trafficked adults engaged in the commercial sex industry. Findings can inform state-level policies on human trafficking and assist child protection and juvenile justice agencies in developing prevention and intervention responses to commercial sexual exploitation.

  15. The Impact of Older Age and Sex on Motion Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Elizabeth G; Power, Garry F; Hine, Trevor J; Rahaley, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Background/Study Context: Reports of age-related differences on motion discrimination tasks have produced inconsistent findings concerning the influence of sex. Some studies have reported that older women have higher thresholds than older men, with others finding that women have higher motion thresholds regardless of age group. Reports of the age at which declines in motion discrimination first occur also differ, with some studies reporting declines only in groups aged over 70 years, with others reporting that age-related decline occurs at a younger age. The current study aimed to determine whether the sex differences found occur because relative to men, women have greater difficulty extracting motion signals from noise (Experiment 1) or have greater difficulty making use of the available motion cues (Experiment 2) in these complex moving stimuli. In addition, the influence of these manipulations on groups aged under and over 70 years was explored. Motion discrimination measures were obtained using 39 older adults aged between 60 and 85 years (21 women) and 40 younger adults aged between 20 and 45 years (20 women). In Experiment 1, coherent motion and relative motion displacement thresholds were obtained. In Experiment 2, coherent motion thresholds were obtained for stimuli containing either 150 or 600 dots. In Experiment 1, the older group had significantly higher thresholds on the relative motion displacement and coherent motion tasks than a younger group. No differences in motion sensitivity were found in the older groups aged under or over 70 years. Women regardless of age group had significantly higher thresholds than men on both tasks. In Experiment 2, the older group had higher coherence thresholds than the younger group, and the number of dots presented had no influence on thresholds, for the older group or older women specifically. In the younger group, women had higher coherence thresholds than men with presentation of 150 but not 600 dots. There

  16. Age difference asymmetry and a two-sex perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Bhrolchain, M

    1992-01-01

    Age differences in marriage are examined using data from the Marriage and Divorce Statistics, Series FM2, 1966-87, in England and Wales. Specifically, there is a description of differentials in the spousal age gap by sex and marital status of the partner, trends in the age differences between spouses, the components of change in age differences, i.e., changing age at marriage, and changes in partner's marital status. Data were unavailable to answer whether or not changes in opportunity or constraint (shifts in age/sex distribution) or changing preferences in relation to age differences or both affected the shifts, but plausible interpretations are provided. The difference in ages is evident in the pattern of mean age difference in 1987 for single brides (3.0 years) and the mean gap for bachelors (1.6 years). These figures are still different from the 2.1-year gap in the marriages of 2 single partners or the 2.6-year gap for all marriages. The mean age of 1st marriages is 2.2 for both sexes, 1.6 for men and 3.0 for women. for 2nd and later marriages the pattern is reversed, where divorced women remarry to men averaging 1.7 years older while divorced men remarry a woman 5.3 years younger. The gaps among the widowed are 1.9 years for women and 6.7 years for men. The reasons for the differentials are that not all single men marry single women and the reverse, and that age differences depend on sex, marriage order for both sexes, and marital status of the partner. The longitudinal pattern of age differences being larger in remarriages than in 1st marriages is exhibited for male remarriages only; for women in remarriages the age difference is shortened from 3.0 years to 1.7 years. In comparing time trends, 1) the mean age gap is consistently larger in women's than in men's 1st marriages with a larger gap appearing closer to the present; 2) the age differences have fluctuated over time; 3) the gap in men's and women's marriages were similar up to 1970 and, between 1970

  17. China’s marriage squeeze: A decomposition into age and sex structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, Xiaomin; LI, Shuzhuo; FELDMAN, Marcus W.

    2016-01-01

    Most recent studies of marriage patterns in China have emphasized the male-biased sex ratio but have largely neglected age structure as a factor in China’s male marriage squeeze. In this paper we develop an index we call “spousal sex ratio” (SSR) to measure the marriage squeeze, and a method of decomposing the proportion of male surplus into age and sex structure effects within a small spousal age difference interval. We project that China’s marriage market will be confronted with a relatively severe male squeeze. For the decomposition of the cohort aged 30, from 2010 to 2020 age structure will be dominant, while from 2020 through 2034 the contribution of age structure will gradually decrease and that of sex structure will increase. From then on, sex structure will be dominant. The index and decomposition, concentrated on a specific female birth cohort, can distinguish spousal competition for single cohorts which may be covered by a summary index for the whole marriage market; these can also be used for consecutive cohorts to reflect the situation of the whole marriage market. PMID:27242390

  18. Superficial white matter: effects of age, sex, and hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Owen R; Clark, Kristi A; Luders, Eileen; Azhir, Ramin; Joshi, Shantanu H; Woods, Roger P; Mazziotta, John C; Toga, Arthur W; Narr, Katherine L

    2013-01-01

    Structural and diffusion imaging studies demonstrate effects of age, sex, and asymmetry in many brain structures. However, few studies have addressed how individual differences might influence the structural integrity of the superficial white matter (SWM), comprised of short-range association (U-fibers), and intracortical axons. This study thus applied a sophisticated computational analysis approach to structural and diffusion imaging data obtained from healthy individuals selected from the International Consortium for Brain Mapping (ICBM) database across a wide adult age range (n=65, age: 18-74 years, all Caucasian). Fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) were sampled and compared at thousands of spatially matched SWM locations and within regions-of-interest to examine global and local variations in SWM integrity across age, sex, and hemisphere. Results showed age-related reductions in FA that were more pronounced in the frontal SWM than in the posterior and ventral brain regions, whereas increases in RD and AD were observed across large areas of the SWM. FA was significantly greater in left temporoparietal regions in men and in the posterior callosum in women. Prominent leftward FA and rightward AD and RD asymmetries were observed in the temporal, parietal, and frontal regions. Results extend previous findings restricted to the deep white matter pathways to demonstrate regional changes in the SWM microstructure relating to processes of demyelination and/or to the number, coherence, or integrity of axons with increasing age. SWM fiber organization/coherence appears greater in the left hemisphere regions spanning language and other networks, while more localized sex effects could possibly reflect sex-specific advantages in information strategies.

  19. Differences in Common Genetic Predisposition to Ischemic Stroke by Age and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traylor, Matthew; Rutten-Jacobs, Loes C A; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Malik, Rainer; Sudlow, Cathie; Rothwell, Peter M; Maguire, Jane M; Koblar, Simon A; Bevan, Steve; Boncoraglio, Giorgio; Dichgans, Martin; Levi, Chris; Lewis, Cathryn M; Markus, Hugh S

    2015-11-01

    Evidence from epidemiological studies points to differences in factors predisposing to stroke by age and sex. Whether these arise because of different genetic influences remained untested. Here, we use data from 4 genome-wide association data sets to study the relationship between genetic influence on stroke with both age and sex. Using genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum likelihood methods, we performed 4 analyses: (1) we calculated the genetic correlation between groups divided by age and (2) by sex, (3) we calculated the heritability of age-at-stroke-onset, and (4) we evaluated the evidence that heritability of stroke is greater in women than in men. We found that genetic factors influence age at stroke onset (h2 [SE]=18.0 [6.8]; P=0.0038), with a trend toward a stronger influence in women (women: h2 [SE]=21.6 [3.5]; Men: h2 [SE]=13.9 [2.8]). Although a moderate proportion of genetic factors was shared between sexes (rG [SE]=0.68 [0.16]) and between younger and older cases (rG [SE]=0.70 [0.17]), there was evidence to suggest that there are genetic susceptibility factors that are specific to sex (P=0.037) and to younger or older groups (P=0.056), particularly for women (P=0.0068). Finally, we found a trend toward higher heritability of stroke in women although this was not significantly greater than in men (P=0.084). Our results indicate that there are genetic factors that are either unique to or have a different effect between younger and older age groups and between women and men. Performing large, well-powered genome-wide association study analyses in these groups is likely to uncover further associations. © 2015 The Authors.

  20. Human subcortical brain asymmetries in 15,847 people worldwide reveal effects of age and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwiers, M.P.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Flor, H.; Fouche, J.P.; Frouin, V.; Wolfers, T.; Fisher, S.E.; Francks, C.

    2016-01-01

    The two hemispheres of the human brain differ functionally and structurally. Despite over a century of research, the extent to which brain asymmetry is influenced by sex, handedness, age, and genetic factors is still controversial. Here we present the largest ever analysis of subcortical brain asymm

  1. The role of age-sex interaction in the development of post-herpetic neuralgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacello, Elena

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Post-herpetic neuralgia is the most frequent complication of herpes zoster and affects up to 30% of patients. Increased age is a well-recognized risk factor, while the role of gender is highly uncertain. Little research has been performed into a possible combined effect of age and sex in post-herpetic neuralgia. The objective of the study was to study the role of age and sex and their combined effect in the development of post-herpetic neuralgia. This retrospective study enrolled adult subjects with at least one episode of herpes zoster in the previous 10 y. A questionnaire on the patient's socio-demographic, anamnestic and clinical characteristics was administered by general practitioners. Multivariable logistic regression was used to detect relationships between post-herpetic neuralgia and age, sex and their interaction. Fifty-nine of 272 patients reported post-herpetic neuralgia: a prevalence of 21.7%. Subjects with post-herpetic neuralgia (mean age 70.9 years) were significantly older (P = .001) than those without (64.2 years), the standardised mean difference being 0.5; no significant between-sex association was revealed (P = .96). A fully adjusted multivariable logistic analysis, however, revealed a highly significant (P = .007) age-sex interaction, with an odds ratio of 0.92; this also showed that older males were more likely to report post-herpetic neuralgia than younger males, while no obvious age-associated pattern was observed among females. We discerned a significant age-by-sex interaction in the development of post-herpetic neuralgia, which suggests that the effect of age on the development of this condition may differ between men and women. PMID:28215122

  2. Sex differences in risk factors for coronary heart disease: a study in a Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Helena CF

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Brazil coronary heart disease (CHD constitutes the most important cause of death in both sexes in all the regions of the country and interestingly, the difference between the sexes in the CHD mortality rates is one of the smallest in the world because of high rates among women. Since a question has been raised about whether or how the incidence of several CHD risk factors differs between the sexes in Brazil the prevalence of various risk factors for CHD such as high blood cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, sedentary lifestyle and cigarette smoking was compared between the sexes in a Brazilian population; also the relationships between blood cholesterol and the other risk factors were evaluated. Results The population presented high frequencies of all the risk factors evaluated. High blood cholesterol (CHOL and hypertension were more prevalent among women as compared to men. Hypertension, diabetes and smoking showed equal or higher prevalence in women in pre-menopausal ages as compared to men. Obesity and physical inactivity were equally prevalent in both sexes respectively in the postmenopausal age group and at all ages. CHOL was associated with BMI, sex, age, hypertension and physical inactivity. Conclusions In this population the high prevalence of the CHD risk factors indicated that there is an urgent need for its control; the higher or equal prevalences of several risk factors in women could in part explain the high rates of mortality from CHD in females as compared to males.

  3. Do Dolphins’ Whistles Reveal their Age and Sex?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany McIntosh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus have a complex acoustic communication system composed of a variety of sounds, including narrow-band, frequency-modulated whistles. Many past studies of dolphin whistles have focused on clarifying how dolphins use a subset of whistles for self-identification, with less attention given to other qualities that whistles may reveal about a vocalizer. Acoustic features of vocalizations provide indicators of the physical characteristics of the caller (e.g., size for many vertebrate species. To test for similar cues in dolphin whistles, we investigated whether whistles varied systematically according to the sex and age of the vocalizer. Neural networks were created to sort whistles produced by males or females, calves or adults, or from dolphins in four different age groups. Fourteen acoustic parameters of whistles were used as inputs to the networks. Results showed that neural networks were able to learn to classify whistles based on dolphin age or sex; however, networks showed relatively little ability to classify whistles other than those that they were trained to sort. No single class of acoustic cues consistently enabled networks to differentiate either males from females or older dolphins from younger dolphins. Instead, the neural networks used multiple acoustic dimensions to sort whistles. These results suggest that acoustic cues indicative of age and sex are likely present within all whistles produced by dolphins, but that these cues do not correspond to the kinds of global shifts in spectral features that would be expected from systematic age- or sex-related differences in the shape or size of sound producing membranes or acoustic resonators across individuals.

  4. Age factors in biometric processing

    CERN Document Server

    Fairhurst, Michael

    2013-01-01

    As biometrics-based identification and identity authentication become increasingly widespread in their deployment, it becomes correspondingly important to consider more carefully issues relating to reliability, usability and inclusion. One factor which is particularly important in this context is that of the relationship between the nature of the measurements extracted from a particular biometric modality and the age of the sample donor, and the effect which age has on physiological and behavioural characteristics invoked in a biometric transaction. In Age Factors in Biometric Processing an in

  5. Regarding the influence of sex and aging on dry eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han SB

    2017-09-01

    profound interest in our study. We agree with the author’s opinion that there were a few controversial points in this study, and several factors such as psychologic condition, sleep disorder, and visual display terminal use should be considered. However, to the best of our knowledge, there was no report showing a difference in aging effects on DED according to sex, and many epidemiologic studies1–3 including the author’s study, did not consider previous ocular surgery history which could be a major risk factor of DED.View original paper by Ahn et al.

  6. Selective aggressiveness in European free-tailed bats ( Tadarida teniotis): influence of familiarity, age and sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancillotto, Leonardo; Russo, Danilo

    2014-03-01

    Bats are highly social mammals that often form large groups and represent good models to test the role played by individual status in shaping social relationships. Social cohesion relies on the ability of group and individual recognition, which is mediated by a range of sensorial cues. In this study, we selected the European free-tailed bat Tadarida teniotis as a model species to test the effects of familiarity, sex and age on aggressiveness and mutual tolerance. We hypothesize that T. teniotis is able to recognize group members and exhibit selective aggressiveness, and thus we predict fewer aggressive events and more amicable encounters between colony mates than between strangers. As female bats are generally more sociable and perform prolonged parental care to juveniles even after weaning, we hypothesize that sex and age of bats have significant influences on aggressive behaviours and thus predict that females will perform more amicable behaviours than males and that adults of both sexes will be less aggressive towards juveniles. Our results confirm that T. teniotis is able to discriminate between familiar and stranger individuals, showing higher rates of aggressive behaviours towards the latter. Females are more prone to exhibit amicable behaviours, particularly during same-sex interactions, while males show higher level of aggressiveness. Juveniles are subjected to fewer aggressive behaviours by adults of both sexes. Familiarity appears crucial for T. teniotis in determining the degree of aggressiveness during social interactions but the rate of aggressive events is also influenced by intrinsic individual factors such as sex and age.

  7. Gluten Intolerance: Sex- and Age-Related Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Llorente-Alonso

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Gluten intolerance is an immune-mediated enteropathy associated with gluten-containing foods in genetically susceptible patients. The typical form mainly affecting children shows failure to thrive and/or gastrointestinal symptoms. The adult form is less typical, presenting vague gastrointestinal symptoms, iron deficiency (with or without anemia or nonspecific serum chemistry abnormalities. The present study aims to analyze clinical and biochemical differences of celiac disease (CD according to sex and age.

  8. "Love without sex is friendship. Sex without love is desire": sex life in old age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Berger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with sexuality in old age. This is a comparative study between classes "A" and "D". The main objective of this paper is to state the following paradox: on the one hand, sexuality in old age has been affirmed and valued in the construction of feminine self-esteem, on the other, can not only blame the woman who can not adhere to them, as well as produce a new homogenization of "being old" now associated with the proper management of sexuality.

  9. Rate of cognitive decline in relation to sex after 60 years-of-age: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Leandro; Ferreira Santos-Galduróz, Ruth; Ferri, Cleusa Pinheiro; Fernandes Galduróz, José Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Some studies have shown differences in specific cognitive ability domains between the sexes at 60 years-of-age. However is important to analyze whether the rate of cognitive decline is also similar between the sexes after this age. The present study examined previously published literature to investigate whether cognitive decline is distinct between men and women after the age of 60 years. A systematic review was carried out with the PubMed, LILACS and PsycINFO databases (2001-2011) using the following search terms: aging, aged, cognitive function, mild cognitive impairment, mental health and cognition. We analyzed longitudinal research that used neuropsychological tests for evaluating cognitive function, showed results separated by sex and that excluded participants with dementia. Elderly women showed better performance in tests of episodic memory, whereas elderly men had a better visuospatial ability. Only one study detected distinct rates of cognitive decline in specific tests between the sexes. Despite differences observed in some domains, most of the studies showed that this rate is similar between the sexes until the age of 80 years. It is unclear whether sex influences the rate of cognitive decline after the age of 80 years. The present review observed that sex does not determine the rate of cognitive decline between 60 and 80 years-of-age. The contextual and cultural factors that involve men and women might determine a distinct decline between them, rather than sex alone.

  10. Cognitive sex differences are not magnified as a function of age, sex hormones, or puberty development during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlitz, Agneta; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Lovén, Johanna; Thilers, Petra P; Rehnman, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Are cognitive sex differences magnified by individual differences in age, sex hormones, or puberty development? Cross-sectional samples of 12- to 14-year-old boys (n = 85) and girls (n = 102) completed tasks assessing episodic memory, face recognition, verbal fluency, and mental rotations. Blood estradiol, free testosterone, and self-rated puberty scores were obtained. Sex differences were found on all cognitive measures. However, the magnitude was not larger for older children, hormones and cognitive performance were not associated, and early maturers did not perform better than late maturers. Thus, cognitive sex differences were not associated with age, levels of sex hormones, or puberty development.

  11. Age, education, and sex effects on adult moral reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C B

    1988-01-01

    The role of age and education in adult moral reasoning was examined utilizing Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental stage theory of moral development and the most recent Standard Scoring System for assessing moral judgments. Individual interviews utilizing standard Kohlberg moral dilemmas were conducted with 195 adults ranging in age from nineteen to eight-two years and in years of education from three to twenty-five years. Results indicated no overall significant effect for age of reasoner, no significant effect for sex, and a significant effect for education (p less than .01). However, the effect of age was significant in the group with eighteen or more years of education, but not in the group with less than eighteen years of education.

  12. 不同年龄女性血清性激素与BDNF的相关性%Correlation between serum sex hormones and brain -derived neurotrophic factor in women at different age groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 任慕兰

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the change of brain -derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) according to the variation of serum sex hormones levels. Methods: Sixty - two perimenopausal and postmenopausal women were selected and divided into different groups according to STRAW staging and menopausal time; sixteen healthy women of childhearing age were selected as control group. The fasting blood samples were obtained in the morning, then the serum levels of estradiol, testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone ( FSH) , and BDNF were detected. Results: The serum levels of BDNF in perimenopausal group and postmenopausal group were significantly lower than that in control group, there was a significant correlation between serum BDNF level and serum estradiol level (y =0. 303, P = 0. 017) . Conclusion; Serum BDNF level is related to endogenous estrogen level.%目的:探讨不同性激素水平时脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)的变化.方法:筛选62例围绝经期及绝经后女性,按STRAW分期及绝经年限长短分组,并募集16例健康育龄女性作对照.采集晨间空腹血标本,分别测定血清雌二醇(E2)、睾酮(T)、卵泡刺激素(FSH)及BDNF的水平.结果:围绝经期组及绝经后组女性血清BDNF的水平明显低于健康育龄组女性,BDNF的水平与E2水平有显著相关性(r=0.303,P=0.017).结论:血清BDNF的水平与内源性雌激素水平有关.

  13. Effect of age and sex on warfarin dosing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoury G

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ghada Khoury,1 Marwan Sheikh-Taha2 1School of Pharmacy, 2Department of Pharmacy Practice, Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon Objective: We examined the potential effect of sex and age on warfarin dosing in ambulatory adult patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients attending an anticoagulation clinic. We included patients anticoagulated with warfarin for atrial fibrillation or venous thromboembolism who had a therapeutic international normalized ratio of 2–3 for 2 consecutive months. We excluded patients who had been on any drug that is known to have a major interaction with warfarin, smokers, and heavy alcohol consumers. Out of 340 screened medical records, 96 met the predetermined inclusion criteria. The primary outcome assessed was warfarin total weekly dose (TWD. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the TWD among the ages (P<0.01; older patients required lower doses. However there was no statistically significant difference in the TWD between sexes (P=0.281. Conclusion: Age was found to have a significant effect on warfarin dosing. Even though women did require a lower TWD than men, this observation was not statistically significant. Keywords: warfarin, INR, anticoagulation, vitamin K antagonists, age

  14. Age Differences among Female Sex Workers in the Philippines: Sexual Risk Negotiations and Perceived Manager Advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne A. Urada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Consistent condom use among high risk groups such as female sex workers (FSWs remains low. Adolescent female sex workers are especially at higher risk for HIV/STI infections. However, few published studies have compared the sexual risk negotiations among adolescent, emerging adult, and older age groups or the extent a manager’s advice about condom use is associated with an FSW’s age. Of 1,388 female bar/spa workers surveyed in the southern Philippines, 791 FSW who traded sex in the past 6 months were included in multivariable logistic regression models. The oldest FSWs (aged 36–48 compared to adolescent FSWs (aged 14–17 were 3.3 times more likely to negotiate condoms when clients refused condom use. However, adolescent FSWs received more advice from their managers to convince clients to use condoms or else to refuse sex, compared to older FSWs. Both adolescent and the oldest FSWs had elevated sexually transmitted infections (STIs and inconsistent condom use compared to other groups. Having a condom rule at the establishment was positively associated with condom negotiation. Factors such as age, the advice managers give to their workers, and the influence of a condom use rule at the establishment need to be considered when delivering HIV/STI prevention interventions.

  15. Age- and Sex-Associated Effects on Acute-Phase Proteins in Göttingen Minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Berit Ø; Jensen, Søren J.; Ludvigsen, Trine P

    2015-01-01

    Göttingen minipigs are a useful model for diseases having an inflammatory component, and the associated use of acute-phase proteins (APP) as biomarkers of inflammation warrants establishment of their reference ranges. The objective of this study was to establish reference values for selected APP...... in Göttingen minipigs and to investigate the effects of age, sex, and various stimuli on these ranges. Serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, pig major acute-phase protein (PMAP), albumin, and porcine α-1 acid glycoprotein (PAGP) were evaluated in 4 age groups (6...... in obese pigs without diabetes. In conclusion, reference values for CRP, PMAP, haptoglobin, SAA, PAGP and albumin were established for male and female Göttingen minipigs of different ages. These APP were influenced by age and sex, underlining the importance of considering these factors when designing...

  16. Age and sex determination of juvenile band-tailed pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J.A.; Braun, C.E.

    1978-01-01

    Captive band-tailed pigeons (Columbafasciata) were studied to document progression of molts and plumages from juvenal to adult age. Immature pigeons began the post-juvenal molt at 35 days which continued up to 340 days. The only 3 plumage characters useful for identification and estimation of age were presence of juvenal lesser, middle, and greater secondary coverts, juvenal secondaries, and juvenal primaries. While juvenal primaries were still present, hatching dates could be estimated up to 252 days (N = 84). Secondary feather presence and molt stage could be used to identify juvenile pigeons for more than 340 days (N = 24). Using coloration of the crown and breast feathers, 96 percent of the immature pigeons examined (106 of 110) at 80 days of age were classified accurately as to sex.

  17. Age as a risk factor for suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić Sanja S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. World Health Organization (WHO in its plan for health policy until the year 2010, has taken reduction of risk factors of suicide as its 12th aim. Because of the fact that the problem of suicide is also significant health problem in our society, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of life period as a risk factor for suicide in the area of the town of Kragujevac. Methods. In total 211 persons, both sexes, aged between 17 and 91 years, from the area of the town of Kragujevac, who had been committed a suicide during the period from 1996 to 2005, were included in a retrospective study. This study included the analysis of: conditions prior to suicide, locations of suicide, motives for suicide, the ways of committing suicide. For statistical analysis χ2 test and univariante regression model were used. Results. Average rate of suicide, in analyzed period, moved from 8.7 to 27 with a mean value of 14.6± 6.9. Suicide rates were the lowest in the age group from 15 to 24 years and the highest in the age group above 65 years (p < 0.05. Among the presuicidal conditions, within any age groups the presence of mental disease dominated as a factor for suicide, but within the oldest one in which organic diseases prevailed as a factor for suicide (p < 0.05. Statistically significant fact is that a house (flat was the main location for committing suicide in any age groups. Motives for suicide were significantly different within the groups and they were mostly unknown. Committing suicide by hanging was the most frequent way of suicide among any age groups. Univariant regression analysis failed to show any impact of age on the analyzed factors. Conclusion. Because of the fact that an average rate of suicide in elderly increases it is obligatory to primarily determine risk factors for suicide among people more than 65 years of age. Physicians should play the most important role in that.

  18. Chronotypes in the US - Influence of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Dorothee; Lombardi, David A; Marucci-Wellman, Helen; Roenneberg, Till

    2017-01-01

    An individual's chronotype reflects how the circadian system embeds itself into the 24-h day with rhythms in physiology, cognition and behavior occurring accordingly earlier or later. In view of an increasing number of people working at unusual times and linked health and safety risks, the wide range in human chronotypes may provide opportunities to allow people to work (and sleep) at times that are in synch with their circadian physiology. We aimed at estimating the distribution of chronotypes in the US population by age and sex. Twelve years (2003-2014) of pooled diary data from the American Time Use Survey were used to calculate chronotype based on mid-point of sleep on weekends (MSFWe, n = 53,689). We observed a near-normal distribution overall and within each age group. The distribution's mean value is systematically different with age, shifting later during adolescence, showing a peak in 'lateness' at ~19 years, and shifting earlier thereafter. Men are typically later chronotypes than women before 40, but earlier types after 40. The greatest differences are observed between 15 and 25 for both sexes, equaling more than 50% of the total chronotype difference across all age groups. The variability in chronotype decreases with age, but is generally higher in males than females. This is the first study to estimate the distribution and prevalence of individual chronotypes in the US population based on a large-scale, nationally representative sample. Our finding that adolescents are on average the latest chronotypes supports delaying school start times to benefit their sleep and circadian alignment. The generally wide range in chronotypes may provide opportunities for tailored work schedules by matching external and internal time, potentially decreasing long- and short-term health and safety risks.

  19. Influence of female sex and fertile age on neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisow, Nadja; Kleiter, Ingo; Gahlen, Anna; Fischer, Katrin; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Pache, Florence; Ruprecht, Klemens; Havla, Joachim; Krumbholz, Markus; Kümpfel, Tania; Aktas, Orhan; Ringelstein, Marius; Geis, Christian; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Berthele, Achim; Hemmer, Bernhard; Angstwurm, Klemens; Weissert, Robert; Stellmann, Jan-Patrick; Schuster, Simon; Stangel, Martin; Lauda, Florian; Tumani, Hayrettin; Mayer, Christoph; Zeltner, Lena; Ziemann, Ulf; Linker, Ralf A; Schwab, Matthias; Marziniak, Martin; Then Bergh, Florian; Hofstadt-van Oy, Ulrich; Neuhaus, Oliver; Winkelmann, Alexander; Marouf, Wael; Rückriem, Lioba; Faiss, Jürgen; Wildemann, Brigitte; Paul, Friedemann; Jarius, Sven; Trebst, Corinna; Hellwig, Kerstin

    2017-07-01

    Gender and age at onset are important epidemiological factors influencing prevalence, clinical presentation, and treatment response in autoimmune diseases. To evaluate the impact of female sex and fertile age on aquaporin-4-antibody (AQP4-ab) status, attack localization, and response to attack treatment in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and its spectrum disorders (neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD)). Female-to-male ratios, diagnosis at last visit (NMO vs NMOSD), attack localization, attack treatment, and outcome were compared according to sex and age at disease or attack onset. A total of 186 NMO/SD patients (82% female) were included. In AQP4-ab-positive patients, female predominance was most pronounced during fertile age (female-to-male ratio 23:1). Female patients were more likely to be positive for AQP4-abs (92% vs 55%; p 40 years. Our data suggest an influence of sex and age on susceptibility to AQP4-ab-positive NMO/SD. Genetic and hormonal factors might contribute to pathophysiology of NMO/SD.

  20. Age at marriage, sex-ratios, and ethnic heterogamy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier, H; Shavit, Y

    1994-05-01

    "This paper focuses on the effects of age at marriage and the sex-ratio on patterns of ethnic homogamy among Israeli women. We hypothesize that later marriages are more likely than early marriages to be heterogamous as the 'marriage market' shifts from school to the work-place. By the same token, when facing severe marriage squeezes women will be forced to out-marry. Employing data from the 1983 census, we model mate selection of women from Afro-Asian and Euro-American origin in various birth-cohorts. The results do not fully support our hypotheses: we find that in and of itself, age at marriage does not enhance ethnic heterogamy."

  1. Age, Sex and Stature Estimation from Footprint Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paurbhi Singh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was carried out to evaluate the utility and reliability of footprint dimensions in age, sex and stature determination in the North Indian population. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out using a sample of 400 people (146 female and 254 male aged 10-65 years in Uttar Pradesh, North Western state of India. Footprints of both feet were taken bilaterally, and thus a total of 800 prints were obtained. A cluster of 7 measurements were taken carefully with the help of a scientific scale ruler. Five measurements were length dimensions from the most anterior part of the toe (T1–T5 to the mid rear heel point and two were breadth dimensions from both left and right footprints: breadth at ball (BBAL, breadth at heel (BHEL and 2 indexes: heel-ball Index (HBI and footprint index (FPI. All data were analyzed statistically using Student’s t-test, regression coefficient and Pearson’s correlation for the estimation of sex on the basis of footprint dimensions. Results: The T1 in left footprints was greater than right footprints in males, while T1 and BBAL were both found to be greater in left footprints than right footprints in females. All the seven foot dimensions were higher in males than females. Conclusion: There were statistically significant differences observed in all footprint dimensions between the male and female footprints except LFPI, LHBI, and RHBI.

  2. Evidence for sex differences in cardiovascular aging and adaptive responses to physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Beth A.; Kalasky, Martha J.; Proctor, David N.

    2010-01-01

    There are considerable data addressing sex-related differences in cardiovascular system aging and disease risk/progression. Sex differences in cardiovascular aging are evident during resting conditions, exercise, and other acute physiological challenges (e.g., orthostasis). In conjunction with these sex-related differences—or perhaps even as an underlying cause—the impact of cardiorespiratory fitness and/or physical activity on the aging cardiovascular system also appears to be sex-specific. ...

  3. Age and sex differences in blood lactate response to sprint running in elite master athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Marko T; Suominen, Harri; Mero, Antti

    2005-12-01

    The effect of age and sex on anaerobic glycolytic capacity in master athletes is currently unclear. To study this issue, we determined blood lactate concentrations after competitive sprint running in male and female master athletes of different age. Eighty-one men (40-88 yrs) and 75 women (35-87 yrs) participating in the sprint events (100-m, 200-m, 400-m) in the European Veterans Athletics Championships were studied. Blood samples were taken from the fingertip and analysed for peak lactate concentration ([La]bpeak). The [La]bpeak following 100-m to 400-m races showed a curvilinear decline (p men and women. However, the age related differences in the [La]b peak were not significant before 70 years of age. No significant sex related differences were found in [La]b peak for any sprint event. The [La]b peak correlated significantly (p sprint distances except for the age-controlled correlation in men for the 100-m and 200-m. In conclusion, the present study showed age but not sex differences in blood lactate response to competitive sprint running in master athletes. Although the [La]b peak level of the athletes was considerably higher than that reported for untrained men and women, these cross-sectional findings suggest that anaerobic energy production from glycolysis declines in later years and may be a factor in the deterioration in sprint performance.

  4. Influence of age, sex, plaque and smoking on periodontal conditions in a population from Bauru, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ragghianti,Mariana Schützer; Greghi, Sebastião Luiz Aguiar; LAURIS, José Roberto Pereira; SANT'ANA, Adriana Campos Passanezi; PASSANEZI, Euloir

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of health and disease in populations, and of how these conditions are influenced by heredity, biology, physical environment, social environment, and personal behavior. There are many epidemiological studies in Brazilian population but few about the influence of some risk factors in periodontal conditions. This cross-sectional study was performed to assess the influence of age, sex, plaque and smoking on periodontal disease in a population from Bauru (Brazil). Data co...

  5. Sex-Based Memory Advantages and Cognitive Aging: A Challenge to the Cognitive Reserve Construct?

    OpenAIRE

    Caselli, Richard J.; Dueck, Amylou C.; Locke, Dona E. C.; Baxter, Leslie C.; Woodruff, Bryan K.; Geda, Yonas E.

    2015-01-01

    Education and related proxies for cognitive reserve (CR) are confounded by associations with environmental factors that correlate with cerebrovascular disease possibly explaining discrepancies between studies examining their relationships to cognitive aging and dementia. In contrast, sex-related memory differences may be a better proxy. Since they arise developmentally, they are less likely to reflect environmental confounds. Women outperform men on verbal and men generally outperform women o...

  6. Men: good health and high mortality. Sex differences in health and aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oksuzyan, Anna; Juel, Knud; Vaupel, James W;

    2008-01-01

    This review examines sex differences in health and survival, with a focus on the Nordic countries. There is a remarkable discrepancy between the health and survival of the sexes: men are physically stronger and have fewer disabilities, but have substantially higher mortality at all ages compared...... with women: the so-called male-female health-survival paradox. A number of proposed explanations for this paradox are rooted in biological, social, and psychological interpretations. It is likely to be due to multiple causes that include fundamental biological differences between the sexes such as genetic...... factors, immune system responses, hormones, and disease patterns. Behavioral differences such as risk-taking and reluctance to seek and comply with medical treatment may also play a role. Another consideration is that part of the difference may be due to methodological challenges, such as selective non...

  7. Age- and sex-specific prevalence and ten-year risk for cardiovascular disease of all 16 risk factor combinations of the metabolic syndrome - A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moebus Susanne

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on the AHA/NHLBI-definition three out of five cardiometabolic traits must be present for the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, resulting in 16 different combination types. The associated cardiovascular risk may however be different and specific combination may be indicative of an increased risk, furthermore little is known to which extent these 16 combinations contribute to the overall prevalence of MetS. Here we assessed the prevalence of all 16 combination types of MetS, analyzed the impact of age and gender on prevalence rates, and estimated the 10-year risk of fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI of each MetS combination type. Methods We used data of the German Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk Project (GEMCAS, a cross-sectional study, performed during October 2005, including 35,869 participants (aged 18-99 years, 61% women. Age-standardized prevalence and 10-year PROCAM and ESC risk scores for MI were calculated. Results In both men and women the combination with elevated waist-circumference, blood pressure and glucose (WC-BP-GL was the most frequent combination (28%, however a distinct unequal distribution was observed regarding age and sex. Any combination with GL was common in the elderly, whereas any combination with dyslipidemia and without GL was frequent in the younger. Men without MetS had an estimated mean 10-year risk of 4.7% (95%-CI: 4.5%-4.8% for MI (PROCAM, whereas the mean 10-year risk of men with MetS was clearly higher (age-standardized 7.9%; 7.8-8.0%. In women without MetS the mean 10-year risk for MI was 1.1%, in those with MetS 2.3%. The highest impact on an estimated 10-year risk for MI (PROCAM was observed with TG-HDL-GL-BP in both sexes (men 14.7%, women 3.9%. However, we could identify combinations with equal risks of non-fatal and fatal MI compared to participants without MetS. Conclusions We observed large variations in the prevalence of all 16 combination types and their

  8. Age and sex differences in immune response following LPS treatment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kyle Chiman; van Mil, Spencer; Murray, Emma; Mallet, Jean-François; Matar, Chantal; Ismail, Nafissa

    2016-11-01

    Puberty is an important developmental event that is marked by the reorganizing and remodeling of the brain. Exposure to stress during this critical period of development can have enduring effects on both reproductive and non-reproductive behaviors. The purpose of this study was to investigate age and sex differences in immune response by examining sickness behavior, body temperature changes, and serum cytokine levels following an immune challenge. The effects of circulating gonadal hormones on age and sex differences in immune response were also examined. Results showed that male mice display more sickness behavior and greater fluctuations in body temperature following LPS treatment than female mice. Moreover, adult male mice display more sickness behavior and a greater drop in body temperature following LPS treatment compared to pubertal male mice. Following gonadectomy, pubertal and adult males displayed steeper and prolonged drops in body temperature compared to sham-operated counterparts. Gonadectomy did not eliminate sex differences in LPS-induced body temperature changes, suggesting that additional factors contribute to the observed differences. LPS treatment increased cytokine levels in all mice. However, the increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines was higher in adult compared to pubertal mice, while the increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines was greater in pubertal than in adult mice. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of age and sex differences in acute immune response following LPS treatment and possible mechanisms involved in the enduring alterations in behavior and brain function following pubertal exposure to LPS.

  9. 生活方式对亚洲男性性激素、性活动以及老龄化的调节作用%The moderating impact of lifestyle factors on sex steroids,sexual activities and aging in Asian men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Victor HH Goh; Terry YY Tong

    2011-01-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the relative associations of exercise, sleep and other lifestyle habits with aging, sex hormones, percent body fat (%BF) and sexual activities in men living in the community. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men. The results showed that age is a major determinant for many physiological parameters, including sleep, hormonal and metabolic parameters, some lifestyle factors and sexual activities. Testosterone (T), bioavailable testosterone (BioT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) concentrations decreased with age, while estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and %BF increased with age. In addition, there exist intricate associations among hormonal and lifestyle factors, %BF and age. High-intensity exercise and longer duration of sleep were associated with higher concentrations of T and BioT. T was shown to be associated positively with men who were engaged in masturbation. DHEAS was associated with men wanting more sex and with good morning penile rigidity. Older Singaporean men tended to sleep for shorter duration,but exercised more intensely than younger men. Coital and masturbation frequencies decreased with age, and a significantly greater number of younger men were engaged in masturbation. Relationship between the partners is a key determinant of sexuality in men. It appears that T may have a limited, while dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) have a greater role than previously suggest, as a motivational signal for sexual function in men. Both biological and psychosocial factors interact with each other to influence sexual functions in men.Hence, a biopsychosocial approach may be more appropriate for a more lasting resolution to sexual dysfunctions in men.

  10. Sex-based memory advantages and cognitive aging: a challenge to the cognitive reserve construct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Richard J; Dueck, Amylou C; Locke, Dona E C; Baxter, Leslie C; Woodruff, Bryan K; Geda, Yonas E

    2015-02-01

    Education and related proxies for cognitive reserve (CR) are confounded by associations with environmental factors that correlate with cerebrovascular disease possibly explaining discrepancies between studies examining their relationships to cognitive aging and dementia. In contrast, sex-related memory differences may be a better proxy. Since they arise developmentally, they are less likely to reflect environmental confounds. Women outperform men on verbal and men generally outperform women on visuospatial memory tasks. Furthermore, memory declines during the preclinical stage of AD, when it is clinically indistinguishable from normal aging. To determine whether CR mitigates age-related memory decline, we examined the effects of gender and APOE genotype on longitudinal memory performances. Memory decline was assessed in a cohort of healthy men and women enriched for APOE ɛ4 who completed two verbal [Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Buschke Selective Reminding Test (SRT)] and two visuospatial [Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (CFT), and Benton Visual Retention Test (VRT)] memory tests, as well as in a separate larger and older cohort [National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC)] who completed a verbal memory test (Logical Memory). Age-related memory decline was accelerated in APOE ɛ4 carriers on all verbal memory measures (AVLT, p=.03; SRT pdifferences were retained over time, but no sex differences in rate of decline were found for any measure in either cohort. Sex-based memory advantage does not mitigate age-related memory decline in either APOE ɛ4 carriers or non-carriers.

  11. Antler development in reindeer in relation to age and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amund Høymork

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Yearling male and adult female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus are similar in size and shape. If sexual clues are hidden, it can be difficult to distinguish between them. Antlers can be a useful aid in classifying yearling males and adult females, depending on whether specific antler characteristics are identifiable for these two groups. We recorded antler characteristics in a domestic reindeer herd (Vågå and found considerable overlap in antler height, width and circumference between the different age and sex groups. Total tines and number of tine split-offs are use¬ful for the field biologist when discriminating among adult females, yearling males and 2.5 year-old males. For example, when using the tine split-offs with the suggested classification, 79% of the observed adult females and 76% of the yearling males were classified correctly. The antler height, width and circumference provide other biological dif¬ferences between groups, but are not easy to use to identify free ranging reindeer. This is due to the great overlap in antler size between the groups and measuring difficulties in a field study situation. Male and female calves have very similar antlers, and only the antler width is possible for sex discrimination, giving 67% accuracy of discriminating between these two groups.

  12. Sex hormones in Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia: are there age and race differences?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Soelaiman, Ima-Nirwana; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Ahmad, Fairus; Ramli, Elvy Suhana Mohd; Aminuddin, Amilia; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan

    2013-01-01

    ...; however, available data concerning their sex hormone levels are limited. The present study aimed to determine the influence of ethnicity and age on the sex hormone levels of Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia. METHODS...

  13. [Iris heterochromia: variations in form, age changes, sex dimorphism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, O

    1979-06-01

    On a sample of n = 25,346 individuals from Vienna (10,855 males, 14,491 females) the iris pigmentation has been typed by the author. In this sample 65 cases of different types of heterochromia were found. The frequency of the occurrence of the different types of this anomaly could be calculated for the first time. Neglecting age, sex, and type of heterochromia the total frequency amounts to 0.256 (males: 0.157; females: 0.37) %. The variants of heterochromia very from cases of total heterochromia to those of various size; in addition to it a number of special types could be observed. The localization of the heterochrome parts of the iris shows certain variations; mostly, however, it is seen in the lower half of the iris. The nasal part is concerned in only one case; the temporal region never. Thus, the partial heterochromia is characteristic by a marked dependency of its localization. The colour of heterochromia varies from 2 a-14 according to the Martin-Schultz standard set of coloured eyes. However, No. 9 (ca. 50%) and No. 7 (ca. 20%) were the most frequent colours. The age variations are considerable. 5/6 of all heterochromias were found between the age from 2-19 years. Finally, a marked sexual dimorphism was observed, as in females heterochromia is much more frequent than in males.

  14. Erythrocyte diameter of zebu Nelore cattle: influence of age factors, sex factors and Nelore breed lines Diâmetro eritrocitário de zebuínos da raça Nelore: influência de fatores etários, sexual e do tipo racial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Roque de Barros Filho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The erythrocyte diameter of zebu Nelore cattle raised in the State of São Paulo were determined with aim of the analyzing the influence of age factors, sex factors and breed lines factors. In order to get up the subject, blood samples from 170 healthy animals free of blood parasites were collected and submitted to standard hematological techniques and mensuration of the erythrocyte diameter by blood smears glass with Rosenfeld color. To evaluate the influence of age, 140 Nelore Standard were divided into seven age groups, from birth to over 72 month, including 20 animals for each groups. The influence of sex factors, were evaluated using 80 adult animals: 40 male and 40 female. The influence of the breed lines factors, were evaluated using 60 zebus, 15 animals of different varieties or strain, the Nelore: Standard, Lemgruber, “Mocho” and Kuleia. The results demonstrated significant differences (p< 0,05 into the age group: the erythrocyte diameter increase, from the group of calves neonates up to three months (4,72 ± 0,29µm to the group formed by adult animal above of 72 months (5,45 ± 0,17µm. No had influence of the sex and breed lines factors in this study. The average standard values of the erythrocyte diameter of the Nelore cattle were 5,24 ± 0,62µm and the range from 3,5 to 7,5µm. The results demonstrated the influence of age on the erythrocyte diameter of zebu Nelore cattle.O diâmetro eritrocitário (DME de zebuínos da raça Nelore, criados no Estado de São Paulo, foi determinado avaliando-se a influência de fatores relacionados à idade, ao sexo e ao tipo racial. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue de 170 animais sadios, livre de hemoparasitas, realizando-se o eritrograma e os esfregaços corados com o corante Rosenfeld. A influência de fatores etários foi realizada utilizando-se 140 esfregaços de Nelore do tipo Padrão, distribuídos em sete grupos etários, compostos cada um deles por 20 animais, incluindo-se esfrega

  15. Influence of genes,sex,age and environment on the onset of autoimmune hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kathie Béland; Pascal Lapierre; Fernando Alvarez

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is complex. However, it is believed that a susceptible individual, owing to his genetic background, sex and age, can develop the disease following exposure to an environmental trigger. Autoimmune hepatitis does not follow a Mendelian pattern of inheritance;hence no single causative genetic locus has been identified.However, several genes, inside and outside the HLA locus, have been linked to an increased susceptibility to AIH. Epidemiological evidence also suggests that the sex and age of the patient plays a role in AIH pathogenesis as the disease onset occurs mainly in the two first decades of life and a higher disease incidence is observed in females. No environmental trigger has been identified, but several have been proposed,mainly viruses and xenobiotics. This article aims at reviewing the current knowledge on susceptibility factors leading to AIH and putative triggers, emphasizing fundamental mechanisms responsible for the break of liver immunological tolerance.

  16. Age, sex, and pubertal phase influence mentalizing about emotions and actions in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keulers, Esther H H; Evers, Elisabeth A T; Stiers, Peter; Jolles, Jelle

    2010-01-01

    This study examined (1) emotional versus cognitive developmental trajectories and (2) the influence of age-extrinsic factors (i.e., sex and puberty). Using a cross-sectional design, adolescents (N = 252) divided into four age-groups (ages 13, 15, 17, 19) performed two versions of a mentalizing task, about emotions and actions, as well as the Tower task. First, performance on all tasks improved linearly into late adolescence (age 19). Thus no differential trajectories were found for emotional versus cognitive development. Second, girls outperformed boys in mentalizing speed regarding both emotions and actions. In boys, a later pubertal phase was associated with increased mentalizing speed after controlling for age-group.

  17. Sex Bias in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalk, Sue Rosenberg; And Others

    This study investigated children's sex biased attitudes as a function of the sex, age, and race of the child as well as a geographical-SES factor. Two attitudes were measured on a 55-item questionnaire: Sex Pride (attributing positive characteristics to a child of the same sex) and Sex Prejudice (attributing negative characteristics to a child of…

  18. Age and sex determination of the Maui Parrotbill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Kim E.; Simon, John C.; Pratt, Thane K.; Baker, Paul E.; Kowalsky, James R.

    2001-01-01

    We determined the best plumage and morphometric variables for ageing and sexing the Maui Parrotbill (Pseudonestor xanthophrys), an endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper found only on east Maui, Hawaii, by examining and measuring 30 museum specimens and 71 live birds captured in mist nets. Juvenal plumage was identified by the presence of pale-tipped wing bars on the middle and greater coverts, grayish olive dorsal plumage, and dingy white underparts and superciliaries. Birds undergoing first prebasic molt retained the juvenal remiges, rectrices, and wing coverts. Birds in first basic plumage possessed juvenal wing bars and a dull juvenal-like plumage. Subsequent molts were complete, and adults lacked wing bars. Adult males had bright yellow plumage on the cheeks, throat, and superciliaries, as did 27% of adult females. All other adult females had less yellow in the underparts. The dorsal plumage of adult females was more variable than adult males and was either yellow-olive like the males or grayish olive. Adult males had longer wing, bill, tail, and tarsometatarsus and greater mass than adult females. Virtually all males and females could be distinguished by wing length. Morphometrics of immature birds were significantly smaller than for adult males. Only immature male wing chord was significantly larger than that of adult females. Although it was difficult to distinguish between immatures and some adult females based on plumage coloration or measurements, a cut-off point of 70.4 mm for wing chord separated 91% of females from 93% of males, regardless of age.

  19. Regional Specificity of Sex Effects on Subcortical Volumes Across the Lifespan in Healthy Aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Wenjing; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Li, Meng; Miao, Wen; Jiao, Yonghong; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Bogerts, Bernhard; He, Huiguang; Walter, Martin

    2014-01-01

    When conceptualizing age-specific onsets and sex-specific characteristics of neuropsychiatric diseases in a neurobiological context, it may be crucially important to consider differential trajectories of aging. Here, we investigated effects of age, sex, and their interactions on absolute and relativ

  20. Factors associated with violence against female sex workers in ten Brazilian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Francisca Sueli da Silva; Merchán-Hamann, Edgar; Urdaneta, Margarita; Damacena, Giseli Nogueira; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann

    2017-03-30

    Few studies in Brazil have focused on violence against female sex workers, a theme that has attracted researchers' attention worldwide, especially due to possible associations with HIV. The current study aims to estimate the prevalence of violence against female sex workers according to type and perpetrator and to identify associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted with data on 2,523 female sex workers from ten Brazilian cities, and with the respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Prevalence of verbal violence was 59.5%, physical violence 38.1%, sexual violence 37.8%, intimate partner physical violence 25.2%, and violence by clients 11.7%. Factors associated with physical violence were age workers suffer a disproportional burden of violence. The identification of vulnerability factors is essential for interventions to safeguard human rights and control HIV.

  1. Factors in the Determination of Intimate Same-Sex Friendship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Craig W.; Harwood, B. Thomas

    1977-01-01

    Five hundred unmarried male and female college students were administered a questionnaire and instructed to rate the importance of 39 variables in the formation of an intimate, same-sex friendship. Six factors emerged: Initial attraction, personableness, proximity, attitudinal similarity, intimate accessibility, and reciprocal candor. (BD)

  2. Determinant Factors of Attitude towards Quantitative Subjects: Differences between Sexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondejar-Jimenez, Jose; Vargas-Vargas, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, almost all curricula in the social sciences contain at least one course in statistics, given the importance of this discipline as an analytical tool. This work identifies the latent factors relating to students' motivation and attitude towards statistics, tests their covariance structure for samples of both sexes, and identifies the…

  3. Associations Between Sex Hormones and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Middle-aged Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Üstündağ Budak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between serum sex hormone levels and lower urinary tract symptoms in men. Material and Method: Forty-nine men with lower urinary tract symptoms aged 25-45 years (mean: 37.9±2.0 years and 25 healthy men aged 25-45 years (mean: 35.9±2.0 years as controls participated in this study. Estradiol (E2, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3, insulin-like growth factor -1 (IGF1, and sex hormone-binding globulin levels were measured using commercially available assay kits. All participants were asked to complete the International Prostate Symptom Score questionnaire. Results: Demographic data were similar between patients and controls. Among the sex steroids studied, only FSH and E2 showed a statistically significant association with lower urinary tract symptoms (p<0.05. Besides, neither IGF1 nor IGFBP3 were associated with lower urinary tract symptoms. Discussion: Excess E2 may play an important role in the occurrence of lower urinary tract symptoms. E2 receptors located in the prostate tissue may take part in the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  4. Sex-Based Differences in Asthma among Preschool and School-Aged Children in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yeonsoo; Shin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore risk factors related to asthma prevalence among preschool and school-aged children using a representative national dataset from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) conducted from 2009-2011. We evaluated the demographic information, health status, household environment, socioeconomic status, and parents' health status of 3,542 children aged 4-12 years. A sex-stratified multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted prevalence odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals after accounting for primary sample units, stratification, and sample weights. The sex-specific asthma prevalence in the 4- to 12-year-old children was 7.39% in boys and 6.27% in girls. Boys and girls with comorbid atopic dermatitis were more likely to have asthma than those without atopic dermatitis (boys: OR = 2.20, p = 0.0071; girls: OR = 2.33, p = 0.0031). Boys and girls with ≥1 asthmatic parent were more likely to have asthma than those without asthmatic parents (boys: OR = 3.90, p = 0.0006; girls: OR = 3.65, p = 0.0138). As girls got older, the prevalence of asthma decreased (OR = 0.90, p = 0.0408). Girls residing in rural areas were 60% less likely to have asthma than those residing in urban areas (p = 0.0309). Boys with ≥5 family members were more likely to have asthma than those with ≤3 family members (OR = 2.45, p = 0.0323). The factors related to asthma prevalence may differ depending on sex in preschool and school-aged children. By understanding the characteristics of sex-based differences in asthma, individualized asthma management plans may be established clinically.

  5. The effect of age, sex, and physical activity on entheseal morphology in a contemporary Italian skeletal collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milella, Marco; Giovanna Belcastro, Maria; Zollikofer, Christoph P E; Mariotti, Valentina

    2012-07-01

    Entheseal changes are traditionally included in a large array of skeletal features commonly referred to as "skeletal markers of activity." However, medical studies and recent anthropological analyses of identified skeletal series suggest a complex combination of physiological and biomechanical factors underlying the variability of such "markers." The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between age, sex, physical activity, and entheseal variability. To this end, 23 postcranial entheses are examined in a large (N = 484) Italian contemporary skeletal series using standardized scoring methods. The sample comprises subjects of known age, sex and, mostly, occupation. Results show a strong relationship between age and entheseal changes. Differences between sexes are also highlighted, while the effects of physical activity appear moderate. Altogether, our study indicates that entheseal morphology primarily reflects the age of an individual, while correlation with lifetime activity remains ambiguous.

  6. Influence of age and sex on line bisection: a study of normal performance with implications for visuospatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnava, Alice; Halligan, Peter W

    2007-11-01

    Line bisection is an established clinical task used to diagnose visuospatial neglect. To date, few studies have considered the extent to which age and sex as background variables contribute to bisection performance. Both variables affect the neural substrates underlying cognitive processes and hence the behavioural performance of bisection. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of age and sex on normal bisection performance, using three different line lengths to elucidate the influence of these potential contributing factors. Seventy men and 70 women, divided equally into seven age-cohorts between 14 and 80 years, bisected lines. Results indicated clear age- and sex-related differences both in the magnitude and direction of bisection deviations across the three line lengths. Differences are discussed in terms of neural changes across the adult lifespan including hemispheric differences and hormonally mediated changes.

  7. Sex differences in risk factors for cardiovascular disease: the PERU MIGRANT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Benziger, Catherine Pastorius; Gilman, Robert H; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Although men and women have similar risk factors for cardiovascular disease, many social behaviors in developing countries differ by sex. Rural-to-urban migrants have different cardiovascular risk profiles than rural or urban dwellers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sex differences with specific cardiovascular risk factors in rural-to-urban migrants. We used the rural-to-urban migrant group of the PERU MIGRANT cross-sectional study to investigate the sex differences in specific cardiovascular risk factors: obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, as well as exposures of socioeconomic status, acculturation surrogates and behavioral characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was used to characterize strength of association between sex and our outcomes adjusting for potential confounders. The sample of migrants was 589 (mean age 46.5 years) and 52.4% were female. In the adjusted models, women were more likely to be obese (OR=5.97; 95%CI: 3.21-11) and have metabolic syndrome (OR=2.22; 95%CI: 1.39-3.55) than men, explaining the greatest variability for obesity and metabolic syndrome but not for hypertension. Our results suggest that interventions for CVD in Peru should be sex-specific and address the unique health needs of migrant populations living in urban shantytowns since the risk factors for obesity and metabolic syndrome differ between males and females.

  8. Personality traits, age and sex as predictors for self-handicapping tendency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Petar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-handicapping is one of the strategies people use when facing potential failure. Paper presents new scale for assessing self-handicapping tendency as relatively stable trait, as well as its relations with personality traits, sex and age. Self-handicapping questionnaire and shortened form of Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire were administered to 230 participants of both sexes, age 18 to 59. Confirmatory factor analysis shows that model with four latent dimensions, encompassed by a higher-order latent dimension, fits the data well. Those lower order dimensions correspond to originally created scales: External handicaps in interpersonal area, Internal handicaps in interpersonal area, Internal handicaps in achievement area and External handicaps in achievement area. Results of MANCOVA shows that Neuroticism is predictor of all dimensions of self- handicapping. Impulsive sensation seeking predicts choice of external handicaps in interpersonal area, as well as internal handicaps in achievement area. Latter is predicted also by low Activity. Younger subjects show significantly higher tendency to use internal handicaps, and men in general show more self-handicapping tendency than women, except in choosing internal handicaps in achievement area, where sex shows no significant effect.

  9. The impacts of media messaging and age and sex variance on adolescent smoking habits in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Dijana; Simetin, Ivana Pavic; Rodin, Urelija; Benjak, Tomislav; Puntarić, Eda; Puntarić, Ida

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the effects of age, sex, and media messages that encourage or discourage smoking, in conjunction with having 1 or more parents, close friends, teachers, or family members who smoke, on differences in patterns of adolescent smoking. This research is based on Croatian responses to the 2011 Global Youth Tobacco Survey. A total of 4245 Croatian youths responded to the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, of which individuals 3551 were aged 13 to 15 years. Of this cross section, 1644 individuals were male; 1856 were female; and 51 were of unknown sex. There were significant differences among responses in terms of age. Older adolescents were more likely to smoke (P youths who reported that they smoke have parents who smoke at home and have close friends who smoke; having a close or best friend who smokes is the highest prediction factor that both male and female youths will begin smoking. The majority of nonsmokers and smokers have never seen pro-smoking messages when going to concerts or during other community and social events. This lack of exposure to smoking-related advertising is the result of new legal restrictions imposed in 2008 on tobacco-product producers. There is no statistical significance among smokers' and nonsmokers' perceptions of antismoking media messaging. Peer pressure has been shown to be the second-most influential factor, after having a best friend who smokes, for the likelihood that an individual will become a smoker, among both male and female adolescents.

  10. Age of Sexual Debut and Physical Dating Violence Victimization: Sex Differences among US High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihongbe, Timothy O.; Cha, Susan; Masho, Saba W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that early age of sexual debut is associated with physical dating violence (PDV), but sex-specific associations are sparse. We estimated the prevalence of PDV victimization in high school students who have initiated sexual intercourse and examined sex-specific association between age of sexual debut and PDV…

  11. Physical Attractiveness, Age, and Sex as Determinants of Reactions to Resumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quereshi, M. Y.; Kay, Janet P.

    1986-01-01

    Physical attractiveness, age, and sex were manipulated to determine their effect on the evaluation of 54 hypothetical applicants' resumes for three different jobs by 60 Master's in Business Administration students. Physical attractiveness favorably influenced the suitability ratings for all jobs; raters' sex and age were not significant but…

  12. Age of Sexual Debut and Physical Dating Violence Victimization: Sex Differences among US High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihongbe, Timothy O.; Cha, Susan; Masho, Saba W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that early age of sexual debut is associated with physical dating violence (PDV), but sex-specific associations are sparse. We estimated the prevalence of PDV victimization in high school students who have initiated sexual intercourse and examined sex-specific association between age of sexual debut and PDV…

  13. Surprising Lack of Sex Differences in Normal Cognitive Aging in Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Deborah; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Berg, Stig; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences in the etiology of normal cognitive functioning in aging remain largely unexplored. We conducted an investigation of genetic and environmental contributions to sex differences in level of cognitive performance and rate of decline in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA) (Finkel & Pedersen, 2004) data set. Behavioral…

  14. Evaluation of Age, Sex, and Race Bias in the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Rex B.; Lachar, David

    1992-01-01

    Whether the external validity of the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC) was moderated by age, sex, or race was studied using 1,333 children and adolescents referred for mental health services. Race and sex generally did not moderate the relation of PIC scales to symptom checklists. Some relationships were age modified. (SLD)

  15. Evidence for sex differences in cardiovascular aging and adaptive responses to physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Beth A; Kalasky, Martha J; Proctor, David N

    2010-09-01

    There are considerable data addressing sex-related differences in cardiovascular system aging and disease risk/progression. Sex differences in cardiovascular aging are evident during resting conditions, exercise, and other acute physiological challenges (e.g., orthostasis). In conjunction with these sex-related differences-or perhaps even as an underlying cause-the impact of cardiorespiratory fitness and/or physical activity on the aging cardiovascular system also appears to be sex-specific. Potential mechanisms contributing to sex-related differences in cardiovascular aging and adaptability include changes in sex hormones with age as well as sex differences in baseline fitness and the dose of activity needed to elicit cardiovascular adaptations. The purpose of the present paper is thus to review the primary research regarding sex-specific plasticity of the cardiovascular system to fitness and physical activity in older adults. Specifically, the paper will (1) briefly review known sex differences in cardiovascular aging, (2) detail emerging evidence regarding observed cardiovascular outcomes in investigations of exercise and physical activity in older men versus women, (3) explore mechanisms underlying the differing adaptations to exercise and habitual activity in men versus women, and (4) discuss implications of these findings with respect to chronic disease risk and exercise prescription.

  16. Risk of Stroke in Migraineurs Using Triptans. Associations with Age, Sex, Stroke Severity and Subtype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albieri, Vanna; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identifying migraineurs by triptan utilization we studied risk for stroke in migraineurs compared to the general population. METHODS: A cohort study including all citizens 25-80years of age in Denmark 2003-2011 was conducted. All persons prescribed triptans, and all those hospitalized...... for a first stroke were identified in the Danish Registries. Information on stroke severity/subtype and cardiovascular risk factors was available for stroke patients. FINDINGS: Of the 49,711 patients hospitalized for a first stroke, 1084 were migraineurs using triptans. Adjusting for age, sex, income...... for severe strokes was lower among migraineurs (RR 0.77; CI 0.65-0.91). Risk was age-related; highest among women 25-45years (RR≈1.7). Risk was unrelated to numbers of dispensations. INTERPRETATION: Migraineurs identified by triptan utilization had higher risk for stroke. Strokes were minor...

  17. In Search of Emerging Same-Sex Sexuality: Romantic Attractions at Age 13 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gu; Hines, Melissa

    2016-10-01

    Sex-typed behavior in childhood is significantly related to sexual orientation in adulthood. In addition, same-sex attractions in early adolescence are more non-exclusive than in adulthood and can differ from later same-sex orientations. However, little research has focused on romantic attractions as they emerge during early adolescence. Drawing a sample from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (197 girls, 204 boys), the current study examined whether same-sex romantic attractions at age 13 years were exclusive, and whether they were predicted by sex-typed behavior at age 3.5 years. No young adolescents in this sample reported exclusive same-sex attractions, and increased same-sex attractions were not significantly related to reduced other-sex sexualities. Childhood sex-typed behavior did not significantly predict early same-sex attractions, suggesting that early same-sex attractions differ from later same-sex orientations. The current study highlights the importance of studying the development of sexuality beginning prior to adulthood.

  18. INTERGENERATIONAL SEX AS A RISK FACTOR FOR HIV AMONG YOUNG MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN: A SCOPING REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anema, Aranka; Marshall, Brandon D.L.; Stevenson, Benjamin; Gurm, Jasmine; Montaner, Gabriela; Small, Will; Roth, Eric A.; Lima, Viviane D.; Montaner, Julio S.G.; Moore, David; Hogg, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    An emerging body of evidence suggests that intergenerational sexual partnerships may increase risk of HIV acquisition among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). However, no studies have comprehensively evaluated literature in this area. We applied a scoping review methodology to explore the relationships between age mixing, HIV risk behavior, and HIV seroconversion among YMSM. This study identified several individual, micro-, and meso-system factors influencing HIV risk among YMSM in the context of intergenerational relationships: childhood maltreatment, coming of age and sexual identity, and substance use (individual-level factors); family and social support, partner characteristics, intimate partner violence, connectedness to gay community (micro-system factors); and race/ethnicity, economic disparity, and use of the Internet (meso-system factors). These thematic groups can be used to frame future research on the role of age-discrepant relationships on HIV risk among YMSM, and to enhance public health HIV education and prevention strategies targeting this vulnerable population. PMID:24272070

  19. Sex differences in cognition are stable over a 10-year period in adulthood and old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Frias, Cindy M; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Herlitz, Agneta

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences in declarative memory and visuospatial ability are robust in cross-sectional studies. The present longitudinal study examined whether sex differences in cognition were present over a 10-year period, and whether age modified the magnitude of sex differences. Tests assessing episodic and semantic memory, and visuospatial ability were administered to 625 nondemented adults (initially aged 35-80 years), participating in the population-based Betula study at two follow-up occasions. There was stability of sex differences across five age groups and over a 10-year period. Women performed at a higher level than men on episodic recall, face and verbal recognition, and semantic fluency, whereas men performed better than women on a task-assessing, visuospatial ability. Sex differences in cognitive functions are stable over a 10-year period and from 35 to 90 years of age.

  20. Sex Differences in Presynaptic Density and Neurogenesis in Middle-Aged ApoE4 and ApoE Knockout Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpma, A.; Jansen, D.; Arnoldussen, I.A.C.; Fang, X.T.; Wiesmann, M.; Mutsaers, M.P.; Dederen, P.J.W.C.; Janssen, C.I.F.; Kiliaan, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and apolipoprotein E e4 (APOE4) genotype are risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Sex differences exist in prevalence and manifestation of both diseases. We investigated sex differences respective to aging, focusing on cognitive parameters in ap

  1. Sex-specific risk factors for childhood wheeze and longitudinal phenotypes of wheeze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Sze Man; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Coull, Brent A; Litonjua, Augusto A; Oken, Emily; Gold, Diane R

    2016-12-01

    Although sexual dimorphism in wheeze and asthma prevalence are well documented, sex-specific risk factors for wheeze and longitudinal wheeze phenotypes have not been well elucidated. By using a large prebirth cohort, this study aimed to identify sex-specific risk factors for wheeze from birth through midchildhood and identify distinct longitudinal wheeze phenotypes and the sex-specific risk factors associated with these phenotypes. Mothers reported child wheeze symptoms over the past year approximately yearly on 9 occasions starting at age 1 year. We identified sex-specific predictors of wheeze, wheeze phenotypes, and sex-specific predictors of these phenotypes by using generalized estimating equations, latent class mixed models, and multinomial logistic analysis, respectively. A total of 1623 children had information on wheeze at 1 or more time points. Paternal asthma was a stronger predictor of ever wheezing in boys (odds ratio [OR], 2.15; 95% CI, 1.74-2.66) than in girls (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.19-1.96; P for sex by paternal asthma interaction = .03), whereas being black or Hispanic, birth weight for gestational age z score, and breast-feeding duration had stronger associations among girls. We identified 3 longitudinal wheeze phenotypes: never/infrequent wheeze (74.1%), early transient wheeze (12.7%), and persistent wheeze (13.1%). Compared with never/infrequent wheeze, maternal asthma, infant bronchiolitis, and atopic dermatitis were associated with persistent wheeze in both sexes, but paternal asthma was associated with persistent wheeze in boys only (OR, 4.27; 95% CI, 2.33-7.83; P for sex by paternal asthma interaction = .02), whereas being black or Hispanic was a predictor for girls only. We identified sex-specific predictors of wheeze and longitudinal wheeze patterns, which might have important prognostic value and allow for a more personalized approach to wheeze and asthma treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

  2. Age- and Sex-Related Characteristics of Tonic Gaba Currents in the Rat Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, H.; Bojar, M.; Moshé, S. L.; Galanopoulou, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the pharmacologic effects of GABAergic drugs and the postsynaptic phasic GABAAergic inhibitory responses in the anterior part of the rat substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNRA) are age- and sex-specific. Here, we investigate whether there are age- and sex-related differences in the expression of the δ GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunit and GABAAR mediated tonic currents. We have used δ-specific immunochemistry and whole cell patch clamp to study GABAAR mediated tonic currents in the SNRA of male and female postnatal day (PN) PN5-9, PN11-16, and PN25-32 rats. We observed age-related decline, but no sex-specific changes, in bicuculline (BIM) sensitive GABAAR tonic current density, which correlated with the decline in δ subunit in the SNRA between PN15 and 30. Furthermore, we show that the GABAAR tonic currents can be modified by muscimol (GABAAR agonist; partial GABACR agonist), THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo (5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol: α4β3δ GABAARs agonist and GABACR antagonist), and zolpidem (α1-subunit selective GABAAR agonist) in age-and sex-dependent manner specific for each drug. We propose that the emergence of the GABAAR-sensitive anticonvulsant effects of the rat SNRA during development may depend upon the developmental decline in tonic GABAergic inhibition of the activity of rat SNRA neurons, although other sex-specific factors are also involved. PMID:25645446

  3. Incidence of Diabetes Mellitus in Insured Swedish Cats in Relation to Age, Breed and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhlund, M; Fall, T; Ström Holst, B; Hansson-Hamlin, H; Bonnett, B; Egenvall, A

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common endocrinopathy in cats. Most affected cats suffer from a type of diabetes similar to type 2 diabetes in humans. An increasing prevalence has been described in cats, as in humans, related to obesity and other lifestyle factors. To describe the incidence of DM in insured Swedish cats and the association of DM with demographic risk factors, such as age, breed and sex. A cohort of 504,688 individual cats accounting for 1,229,699 cat-years at risk (CYAR) insured by a Swedish insurance company from 2009 to 2013. We used reimbursed insurance claims for the diagnosis of DM. Overall incidence rates and incidence rates stratified on year, age, breed, and sex were estimated. The overall incidence rate of DM in the cohort was 11.6 cases (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.0-12.2) per 10,000 CYAR. Male cats had twice as high incidence rate (15.4; 95% CI, 14.4-16.4) as females (7.6; 95% CI, 6.9-8.3). Domestic cats were at higher risk compared to purebred cats. A significant association with breed was seen, with the Burmese, Russian Blue, Norwegian Forest cat, and Abyssinian breeds at a higher risk compared to other cats. No sex predisposition was found among Burmese cats. Several breeds with a lower risk of DM were identified. Our results verify that the Burmese breed is at increased risk of developing DM. We also identified several previously unreported breeds with increased or decreased risk of DM. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Effects of season, age, sex, and housing on salivary cortisol concentrations in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurich, J; Wulf, M; Ille, N; Erber, R; von Lewinski, M; Palme, R; Aurich, C

    2015-07-01

    Analysis of salivary cortisol is increasingly used to assess stress responses in horses. Because spontaneous or experimentally induced increases in cortisol concentrations are often relatively small for stress studies, proper controls are needed. This requires an understanding of the factors affecting salivary cortisol over longer times. In this study, we have analyzed salivary cortisol concentration for 6 mo in horses (n = 94) differing in age, sex, reproductive state, and housing. Salivary cortisol followed a diurnal rhythm with the highest concentrations in the morning and a decrease throughout the day (P horses and no consistent differences between horses of different age existed. Group housing and individual stabling did not affect salivary cortisol. In conclusion, salivary cortisol concentrations in horses follow a diurnal rhythm and are increased in active breeding sires. Time of the day and reproductive state of the horses are thus important for experiments that include analysis of cortisol in saliva.

  5. Age- and sex-related growth patterns of the craniofacial complex in European children aged 3-6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutkuviene, Janina; Cattaneo, Cristina; Obertová, Zuzana; Ratnayake, Melanie; Poppa, Pasquale; Barkus, Arunas; Khalaj-Hedayati, Kerstin; Schroeder, Inge; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie

    2016-11-01

    Craniofacial growth changes in young children are not yet completely understood. Up-to-date references for craniofacial measurements are crucial for clinical assessment of orthodontic anomalies, craniofacial abnormalities and subsequent planning of interventions. To provide normal reference data and to identify growth patterns for craniofacial dimensions of European boys and girls aged 3-6 years. Using standard anthropometric methodology, body weight, body height and 23 craniofacial measurements were acquired for a cross-sectional sample of 681 healthy children (362 boys and 319 girls) aged 3-6 years from Germany, Italy and Lithuania. Descriptive statistics, correlation coefficients, percentage annual changes and percentage growth rates were used to analyse the dataset. Between the ages of 3-6 years, craniofacial measurements showed age- and sex-related patterns independent from patterns observed for body weight and body height. Sex-related differences were observed in the majority of craniofacial measurements. In both sexes, face heights and face depths showed the strongest correlation with age. Growth patterns differed by craniofacial measurement and can be summarised into eight distinct age- and sex-related patterns. This study provided reference data and identified sex- and age-related growth patterns of the craniofacial complex of young European children, which may be used for detailed assessment of normal growth in paediatrics, maxillofacial reconstructive surgery and possibly for forensic age assessment.

  6. Avian sex, sex chromosomes, and dosage compensation in the age of genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Jennifer A Marshall

    2014-04-01

    Comparisons of the sex chromosome systems in birds and mammals are widening our view and deepening our understanding of vertebrate sex chromosome organization, function, and evolution. Birds have a very conserved ZW system of sex determination in which males have two copies of a large, gene-rich Z chromosome, and females have a single Z and a female-specific W chromosome. The avian ZW system is quite the reverse of the well-studied mammalian XY chromosome system, and evolved independently from different autosomal blocs. Despite the different gene content of mammal and bird sex chromosomes, there are many parallels. Genes on the bird Z and the mammal X have both undergone selection for male-advantage functions, and there has been amplification of male-advantage genes and accumulation of LINEs. The bird W and mammal Y have both undergone extensive degradation, but some birds retain early stages and some mammals terminal stages of the process, suggesting that the process is more advanced in mammals. Different sex-determining genes, DMRT1 and SRY, define the ZW and XY systems, but DMRT1 is involved in downstream events in mammals. Birds show strong cell autonomous specification of somatic sex differences in ZZ and ZW tissue, but there is growing evidence for direct X chromosome effects on sexual phenotype in mammals. Dosage compensation in birds appears to be phenotypically and molecularly quite different from X inactivation, being partial and gene-specific, but both systems use tools from the same molecular toolbox and there are some signs that galliform birds represent an early stage in the evolution of a coordinated system.

  7. Egocentric Network and Condom Use Among Mid-Age Female Sex Workers in China: A Multilevel Modeling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjie

    2016-04-01

    The epidemics of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have spread among older adults in the world, including China. This study addresses the deficiency of studies about the multiple contextual influences on condom use among mid-age female sex workers (FSWs) over 35 years old. A combination of an egocentric network design and multilevel modeling was used to investigate factors of condom use over mid-age FSWs (egos) particular relationships with sexual partners (alters). Of the 1245 mid-age FSWs interviewed, 73% (907) reported having at least one sexual partner who would provide social support to egos. This generated a total of 1300 ego-alter sex ties in egos' support networks. Condoms were consistently used among one-third of sex ties. At the ego level, condoms were more likely to be used consistently if egos received a middle school education or above, had stronger perceived behavioral control for condom use, or consistently used condoms with other sex clients who were not in their support networks. At the alter level, condoms were not consistently used over spousal ties compared to other ties. Condoms were less likely to be used among alters whom ego trusted and provided emotional support. Cross-level factors (egos' attitudes toward condom use and emotional support from alters) documented a significant positive interaction on consistent condom use. Given the low frequency of condom use, future interventions should focus on mid-age FSWs and their partners within and beyond their support networks.

  8. Metabolic Syndrome, Sarcopenia and Role of Sex and Age: Cross-Sectional Analysis of Kashiwa Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Shinya; Tanaka, Tomoki; Akishita, Masahiro; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Tuji, Tetsuo; Iijima, Katsuya

    2014-01-01

    Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that effects of cardiovascular risk factors may vary depending on sex and age. In this study, we assessed the associations of metabolic syndrome (MetS) with sarcopenia and its components in older adults, and examined whether the associations vary by sex and age. We also tested if any one of the MetS components could explain the associations. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data from the cohort study conducted in Kashiwa city, Chiba, Japan in 2012 which included 1971 functionally-independent, community-dwelling Japanese adults aged 65 years or older (977 men, 994 women). Sarcopenia was defined based on appendicular skeletal muscle mass, grip strength and usual gait speed. MetS was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 14.2% in men and 22.1% in women, while the prevalence of MetS was 43.6% in men and 28.9% in women. After adjustment for potential confounders, MetS was positively associated with sarcopenia in men aged 65 to 74 years (odds ratio 5.5; 95% confidence interval 1.9–15.9) but not in older men or women. Among the sarcopenia components, MetS was associated with lower muscle mass and grip strength, particularly in men aged 65 to 74 years. The associations of MetS with sarcopenia and its components were mainly driven by abdominal obesity regardless of sex or age. In conclusion, MetS is positively associated with sarcopenia in older men. The association is modified by sex and age, but abdominal obesity is the main contributor to the association across sex and age. PMID:25405866

  9. Metabolic syndrome, sarcopenia and role of sex and age: cross-sectional analysis of Kashiwa cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Ishii

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that effects of cardiovascular risk factors may vary depending on sex and age. In this study, we assessed the associations of metabolic syndrome (MetS with sarcopenia and its components in older adults, and examined whether the associations vary by sex and age. We also tested if any one of the MetS components could explain the associations. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data from the cohort study conducted in Kashiwa city, Chiba, Japan in 2012 which included 1971 functionally-independent, community-dwelling Japanese adults aged 65 years or older (977 men, 994 women. Sarcopenia was defined based on appendicular skeletal muscle mass, grip strength and usual gait speed. MetS was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 14.2% in men and 22.1% in women, while the prevalence of MetS was 43.6% in men and 28.9% in women. After adjustment for potential confounders, MetS was positively associated with sarcopenia in men aged 65 to 74 years (odds ratio 5.5; 95% confidence interval 1.9-15.9 but not in older men or women. Among the sarcopenia components, MetS was associated with lower muscle mass and grip strength, particularly in men aged 65 to 74 years. The associations of MetS with sarcopenia and its components were mainly driven by abdominal obesity regardless of sex or age. In conclusion, MetS is positively associated with sarcopenia in older men. The association is modified by sex and age, but abdominal obesity is the main contributor to the association across sex and age.

  10. Quantitative differences in sputum smear microscopy results for acid-fast bacilli by age and sex in four countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieder, H L; Lauritsen, Jens; Naranbat, N

    2009-01-01

    To examine the influence of age and sex on the grading of tuberculosis (TB) sputum smear microscopy results.......To examine the influence of age and sex on the grading of tuberculosis (TB) sputum smear microscopy results....

  11. An Investigation into the Effect of Respondent Gender, Victim Age, and Perpetrator Treatment on Public Attitudes towards Sex Offenders, Sex Offender Treatment, and Sex Offender Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Paul; Hirst, Lindsay; Davies, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    In this study the authors examine the effect respondent gender, victim age, and offender treatment programs have upon public attitudes towards sex offenders. A community sample of 235 participants were asked to read a hypothetical vignette involving the sexual assault of a 10-, 15-, or 20-year-old female by a 35-year-old male who subsequently…

  12. Sex and age data from cropping of Buffalo Syncerus caffer in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R Mason

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Sex and age classifications of buffalo cropped in the Kruger National Park suggest that cropping is biased towards females, and prime breeding individuals of both sexes are apparently under-represented. The implications are discussed in relation to buffalo social organisation and comparative data on population structure.

  13. Aging Successfully: A Four-Factor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pai-Lin; Lan, William; Yen, Tung-Wen

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to validate a model for a successful aging process and examine the gender differences in the aging process. Three hundred twelve participants who were 65 or older completed a Taiwan Social Change Survey that measures four factors that define successful aging process: including physical, psychological, social support, and…

  14. Aging Successfully: A Four-Factor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pai-Lin; Lan, William; Yen, Tung-Wen

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to validate a model for a successful aging process and examine the gender differences in the aging process. Three hundred twelve participants who were 65 or older completed a Taiwan Social Change Survey that measures four factors that define successful aging process: including physical, psychological, social support, and…

  15. The logistic, two-sex, age-structured population model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Milner, Fabio

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we introduce the logistic effect into the two-sex population model introduced by Hoppensteadt. We address the problem of existence and uniqueness of continuous and classical solutions. We first give sufficient conditions for a unique continuous solution to exist locally and also globally. Next, the existence of classical solutions is established under some mild assumptions on the vital rates. Finally, we study the existence of equilibria and give an upper bound for the total population at steady state.

  16. Age and Sex Effects on the Active Stiffness of Vastus Intermedius under Isometric Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong-Zhi Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, a novel technique was proposed to quantify the relationship between the muscle stiffness and its nonfatigue contraction intensity. The method extended the measured range of isometric contraction to 100% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC using an ultrasonic shear wave measurement setup. Yet, it has not been revealed how this relationship could be affected by factors like age or sex. To clarify these questions, vastus intermedius (VI stiffness of 40 healthy subjects was assessed under 11 step levels of isometric contraction. The subjects were divided into four groups: young males, young females, elderly males, and elderly females (n=10 for each. In a relaxed state, no significant difference was observed between the male and female subjects (p=0.156 nor between the young and elderly subjects (p=0.221. However, when performing isometric contraction, the VI stiffness of males was found to be significantly higher than that of females at the same level (p<0.001, and that of the young was higher than the elderly (p<0.001. Meanwhile, for two knee joint angles used, the stiffness measured at a 90° knee joint angle was always significantly larger than that measured at 60° (p<0.001. Recognizing the active muscle stiffness of VI contributes to body stability, and these results may provide insight into the age and sex bias in musculoskeletal studies, such as those on fall risks.

  17. [Study on health support strategies by analyzing the diet, alcohol intake, and smoking behavior of university students: examination of non-communicable disease risk factors according to their sex, age and living arrangement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamaki, Junichi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the diet, drinking, and smoking behaviors of university students and to analyze the health behaviors that could be a risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in order to contribute to the promotion of NCD prevention in youth. The survey was carried out using a questionnaire with closed questions including items about health behaviors. The subjects surveyed were students of 10 universities on the main island of Japan (1,196 valid responders). The score for the nutritional balance was significantly low in the group living alone for both students in their teens and 20s. For the frequency of not eating breakfast, results suggest that living alone and increase in age are related to the lack of breakfast for both males and females. Teenage males living alone tended to lack in consideration for the intake of animal fat than those not living alone. The females showed a higher tendency to eat sweets and snacks during the day than the males. For the males who living alone, results suggest that they tended to have a higher or equal alcohol intake to females in their 20s and males in their 20s not living alone even when they are underage. Males in their 20s tended to have a higher amount and frequency of smoking than other groups regardless of their living arrangement. Accumulation of health behavior that could be a risk for NCDs was found in some of the groups, such as males living alone.

  18. Influence of Parental Factors on Sex-related Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice in Unmarried Youth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nian CUI; Min-xiang LI; Ai-ping TIAN; Li XIE; Shi-yuan LUO; Xiao-qin CHEN

    2004-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of parental factors on sexual and reproductive health awareness,attitudes to pre-marital sex, and pre-marital sexual activity among unmarried youth Methods Data were collected by anonymous self-completed questionnaire survey among eligible unmarried youth aged 15~22 in Chengdu City, Southwest China during 1998~1999 and the study comprised of 3 307 valid subjects.Results Awareness of safe sex and contraception among unmarried youth was limited and their attitudes towards pre-marital sexual activity appeared to be positive. Large proportions of dating subjects were sexually active and reported ever-using contraceptives, regular or appropriate use of contraceptives was likely to be limited. About two thirds of adolescents had communication with their parents frequently, but fewer had communicated with their parents on sex-related issues. But they did influence the sexual behaviours of adolescents. In fact, it appeared that coresidence and extensive communication with parents on sex-related issues could delay sexual activity among adolescents, and the sexually active youth co-resided with their parents were more likely to take contraceptive measures.Conclusion Programmes are needed not only for youth to encourage them to communicate with their parents on sex-related issues, but also for parents to know the current sexual health status of youth and realize the necessity to communicate with their adolescent children about sexual and reproductive health issues.

  19. Empathy mediates the effects of age and sex on altruistic moral decision making

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    Jan B. Rosen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Moral decision making involves affective and cognitive functions like emotional empathy, reasoning and cognitive empathy/theory of mind (ToM, which are discussed to be subject to age-related alterations. Additionally, sex differences in moral decision making have been reported. However, age-related changes in moral decision making from early to late adulthood and their relation to sex and neuropsychological functions have not been studied yet.One hundred ninety seven participants (122 female, aged 19 to 86 years, were tested with a moral decision making task comprising forced choice everyday life situations in which an altruistic option that favors a socially accepted alternative had to be considered against an egoistic option that favors personal benefit over social interests. The percentage of altruistic decisions was analyzed. A structural equation model (SEM was calculated to test the hypothesis whether age and sex predict altruistic moral decision, and whether relevant neuropsychological domains mediate these hypothesized relationships.A significant relationship between age and moral decision making was found indicating more frequent altruistic decisions with increasing age. Furthermore, women decided more altruistically than men. The SEM showed that both age and sex are significant predictors of altruistic moral decision making, mediated by emotional empathy but not by reasoning. No cognitive empathy and ToM scores were correlated to age and moral decision-making at the same time and thus were not included in the SEM.Our data suggest that increasing age and female sex have an effect on altruistic moral decisions, but that this effect is fully mediated by emotional empathy. The fact that changes of moral decision making with age are mediated by emotional empathy can be interpreted in the light of the so-called positivity effect and increasing avoidance of negative affect in aging. The mediated sex effect might represent both biological

  20. Empathy Mediates the Effects of Age and Sex on Altruistic Moral Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Jan B; Brand, Matthias; Kalbe, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Moral decision making involves affective and cognitive functions like emotional empathy, reasoning and cognitive empathy/theory of mind (ToM), which are discussed to be subject to age-related alterations. Additionally, sex differences in moral decision making have been reported. However, age-related changes in moral decision making from early to late adulthood and their relation to sex and neuropsychological functions have not been studied yet. One hundred ninety seven participants (122 female), aged 19-86 years, were tested with a moral decision making task comprising forced choice "everyday life" situations in which an altruistic option that favors a socially accepted alternative had to be considered against an egoistic option that favors personal benefit over social interests. The percentage of altruistic decisions was analyzed. A structural equation model (SEM) was calculated to test the hypothesis whether age and sex predict altruistic moral decision, and whether relevant neuropsychological domains mediate these hypothesized relationships. A significant relationship between age and moral decision making was found indicating more frequent altruistic decisions with increasing age. Furthermore, women decided more altruistically than men. The SEM showed that both age and sex are significant predictors of altruistic moral decision making, mediated by emotional empathy but not by reasoning. No cognitive empathy and ToM scores were correlated to age and moral decision making at the same time and thus were not included in the SEM. Our data suggest that increasing age and female sex have an effect on altruistic moral decisions, but that this effect is fully mediated by emotional empathy. The fact that changes of moral decision making with age are mediated by emotional empathy can be interpreted in the light of the so-called "positivity effect" and increasing avoidance of negative affect in aging. The mediated sex effect might represent both biological aspects and

  1. The Age and Sex in the Social Comparison Orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfonso Urzua, M.; Patricia Zuniga, B.; Buunk, Abraham P.

    2012-01-01

    The Social Comparison Orientation (SCO) is the personal disposition of individuals prone to social comparison. The aim of this study was to analyze the SCO at different ages in men and women. The main hypothesis is that the average is higher in SCO younger age ranges and decreases as age increases.

  2. Effects of age, sex, and treatment on weight-loss dynamics in overweight people

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rojo-Tirado, Miguel A; Benito, Pedro J; Atienza, David; Rincon, Emiliano; Calderon, Francisco J

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate how sex, age, and the kind of treatment followed affect weight loss in overweight men and women, as well as to develop an explanation for the evolution of weight-loss dynamics...

  3. Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Recipients in each State by Sex and Age, December 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Recipients in each State by Sex and Age (December 2010) is produced using the data found in Table 10 from the SSI Report of...

  4. Effect of sex, age, and breed on genetic recombination features in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiotic recombination is a fundamental biological process which generates genetic diversity, affects fertility, and influences evolvability. Here we investigate the roles of sex, age, and breed in cattle recombination features, including recombination rate, location and crossover interference. Usin...

  5. Age- and sex-specific thorax finite element model development and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoell, Samantha L; Weaver, Ashley A; Vavalle, Nicholas A; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-01-01

    The shape, size, bone density, and cortical thickness of the thoracic skeleton vary significantly with age and sex, which can affect the injury tolerance, especially in at-risk populations such as the elderly. Computational modeling has emerged as a powerful and versatile tool to assess injury risk. However, current computational models only represent certain ages and sexes in the population. The purpose of this study was to morph an existing finite element (FE) model of the thorax to depict thorax morphology for males and females of ages 30 and 70 years old (YO) and to investigate the effect on injury risk. Age- and sex-specific FE models were developed using thin-plate spline interpolation. In order to execute the thin-plate spline interpolation, homologous landmarks on the reference, target, and FE model are required. An image segmentation and registration algorithm was used to collect homologous rib and sternum landmark data from males and females aged 0-100 years. The Generalized Procrustes Analysis was applied to the homologous landmark data to quantify age- and sex-specific isolated shape changes in the thorax. The Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) 50th percentile male occupant model was morphed to create age- and sex-specific thoracic shape change models (scaled to a 50th percentile male size). To evaluate the thoracic response, 2 loading cases (frontal hub impact and lateral impact) were simulated to assess the importance of geometric and material property changes with age and sex. Due to the geometric and material property changes with age and sex, there were observed differences in the response of the thorax in both the frontal and lateral impacts. Material property changes alone had little to no effect on the maximum thoracic force or the maximum percent compression. With age, the thorax becomes stiffer due to superior rotation of the ribs, which can result in increased bone strain that can increase the risk of fracture. For the 70-YO models

  6. Topographic anatomy of the eyelids, and the effects of sex and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. van den Bosch (Willem); I.M. Leenders (Ineke); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAIMS: To describe the effects of sex and age on eyeball, eyelid, and eyebrow position. METHODS: A cross sectional cohort study was performed in which both eyes of 320 normal subjects aged between 10 and 89 years were included. Of each 10 year age cohort, the

  7. FEATURES OF ETIOLOGIC SPECTRUM OF ALERGIC RINITY FOR CHILDREN DEPENDING ON SEX AND AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asheulov OM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work there are presented the results of allergy testings of children suffering from alergic rinity. The aim of this study was the specification of casually significant allergen depending on sex and age. Results of testing are processed by a method of the mathematiical analysis, raised in nomograms according to which, considering the nosological entity of disease, sex and age of a patient, it is possible to define causally significant allergen.

  8. Age and sex differences in paranormal beliefs: a response to Vitulli, Tipton, and Rowe (1999)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, H J

    2000-04-01

    Vitulli, Tipton, and Rowe (1999) report evidence of age and sex differences in the strength of paranormal beliefs. An alternative interpretation of their data is offered in terms of differential item functioning. It is suggested that respondents' interpretation of paranormal belief test items may vary with age and sex, and that such differences in the strength with which such beliefs are endorsed has not been conclusively established by Vitulli, et al.

  9. Observations of parent reactions to sex-stereotyped behaviors: age and sex effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagot, B I; Hagan, R

    1991-06-01

    To examine differential socialization of boys and girls by mothers and fathers, home observations were completed for families of 92 12-month-old children, 82 18-month-old children, and 172 5-year-old children. Mothers gave more instructions and directions than did fathers, while fathers spent more time in positive play interaction. Differences in parents' reactions to 12- and 18-month boys and girls were as expected, with the exception that boys received more negative comment for communication attempts than did girls. The suggestion in the literature that fathers would be more involved in sex typing than mothers was not confirmed in this study. The only 2 significant sex-of-parent x sex-of-child effects occurred at 18 months; fathers gave fewer positive reactions to boys engaging in female-typical toy play, and mothers gave more instruction to girls when they attempted to communicate. We argue that the second year of life is the time when children are learning many new skills and when parents are still experimenting with parenting styles and may well use stereotypical responses when unsure of themselves.

  10. Comparison of normotensive and glaucoma simplex patients according to age and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojčić Milan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. According to the level of intraocular pressure (IOP, open angle glaucoma is divided into high tension glaucoma (HTG and normal tension glaucoma (NTG. Objective. To determine if there are differences in the distribution of patients by age and sex between NTG and HTG. Methods. Our prospective study included 30 patients with NTG and 30 with HTG. A complete eye examination was performed. The examination included measuring of intraocular pressure by Goldmann applanation tonometry, examination of optic disc head by indirect ophthalmoscopy with Volk 90 D lens and visual field examination using the Octopus program. Results. The average damage of visual field in the group of patients with NTG was 8.14±4.43 dB, while in the group with HTG it was 7.40±2.84 dB (p>0.05. The average age of the group of patients with NTG was 66±11.58 years, while among those with HTG the average age was 59.7±11.63 years (p<0.01. Among the patients with NTG there were three times more women than men (χ2=9.124; p<0.01, while in the group of patients with HTG there were more men than women, but without statistically significant difference between the tested groups (χ2=1.851; p>0.05. Conclusion. Open angle glaucoma is a disease of elderly population. According to our results, risk factors for this disease can be age and sex. NTG is more frequently present than HTG among elderly population and females.

  11. Prevalence of Non-Volitional Sex Types and Associated Factors: A National Sample of Young People.

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    Nicole H T M Dukers-Muijrers

    Full Text Available Non-volitional sex (NVS in young people continues to be a major public health problem with long-term negative health outcomes. For the first time, the prevalence of different types of NVS and associated factors are compared between young people with same-sex sexual activities and those who have not.We obtained data from 10,401 young women and men (aged 12 to 25 years who participated in a population study on sexual health, the Netherlands. We calculated and compared the prevalence of six types of NVS between women who had sex with men (yWSM or women (yWSW, and men who had sex with women (yMSW or men (yMSM. In sexually experienced participants (n = 5986 logistic regression analyses were applied to assess associations with NVS by assault or penetration. Analyses were weighted to represent the Dutch population.The prevalence of NVS ranged from 1% to 61%, depending on type. Prevalence was higher for young women (any: 40.6% than men (any: 20.4%, and highest for yMSM and yWSW. Prevalence of NVS by assault or penetration was related to a range of socio-demographic, behavioral and social factors, which were largely similar regardless of sex or same-sex-experiences. The NVS perpetrators were in over 70% of cases known to the victim; 1 in 4 cases of NVS by penetration were accompanied by violence.A substantial proportion of young people in the Netherlands have experienced NVS. Medical professionals, educators and caregivers should integrate services to continue to address NVS by targeting young people's multifaceted risk profiles and evidenced based interventions for doing so are needed.

  12. Sex hormones in Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia: are there age and race differences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Yong Chin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Variations in the prevalence of sex-hormone-related diseases have been observed between Asian ethnic groups living in the same country; however, available data concerning their sex hormone levels are limited. The present study aimed to determine the influence of ethnicity and age on the sex hormone levels of Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia. METHODS: A total of 547 males of Malay and Chinese ethnicity residing in the Klang Valley Malaysia underwent a detailed screening, and their blood was collected for sex hormones analyses. RESULTS: Testosterone levels were normally distributed in the men (total, free and non-sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG bound fractions, and significant ethnic differences were observed (p<0.05; however, the effect size was small. In general, testosterone levels in males began to decline significantly after age 50. Significant ethnic differences in total, free and non-SHBG bound fraction estradiol levels were observed in the 20-29 and 50-59 age groups (p<0.05. The estradiol levels of Malay men decreased as they aged, but they increased for Chinese men starting at age 40. CONCLUSIONS: Small but significant differences in testosterone levels existed between Malay and Chinese males. Significant age and race differences existed in estradiol levels. These differences might contribute to the ethnic group differences in diseases related to sex hormones, which other studies have found in Malaysia.

  13. Sex hormones in Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia: are there age and race differences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Yong Chin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Variations in the prevalence of sex-hormone-related diseases have been observed between Asian ethnic groups living in the same country; however, available data concerning their sex hormone levels are limited. The present study aimed to determine the influence of ethnicity and age on the sex hormone levels of Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia. METHODS: A total of 547 males of Malay and Chinese ethnicity residing in the Klang Valley Malaysia underwent a detailed screening, and their blood was collected for sex hormones analyses. RESULTS: Testosterone levels were normally distributed in the men (total, free and non-sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG bound fractions, and significant ethnic differences were observed (p<0.05; however, the effect size was small. In general, testosterone levels in males began to decline significantly after age 50. Significant ethnic differences in total, free and non-SHBG bound fraction estradiol levels were observed in the 20-29 and 50-59 age groups (p<0.05. The estradiol levels of Malay men decreased as they aged, but they increased for Chinese men starting at age 40. CONCLUSIONS: Small but significant differences in testosterone levels existed between Malay and Chinese males. Significant age and race differences existed in estradiol levels. These differences might contribute to the ethnic group differences in diseases related to sex hormones, which other studies have found in Malaysia.

  14. Determinants of differences in the activity budgets of Rhinopithecus bieti by age/sex class at Xiangguqing in the Baimaxueshan nature reserve, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yanhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological factors are known to influence the activity budgets of Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti. However, little is known about how activity budgets vary between age/sex classes, because the species is difficult to observe in the wild. This study provides the first detailed activity budgets subdivided by age/sex classes based on observations of the largest habituated group at Xiangguqing in Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve. This study was conducted from June 2008 to May 2009. We found that adult females spent more time feeding (44.8% than adult males (39.5%, juveniles (39.1%, and infants (14.2%. Adult males allocated more time to miscellaneous activities (12.5% than did adult females (3.8%. Infants were being groomed 6.9% of the time, which was the highest proportion among all age/sex classes. Adults spent more time feeding, while immature individuals allocated more time to moving and other activities. There are several reasons activity budgets may vary by age/sex class: 1 differential reproductive investment between males and females; 2 developmental differences among the age categories; 3 social relationships between members of different age/sex classes, particularly dominance. In addition, group size and adult sex ratio may also impact activity budgets. These variations in activity budgets among the different age/sex classes may become a selective pressure that shapes the development and growth pattern in this species.

  15. The Hungarian Version of Sociosexual Orientation Inventory Revised (SOI-R: Sex and Age Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Meskó

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Affectionless, uncommitted sexual behavior was formerly interpreted in psychology as a function of individual decisions, a kind of intrapsychic variable. Sociosexual orientation is directly linked to reproductive success, so among other issues, measuring sociosexual orientation has been of great interest for evolutionary scientists. Most recently Penke and Asendorpf (2008 prepared the revised version of Sociosexual Orientation Inventory (SOI-R, which has been used in dozens of studies since its publication. The aim of the current study was to test the usability of the Hungarian version and to analyze the factor structure and internal reliability of the inventory. It was translated and the structure was analyzed on a Hungarian sample (n = 1345, females = 832, males = 513; age: M = 26.37 years, SD = 8.75, range: 16-74. Our results show that the Hungarian version has the same three-factor structure as proposed by Penke and Asendorpf (2008 and is a reliable inventory for further studies of sociosexuality. The sociosexual scores of the two sexes statistically differ in the expected direction: women show lower SOI scores than men. Sociosexual desire decreases with age, whereas older participants report less restricted sociosexual behavior. Sociosexual attitude is uneffected by age. Results are discussed from both evolutionary and life-span developmental points of view.

  16. Sex- and age-related variations of the somatotype in a Chuvasha population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, L; Kobyliansky, E

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this large, cross-sectional study was to describe the age- and sex-related variations of the somatotype, employing Heath and Carter's method, in a Chuvasha population residing in a rural region in central Russia. The investigated sample included 802 males aged 18-89 years (mean 46.9) and 738 females aged 18-90 years (mean 48.6). We evaluated the age and sex differences by one-way ANOVA with somatotype components as dependent variables and sex or age groups as grouping variables. Sex differences of somatotypes appear to be the strongest for endomorphy, with generally higher values in women. Endomorphy in males remained virtually unchanged after 30 years of age, but endomorphy in females kept increasing up to the 6th decade, and then subsequently decreased. Virtually no differences were noted in mesomorphy and a very small difference in ectomorphy between males and females aged 18-30 years. A reduction of sexual dimorphism in all somatotype components after age 70 was also observed. The largest difference of all somatotype components appeared between age groups 18-30 and 31-40 years. Thereafter, somatotypes remained practically unchanged. Mesomorphy continued to increase until the 5th decade in both sexes, while in females, endomorphy continuously increased until their 6th decade. In the 7th and 8th decades, a decrease in mean values was observed. Mesomorphy and ectomorphy showed opposite age-related trends. Results of our study clearly suggest that in physique investigations, the somatotypes need to be studied in each sex separately, and in studies of young people, they need also to be adjusted to age.

  17. Differential effects of aging and sex on stroke induced inflammation across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwani, Bharti; Liu, Fudong; Scranton, Victoria; Hammond, Matthew D; Sansing, Lauren H; McCullough, Louise D

    2013-11-01

    Aging and biological sex are critical determinants of stroke outcome. Post-ischemic inflammatory response strongly contributes to the extent of ischemic brain injury, but how this response changes with age and sex is unknown. We subjected young (5-6 months), middle aged (14-15 months) and aged (20-22 months), C57BL/6 male and female mice to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and found that a significant age by sex interaction influenced histological stroke outcomes. Acute functional outcomes were worse with aging. Neutrophils, inflammatory macrophages, macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs) and microglia significantly increased in the brain post MCAO. Cycling females had higher Gr1(-) non-inflammatory macrophages and lower T cells in the brain after stroke and these correlated with serum estradiol levels. Estrogen loss in acyclic aged female mice exacerbated stroke induced splenic contraction. Advanced age increased T cells, DCs and microglia at the site of injury, which may be responsible for the exacerbated behavioral deficits in the aged. We conclude that aging and sex have differential effects on the post stroke inflammatory milieu. Putative immunomodulatory therapies need to account for this heterogeneity.

  18. FACTORS AND ATTITUDES AFFECTING SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR AND SEX PRACTICES AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ENUGU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate factors and attitudes affecting sexual behaviour and sex practices of secondary school students, and to suggest changes necessary for preventing and/or reducing HIV transmission among them. 1009 multi-staged sampled secondary school students aged 10-20 years completed the anonymous interviews. 973(96.4% were Christians and 711(70.5% day students. Premarital sex was approved of by185(18.3% of the respondents while 596(59.1% claimed they would continue to abstain till they get married; 252(25.0% will abstain for some years while 136(13.5% will abstain for months. 181(17.9% believed that abstaining from sex is an abnormal behavior, that HIV/AIDS was a hoax. 573(56.8% agreed that HIV/AIDs is a disease from which they could protect themselves while 387(38.4% thought otherwise. Only 581(57.6% of the respondents would seek advice if they found they were HIV positive. 797(79% of the respondents were afraid of HIV infection while 520(351.5% said that someone in their family might become infected. Attitudinal factors showed statistically significant variation with gender, age, school and class of the respondents. A good number also practice homosexuality and lesbianism. Appropriate information about sexuality education and the negative consequences of early sexual exposure, STIs/HIV/AIDS and teenage pregnancy should be provided in public schools.

  19. Estimating ages of white-tailed deer: Age and sex patterns of error using tooth wear-and-replacement and consistency of cementum annuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Michael D.; Storm, Daniel J.; Rolley, Robert E.; Beissel, Thomas; Richards, Bryan J.; Van Deelen, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    The age structure of harvested animals provides the basis for many demographic analyses. Ages of harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and other ungulates often are estimated by evaluating replacement and wear patterns of teeth, which is subjective and error-prone. Few previous studies however, examined age- and sex-specific error rates. Counting cementum annuli of incisors is an alternative, more accurate method of estimating age, but factors that influence consistency of cementum annuli counts are poorly known. We estimated age of 1,261 adult (≥1.5 yr old) white-tailed deer harvested in Wisconsin and Illinois (USA; 2005–2008) using both wear-and-replacement and cementum annuli. We compared cementum annuli with wear-and-replacement estimates to assess misclassification rates by sex and age. Wear-and-replacement for estimating ages of white-tailed deer resulted in substantial misclassification compared with cementum annuli. Age classes of females were consistently underestimated, while those of males were underestimated for younger age classes but overestimated for older age classes. Misclassification resulted in an impression of a younger age-structure than actually was the case. Additionally, we obtained paired age-estimates from cementum annuli for 295 deer. Consistency of paired cementum annuli age-estimates decreased with age, was lower in females than males, and decreased as age estimates became less certain. Our results indicated that errors in the wear-and-replacement techniques are substantial and could impact demographic analyses that use age-structure information. 

  20. Acute stress affects free recall and recognition of pictures differently depending on age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Vanesa; Pulopulos, Matias M; Puig-Perez, Sara; Espin, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus; Salvador, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about age differences in the effects of stress on memory retrieval. Our aim was to perform an in-depth examination of acute psychosocial stress effects on memory retrieval, depending on age and sex. For this purpose, data from 52 older subjects (27 men and 25 women) were reanalyzed along with data from a novel group of 50 young subjects (26 men and 24 women). Participants were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control task. After the experimental manipulation, the retrieval of positive, negative and neutral pictures learned the previous day was tested. As expected, there was a significant response to the exposure to the stress task, but the older participants had a lower cortisol response to TSST than the younger ones. Stress impaired free recall of emotional (positive and negative) and neutral pictures only in the group of young men. Also in this group, correlation analyses showed a marginally significant association between cortisol and free recall. However, exploratory analyses revealed only a negative relationship between the stress-induced cortisol response and free recall of negative pictures. Moreover, stress impaired recognition memory of positive pictures in all participants, although this effect was not related to the cortisol or alpha-amylase response. These results indicate that both age and sex are critical factors in acute stress effects on specific aspects of long-term memory retrieval of emotional and neutral material. They also point out that more research is needed to better understand their specific role.

  1. Sex-specific incidence of EGFR mutation and its association with age and obesity in lung adenocarcinomas: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Ryoun; Kim, Seo Yun; Kim, Cheol Hyeon; Yang, Sung Hyun; Lee, Jae Cheol; Choi, Chang-Min; Na, Im Il

    2017-07-08

    Age and obesity are well-known risk factors for various cancers, but the potential roles of age and obesity in lung cancer, especially in those with activating EGFR mutations, have not been thoroughly evaluated. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the associations between the sex-specific incidence of EGFR mutations and age and obesity. We conducted a retrospective study based on the data from 1378 lung adenocarcinoma cases. The degree of obesity was categorized by body mass index (BMI). The associations between EGFR mutational status and clinical factors, including stage, smoking history, age group (≤45 years, 46-55, 56-65 and >65), and BMI group (obesity (adjusted OR for BMI group = 1.23, p-trend = 0.04). In contrast, in women, the incidence of EGFR mutation was positively associated with age (adjusted OR for age group = 1.19, p-trend = 0.02). However, the incidence of EGFR mutation was not statistically associated with obesity (adjusted OR for BMI group = 1.03, p-trend = 0.76). Our data suggests that age and obesity may contribute to the sex-specific incidence of EGFR mutation in lung adenocarcinoma in different manners.

  2. The influences of selenium, age, sex, education level, occupation and other factors on cognitive function in elderly of rural areas in Shandong Province%硒及年龄、性别、文化程度、职业等因素对山东省农村老年人认知能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    密继清; 云中杰; 刘源; 刘传蛟; 骆效宏; 高杰; 边建朝

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨硒及其他可能相关因素(年龄、性别、文化程度、职业等)对山东省农村老年人群认知能力的影响.方法 2006、2007年,采用整群抽样方法,在山东省高密市和淄川区抽取≥65岁老年人.对研究对象进行一般情况调查;采用老年痴呆症社区调查表(CSID),内容包括痴呆测试、CERAD文字表学习、回忆测试、印第安纳大学(IU)故事回忆测试和动物影响测试,对认知能力进行调查;采集研究对象的指甲样本,采用2,3-二氨基萘荧光法检测硒含量;并对硒及其他相关因素(年龄、性别、文化程度、职业等)与认知能力之间的关系进行统计学分析.结果 共调查≥65岁老年人1 000人.其中男性457人,女性543人;职业以农民为主,受教育程度以文盲居多.不同硒水平组CSID总分和IU故事回忆得分组间比较差异均具有统计学意义(F值分别为2.56、9.18,P<0.05或<0.01).通过多元线性回归模型分析,年龄、性别、文化程度、职业、高血压、指甲硒对≥65岁老年人群CSID总分有影响(t值分别为-9.942、-6.848、5.391、2.276、-2.863、2.309,P均<0.05);年龄、性别、文化程度、职业、指甲硒对IU故事回忆能力有影响(t值分别为-4.252、-2.021、8.203、2.528、4.490,P均< 0.05);年龄、性别、文化程度、职业对动物影响测试有影响(t值分别为-7.951、-6.166、7.544、2.824,P均< 0.05).结论 硒是影响山东省老年认知能力的保护因素;且年龄、性别、文化程度等因素也对农村老年人的认知能力具有影响.%Objective To explore the influences of selenium,age,sex,education level,occupation and other factors on cognitive function in elderly of rural areas in Shandong Province.Methods Rural Chinese aged 65 years or older were sampled from Gaomi County and Zichuan County from 2006 to 2007 in Shandong,Province by cluster sampling method.Demographic characteristics were collected,and cognitive

  3. Genetic modifiers and subtypes in schizophrenia: investigations of age at onset, severity, sex and family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Sarah E; O'Dushlaine, Colm T; Lee, Phil H; Fanous, Ayman H; Ruderfer, Douglas M; Ripke, Stephan; Sullivan, Patrick F; Smoller, Jordan W; Purcell, Shaun M; Corvin, Aiden

    2014-04-01

    Schizophrenia is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disorder. Genetic risk factors for the disorder may differ between the sexes or between multiply affected families compared to cases with no family history. Additionally, limited data support a genetic basis for variation in onset and severity, but specific loci have not been identified. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) examining genetic influences on age at onset (AAO) and illness severity as well as specific risk by sex or family history status using up to 2762 cases and 3187 controls from the International Schizophrenia Consortium (ISC). Subjects with a family history of schizophrenia demonstrated a slightly lower average AAO that was not significant following multiple testing correction (p=.048), but no differences in illness severity were observed by family history status (p=.51). Consistent with prior reports, we observed earlier AAO (p=.005) and a more severe course of illness for men (p=.002). Family history positive analyses showed the greatest association with KIF5C (p=1.96×10(-8)), however, genetic risk burden overall does not differ by family history. Separate association analyses for males and females revealed no significant sex-specific associations. The top GWAS hit for AAO was near the olfactory receptor gene OR2K2 (p=1.52×10(-7)). Analyses of illness severity (episodic vs. continuous) implicated variation in ST18 (p=8.24×10(-7)). These results confirm recognized demographic relationships but do not support a simplified genetic architecture for schizophrenia subtypes based on these variables. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sex and age differences in coping styles among children with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Anne M; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Goldschneider, Kenneth R; Jones, Benjamin A

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sex and age differences in coping strategies among pediatric patients with chronic pain. Sex differences are reported in the adult pain and coping literatures, but little attention has been given to possible distinctions in coping styles in the pediatric chronic pain population. Investigating pain coping skills at an early age may provide clinicians with a better understanding of the evolution of characteristic coping styles and identify areas for intervention. Pain intensity (Visual Analog Scale), pain coping strategies (Pain Coping Questionnaire), and coping efficacy were assessed in children (ages 8-12 years) and adolescents (ages 13-18 years), presenting to a pediatric chronic pain clinic (n=272). Significant sex differences in coping strategies were found. After controlling for pain intensity, girls used social support seeking more than boys, while boys used more behavioral distraction techniques. Adolescents engaged in more positive self-statements (a cognitive strategy) than children. Both boys and girls showed a trend toward pain coping efficacy being negatively correlated with average pain intensity. For girls, pain coping efficacy was also significantly negatively correlated with internalizing/catastrophizing. However, no sex or age differences in coping efficacy were found. This study demonstrates the early emergence of sex- and aged-based preferences in coping strategies among children and adolescents with chronic pain. The findings establish a basis for further research on early social influences in the development of pain coping styles in males and females. Implications for further clinical research in this area are discussed.

  5. Climatic influence on demographic parameters of a tropical seabird varies with age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oro, Daniel; Torres, Roxana; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2010-04-01

    In marine ecosystems climatic fluctuation and other physical variables greatly influence population dynamics, but differential effects of physical variables on the demographic parameters of the two sexes and different age classes are largely unexplored. We analyzed the effects of climate on the survival and recruitment of both sexes and several age classes of a long-lived tropical seabird, the Blue-footed Booby (Sula nebouxii), using long-term observations on marked individuals. Results demonstrated a complex interaction between yearly fluctuations in climate (both local and global indexes, during both winter and breeding season) and the sex and age of individuals. Youngest birds' survival and recruitment were commonly affected by local climate, whereas oldest birds' parameters tended to be constant and less influenced by environmental variables. These results confirm the theoretical prediction that sex- and age-related variation in life-history demographic traits is greater under poor environmental conditions, and they highlight the importance of including variability in fitness components in demographic and evolutionary models. Males and females showed similar variation in survival but different recruitment patterns, in relation to both age and the spatial scale of climatic influence (local or global). Results indicate different life-history tactics for each sex and different ages, with birds likely trying to maximize their fitness by responding to the environmental contingencies of each year.

  6. Thromboelastography values from pigtail macaques ( Macaca nemestrina): effects of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Derek L; Ha, James C; Hotchkiss, Charlotte E

    2012-01-01

    Thromboelastography is a clinical laboratory test used to assess global hemostasis. With technologic advances and the test's reemergence in human medicine, its utility in veterinary medicine is being explored. Because assays for PT, aPTT, and d-dimers require platelet-poor plasma, whereas thromboelastography is performed on whole blood, thromboelastography provides a more accurate representation of coagulation and allows the identification of hypocoagulable, hypercoagulable, and hyperfibrinolytic states. Conflicting information has been reported about the effects of age and sex on thromboelastog- raphy in humans and animals. Human studies have reported significant effects of age and sex on thromboelastography more often than have animal studies, but few publications are available about thromboelastography in the nonhuman primate and laboratory animal literature. We used a sample of 50 pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina) to determine whether age or sex influence thromboelastography values. Of 5 measured and 2 calculated variables produced by thromboelastography, sex had a significant effect only on the lysis-30 parameter, which also showed significant interaction between age and sex; values increased with age in male macaques but decreased with age in female macaques. In addition, we used the data to define reference intervals for thromboelastography parameters in pigtail macaques.

  7. Condom use and associated factors among men who have sex with men in Togo, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakai, Tchaa Abalo; Ekouevi, Didier Koumavi; Tchounga, Boris Kévin; Balestre, Eric; Afanvi, Kossivi Agbélénko; Goilibe, Kariyiare Benjamin; Kassankogno, Yao; Pitche, Vincent Palokinam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In 2011, the prevalence of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Togo was estimated at 19.6% compared to 3.4% in the general population. This study aimed to describe condom use and associated factors among MSM in Togo. Methods In 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted using the snowball sampling method among MSM in Togo. This study enrolled MSM aged 18 years and above who reported having sexual contact with other men within the last 30 days. A standardized survey form was used for data collection, and multivariate analyses were performed. Results A total of 724 MSM were included in this study. The median age was 25 years [22-28], 90.3% had at least a secondary school level. The sexual practices during the last sexual encounter with another man included: insertive anal sex (62.2%), receptive anal sex (56.6%), oral sex (33.8%) and oral-anal sex (8.6%). A condom was used during the last insertive and receptive anal encounters in 78.4% and 81.2% of the time, respectively. In multivariate analysis, condom use was positively associated with previous participation in HIV/STD prevention activities (aOR=1.72; 95% CI=[1.09-2.71]), with the consideration of the last sexual partner as a casual one (aOR=1.87; 95% CI=[1.24-2.82]) and with having at least a secondary school level (aOR=2.40; 95% CI=[1.22-4.69]). Conclusion One out of five MSM did not use a condom during the last anal encounter with another man. HIV prevention programs in Africa should develop specific interventions targeting MSM to reduce the incidence of HIV in this hidden population. PMID:27279945

  8. Analysis of sex-specific injury patterns and risk factors in young high-level athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, A; Seil, R; Urhausen, A; Croisier, J L; Lair, M L; Theisen, D

    2009-12-01

    This study analyzed sex-specific injury patterns and risk factors in young athletes (n=256) from 12 sport disciplines practicing at the national or the international level in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. Injury occurrence as a result of sport practice was analyzed retrospectively over the year 2006 using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Overall incidence was not different between girls and boys (1.20 and 1.21 injuries/1000 athlete-hours, respectively), but in the context of team sport competition girls tended to be at a greater risk (rate ratio 2.05, P=0.053). Girls had a higher proportion of injuries in the ankle/foot region compared with boys (34.8% vs 16.8%). No sex-related differences were found regarding injury severity. Multivariate logistic regression (controlling for age and practice volume) revealed that girls' team sports were associated with a greater injury risk compared with individual sports [odds ratio (OR) of 4.76], while in boys this was observed for racket sports (OR=3.31). Furthermore, physical or emotional stress tended to be a specific risk factor in girls. There was a tendency for injury outside sports to be coupled to a higher injury risk in girls and boys. Consideration of sex-specific injury patterns and risk factors could be of importance for effective injury prevention.

  9. Measuring the effects of aging and sex on regional brain stiffness with MR elastography in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arani, Arvin; Murphy, Matthew C; Glaser, Kevin J; Manduca, Armando; Lake, David S; Kruse, Scott A; Jack, Clifford R; Ehman, Richard L; Huston, John

    2015-05-01

    Changes in tissue composition and cellular architecture have been associated with neurological disease, and these in turn can affect biomechanical properties. Natural biological factors such as aging and an individual's sex also affect underlying tissue biomechanics in different brain regions. Understanding the normal changes is necessary before determining the efficacy of stiffness imaging for neurological disease diagnosis and therapy monitoring. The objective of this study was to evaluate global and regional changes in brain stiffness as a function of age and sex, using improved MRE acquisition and processing that have been shown to provide median stiffness values that are typically reproducible to within 1% in global measurements and within 2% for regional measurements. Furthermore, this is the first study to report the effects of age and sex over the entire cerebrum volume and over the full frontal, occipital, parietal, temporal, deep gray matter/white matter (insula, deep gray nuclei and white matter tracts), and cerebellum volumes. In 45 volunteers, we observed a significant linear correlation between age and brain stiffness in the cerebrum (Pcerebrum stiffness with a theoretical median age value (76 years old) of 2.56 ± 0.08 kPa. Sexual dimorphism was observed in the temporal (P=.03) and occipital (P=.001) lobes of the brain, but no significant difference was observed in any of the other brain regions (P>.20 for all other regions). The model predicted female occipital and temporal lobes to be 0.23 kPa and 0.09 kPa stiffer than males of the same age, respectively. This study confirms that as the brain ages, there is softening; however, the changes are dependent on region. In addition, stiffness effects due to sex exist in the occipital and temporal lobes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Occupational risk factors and frequency of sex chromosome disomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Michał; Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Paweł; Ulańska, Anna; Jakubowski, Lucjusz; Hanke, Wojciech

    2015-09-01

    Possible reproductive toxicants such as occupational factors may affect the normal disjunction of chromosomes during meiosis, thereby altering the number of chromosomes in sperm nuclei. The purpose of the present analysis was to determine whether exposure to occupational factors existing in a contemporary work setting affected sperm aneuploidy. The study population consisted of 212 men who attended the infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes. The men either had a normal semen concentration of 20-300 million/ml or slight oligozoospermia (semen concentration of 15-20 million/ml) ( WHO 1999 ). All participants were interviewed and provided a semen sample. Sperm aneuploidy was assessed using multicolor FISH. After adjustment for potential confounders, positive associations were found between disomy XY18, 18, and sex chromosome disomy and exposure to mechanical vibrations (p = 0.03, p = 0.04, p = 0.03, respectively). In addition, sitting for more than 6 h at work increased X and Y disomy (p = 0.03, p = 0.04, respectively). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show a significant effect of occupational factors on sperm aneuploidy. As such, the results need to be confirmed in larger studies.

  11. Association of Donor Age and Sex With Survival of Patients Receiving Transfusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Ullum, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Importance: Following animal model data indicating the possible rejuvenating effects of blood from young donors, there have been at least 2 observational studies conducted with humans that have investigated whether donor age affects patient outcomes. Results, however, have been conflicting....... Objective: To study the association of donor age and sex with survival of patients receiving transfusions. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study based on the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions database, with nationwide data, was conducted for all patients from Sweden...... number of transfusions and mortality revealed a nonlinear pattern. After adjustments to accommodate nonlinearity, donor age and sex were no longer associated with patient mortality. Conclusions and Relevance: Donor age and sex were not associated with patient survival and need not be considered in blood...

  12. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Hungarian Youth: Age, Sex, and Regional Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, Gregory J.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine region, age, and sex profiles of physical fitness in Hungarian youth. Method: A sample of 2,602 Hungarian youth aged 10 to 18 years old completed a series of physical fitness field tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) fitness test, body mass index (BMI), percent…

  13. Age- and sex-dependent reference intervals for D-dimer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Christine; Joergensen, Maja; Ellervik, Christina;

    2013-01-01

    A low D-dimer is commonly used to exclude venous thromboembolism in low risk patients. However, the reference intervals are poorly defined and D-dimer has been shown to increase by patient age. We aimed to establish age- and sex-dependent D-dimer reference intervals and to test the consequence...

  14. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Hungarian Youth: Age, Sex, and Regional Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, Gregory J.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine region, age, and sex profiles of physical fitness in Hungarian youth. Method: A sample of 2,602 Hungarian youth aged 10 to 18 years old completed a series of physical fitness field tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) fitness test, body mass index (BMI), percent…

  15. Moral Judgment as a Function of Age, Sex, and Stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Sue J. M.; Giebink, John W.

    1979-01-01

    Provides data in support of Lawrence Kohlberg's moral development theory. Shows comparable moral judgments for boys and girls at ages 11 and 17, but higher moral reasoning in 14-year-old girls than in their male peers. (Author/RL)

  16. Sex differences in prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic cholelithiasis in Korean health screening examinee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Bum; Kim, Kook Hyun; Kim, Tae Nyeun; Heo, Jun; Jung, Min Kyu; Cho, Chang Min; Lee, Yoon Suk; Cho, Kwang Bum; Lee, Dong Wook; Han, Ji Min; Kim, Ho Gak; Kim, Hyun Soo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate sex difference in the prevalence and risk factors for asymptomatic cholelithiasis in Korean health screening examinees. Examinees who underwent examination through health promotion center at 5 hospitals of Daegu-Gyeongbuk province in 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. All examinees were checked for height, weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure, and underwent laboratory tests and abdominal ultrasound. Diagnosis of cholelithiasis was made by ultrasound. Of the total of 30,544 examinees, mean age was 47.3 ± 10.9 years and male to female ratio was 1.4:1. Asymptomatic cholelithiasis was diagnosed in 1268 examinees with overall prevalence of 4.2%. In age below 40 years, females showed higher prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis than males (2.7% vs. 1.9%, P = 0.020), whereas prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis was higher in males than females older than 50 years (6.2% vs. 5.1%, P = 0.012). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed age (≥50 years), obesity, and high blood pressure as risk factors for asymptomatic cholelithiasis in males and age, obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and chronic hepatitis B infection in females (P < 0.05). Overall prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis was 4.2% in Korean health screening examinees. Females showed higher prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis than males younger than 40 years, whereas it was higher in males older than 50 years. Age and obesity were risk factors for asymptomatic cholelithiasis in both sexes. Males had additional risk factors of high blood pressure and females had hypertriglyceridemia and chronic hepatitis B infection. PMID:28353587

  17. Effects of age and sex on the hematology and blood chemistry of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Yi, Yong; Sun, Fei; Zhou, Liang; Yang, Feng; Wang, Hongxing; Zhang, Guodong; Zhang, Yu Alex; Yue, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana), also known as Chinese stump-tailed macaques, are a threatened primate species. Although Tibetan macaques are Old World monkeys in the genus of Macaca, limited age- and sex-related physiologic data are available for this particular species. We used 69 apparently healthy Tibetan male and female macaques to explore the effect of age and sex on physiologic parameters. Somatometric measurements, biochemistry, and hematologic parameters were analyzed. Significant age-related differences were found for weight, BMI, RBC count, Hgb, Hct, neutrophils, eosinophil count, ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, creatine kinase (muscle and brain subtypes), LDH, α-amylase, creatinine, apolipoprotein A1, total protein, albumin, cholesterol, HDL, and potassium. Significant differences by sex were noted for weight, BMI, ALT, total bilirubin, and indirect bilirubin. An interaction between age and sex accounted for statistically significant differences in the values for weight, BMI, and lymphocyte and eosinophil counts. These physiologic data will provide veterinarians and researchers with important age- and sex-specific reference ranges for evaluating experimental results from Tibetan macaques.

  18. Adolescent Sex Offenders' Rankings of Therapeutic Factors Using the Yalom Card Sort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sribney, Christine L.; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    Following 11-98 weeks of inpatient residential treatment, 69 male adolescent sex offenders completed the 60-item, 12-factor Yalom Card Sort. The rank orders were compared to adult sex offenders and a psychiatric adult outpatient group. Relative to adult psychiatric outpatients, the adolescent sex offenders had rated Instillation of Hope three…

  19. Risk factors associated with chlamydia and gonorrhoea infection among female sex workers in two Mexico-USA border cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza, O; Strathdee, S A; Martinez, G A; Lozada, R; Ojeda, V D; Staines-Orozco, H; Patterson, T L

    2010-07-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) aged ≥18 years without known HIV infection living in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico who had recent unprotected sex with clients underwent interviews and testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea using nucleic acid amplification. Correlates of each infection were identified with logistic regression. Among 798 FSWs, prevalence of chlamydia and gonorrhoea was 13.0% and 6.4%, respectively. Factors independently associated with chlamydia were younger age, working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juarez and recent methamphetamine injection. Factors independently associated with gonorrhoea were working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juarez, using illegal drugs before or during sex, and having a recent male partner who injects drugs. Chlamydia and gonorrhoea infection were more closely associated with FSWs' drug use behaviours and that of their sexual partners than with sexual behaviours. Prevention should focus on subgroups of FSWs and their partners who use methamphetamine and who inject drugs.

  20. Age, sex, education, religion, and perception of tattoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yang

    2002-04-01

    Tattooing has become more acceptable in the mainstream American culture in recent years. Based on a survey with face-to-face interviews of 335 nontattooed adults randomly selected from a city with a population of 444,000, this study explored the relationship of individuals' demographic variables, attitudes toward religion, and their perceptions of tattoos. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that age and attitude toward religion were associated with individuals' perception of tattoos.

  1. The Effects of Aging and Sex Steroid Deficiency on the Murine Skeleton Are Independent and Mechanistically Distinct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucer, Serra; Iyer, Srividhya; Kim, Ha-Neui; Han, Li; Rutlen, Christine; Allison, Kelly; Thostenson, Jeff D; de Cabo, Rafael; Jilka, Robert L; O’Brien, Charles; Almeida, Maria; Manolagas, Stavros C

    2017-01-01

    Old age and sex steroid deficiency are the two most critical factors for the development of osteoporosis. It remains unknown, however, whether the molecular culprits of the two conditions are similar or distinct. We show herein that at 19.5 months of age —a time by which the age-dependent decline of cortical and cancellous bone mass and cortical porosity were fully manifested in C57BL/6J mice—these animals remained functionally estrogen sufficient. Transgenic mice with conditional expression of mitochondria-targeted catalase—a potent H2O2 inactivating enzyme—in cells of the myeloid lineage (mitoCAT;LysM-Cre mice) were protected from the loss of cortical, but not cancellous, bone caused by gonadectomy in either sex. Consistent with these findings, in vitro studies with ERα-deficient Prx1+ cells and gonadectomized young adult mice showed that in both sexes decreased ERα signaling in Prx1+ cells leads to an increase in SDF1, a.k.a. CXCL12, an osteoclastogenic cytokine whose effects were abrogated in macrophages from mitoCAT;LysM-Cre mice. In contrast to sex steroid deficiency, the adverse effects of aging on either cortical or cancellous bone were unaffected in mitoCAT;LysM-Cre mice. On the other hand, attenuation of H2O2 generation in cells of the mesenchymal lineage targeted by Prx1-Cre partially prevented the loss of cortical bone caused by old age. Our results suggest the effects of sex steroid deficiency and aging on the murine skeleton are independent and result from distinct mechanisms. In the former, the prevailing mechanism of the cortical bone loss in both sexes is increased osteoclastogenesis caused by estrogen deficiency; this is likely driven, at least in part, by mesenchymal/stromal cell–derived SDF1. Decreased osteoblastogenesis, owing in part to increased H2O2, combined with increased osteoclastogenesis caused by aging mechanisms independent of estrogen deficiency, are the prevailing mechanisms of the loss of cortical bone with old age

  2. Age and sex relationship with flow-mediated dilation in healthy children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Nicola D; Dengel, Donald R; Stratton, Gareth; Kelly, Aaron S; Steinberger, Julia; Zavala, Hanan; Marlatt, Kara; Perry, Daniel; Naylor, Louise H; Green, Daniel J

    2015-10-15

    Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a noninvasive technique used to measure conduit artery vascular function. Limited information is available on normative FMD values in healthy children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to assess relationships between age and sex with FMD across childhood and adolescence. Nine hundred and seventy-eight asymptomatic children (12 ± 3 yr, range 6-18 yr, 530 male) underwent ultrasonic brachial artery assessment before and after 5 min of forearm ischemia. Sex differences in FMD and baseline artery diameter were assessed using mixed linear models. Baseline artery diameter was smaller in females than males [2.96 mm (95% CI: 2.92-3.00) vs. 3.24 mm (3.19-3.28), P sexes; however, there are sex differences in the timing and rate of growth, in line with typical sex-specific adolescent growth patterns. Males have a lower FMD than females, and FMD appears to decline with age; however, these findings are driven by reductions in FMD as males near maturity. The use of age- and sex-specific FMD data may therefore not be pertinent in childhood and adolescence. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Sleep, sex steroid hormones, sexual activities, and aging in Asian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Victor H-H; Tong, Terry Y-Y

    2010-01-01

    This was a cross-sectional study to examine the different associations of age and sleep duration with sex steroid hormones and sexual activities in 531 Asian Chinese men aged between 29 and 72 years old. Sleep duration and sexual activities were evaluated through a self-administered questionnaire, and total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), estradiol (E2), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) were measured by established immunoassay methods in a single blood sample collected between 8:00 and 11:00 am. Bioavailable T (BioT) was calculated using the Vermeulen formula. Age was a major determinant of sleep, sex steroid hormones, and sexual activities in men. BioT, DHEAS, coital frequency, masturbation, and sleep duration declined with age. On the other hand, SHBG and E2 increased with age. Sleep duration, independently of age, aerobic exercise, and body fat, was positively associated with T and BioT, but not with DHEAS, E2, or any of the sexual activities studied. Men who masturbated had higher levels of both T and BioT. DHEAS was significantly associated with coital frequency and desire for sex. The present study showed that besides age, sleep duration was associated with androgen concentrations in men, and thus the evaluation of sleep hygiene may be beneficial in the management of men with low androgen concentrations. DHEAS may be independently associated with some sexual functions in men.

  4. Fitkids Treadmill Test: Age- and Sex-Related Normative Values in Dutch Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotte, Elles M W; de Groot, Janke F; Bongers, Bart C; Winkler, Alexander M F; Takken, Tim

    2016-11-01

    Recent research has shown that the Fitkids Treadmill Test (FTT) is a valid and reproducible exercise test for the assessment of aerobic exercise capacity in children and adolescents who are healthy. The study objective was to provide sex- and age-related normative values for FTT performance in children and adolescents who were healthy, developing typically, and 6 to 18 years of age. This was a cross-sectional, observational study. Three hundred fifty-six children and adolescents who were healthy (174 boys and 182 girls; mean age=12.9 years, SD=3.7) performed the FTT to their maximal effort to assess time to exhaustion (TTE). The least-mean-square method was used to generate sex- and age-related centile charts (P3, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90, and P97) for TTE on the FTT. In boys, the reference curve (P50) showed an almost linear increase in TTE with age, from 8.8 minutes at 6 years of age to 16.1 minutes at 18 years of age. In girls, the P50 values for TTE increased from 8.8 minutes at 6 years of age to 12.5 minutes at 18 years of age, with a plateau in TTE starting at approximately 10 years of age. Youth who were not white were underrepresented in this study. This study describes sex- and age-related normative values for FTT performance in children and adolescents who were healthy, developing typically, and 6 to 18 years of age. These age- and sex-related normative values will increase the usefulness of the FTT in clinical practice. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  5. Aerobic capacity in wild satin bowerbirds: repeatability and effects of age, sex and condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Mark A; Savard, Jean-Francois; Siani, Jennifer; Coleman, Seth W; Keagy, Jason; Borgia, Gerald

    2011-10-01

    Individual variation in aerobic capacity has been extensively studied, especially with respect to condition, maturity or pathogen infection, and to gain insights into mechanistic foundations of performance. However, its relationship to mate competition is less well understood, particularly for animals in natural habitats. We examined aerobic capacity [maximum rate of O2 consumption (VO2,max) in forced exercise] in wild satin bowerbirds, an Australian passerine with a non-resource based mating system and strong intermale sexual competition. We tested for repeatability of mass and VO2,max, differences among age and sex classes, and effects of several condition indices. In adult males, we examined interactions between aerobic performance and bower ownership (required for male mating success). There was significant repeatability of mass and VO2,max within and between years, but between-year repeatability was lower than within-year repeatability. VO2,max varied with an overall scaling to mass(0.791), but most variance in VO2,max was not explained by mass. Indicators of condition (tarsus and wing length asymmetry, the ratio of tarsus length to mass) were not correlated to VO2,max. Ectoparasite counts were weakly correlated to VO2,max across all age-sex classes but not within any class. Adult males, the cohort with the most intense levels of mating competition, had higher VO2,max than juvenile birds or adult females. However, there was no difference between the VO2,max of bower-owning males and that of males not known to hold bowers. Thus one major factor determining male reproductive success was not correlated to aerobic performance.

  6. Efficient breathing at neonatal ages: A sex and Epo-dependent issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturri, Pablo; Bairam, Aida; Soliz, Jorge

    2016-12-29

    During postnatal life, the respiratory control system undergoes intense development and is highly responsive to stimuli emerging from the environment. In fact, interruption of breathing prevents gas exchange and results in systemic hypoxia that, if prolonged, can lead to cardio-respiratory failure or sudden infant death. Moreover, in newborns and infants, respiratory disorders related to neural control dysfunction show significant sexual dimorphism with a higher prevalence in males. To this day, the therapeutic tools available to alleviate these respiratory disorders remain limited. Furthermore, the factors explaining the sexual dimorphism in newborns and during infancy remain unknown. Erythropoietin (Epo) was originally discovered as a cytokine able to increase the production of red blood cells upon conditions of reduced oxygen availability. We now know that Epo is a cytokine also secreted by neurons and astrocytes that protects the brain during trauma or hypoxic stress in a sex dependent manner. In this novel line of research, our previous studies demonstrated at adult ages that cerebral Epo acts as a respiratory stimulant in rodents and humans. These results provided a strong rationale for exploring the role of cerebral Epo in neuronal respiratory control during postnatal development. The objective of this review is to summarize our recent findings showing that cerebral Epo is a potent sex-specific respiratory stimulant at neonatal ages. Keeping in mind that Epo is routinely and safely administrated in newborn humans for anemia and neonatal asphyxia, we predict that our research provides the basis necessary to promote the clinical use of Epo against neonatal respiratory disorders related to neural control dysfunction.

  7. Sex, the brain and hypertension: brain oestrogen receptors and high blood pressure risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Meredith

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major contributor to worldwide morbidity and mortality rates related to cardiovascular disease. There are important sex differences in the onset and rate of hypertension in humans. Compared with age-matched men, premenopausal women are less likely to develop hypertension. However, after age 60, the incidence of hypertension increases in women and even surpasses that seen in older men. It is thought that changes in levels of circulating ovarian hormones as women age may be involved in the increase in hypertension in older women. One of the key mechanisms involved in the development of hypertension in both men and women is an increase in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). Brain regions important for the regulation of SNA, such as the subfornical organ, the paraventricular nucleus and the rostral ventral lateral medulla, also express specific subtypes of oestrogen receptors. Each of these brain regions has also been implicated in mechanisms underlying risk factors for hypertension such as obesity, stress and inflammation. The present review brings together evidence that links actions of oestrogen at these receptors to modulate some of the common brain mechanisms involved in the ability of hypertensive risk factors to increase SNA and blood pressure. Understanding the mechanisms by which oestrogen acts at key sites in the brain for the regulation of SNA is important for the development of novel, sex-specific therapies for treating hypertension. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  8. Male-biased sex allocation in ageing parents; a longitudinal study in a long-lived seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedder, Oscar; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Benito, María M; Becker, Peter H

    2016-08-01

    Optimal sex allocation is frequency-dependent, but senescence may cause behaviour at old age to be suboptimal. We investigated whether sex allocation changes with parental age, using 16 years of data comprising more than 2500 molecularly sexed offspring of more than 600 known-age parents in common terns (Sterna hirundo), slightly sexually size-dimorphic seabirds. We decomposed parental age effects into within-individual change and sex allocation-associated selective (dis)appearance. Individual parents did not differ consistently in sex allocation, but offspring sex ratios at fledging changed from female- to male-biased as parents aged. Sex ratios at hatching were not related to parental age, suggesting sons to outperform daughters after hatching in broods of old parents. Our results call for the integration of sex allocation theory with theory on ageing and demography, as a change in sex allocation with age per se will cause the age structure of a population to affect the frequency-dependent benefits and the age-specific strength of selection on sex allocation.

  9. The Storage and Composition of Inflected Forms in Adult-Learned Second Language: A Study of the Influence of Length of Residence, Age of Arrival, Sex, and Other Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Laura; Stowe, John C.; Maloof, Christopher J.; Brovetto, Claudia; Ullman, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    It remains unclear whether adult-learned second language (L2) depends on similar or different neurocognitive mechanisms as those involved in first language (L1). We examined whether English past tense forms are computed similarly or differently by L1 and L2 English speakers, and what factors might affect this: regularity (regular vs. irregular…

  10. Relationship between serum sex hormones levels and degree of benign prostate hyperplasia in Chinese aging men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin-Song Zeng; Zheng Li; Bo Wang; Ying-Hao Sun; Chuan-Liang Xu; Zhi-Yong Liu; Hui-Qing Wang; Bo Yang; Wei-Dong Xu; Tai-Le Jin; Cheng-Yao Wu; Gang Huang

    2012-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common medical conditions in middle aged and older men.This study investigated the relationship between serum levels of sex hormones and measures of BPH in the aging male population of China.Prostate symptoms were assessed as part of a free health screening program for men ≥40 years of age.The examination included digital rectal examination,determination of serum prostate-specific antigen levels,International Prostate Symptom Scorn (IPSS) and transrectal ultrasonography.Serum levels of total testosterone (TT),sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG),free testosterone (FT),luteinizing hormone (LH),follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH),prolactin (PRL) and estradiol (E2) were evaluated.The men also completed a health and demographics questionnaire and received a detailed physical examination.The final study population consisted of 949 men with a mean age of 58.9 years.Pearson correlation analysis indicated that there were significant correlations between age and levels of all sex hormones except TT,and between age and prostate volume (PV; r=-0.243; P<0.01) or IPSS (r=0.263; P<0.01 ).Additional significant correlations were found between IPSS and serum levels of LH (r=0.112; P<0.01 ) and FSH (r=0.074; P<0.05),but there were no significant correlations between sex hormone levels and PV.Multivariate linear regression analysis showed significant correlations between age and body mass index (BMI) with PV (P<0.0001).In addition,there was a significant correlation between age and PV with IPSS (P<0.0001).Serum sex hormone levels did not correlate with PV or IPSS.The effects of endocrine changes on measures of BPH in aging men require further investigation in longitudinal and multicenter studies that include patients with all severities of BPH.

  11. [Female sex is not an independent risk factor in mortality during myocardial revascularization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergerone, S; Brscic, E; Comoglio, C; Aidala, E; Lascala, E; Pansini, S; Di Summa, M; Brusca, A

    1997-12-01

    To assess if female sex is an independent risk factor for perioperatory mortality and morbidity, we have evaluated 971 consecutive patients (16% women) undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery at the Cardiovascular Disease Institution of the University of Turin from 1988 to 1990. In this study at baseline women were older and more likely to have diabetes, lower ventricular score and body surface area than men. As compared to men, women underwent surgery with delay: the surgical mortality rate and prevalence of arrhythmias were higher, and the size of the left anterior descending was smaller. At univariate analysis perioperative risk factors were as follows: age, diabetes, clinical instability, low body surface area, perioperatory infarction, postoperative infections, extracorporeal circulation time and left coronary size. At multivariate analysis only diabetes, left ventricular score, left anterior descending coronary size and emergency surgery were independent risk factors while sex, age and body surface area were not predictors of perioperatory mortality and morbidity. It is concluded that gender is not the cause of worse outcome in women.

  12. Maths performance as a function of sex, laterality, and age of pubertal onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, John; Topolski, Richard

    2005-07-01

    Sex differences in math/spatial performance demand explanations. Within the biological view, the complexity and number of variables make the explanation difficult at best. Laterality and age of pubertal onset have been investigated prominently in this context but rarely considered as interactions in the same study. Some 468 college subjects with SAT MATH (SAT M) scores were divided into 12 groups defined by sex, laterality, and age (early, middle, and late) of pubertal onset. Significant main effects for sex and age of onset emerged, as did an interaction between lateral preference and pubertal onset. Generally males outperformed females. The combination of maleness, sinistrality, and early maturation was associated with high SAT M scores. Sinistrality and late maturation among females predicted very poor math performance.

  13. Sexual behavior and HIV risk among age-discrepant, same-sex male couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Chadwick K; Gomez, Anu Manchikanti; Hoff, Colleen; Grisham, Kirk K; Wilson, Patrick A; Dworkin, Shari L

    2016-06-13

    Research has suggested that men who have sex with men and who have older sexual partners are at increased risk of HIV infection. However, while several studies have explored risk among men in age-discrepant non-primary partnerships, only two have explored age discrepancy and risk in primary same-sex male relationships. We used data from semi-structured in-depth interviews to explore sexual behaviour and HIV risk among 14 Black, white and interracial (Black/white) same-sex male couples with an age difference of 10 or more years. Most couples regularly used condoms, and sexual positioning tended to lead to lower risk for younger partners. Some serodiscordant couples abstained from anal sex, while others used seropositioning to avoid transmission within the relationship. Within some couples, older partners acted as mentors on HIV prevention and broader life lessons. Future studies should further explore the potential risks and benefits of large age differences in same-sex male primary relationships.

  14. Face age and sex modulate the other-race effect in face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Jennifer; Lipp, Ottmar V; Vanman, Eric J

    2012-11-01

    Faces convey a variety of socially relevant cues that have been shown to affect recognition, such as age, sex, and race, but few studies have examined the interactive effect of these cues. White participants of two distinct age groups were presented with faces that differed in race, age, and sex in a face recognition paradigm. Replicating the other-race effect, young participants recognized young own-race faces better than young other-race faces. However, recognition performance did not differ across old faces of different races (Experiments 1, 2A). In addition, participants showed an other-age effect, recognizing White young faces better than White old faces. Sex affected recognition performance only when age was not varied (Experiment 2B). Overall, older participants showed a similar recognition pattern (Experiment 3) as young participants, displaying an other-race effect for young, but not old, faces. However, they recognized young and old White faces on a similar level. These findings indicate that face cues interact to affect recognition performance such that age and sex information reliably modulate the effect of race cues. These results extend accounts of face recognition that explain recognition biases (such as the other-race effect) as a function of dichotomous ingroup/outgroup categorization, in that outgroup characteristics are not simply additive but interactively determine recognition performance.

  15. Sex-specific age association with primary DNA transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoli, Panayiotis; Antoniou, Antonis; Bashiardes, Evy; Xenophontos, Stavroulla; Photiades, Marinos; Stribley, Vaso; Mylona, Michalis; Demetriou, Christiana; Cariolou, Marios A

    2016-01-01

    Practicing forensic scientists who are called to provide expert witness testimony are often asked to explain both the presence and the absence of DNA on objects that have been handled by perpetrators with bare hands. Unwashed hands, depending on what they have come in contact with previously, may become the vehicle of both primary and secondary transfer of DNA. In this study, we investigated the propensity of primary and secondary transfer of DNA from unwashed bare hands of 128 individuals onto plastic tubes. Our experiments, carried out in triplicate, have shown that DNA was not detected on all the touched tubes, secondary transfer of DNA, through unwashed hands, was small, and in the majority of cases primary DNA transfer could be distinguished from secondary DNA transfer. A statistically significant association was demonstrated between percent DNA profile deposited on plastic tubes, through unwashed hands, and the age of male individuals.

  16. Meningococcal carriage: prevalence and sex-related risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayal, S C; Rashid, S; Muttu, K M; Hildreth, A J

    1997-03-01

    A retrospective analysis was done to examine whether sexual behaviour was associated with meningococcal carriage. Over the 4 month period from January to April 1994, 136 (27.4%) of the 496 consecutive new/re-registered genito-urinary medicine clinic attenders showed meningococcal carriage. Two (15.4%) of 13 homosexual men compared with 134 (27.7%) of 484 heterosexual men and women had evidence of meningococcal carriage. Relative risk (RR) of meningococcal carriage was 1.8 with > 10 lifetime partners and 1.2 with 3-10 partners (P < 0.007). RR with age group of 16-25 was 4.2 and for 26-35 it was 3.5. There was no relationship with meningococcal carriage and pharyngeal symptoms, sexual orientation, intravenous drug use, number of partners per month and orogenital sex. Further longitudinal studies may be of value in order to determine whether a high number of sexual partners is a marker for meningococcal carriage. In addition, further study may show whether there is an increased risk of meningococcal carriage and disease in those who live with meningococcal carriers.

  17. Impact of personal and environmental factors on the rate of chromosome aberrations named translocations - Part 1: age, gender, smoking, alcohol; Impact des facteurs individuels et environnementaux sur le taux d'aberrations chromosomiques de type translocations - Partie 1: age, sexe, tabac, alcool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregoire, E.; Gruel, G.; Martin, C.; Roch-Lefevre, S.; Vaurijoux, A.; Voisin, P.; Roy, L. [IRSN, Laboratoire de Dosimetrie Biologique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2010-04-15

    The assessment of exposure to ionizing radiation, carried out long time after exposure, is currently performed by scoring of translocations, a specific type of chromosomal aberrations. The translocations rate observed in peripheral blood lymphocytes of exposed subjects is compared to that observed in a control population. However, the translocation specificity towards radiation exposure is not clearly identified. To avoid any hasty conclusion, it is necessary to identify all the factors likely to induce translocation. To our knowledge, no study has thus far examined the effects of all these different factors on translocation rates. A review of the literature thus allowed us to assess the impact of host factors and lifestyle on the production of translocations. This study confirms that age appears to be the factor having the greatest impact on the rate of translocations, especially over 60 years. To date, the factor 'age' is already considered in estimating the impact of radiation on the rate of translocation for all age groups. However, the study also shows that this rate varies significantly when the patient is exposed simultaneously and significantly towards many lifestyle agents. A precise threshold translocation rate should thus be established as a function of known behavioral exposures, below which it is impossible to conclude that radiological exposure has occurred. The effects of chemicals on the translocation rate after occupational exposure will be the subject of a second part. (authors)

  18. AgeFactDB—the JenAge Ageing Factor Database—towards data integration in ageing research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hühne, Rolf; Thalheim, Torsten; Sühnel, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    AgeFactDB (http://agefactdb.jenage.de) is a database aimed at the collection and integration of ageing phenotype data including lifespan information. Ageing factors are considered to be genes, chemical compounds or other factors such as dietary restriction, whose action results in a changed lifespan or another ageing phenotype. Any information related to the effects of ageing factors is called an observation and is presented on observation pages. To provide concise access to the complete information for a particular ageing factor, corresponding observations are also summarized on ageing factor pages. In a first step, ageing-related data were primarily taken from existing databases such as the Ageing Gene Database—GenAge, the Lifespan Observations Database and the Dietary Restriction Gene Database—GenDR. In addition, we have started to include new ageing-related information. Based on homology data taken from the HomoloGene Database, AgeFactDB also provides observation and ageing factor pages of genes that are homologous to known ageing-related genes. These homologues are considered as candidate or putative ageing-related genes. AgeFactDB offers a variety of search and browse options, and also allows the download of ageing factor or observation lists in TSV, CSV and XML formats. PMID:24217911

  19. Impact of age, sex and body mass index on cortisol secretion in 143 healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Roelfsema

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: Studies on 24-h cortisol secretion are rare. The impact of sex, age and adiposity on cortisol levels, often restricted to one or a few samples, are well recognized, but conflicting. Objective: To investigate cortisol dynamics in 143 healthy men and women, spanning 7 decades and with a 2-fold body mass index (BMI range with different analytic tools. Setting: Clinical Research Unit. Design: Cortisol concentrations in 10-min samples collected for 24 h. Outcomes were mean levels, deconvolution parameters, approximate entropy (ApEn, regularity statistic and 24-h rhythms. Results: Total 24-h cortisol secretion rates estimated by deconvolution analysis were sex, age and BMI independent. Mean 24-h cortisol concentrations were lower in premenopausal women than those in men of comparable age (176 ± 8.2 vs 217 ± 9.4 nmol/L, P = 0.02, but not in subjects older than 50 years. This was due to lower daytime levels in women, albeit similar in the quiescent overnight period. Aging increased mean cortisol by 10 nmol/L per decade during the quiescent secretory phase and advanced the acrophase of the diurnal rhythm by 24 min/decade. However, total 24-h cortisol secretion rates estimated by deconvolution analysis were sex, age and BMI independent. ApEn of 24-h profiles was higher (more random in premenopausal women than those in men (1.048 ± 0.025 vs 0.933 ± 0.023, P = 0.001, but not in subjects older than 50 years. ApEn peaked during the daytime. Conclusion: Sex and age jointly determine the 24-h cortisol secretory profile. Sex effects are largely restricted to age <50 years, whereas age effects elevate concentrations in the late evening and early night and advance the timing of the peak diurnal rhythm.

  20. Performance development in adolescent track and field athletes according to age, sex and sport discipline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espen Tønnessen

    Full Text Available Sex-specific differences that arise during puberty have a pronounced effect on the training process. However, the consequences this should have for goal-setting, planning and implementation of training for boys and girls of different ages remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to quantify performance developments in athletic running and jumping disciplines in the age range 11-18 and identify progression differences as a function of age, discipline and sex.The 100 all-time best Norwegian male and female 60-m, 800-m, long jump and high jump athletes in each age category from 11 to 18 years were analysed using mixed models with random intercept according to athlete.Male and female athletes perform almost equally in running and jumping events up to the age of 12. Beyond this age, males outperform females. Relative annual performance development in females gradually decreases throughout the analyzed age period. In males, annual relative performance development accelerates up to the age of 13 (for running events or 14 (for jumping events and then gradually declines when approaching 18 years of age. The relative improvement from age 11 to 18 was twice as high in jumping events compared to running events. For all of the analyzed disciplines, overall improvement rates were >50% higher for males than for females. The performance sex difference evolves from < 5% to 10-18% in all the analyzed disciplines from age 11 to 18 yr.To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to present absolute and relative annual performance developments in running and jumping events for competitive athletes from early to late adolescence. These results allow coaches and athletes to set realistic goals and prescribe conditioning programs that take into account sex-specific differences in the rate of performance development at different stages of maturation.

  1. LIFE EVENTS WITH STRESSFUL EFFECT ON PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA ACCORDING TO THE SEX AND AGE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Nikolova

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the literature life events with stressful effect are significant both for initiation and progress of the schizophrenia. Having this in mind we set our aim to be investigating the relationship between life events (considered as stressful, sex and age trough questioning 50 patients with paranoid schizophrenia. The results of our study showed presence of correlation between some of the studied life events, assessed as stressful. The analysis of the data revealed that both sex and age are influencing the assessment of the significance of the life events and “increases” their importance both for women and men.

  2. Munich Oktoberfest experience: remarkable impact of sex and age in ethanol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binner, C; Selinski, S; Barysch, M J; Pölcher, C; Schormann, Wiebke; Hermes, Matthias; Brulport, Marc; Bauer, Alexander; Rudolph, Claudia; Bedawy, Essam; Schug, Markus; Golka, Klaus; Hasenclever, D; Trauer, H; Lessig, R; Bolt, H M; Ickstadt, K; Hengstler, Jan Georg

    2008-12-01

    Approximately 5,000 of 6 million annual visitors of the Oktoberfest in Munich have to undergo medical treatment. Patients with alcohol intoxication without trauma or further complications are all treated in a specialized medical camp. We studied these patients in order to identify risk factors and to assess the relevance of the Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) and of ethanol blood concentrations for patient management. In 2004 totally 405 patients suffering from ethanol intoxication without trauma were treated in the medical camp. A complete set of the following data was obtained from all 405 patients: GCS, ethanol blood concentration, age, sex, blood pressure (mean, systolic and diastolic), body temperature, heart rate, blood sugar, GOT, gamma-GT, and CK. A multivariate logistic regression model was applied to identify risk factors predicting patients at increased risk of hospitalization. Low GCS (8, OR: 4.18, CI: 1.96-8.65) low age (20-29 vs. > or =30 years, OR: 2.35, CI: 1.05-5.65) and male gender (male vs. female, OR: 3.58, CI: 1.36-9.34) independently predicted patients that had to be hospitalized. All other parameters including ethanol blood concentrations were not explanatory. Patients with GCS 8 (P < 0.001), suggesting that this subgroup may require longer recovery periods. Men aged 20-29 years were at highest risk for hospital admission. Increased risk could not be explained by higher ethanol blood concentrations in this subgroup. Importantly, GCS < 6 does not justify endotracheal intubation in ethanol intoxicated patients, when further complications, such as trauma, can be excluded.

  3. Relationship of ACL Injury and Posterior Tibial Slope With Patient Age, Sex, and Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiwaiole, Alana; Gurbani, Ajay; Motamedi, Kambiz; Seeger, Leanne; Sim, Myung Shin; Nwajuaku, Patricia; Hame, Sharon L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Posterior tibial slope (PTS) has been proposed as a potential risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury; however, studies that have examined this relationship have provided inconclusive and sometimes contradictory results. Further characterization of this relationship may enable the medical community to identify individuals at greater risk for ACL injury and possibly characterize an anatomic target during surgical reconstruction. Purpose: The primary goal was to investigate the relationship between PTS and ACL injury. The secondary goal was to determine whether there are any patient factors, such as age, race, or sex, that correlate with ACL injury and PTS. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Medical records of 221 patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee between January 2003 and December 2009 were reviewed. Patients were separated into 2 groups: a study group of those subjects who had undergone surgery for ACL injury (n = 107) and a control group of patients diagnosed with patellofemoral syndrome (n = 114). Demographic data were collected, and MRI images from both groups were analyzed using imaging software to obtain medial and lateral tibial slope measurements. Data were then analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) comparison and a multivariable regression model to determine which, if any, patient factors were related to probability of having an ACL injury. Results: ANOVA comparison demonstrated that the study group had significantly greater values for lateral PTS (6° ± 4°; P < .001) and medial PTS (7° ± 4°; P = .002) compared with controls (5° ± 3° and 5° ± 4°, respectively). After stepwise elimination of nonsignificant variables, the final multivariable logistic regression model determined that age (odds ratio [OR], 0.94; P < .001) and lateral PTS (OR, 1.12; P = .002) had statistically significant relationships with ACL injury. Medial PTS, race, and sex were not

  4. Use of the alometric and the fulton condition factors to compare the carp (Cyprinus carpio considering sexes and ages/ Uso do fator de condição alométrico e de fulton na comparação de carpa (Cyprinus carpio, considerando os sexos e idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Cristina Puggesi Rubin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In fish, the relation beteween body weight and total length allows us to calculate the condition factor, which determines its grade of development. The experiment was conducted at the Fishery Station of the State University of Londrina. The sample was constituted of 65 fishes, 31 males and 34 females. Fishes came from the same hatch and were raised at the same enviromental condition. Using the weights and the total body lengths at ages 60, 120, 180 and 240 d, the alometric and the Fulton condition factors, were determined. The results indicate that the two condition factors presented differences in the grade of development between sexes and within sex. The grade of development in females was greater than males, with the exception of the age 240 d. As the relation between body weight and body length in carp is not isometric, the alometric condition score is the most indicated.Em peixes, a relação entre o peso corporal e o comprimento corporal total permite calcular o fator de condição, o qual determina o seu grau de desenvolvimento. O experimento foi realizado na Estação de Piscicultura da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, a amostra era constituída de 65 peixes, sendo 31 machos e 34 fêmeas, oriundos da mesma desova e criados nas mesmas condições ambientais. Com a avaliação do peso e do comprimento corporal total em idades de 60; 120; 180 e 240 dias determinou-se a taxa de crescimento médio e os fatores de condição de Fulton e alométrico. Os resultados mostraram diferença no grau de desenvolvimento entre sexos. O grau de desenvolvimento nas fêmeas foi maior que nos machos, a exceção na idade 240 dias. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, o escore condição alométrico é o mais indicado.

  5. Age, sex incidence with signs and symptoms of peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra ML

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peritonitis, while no longer the over whelming problem it once was, is still the most common cause of death, ballooned surgical treatment of abdominal disease. In 5 to 7 present of all autopsies, peritonitis is either the primary or a contributory cause of death. Therefore the present study has been undertaken to find out the actual cause of death peritonitis. Methods: This study was conducted after the institutional ethical clearance and informed written consent from all the subjects. Fifty surgically proved perforative peritonitis cases admitted to the surgical wards were included in the study. Radiological examination was done in all the cases to detect pneumoperitoneum. Ulcer edge biopsy was taken from peptic and non-specific ileal perforations. The data are expressed as mean and the percentile was calculated in each parameters. Results: 90% of the subjects were males and the patients belong to the age group of 31-40 years. Of the 32 cases of perforated peptic ulcer, 19 gave the previous history of pain abdomen lasting from 6 months to 15 years, one gave the history of fever and in 14 cases there was no history. The pneumoperitoneum is demonstrable on X-ray in 60-80% cases of peptic as well as non-traumatic small bowel perforations. Conclusion: The study showed that the maximum mortality occurred in those patients who were admitted to the hospital after more than 24 hours from the time of appearance of the first symptom. Therefore, it is advised not to delay in attending the hospital rather than delayed surgery. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 916-919

  6. Sex and Age Differences in Mortality in Southern China, 2004–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leibin Yu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the mortality patterns in the southern provinces of China, and to provide epidemiologic data on sex and age differences of death outcomes. Reliable mortality and population data from January 2004 to December 2010 were obtained from 12 Disease Surveillance Point (DSP sites in four provinces of China. Death data from all causes and respiratory disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, pneumonia and influenza, circulatory disease, and ischemic heart disease, were stratified by year, month of death occurrence and sex, seven age groups, and summarized by descriptive statistics. The mean annual mortality rates of the selected 12 DSP sites in the southernmost provinces of China were 543.9 (range: 423.9–593.6 deaths per 100,000 population. The death rates show that noted sex differences were higher in the male population for all-cause, COPD and circulatory diseases. Pneumonia and influenza death rates present a different sex- and age-related distribution, with higher rates in male aged 65–74 years; whereas the death rates were opposite in elderly aged ≥75 years, and relatively higher in young children. This study had practical implications for recommending target groups for public health interventions.

  7. Effect of sex and age interactions on functional outcome after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Vemuganti, Raghu

    2015-04-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Experimental and clinical studies showed that sex and age play an important role in deciding the outcome after stroke. At younger ages, males were shown to have a higher risk for stroke than females. However, this trend reverses in older ages particularly when females reach menopause. Many preclinical studies indicate that steroid hormones modulate the age-dependent differential stroke outcome. In addition, patterns of cell death pathways activated following cerebral ischemia are distinct between males and females, but independent of steroid hormones. Recent studies also indicate that microRNAs play important roles in mediating sex-specific stroke outcome by regulating stroke-related genes. This review discusses the contribution of sex and age to outcome after stroke with particular emphasis on the experimental studies that examined the effects of steroid hormones, differential cell death pathways, and involvement of sex-specific microRNAs following cerebral ischemia. Current understanding of the role of thrombolytic agents in stroke therapy is also discussed.

  8. What can asexual lineage age tell us about the maintenance of sex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiman, Maurine; Meirmans, Stephanie; Meirmans, Patrick G

    2009-06-01

    Sexual reproduction is both extremely costly and extremely common relative to asexuality, indicating that it must confer profound benefits. This in turn points to major disadvantages of asexual reproduction, which is usually given as an explanation for why almost all asexual lineages are apparently quite short-lived. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that some asexual lineages are actually quite old. Insight into why sex is so common may come from understanding why asexual lineages persist in some places or taxa but not others. Here, we review the distribution of asexual lineage ages estimated from a diverse array of taxa, and we discuss our results in light of the main mutational and environmental hypotheses for sex. Along with strengthening the case for wide variation in asexual lineage age and the existence of many old asexual taxa, we also found that the distribution of asexual lineage age estimates follows a surprisingly regular distribution, to the extent that asexual taxa viewed as "scandalously" ancient merely fall on the high end of this distribution. We interpret this result to mean that similar mechanisms may determine asexual lineage age across eukaryotic taxa. We also derive some qualitative predictions for asexual lineage age under different theories for sex and discuss empirical evidence for these predictions. Ultimately, we were limited in the extent to which we could use these data to make inferences about the maintenance of sex by the absence of both clear theoretical expectations and estimates of key parameters.

  9. Hematological parameters in relation to age, sex and biochemical values for mute swans (Cygnus olor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolka, B; Włodarczyk, R; Zbikowski, A; Dolka, I; Szeleszczuk, P; Kluciński, W

    2014-06-01

    The knowledge of the correct morphological and biochemical parameters in mute swans is an important indicator of their health status, body condition, adaptation to habitat and useful diagnostic tools in veterinary practice and ecological research. The aim of the study was to obtain hematological parameters in relation to age, sex and serum biochemistry values in wild-living mute swans. We found the significant differences in the erythrocyte count, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in relation to age of mute swans. There were no differences in hematological values between males and females. The leukogram and H/L ratio did not vary by age and sex in swans. Among of biochemical parameters the slightly increased AST, ALP, CK, K, urea, decreased CHOL and TG values were recorded. As far as we know, this is the first study in which the morphometric parameters of blood cells in mute swans were presented. We found extremely low concentration of lead in blood (at subthreshold level). No blood parasites were found in blood smears. The analysis of body mass and biometric parameters revealed a significant differences dependent on age and sex. No differences in the scaled mass index were found. Our results represent a normal hematologic and blood chemistry values and age-sex related changes, as reference values for the mute swan.

  10. Serum hexosaminidase and ß-glucuronidase activities in infants: effects of age and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabe P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of age and sex on the serum activity of hexosaminidase (HEX and ß-glucuronidase (BGLU in 275 normal term infants aged 12 h to 12 months. Up to six weeks of life, HEX was significantly higher in boys (P<=0.023. During the age period of 1-26 weeks, BGLU was also higher in boys, but differences were significant only at 2-6 and 7-15 weeks (P<=0.016. The developmental pattern of HEX and BGLU was sex dependent. HEX activity increased in both sexes from 4-7 days of life, reaching a maximum of 1.4-fold the birth value at 2-6 weeks of age in boys (P<0.001 and a maximum of 1.6-fold at 7-15 weeks in girls (P<0.001. HEX activity gradually decreased thereafter, reaching significantly lower levels at 27-53 weeks than during the first three days of life in boys (P = 0.002 and the same level of this age interval in girls. BGLU increased in both sexes from 4-7 days of age, showing a maximum increase at 7-15 weeks (3.3-fold in boys and 2.9-fold in girls, both P<0.001. Then BGLU decreased in boys to a value similar to that observed at 4-7 days of age. In girls, BGLU remained elevated until the end of the first year of life. These results indicate a variation of HEX and BGLU activities during the first year of life and a sex influence on their developmental pattern. This observation should be considered in the diagnosis of GM2 gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis type VII.

  11. Age and Sex Differences in Rates of Influenza-Associated Hospitalizations in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi-Ling; Yang, Lin; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Chan, King-Pan; Cao, Pei-Hua; Lau, Eric Ho-Yin; Peiris, J S Malik; Wong, Chit-Ming

    2015-08-15

    Few studies have explored age and sex differences in the disease burden of influenza, although men and women probably differ in their susceptibility to influenza infections. In this study, quasi-Poisson regression models were applied to weekly age- and sex-specific hospitalization numbers of pneumonia and influenza cases in the Hong Kong SAR, People's Republic of China, from 2004 to 2010. Age and sex differences were assessed by age- and sex-specific rates of excess hospitalization for influenza A subtypes A(H1N1), A(H3N2), and A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B, respectively. We found that, in children younger than 18 years, boys had a higher excess hospitalization rate than girls, with the male-to-female ratio of excess rate (MFR) ranging from 1.1 to 2.4. MFRs of hospitalization associated with different types/subtypes were less than 1.0 for adults younger than 40 years except for A(H3N2) (MFR = 1.6), while all the MFRs were equal to or higher than 1.0 in adults aged 40 years or more except for A(H1N1)pdm09 in elderly persons aged 65 years or more (MFR = 0.9). No MFR was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) for hospitalizations associated with influenza type/subtype. There is some limited evidence on age and sex differences in hospitalization associated with influenza in the subtropical city of Hong Kong. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Age- and sex-related differences in the anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness of competitive taekwondo athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Buśko, Krzysztof; Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Tasiopoulos, Ioannis; Knechtle, Beat

    2016-01-01

    Anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness have been shown to relate with taekwondo (TKD) performance; however, little information is available on the variation of these fitness components by sex and age in athletes practicing this sport. The aim of the present study was to examine the anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness of TKD athletes by sex and age. A total of 393 athletes (7–48 years old), separated into six age groups (7–9, 10–11, 12–13, 14–17, 18–32, and 33+), were examined for anthropometry and performed a series of neuromuscular fitness tests (flexibility, agility, muscle power, and isometric strength). An age × sex interaction on body mass, body height, and body fat percentage (BF, p≤0.003, η2≥0.045), but not on body mass index (p=0.172, η2=0.020), was shown, where a larger increase in body mass and body height from 12–13 to 14–17 groups was observed in males than in females, and the sex difference in BF increased from 12–13 to 14–17 age group. An age × sex interaction on sit-and-reach (SAR) test, mean power output in the Bosco test, and Abalakov jump (p≤0.038, η2≥0.031) was observed with larger differences between 12–13 and 18–32 groups in males than in females. In SAR, it was remarkable that the male athletes achieved similar scores as female athletes in the 18–32 group. An age × sex group interaction on measures of isometric muscle strength (right and left handgrip, trunk, and legs) was also shown (p≤0.002, η2≥0.068), where larger differences in male than female athletes were observed between the 12–13 and 14–17 groups. From a practical perspective, coaches can use these findings as reference for the evaluation of their athletes. Because the anthropometric characteristics and neuromuscular fitness varied by sex (i.e., highest scores in males, except flexibility) and age (i.e., highest scores in the 18–32 age group) with unique sport-specific patterns in TKD athletes, these findings would be important

  13. Sex and age dependent migration phenology of the Pied Flycatcher in a stopover site in the Carpathian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harnos Andrea

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Very little is known about Pied Flycatchers crossing the Carpathian Basin. We give a comprehensive picture about its migration based on the data collected during the past 26 years (1989–2014 at a stopover site in Hungary: (1 sex and age related phenological changes over the years, (2 sex, age and size dependent migration patterns during and (3 between migration periods, (4 sex and age composition in spring and in autumn and their change over years.

  14. Leading causes of injury hospitalisation in children aged 0-4 years in New South Wales by injury submechanism: a brief profile by age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmertmann, Marcia; Williamson, Ann; Black, Deborah

    2012-11-01

    To identify the leading causes of injury in children aged 0-4 years by single year of age using injury submechanisms and present a brief epidemiologic profile of each cause. Hospitalisation data for New South Wales from 1999 to 2009 were used to identify the leading causes of injury for children aged 0-4 years by single year of age. For each leading cause, rates over time and by sex were calculated by single year of age. Associated age and sex risk ratios were estimated. The leading causes of injury for children aged leading injury cause exhibited an age pattern that remained stable over time and by sex. Age predicted falls while being carried and both age and sex predicted the remaining leading injury causes, with age and sex interacting to predict burns by hot non-aqueous substances. Epidemiologic analysis using single-year age intervals and injury submechanisms results in a clearer picture of injury risk for young children. The findings of this study provide detailed information regarding the leading causes of hospitalised injury in young children by age and sex. Child health-care providers can use this information to focus discussions of child development and injury risk with families of young children and suggest appropriate prevention measures in terms of a child's age and sex. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  15. The influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness: no own-age or own-sex advantage among children attending single-sex schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingilis-Jaremko, Larissa; Maurer, Daphne; Gao, Xiaoqing

    2014-04-01

    We examined how recent biased face experience affects the influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness among 8- and 9-year-old children attending a girls' school, a boys' school, and a mixed-sex school. We presented pairs of individual faces in which one face was transformed 50% toward its group average, whereas the other face was transformed 50% away from that average. Across blocks, the faces varied in age (adult, 9-year-old, or 5-year-old) and sex (male or female). We expected that averageness might influence attractiveness judgments more strongly for same-age faces and, for children attending single-sex schools, same-sex faces of that age because their prototype(s) should be best tuned to the faces they see most frequently. Averageness influenced children's judgments of attractiveness, but the strength of the influence was not modulated by the age of the face, nor did the effects of sex of face differ across schools. Recent biased experience might not have affected the results because of similarities between the average faces of different ages and sexes and/or because a minimum level of experience with a particular group of faces may be adequate for the formation of a veridical prototype and its influence on judgments of attractiveness. The results suggest that averageness affects children's judgments of the attractiveness of the faces they encounter in everyday life regardless of age or sex of face. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. STUDENTS JUDGMENTS OF THE RISKS OF HIV-INFECTION AS A FUNCTION OF SEXUAL PRACTICE, SEX OF TARGET AND PARTNER, AND AGE AND SEX OF STUDENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SPEARS, R; ABRAHAM, C; SHEERAN, P; ABRAMS, D

    1995-01-01

    Two age cohorts of male and female students (n = 311) were investigated concerning their perceptions of the HIV-related risks of various sex-related practices (unprotected vaginal, oral, and anal sex, and mutual masturbation and kissing). Participants judged the risk of these activities for either a

  17. STUDENTS JUDGMENTS OF THE RISKS OF HIV-INFECTION AS A FUNCTION OF SEXUAL PRACTICE, SEX OF TARGET AND PARTNER, AND AGE AND SEX OF STUDENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SPEARS, R; ABRAHAM, C; SHEERAN, P; ABRAMS, D

    1995-01-01

    Two age cohorts of male and female students (n = 311) were investigated concerning their perceptions of the HIV-related risks of various sex-related practices (unprotected vaginal, oral, and anal sex, and mutual masturbation and kissing). Participants judged the risk of these activities for either a

  18. Swiss Feline Cancer Registry 1965-2008: the Influence of Sex, Breed and Age on Tumour Types and Tumour Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, R; Grüntzig, K; Boo, G; Hässig, M; Axhausen, K W; Fabrikant, S; Welle, M; Meier, D; Guscetti, F; Folkers, G; Otto, V; Pospischil, A

    2016-01-01

    Cancer registries are valuable sources for epidemiological research investigating risk factors underlying different types of cancer incidence. The present study is based on the Swiss Feline Cancer Registry that comprises 51,322 feline patient records, compiled between 1965 and 2008. In these records, 18,375 tumours were reported. The study analyses the influence of sex, neutering status, breed, time and age on the development of the most common tumour types and on their locations, using a multiple logistic regression model. The largest differences between breeds were found in the development of fibrosarcomas and squamous cell carcinomas, as well as in the development of tumours in the skin/subcutis and mammary gland. Differences, although often small, in sex and neutering status were observed in most analyses. Tumours were more frequent in middle-aged and older cats. The sample size allowed detailed analyses of the influence of sex, neutering status, breed and age. Results of the study are mainly consistent with previous analyses; however, some results cannot be compared with the existing literature. Further investigations are necessary, since feline tumours have not been investigated in depth to date. More accurate comparisons would require the definition of international standards for animal cancer registries.

  19. Factors associated with sex work involvement among transgender women in Jamaica: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen H Logie

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Findings reveal high HIV infection rates among transgender women in Jamaica. Sex work-involved participants experience social and structural drivers of HIV, including violence, stigma, and unemployment. Transgender women involved in transactional sex also experience high rates of incarceration, forced sex and homelessness in comparison with non-sex workers. Taken together, these findings suggest that social ecological factors elevate HIV exposure among sex work-involved transgender women in Jamaica. Findings can inform interventions to advance human rights and HIV prevention and care cascades with transgender women in Jamaica.

  20. [Methodological note on subnational population projections by age and sex (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, T

    1980-07-01

    The purposes of this paper were to discuss the methods and assumptions on subnational population projections by age and sex, and to present 2 models on population projection for 47 Prefectures in Japan by age and sex up to 2000. Data are obtained from the results of the 1970 and 1975 population censuses of Japan for population by age and sex, and interprefectural migration streams by age and sex based on the 1970 population census. The 2 models are a sort of cohort-component method: 1 is the (NMR) net-migration model and the other is the (MTX) migration matrix model. The essential difference between the 2 is the separate consideration of out- and inmigration models. The formulas for estimating numbers of net migration in the NMR model are (4) and (5) in the text, where P is the number of the population, S is the life table survival ratios, and m is the rate of net migration. The formulas for estimating numbers of outmigration, migration streams from region i to region j, and inmigration, in the MTX model are (17)-(21), where E is the numbers of outmigration, e is the rate of outmigration, m (i,j) is the proportion of the number of migrants from i to j to total numbers of outmigrants from region i, and I is the numbers of inmigration for each region. Under constant conditions, for all rates, the projected population for 47 prefectures by age and sex up to 2000 using models NMR and MTX was obtained. The projected number of population in 2000 are shown in figures on pages 66 and 67. As the results of these projections, the increase in aged population between 1975-200 in the metropolitan areas, especially Tokyo (1), are greater than that in other areas, since the concentration of the young in the 3 metropolitan areas has rapidly dropped since 1950. (Author's modified)

  1. Smoke-free environments: age, sex, and educational disparity in 25 Argentinean cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoj, Veronica; Allemandi, Lorena; Ianovsky, Oscar; Lago, Manuel; Alderete, Mariela

    2012-10-01

    There is scarce evidence of secondhand smoke (SHS) and disparity in developing countries. We evaluated the relationship between socio-demographic variables and secondhand smoke-related factors in Argentina. We conducted a randomized telephone survey (2008/2009) in 25 Argentinean cities. We included a sample of 160 respondents per city stratified by sex and age. We used different generalized multivariate regression models with a confidence interval of 95 % for the five outcome variables. We sampled 4,000 respondents, 52.2 % women, 36 % adolescents and young adults (15-29 years), 58 % ≥12 years of education, and 72.6 % nonsmokers. Support to 100 % smoke-free environment legislation was higher in older than in younger respondents, OR = 1.5 (IC: 1.2-2.0), and in people with higher education levels, OR = 1.2 (IC: 1.1-1.4). Exposure to SHS was significantly lower in men than in women at home and in public places, IRR = 0.7 (IC: 0.5-0.9) and IRR  = 0.8 (IC: 0.6-0.9), respectively. Older respondents reported lower exposure at home and in public places than adolescents and young adults, IRR = 0.6 (IC: 0.4-0.8) and IRR = 0.4 (IC: 0.3-0.5), respectively. People with higher education levels had a higher level of exposure in indoor public places than less educated people, IRR = 1.1 (IC: 1.1-1.2). Knowledge of respiratory disease in children caused by SHS exposure was lower in men than in women, RRR = 0.3 (IC: 0.1-0.6). Perceived compliance was higher in men than in women, OR = 1.4 (IC: 1.1-1.8) and in people with higher education levels, OR = 1.2 (IC: 1.1-1.4). Older and more educated respondents were more empowered than. younger and less educated people, OR = 1.5 (IC: 1.2-1.9) and OR = 1.2 (IC: 1.1-1.3), respectively. Reference groups for each variable were age: 15-29; education: ≤7 years; and sex: men. This is the first study to explore socio-demographic variables regarding secondhand smoke in our country. Women and younger people are more

  2. Obesity and the Incidence of Upper Gastrointestinal Cancers: An Ecological Approach to Examine Differences across Age and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Melina; Colquhoun, Amy; Cook, Michael B; Ferlay, Jacques; Forman, David; Soerjomataram, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal and gastric cancers differ in their epidemiology but have several risk factors in common. The aim of this study was to assess age and sex differences in the burden of esophageal and gastric cancers in the context of the global obesity epidemic. Data from 50 countries were obtained from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Volume X and GLOBOCAN 2012. Age-specific and age-standardized incidence rates of esophageal adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), as well as cardia (CGC) and noncardia (NCGC) gastric cancer, were estimated. Countries were grouped and analyzed according to their obesity prevalence. A gradient across quartiles of obesity prevalence was found for esophageal adenocarcinoma, with the highest incidence rates in high prevalence countries (ASR 3.0 vs. 0.8 per 100,000 in highest vs. lowest obesity quartiles, males). In contrast, for ESCC as well as for CGC and NCGC the reverse was true, with the highest rates observed in countries with the lowest obesity prevalence (ESCC, 2.2 vs. 11.5; CGC, 2.8 vs. 7.8; NCGC, 3.9 vs. 17.4 in highest vs. lowest obesity quartiles, males). Although for esophageal adenocarcinoma, sex and age differences in incidence were most pronounced in countries with a high prevalence of obesity, these differences were much smaller for the other cancer sites assessed. Variation in obesity prevalence may partly explain age and sex differences in the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinomas. Ecologic studies can help assess relationships between risk factors and cancer, and generate new hypotheses that may be pursued through more directed research. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Direct and indirect genetic effects of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immonen, Elina; Collet, Marie; Goenaga, Julieta

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are involved in ageing and their function requires coordinated action of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Epistasis between the two genomes can influence lifespan but whether this also holds for reproductive senescence is unclear. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria predicts sex...... to slower senescence relative to novel mitonuclear combinations. We found no evidence for mitonuclear coadaptation in males. Mitonuclear epistasis not only affected age-specific ejaculate weight, but also influenced male age-dependent indirect effects on traits expressed by their female partners (fecundity...... beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, using introgression lines harbouring distinct mitonuclear genotypes. Our results reveal both direct and indirect sex-specific effects of mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing. Females harbouring coadapted mitonuclear genotypes showed higher lifetime fecundity due...

  4. Serum chemistry profiles for Lechwe waterbucks (Kobus leche): variations with age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váhala, J; Kase, F

    1993-09-01

    1. Over an 8-year period, 19 biochemical parameters have been determined at various ages in the blood serum of 92 clinically healthy Lechwe waterbucks (Kobus leche), 33 males and 59 females. 2. Significant differences have been noted with age. In neonates, the lowest values of total proteins, glucose, creatinine, urea, AST, ALT and iron have been noted; the highest ones have been seen for cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, calcium and phosphorus. 3. With regard to sex, raised values of glucose, urea, alkaline phosphatase and ALT, and lowered values of cholesterol, have been noted in juvenile females compared with males of the same age. 4. In adult females, higher levels of urea and cholesterol and lower levels of glucose, triglycerides and natrium have been recorded compared with males. 5. With sex and age, no significant changes have been found in the levels of GGT, magnesium, chlorides and copper. 6. Our findings are discussed with those abstracted from the literature for related species.

  5. Laughing off the Stereotypes: Age and Aging in Seniors' Online Sex-Related Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrod, Galit; Berdychevsky, Liza

    2017-05-17

    Focusing on sex, the most salient topic featured in ageist jokes, this study aims at exploring the extent to which seniors' own humor reflects common ageist stereotypes or rather echoes contemporary consumer society representations of seniors' sexuality. The study was based on a quantitative content analysis of 300 humorous sex-related messages posted during one full year by members of 14 leading online communities for seniors. Findings indicated that whereas the portrayal of older adults in humor typically relied on negative ageist stereotypes, their representation in seniors' online sex-related humor depended on the social identity of the butt of this humor. If it was an in-group member (oneself, another community member, or the community as a whole), the portrayal was rather positive, but when the butt belonged to the out-group (older adults in general), the depiction was far more ageist. Nonetheless, the representation of older butts of humor was generally more positive than that of the younger ones. These findings suggest that seniors tend to identify with current cultural representations of sexuality in later life and use sex-related humor as a personal means of resisting ageism. They apply two principal strategies: Distancing-reproducing certain ageist stereotypes by ascribing them to other older adults, but less so to their own group and even less than that to themselves-and equalizing older and younger individuals, even according the former an advantage regarding sexuality.

  6. The impact of cortisol reactivity to acute stress on memory: sex differences in middle-aged people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almela, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; Espín, Laura; Gómez-Amor, Jesús; Salvador, Alicia

    2011-03-01

    Stress has been identified as a main factor involved in the cognitive changes that occur during the aging process. This study investigated sex differences in the relationship between the magnitude of the acute stress-induced salivary cortisol response and memory performance among middle-aged people. To this end, 16 men and 16 women (aged 54-72 years) were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test and a control condition in a crossover design. Afterwards their memory performance was measured using a standardized memory test (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test). Only among women, there was an acute impact of stress on memory performance and a significant relationship between a higher cortisol response to the stressor and poorer memory performance in both the stress and control conditions. Additionally, a poorer memory performance was related to earlier timing of sexual maturation (age at menarche), which was also marginally related to higher cortisol reactivity to stress. These results confirm that sex is a critical factor in the relationship between cortisol and poor memory performance. Furthermore, the findings emphasize a strong link between the individual cortisol response to stress and memory functioning among postmenopausal women.

  7. Morningness-eveningness, sex, and the Alternative Five Factor Model of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Anna; Gomà-i-Freixanet, Montserrat; Adan, Ana

    2009-08-01

    Recent research on personality and circadian typology indicates that evening-type subjects are more extraverted, impulsive, and novelty-seeking, while morning ones tend to be more introverted, conscientious, agreeable, and emotionally stable. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between circadian typologies on the Zuckerman's Alternative Five Factor Model of personality (AFFM), which has a strong biological basis, controlling for sex and age. A sample of 533 university students (168 men) participated in the study. Results showed that morning-type subjects had significant higher scores than evening-type and neither-type subjects in Activity, and in its subscales General Activity and Work Activity. A significant interaction between circadian typology and sex was found for Neuroticism-Anxiety: morning-type men showed higher scores than evening-type and neither-type, who had the lowest scores. Women presented the opposite pattern: neither-type obtained the highest scores, while morning-type showed the lowest. This is the first time the AFFM has been used in the context of circadian rhythms research. The results suggest that activity is the only trait related to extraversion associated with morningness, while Neuroticism-Anxiety was modulated by sex. These results might help highlight previous results on the association between morningness-eveningness and other models of personality assessment, and they offer new data that calls for further research.

  8. Influence of Age, Sex, and Race on College Students' Exercise Motivation of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Czech, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Participants: Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Methods:…

  9. Gifted Students' Perceptions of Parenting Styles: Associations with Cognitive Ability, Sex, Race, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Adelson, Jill L.; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Houlihan, Deanna Vogt; Keizer, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    Children whose parents are warm and responsive yet also set limits and have reasonable expectations for their children tend to have better outcomes than their peers whose parents show less warmth and responsiveness, have low expectations, or both. Parenting behavior is related to family race and children's sex, age, and cognitive ability. However,…

  10. Gifted Students' Perceptions of Parenting Styles: Associations with Cognitive Ability, Sex, Race, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Adelson, Jill L.; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Houlihan, Deanna Vogt; Keizer, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    Children whose parents are warm and responsive yet also set limits and have reasonable expectations for their children tend to have better outcomes than their peers whose parents show less warmth and responsiveness, have low expectations, or both. Parenting behavior is related to family race and children's sex, age, and cognitive ability. However,…

  11. Size and type of places, geographical region, satisfaction with life, age, sex and place attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Alan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the article concerns the issue of place attachment and its determinants. An analysis of place attachment was performed in terms of place identity and place dependence (Williams, Vaske, 2003. Moreover, links between place attachment and selected geographical (size and type of place, geographical region, demographic (age, sex and psychological (satisfaction with life variables were investigated.

  12. Imaginary Audience Behavior As A Function of Age, Sex and Formal Operational Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Luc

    1984-01-01

    The Situation Scale for Adolescents, an extended version of the Imaginary Audience Scale, was administered to several hundred youngsters in the seventh, ninth, and twelfth grades. The scale, assessing self-consciousness in two types of social situations, proved to be reliable, but yielded confused results regarding age and sex differences.…

  13. Antisocial Behavior, Psychopathology and Functional Impairment: Association with Sex and Age in Clinical Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Juan; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, degree of association and differential effect, by sex and age, of conduct disorder symptoms on psychopathology and functioning. Participants included 680 Spanish children and adolescents between 8 and 17 years and their parents, attending to psychiatric outpatient consultation. Data were obtained through…

  14. Prevalence of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis according to age and sex systematic review and metaregression analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Weerd, M.; Greving, J.P.; de Jong, A.W.F.; Buskens, E.; Bots, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose-In the discussion on the value of population-wide screening for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (ACAS), reliable prevalence estimates are crucial. We set out to provide reliable age- and sex-specific prevalence estimates of ACAS through a systematic literature review and

  15. Attitude and Peer Influences on Adolescent Substance Use: The Moderating Effect of Age, Sex, and Substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Holub, Shayla C.; Arnett, Mitzi

    2003-01-01

    Examines the importance of peer influence and personal attitudes in relation to self-reported use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana for 213 younger adolescents and 219 older adolescents. Friends' use was significantly related to substance use for both age groups, both sexes, and all substances examined. Resistance self- efficacy was…

  16. Competition and habitat quality influence age and sex distribution in wintering Rusty Blackbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudia Mettke-Hofmann; Paul B. Hamel; Gerhard Hofmann; Theodore J. Zenzal Jr.; Anne Pellegrini; Jennifer Malpass; Megan Garfinkel; Nathan Schiff; Russell Greenberg

    2015-01-01

    Bird habitat quality is often inferred from species abundance measures during the breeding and non-breeding season and used for conservation management decisions. However, during the non-breeding season age and sex classes often occupy different habitats which suggest a need for more habitat-specific data. Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) is a...

  17. Molt patterns, age, and sex criteria for selected highland Costa Rican resident landbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared D. Wolfe; Richard B. Chandler; David I. King

    2009-01-01

    Demographic studies within temperate latitudes often use molt and plumage-based criteria to differentiate age and sex classes (Bayne & Hobson 2002, Brown et al. 2002, Jones et al. 2004). Despite their critical nature (Pyle et al. 2004, DuVal 2005, Doucet et al. 2007), molt and plumage data derived from resident tropical species remain scarce (Dickey & van...

  18. The Effects of Children's Age and Sex on Acquiring Pro-Environmental Attitudes through Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liefländer, Anne Kristin; Bogner, Franz Xaver

    2014-01-01

    Environmental education programs aiming to enhance children's environmental attitudes in a pro-environmental direction require background information, such as age and sex differences, to ensure appropriate design. We used the 2-MEV model with its domains "preservation" and "utilization" of nature to assess a four-day program at…

  19. Total blood volume in the normally performing Standardbred trotter: age and sex variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, S G; Funkquist, P; Nyman, G

    1996-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to elucidate the influences of age and sex on the mass specific blood volume parameters: total blood volume (TBV/BW, ml/kg), plasma volume (PV/ BW, ml/kg), total red cell volume (CV/BW, ml/kg) and maximal packed cell volume (PCV, l/l, i.e. after total mobilisation of the splenic red cell reservoir) and to establish reference values for these in normally performing Standardbred trotting race horses. In total 205 horses were studied. They were all, according to their owners and/or trainers, performing satisfactorily in racing or training for shortly impending racing. Blood volume determination was done with the Evans blue dye dilution technique after exercise induced emptying of the spleen. Both age and sex were found to influence variation of these parameters significantly, with the possible exception of PV/BW, whereas the primary variation appeared to be in CV/BW. It was concluded that taking age and sex dependent variations into consideration will render prediction of normal values for the blood volume parameters in the athletic Standardbred trotter more reliable and the detection of abnormal deviations more precise if five age and sex groups are used for comparisons.

  20. Influence of Age, Sex, and Race on College Students' Exercise Motivation of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Czech, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Participants: Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Methods:…

  1. Age, Sex, Intelligence and Parents' Occupation and the Moral Development of the Preschool Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Timothy M.

    1984-01-01

    Results indicate that preschool children are capable of making moral judgments in both apology-restitution and guilt-innocence test contexts. Age and sex are significantly related to both moral judgment measures, while intelligence and parent occupation are unrelated to both measures. (Author/RH)

  2. The Fitkids Treadmill Test: age- and sex-related normative values in Dutch children and adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotte, E.M.W.; Groot, J.F. de; Bongers, B.C.; Winkler, L.M.F.; Takken, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent research has shown that the Fitkids Treadmill Test (FTT) is a valid and reproducible exercise test for the assessment of aerobic exercise capacity in children and adolescents who are healthy. Objective: The study objective was to provide sex- and age-related normative values for

  3. Antisocial Behavior, Psychopathology and Functional Impairment: Association with Sex and Age in Clinical Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Juan; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, degree of association and differential effect, by sex and age, of conduct disorder symptoms on psychopathology and functioning. Participants included 680 Spanish children and adolescents between 8 and 17 years and their parents, attending to psychiatric outpatient consultation. Data were obtained through…

  4. Effects of Sex, Strain, and Energy Intake on Hallmarks of Aging in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Sarah J.; Madrigal-Matute, Julio; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is the most robust non-genetic intervention to delay aging. However, there are a number of emerging experimental variables that alter CR responses. We investigated the role of sex, strain, and level of CR on health and survival in mice. CR did not always correlate...

  5. Quantitative computed tomography: emphysema and airway wall thickness by sex, age and smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grydeland, T B; Dirksen, A; Coxson, H O;

    2009-01-01

    We investigated how quantitative high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness (AWT) vary with sex, age and smoking history. We included 463 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cases and 431 controls. All included subjects were current or ex...

  6. Fitkids Treadmill Test : Age- and Sex-Related Normative Values in Dutch Children and Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotte, Elles M W; de Groot, Janke F; Bongers, Bart C; Winkler, Alexander M F; Takken, Tim

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent research has shown that the Fitkids Treadmill Test (FTT) is a valid and reproducible exercise test for the assessment of aerobic exercise capacity in healthy children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: To provide sex- and age-related normative values for FTT performance in healthy and ty

  7. The Fitkids Treadmill Test: age- and sex-related normative values in Dutch children and adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotte, E.M.W.; Groot, J.F. de; Bongers, B.C.; Winkler, L.M.F.; Takken, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent research has shown that the Fitkids Treadmill Test (FTT) is a valid and reproducible exercise test for the assessment of aerobic exercise capacity in children and adolescents who are healthy. Objective: The study objective was to provide sex- and age-related normative values for F

  8. Age relations of cardiovascular risk factors in a traditional Melanesian society: the Kitava Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeberg, S; Berntorp, E; Nilsson-Ehle, P; Terént, A; Vessby, B

    1997-10-01

    This study examined cross-sectional age relations of blood pressure, anthropometric indexes, serum lipids, and hemostatic variables in 203 subsistence horticulturists aged 20-86 y in Kitava, Trobriand Islands, Papua New Guinea. The population is characterized by extreme leanness (despite food abundance), low blood pressure, low plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 activity, and rarity of cardiovascular disease. Tubers, fruit, fish, and coconut are dietary staples whereas dairy products, refined fat and sugar, cereals, and alcohol are absent and salt intake is low. Although diastolic blood pressure was not associated with age in Kitavans, systolic blood pressure increased linearly after 50 y of age in both sexes. Body mass index decreased with age in both sexes. Serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B increased in males between 20 and 50 y of age, whereas high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I decreased. There were no significant differences in these indexes with age in the few females studied. A slight linear age-related increase of lipoprotein(a) was present in males. Plasma fibrinogen, factor VII clotting activity, factor VIII clotting activity, and von Willebrand factor antigen increased with age in both sexes but plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 activity did not. The modest or absent relations between the indexes measured and age are apparently important explanations of the virtual nonexistence of stroke and ischemic heart disease in Kitava.

  9. Are incident gallstones associated to sex-dependent changes with age? A cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, D M; Holmboe, S A; Sørensen, L T

    2017-01-01

    Age and female sex have repeatedly been identified as gallstone determinants but the underlying mechanisms are not clarified. The objectives of this study were to determine if changes with age in physiology, lifestyle, or reproductive hormones were associated with incident gallstones. A cohort...... study of a general population random sample (N = 2366) aged 30-60 years was performed. Participants were ultrasound screened for gallstones in 1982-84 and again in 1993-94. Lifestyle data and blood samples were obtained and re-analyzed in 2004. Changes with age in physiology (body mass index, blood...

  10. Orthodontic pain: an interaction between age and sex in early and middle adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Satpal S; Sandhu, Jasleen

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the age and sex interaction effect on orthodontic pain in adolescence during the initial phase of fixed orthodontic treatment. Three hundred participants (mean age 13.85 ± 1.98 years; 152 female, 148 male) met all inclusion criteria and enrolled in the study designed as 2 × 2 factorial trial with two levels each for age (11-14 years; 14-17 years) and sex (male; female). A 0.16-inch superelastic NiTi wire was used in a 0.022-inch slot (Roth's prescription) preadjusted edgewise appliance for initial leveling and alignment of mandibular anterior dentition. The follow-up period was 7 days. Pain was assessed by using 100 mm visual analog scale for one baseline and nine follow-up repeated measurements at prespecified time points. Data were analyzed by using generalized linear mixed effect model analysis. Three participants were lost to follow-up, and 17 participants were not considered for analysis due to incomplete or improperly completed questionnaire. Therefore, 280 participants (mean age 13.96 ± 2.01 years; 138 female, 142 male) were analyzed for results. Results showed that age and sex interaction had statistically significant effect on pain (F  =  3.56; P  =  .0151; df 3/218). In the 11-14 year age group, there was no significant difference for pain between male and female. In the 14-17 year age group, girls reported significantly greater pain compared to 14- to 17 year-old boys (t  =  2.76; P  =  .0209). Pain reported by 14- to 17-year-old girls was also significantly greater compared to 11- to 14-year-old boys (t  =  2.91; P  =  .0206). Age and sex interaction has significant effect on orthodontic pain during adolescence, and 14- to 17-year-old girls experienced maximum pain.

  11. Variations in dream recall frequency and dream theme diversity by age and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tore eNielsen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We assessed dream recall frequency and dream theme diversity with an internet questionnaire among a cohort of 28,888 male and female participants aged 10 to 79 years in a cross-sectional design. Dream recall frequency increased from adolescence (ages 10-19 to early adulthood (20-29 and then decreased again for the next 20 years. The nature of this decrease differed for males and females. For males, it began earlier (30-39, proceeded more gradually, and reached a nadir earlier (40-49 than it did for females. For females, it began later (40-49, dropped more abruptly, and reached nadir later (50-59. Marked sex differences were observed for age strata 10-19 through 40-49 and year-by-year analyses estimated the window for these differences to be more precisely from 14-44 yrs. Dream theme diversity decreased linearly with age for both sexes up to 50-59 and then dropped even more sharply for 60-79. There was a sex difference favouring males on this measure but only for ages 10-19. Findings replicate, in a single sample, those from several previous studies showing an increase in dream recall frequency from adolescence to early adulthood, a subsequent decrease in dream recall frequency—primarily in early and middle adulthood, and different patterns of age-related decrease in the two sexes. Age-related changes in sleep structure, such as decreasing %REM sleep, parallel the observed dream recall changes but are much smaller and more gradual in nature. Changes in the phase and amplitude of circadian rhythms of REM propensity and generational differences in life experiences may also account for some part of the findings. However, that decreases in dream theme diversity parallel known age-related decreases in episodic and autobiographical memory may signify that the diversity measure indexes an aspect of autobiographical memory that is specific to dream recall.

  12. Variations in Dream Recall Frequency and Dream Theme Diversity by Age and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tore

    2012-01-01

    We assessed dream recall frequency (DRF) and dream theme diversity (DTD) with an internet questionnaire among a cohort of 28,888 male and female participants aged 10–79 years in a cross-sectional design. DRF increased from adolescence (ages 10–19) to early adulthood (20–29) and then decreased again for the next 20 years. The nature of this decrease differed for males and females. For males, it began earlier (30–39), proceeded more gradually, and reached a nadir earlier (40–49) than it did for females. For females, it began later (40–49), dropped more abruptly, and reached nadir later (50–59). Marked sex differences were observed for age strata 10–19 through 40–49 and year-by-year analyses estimated the window for these differences to be more precisely from 14 to 44 years. DTD decreased linearly with age for both sexes up to 50–59 and then dropped even more sharply for 60–79. There was a sex difference favoring males on this measure but only for ages 10–19. Findings replicate, in a single sample, those from several previous studies showing an increase in DRF from adolescence to early adulthood, a subsequent decrease primarily in early and middle adulthood, and different patterns of age-related decrease in the two sexes. Age-related changes in sleep structure, such as decreasing %REM sleep which parallel the observed dream recall changes, might help explain these findings, but these sleep changes are much smaller and more gradual in nature. Changes in the phase and amplitude of circadian rhythms of REM propensity and generational differences in life experiences may also account for some part of the findings. That decreases in DTD parallel known age-related decreases in episodic and autobiographical memory may signify that this new diversity measure indexes an aspect of autobiographical memory that also influences dream recall. PMID:22783222

  13. Long-term exercise in mice has sex-dependent benefits on body composition and metabolism during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Rachel C; Kelly, Scott A; Hua, Kunjie; Buckley, Brian K; Faber, James E; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando; Pomp, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Aging is associated with declining exercise and unhealthy changes in body composition. Exercise ameliorates certain adverse age-related physiological changes and protects against many chronic diseases. Despite these benefits, willingness to exercise and physiological responses to exercise vary widely, and long-term exercise and its benefits are difficult and costly to measure in humans. Furthermore, physiological effects of aging in humans are confounded with changes in lifestyle and environment. We used C57BL/6J mice to examine long-term patterns of exercise during aging and its physiological effects in a well-controlled environment. One-year-old male (n = 30) and female (n = 30) mice were divided into equal size cohorts and aged for an additional year. One cohort was given access to voluntary running wheels while another was denied exercise other than home cage movement. Body mass, composition, and metabolic traits were measured before, throughout, and after 1 year of treatment. Long-term exercise significantly prevented gains in body mass and body fat, while preventing loss of lean mass. We observed sex-dependent differences in body mass and composition trajectories during aging. Wheel running (distance, speed, duration) was greater in females than males and declined with age. We conclude that long-term exercise may serve as a preventive measure against age-related weight gain and body composition changes, and that mouse inbred strains can be used to characterize effects of long-term exercise and factors (e.g. sex, age) modulating these effects. These findings will facilitate studies on relationships between exercise and health in aging populations, including genetic predisposition and genotype-by-environment interactions.

  14. Who are you expecting? Biases in face perception reveal prior expectations for sex and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tamara Lea; Otsuka, Yumiko; Clifford, Colin Walter Giles

    2016-01-01

    A person's appearance contains a wealth of information, including indicators of their sex and age. Because first impressions can set the tone of subsequent relationships, it is crucial we form an accurate initial impression. Yet prior expectation can bias our decisions: Studies have reported biases to respond "male" when asked to report a person's sex from an image of their face and to place their age closer to their own. Perceptual expectation effects and cognitive response biases may both contribute to these inaccuracies. The current research used a Bayesian modeling approach to establish the perceptual biases involved when estimating the sex and age of an individual from their face. We demonstrate a perceptual bias for male and older faces evident under conditions of uncertainty. This suggests the well-established male bias is perceptual in origin and may be impervious to cognitive control. In comparison, the own age anchor effect is not operationalized at the perceptual level: The perceptual expectation is for a face of advanced age. Thus, distinct biases in the estimation of age operate at the perceptual and cognitive levels.

  15. Klotho is a serum factor related to human aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖能明; 张焱明; 郑权; 顾军

    2004-01-01

    Background Does klotho (KL) protein exist in human serum, and is there any correlation between KL protein in serum with human aging? In order to answer those questions, we identified KL protein in human serum and established the correlation between KL protein in human serum and aging.Methods We prepared a polyclonal antibody against human KL protein that was able to recognize the C-terminal of human secreted KL protein. Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to identify KL protein in human serum.Results In Western blot, the antibody specifically recognized a 60-kD KL protein in both human and mice serum. The population aged from 0 to 91 years screened by ELISA revealed that the level of serum KL declined while age increased, though each individual level was variable and that the trend of decreasing in serum KL had no difference in sex.Conclusion Our data suggest that KL is a serum factor related to human aging.

  16. Factors Associated with Inconsistent Condom Use among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyan Yi

    Full Text Available Compared to the general population, men who have sex with men (MSM are at greater risk for HIV and less understood due to their more hidden and stigmatized nature. Moreover, the discrepancy in findings in the literature merits further investigations in MSM populations from different cultures and settings. We therefore conducted this study to explore factors associated with inconsistent condom use among high-risk MSM in Cambodia.This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 among 367 MSM randomly selected from Battembang and Siem Reap using a two-stage cluster sampling method. A structured questionnaire was used for face-to-face interviews to collect information on characteristics of respondents, HIV testing history, self-perception of HIV risk, substance use, sexual behaviors, mental disorders, and HIV knowledge. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors independently associated with inconsistent condom use.On average, 62.3% of respondents reported that they always used condoms over the past three months. The rates varied with types of sexual partners; the proportion of respondents who reported always using condoms was 55.1%, 64.2%, 75.9%, 73.0%, 78.1%, and 70.3%, for sexual partners who were girlfriends, boyfriends, female sex workers, male sex workers, female clients, or male clients, respectively. After adjustment, inconsistent condom use was significantly associated with age of ≥25 (AOR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.09-2.86, self-rated quality of life as good or very good (AOR = 4.37, 95% CI = 1.79-5.67, self-perception of higher HIV risk compared to the general population (AOR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.35-4.17, illicit drug use in the past three months (AOR = 5.76, 95% CI = 1.65-10.09, and reported consistent lubricant use when selling anal sex to men in the past three months (AOR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.07-8.12.We found risky sexual behaviors to be considerably high among MSM in this study, especially among those who used

  17. [Factors associated with commercial sexual behavior among men who have sex with men in Shenzhen, China, in 2011-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Y M; Song, Y J; Liu, H; Hong, F C

    2016-11-06

    Objective: To investigate the status and factors associated with commercial sexual behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Shenzhen. Methods: A convenience sampling method was used to recruit MSM in Shenzhen from 2011 to 2015. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted on a one-on-one basis. Data were collected, including socio-demographic information, HIV testing history, history of blood donation and drug abuse in the last 2 years, self-reported sexual orientation, role in homosexual behavior, and experience serving as a male sex worker and/or as a client of male sex workers. Blood samples (5 ml) were taken and tested for treponema pallidum and HIV antibodies. The rate of MSM serving as male sex workers among different age groups was analyzed using the Cochran-Armitage trend test. Factors associated with commercial sexual behavior were analyzed by univariate logistic regression and multivariate unconditional logistic regression. Results: Among the 3 040 MSM recruited, 341 (11.2%) reported having served as male sex worker. The prevalence rates of syphilis, HIV, and syphilis-HIV co-infection among all recruited MSM were 18.3% (556/3 040), 9.8% (297/3 040), and 5.1% (154/3 040), respectively. The prevalence rates of syphilis, HIV, and syphilis-HIV co-infection among those who served as male sex worker were 27.0% (92/341), 16.4% (56/341), and 8.8% (30/341), respectively, and the prevalence rates among MSM with no experience as male sex worker were 17.2% (464/2 699), 8.9% (241/2 699), and 4.6% (124/2 699), respectively. Compared with non-male sex worker MSM, male sex worker had a significantly higher prevalence rates of syphilis, HIV, and syphilis-HIV co-infection (with χ(2) values of 19.41, 19.28, and 11.12, and P-values of 30-year-old MSM or education level of college or above, reside in Shenzhen for 0.5-3.0 years or the living years above 3.0 years are less likely to serve as male sex worker compared with5 000 yuan, drug abuse history, experience as

  18. Elevated mortality among birds in Chernobyl as judged from skewed age and sex ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders Pape; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Rudolfsen, Geir; Mousseau, Timothy A

    2012-01-01

    Radiation has negative effects on survival of animals including humans, although the generality of this claim is poorly documented under low-dose field conditions. Because females may suffer disproportionately from the effects of radiation on survival due to differences in sex roles during reproduction, radiation-induced mortality may result in male-skewed adult sex ratios. We estimated the effects of low-dose radiation on adult survival rates in birds by determining age ratios of adults captured in mist nets during the breeding season in relation to background radiation levels around Chernobyl and in nearby uncontaminated control areas. Age ratios were skewed towards yearlings, especially in the most contaminated areas, implying that adult survival rates were reduced in contaminated areas, and that populations in such areas could only be maintained through immigration from nearby uncontaminated areas. Differential mortality in females resulted in a strongly male-skewed sex ratio in the most contaminated areas. In addition, males sang disproportionately commonly in the most contaminated areas where the sex ratio was male skewed presumably because males had difficulty finding and acquiring mates when females were rare. The results were not caused by permanent emigration by females from the most contaminated areas because none of the recaptured birds had changed breeding site, and the proportion of individuals with morphological abnormalities did not differ significantly between the sexes for areas with normal and higher levels of contamination. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the adult survival rate of female birds is particularly susceptible to the effects of low-dose radiation, resulting in male skewed sex ratios at high levels of radiation. Such skewed age ratios towards yearlings in contaminated areas are consistent with the hypothesis that an area exceeding 30,000 km(2) in Chernobyl's surroundings constitutes an ecological trap that

  19. Elevated mortality among birds in Chernobyl as judged from skewed age and sex ratios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Pape Møller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Radiation has negative effects on survival of animals including humans, although the generality of this claim is poorly documented under low-dose field conditions. Because females may suffer disproportionately from the effects of radiation on survival due to differences in sex roles during reproduction, radiation-induced mortality may result in male-skewed adult sex ratios. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We estimated the effects of low-dose radiation on adult survival rates in birds by determining age ratios of adults captured in mist nets during the breeding season in relation to background radiation levels around Chernobyl and in nearby uncontaminated control areas. Age ratios were skewed towards yearlings, especially in the most contaminated areas, implying that adult survival rates were reduced in contaminated areas, and that populations in such areas could only be maintained through immigration from nearby uncontaminated areas. Differential mortality in females resulted in a strongly male-skewed sex ratio in the most contaminated areas. In addition, males sang disproportionately commonly in the most contaminated areas where the sex ratio was male skewed presumably because males had difficulty finding and acquiring mates when females were rare. The results were not caused by permanent emigration by females from the most contaminated areas because none of the recaptured birds had changed breeding site, and the proportion of individuals with morphological abnormalities did not differ significantly between the sexes for areas with normal and higher levels of contamination. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the adult survival rate of female birds is particularly susceptible to the effects of low-dose radiation, resulting in male skewed sex ratios at high levels of radiation. Such skewed age ratios towards yearlings in contaminated areas are consistent with the hypothesis that an area

  20. Cardiovascular risk factors in parents of short children born small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kort, Sandra W K; Van Dijk, Marije; Willemsen, Ruben H; Ester, Wietske A; Viet, Lucie; De Rijke, Yolanda B; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2008-07-01

    Small for gestational age (SGA) children have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors at a young age. It is not known whether this increased risk is caused by their size at birth, a familial predisposition for cardiovascular disease or smallness at birth or a combination of these factors. The cardiovascular risk profile of parents of SGA children is unknown. We compared anthropometry, blood pressure, fasting serum lipid, glucose, and insulin levels of 482 parents (mean age 41 y) and 286 short SGA children with age- and sex-matched references. We also investigated whether these parameters correlated between parents and their offspring. Mothers had higher systolic blood pressure, fathers had a higher body mass index and parents had more frequently high fasting glucose levels than age- and sex-matched references. Children had significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure than sex- and height-matched references. Twenty-four percent (mothers) and 10% (fathers) were born SGA but they did not have more cardiovascular risk factors than those born appropriate for gestational age. Cardiovascular risk factors did not correlate between parents and children. In conclusion, parents of short SGA children have a modest increase in some cardiovascular risk factors but risk factors did not correlate between parents and children.

  1. Effects of age and sex on the structural, chemical and technological characteristics of mule duck meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, E; Salichon, M R; Marche, G; Wacrenier, N; Dominguez, B; Culioli, J

    2000-07-01

    1. The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of age and sex on the chemical, structural and technological characteristics of mule duck meat. 2. Ten males and 10 females were weighed and slaughtered at 8, 10, 11, 12 and 13 weeks of age. Weight, pH value, colour, tenderness and juice loss of breast muscle were determined. 3. The activities of 3 enzymes (citrate synthase, beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase) which indicate muscular metabolic activity were assayed. 4. Chemical composition (moisture, lipids, proteins, minerals, lipid and phospholipid classes, fatty acid composition) of breast muscle was analysed. 5. Fibre type, fibre type percentage and cross-sectional areas were determined using histochemistry and an image analysis system. 6. For growth performance and muscular structure, the ideal slaughter age of mule ducks is 10 weeks of age. Chemical and technological analysis indicated that muscular maturity in Pectoralis major was reached at 11 weeks of age, but, at this age, breast lipid content is high. Moreover, after 10 weeks of age, food costs rapidly increased. 7. Lastly, sexual dimorphism for body weight is minor. In this study, at any given age, no significant differences between males and females were shown. Thus, it is possible to rear both sexes together and to slaughter them at the same age.

  2. Trait compensation and sex-specific aging of performance in male and female professional basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lailvaux, Simon P; Wilson, Robbie; Kasumovic, Michael M

    2014-05-01

    Phenotypic traits are often influenced by dynamic resource allocation trade-offs which, when occurring over the course of individual lifespan, may manifest as trait aging. Although aging is studied for a variety of traits that are closely tied to reproduction or reproductive effort, the aging of multiple traits related to fitness in other ways are less well understood. We took advantage of almost 30 years of data on human whole-organism performance in the National Basketball Association (USA) to examine trends of aging in performance traits associated with scoring. Given that patterns of aging differ between sexes in other animal species, we also analyzed a smaller dataset on players in the Women's National Basketball Association to test for potential sex differences in the aging of comparable traits. We tested the hypothesis that age-related changes in a specific aspect of overall performance can be compensated for by elevated expression of another, related aspect. Our analyses suggest that the aging of performance traits used in basketball is generally characterized by senescence in males, whereas age-related changes in basketball performance are less evident in females. Our data also indicate a different rate of senescence of different performance traits associated with scoring over a male's lifetime.

  3. Solid phase microextraction of volatile emissions of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae): influence of fly sex, age, and mating status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Cristina; Vacas, Sandra; Zarzo, Manuel; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente; Primo, Jaime

    2011-01-12

    Considerable efforts have been devoted to understanding the courtship behavior and pheromone communication of medflies; however, the sex pheromone composition is still a controversial subject. The discovery of new components affecting medfly behavior would be of interest for medfly control methods based on semiochemicals. This work describes volatile compounds emitted by Ceratitis capitata collected using solid phase microextraction. The volatile study was conducted according to an experimental design with three factors (sex, age, and mating status) assumed to be relevant for better understanding the chemical communication. Emission data were treated by means of principal component analysis, a statistical methodology not previously applied to the study of volatiles emitted by fruit flies. The characterization of emission patterns could be useful for the selection of compounds to be further investigated in biological assays to improve knowledge of the key semiochemicals involved in medfly behavior.

  4. Transactional sex among men who have sex with men in the French Antilles and French Guiana: frequency and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelschmidt, Justine; Parriault, Marie-Claire; Van Melle, Astrid; Basurko, Célia; Gontier, Barbara; Cabié, André; Hoen, Bruno; Sow, Marie-Thérèse; Nacher, Mathieu

    2017-06-01

    The French Antilles (Martinique, Saint Martin and Guadeloupe) and French Guiana are the French territories most affected by the HIV epidemic. Some population groups such as men who have sex with men (MSM), especially those involved in transactional sex, are thought to be particularly vulnerable to HIV but few data exist to help characterize their health-related needs and thus implement relevant prevention interventions. To fill this knowledge gap, we used data collected from an HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviours and Practices survey conducted in 2012 among MSM living in the French Antilles and French Guiana and recruited through snowball sampling. Our objectives were to compare social and demographic characteristics and sexual behaviours between MSM engaging in transactional sex and MSM not engaging in transactional sex and to identify factors associated with transactional sex involvement using a logistic regression model. A total of 733 MSM were interviewed, 21% of whom reported to undergo transactional sex. Their behaviour and social and demographic characteristics were different from other MSMs' and they were more exposed to factors that are recognized to potentiate HIV vulnerability, at the individual, community, network and structural levels. The variables positively associated with sex trade involvement were having ever consumed drug (OR = 2.84 [1.23-6.52]; p = .002), having a greater number of sex partners than the median (OR = 8.31 [4.84-14.30]; p < .001), having experienced intimate partner violence (OR = 1.72 [0.99-3.00]; p = .053) and having undergone physical aggression because of sexual orientation (OR = 2.84 [1.23-6.52]; p = .014). Variables negatively associated with sex trade involvement were being older (OR = 0.93 [0.90-0.97] per year; p = .001), having a stable administrative situation (OR = 0.10 [0.06-0.19]; p < .001), having a stable housing (OR = 0.29 [0.15-0.55]; p < .001) and

  5. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connell, Paul P

    2012-02-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715\\/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  6. Diabetes and male sex are key risk factor correlates of the extent of coronary artery calcification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoll, Rachel; Zhao, Ying; Wiklund, Urban

    2017-01-01

    males and females. To a lesser extent, hypertension and dyslipidemia were also associated in the high CAC quantiles and the low CAC quantiles respectively. CONCLUSION: In addition to age and male sex in the total population, diabetes is the most important correlate of CAC extent in both sexes....

  7. The effects of age, sex, and hormones on emotional conflict-related brain response during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cservenka, Anita; Stroup, Madison L; Etkin, Amit; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2015-10-01

    While cognitive and emotional systems both undergo development during adolescence, few studies have explored top-down inhibitory control brain activity in the context of affective processing, critical to informing adolescent psychopathology. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain response during an Emotional Conflict (EmC) Task across 10-15-year-old youth. During the EmC Task, participants indicated the emotion of facial expressions, while disregarding emotion-congruent and incongruent words printed across the faces. We examined the relationships of age, sex, and gonadal hormones with brain activity on Incongruent vs. Congruent trials. Age was negatively associated with middle frontal gyrus activity, controlling for performance and movement confounds. Sex differences were present in occipital and parietal cortices, and were driven by activation in females, and deactivation in males to Congruent trials. Testosterone was negatively related with frontal and striatal brain response in males, and cerebellar and precuneus response in females. Estradiol was negatively related with fronto-cerebellar, cingulate, and precuneus brain activity in males, and positively related with occipital response in females. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the effects of age, sex, and sex steroids during an emotion-cognition task in adolescents. Further research is needed to examine longitudinal development of emotion-cognition interactions and deviations in psychiatric disorders in adolescence.

  8. Nrf2 regulates mass accrual and the antioxidant endogenous response in bone differently depending on the sex and age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Gretel Gisela; Cregor, Meloney; McAndrews, Kevin; Morales, Cynthya Carolina; McCabe, Linda Doyle; McCabe, George P.; Peacock, Munro; Burr, David; Weaver, Connie; Bellido, Teresita

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important pathogenic mechanism underling the loss of bone mass and strength with aging and other conditions leading to osteoporosis. The transcription factor erythroid 2-related factor2 (Nrf2) plays a central role in activating the cellular response to ROS. Here, we examined the endogenous response of bone regulated by Nrf2, and its relationship with bone mass and architecture in the male and female murine skeleton. Young (3 month-old) and old (15 month-old) Nrf2 knockout (KO) mice of either sex exhibited the expected reduction in Nrf2 mRNA expression compared to wild type (WT) littermates. Nrf2 deletion did not lead to compensatory increase in Nrf1 or Nrf3, other members of this transcription factor family; and instead, Nrf1 expression was lower in KO mice. Compared to the respective WT littermate controls, female KO mice, young and old, exhibited lower expression of both detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes; young male KO mice, displayed lower expression of detoxifying enzymes but not antioxidant enzymes; and old male KO mice showed no differences in either detoxifying or antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, old male WT mice exhibited lower Nrf2 levels, and consequently lower expression of both detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes, compared to old female WT mice. These endogenous antioxidant responses lead to delayed rate of bone acquisition in female KO mice and higher bone acquisition in male KO mice as quantified by DXA and μCT, demonstrating that Nrf2 is required for full bone accrual in the female skeleton but unnecessary and even detrimental in the male skeleton. Therefore, Nrf2 regulates the antioxidant endogenous response and bone accrual differently depending on sex and age. These findings suggest that therapeutic interventions that target Nrf2 could be developed to enhance the endogenous antioxidant response in a sex- and age-selective manner. PMID:28152064

  9. Age- and sex-dependent effects of early life stress on hippocampal neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manila eLoi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Early life stress is a well-documented risk factor for the development of psychopathology in genetically predisposed individuals. As it is hard to study how early life stress impacts human brain structure and function, various animal models have been developed to address this issue. The models discussed here reveal that perinatal stress in rodents exerts lasting effects on the stress system as well as on the structure and function of the brain. One of the structural parameters strongly affected by perinatal stress is adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Based on compiled literature data, we report that postnatal stress slightly enhances neurogenesis until the onset of puberty in male rats; when animals reach adulthood, neurogenesis is reduced as a consequence of perinatal stress. By contrast, female rats showed a prominent reduction in neurogenesis prior to the onset of puberty, but this effect subsides when animals reach young adulthood. We further present preliminary data that transient treatment with a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist can normalize cell proliferation in maternally deprived female rats, while the compound had no effect in non-deprived rats. Taken together, the data show that neurogenesis is affected by early life stress in an age-and sex-dependent manner and that normalization may be possible during critical stages of brain development.

  10. The effects of migration and fertility on the age-sex structure of Lagos State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Ugomma EJEKWUMADU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to appraise the influence of fertility and migration on the age-sex population structure of Lagos State, Nigeria. Respondents were randomly selected and given questionnaire to fill with regards to fertility and migration trends in the study area. Using partial correlation and multiple regression analyses, we determined the influence of migration and fertility on the age structure of the population. The combined effects of the partial correlation of fertility and migration were 0.66 (males and 0.79 (females. The regression analyses yielded influence of fertility of 9.6 and 11.7 for males and females respectively, which far outstrips the influence of migration of 6.4 and 1.5 for males and females respectively on the age-sex structure. Also, the base constant was –5.1 for females and –3.2 for males i.e. the minimum change in age of male and female populations that would occur before the influence of fertility and migration become noticeable. Finally, the socio-economic implications of the age-sex structure were highlighted.

  11. Sex differences in soleus strength may predispose middle age women to falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimera, Nicole J; Manal, Kurt T

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated middle age healthy adults to elucidate if plantar flexion (PF) strength differences exist because of the triceps surae or the soleus when comparing between sexes. A random population sample was stratified by sex and included 25 healthy (12 women and 13 men) subjects who volunteered for participation. Dorsiflexion range of motion was measured using a biplane goniometer. Self-reported function was assessed using the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure. Ankle PF strength was assessed using the Biodex System 3. To determine triceps surae vs. soleus strength, testing positions included (1) full ankle dorsiflexion with the knee in full extension and (2) full ankle dorsiflexion with 90° of knee flexion. Results indicated that women were significantly weaker than men in absolute PF strength for both triceps surae and soleus testing positions. Furthermore, even with normalizing PF strength to body mass PF strength deficits persisted. Additionally, when the contribution of the soleus was accounted for in the full knee extended position (triceps surae), normalized strength differences no longer existed between sexes. Therefore, these results indicate that what appeared as triceps surae complex strength deficits in middle age women compared with men was actually soleus weakness. This may suggest that middle age women are predisposed to increased falls at an early age than previously reported. Additionally, this may indicate that the soleus muscle should be a focus of strength training for women during middle age.

  12. Bioelectrical impedance analysis: population reference values for phase angle by age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Silva, Maria Cristina G; Barros, Aluísio J D; Wang, Jack; Heymsfield, Steven B; Pierson, Richard N

    2005-07-01

    Phase angle is an indicator based on reactance and resistance obtained from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Although its biological meaning is still not clear, phase angle appears to have an important prognostic role. The aim of this study was to estimate population averages and SDs of phase angle that can be used as reference values. BIA and other methods used to evaluate body composition, including hydrodensitometry and total body water, were completed in 1967 healthy adults aged 18-94 y. Phase angle was calculated directly from body resistance and reactance, and fat mass (FM) was estimated from the combination of weight, hydrodensitometry, and total body water by using the 3-compartment Siri equation. Phase angle values were compared across categories of sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and percentage FM. Phase angle was significantly (P < 0.001) smaller in women than in men and was lower with greater age (P < 0.001). Phase angle increased with an increase in BMI and was significantly inversely associated with percentage fat in men. Phase angle was significantly predicted from sex, age, BMI, and percentage FM in multiple regression models. Phase angle differs across categories of sex, age, BMI, and percentage fat. These reference values can serve as a basis for phase angle evaluations in the clinical setting.

  13. Knee joint examinations by magnetic resonance imaging: The correlation of pathology, age, and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Avcu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of our study was to investigate the incidence and coexistence of multiple knee joint pathologies and the distribution of knee joint pathologies according to age and sex. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed using the clinical data of patients evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the knee joint. Data from 308 patients examined between August 2002 and July 2003 were included into this study. A Pearson correlation analysis was performed to examine the relationship between the pathological findings and the age and sex of the patients. Results: The ages of the patients ranged between 1 and 74 years (mean: 43.3 years. Age was significantly correlated with meniscal degeneration and tears, medial collateral ligament degeneration, parameniscal cyst, and chondromalacia patellae. There was a significant correlation between male gender and anterior cruciate ligament injury. Meniscal injury was significantly correlated with bursitis, as well as medial collateral ligament injury. Bone bruise was significantly correlated with medial collateral ligament injury, lateral collateral ligament injury, Baker′s cyst, and anterior cruciate ligament injury. Chondromalacia patellae was significantly correlated with anterior cruciate ligament injury, patellae alta, and osteochondral lesion. Bursitis (in 53.2% of the patients followed by grade-II meniscal degeneration (in 43% of the patients were the most common knee pathologies observed by MRI. Conclusions: MRI findings of select knee pathologies are significantly correlated with each other and the age and sex of the patient.

  14. Knee joint examinations by magnetic resonance imaging: The correlation of pathology, age, and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Avcu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of our study was to investigate the incidence and coexistence of multiple knee joint pathologies and the distribution of knee joint pathologies according to age and sex. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed using the clinical data of patients evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the knee joint. Data from 308 patients examined between August 2002 and July 2003 were included into this study. A Pearson correlation analysis was performed to examine the relationship between the pathological findings and the age and sex of the patients. Results: The ages of the patients ranged between 1 and 74 years (mean: 43.3 years. Age was significantly correlated with meniscal degeneration and tears, medial collateral ligament degeneration, parameniscal cyst, and chondromalacia patellae. There was a significant correlation between male gender and anterior cruciate ligament injury. Meniscal injury was significantly correlated with bursitis, as well as medial collateral ligament injury. Bone bruise was significantly correlated with medial collateral ligament injury, lateral collateral ligament injury, Baker’s cyst, and anterior cruciate ligament injury. Chondromalacia patellae was significantly correlated with anterior cruciate ligament injury, patellae alta, and osteochondral lesion. Bursitis (in 53.2% of the patients followed by grade-II meniscal degeneration (in 43% of the patients were the most common knee pathologies observed by MRI. Conclusions: MRI findings of select knee pathologies are significantly correlated with each other and the age and sex of the patient.

  15. Manual control age and sex differences in 4 to 11 year old children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Flatters

    Full Text Available To what degree does being male or female influence the development of manual skills in pre-pubescent children? This question is important because of the emphasis placed on developing important new manual skills during this period of a child's education (e.g. writing, drawing, using computers. We investigated age and sex-differences in the ability of 422 children to control a handheld stylus. A task battery deployed using tablet PC technology presented interactive visual targets on a computer screen whilst simultaneously recording participant's objective kinematic responses, via their interactions with the on-screen stimuli using the handheld stylus. The battery required children use the stylus to: (i make a series of aiming movements, (ii trace a series of abstract shapes and (iii track a moving object. The tasks were not familiar to the children, allowing measurement of a general ability that might be meaningfully labelled 'manual control', whilst minimising culturally determined differences in experience (as much as possible. A reliable interaction between sex and age was found on the aiming task, with girls' movement times being faster than boys in younger age groups (e.g. 4-5 years but with this pattern reversing in older children (10-11 years. The improved performance in older boys on the aiming task is consistent with prior evidence of a male advantage for gross-motor aiming tasks, which begins to emerge during adolescence. A small but reliable sex difference was found in tracing skill, with girls showing a slightly higher level of performance than boys irrespective of age. There were no reliable sex differences between boys and girls on the tracking task. Overall, the findings suggest that prepubescent girls are more likely to have superior manual control abilities for performing novel tasks. However, these small population differences do not suggest that the sexes require different educational support whilst developing their manual

  16. The Impact of Age and Sex on the Refusal Strategies Used by Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Shahpouri Arani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One major problem for non-native speakers is using refusals and because of this, second language teachers and others who communicate in that language should have the cultural differences in mind. When the interlocutors say “no” to a request or invitation, either directly or indirectly, they use speech act of refusal.  Refusal is considered a face threatening act, as there exists a kind of contradiction in it and is always realized indirectly. Thus, a high level of pragmatic competence is needed to realize it. The aim of this study is to find out whether the age and sex of Iranian learners have any effect on their used refusal strategies and if the existence of such an effect was demonstrated which group is more native like in terms of content and form of used strategies. To achieve this end, graduated students (male/female of different age, sex and different fields of study were selected. Three groups of participants participated in this study. The first group includes 30 American English Speakers (A.E.S. The second group consists of participants whose ages were between 22-29 and the third group was a group of 30 participants of both sexes who speak English as a second language (sex is the only variable under study in this group. Using a Discourse Completion Test (DCT, a number of refusal situations were collected, responded by participants and analyzed. The results revealed that the age and sex of EFL learners does not have any significant effect on using refusal strategies.

  17. Manual control age and sex differences in 4 to 11 year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatters, Ian; Hill, Liam J B; Williams, Justin H G; Barber, Sally E; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2014-01-01

    To what degree does being male or female influence the development of manual skills in pre-pubescent children? This question is important because of the emphasis placed on developing important new manual skills during this period of a child's education (e.g. writing, drawing, using computers). We investigated age and sex-differences in the ability of 422 children to control a handheld stylus. A task battery deployed using tablet PC technology presented interactive visual targets on a computer screen whilst simultaneously recording participant's objective kinematic responses, via their interactions with the on-screen stimuli using the handheld stylus. The battery required children use the stylus to: (i) make a series of aiming movements, (ii) trace a series of abstract shapes and (iii) track a moving object. The tasks were not familiar to the children, allowing measurement of a general ability that might be meaningfully labelled 'manual control', whilst minimising culturally determined differences in experience (as much as possible). A reliable interaction between sex and age was found on the aiming task, with girls' movement times being faster than boys in younger age groups (e.g. 4-5 years) but with this pattern reversing in older children (10-11 years). The improved performance in older boys on the aiming task is consistent with prior evidence of a male advantage for gross-motor aiming tasks, which begins to emerge during adolescence. A small but reliable sex difference was found in tracing skill, with girls showing a slightly higher level of performance than boys irrespective of age. There were no reliable sex differences between boys and girls on the tracking task. Overall, the findings suggest that prepubescent girls are more likely to have superior manual control abilities for performing novel tasks. However, these small population differences do not suggest that the sexes require different educational support whilst developing their manual skills.

  18. The Duality of Oral Sex for Men Who Have Sex with Men: An Examination Into the Increase of Sexually Transmitted Infections Amid the Age of HIV Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Tiffany R; Operario, Don; Montgomery, Madeline; Almonte, Alexi; Chan, Philip A

    2017-06-01

    Several studies suggest that the increase in sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men who have sex with men (MSM) could be due, in part, to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk reduction strategies, which include engaging in oral sex over anal sex. The aims of this study were to evaluate oral sex behaviors and STI diagnoses and to investigate the potential dual role of oral sex as being protective for HIV, yet perpetuating STI transmission among MSM. We analyzed records from 871 MSM presenting to the Rhode Island STI Clinic between 2012 and 2015. We compared outcomes in men engaging in two HIV protective oral sex behaviors: (1) HIV/STI outcomes by men engaging only in oral sex versus those that did not, and (2) HIV/STI outcomes by men engaging in condomless oral sex with 100% condom use for all other sex acts versus those that did not. Men engaging in HIV protective oral sex behaviors were more likely to be HIV negative compared to men not engaging in them (99% vs. 93%, p < 0.01). In contrast, there was no significant difference in STI diagnoses between those that engaged in HIV protective oral sex behaviors and those that did not. The findings provide evidence to support the unique duality of oral sex: decreased risk for HIV and perpetuation of STI risk. Promotion of routine STI testing, including extragenital sites, is critical to address STI prevention among MSM. In the age of HIV prevention, addressing the ambiguous risks of discrete sex acts would be beneficial for both HIV and STI prevention education for MSM.

  19. Impact of cardiovascular risk factors on carotid intima–media thickness: sex differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łoboz-Rudnicka M

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Maria Łoboz-Rudnicka,1 Joanna Jaroch,1 Zbigniew Bociąga,1 Barbara Rzyczkowska,1 Izabella Uchmanowicz,2 Jacek Polański,3 Krzysztof Dudek,4 Andrzej Szuba,5 Krystyna Łoboz-Grudzień2   1Department of Cardiology, T. Marciniak Hospital, 2Public Health Department, Wroclaw Medical University, 3Private Practice, Na Biskupinie, Wroclaw, 4Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Wroclaw University of Technology, 5Division of Angiology, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland Background and purpose: There has been growing interest in the sex-related differences in the impact of cardiovascular (CV risk factors on carotid intima–media thickness (CIMT. Therefore, we aimed at examining the influence of CV risk factors on CIMT in men and women and identifying differences between males and females in the risk profiles affecting CIMT. Patients and methods: The study group consisted of 256 patients (mean age 54.7 years, including 134 females (52%, with the following CV risk factors: arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, nicotine addiction, overweight, and obesity. Subjects with the history of any overt CV disease were excluded. CIMT was measured through B-mode ultrasound examination of the right common carotid artery. In the analysis of CIMT values at different ages, the patients were divided into three age groups: 1 <45 years, 2 45–60 years, and 3 >60 years. Regression analysis was used to examine the influence of CV risk factors on CIMT in men and women. Results: CIMT increased with age in both men and women. Women had lower values of CIMT than men (0.54 mm vs 0.60 mm, P=0.011. The analysis in three age subgroups revealed that CIMT values were comparable in men and women in group 1 (0.48 mm vs 0.48 mm, P=0.861, but over the age of 45 years, CIMT values became significantly lower in women compared to men (group 2: 0.51 mm vs 0.63 mm, P=0.005; group 3: 0.63 mm vs 0.72 mm, P=0.020. Significant differences were observed

  20. Stability and change in same-sex attraction, experience, and identity by sex and age in a New Zealand birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Nigel; van Roode, Thea; Cameron, Claire; Paul, Charlotte

    2013-07-01

    Gaps remain in knowledge of changes in sexual orientation past adolescence and early adulthood. A longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort was used to examine differences by age and sex in change in sexual attraction between 21 (1993/1994) and 38 years (2010/2011), sexual experiences between 26 and 38 years, and sexual identity between 32 and 38 years. Any same-sex attraction was significantly more common among women than men at all ages. Among women, any same-sex attraction increased up to age 26 (from 8.8 to 16.6 %), then decreased slightly by age 38 (12.0 %); among men, prevalence was significantly higher at age 38 (6.5 %) than 21 (4.2 %), but not in the intermediate assessments. It is likely that the social environment becoming more tolerant was responsible for some of the changes. Same-sex attraction was much more common than same-sex experiences or a same-sex identity, especially among women, with no major sex differences in these latter dimensions. Women exhibited much greater change in sexual attraction between assessments than men; for change in experiences and identity, sex differences were less marked and not statistically confirmed. Changes in the respective dimensions appeared more likely among those initially with mixed attraction and experiences, and among those initially identifying as bisexual, but this did not account for the sex difference in likelihood of change. These results provide contemporary information about the extent and variation of reported sexual attraction, experiences, and identity that we show continues across early and mid-adulthood.

  1. Sex differences in mathematical reasoning ability at age 13: their status 20 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbow, C P; Lubinski, D; Shea, D L; Eftekhari-Sanjani, H

    2000-11-01

    Reported is the 20-year follow-up of 1,975 mathematically gifted adolescents (top 1%) whose assessments at age 12 to 14 revealed robust gender differences in mathematical reasoning ability. Both sexes became exceptional achievers and perceived themselves as such; they reported uniformly high levels of degree attainment and satisfaction with both their career direction and their overall success. The earlier sex differences in mathematical reasoning ability did predict differential educational and occupational outcomes. The observed differences also appeared to be a function of sex differences in preferences for (a) inorganic versus organic disciplines and (b) a career-focused versus more-balanced life. Because profile differences in abilities and preferences are longitudinally stable, males probably will remain more represented in some disciplines, whereas females are likely to remain more represented in others. These data have policy implications for higher education and the world of work.

  2. Experiential factors in sex differences on mental rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Isabelle D; Jagarlamudi, Kavita; Lawrence, Erika; Shimabuku, Nicole

    2003-06-01

    Past research has shown that men score significantly higher than women on mental rotation tests. The present study examined the effects of a prior exposure to a mental rotation task, i.e., adapted Cube Comparison test, and to three-dimensional objects, i.e., Legos, on the performance on the Mental Rotation Test. 113 men and women were randomly divided into three conditions: control, exposure, or detailed instructions. On average, men outperformed women. Further analyses showed that sex differences were significant in the control condition but not in the other two, suggesting that a cuing effect may explain some of the robust sex differences in visuospatial tasks.

  3. Thickness of the human cranial diploe in relation to age, sex and general body build

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Astrup, Jacob G; Sejrsen, Birgitte

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Earlier studies have addressed the human total cranial vault thickness and generally found no correlation with sex, age or body weight. However, the thickness of the diploe has not been investigated. Our study has determined the diploeic thickness of the human cranial vault using modern...... correlations between the diploeic thickness and age and height and weight of the individual. CONCLUSION: Males overall have a thicker diploe, albeit this difference is statistically significant only in the frontal region. We could not discern any trends as pertains to diploeic thickness versus age, height...

  4. Impact of age and sex on sudden cardiovascular death following myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildstrom, S Z; Rask-Madsen, C; Ottesen, M M;

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the risk of sudden cardiovascular death (SCD) and non-SCD after myocardial infarction (MI) associated with age and sex. DESIGN: Cohort study of patients admitted with an enzyme verified acute MI and discharged alive. Patients were followed up for up to four years....... PATIENTS: 5983 consecutive hospital survivors of acute MI were enrolled in the TRACE (trandolapril cardiac evaluation) registry from 1990-92. Four age groups were prespecified: or = 76 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: SCD was defined as cardiovascular death within one hour of onset...... years). Age significantly increased both SCD and non-SCD risk (p women...

  5. Sex differences in angiotensin II responses contribute to a differential regulation of cox-mediated vascular dysfunction during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Gustavo; Garabito, Manel; Jiménez-Altayó, Francesc; Onetti, Yara; Sabate, Manel; Vila, Elisabet; Dantas, Ana Paula

    2016-12-01

    Aging is a cardiovascular risk factor partially related to activation of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS). RAS activation is also influenced by sex. In this regard, our study aims to determine whether sex-associated differences in RAS contribute to a differential regulation of vascular aging and associated dysfunction. Male and female outbreed CD-1 mice were studied at 3 and 12months of age (M). Contribution of RAS was determined by treating mice from 3M to 12M with the AngII type 1 receptor blocker losartan (0.6g/L in the drinking water). At 12M, contractions to AngII were higher in males compared to females (P<0.05). This effect was paralleled by a decrease in AngII type 2 receptors in 12M males. Aging also diminished ACh relaxation in males, but did not modify female responses. Treatment of aortas with indomethacin (10μM) restored the impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation in 12M males, suggesting an increase of cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived vasoconstrictors in aged males. Chronic treatment of mice with losartan also improved endothelium-dependent relaxation. Besides, losartan significantly decreased COX-2 expression and activity in 12M male, with a minor effect in aged females. Aging increases AngII contraction and induces endothelial dysfunction differently in males and females. In aged males, RAS contributed to increased COX-2 expression and activity, which in turn may lead to vascular dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Age-Related Sex-Specific Changes in Brain Metabolism and Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Akihiro; Ito, Shigeru; Okada, Hiroyuki; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Minoshima, Satoshi; Ouchi, Yasuomi

    2016-02-01

    With a large database, we aimed to evaluate sex-specific distinctive changes in brain glucose metabolism and morphology during normal aging using MRI and (18)F-FDG PET. A total of 963 cognitively healthy adults were included in this study. All subjects completed a medical questionnaire, took the mini-mental state examination, and underwent brain MRI and whole-body (18)F-FDG PET. The MR and PET images were statistically analyzed using 3-dimensional stereotactic surface projection. All images were corrected for whole-brain pixel value to identify the brain regions with significant changes, and regions of interest were set up with reference to Brodmann areas. We evaluated morphologic and glucose metabolic changes by cross-sectional analysis. The baseline database consisted of subjects from 30 to 40 y old, and the age-step for comparison was 5-y ranges. We also compared sex-specific differences in MR and PET images in each age group. Regarding age-related changes, in both sexes brain atrophy was observed in the lateral frontal and parietal regions and glucose hypometabolism in the medial frontal regions. There were significant differences in these parameters between the sexes; parallel changes in volume and metabolism were manifested in the medial frontal cortex in men and in the lateral and medial temporal cortex in women. By contrast, metabolism-dominant reductions were manifested in the lateral and medial parietal cortex in men and in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, including the Broca area, in women. These differences became insignificant in individuals 66 y or older. Our brain mapping study with a large number of reference human brain data demonstrated age-related parallel changes between morphology and metabolism in the medial frontal regions and sex-specific hypometabolism in the parietal (male) and ventrolateral prefrontal (female) cortices. These findings may suggest an aging vulnerability in sex-specific brain regions: the parietal cortex for

  7. Measurement of intima media thickness of carotid artery by B-mode ultrasound in healthy people of India and Bangladesh, and relation of age and sex with carotid artery intima media thickness: An observational study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul, Jayanta; Shaw, Kishore; Dasgupta, Somnath; Ghosh, Mrinal Kanti

    2012-01-01

    .... Our study was done to find out the mean carotid artery intima media thickness (CAIMT) of normal healthy people of India and Bangladesh, and the relationship of non-modifiable risk factors such as age and sex with CAIMT...

  8. Estimation of sex and age of 'virtual skeletons'-a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabherr, Silke [University Hospital of Lausanne, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Lausanne (Switzerland)]|[University of Bern, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Bern (Switzerland)]|[University Hospital of Lausanne, Service of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Cooper, Christine; Ulrich-Bochsler, Susi [University of Bern, Institute for the History of Medicine, Historical Anthropology, Bern (Switzerland); Uldin, Tanya [Service of Osteo-Archaeology, Aesch (Switzerland); Ross, Steffen; Oesterhelweg, Lars; Bolliger, Stephan; Thali, Michael J. [University of Bern, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Bern (Switzerland); Christe, Andreas [University of Bern, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Bern (Switzerland)]|[University of Bern, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); Schnyder, Pierre [University Hospital of Lausanne, Service of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Mangin, Patrice [University Hospital of Lausanne, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-02-15

    This article presents a feasibility study with the objective of investigating the potential of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) to estimate the bone age and sex of deceased persons. To obtain virtual skeletons, the bodies of 22 deceased persons with known age at death were scanned by MDCT using a special protocol that consisted of high-resolution imaging of the skull, shoulder girdle (including the upper half of the humeri), the symphysis pubis and the upper halves of the femora. Bone and soft-tissue reconstructions were performed in two and three dimensions. The resulting data were investigated by three anthropologists with different professional experience. Sex was determined by investigating three-dimensional models of the skull and pelvis. As a basic orientation for the age estimation, the complex method according to Nemeskeri and co-workers was applied. The final estimation was effected using additional parameters like the state of dentition, degeneration of the spine, etc., which where chosen individually by the three observers according to their experience. The results of the study show that the estimation of sex and age is possible by the use of MDCT. Virtual skeletons present an ideal collection for anthropological studies, because they are obtained in a non-invasive way and can be investigated ad infinitum. (orig.)

  9. Can Neglected Tropical Diseases Compromise Human Wellbeing in Sex-, Age-, and Trait-Specific Ways?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Geary

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and other stressors. As a result, the dynamics of competition and choice can, in theory, be used to generate predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species, including humans. These dynamics and associated vulnerabilities are reviewed for nonhuman species, focusing on traits that are compromised by exposure to parasites. Using the same approach, sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities to parasitic disease are illustrated for children's and adolescent's physical growth and fitness. Suggestions are then provided for widening the assessment of human vulnerabilities to include age-appropriate measures of behavioral (e.g., children's play and cognitive (e.g., language fluency traits. These are traits that are likely to be compromised by infection in age- and sex-specific ways. Inclusion of these types of measures in studies of neglected tropic diseases has the potential to provide a more nuanced understanding of how these diseases undermine human wellbeing and may provide a useful means to study the efficacy of associated treatments.

  10. The Leicester cerebral haemodynamics database: normative values and the influence of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nikil; Panerai, Ronney B; Haunton, Victoria; Katsogridakis, Emmanuel; Saeed, Nazia P; Salinet, Angela; Brodie, Fiona; Syed, Nazia; D'Sa, Schnell; Robinson, Thompson G

    2016-09-01

    Normative values of physiological parameters hold significance in modern day clinical decision-making. Lack of such normative values has been a major hurdle in the translation of research into clinical practice. A large database containing uniform recordings was constructed to allow more robust estimates of normative ranges and also assess the influence of age and sex. Doppler recordings were performed on healthy volunteers in the same laboratory, using similar protocols and equipment. Beat-to-beat blood pressure, heart-rate, electrocardiogram, and end-tidal CO2 were measured continuously. Bilateral insonation of the middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) was performed using TCD following a 15 min stabilisation, and a 5 min baseline recording. Good quality Doppler recordings for both MCAs were obtained in 129 participants (57 female) with a median age of 57 years (range 20-82). Age was found to influence baseline haemodynamic and transfer function analysis parameters. Cerebral blood flow velocity and critical closing pressure were the only sex-related differences found, which was significantly higher in females than males. Normative values for cerebral haemodynamic parameters have been defined in a large, healthy population. Such age/sex-defined normal values can be used to reduce the burden of collecting additional control data in future studies, as well as to identify disease-associated changes.

  11. Measures of bioavailable serum sex hormone levels in aging Chinese by protein chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yong; DU Guanhua; CHANG Shuying; MENG Xiaoluo; YU Huafeng; WANG Luning; HE Jinggui; ZHANG Baohe; ZHANG Juntian; GENG Meiyu

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a protein chip technique based on receptor binding assays to measure bioavailable serum sex hormone levels (BSSHL). 224 aging healthy Chinese were investigated to get the referenced values of BSSHL for the first time. In the assays recombined sex hormone receptor proteins were jointed to polysaccharide coated slides to make protein chip, and the dose-dependence curves of sex hormone on chip were prepared. The data showed that this method had good precision (CV<16%) and accuracy (Bias<10%), and the sensitivity could reach 1 pmol/L. From the results, BSSHL of men and women declined with aging, but no significant differences were observed. The BSSHL of aging men were higher than those of women. The bioavailable serum androgen level of men was 52―112 pmol/L, women's was 3―70 pmol/L and the whole group was 41.9―81.4 pmol/L. The bioavailable serum estrogen level of men was 0.8―3.0 pmol/L, women's was 1.2―2.5 pmol/L and the whole group was 0.6―2.64 pmol/L. Based on the assays, BSSHL measurement by protein chip can meet the needs of epidemiological studies in terms of speed, accuracy and sample volume required, and was helpful in quantitative assessment of aging people's health.

  12. Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer disease: Genotype-specific risks by age and sex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickeboeller, H. [INSERM, Paris (France)]|[IMSE, Munich (Germany); Babron, M.C.; Clerget-Darpoux, F. [INSERM, Paris (France)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    The distribution of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes as a function of age and sex has been examined in a French population of 417 Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and 1,030 control subjects. When compared to the APOE {epsilon}3 allele, an increased risk associated with the APOE {epsilon}4 allele (odds ratio [OR] [{epsilon}4] = 2.7 with 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.0-3.6; P < .001) and a protective effect of the APOE {epsilon}2 allele (OR[{epsilon}2] = 0.5 with 95% CI = 0.3-0.98; P = .012) were retrieved. An effect of the {epsilon}4 allele dosage on susceptibility was confirmed (OR[{epsilon}4/{epsilon}4] vs. the {epsilon}3/{epsilon}3 genotype = 11.2 [95% CI = 4.0-31.6]; OR[{epsilon}3/{epsilon}4] vs. the {epsilon}3/{epsilon}3 genotype = 2.2 [95% Cl = 1.5-3.5]). The frequency of the {epsilon}4 allele was lower in male cases than in female cases, but, since a similar difference was found in controls, this does not lead to a difference in OR between sex. ORs for the {epsilon}4 allele versus the {epsilon}3 allele, OR({epsilon}4), were not equal in all age classes: OR({epsilon}4) in the extreme groups with onset at < 60 years or > 79 years were significantly lower than those from the age groups 60-79 years. In {epsilon}3/{epsilon}4 individuals, sex-specific lifetime risk estimates by age 85 years (i.e., sex-specific penetrances by age 85 years) were 0.14 (95% CI 0.04-0.30) for men and 0.17 (95% CI 0.09-0.28) for women. 53 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. Sex and Background Factors: Effect on ASAT Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Raymond J.

    1985-01-01

    Data sets from Australia were analyzed using a causal model to determine the possible causes of sex differences in ASAT scores. Observed differences could be explained in terms of differences in students' English scores, the time the students spent studying mathematics, and their confidence in success. (Author/MLW)

  14. Anthropometric measurements in the elderly of Havana, Cuba: age and sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues; Borgatto, Adriano Ferreti

    2009-01-01

    We present selected anthropometric data, specific for sex and age group, from a representative sample of elderly subjects living in Havana, Cuba. This was a cross-sectional, population-based household survey. A total of 1905 subjects (1197 women and 708 men, > or = 60 y of age) were examined between 1999 and 2000 as selected by probabilistic sampling. Data were presented as means and percentiles for body mass; height or stature; body mass index; waist, arm, and calf circumferences; triceps skinfold thickness; and arm muscle circumference; and differences were described according to age (all variables) and sex (body mass index). All anthropometric variables showed a decrease in average values with aging in men and women. The age of 70 y appeared to be the decisive moment for the main anthropometric differences observed. The values in the female group were higher than those in the male group for body mass index and triceps skinfold thickness. An important segment of the population studied had a body mass index lower than normal values. Reductions in subcutaneous fat (indicated by triceps skinfold thickness) and muscle mass (verified by arm, arm muscle, and calf circumferences) with advancing age appeared to be greater among women than among men. The present study provides information that can be used for anthropometric evaluation of elderly people in Havana and other urban areas in Cuba. The observations suggest that there is loss of muscle mass and redistribution and reduction of fat mass with age (that is more severe in women).

  15. Age and sex dependencies of anxiety and depression in cardiologic patients compared with the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Andreas; Kittel, Jörg; Karoff, Marthin; Schwarz, Reinhold

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test age and sex effects on anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale HADS. Method: Sample 1 consisted of 2037 subjects of the German general population, and sample 2 comprised 2696 cardiologic patients. Results: In the group of the general population we observed a linear increase of depression and (to a lower extent) of anxiety with age. In contrast to that, the patients reached their anxiety and depression maxima in the range of 50 to 60 years, with decreasing mean values for older patients. This effect was observed in both sexes and was proved by an ANOVA interaction between age category and population (P<0.001). In the age range over 70 years the mean depression scores of the patients were even lower than those of the general population. Especially high anxiety and depression scores were found for retired males under 60 years of age. Conclusion: Premature retirement is associated with anxiety and depression in cardiologic patients which partly accounts for the different age effects of the samples. Longitudinal studies are needed to explain the underlying mechanisms of the age effects in more detail. PMID:19742054

  16. Beliefs in the paranormal: age and sex differences among elderly persons and undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitulli, W F; Tipton, S M; Rowe, J L

    1999-12-01

    Beliefs in the paranormal were rated stronger in younger as compared to elderly adults by Emmons and Sobal in 1981, and sex correlates of paranormal beliefs appeared to be stronger in women than in men by Irwin in 1994. This research studied possible linkages between age and sex with a comparative analysis between results of Vitulli and Luper's 1998 survey among undergraduate students and data from elderly men (M = 72 yr., SD = 9.2, n = 21) and women (M = 69.3 yr., SD = 7.7, n = 55). Crawford and Christensen's 1995 12-item Extrasensory Perception Survey was administered to elderly persons living in apartment complexes and private homes, participating in activities in a recreation center, or attending a continuing-education seminar. A 2 x 2 multivariate analysis of variance from responses on the 12-item survey showed that undergraduate men and elderly women had the highest ratings on paranormal beliefs. The self-selecting characteristics of a segment of the elderly sample led to a post hoc univariate analysis of variance by partitioning that sample into those who were attending a continuing-education seminar versus all other elderly persons. Summated ratings (total scores) for this survey showed main effects for these subsamples and for sex. Sex and age differences were discussed in the context of the hypothesis of social marginality.

  17. Same- and Other-Sex Victimization : Are the Risk Factors Similar?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sainio, Miia; Veenstra, René; Huitsing, Gijs; Salmivalli, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Risk factors for same- and other-sex victimization were examined in a longitudinal data set involving 9- to 14-year-old students. The findings regarding same-sex victimization supported the view that bullies select personally and interpersonally vulnerable targets in order to maximize their gains in

  18. Same- and Other-Sex Victimization : Are the Risk Factors Similar?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sainio, Miia; Veenstra, René; Huitsing, Gijs; Salmivalli, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Risk factors for same- and other-sex victimization were examined in a longitudinal data set involving 9- to 14-year-old students. The findings regarding same-sex victimization supported the view that bullies select personally and interpersonally vulnerable targets in order to maximize their gains in

  19. Measurement of intima media thickness of carotid artery by B-mode ultrasound in healthy people of India and Bangladesh, and relation of age and sex with carotid artery intima media thickness: An observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Jayanta; Shaw, Kishore; Dasgupta, Somnath; Ghosh, Mrinal Kanti

    2012-01-01

    Background: Carotid artery intima media is a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis and related with ethnicity, age, sex, traditional and non-traditional risk factors. Black ethnicity is related to greater mean and maximum carotid artery intima media thickness when compared to South Asians. Our study was done to find out the mean carotid artery intima media thickness (CAIMT) of normal healthy people of India and Bangladesh, and the relationship of non-modifiable risk factors such as age and sex ...

  20. The extent of increase in first calving age as a result of implementing various sexed semen breeding strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahereh Joezy-Shekalgorabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A deterministic simulation was conducted to assess the effects of sexed semen utilization strategies on age at first calving (AFC. Four different strategies were implemented on dairy heifers: continuous use of conventional semen only (CC, continuous use of sexed semen only (SS, utilization of sexed semen for both the first and second services with conventional semen afterwards (S2, and utilization of sexed semen for the first service with conventional semen afterwards (S1. Results indicated that continuous utilization of sexed semen led to the greatest AFC; however at high conception rates, strategies displayed negligible differences on AFC. Increases in estrus detection rate had the greatest effects on decreasing AFC of the SS scenarios. Negative effect of sexed semen on AFC increased when the effect of low estrus detection rate was combined with low conception rate of sexed semen. Results indicated that in the case of access to sexed semen conception rate, prediction of AFC is possible by quadratic polynomial or exponential equations, depending to the applied breeding strategy. Simultaneous utilization of sexed and conventional semen in a herd did not make a substantial change in AFC when a low percentage of sexed semen was employed. Increasing the contribution of different sexed semen strategies led to higher AFC variation, especially for the SS strategy. AFC of strategies that utilize sexed semen is highly dependent on the conception rate, estrus detection rate and the contribution of sex sorted semen in the total number of inseminations of the heifer herd.

  1. The extent of increase in first calving age as a result of implementing various sexed semen breeding strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joezy-Shekalgorabi, S.; Shadparvar, A. A.; Vries, A. de; Gay, K. D.

    2014-06-01

    A deterministic simulation was conducted to assess the effects of sexed semen utilization strategies on age at first calving (AFC). Four different strategies were implemented on dairy heifers: continuous use of conventional semen only (CC), continuous use of sexed semen only (SS), utilization of sexed semen for both the first and second services with conventional semen afterwards (S2), and utilization of sexed semen for the first service with conventional semen afterwards (S1). Results indicated that continuous utilization of sexed semen led to the greatest AFC; however at high conception rates, strategies displayed negligible differences on AFC. Increases in estrus detection rate had the greatest effects on decreasing AFC of the SS scenarios. Negative effect of sexed semen on AFC increased when the effect of low estrus detection rate was combined with low conception rate of sexed semen. Results indicated that in the case of access to sexed semen conception rate, prediction of AFC is possible by quadratic polynomial or exponential equations, depending to the applied breeding strategy. Simultaneous utilization of sexed and conventional semen in a herd did not make a substantial change in AFC when a low percentage of sexed semen was employed. Increasing the contribution of different sexed semen strategies led to higher AFC variation, especially for the SS strategy. AFC of strategies that utilize sexed semen is highly dependent on the conception rate, estrus detection rate and the contribution of sex sorted semen in the total number of inseminations of the heifer herd. (Author)

  2. Factors associated with sex work among at-risk female youth in Cambodia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Carinne; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhea, Chhorvann; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Yi, Siyan

    2016-01-01

    In Cambodia, despite great achievements in reducing the prevalence of HIV in the general population, reducing new HIV infections among young at-risk women remains a challenge. This study was designed to examine the prevalence of risky behaviors of sexually active female youth in Cambodia and to explore risk factors associated with engagement in transactional sex. We surveyed sexually active female youth aged 10-24 enrolled at risk "hotspots" in eight provinces in Cambodia. We collected data on demographic factors, sexual behavior, and factors hypothesized to be associated with transactional sex. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify associations between demographic and sexual behavior and transactional sex. Of the 280 respondents, the mean age was 21.2, and 48.1% had been paid for sex in the past year. After adjustment, at-risk females who were never have been married (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.65-6.97), have completed less than 6 years of school (AOR 3.26, 95% CI = 1.60-6.66), have 1 or more parents who had died (AOR 4.34, 95% CI = 2.00-9.38), be a heavy alcohol drinker (AOR 3.58, 95% CI = 1.78-7.18), have used a condom with their boyfriend during last sexual encounter (AOR 3.50, 95% CI = 1.68-7.32), and have ever had an HIV test (AOR 3.51, 95% CI = 1.68-7.32) were more likely to engage in sex work. Our findings suggest that prevention strategies for female youth at risk of engagement in sex work should include upstream structural interventions that aim to encourage girls' education and empowerment. In addition, tailored sex education and behavior change messaging about the risks of heavy drinking, condom use with romantic partners, and the importance of frequent HIV testing for at-risk youth and sex workers should be designed and delivered to youth currently engaging in sex work.

  3. Differences between the sexes and age-related changes in orienteering speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, S; Balmer, J; Olds, T; Davison, R C

    2001-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the age and sex of the competitor on orienteering speed during competitive events. The results of the fastest three male and fastest three female competitors in each 5-year age band (21-79 years), from four national orienteering events, were analysed. The data for age and orienteering speed were log-transformed and regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationships between age and sex and orienteering speed. For comparison, data for the fastest Great Britain finisher in the 10,000-m track and 10-km cross-country events for age groups 40-69 years at the World Masters Championships were also analysed. The results showed that, before the age of 40 years, there was no substantial slowing in orienteering speed for males (0.5-4.2% per decade) but a moderate decline (4.7-10.0% per decade) for females. After the age of 45 years, the orienteering speed of males and females slowed by 13+/-2% and 16+/-4% per decade (mean +/- s), respectively, until around the age of 69, after which the deterioration was accentuated. The orienteering speed of the females was 81+/-4, 74+/-6 and 69+/-7% that of the males at ages 21, 45 and 65 years, respectively. The magnitudes of the age-related slowing of orienteering speed and of the difference in orienteering speed between males and females aged 45 years and over were greater than those reported for the other endurance running events. This may reflect the physical demands of running in orienteering terrain, tactical and cognitive aspects of the sport, or sociocultural aspects of the participating population.

  4. How sex- and age-disaggregated data and gender and generational analyses can improve humanitarian response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurana, Dyan; Benelli, Prisca; Walker, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Humanitarian aid remains largely driven by anecdote rather than by evidence. The contemporary humanitarian system has significant weaknesses with regard to data collection, analysis, and action at all stages of response to crises involving armed conflict or natural disaster. This paper argues that humanitarian actors can best determine and respond to vulnerabilities and needs if they use sex- and age-disaggregated data (SADD) and gender and generational analyses to help shape their assessments of crises-affected populations. Through case studies, the paper shows how gaps in information on sex and age limit the effectiveness of humanitarian response in all phases of a crisis. The case studies serve to show how proper collection, use, and analysis of SADD enable operational agencies to deliver assistance more effectively and efficiently. The evidence suggests that the employment of SADD and gender and generational analyses assists in saving lives and livelihoods in a crisis.

  5. Influence of sex and age on the biological half-life of cadmium in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, T. (Kochi Medical School, Nangoku-shi, Japan); Suzuki, S.

    1981-02-01

    The influence of age on the whole-body biological half-life of /sup 109/Cd was studied in male mice following ip injection. The influence of sex on whole-body and organ retention was ascertained after sc injection. The whole-body biological half-life of /sup 109/Cd of the older mice was more than twice that of the younger mice, and that of the female mice was longer than that of the males. These differences demonstrate a biological difference between males and females with respect to whole-body half-life of /sup 109/Cd. The effects of age and sex on the biological half-life of Cd in mice are assessed quantitatively.

  6. Sex differences in risk factor management of coronary heart disease across three regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Graham, Ian; Grobbee, Diederick; Spiering, Wilko; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Woodward, Mark; Peters, Sanne Ae

    2017-10-01

    To investigate whether there are sex differences in risk factor management of patients with established coronary heart disease (CHD), and to assess demographic variations of any potential sex differences. Patients with CHD were recruited from Europe, Asia, and the Middle East between 2012-2013. Adherence to guideline-recommended treatment and lifestyle targets was assessed and summarised as a Cardiovascular Health Index Score (CHIS). Age-adjusted regression models were used to estimate odds ratios for women versus men in risk factor management. 10 112 patients (29% women) were included. Compared with men, women were less likely to achieve targets for total cholesterol (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.59), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.64), and glucose (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.87), or to be physically active (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.81) or non-obese (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.90). In contrast, women had better control of blood pressure (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.44) and were more likely to be a non-smoker (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.67 to 2.22) than men. Overall, women were less likely than men to achieve all treatment targets (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.93) or obtain an adequate CHIS (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.91), but no significant differences were found for all lifestyle targets (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.02). Sex disparities in reaching treatment targets were smaller in Europe than in Asia and the Middle East. Women in Asia were more likely than men to reach lifestyle targets, with opposing results in Europe and the Middle East. Risk factor management for the secondary prevention of CHD was generally worse in women than in men. The magnitude and direction of the sex differences varied by region. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Selling and buying sex: a longitudinal study of risk and protective factors in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestle, Christine E

    2012-06-01

    Engaging in trading sex is associated with many co-occurring problems, including elevated risk for sexually transmitted infections. Various dimensions of social support from parents, schools, and mentors may be protective against sex trading and may ameliorate the impact of risk factors. This study analyzes data from respondents to Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) who had not participated in sex trading for money or drugs in Wave I so that risk and protective factors for first initiations of selling or buying sex could be examined longitudinally. About 2% of the study sample began selling sex and about 2% began buying sex between Wave I and Wave III. The respondent's sex, race/ethnicity, history of sexual abuse, shoplifting, marijuana use, and experiences of homelessness or running away were significant predictors of trading sex (p intervention for youth who experience sexual abuse or running away. Elements of school connectedness have a protective effect on selling and buying sex. Promoting school connectedness may advance public health goals.

  8. The moderating effects of sex and age on the association between traumatic brain injury and harmful psychological correlates among adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ilie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although it is well established that sex is a risk factor in acquiring a traumatic brain injury (TBI among adolescents, it has not been established whether it also moderates the influence of other TBI psychological health correlates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data were derived from a 2011 population-based cross-sectional school survey, which included 9,288 Ontario 7th-12th graders who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms. Response rate was 62%. Preliminary analyses found no evidence of nonresponse bias in the reporting of TBI. TBI was defined as a hit or blow to the head that resulted in a 5 minutes loss of consciousness or at least one overnight hospitalization due to symptoms associated with it. Reports of lifetime TBI were more common among males than females (23.1%, 95% CI: 20.5, 25.8 vs. 17.1%, 95% CI: 14.7, 19.8. Thirteen correlates were examined and included cigarette smoking, elevated psychological distress, suicide ideation, bully victimization (at school, as well as cyber bullying, bullying others, cannabis use, cannabis dependence and drug use problems, physical injuries, daily smoking, drinking alcohol, binge drinking, use of cannabis, and poor academic performance. Among the outcomes examined, sex moderated the relationship between lifetime TBI and cigarette smoking. In addition, sex and age jointly moderated the relationship between lifetime TBI and daily smoking, alcohol use and physical injuries. Late adolescent males who reported lifetime TBI, relative to females, displayed elevated daily smoking and injuries, whereas their females counterparts displayed elevated past year drinking. Possible bias related to self-report procedures and the preclusion of causal inferences due to the cross-sectional nature of the data are limitations of this study. CONCLUSIONS: TBI differences in outcomes need to be assessed for potential moderating effects of sex and age. Results have important implications for

  9. A STUDY ON EFFECT OF AGE, BREED AND SEX ON BLOOD SUGAR LEVEL OF DISEASED DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the dogs with moderate to serious illness coming for treatment at the Dog Ward of West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, West Bengal, India, to find out possible correlation between fasting blood sugar level with breed, sex and age of dogs. The study result implicated that the blood sugar level was not having any general tendency to increase with advancement of age of ailing dogs. The blood sugar level of ailing dogs was higher in small breeds of dogs, particularly in 0 to <4 year age group. The large breeds showed highest level of sugar in blood in disease condition at above the age 12 years or more. The blood sugar level of ailing dogs had a gender bias, as it was found more in females than males in all breeds and age groups.

  10. Magnetisation transfer imaging of the normal adenohypophysis: the effect of sex and age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Metafratzi, Z.; Efremidis, S.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, D.N. [Lab. of Physiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina (Greece)

    2001-04-01

    Magnetisation transfer (MT) techniques provide tissue contrast depending mainly on the concentration of macromolecules. Because many macromolecules are involved in the secretory activity of the pituitary gland, MT techniques might be useful in the study of pituitary gland disorders. Our purpose was to establish a quantitative database of the MT ratio (MTR) of the normal adenohypophysis and to see whether there are age- and sex-related differences. Using a three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence for MT we studied the adenohypophysis in 56 males and 61 females aged 7 months-77 years; postsaturation images were obtained using an on-resonance binomial prepulse. The images were normal in all but three patients, two with meningiomas, one with a schwannoma. Adenohypophyseal MTR increased in both sexes up to 19 years of age (r = 0.47 males, 0.39 females, P < 0.05). In men after 20 years and in women from 20-49 years MTR decreased (r = -0.68, P < 0.001, r = -0.46, P < 0.05, respectively). In women aged 50-59 years the MTR again increased slightly. The MTR in males was slightly higher at all ages except before 9 and after 50 years of age. These differences were not statistically significant except in the 40-49 year group (P < 0.05). (orig.)

  11. Primary care presentations at emergency departments: rates and reasons by age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siminski, Peter; Bezzina, Andrew J; Lago, Luise P; Eagar, Kathy

    2008-11-01

    Primary care presentations at emergency departments (EDs) have been the subject of much attention in recent years. This paper is a demographic analysis using administrative data from the Emergency Department Information System (EDIS) for 2005 of such presentations in New South Wales EDs and of self-reported reasons for presentation. Age and sex differences in the reasons given by patients for such presentations are analysed using data from a survey of patients conducted in a subset of EDs in 2004. The rate of "potential primary care" presentations varies greatly with age and to a lesser extent with sex. Almost half (47%) of these presentations are made by people under 25 years of age. Children aged 0-4 years account for 14% of the total. The pattern is distinctly different to the corresponding rate of ED presentations that do not fit the "potential primary care" definition. Reasons given for "potential primary care" presentations are consistent across all age groups, reflecting self-assessed urgency, access to diagnostics and self-assessed complexity. Older "primary care" patients are particularly unlikely to give reasons associated with GP affordability or availability for their presentations. Young adults' responses are consistent with the overall population, and children under the age of five seem most susceptible to availability issues.

  12. Cigarette smoking by socioeconomic group, sex, and age: effects of price, income, and health publicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, J.; Roderick, P; Cooper, J.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess effects of price, income, and health publicity on cigarette smoking by age, sex, and socioeconomic group. DESIGN--Econometric multiple regression analysis of data on cigarette smoking from the British general household survey. SUBJECTS--Random sample of adult population in Britain interviewed for biennial general household surveys 1972-90. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Changes in cigarette consumption and prevalence of smoking. RESULTS--Price elasticities of demand for cigarette...

  13. Sex Education for my Preschooler (ages 3 to 5)? Parents’ Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This investigation was conducted as a result of the lack of studies, specifically on children’s sex education and the role that parents play in it, despite the major advances in the knowledge on sexuality and its education. The main goal of this qualitative study was to understand parents’ perceptions regarding sexual education of their children ages 3 to 5. Three focus group sessions were conducted with parents from Cuenca pre-schools. Data was processed using thematic analysis. The study in...

  14. Multiwork and satisfaction with various life domains: Analysis of sex, gender, occupational and age differences

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Lipińska-Grobelny

    2016-01-01

    Background: Contemporary multiwork definitely changes its face, and statistics show that Poland is in the forefront of European countries in terms of the number of multiworkers. The question arises whether the provision of work for more than one employer can influence personal and professional satisfaction, and whether job satisfaction, satisfaction with marriage and satisfaction with life are differentiated by sex, gender, age and a job position. Material and Methods: The study involved 218 ...

  15. The Relationship Between Coaches`Leadership Styles With The Athletes` Sex and Age

    OpenAIRE

    S.H. Mousavi; Abolfazl Meshkini

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Coaches` leadership styles with the sporting field, sex and age of the athletes in Zanjan-Iran. The study was carried out in basketball , football , athletics and kung fu in-season training. The study is applied and descriptive - correlational. The Statistical population were athletes in sports clubs including basketball, soccer, track and field, and Kung Fu in Zanjan. The Sample was chosen through stratified sampling with op...

  16. Impact of general practitioners' sex and age on systematic recommendation for cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisinger, François; Pivot, Xavier; Coscas, Yvan; Viguier, Jérôme; Calazel-Benque, Anne; Blay, Jean-Yves; Roussel, Claire; Morère, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    Characteristics of primary-care providers have been associated with their patients' participation in breast cancer screening. A nationwide observational survey, 'EDIFICE', was conducted by telephone from December 2007 to January 2008 on a representative sample of 600 general practitioners (GPs) working in France, to investigate how a GP's characteristics may influence patient participation in screening for breast, colorectal and prostate cancer. For breast cancer screening, systematic recommendation was associated with female physicians [odds ratio (OR) =1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-3.1]. This systematic recommendation was also correlated with systematic referral for colorectal cancer (OR=1.5; 95% CI=1.0-2.5) and prostate cancer screening (OR=2.7; 95% CI=1.8-4.1). For colorectal cancer screening, the sex of the GP had no significant impact. However, systematic recommendation for both breast and prostate cancer screening was shown to be associated with systematic recommendation for colorectal cancer screening (OR=2.7; 95% CI=1.6-4.7 and OR=1.8; 95% CI=1.1-3.0, respectively). For prostate cancer screening, there was no significant sex specificity. However, systematic recommendation for both breast and colorectal cancer screening was associated with an advice on prostate cancer screening (OR=2.9; 95% CI=2.0-4.4 and OR=2.0; 95% CI=1.3-3.2, respectively). The age of the GP was not associated with a higher rate of systematic recommendation for screening for the three types of cancer. Male GPs were more likely than female GPs to perform digital rectal examinations on male patients (69 vs. 54%; OR=1.86; 95% CI=1.31-2.63). There is a global pattern of physicians being screening-prone (as suggested by the cross impact of recommendations from one cancer type to another). Although the frequency of systematic recommendation for breast cancer screening is higher with female GPs, systematic recommendation for prostate cancer is not higher among male GPs. The factors

  17. Prevalence and Distribution of Abdominal Aortic Calcium by Sex and Age-Group in a Community-based Cohort (From The Framingham Heart Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang, Michael L.; Massaro, Joseph M.; Levitzky, Yamini S.; Fox, Caroline S.; Manders, Emily S.; Hoffmann, Udo; O'Donnell, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal aortic calcium (AAC) is associated with incident cardiovascular disease but the age and sex-related distribution of AAC in a community-dwelling population free of standard cardiovascular disease risk factors has not been described. A total of 3285 participants (aged 50.2±9.9 years) in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation cohorts underwent abdominal multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanning during 1998-2005. The presence and amount of AAC was quantified (...

  18. RISK FACTORS FOR HTLV-II INFECTION IN PERUVIAN MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZUNT, JOSEPH R.; LA ROSA, ALBERTO M.; PEINADO, JESÚS; LAMA, JAVIER R.; SUAREZ, LUIS; PUN, MONICA; CABEZAS, CESAR; SANCHEZ, JORGE

    2009-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-II (HTLV-II) infection is endemic in indigenous groups in the Americas and injection drug users (IDUs) worldwide. In Peru, HTLV-II infection was previously identified in two indigenous Amazonians. We examined risk factors for HTLV-II infection in 2,703 Peruvian men who have sex with men (MSM): 35 (1.3%) were HTLV-II positive. HTLV-II infection was associated with syphilis, HSV-2 infection, unprotected receptive anal intercourse, and older age. This is the first report of HTLV-II in a non-indigenous non-IDU population in Peru. Additional studies are needed to determine if HTLV-II is a sexually transmitted infection in this and other sexually active populations. PMID:16687704

  19. Age- and sex-related changes in vibrotactile sensitivity of hand and face in neurotypical adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Lalit; Barlow, Steven M; Kieweg, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Sensory perception decreases with age, and is altered as a function of sex. Very little is known about the age- and sex-related changes in vibrotactile detection thresholds (VDTs) of the face relative to the glabrous hand. This study utilized a single-interval up/down (SIUD) adaptive procedure to estimate the VDT for mechanical stimuli presented at 5, 10, 50, 150, 250, and 300 Hz at two sites on the face, including the right non-glabrous surface of the oral angle and the right lower lip vermilion; and on the hand on the glabrous surface of the distal phalanx of the right dominant index finger. Eighteen right-handed healthy younger adults and 18 right-handed healthy older adults participated in this study. VDTs were significantly different between the three stimulus sites (p face and hand. Age-related differences in finger skin sensitivity are likely due to changes in the physical structure of skin, changes in the number and morphology of the mechanoreceptors, differences in the functional use of the hand, and its central representation. Sex-related differences in the VDTs may be due to the differences in tissue conformation and thickness, mechanoreceptor densities, skin hydration, or temperature characteristics.

  20. Age, Sex, and Religious Beliefs Impact the Attitude towards Cord Blood Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundell, Inger Birgitta; Setzer, Teddi J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a self-administered questionnaire was used to assess opinions about stem cell research and cord blood banking. Three attitudes were examined: willingness to accept cord blood banking, willingness to accept embryonic stem cell research, and religious belief system. A total of 90 Wayne State University students enrolled in the study in response to an invitation posted on a web page for the university. Sex distribution among study participants was 79 females and eight males; three declined to state their sex. Support for cord blood banking was high (> 70%) among students. Students over the age of 25 years of age were more (85%) positive than students 18 to 24 years old (57%). They prefered a public cord blood bank over a private cord blood bank. Atheist/agnostic or spiritual/not religious students (> 90%), Catholic students (78%) and Christian students (58%) support cord blood banking. Age, sex and religion seems influence the student's attitude towards stem cell research and cord blood banking.

  1. Multiwork and satisfaction with various life domains: Analysis of sex, gender, occupational and age differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Lipińska-Grobelny

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contemporary multiwork definitely changes its face, and statistics show that Poland is in the forefront of European countries in terms of the number of multiworkers. The question arises whether the provision of work for more than one employer can influence personal and professional satisfaction, and whether job satisfaction, satisfaction with marriage and satisfaction with life are differentiated by sex, gender, age and a job position. Material and Methods: The study involved 218 multiworkers and 218 monoworkers. The subjects completed the following research tools: a survey, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Job Description Questionnaire, the Job Affect Scale, the Scale of Masculinity and Femininity. Results: The research shows that multiwork differentiates satisfaction with organization and management. Sex, gender, age and job position affect the whole system of satisfaction dimensions, especially satisfaction with work and with life. Interaction of multiwork and age, sex, and job position differentiate satisfaction with certain aspects of job. Conclusions: The results of the study contribute to the deepening of knowledge about psychosocial functioning of multiworkers and the phenomenon of multiwork. Med Pr 2016;67(3:385–395

  2. A longitudinal analysis of sex differences in math and spatial skills in primary school age children☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Jennifer A.; Mazzocco, Michèle M.M.

    2009-01-01

    We report on a longitudinal study designed to assess possible sex differences in math achievement, math ability, and math-related tasks during the primary school age years. Participants included over 200 children from one public school district. Annual assessments included measures of math ability, math calculation achievement scores, rapid naming and decoding tasks, visual perception tests, visual motor tasks, and reading skills. During select years of the study we also administered tests of counting and math facts skills. We examined whether girls or boys were overrepresented among the bottom or top performers on any of these tasks, relative to their peers, and whether growth rates or predictors of math-related skills differed for boys and girls. Our findings support the notion that sex differences in math are minimal or nonexistent on standardized psychometric tests routinely given in assessments of primary school age children. There was no persistent finding suggesting a male or female advantage in math performance overall, during any single year of the study, or in any one area of math or spatial skills. Growth rates for all skills, and early correlates of later math performance, were comparable for boys and girls. The findings fail to support either persistent or emerging sex differences on non-specialized math ability measures during the primary school age years. PMID:20463851

  3. Beyond age at first sex: patterns of emerging sexual behavior in adolescence and young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydon, Abigail A; Herring, Amy H; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2012-05-01

    Although the emergence of sexual expression during adolescence and early adulthood is nearly universal, little is known about patterns of initiation. We used latent class analysis to group 12,194 respondents from waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) into one of five classes based on variety, timing, spacing, and sequencing of oral-genital, anal, and vaginal sex. Multinomial logistic regression models, stratified by biological sex, examined associations between sociodemographic characteristics and class membership. Approximately half of respondents followed a pattern characterized predominately by initiation of vaginal sex first, average age of initiation of approximately 16 years, and spacing of >1 year between initiation of the first and second behaviors; almost one-third initiated sexual activity slightly later but reported first experiences of oral-genital and vaginal sex within the same year. Classes characterized by postponement of sexual activity, initiation of only one type of behavior, or adolescent initiation of anal sex were substantially less common. Compared with white respondents, black respondents were more likely to appear in classes characterized by initiation of vaginal sex first. Respondents from lower socioeconomic backgrounds were more likely to be in classes distinguished by early/atypical patterns of initiation. A small number of typical and atypical patterns capture the emergence of sexual behavior during adolescence, but these patterns reveal complex associations among different elements of emerging sexuality that should be considered in future research. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sex differences in genetic and environmental risk factors for irrational fears and phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S; Jacobson, K C; Myers, J; Prescott, C A

    2002-02-01

    For irrational fears and their associated phobias, epidemiological studies suggest sex differences in prevalence and twin studies report significant genetic effects. How does sex impact on the familial transmission of liability to fears and phobias? In personal interviews with over 3000 complete pairs (of whom 1058 were opposite-sex dizygotic pairs), ascertained from a population-based registry, we assessed the lifetime prevalence of five phobias and their associated irrational fears analysed using a multiple threshold model. Twin resemblance was assessed by polychoric correlations and biometrical model-fitting incorporating sex-specific effects. For agoraphobia, situational and blood/injury fear/phobia, the best fit model suggested equal heritability in males and females and genetic correlations between the sexes of less than +0.50. For animal fear/phobias by contrast, the best fit model suggested equal heritability in males and females and a genetic correlation of unity. No evidence was found for an impact of family environment on liability to these fears or phobias. For social phobias, twin resemblance in males was explained by genetic factors and in females by familial-environmental factors. The impact of sex on genetic risk may differ meaningfully across phobia subtypes. Sex-specific genetic risk factors may exist for agoraphobia, social, situational and blood-injury phobias but not for animal fear/phobia. These results should be interpreted in the context of the limited power of twin studies, even with large sample sizes, to resolve sex-specific genetic effects.

  5. A Study of Factors Associated with Presence of Acute Respiratory Infection in Children 1-4 Years of Age in an Urban Slum of Pune City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar Jha, JitendraBhawalkar, Anil Dixit, Amit Singh Pawaiya, Nitin Pathak

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: In study found that there was no significant association between ARI with age, sex and some risk factors for ARI.Where as indoor air pollution was the significant risk factor responsible for ARI in children.

  6. Sex differences in obesity and cognitive function in a cognitively normal aging Chinese Han population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li W

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wei Li,* Qi Qiu,* Lin Sun, Ling Yue, Tao Wang, Xia Li, Shifu Xiao Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Center, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Sex differences in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment have been well recognized. However, sex differences in cognitive function and obesity in cognitively normal aging Chinese Han population have not attracted much attention. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between sex, obesity, and cognitive function in an elderly Chinese population with normal cognitive function. Subjects and methods: A total of 228 cognitively normal aging participants (males/females =93/135 entered this study. Their general demographic information (sex, age, and education was collected by standardized questionnaire. Apolipoprotein E (APOE genotype and serum lipid levels were measured. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA was used to assess participants’ cognitive function. Results: The prevalence of obesity in elderly women (18/133, 13.5% was significantly higher than that in men (5/92, 5.4%, P=0.009. Regression analyses showed that obesity was associated with drinking alcohol (OR =13.695, P=0.045 and triglyceride (OR =1.436, P=0.048 in women and limited to low-density lipoprotein (OR =11.829, P=0.023 in men. Women performed worse on the naming score for MoCA than men (P<0.01. Stepwise linear regression analysis showed that education (t=3.689, P<0.001 and smoking (t=2.031, P=0.045 were related to the score of naming in female, while high-density lipoprotein (t=–2.077, P=0.041 was related to the score of naming in male; however, no correlation was found between body mass index and cognitive function in both male and female (P>0.05. Conclusion: Our finding suggests that there are significant sex differences in obesity and

  7. Age- and sex-related differences in the anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness of competitive taekwondo athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaidis PT

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis,1 Krzysztof Buśko,2 Filipe Manuel Clemente,3 Ioannis Tasiopoulos,1 Beat Knechtle4 1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Nikaia, Greece; 2Department of Biomechanics, Institute of Sport-National Research Institute, Warsaw, Poland; 3School of Sport and Leisure, Polytechnic Institute of Viana do Castelo, Melgaço, Portugal; 4Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Abstract: Anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness have been shown to relate with taekwondo (TKD performance; however, little information is available on the variation of these fitness components by sex and age in athletes practicing this sport. The aim of the present study was to examine the anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness of TKD athletes by sex and age. A total of 393 athletes (7–48 years old, separated into six age groups (7–9, 10–11, 12–13, 14–17, 18–32, and 33+, were examined for anthropometry and performed a series of neuromuscular fitness tests (flexibility, agility, muscle power, and isometric strength. An age × sex interaction on body mass, body height, and body fat percentage (BF, p≤0.003, η2≥0.045, but not on body mass index (p=0.172, η2=0.020, was shown, where a larger increase in body mass and body height from 12–13 to 14–17 groups was observed in males than in females, and the sex difference in BF increased from 12–13 to 14–17 age group. An age × sex interaction on sit-and-reach (SAR test, mean power output in the Bosco test, and Abalakov jump (p≤0.038, η2≥0.031 was observed with larger differences between 12–13 and 18–32 groups in males than in females. In SAR, it was remarkable that the male athletes achieved similar scores as female athletes in the 18–32 group. An age × sex group interaction on measures of isometric muscle strength (right and left handgrip, trunk, and legs was also shown (p≤0.002, η2≥0.068, where larger differences in male than female athletes were

  8. Effect of Age and Other Factors on Maximal Heart Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londeree, Ben R.; Moeschberger, Melvin L.

    1982-01-01

    To reduce confusion regarding reported effects of age on maximal exercise heart rate, a comprehensive review of the relevant English literature was conducted. Data on maximal heart rate after exercising with a bicycle, a treadmill, and after swimming were analyzed with regard to physical fitness and to age, sex, and racial differences. (Authors/PP)

  9. Preliminary investigation of plasma levels of sex hormones and human growth factor(s, and P300 latency as correlates to cognitive decline as a function of gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerner Mallory M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging is marked by declines in levels of many sex hormones and growth factors, as well as in cognitive function. The P300 event-related potential has been established as a predictor of cognitive decline. We decided to determine if this measure, as well as 2 standard tests of memory and attention, may be correlated with serum levels of sex hormones and growth factors, and if there are any generalizations that could be made based on these parameters and the aging process. Findings In this large clinically based preliminary study several sex-stratified associations between hormone levels and cognition were observed, including (1 for males aged 30 to 49, both IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 significantly associated negatively with prolonged P300 latency; (2 for males aged 30 to 49, the spearman correlation between prolonged P300 latency and low free testosterone was significant; (3 for males aged 60 to 69, there was a significant negative correlation between P300 latency and DHEA levels; (4 for females aged 50 to 59 IGFBP-3 significantly associated negatively with prolonged P300 latency; (5 for females at all age periods, estrogen and progesterone were uncorrelated with P300 latency; and (6 for females aged 40 to 69, there was significant negative correlation between DHEA levels and P300 latency. Moreover there were no statistically significant correlations between any hormone and Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-111. However, in females, there was a significant positive correlation between estrogen levels and the number of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD complaints. Conclusion Given certain caveats including confounding factors involving psychiatric and other chronic diseases as well as medications, the results may still have important value. If these results could be confirmed in a more rigorously controlled investigation, it may have important value in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cognitive impairments and decline.

  10. Effect of breed, sex, age and body weight on echocardiographic measurements in the equine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haidar, A; Farnir, F; Deleuze, S; Sandersen, C F; Leroux, A A; Borde, L; Cerri, S; Amory, H

    2013-08-01

    Little is known about the effect of various animal's signalment variables on echocardiographic reference values in the equine species. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of sex, breed, age and body weight (BW) on echocardiographic measurements in the equine species. Echocardiography was performed on 212 ponies or horses of various breeds, aged from 1 day to 37 years old (mean±SD: 7.8 ± 5.8 years), BW 38-890 kg (mean ± SD: 421 ± 133 kg), and free of cardiac disease. Fifty of those animals aged from 2 months to 35 years old (mean ± SD: 11.6 ± 6.4 years old); BW 77-662 kg (mean ± SD: 436 ± 135 kg) were also examined using the pulsed-wave Doppler mode. Standard two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography were performed on all animals. Standard pulsed-wave Doppler examination of each cardiac valve was performed on the 50 first examined animals. Data were analysed using a general linear model including the effect of sex, age, breed and BW after logarithmic transformation of the data. Therefore, the same analysis was performed separately on animals aged ≤ 2 years-old and on older animals. All dimensional echocardiographic measurements were significantly affected by BW and most of them were significantly affected by breed, but not by sex. Only the aortic and the pulmonary artery internal diameter were significantly affected by age. None of the Doppler measurements were significantly affected by the tested variables. In conclusion, in the equine species, dimensional echocardiographic reference values should be established using regression equations as a function of BW, which could increase the diagnostic value of this leading technique in equine cardiology. Breed could also have an effect on those measurements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gender identity outcomes in children with disorders/differences of sex development: Predictive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakula, Dana M; Mullins, Alexandria J; Sharkey, Christina M; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Mullins, Larry L; Wisniewski, Amy B

    2017-06-01

    Disorders/differences of sex development (DSD) comprise multiple congenital conditions in which chromosomal, gonadal, and/or anatomical sex are discordant. The prediction of future gender identity (i.e., self-identifying as male, female, or other) in children with DSD can be imprecise, and current knowledge about the development of gender identity in people with, and without DSD, is limited. However, sex of rearing is the strongest predictor of gender identity for the majority of individuals with various DSD conditions. When making decisions regarding sex of rearing biological factors (e.g., possession of a Y chromosome, degree and duration of pre- and postnatal androgen exposure, phenotypic presentation of the external genitalia, and fertility potential), social and cultural factors, as well as quality of life should be considered. Information on gender identity outcomes across a range of DSD diagnoses is presented to aid in sex of rearing assignment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sex-specific differences in risk factors for sarcopenia amongst community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, L; Ding, Y Y; Leung, B P; Ismail, N H; Yeo, A; Yew, S; Tay, K S; Tan, C H; Chong, M S

    2015-12-01

    With considerable variation including potential sex-specific differential rate of skeletal muscle loss, identifying modifiable factors for sarcopenia will be pivotal to guide targeted interventions. This study seeks to identify clinical and biological correlates of sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults, with emphasis on the role of anabolic and catabolic stimuli, and special reference to gender specificity. In this cross-sectional study involving 200 community-dwelling and functionally independent older adults aged ≥50 years, sarcopenia was defined using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria. Comorbidities, cognitive and functional performance, physical activity and nutritional status were routinely assessed. Biochemical parameters included haematological indices, lipid panel, vitamin D level, anabolic hormones [insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), free testosterone (males only)] and catabolic markers [inflammatory markers (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein) and myostatin]. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify independent predictors for sarcopenia. Age was associated with sarcopenia in both genders. Malnutrition conferred significantly higher odds for sarcopenia in women (OR = 5.71, 95% CI 1.13-28.84.44, p = 0.035) while higher but acceptable range serum triglyceride was protective in men (OR = 0.05, 95% CI 0.00-0.52, p = 0.012). Higher serum myostatin independently associated with higher odds for sarcopenia in men (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.00-1.24, p = 0.041). Serum IGF-1 was significantly lower amongst female sarcopenic subjects, with demonstrable trend for protective effect against sarcopenia in multiple regression models, such that each 1 ng/ml increase in IGF-1 was associated with 1% decline in odds of sarcopenia in women (p = 0.095). Our findings support differential pathophysiological mechanisms for sarcopenia that, if corroborated, may have clinical utility in guiding sex-specific targeted

  13. Effects of age, sex, prior experience, and intraspecific food variation on diet composition of a tropical folivore (Phasmetodea: Phasmatidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandlin, E.A.; Willig, M.R. (Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Recent attention in ecology has focused on factors that influence the foraging behavior of herbivores. We evaluated responses to different arrays of food plants exhibited by an abundant folivore within the tabonuco forest of Puerto Rico. Previous work indicates that the walkingstick Lamponius portoricensis Rehn forages on a limited array of plant species and selects habitats that contain high densities of Piper treleaseanum Britton Wilson. We designed three separate experiments to evaluate (1) if walkingsticks of different ages or of different sex have different food preferences, (2) if previous exposure to only one food type affects subsequent diet composition, and (3) if walkingsticks distinguish among leaves of different quality from the same plant. Four plants [Dendropanax arboreus (L.) Decne Planch, Piper hispidum Sw., P. treleaseanum, and Urera baccifera (L.) Gaud.] known to be forage for this insect were used in food choice experiments. Multi- variate analyses revealed that, at different ages, males and females exhibit different patterns of consumption. Likewise, preexposure to only one food influences subsequent diet differently depending upon preexposure regime and sex. In addition, preferences are shown for different qualities of leaves within single forage species. In particular, lower (older) leaves of P. treleaseanum are preferred, whereas leaves of D. arboreus and U. baccifera are eaten indiscriminately. These results are consistent with the contention that herbivores forage within nutritional constraints. In addition, walkingsticks distinguish between plant species, recognize differences in leaf quality associated with age or position, and modify their diet to reflect past experience.

  14. Sex and Age Differences in Exposure to Secondhand Smoke at Home among Korean Adolescents: A Nationally Representative Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hyun Hwang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors assessed sex and age differences in secondhand smoke (SHS exposure among vulnerable adolescent populations. Data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 64,499 non-smokers aged 13–18 years were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Girls were exposed 1.26 times (95% confidence interval, 1.21–1.32 more to home SHS than boys, and the younger adolescents were more likely to be exposed to home SHS than were the older, regardless of sex (p < 0.001. Younger girls living with or without current smokers and the younger boys living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, when the data were stratified according to current household member smoking, which was one of the main risk factors for SHS exposure at home. Girls living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home than boys regardless age. Girls and younger adolescents, populations vulnerable to smoke exposure, were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, even though they should be more protected. It is necessary to improve home SHS awareness, especially among these vulnerable populations.

  15. Effect of slaughter age and sex on the production output of South African Black ostriches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, T S; Jordaan, J W; Bhiya, C S; Aucamp, B B

    2010-08-01

    1. The effects of different slaughter ages and sex on the yield and quality of economically important end-products of slaughtered ostriches was examined to determine the most economic slaughter age for growing/finishing ostriches. Two batches of 4- and 6-month-old ostriches were assigned to 10 treatment groups and fed ad libitum up to slaughter ages of 8·5, 10·5, 12·5, 14·5 and 16·5 months. Slaughter weight, cold carcase yield, skin surface area, dry skin grade, feather yield and feed intake of ostriches were measured for each age. 2. Cold carcase yields and total feather yields of males were higher than females but yields of other products were similar. 3. Slaughter weight, cold carcase yield, skin surface area, dry skin grade, feather yield and feed intake increased with age with significant differences between most age groups. Cold carcase weight increased by approximately 2·2 kg and skin surface area increased by 3·1 dm³ with each additional month of growth but the quality (grade) of skins and the proportion of first grade skins decreased with increasing age. This, together with an increase in feed intake associated with age to slaughtering should be taken into account when determining the optimal slaughter age. 4. The set of biological variables established in this study can be used to determine the most economical slaughter age under varying market conditions.

  16. Quantitative exfoliative cytology of normal oral squames: an age, site and sex-related survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpe, J G; Longmore, R B; Green, M W

    1985-01-01

    This study describes the development of quantitative cytological techniques and their application to oral smears. Nuclear and cell size has been measured and matched with age, sex and site in an attempt to produce a baseline for comparison with identical measurements carried out on pathological smears. The results displayed a significant variation in nuclear and cytoplasmic area between different sites. Nuclear size varied significantly with advancing age; however, this was not the case for cytoplasmic area. There was no significant variation in either criterion between males and females. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:4067983

  17. ALTERATIONS OF PROPERTIES OF RED BLOOD CELLS MEMBRANES PROTEINS OF DIFFERENT AGE AND SEX VOLUNTEERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruidze, N; Khetsuriani, R; Sujashvili, R; Ioramashvili, I; Arabuli, M; Sanikidze, T

    2015-01-01

    Considering the age and sex-dependent trend in the manifestation of various diseases, as well as an important pathogenic role of circulatory disorders, we decided to study the age-dependent changes in the physical properties of RBCs membrane proteins (their electric charge and molecular weight) in healthy people of different sex (males and females) and age. Blood of 56 healthy volunteers (Tbilisi, Georgia) of different sex and gender was studied (the patients were divided in 8 groups (7 patients in each groups): 1 - 18-25 years old male, 2 - 18-25 years old female, 3 - 25-44 years old male, 4 - 25-44 years old female, 5 - 44-60 years old male, 6 - 44-60 years old female; 7 - 60-80 years old male, 8 - 70-80 years old female). In groups 6 and 8 were women in menopause was determined according 12 months of amenorrhea. Individuals often consume alcohol addicts, pregnant women and patients with chronic diseases were excluded from the study. The study protocol was approved by Ethical Committee of the Tbilisi State Medical University. RBCs membrane proteins have been extracted from human heparinized blood and their mobility was studied by electrophoretic method. The electrophoretic mobility of RBCs membrane proteins decreases with age of healthy volunteers, that indicates decrease of total charge of proteins, depending on the electrically charged amino acids content. In female patients the electrophoretic mobility of the RBCs membrane proteins especially intensively decreases in period of menopause. Increase of molecular weight of proteins (100-200 kDa) from RBCs' membranes of alder age group was manifested. Intensively decrease electrophoretic mobility of erythrocytes membrane proteins from female patients in period of menopause indicates on estrogen related mechanism of the regulation of membrane protein conformation and composition in females. Increased content of high molecular weight proteins in the RBCs membranes from patients of older age groups may be caused to

  18. Attitudes and Beliefs of African Immigrant Mothers Living in the US Towards Providing Comprehensive Sex Education to Daughters Aged 12-17 Years: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbemenu, Kafuli; Terry, Martha Ann; Hannan, Margaret; Kitutu, Julius; Doswell, Willa

    2016-10-01

    The literature currently contains no comprehensive sex education (CSE) interventions targeting the African immigrant population. African immigrant mothers have been inhibited by several factors from providing their daughters with CSE. The primary aim of this study was to identify attitudes and beliefs of Sub-Saharan immigrant mothers living in the United States towards providing comprehensive sex education to their daughters aged 12-17 years. The study utilized a one-time anonymous nine-question survey. Fifteen women who met the inclusion criteria completed the study survey online or via paper format. African immigrant mothers are willing to allow comprehensive sex to be taught in schools and at home. Accepted education appears to range from religious and moral teaching to some factual information. This research will potentially assist in the designing of more culturally appropriate comprehensive sex education programs for African immigrant mothers and their daughters.

  19. Demographic features and premorbid personality disorder traits in relation to age of onset and sex in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokou, Maria; Gourzis, Philippos

    2014-03-30

    Personality disorders in the premorbid period of schizophrenia and particularly in relation to age of onset and sex, seem to be a rather under-researched area. In the present study, 88 patients with paranoid schizophrenia were examined, regarding demographic characteristics and premorbid personality disorder traits, in order to investigate for differences in the premorbid period of the disease, in relation to age of onset and sex. Age cutoff points were set at paranoid schizophrenia.

  20. Relational Aggression in Preschool Students: An Exploration of the Variables of Sex, Age, and Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Morine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, researchers wished to ascertain whether there were age (three- and four-year old, sibling (with or without older siblings, and sex (male and female differences in the use of relational aggression in preschool students as rated by peers and teachers. In order to answer this research question, two 2 × 2 × 2 factorial ANOVA procedures with the relational aggression composite score as the dependent variable on the PSBS-P and PSBS-T were used for peer and teacher assessment, respectively, of relational aggression. Results revealed that in the peer ratings of preschool students' relationally aggressive behavior, there was an disordinal age by sibling interaction, in which four-year-old children with siblings were significantly more likely to be rated by their peers as using relational aggression than three-year-old children without siblings. In the teacher ratings of preschool students' relationally aggressive behavior, a main effect for age was observed. Teachers rated four-year old children as evidencing significantly higher levels of relational aggression as compared to three-year-olds. No sex differences were observed in the use of relational aggression either at age three or age four in this sample. Implications for these findings are presented.

  1. Normal thymus in adults: appearance on CT and associations with age, sex, BMI and smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Tetsuro [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Gao, Wei [Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); Dupuis, Josee [Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Hunninghake, Gary M.; Washko, George R. [Harvard Medical School, The Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Murakami, Takamichi [Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); O' Connor, George T. [The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Boston University School of Medicine, Pulmonary Center and Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-01-15

    To investigate CT appearance and size of the thymus in association with participant characteristics. 2540 supposedly healthy participants (mean age 58.9 years, 51 % female) were evaluated for the CT appearance of thymic glands with four-point scores (according to the ratio of fat and soft tissue), size and morphology. These were correlated with participants' age, sex, BMI and smoking history. Of 2540 participants, 1869 (74 %) showed complete fatty replacement of the thymus (Score 0), 463 (18 %) predominantly fatty attenuation (Score 1), 172 (7 %) half fatty and half soft-tissue attenuation (Score 2) and 36 (1 %) solid thymic gland with predominantly soft-tissue attenuation (Score 3). Female participants showed less fatty degeneration of the thymus with higher thymic scores within age 40-69 years (P < 0.001). Participants with lower thymic scores showed higher BMI (P < 0.001) and were more likely to be former smokers (P < 0.001) with higher pack-years (P = 0.04). Visual assessment with four-point thymic scores revealed a sex difference in the fatty degeneration of the thymus with age. Women show significantly higher thymic scores, suggesting less fat content of the thymus, during age 40-69 years. Cigarette smoking and high BMI are associated with advanced fatty replacement of the thymus. (orig.)

  2. Effect of age and sex on fiber and follicle characteristics of an Iranian native sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Mobini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian hair fibers represent an interesting biological material which also is used in the textile industry. Histological structures of the fibers and follicles differ not only among different species but also among different areas and ages in an animal species. Skin samples were collected from neonatal (1-2 months, young (3-9 months, young adult (1-2 years and old adult age groups (3 years and more. In each age group, six animals (3 each sex were utilized. Immediately after slaughtering the animals, tissues were collected from eight regions namely belly, neck, leg, rump, flank, forearm, shoulder and hip and were fixed in 10 percent neutral buffered formalin. Histologic sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and special stains. It was found that the general histological features of all Bakhtiari sheep fibers used in this study were similar to many other breeds sited in literature, however there were also some differences. All hairs of the various skin regions had a medulla. All the hair follicles were surrounded by associated structures such as the sweat and sebaceous glands and arrector pili muscles and located only in papillary layer of the dermis. The most common number of the secondary hair follicles in compound hair follicles was 4. The histology of all fibers and follicles in various skin regions showed no significant differences by sex in all the age groups studied. By age increase, all the fibers and their follicles were larger and well organized in all different skin regions.

  3. Effect of age, sex, area and management practices on cattle mortality in Rajshahi division, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Reazul Islam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of age, sex, location and management on cattle mortality rate in Rajshahi division of Bangladesh. Materials and methods: The study was conducted in 8 districts of Rajshahi division during July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 17,982 cattle heads were investigated based on age, sex, area. Data were collected from the cattle owners using a closed structured questionnaire. Tentative cause of cattle mortality was identified based on clinical signs, laboratory tests, history, ante-mortem and postmortem reports. Management practices of the cattle were also investigated. Results: Out of 17,982 cattle heads, 549 were found to be dead by various diseases, and an average mortality rate was 3.05%. Age-wise mortality rate of cattle revealed that the maximum mortality rate was found in the age group of 0.05 between the cattle mortality rate in Natore district (2.84% and Joypurhat districts (2.84%. Conclusion: The overall mortality rate of cattle in Rajshahi division was found comparatively low. This might be due to improved management practices, better veterinary services, and awareness among farmers. However, cattle mortality rate in the age group <2-year is alarming due to bad management practices and disease. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(1.000: 13-17

  4. Sex trafficking awareness and associated factors among youth females in Bahir Dar town, North-West Ethiopia: a community based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azage, Muluken; Abeje, Gedefaw; Mekonnen, Alemtsehay

    2014-07-16

    Sex trafficking is a contemporary issue in both developed and developing countries. The number of trafficked women and young girls has increased globally. Females aged 18-25 are the most targeted group of trafficking. Although the problem is evident in Ethiopia, there are no studies that explored sex trafficking awareness among females. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess sex trafficking awareness and associated factors among youth females in Bahir Dar town, North-West Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study design was employed to collect data from February 1st-30th 2012 from a total of 417 youth females. The participants in the study were selected using systematic random sampling techniques. A structured Amharic questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Descriptive statistics were used to describe data. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with sex trafficking awareness. Two hundred forty-nine (60%) of the participants reported that they had heard or read about sex trafficking. Television (64%), friends (46%) and radio (39%) were the most frequently mentioned sources of information about sex trafficking. About 87% and 74% of the participants mentioned friends and brokers respectively as mediators of sex trafficking. Having TV at home (AOR = 2. 19, 95% CI: 1.31-3.67), completing grade 10 or more (AOR = 2. 22, 95% CI: 1.18-4.17), taking training on gender issues (AOR = 3. 59, 95% CI: 2.11-6.10) and living together with parents (AOR = 3. 65, 95% CI: 1.68-7.93) were factors found associated with sex trafficking awareness. In this study, sex trafficking awareness was low among youth females. Having TV at home, living together with someone and being trained on gender issues were predictors of sex trafficking awareness. Therefore, providing education about sex trafficking will help to increase sex trafficking awareness among youth females.

  5. Factors Related to Pregnancy Among Female Sex Workers Living with HIV in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernigliaro, Dana; Barrington, Clare; Perez, Martha; Donastorg, Yeycy; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2016-10-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) living with HIV are a vulnerable population for multiple health concerns and have been vastly understudied in public health literature. This study analyzes factors related to pregnancy among 268 FSWs living with HIV in the Dominican Republic. Results indicate that 34 % of participants had been pregnant since HIV diagnosis. Multivariate analysis revealed significant associations between pregnancy after HIV diagnosis and ART interruption (AOR 2.41; 95 % CI 1.19, 4.94), knowledge of mother-to-child transmission (AOR 2.12; 95 % CI 0.99, 4.55), serostatus disclosure to a sex partner (AOR 2.46; 95 % CI 1.31, 4.62), older age (AOR 0.91; 95 % CI 0.87, 0.95) and a more negative perception of their health provider (AOR 0.56; 95 % CI 0.34, 0.93). Results indicate noteworthy associations between having been pregnant and the health provider experience and ART interruption, indicating a significant need for further research on this population to ensure both maternal and child health.

  6. Sex Education for my Preschooler (ages 3 to 5? Parents’ Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Cevallos-Neira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was conducted as a result of the lack of studies, specifically on children’s sex education and the role that parents play in it, despite the major advances in the knowledge on sexuality and its education. The main goal of this qualitative study was to understand parents’ perceptions regarding sexual education of their children ages 3 to 5. Three focus group sessions were conducted with parents from Cuenca pre-schools. Data was processed using thematic analysis. The study indicated that parents have a limited conception of sexuality, completely based on the biological aspect. In addition, it was clear that parents have traditional ideas, conceptions and beliefs, which are reflected when educating their children. This research shows parents’ lack of knowledge about sexuality and sex education and gives important data about the need for parents and the school to work jointly to provide children with adequate and appropriate sex education, as well as the need for parent training in order to establish a common language between home and school and to avoid a double discourse in children’s education and to ensure a proper implementation of sex education programs at this level.

  7. 'Sex for life'? Men's counter-stories on 'erectile dysfunction', male sexuality and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Annie; Grace, Victoria M; Vares, Tiina; Gavey, Nicola

    2006-04-01

    Discourse on male sexuality in mid-to-later life has exploded in recent years (Gullette 1998). Attention to this topic has been spurred by the advent of (highly profitable) sexuopharmaceutical 'solutions' to erectile changes affecting older men. 'Success' stories abound in the media and in medical literature related to the restoration of faulty erections and ailing sex lives through drugs such as Viagra (sildenafil citrate), Uprima (apomorphine) and Cialis (tadalafil). In this paper we explore some of the ways in which notions about ageing and male sexuality are changing in popular cultural and medical texts in response to the advent of Viagra and the increasing authority of biomedicine in this area. We also demonstrate how the recent biomedical endorsement of 'sex for life' (the imperative to maintain an active youthful masculine [hetero]sexuality - defined in terms of male orgasm through penetrative sex) may be challenged by the very accounts of older men who are, or have been, affected by erectile difficulties and have used drugs like Viagra themselves. We present the perspectives of mid-to-late life heterosexual men in New Zealand whose stories question the contemporary biomedical privileging of erections and intercourse 'at any cost and at any age'. We argue that the current push to identify and treat so-called erectile dysfunction (and restore erections and penetrative sex to relationships) neglects some men's own experiences of alternative modes of relating sexually that they identify as 'normal', 'healthy', 'enjoyable' and 'satisfying' for them and their partners; and undermines their understanding of such changes as positive outcomes of ageing, experience and maturity.

  8. Relative risks for stroke by age, sex, and population based on follow-up of 18 European populations in the MORGAM Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asplund, Kjell; Karvanen, Juha; Giampaoli, Simona

    2009-01-01

    .92). The impact of the individual risk factors differed somewhat between countries/regions with high blood pressure being particularly important in central Europe (Poland and Lithuania). CONCLUSIONS: Age, sex, and region-specific estimates of relative risks for stroke conferred by classical risk factors...... in various regions of Europe are provided. From a public health perspective, an important lesson is that smoking confers a high risk for stroke across Europe....

  9. Physical Activity Patterns of the Spanish Population Are Mostly Determined by Sex and Age: Findings in the ANIBES Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Mielgo-Ayuso

    Full Text Available Representative data for the Spanish population regarding physical activity (PA behaviors are scarce and seldom comparable due to methodological inconsistencies.Our objectives were to describe the PA behavior by means of the standardized self-reported International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ and to know the proportion of the Spanish population meeting and not meeting international PA recommendations.PA was assessed using the IPAQ in a representative sample of 2285 individuals (males, 50.4% aged 9-75 years and living in municipalities of at least 2,000 inhabitants. Data were analyzed according to: age groups 9-12, 13-17, 18-64, and 65-75 years; sex; geographical distribution; locality size and educational levels.Mean total PA was 868.8±660.9 min/wk, mean vigorous PA 146.4±254.1 min/wk, and mean moderate PA 398.1±408.0 min/wk, showing significant differences between sexes (p<0.05. Children performed higher moderate-vigorous PA than adolescents and seniors (p<0.05, and adults than adolescents and seniors (p<0.05. Compared to recommendations, 36.2% of adults performed <150 min/week of moderate PA, 65.4% <75 min/week of vigorous PA and 27.0% did not perform any PA at all, presenting significant differences between sexes (p<0.05. A total of 55.4% of children and adolescents performed less than 420 min/week of MVPA, being higher in the later (62.6% than in the former (48.4%. Highest non-compliance was observed in adolescent females (86.5%.Sex and age are the main influencing factors on PA in the Spanish population. Males engage in more vigorous and light PA overall, whereas females perform more moderate PA. PA behavior differs between age groups and no clear lineal increase with age could be observed. Twenty-seven percent of adults and 55.4% of children and adolescents do not meet international PA recommendations. Identified target groups should be addressed to increase PA in the Spanish population.

  10. Electrocardiographic parameters of the American Miniature Horse: influence of age and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca P. Santarosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The veterinary cardiology has growing importance in equine medicine. There are studies of standardization of electrocardiographic parameters of many races, according to their stature and ability. However, no studies are in the literature with the American Miniature Horse. To evaluate the electrocardiogram (ECG tracing configuration of this breed at rest and to verify the influence of age and sex on ECG parameters, 203 horses including 143 females and 60 males were divided into four age groups (foals, yearlings, adults and elderly. Electrocardiographic parameters were performed by computerized electrocardiogram (TEB, and the parameters were evaluated in six leads of frontal plane (Lead I, II, III, aVR, aVL and aVF and base-apex (BA. Heart rates (HR decreased with increasing age were higher in males than in females. Sinus tachycardia followed by sinus arrhythmia was dominant in both sexes. The cardiac axis was higher in males and ranged between 120° and 150° for foals, 30° and 60° for yearlings and adults, and 60° and 90° for the elderly. The P wave was bifid in several animals. The P-wave amplitude and T-wave duration from lead II and BA were larger in males than in females. The majority of the animals exhibited ST segment depression and a negative T-wave. The most common QRS complex morphology was Qr. Differences were observed between the electrocardiographic tracings of males and females, and age influenced the ECG parameters. Therefore, this study established the ECG patterns for the American Miniature Horse breed and could be used to determine the influence of age and sex on several of the studied variables.

  11. Effect of age and sex on retinal layer thickness and volume in normal eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jae Yon; Kim, Sung Eun; Park, Young-Hoon

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of sex and age on the thickness of the retinal layer in normal eyes using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).Fifty healthy subjects between the ages of 20 and 80 had their retinal layers measured using SD-OCT at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital. Mean thickness and volume were measured for 9 retinal layers in the fovea, the pericentral ring, and the peripheral ring. The differences of sex- and age-related thickness and volume in each retinal layer were analyzed.The retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), inner nuclear layer (INL), and outer plexiform layer (OPL) were thinnest in the fovea area, whereas the outer nuclear layer (ONL), photoreceptor layer (PHL), and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) were thickest at similar locations. Mean thickness of the RNFL, GCL, IPL, and OPL was significantly greater in men than women. However, mean thickness of the ONL was greater in women than in men. When compared between patients 60 years of age, the thickness and volume of peripheral RNFL, GCL, and pericentral and peripheral IPL were significantly larger in the younger group than the older group. Conversely, the thickness and volume of foveal INL and IR were larger in the older group than in the younger group.The thickness and volume of the retinal layer in normal eyes significantly vary depending on age and sex. These results should be considered when evaluating layer analysis in retinal disease.

  12. Age- and sex-related changes in bone mass measured by neutron activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.; Aloia, J.F.; Vaswani, A.N.; Zanzi, I.; Vartsky, D.; Ellis, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Total-body calcium (TBCa) measurements have been employed in two basic types of studies. In the first type, serial measurements made on an individual patient are used to trace the time variation in body calcium. In the second type of study, the absolute total body calcium of an individual is determined and compared to a standard or predicted value in order to determine the deficit or excess of calcium. Generally, the standards are derived from data obtained from normal populations and grouped by the parameters of age and sex (mean value denoted TBCa/sub m/). In the study reported in this paper, the clinical usefulness of predicted calcium (TBCa/sub p/) is evaluated. The predicted value (TBCa/sub p/) for an individual is obtained with an algorithm utilizing values of sex and age, height and lean body mass (as derived from /sup 40/K measurement). The latter two components characterize skeletal size and body habitus, respectively. For the study, 133 white women and 71 white men ranging in age from 20 to 80 years were selected from a larger population. Individuals with evidence of metabolic calcium disorders or osteoporosis were excluded. Additionally, the women and men selected were first judged to have total body potassium levels in the normal range. For each age decade, the variance of TBCa values of these individuals, when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub p/, was significantly less than when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub m/. Thus, erroneous conclusions based on Ca deficit in osteoporosis could be drawn for individuals whose height and body size differ markedly from the average, as the variation of their TBCa values often exceeds the variation in the age and sex cohort. Data on a group of osteoporotic women were compared with the normal skeletal baseline values both in terms of the TBCa and the TBCa/sub p/ values.

  13. MRI EVALUATION OF PAINFUL KNEE JOINT- THE CORRELATION OF MULTIPLE COEXISTING PATHOLOGIES, AGE AND SEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukheswar Pame

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND 1. To evaluate the incidence and coexistence of multiple knee joint pathologies causing painful knee and their correlation to age and sex. 2. To evaluate the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI features in various knee pathologies and to identify the common lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study was performed using the clinical data of patients presenting with painful knee joint which were evaluated with MRI. Data from 200 patients examined between September 2015 and August 2016 were included into this study. The data was analysed statistically to evaluate the correlation between the MR pathological findings to age and sex of the patients. RESULTS The patient’s age ranged between 8 and 75 years (mean: 36 years. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL tear was the commonest finding (60% followed by bursitis (55%, meniscal degeneration (54.6% and meniscal tear (52%. Primary signs of ACL tear were hyperintensity, discontinuity and nonvisualisation. Secondary signs like Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL buckling, PCL index of greater than 0.5, uncovered Lateral meniscus (LM and bone contusion assisted in diagnosis in indeterminate cases. Mid substance was the commonest site of ACL tear (64%. PCL tear accounted for only a small percentage (7%. Medial Meniscus (MM tear (35% was commoner than LM tear (17%. The posterior horn of meniscus was the commonest site of injury (86.5%. Age was significantly correlated with meniscal degeneration and tear, Medial collateral ligament (MCL degeneration, parameniscal cyst, and chondromalacia patellae. A significant correlation between male gender and ACL injury was noted. Meniscal injury was significantly correlated with bursitis, as well with MCL injury. Bone bruise was significantly correlated with ACL injury, MCL injury and Lateral collateral ligament (LCL injury. CONCLUSIONS MRI findings of certain pathologies in a painful knee can coexist and significantly correlate with each other, age and sex of

  14. Effects of age and sex on neuromuscular-mechanical determinants of muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rui; Delahunt, Eamonn; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Lowery, Madeleine; De Vito, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to concurrently assess the effect of age on neuromuscular and mechanical properties in 24 young (23.6 ± 3.7 years) and 20 older (66.5 ± 3.8 years) healthy males and females. Maximal strength of knee extensors (KE) and flexors (KF), contractile rate of torque development (RTD) and neural activation of agonist-antagonist muscles (surface EMG) were examined during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Tissue stiffness (i.e. musculo-articular stiffness (MAS) and muscle stiffness (MS)) was examined via the free-oscillation technique, whereas muscle architecture (MA) of the vastus lateralis and subcutaneous fat were measured by ultrasonography. Males exhibited a greater age-related decline for KE (47.4 %) and KF (53.1 %) MVIC, and RTD (60.4 %) when compared to females (32.9, 42.6 and 34.0 %, respectively). Neural activation of agonist muscles during KE MVIC falls markedly with ageing; however, no age and sex effects were observed in the antagonist co-activation. MAS and MS were lower in elderly compared with young participants and in females compared with males. Regarding MA, main effects for age (young 23.0 ± 3.3 vs older 19.5 ± 2.0 mm) and sex (males 22.4 ± 3.5 vs females 20.4 ± 2.7 mm) were detected in muscle thickness. For fascicle length, there was an effect of age (young 104.6 ± 8.8 vs older 89.8 ± 10.5 mm), while for pennation angle, there was an effect of sex (males 13.3 ± 2.4 vs females 11.5 ± 1.7°). These findings suggest that both neuromuscular and mechanical declines are important contributors to the age-related loss of muscle strength/function but with some peculiar sex-related differences.

  15. T-lymphocyte subsets in West African children: impact of age, sex, and season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Whittle, H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There has been no reference material for T-lymphocyte subsets for normal children in developing countries. We therefore used T-lymphocyte subset determinations among children in three different studies in Guinea-Bissau to construct age-related reference material and to examine possible...... determinants of T-lymphocyte subset levels. METHODS: A total of 803 healthy West African children younger than 6 years were included in the three community studies of T-lymphocyte subsets among twins and singletons, after measles infection and after measles immunization. We used the immunoalkaline phosphatase...... method to determine T-lymphocyte subsets. RESULTS: We found differences by age, sex, and season, whereas there were no significant differences by birth order, twinning, or ethnic group. The CD4+ percentage declined from birth to age 2 years, at which time it started to increase to higher levels at age 4...

  16. Sex, age, deprivation and patterns in life expectancy in Quebec, Canada: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alix Carolyne

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little research has evaluated disparities in life expectancy according to material deprivation taking into account differences across the lifespan between men and women. This study investigated age- and sex-specific life expectancy differentials related to area-level material deprivation for the province of Québec, Canada from 1989-2004. Methods Age- and sex-specific life expectancy across the lifespan was calculated for three periods (1989-1992, 1995-1998, and 2001-2004 for the entire Québec population residing in 162 community groupings ranked according to decile of material deprivation. Absolute and relative measures were calculated to summarize differences between the most and least deprived deciles. Results Life expectancy differentials between the most and least deprived deciles were greatest for men. Over time, male differentials increased for age 20 or more, with little change occurring at younger ages. For women, differentials increased across the lifespan and were comparable to men at advanced ages. Despite gains in life expectancy among men relative to women, differentials between men and women were greater for most deprived relative to least deprived deciles. Conclusions Similar to the US, differentials in life expectancy associated with area-level material deprivation increased steadily in Québec from 1989-2004 for males and females of all ages. Differentials were comparable between men and women at advanced ages. Previous research indicating that life expectancy differentials between most and least deprived areas are greater in men may be due to a focus on younger age groups.

  17. Effects of age, sex, and treatment on weight-loss dynamics in overweight people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Tirado, Miguel A; Benito, Pedro J; Atienza, David; Rincón, Emiliano; Calderón, Francisco J

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate how sex, age, and the kind of treatment followed affect weight loss in overweight men and women, as well as to develop an explanation for the evolution of weight-loss dynamics. The study consisted of 119 overweight participants (18-50 years old, body mass index >25 and exercised 3 times per week for 24 weeks, and their daily diet was restricted to a specific protocol during the testing period and controlled carefully. Body weight changes in the participants were evaluated every 15 days. Based on this study, we developed and validated different sets of equations to accurately capture the weight-loss dynamics. There were no significant differences in terms of global body weight changes from the statistical viewpoint, either regarding the carried out treatment or the individuals' ages. However, significant differences in weight-loss tendency were found depending on participant sex. We concluded that the effectiveness of different possible treatments for weight loss varies by sex and, based on our experimental observations, a quadratic function provides the most accurate model for capturing specific weight-loss dynamics. This trial is registered at Clinical Trials Gov.: number NCT01116856.

  18. Age Factor in Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张浩

    2014-01-01

    In the second language acquisition, the study focus of linguistics is the influence of age factors which has always been considered as one of the most controversial issues. Some experts hold that the younger the better and would get good compe⁃tence to learn language well, meanwhile others believe that adult have more strong motivation and competence.Based on the Brain Plasticity Theory and the Critical Period Hypothesis, and the intention of this thesis is to reveal such a hypothesis that the younger the learner who starts to learn a second language, the greater performance that he will achieve like a native does, through the comparative research between children and adults. The subjects are 100 Chinese learners who begin learning at different levels and ages. According to the results of integrated scores and a collection of the data in the questionnaire, an analysis show that the results acquired would be consistent with the hypothesis.The intention of this research is not only to argue which is better, earlier or later, but also an trial, through investigation and study, to provide some insights and suggestion to the existent issues, especially the children second language education and college English study in China.

  19. Sex in the City: Prostitution in the Age of Global Migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillian S. Robinson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article traces the history and current role of gendered migration and sexual labor through an exploration of the contradictions inherent in gendered migration in which rural youth are migrating to the cities of the developing world while sex-customers migrate to “hot” tourism destinations. The author focuses on the economic nature of this migration within the context of the two main concepts used to understand women’s migration: refugees and trafficking. Case studies, particularly from Asia, reveal that a blanket application of the trafficking label misinterprets the agency, daily life, and even the oppression of sex workers. By examining the factors that influence women’s migration for work and the conditions that perpetuate their entrance into the sex industry, the author concludes that there is need to take into account the limited choices in today’s global economy that compel women to engage in sex work. She questions therefore the utility, in developed countries, of criminalizing these activities, suggesting instead that they be protected by extending their rights.

  20. Sex differences in distortion product otoacoustic emissions as a function of age in CBA mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Patricia; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Cannon, Trinitia; Kim, SungHee; Frisina, Robert D

    2004-06-01

    Age-related hearing loss--presbycusis--is the number one communication problem of the aged. A major contributor to presbycusis is the progressive degeneration of cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs). Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) are effective in vivo, physiological measures of hearing, assessing the health and functioning of the OHCs in mammals. We and others have previously demonstrated that DPOAE amplitudes decline with age in humans and mice. The present study's objective was to measure age-related declines in the OHCs in CBA mice (slow, progressive age-related hearing loss) by comparing DPOAEs and auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) generated from females and males. Young adult (2.1-2.9 months) and middle-aged CBA (14.0-16.4 months) mice were tested, as well as old CBAs (24.3-29.0 months). DPOAE-grams were obtained with L1 = 65 and L2 = 50 dB SPL, f1/f2 = 1.25, using eight points per octave covering a frequency range from 5.6 to 44.8 kHz (geometric mean frequency). ABRs ranged from 3 to 48 kHz. Analyses revealed that DPOAE levels decreased with age for middle-aged and old male CBAs, but for female CBAs, declines did not occur until old age - after menopause. In contrast, ABR amplitudes for female and male young adult and middle-aged CBAs were the same. Female ABR thresholds were lower than males for old CBAs. In conclusion, we discovered that pre-menopausal CBA female mice have healthier OHCs relative to middle-aged males, but much of this relative advantage is lost post-menopause. Understanding sex differences in age-related sensory disorders will be quite helpful for the goals of preventing, slowing or curing sensory problems in old age for both women and men.

  1. Modifiable Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in the Population Aged 20-49 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carlos Valladares Mas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: evidence provided by the Framingham Heart Study established the critical role of risk factors in the development of coronary heart disease. Over half a century later, current detection and control are still inadequate. Objective: to identify modifiable risk factors of coronary heart disease in individuals aged 20 to 49 years. Methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 276 individuals from the doctor’s office No. 1 of the Fabio di Celmo Community Teaching Polyclinic in Cienfuegos. Patients were examined in the clinic visit and/or whole family visit. The studied variables included age, sex, skin color, risk factors (excess weight/obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and psychosocial factors, which were obtained from the medical interview, physical examination, laboratory tests (total cholesterol and triglycerides and review of individual medical records and family history. Results: risk factors most frequently identified were excess weight/obesity (42.4 %, physical inactivity (34.4 % and smoking (20.3 %. Presence of these risk factors increased with age, showing differences in the distribution by sex and was associated with psychosocial factors. Their coexistence and progress with age was significant. Conclusion: prevalence of modifiable risk factors for coronary heart disease in a young population was high, with frequent association, predominating factors related to unhealthy lifestyles.

  2. Age and sex differences of controlled force exertion measured by a computer-generated sinusoidal target-pursuit system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Yoshinori; Demura, Shinichi

    2009-06-01

    This study examined age and sex differences of controlled force exertion in 207 males and 249 females aged 15 to 86 years. The subjects matched the submaximal grip strength of their dominant hand to changing demand values, appearing as a sinusoidal waveform on the display of a personal computer. The total difference (%) between the demand value and the grip exertion value for 25 sec was used as an evaluation parameter. Significant linear regressions were identified, but there was no significant difference in the rate of increase of both sexes. Analysis of variance showed insignificant differences among the means of both sexes, except for those of the 20-24yr-old group, and the differences between means of subjects greater than 50 years of age and 20 years of age increased in both sexes. Individual differences were almost the same in both sexes. The errors in controlled force exertion did not show a significant sex difference and tended to increase with age in both sexes. However, their rates of increase were significant only after 50 years of age.

  3. Effect of sex-hormone levels, sex, body mass index and other host factors on human craniofacial bone regeneration with bioactive tricalcium phosphate grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knabe, Christine; Mele, Aynur; Kann, Peter Herbert; Peleska, Barbara; Adel-Khattab, Doaa; Renz, Harald; Reuss, Alexander; Bohner, Marc; Stiller, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Little is known regarding the associations between sex-hormone levels, sex, body mass index (BMI), age, other host factors and biomaterial stimulated bone regeneration in the human craniofacial skeleton. The aim of this study was to elucidate the associations between these factors and bone formation after sinus floor augmentation procedures (SFA) utilizing a bioactive tricalcium phosphate (TCP) bone grafting material. We conducted a prospective study in a human population in which 60 male and 60 female participants underwent SFA and dental implant placement using a staged approach. BMI as well as levels of serum estradiol (E2), total testosterone (TT), and the free androgen index (FAI) were measured by radioimmunoassay and electrochemoluminescent-immunoassay. At implant placement, 6 months after SFA, bone biopsy specimens were harvested for hard tissue histology, the amount of bone formation was evaluated by histomorphometry and immunohistochemical analysis of osteogenic marker expression. The Wilcoxon rank-sum U test, Spearman correlations and linear regression analysis were used to explore the association between bone formation and BMI, hormonal and other host factors. BMI and log E2 were significantly positively associated with bone formation in male individuals (p BMI enhanced TCP stimulated craniofacial i.e. intramembranous bone repair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Age, task complexity, and sex as potential moderators of attentional focus effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kevin; Smith, Peter J K

    2013-08-01

    The study tested whether age, sex, or task complexity moderate the effect of attentional focus on motor learning. Children (24 boys, 24 girls) and adults (24 men, 24 women) were assigned to an internal or external attentional focus, and were timed while riding either a Double Pedalo with handles (simple task) or without handles (complex task) over a distance of 7 meters. A Double Pedalo is a four-wheeled device that involves standing on two connected platforms, and alternately pushing them forward to make it move. Participants completed 20 acquisition trials, followed by a 24-hour retention test. For the simpler task, no time differences due to attentional focus emerged. With the complex task, an external focus resulted in faster times in retention than an internal focus, but only for males. These findings suggest that attentional focus affects children and adults similarly, but task complexity and sex moderate these effects.

  5. Variation of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Baldassari Rebeis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine possible variations in the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex in individuals free of thoracic wall deformities. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2012, 166 individuals with morphologically normal thoracic walls consented to have their chests and the perimeter of the lower third of the thorax measured according to the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum. The participant characteristics are presented (114 men and 52 women; 118 Caucasians and 48 people of African descent. RESULTS: Measurements of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum were statistically significantly different between men and women (11-40 years old; however, no significant difference was found between Caucasians and people of African descent. For men, the index measurements were not significantly different across all of the age groups. For women, the index measurements were significantly lower for individuals aged 3 to 10 years old than for individuals aged 11 to 20 years old and 21 to 40 years old; however, no such difference was observed between women aged 11 to 20 years old and those aged 21 to 40 years old. CONCLUSION: In the sample, significant differences were observed between women aged 11 to 40 years old and the other age groups; however, there was no difference between Caucasian and people of African descent.

  6. Sex-, age- and strain-related quantities of muscalure on the cuticula of the housefly (Musca domestica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorman, N; denOtter, CJ; Sommeijer, MJ; Francke, PJ

    1997-01-01

    Muscalure, (Z)-9-tricosene, is the major component of the cuticular contact sex pheromone of female houseflies, Musca domestica. By means of gas chromatography the relative amounts of muscalure were determined on female and male houseflies of different sex, age and strain. Females and males of mixed

  7. Sex differences in cardiovascular risk factors and disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelman, Yolande; van Rijn, Bas B; Ten Haaf, Monique E; Boersma, Eric; Peters, Sanne A E

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been seen as a men's disease for decades, however it is more common in women than in men. It is generally assumed in medicine that the effects of the major risk factors (RF) on CVD outcomes are the same in women as in men. Recent evidence has emerged that recognizes new, potentially independent, CVD RF exclusive to women. In particular, common disorders of pregnancy, such as gestational hypertension and diabetes, as well as frequently occurring endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age (e.g. polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and early menopause) are associated with accelerated development of CVD and impaired CVD-free survival. With the recent availability of prospective studies comprising men and women, the equivalency of major RF prevalence and effects on CVD between men and women can be examined. Furthermore, female-specific RFs might be identified enabling early detection of apparently healthy women with a high lifetime risk of CVD. Therefore, we examined the available literature regarding the prevalence and effects of the traditional major RFs for CVD in men and women. This included large prospective cohort studies, cross-sectional studies and registries, as randomised trials are lacking. Furthermore, a literature search was performed to examine the impact of female-specific RFs on the traditional RFs and the occurrence of CVD. We found that the effects of elevated blood pressure, overweight and obesity, and elevated cholesterol on CVD outcomes are largely similar between women and men, however prolonged smoking is significantly more hazardous for women than for men. With respect to female-specific RF only associations (and no absolute risk data) could be found between preeclampsia, gestational diabetes and menopause onset with the occurrence of CVD. This review shows that CVD is the main cause of death in men and women, however the prevalence is higher in women. Determination of the CV risk profile should take into

  8. Bioaccumulation of lead, mercury, and cadmium in the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula, from the Ebro Delta (NE Spain); Sex- and age-dependent variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Chardi, Alejandro [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: a.sanchez.chardi@ub.edu; Lopez-Fuster, Maria Jose [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Nadal, Jacint [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-01-15

    We quantified bioaccumulation of lead, mercury, and cadmium in bones from 105 greater white-toothed shrews (Crocidura russula) collected at the Ebro Delta, a polluted area, and the Medas Islands, a control site. Lead and mercury levels varied with site, age, and sex, although statistical significances depended on each factor. Globally, shrews from the polluted area exhibited significantly higher concentrations of Pb and Hg. Increment of Pb with age was particularly remarkable in wetland animals and was interpreted in relation to human activities, namely hunting. Unlike males, females from the Ebro Delta maintained low Hg levels, which were associated with gestation and lactation. Cadmium levels did not differ between sites, sexes, or ages. This study provides the first data on heavy metals in mammals from this wetland and suggests that C. russula is a good bioindicator of metal pollution. We concluded that sex and age may represent an important source of variation in the bioaccumulation of these metals in wild populations. - Bioaccumulation patterns of Pb and Hg reveal sex and age-related differences in the large bones of the greater white-toothed shrew from a polluted Mediterranean wetland.

  9. Sex Differences in Presynaptic Density and Neurogenesis in Middle-Aged ApoE4 and ApoE Knockout Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rijpma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis and apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE4 genotype are risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease (AD and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Sex differences exist in prevalence and manifestation of both diseases. We investigated sex differences respective to aging, focusing on cognitive parameters in apoE4 and apoE knockout (ko mouse models of AD and CVD. Presynaptic density and neurogenesis were investigated immunohistochemically in male and female apoE4, apoE ko, and wild-type mice. Middle-aged female apoE4 mice showed decreased presynaptic density in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Middle-aged female apoE ko mice showed a trend towards increased neurogenesis in the hippocampus compared with wild-type mice. No differences in these parameters could be observed in middle-aged male mice. Specific harmful interactions between apoE4 and estrogen could be responsible for decreased presynaptic density in female apoE4 mice. The trend of increased neurogenesis found in female apoE ko mice supports previous studies suggesting that temporarily increased amount of synaptic contacts and/or neurogenesis is a compensatory mechanism for synaptic failure. To our knowledge, no other studies investigating presynaptic density in aging female apoE4 or apoE ko mice are available. Sex-specific differences between APOE genotypes could account for some sex differences in AD and CVD.

  10. Effects of aging, sex, and physical training on cardiovascular responses to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, T; Spina, R J; Martin, W H; Kohrt, W M; Schechtman, K B; Holloszy, J O; Ehsani, A A

    1992-08-01

    The relative contributions of decreases in maximal heart rate, stroke volume, and oxygen extraction and of changes in body weight and composition to the age-related decline in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) are unclear and may be influenced by sex and level of physical activity. To investigate mechanisms by which aging, sex, and physical activity influence VO2max, we quantified VO2, cardiac output, and heart rate during submaximal and maximal treadmill exercise and assessed weight and fat-free mass in healthy younger and older sedentary and endurance exercise-trained men and women. For results expressed in milliliters per kilogram per minute, a three-to-four-decade greater age was associated with a 40-41% lower VO2max in sedentary subjects and a 25-32% lower VO2max in trained individuals (p less than 0.001). A smaller stroke volume accounted for nearly 50% of these age-related differences, and the remainder was explained by a lower maximal heart rate and reduced oxygen extraction (all p less than 0.001). Age-related effects on maximal heart rate and oxygen extraction were attenuated in trained subjects (p less than 0.05). After normalization of VO2max and maximal cardiac output to fat-free mass, age- and training-related differences were reduced by 24-47% but remained significant (p less than 0.05). For trained but not sedentary subjects, maximal cardiac output and stroke volume normalized to fat-free mass were greater in men than in women (p less than 0.05). A lower stroke volume, heart rate, and arteriovenous oxygen difference at maximal exercise all contribute to the age-related decline in VO2max. Effects of age and training on VO2max, maximal cardiac output, and stroke volume cannot be fully explained by differences in body composition. In sedentary subjects, however, the sex difference in maximal cardiac output and stroke volume can be accounted for by the greater percentage of body fat in women than in men.

  11. Genetic linkage in the horse. II. Distribution of male recombination estimates and the influence of age, breed and sex on recombination frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, L; Sandberg, K

    1984-01-01

    In the present study an extensive amount of data, comprising more than 30,000 offspring in total, was analyzed to evaluate the influence of age and sex on the recombination frequency in the K-PGD segment of the equine linkage group (LG) I and the influence of age, breed and sex on recombination in the Al-Es segment of LG II. A highly significant sex difference is reported for both segments. Male and female recombination values in the K-PGD segment were estimated at 25.8 +/- 0.8 and 33.3 +/- 2.5%, respectively. Similarly, recombination was less frequent in the male (36.6 +/- 0.7%) than in the female (46.6 +/- 1.2%) in the Al-Es segment. Comparison of data from two Swedish horse breeds revealed no significant breed differences in either sex for recombination in the Al-Es segment. No evidence of an age effect was found in any segment or sex. The distribution of individual male recombination estimates was also investigated, and a significant heterogeneity among stallions was revealed in the K-PGD segment. The results are discussed in relation to previous studies on factors affecting recombination in mammals.

  12. Chemotherapy-related toxicity in patients with non-metastatic Ewing sarcoma: influence of sex and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paioli, Anna; Luksch, Roberto; Fagioli, Franca; Tamburini, Angela; Cesari, Marilena; Palmerini, Emanuela; Abate, Massimo Eraldo; Marchesi, Emanuela; Balladelli, Alba; Pratelli, Loredana; Ferrari, Stefano

    2014-02-01

    Influence of age and sex on chemotherapy-related toxicity was evaluated in children (3-9 years), adolescents (10-17 years), and adults (up to 40 years) with localized Ewing sarcoma (ES) enrolled in the ISG/SSG III protocol. Treatment was based on vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, dactinomycin, and etoposide. High-dose chemotherapy with busulfan and melphalan was given in poor responder patients. The analysis was based on 2191 courses of standard chemotherapy and 230 patients. A lower risk of G4 leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, hospitalization, febrile neutropenia, and red blood cell (RBC) transfusions was observed in males. Use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was more frequent in adults, while children more often received RBC transfusions. A significant correlation between sex and chemotherapy-related toxicity was observed in the study, whereas no significant differences in terms of bone marrow toxicity can be expected according to patient age. Further studies should analyse the role of pharmacokinetics, pharmacogenomics, and clinical characteristics.

  13. Relationship of oral cancer with age, sex, site distribution and habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mandakini Mansukh; Pandya, Amrish N

    2004-04-01

    Many studies are carried out regarding age incidence, tobacco smoking and sites of oral cancer, but in Gujarat tobacco chewing in form of Gutkha is more common than smoking and start during preteen years. Tobacco chewing causing chronic inflammation, submucous fibrosis and oral cancer. This study was conducted on 504 patients to find out if there is increasing incidence of oral cancer in lower age group and its relation with sex as well which site was commonly affected. There was statistically significant increase in oral cancer in lower age group, and anatomically anterior part of oral cavity showed involvement in 61.32% of cases. Though males were affected more but female cases were 25%. So tobacco chewing has got detrimental effect on oral cavity.

  14. CT ASSESSMENT OF BRAIN VENTRICULAR SIZE BASED ON AGE AND SEX: A STUDY OF 112 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinoo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available CT being the primary modality of choice in many centers for the diagnosis of brain pathology, normal brain ventricular size measurem ents is an important parameter for the diagnosis of conditions like hydrocephalus, age related atrophic changes and also other brain pathologies producing ventriculomegaly. It is also important for knowing the normal upper and lower limits of the brain ven tricular system in the different age groups, and in both sexes so as to diagnose brain pathology.The ventricular system of the brain undergoes changes with aging and varies with gender.Our study consists of 48 female, and 64 male patients. Apart from the v entricular measurements, two ratios and two indices were also calculated – which included the right and left Evan’s ratio, CM index, and ventricular size inde

  15. Executive Functions: Influence of Sex, Age and Its Relationship With Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa de Oliveira e Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe Tower of Hanoi is a tool used to evaluate executive functions. However, few studies describe what functions are evaluated in this test. This study investigates the executive functions, evaluated by the Tower of Hanoi (ToH, and the influence of gender, age and its relationship with intelligence. We evaluated 55 children and adolescents, between the ages of ten and 16, without diagnosed neuropsychiatric disorders. The results showed that the performance and time in to complete the Tower of Hanoi have no discriminative power when comparing age groups and sex; there was also no significant correlation found between the ToH and the execution quotient of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Third Edition (WISC III, perceptual organization and the speed of processing. Only the subtest coding were positively related to the ToH, demonstrating that these instruments may be measuring related aspects of intelligence and executive functions, namely intelligence and working memory.

  16. Influence of age, temperature, sex, height and diazepam on vibration perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meh, D; Denislic, M

    1995-12-01

    Vibration perception was quantitatively examined in 92 healthy volunteers (46 females, 36 males, aged 10-71 years). Vibration perception thresholds, vibration disappearance thresholds and vibration thresholds were assessed at the second metacarpal bone, styloid process of ulna, lateral epicondyle of humerus, first phalanx of the big toe, first metatarsal bone, medial malleolus and proximal part of the tibia bilaterally. Vibration sensitivity was found to be age-dependent. Under the age of 60, the correlation was linear. Vibration thresholds depended on body site but they were not related to sex or body side. Temperature and diazepam affect the perception of vibration considerably. Small interindividual variability was found in measurements repeated in 3 consecutive days, after 4 weeks and after a year.

  17. Age-dependent plasticity of sex pheromone response in the moth, Agrotis ipsilon: combined effects of octopamine and juvenile hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarriault, David; Barrozo, Romina B; de Carvalho Pinto, Carlos J

    2009-01-01

    Male moths use sex pheromones to find their mating partners. In the moth, Agrotis ipsilon, the behavioral response and the neuron sensitivity within the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL), to sex pheromone increase with age and juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis. By manipulating...... the effects of OA and an OA receptor antagonist, mianserin, on behavioral and AL neuron responses of mature and immature males during stimulation with sex pheromone. Our results indicate that, although OA injections enhanced the behavioral pheromone response in mature males, OA had no significant effect...... a behavioral response of A. ipsilon males to sex pheromone....

  18. Sex and death: the effects of innate immune factors on the sexual reproduction of malaria parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo S Ramiro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria parasites must undergo a round of sexual reproduction in the blood meal of a mosquito vector to be transmitted between hosts. Developing a transmission-blocking intervention to prevent parasites from mating is a major goal of biomedicine, but its effectiveness could be compromised if parasites can compensate by simply adjusting their sex allocation strategies. Recently, the application of evolutionary theory for sex allocation has been supported by experiments demonstrating that malaria parasites adjust their sex ratios in response to infection genetic diversity, precisely as predicted. Theory also predicts that parasites should adjust sex allocation in response to host immunity. Whilst data are supportive, the assumptions underlying this prediction - that host immune responses have differential effects on the mating ability of males and females - have not yet been tested. Here, we combine experimental work with theoretical models in order to investigate whether the development and fertility of male and female parasites is affected by innate immune factors and develop new theory to predict how parasites' sex allocation strategies should evolve in response to the observed effects. Specifically, we demonstrate that reactive nitrogen species impair gametogenesis of males only, but reduce the fertility of both male and female gametes. In contrast, tumour necrosis factor-α does not influence gametogenesis in either sex but impairs zygote development. Therefore, our experiments demonstrate that immune factors have complex effects on each sex, ranging from reducing the ability of gametocytes to develop into gametes, to affecting the viability of offspring. We incorporate these results into theory to predict how the evolutionary trajectories of parasite sex ratio strategies are shaped by sex differences in gamete production, fertility and offspring development. We show that medical interventions targeting offspring development are more likely

  19. Risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases among sex workers in the interior of Piaui, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardeliny Corrêa da Penha

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the risk factors for STD among female sex workers and the characteristics of this population, and to verify the association between condom use by their male partners and clients. METHOD: Cross-sectional and correlational study conducted with 73 sex workers registered at the Sex Workers´ Association of the municipality of Picos -PI, Brazil. Data were collected in September and October 2010 using a questionnaire to obtain sociodemographic information and the participants´ background in the sex industry. Ethical aspects were observed. RESULTS: There was no significant association between most of the sociodemographic variables and background in the sex industry and condom use by male partners or clients. However, there was a significant association with years in the sex industry (p = 0.029. Sex workers who had been in the industry for the longest used condoms for protection against sexually transmitted diseases. CONCLUSION: It is essential to create health promotion strategies that observe the real-life experiences of sex workers.

  20. Normal morphology of sacroiliac joints in children: magnetic resonance studies related to age and sex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollow, M.; Paris, S.; Mutze, S.; Hamm, B. [Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Charite, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Schumannstrasse 20-21, D-10098 Berlin (Germany); Braun, J.; Kannenberg, J. [Department of General Internal Medicine and Rheumatology, Klinikum Benjamin Franklin, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Biedermann, T.; Schauer-Petrowskaja, C. [Department of Juvenile Rheumatology, II. Kinderklinik, Krankenhaus Berlin Buch, Berlin (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    Objective. To determine in a prospective study the normal MRI morphology of the sacroiliac joints (SIJs) in relation to age and sex during adolescence. Design and patients. A total of 98 children (63 boys, mean age 12.7{+-}2.8 years; 35 girls, mean age 13.7{+-}2.3 years), ranging in age from 8 to 17 years, with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) but without signs of sacroiliitis fulfilled the study prerequisites (no back pain and no pathologic changes of the SIJs on physical examination before MRI in a 1.5-year follow-up). An additional eight HLA-B27-negative boys and eight HLA-B27-negative girls without arthritis served as controls. The MRI protocol comprised a T1-weighted SE sequence, an opposed-phase T2*-weighted GE sequence, and a dynamic contrast-enhanced study in single-section technique. Results. Noncontrast MRI permitted differentiation of ``open`` from ossified segmental and lateral apophyses of the sacral wings, with a significant difference in age (P <0.05) between children with open and ossified apophyses. Ossification of the apophyses of the sacral wings was seen significantly earlier (P <0.05) in girls than in boys. Girls also had a significantly higher incidence of transitional lumbosacral vertebrae, pelvic asymmetries, and accessory joints. In the contrast-enhanced opposed-phase MRI study, normal cartilage of the SIJs showed no contrast enhancement whereas the joint capsule showed a moderate enhancement. Conclusion. There are significant age- and sex-related differences in the normal MRI morphology of juvenile SIJs. Our findings might serve as a standard of comparison for the evaluation of pathologic changes - in particular for the early identification of juvenile sacroiliitis. (orig.) With 10 figs., 30 refs.

  1. U.S. Census Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Selected Age Groups by Sex for the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2010-2015. U.S. Census Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Selected Age Groups by Sex for the United States. The estimates are based on the 2010 Census...

  2. U.S. Census Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Selected Age Groups by Sex for the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2010-2015. U.S. Census Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Selected Age Groups by Sex for the United States. The estimates are based on the 2010 Census...

  3. Ontogenetic study of the scapula among some Egyptians: Forensic implications in age and sex estimation using Multidetector Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma M.M. Badr El Dine

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The results achieved from the current study are useful tools in the diagnosis of age and sex in both forensic and bio-archeological identification procedures; however, further studies are strongly suggested.

  4. Brood age and size influence sex-specific parental provisioning patterns in a sex-role reversed species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gow, Elizabeth A; Musgrove, Annessa B; Wiebe, Karen L

    2013-01-01

    .... The Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus) is unusual among altricial birds, as it has partly reversed sex roles with males investing more in parental care than females, it has no-extra-pair young, and it engages in facultative polyandry...

  5. Age and sex-specific relationships between phthalate exposures and obesity in Chinese children at puberty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhui Zhang

    Full Text Available To examine the age and sex-specific associations of urine levels of six mono-phthalates with body size and fat distribution in Chinese children at puberty.Four hundred and ninety-three school-aged children (247 boys, 246 girls were recruited. Obesity related anthropometric indices were measured and body fat proportion (BF% was calculated. Spot urine samples were collected and phthalate monoesters were detected by an API 2000 electrospray triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS. Associations between phthalate exposure and overweight/obesity measures and their trends were examined by multiple linear regression and Logistic regression analyses, respectively.Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP metabolites and monobutyl phthalate (MBP were found to be the most detectable chemicals. In 8-10 years (yrs group, concentrations of MEHP and MBP were significantly higher in girls than those in boys. However, concentrations of all phthalate monoesters, except for MEP and MEHP, in 11-13 yrs boys were significantly higher than those in girls. After adjusting for confounders including puberty onset, urinary concentrations of MBP and sum of low molecular-weight phthalate metabolites (∑LMP were positively associated with boys' obesity in a concentration-effect manner, while concentrations of MEHP, MEHHP and sum of DEHP metabolites (∑MEHP were negatively associated with girls' obesity. Associations between phthalate exposure levels and BMI z-score changes were age- and sex-specific in school-age children.There are age and sex-specific concentration-effect associations between phthalate exposure and fat distribution in Chinese children. Urinary phthalate levels in 11-13 yrs boys were about 30 percent higher than those in girls, and ∑MEHP levels in younger boys (10 yrs. Associations were positive for MBP and ∑LMP with both BMI z-score and fat distribution in boys >10 years of age, and negative for ∑MEHP with fat distribution in girls <10 years of age.

  6. Age and sex dependent changes in liver gene expression during the life cycle of the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branham William S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age- and sex-related susceptibility to adverse drug reactions and disease is a key concern in understanding drug safety and disease progression. We hypothesize that the underlying suite of hepatic genes expressed at various life cycle stages will impact susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. Understanding the basal liver gene expression patterns is a necessary first step in addressing this hypothesis and will inform our assessments of adverse drug reactions as the liver plays a central role in drug metabolism and biotransformation. Untreated male and female F344 rats were sacrificed at 2, 5, 6, 8, 15, 21, 52, 78, and 104 weeks of age. Liver tissues were collected for histology and gene expression analysis. Whole-genome rat microarrays were used to query global expression profiles. Results An initial list of differentially expressed genes was selected using criteria based upon p-value (p Conclusions These results suggest an underlying role for genes in specific clusters in potentiating age- and sex-related differences in susceptibility to adverse health effects. Furthermore, such a comprehensive picture of life cycle changes in gene expression deepens our understanding and informs the utility of liver gene expression biomarkers.

  7. Morbidity of insured Swedish cats during 1999-2006 by age, breed, sex, and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egenvall, Agneta; Bonnett, Brenda N; Häggström, Jens; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the study was to describe patterns of morbidity, as reflected by reimbursed claims for veterinary care among cats covered by a Swedish insurance company during 1999-2006. The annual incidence rates of having at least one veterinary care event were calculated overall and stratified by sex, age, breed, diagnosis and urban/other location. The total rate was 875 (95% CI 858-892) cats with claims per 10,000 cat-years at risk. The Siamese, Burmese, and the Abyssinians had high rates of claims, compared to the Norwegian Forest cat, the Maine Coon, the European Shorthair and domestic cats. The most common causes for insurance claims were trauma, gastrointestinal and lower urinary tract problems and there was substantial breed, sex and age variation for certain problems. For example, among cats under 9 years of age, the rate for lower urinary tract problems was 2-3 times higher in males than females. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Age and sex differences in steadiness of elbow flexor muscles with imposed cognitive demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Hugo M; Spears, Vincent C; Schlinder-Delap, Bonnie; Yoon, Tejin; Nielson, Kristy A; Hunter, Sandra K

    2015-06-01

    These studies determined (1) age- and sex-related differences in steadiness of isometric contractions when high cognitive demand was imposed across a range of forces with the elbow flexor muscles (study 1) and; (2) sex differences in steadiness among older adults when low cognitive demand was imposed (study 2). 36 young adults (18-25 years; 18 women) and 30 older adults (60-82 years; 17 women) performed isometric contractions at 5, 30 and 40 % of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Study 1 involved a high-cognitive demand session (serial subtractions by 13 during the contraction) and a control session (no mental math). Study 2 (older adults only) involved a low-cognitive demand session (subtracting by 1s). Older individuals exhibited greater increases in force fluctuations (coefficient of variation of force, CV) with high cognitive demand than young adults, with the largest age difference at 5 % MVC (P = 0.01). Older adults had greater agonist EMG activity with high-cognitive demand and women had greater coactivation than men (P demand for the older women but not for the older men (P = 0.03). Older adults had reduced steadiness and increased muscle activation when high cognitive demand was imposed while low cognitive demand induced increased force fluctuations in older women but not older men. These findings have implications for daily and work-related tasks that involve cognitive demand performed simultaneously during submaximal isometric contractions in an aging workforce.

  9. Sex differences in the intellectual functioning of early school-aged children in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Zhu, Ni; Zeng, Lingxia; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Kang, Yijun; Yang, Yang; Yan, Hong

    2016-03-29

    Gender disparities in China are concentrated in poor rural areas and among poor households. The difference in intelligence between boys and girls is less clear in rural China. The purpose of this paper was to assess sex differences in the intellectual function of early school-aged children in rural China. One thousand seven hundred forty four early school-aged offspring of women who had participated in a prenatal supplementation trial with different combinations of micronutrients and continued to reside in two rural counties in China were followed. We measured their Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ), Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), Working Memory Index (WMI), Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI) and Processing Speed Index (PSI) using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV). Multilevel analyses were used to assess sex differences in intellectual functioning in 7-10-year-old children in rural China. Boys' adjusted mean FSIQ score was 0.97 points higher (95% CI: -2.22 - 0.28) than that of girls. Girls obtained higher mean WMI and PSI scores, with 1.32 points (95% CI: 0.14 - 2.51) and 3.10 points (95% CI: 1.82-4.38) higher adjusted means, respectively. Boys' adjusted mean VCI and PRI scores were significantly higher than those of girls, and the mean differences were 2.44 points (95% CI: 0.95 - 3.94) and 3.68 points (95% CI: 2.36 - 5.01), respectively. There is no evidence to suggest sex differences in the general intelligence of early school-aged children in rural China. However, a difference in general intelligence between 10-year-old boys and girls was evident. Girls and boys in rural China tended to show different specific cognitive abilities.

  10. Sex-specific effects of natural and sexual selection on the evolution of life span and ageing in Drosophila simulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archer, C.R.; Duffy, E.; Hosken, D.J.; Mokkonen, M.; Okada, K.; Oku, K.; Sharma, M.D.; Hunt, J.

    2015-01-01

    1. Variation in the strength of age-dependent natural selection shapes differences in ageing rates across species and populations. Likewise, sexual selection can promote divergent patterns of senescence across the sexes. However, the effects of these processes on the evolution of ageing have largely

  11. DEFINITION OF THE ETIOLOGIC SPECTRUM OF ACUTE ALLERGOSIS, URTICARIA IN CHILDREN, ACCORDING TO AGE AND SEX USING NOMOGRAPHIC METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmulich V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work there are presented the results of allergytestings of 186 children suffering from acute allergy, urticaria. The aim of this study was the specification of casually significant allergen depending on sex and age. Results of testing are processed by a method of the mathematiical analysis, raised in nomograms according toAnnals of which, considering the nosological entity of disease, sex and age of a patient, it`s defined causally significant allergen.

  12. Size of the thrombus in acute deep vein thrombosis and the significance of patients' age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, A

    1981-01-01

    To determine the significance of patients' age and sex on the size of the thrombus in acute deep vein thrombosis, 420 consecutive phlebograms with acute deep vein thrombosis were studied. A significant correlation between the size of the thrombus and increasing age of the patient as well as the sex of male was noted. It is concluded that older patients and men often are at a high risk of pulmonary embolism at the time of diagnosis.

  13. Joint loads resulting in ACL rupture: Effects of age, sex, and body mass on injury load and mode of failure in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaker, Carina L; Little, Christopher B; Clarke, Elizabeth C

    2016-09-07

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are a common knee injury with a known but poorly understood association with secondary joint injuries and post-traumatic osteoarthritis (OA). Female sex and age are known risk factors for ACL injury but these variables are rarely explored in mouse models of injury. This study aimed to further characterize a non-surgical ACL injury model to determine its clinical relevance across a wider range of mouse specifications. Cadaveric and anesthetized C57BL/6 mice (9-52 weeks of age) underwent joint loading to investigate the effects of age, sex, and body mass on ACL injury mechanisms. The ACL injury load (whole joint load required to rupture the ACL) was measured from force-displacement data, and mode of failure was assessed using micro-dissection and histology. ACL injury load was found to increase with body mass and age (p mode of ACL failure varied with both age and sex groups. Avulsion fractures (complete or mixed with mid-substance tears) were common in all age groups but the proportion of mixed and mid-substance failures increased with age. Females were more likely than males to have a major avulsion relative to a mid-substance tear (p model. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.

  14. Effects of Age, Sex, Body Weight, and Quantity of Alcohol Consumption on Occurrence and Severity of Alcoholic Hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Puri, Puneet; Shah, Vijay H; Kamath, Patrick; Sanyal, Arun; Urban, Thomas; Ren, Xiaowei; Katz, Barry; Radaeva, Svetlana; Chalasani, Naga; Crabb, David W

    2016-12-01

    Only a minority of heavy drinking individuals develop alcoholic hepatitis (AH), for unclear reasons. We analyzed data from the Translational Research and Evolving Alcoholic Hepatitis Treatment cohort, consisting of subjects who drink heavily with normal results from liver tests (controls) and patients with AH. We examined risk factors for the development of AH including body mass index (BMI), drinking pattern and quantity, and sex. We compared data from 145 patients with AH and 124 controls based on BMI when they joined the cohort; groups were matched for sex and race. Drinking patterns were assessed using the timeline followback method, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, and the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism 6-question survey. We performed univariable and multivariable analyses to assess the effects of these factors and their interaction in increasing the risk for AH. We also explored the association between PNPLA3 variants and AH. Cases with AH were older (47 vs 44 y; P = .03). For nearly all measures of quantity of alcohol consumed or frequency of binge drinking, controls drank more heavily than cases with AH. We did not find an association between BMI, sex, drinking patterns, and the presence of AH. Age and BMI were independent predictors for the severity of AH. When we analyzed cases and controls of European ancestry, the PNPLA3 single-nucleotide polymorphism rs738409 was associated with risk for AH (odds ratio, 1.89; P = .007). Compared with heavy drinkers without liver disease, subjects with AH consumed lower levels of alcohol and had less binge drinking, suggesting an increased sensitivity to the toxic effects of alcohol. The risk for AH may be associated with the PNPLA3 rs738409 polymorphism. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sex-specific interaction effects of age, occupational status, and workplace stress on psychiatric symptoms and allostatic load among healthy Montreal workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Moskowitz, D S; Lavoie, Joel; D'Antono, Bianca

    2013-11-01

    Socio-demographics and workplace stress may affect men and women differently. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess sex-specific interactions among age, occupational status, and workplace Demand-Control-Support (D-C-S) factors in relation to psychiatric symptoms and allostatic load levels representing multi-systemic "wear and tear". It was hypothesized that beyond main effects, D-C-S factors would be moderated by occupational status and age in sex-specific directions predictive of subjective psychiatric symptoms and objective physiological dysregulations. Participants included healthy male (n = 81) and female (n = 118) Montreal workers aged 20 to 64 years (Men: M = 39.4 years, SD = 11.3; Women: M = 42.8 years, SD = 11.38). The Job Content Questionnaire was administered to assess workplace D-C-S factors that included psychological demands, decisional latitude, and social support. Occupational status was coded using the Nam--Powers--Boyd system derived from the Canadian census. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Beck Anxiety Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory II. Sex-specific allostatic load indices were calculated based on fifteen biomarkers. Regression analyses revealed that higher social support was associated with less depressive symptoms in middle aged (p = 0.033) and older men (p = 0.027). Higher occupational status was associated with higher allostatic load levels for men (p = 0.035), while the reverse occurred for women (p = 0.048). Women with lower occupational status but with higher decision latitude had lower allostatic load levels, as did middle-aged (p = 0.031) and older women (p = 0.003) with higher psychological demands. In summary, age and occupational status moderated workplace stress in sex-specific ways that have occupational health implications.

  16. Social and structural factors associated with consistent condom use among female entertainment workers trading sex in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urada, Lianne A; Morisky, Donald E; Hernandez, Laufred I; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-02-01

    This paper examined socio-structural factors of consistent condom use among female entertainment workers at high risk for acquiring HIV in Metro Manila, Quezon City, Philippines. Entertainers, aged 18 and over, from 25 establishments (spa/saunas, night clubs, karaoke bars), who traded sex during the previous 6 months, underwent cross-sectional surveys. The 143 entertainers (42% not always using condoms, 58% always using condoms) had median age (23), duration in sex work (7 months), education (9 years), and 29% were married/had live-in boyfriends. In a logistic multiple regression model, social-structural vs. individual factors were associated with inconsistent condom use: being forced/deceived into sex work, less manager contact, less STI/HIV prevention knowledge acquired from medical personnel/professionals, not following a co-workers' condom use advice, and an interaction between establishment type and alcohol use with establishment guests. Interventions should consider the effects of physical (force/deception into work), social (peer, manager influence), and policy (STI/HIV prevention knowledge acquired from medical personnel/professionals) environments on consistent condom use.

  17. Concentrations of trace element in human dentin by sex and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Akiko; Fujita, Yuji; Endo, Shigeatsu; Itai, Kazuyoshi

    2012-06-10

    Teeth are recently drawing attention for their potential as biological modeling investigation samples due to their ability to be collected and their slow substance metabolism. There is no active metabolism of elements after the completion of dentin. Dentin is surrounded by enamel and cementum, and is not affected by the oral environment. Therefore, the amount of trace elements in dentin may change with age, and this is considered to be a reliable biological load index. The objectives in this study are to demonstrate concentrations of elements in the dentin of healthy Japanese subjects by sex and age, and to reveal the relationship between element levels and age. 121 healthy teeth samples were extracted due to periodontal disease or orthodontic treatment. Each tooth was sliced from the crown to the root apex into 0.5-1mm thickness, then enamel, cementum, and the pulp were removed; the dentins were used as samples. The concentration of 10 trace elements (B, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, and Pb) in the dentin was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The differences Co and Pb in the dentin between men and women were significant (p<0.01). Significant positive correlation was observed between B, Co, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb concentrations in the dentin and age (p<0.001). The results of the present study suggest that human dentin is an appropriate substance for relativity with sex and age at further future research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hyoid bone fusion and bone density across the lifespan: prediction of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ellie; Austin, Diane; Werner, Helen M; Chuang, Ying Ji; Bersu, Edward; Vorperian, Houri K

    2016-06-01

    The hyoid bone supports the important functions of swallowing and speech. At birth, the hyoid bone consists of a central body and pairs of right and left lesser and greater cornua. Fusion of the greater cornua with the body normally occurs in adulthood, but may not occur at all in some individuals. The aim of this study was to quantify hyoid bone fusion across the lifespan, as well as assess developmental changes in hyoid bone density. Using a computed tomography imaging studies database, 136 hyoid bones (66 male, 70 female, ages 1-to-94) were examined. Fusion was ranked on each side and hyoid bones were classified into one of four fusion categories based on their bilateral ranks: bilateral distant non-fusion, bilateral non-fusion, partial or unilateral fusion, and bilateral fusion. Three-dimensional hyoid bone models were created and used to calculate bone density in Hounsfield units. Results showed a wide range of variability in the timing and degree of hyoid bone fusion, with a trend for bilateral non-fusion to decrease after age 20. Hyoid bone density was significantly lower in adult female scans than adult male scans and decreased with age in adulthood. In sex and age estimation models, bone density was a significant predictor of sex. Both fusion category and bone density were significant predictors of age group for adult females. This study provides a developmental baseline for understanding hyoid bone fusion and bone density in typically developing individuals. Findings have implications for the disciplines of forensics, anatomy, speech pathology, and anthropology.

  19. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition in Mexican older adults: age and sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ortega, Mariana; Arroyo, Pedro

    2016-02-14

    Anthropometric reference data for older adults, particularly for the oldest old, are still limited, especially in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to describe sex- and age-specific distributions of anthropometric measurements and body composition in Mexican older adults. The methods included in the present study were assessment of height, weight, BMI, calf circumference (CC), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) as well as knee height in a sample of 8883 Mexican adults aged 60 years and above and the estimation of sex- and age-specific differences in these measures. Results of the study (n 7865, 54% women) showed that men are taller, have higher BMI, and larger WC than women, whereas women presented higher prevalence of obesity and adiposity. Overall prevalence of underweight was 2·3% in men and 4·0% in women, with increasing prevalence with advancing age. Significant differences were found by age group for weight, height, WC, HC, CC, BMI and knee height (P<0·001), but no significant differences in waist-hip circumference were observed. Significant differences between men and women were found in height, weight, circumferences, BMI and knee height (P<0·001). These results, which are consistent with studies of older adults in other countries, can be used for comparison with other Mexican samples including populations living in the USA and other countries with similar developmental and socio-economic conditions. This information can also be used as reference in clinical settings as a tool for detection of individuals at risk of either underweight or overweight and obesity.

  20. Are autosomal sex-determining factors of the housefly (Musca domestica) spreading north?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozielska, Magdalena; Feldmeyer, Barbara; Pen, Ido; Weissing, Franz J.; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple sex-determining factors have been found in natural populations of the housefly, Musca domestica. Their distribution seems to follow a geographical cline. The 'standard' system, with a male-determining factor, M, located on the Y chromosome, prevails at higher latitudes and altitudes. At low

  1. Explaining neurocognitive aging: Is one factor enough?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.R. Ridderinkhof

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a number of recent developments in the literature on aging. The classic distinction between generalized and process-specific cognitive changes with old age has reappeared in the distinctions between the frontal lobe hypothesis and more differentiated views of neurocognitive aging. The auth

  2. Comparative susceptibility to permethrin of two Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Southern Benin, regarding mosquito sex, physiological status, and mosquito age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazaire Aïzoun

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: The resistance is a hereditary and dynamic phenomenon which can be due to metabolic mechanisms like overproduction of detoxifying enzymes activity. Many factors influence vector susceptibility to insecticide. Among these factors, there are mosquito sex, mosquito age, its physiological status. Therefore, it is useful to respect the World Health Organization criteria in the assessment of insecticide susceptibility tests in malaria vectors. Otherwise, susceptibility testing is conducted using unfed female mosquitoes aged 3-5 days old. Tests should also be carried out at (25±2 °C and (80±10% relative humidity.

  3. Factors influencing sexual function of middle-aged married Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, YoungJu; Kim, YoungHae

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the status of women's sexual function and relevant factors given the fact that women's health is crucial to the national health, and in particular that women's sexual health has a significant impact on their overall health. [Subjects and Methods] This study surveyed 353 women living in South Korea's P and K metropolitan regions from July 2012 to August 10, 2013. The Female Sexual Functional Index (FSFI), the Sexual Attitude Scale (SAS), sexual knowledge and questionnaires were used. [Results] Two groups based on FSFI scores above and below a cutoff value of 25 were compared with each other, and significant differences were found in age, male friends, menstrual status, sex status, and frequency of sex, experience of forced sex, personal health, husband's health and sexual knowledge. Male friends, sex status, experience of forced sex, husband's healths and sexual knowledge explained women's sexual function. [Conclusion] The finding that women's sexual function is associated with multiple factors suggests an intervention program for improving women's sexual function should be developed to reflect the factors influencing the target groups' sexual function.

  4. Sexual Violence Perpetration by Adolescents in Dating versus Sam-Sex Peer Relationships: Differences in Associated Risk and Protective Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen C Basile

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Little is known about the risk and protective factors for youth sexual violence (SV perpetration across different types of relationships. This study examined factors associated with perpetrating SV against a dating partner and a same-sex peer.Methods: Analyses were based on data from a survey conducted in 2004 with public school boys and girls in grades 7, 9, 11, and 12 (N=4,131 in a high-risk, urban school district in the United States. SV perpetration was defined broadly to include forcing someone, about the same age and of the same or opposite sex as the respondent, to have sex or to do something sexual that they did not want to do. Analyses examined the associations between risk and protective factors and SV perpetration, adjusting for SV victimization and demographic characteristics.Results: Findings revealed that 2.1% of respondents reported perpetration against a same-sex peer and 3.2% reported perpetration against a date during the past 12 months. Victims of SV for each relationship type were more likely than non-victims to perpetrate SV. A combination of factors across the individual, relationship, and community level were significantly associated with SV perpetration and there were both shared and unique factors across the relationship types.Conclusion: Data suggest that programs to prevent SV perpetration for both relationship types should start when students are young, with particular focus on middle school boys. Prevention efforts should have slightly different foci to address these 2 types of SV perpetration. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(4:329–340.

  5. THE AGE OF FREE WILL AND HUMAN VALUES : Sex Tourisms Evolution and Its Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Mahfuz; Baghdasaryan, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    This thesis discussed about sex tourism which refers to how sex tourism works and its history. Human trafficking and sex trafficking was discussed as well as sex tourism which is involved directly to tourism industry was explained. The main goal of this thesis was to raise awareness of sex tourism violations. This thesis is about sex tourism and discussed the definition of rules and regulations from different international organizations and international newspapers and magazines as well a...

  6. Factors associated with forced sex among women accessing health services in rural Haiti: implications for the prevention of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith Fawzi, M C; Lambert, W; Singler, J M; Tanagho, Y; Léandre, F; Nevil, P; Bertrand, D; Claude, M S; Bertrand, J; Louissaint, M; Jeannis, L; Mukherjee, J S; Goldie, S; Salazar, J J; Farmer, P E

    2005-02-01

    The goals of the current study were to: (1) estimate the prevalence of forced sex among women accessing services at a women's health clinic in rural Haiti; and (2) examine factors associated with forced sex in this population. Based on data from a case-control study of risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), a cross-sectional analysis to examine factors associated with forced sex was performed. A number of factors related to gender inequality/socioeconomic vulnerability placed women in rural Haiti at higher risk of forced sex. The strongest factors associated with forced sex in multivariate analyses were: age, length of time in a relationship, occupation of the woman's partner, STD-related symptoms, and factors demonstrating economic vulnerability. The findings suggest that prevention efforts must go beyond provision of information and education to the pursuit of broader initiatives at both local and national levels. At the community level, policy-makers should consider advancing economic opportunities for women who are vulnerable to forced sex. Improving access to community-based income-generating activities may begin to address this problem. However, the viability of these local projects depends largely upon Haiti's 'macro-economic' situation. In order to ensure the success of local initiatives, external humanitarian and development assistance to Haiti should be supported. By broadening the definition of "prevention" interventions, we may begin to address the systemic problems that contribute to the occurrence of forced sex and the increasing incidence of HIV infection throughout the world, such as gender inequality and economic vulnerability. Taking into account factors influencing risk at the local level as well as the macro-level will potentially improve our capacity to reduce the risk of forced sex and the spread of STDs, including HIV infection, for millions of women living in poverty worldwide.

  7. Age- and sex-related regional compressive strength characteristics of human lumbar vertebrae in osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márta Kurutz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Márta Kurutz1, Judit Donáth3, Miklós Gálos2, Péter Varga1, Béla Fornet41Department of Structural Mechanics; 2Department of Construction Materials, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary; 3Department of Reumatology, National Institute for Reumatology, Budapest, Hungary; 4Department of Radiology, County Hospital András Jósa, Nyiregyháza, HungaryObjective: To obtain the compressive load bearing and energy absorption capacity of lumbar vertebrae of osteoporotic elderly for the everyday medical praxis in terms of the simple diagnostic data, like computed tomography (CT, densitometry, age, and sex.Methods: Compressive test of 54 osteoporotic cadaver vertebrae L1 and L2, 16 males and 38 females (age range 43–93, mean age 71.6 ± 13.3 years, mean bone mineral density (BMD 0.377 ± 0.089 g/cm2, mean T-score −5.57 ± 0.79, Z-score −4.05 ± 0.77 was investigated. Based on the load-displacement diagrams and the measured geometrical parameters of vertebral bodies, proportional, ultimate and yield stresses and strains, Young’s modulus, ductility and energy absorption capacity were determined. Three vertebral regions were distinguished: superior, central and inferior regions, but certain parameters were calculated for the upper/lower intermediate layers, as well. Cross-sectional areas, and certain bone tissue parameters were determined by image analysis of CT pictures of vertebrae. Sex- and age-related decline functions and trends of strength characteristics were determined.Results: Size-corrected failure load was 15%–25% smaller in women, proportional and ultimate stresses were about 30%–35% smaller for women in any region, and 20%–25% higher in central regions for both sexes. Young’s moduli were about 30% smaller in women in any region, and 20%–25% smaller in the central region for both sexes. Small strains were higher in males, large strains were higher in females, namely, proportional strains were

  8. Gender atypical behavior in Chinese school-aged children: its prevalence and relation to sex, age, and only child status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam

    2011-07-01

    This study had three purposes: (a) to compare the prevalence of boys' and girls' gender-atypical behaviors (GABs) in a sample of Chinese school-aged children, (b) to examine the developmental pattern of GABs in Chinese boys and girls over the age range in question (6-12 years), and (c) to test the effects of being an only child on children's GAB expression. Parents of 486 boys and 417 girls completed a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ) in regard to their own children, and a demographic information sheet. The frequency distribution for each gender-related behavior was calculated. The associations between sex, age, and only-child status, and CPBAQ scale scores were examined. Although most GABs (by their very nature) were exhibited infrequently in Chinese children, it was found that girls displayed GABs more frequently than boys did. The prevalence of GABs rose for girls as they grew older, but fell slightly for boys. The expressions of GABs in only children did not differ from that in children with siblings. Possible effects of Chinese culture (including the current only-child policy) on children's GABs are discussed.

  9. [Neurological soft signs in schizophrenia: correlations with age, sex, educational status and psychopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotidis, P; Kaprinis, G; Iacovides, A; Fountoulakis, K

    2013-01-01

    extrapyramidal symptomatology. Factors such as sex, age or family history of schizophrenia, are said to influence the performance of neurological examination, whereas relative few studies have provided longitudinal follow-up data on neurological soft signs in a sufficient number of patients, in order to address a possible deterioration of neurological functions. Finally, one additional difficulty when analyzing the NSS literature lies in the diversity of symptoms that are evaluated in the studies and/or non-standardized procedures or scoring. We will review some basic issues concerning recurrent difficulties in the measurement and definition of soft signs, as well as controversies on the significance of these signs with respect to clinical subtyping of schizophrenia, and social and demographic variables.

  10. Assessment of pain sensitivity in patients with deep bite and sex- and age-matched controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, Ane Liselotte; Svensson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: To compare pain sensitivity between deep bite patients and a sex- and age-matched control group with normal occlusion. METHODS: Pain sensitivity was assessed by injections of the excitatory amino acid glutamate into the masseter and brachioradialis muscles. Intensity of glutamate-evoked pain...... was scored by the subjects ( n = 60) on a 0 to 10 cm visual analog scale. Subjects drew the perceived pain area on a face and arm chart and described the quality of pain on the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Thresholds for cold detection, cold pain, cold tolerance, warmth detection, heat pain, and heat tolerance...... were assessed on the masseter and brachioradialis muscles. Pressure pain threshold and pain tolerance threshold were determined on the temporomandibular joint, masseter, anterior temporalis, and brachioradialis muscles. The differences between groups, age, and gender were tested by two-way ANOVA...

  11. Influence of nutritional status, age and sex on infant hair zinc concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, M A; Leão, E; Penna, F J

    1989-01-01

    1. Zinc concentration was measured in hair samples from 57 infants (27 boys and 30 girls) aged 7 to 24 months. Twenty-eight infants were considered eutrophic and 29 presented chronic and severe malnutrition. 2. Hair segments less than 3-cm long were cut close to the scalp in the occipital area and washed in deionized water and acetone. Zinc levels were measured by neutron-activation. 3. Hair zinc concentration decreased with age in both eutrophic and malnourished infants from 160 micrograms/g at 7 months to 90 micrograms/g at 24 months. 4. No statistically significant difference in hair zinc concentration was detected between eutrophic and malnourished infants (148 +/- 60 vs 128 +/- 57 micrograms/g hair, mean +/- SD) or between sexes.

  12. A spatiotemporal analysis of aggregate labour force behaviour by sex and age across the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhorst, J. Paul

    2008-06-01

    This study investigates the causes of variation in age-specific male and female labour force participation rates using annual data from 154 regions across ten European Union member states for the period 1983-1997. Regional participation rates appear to be strongly correlated in time, weakly correlated in space and to parallel their national counterparts. An econometric model is designed consistent with these empirical findings. To control for potential endogeneity of the explanatory variables, we use an instrumental variables estimation scheme based on a matrix exponential spatial specification of the error terms. Many empirical studies of aggregate labour force behaviour have ignored population distribution effects, relying instead on the representative-agent paradigm. In order for representative-agent models to accurately describe aggregate behaviour, all marginal reactions of individuals to changes in aggregate variables must be identical. It turns out that this condition cannot apply to individuals across different sex/age groups.

  13. Relationship between impulsiveness and deviant behavior among adolescents in the classroom: age and sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Angeles; Tabernero, Carmen

    2011-12-01

    To assess the relationship between impulsiveness and deviant behavior among 103 adolescents, taking into account their sociodemographic characteristics, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and a self-assessment measure with regard to disruptive and deviant behaviors which had occurred in the last 90 days were used. The results show that impulsiveness and disruptive behavior in the classroom were related to deviant behavior outside of the classroom. Therefore, age and sex explained the relationship between impulsiveness and behavior. The older adolescents and the girls showed less disruptive behaviors than the younger participants and the boys; both variables showed an interactive effect on disruptive behavior. The age at which sexual activity commenced and the number of sexual partners were also significantly related to impulsiveness and disruptive and deviant behavior. Similarly, impulsiveness was shown to have a significant relationship with disruptive and deviant behavior, and disruptive behavior was shown to have a significant relationship with deviant behavior.

  14. Morbidity pattern by age, sex and breed in insured cats in Japan (2008-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Mai; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Sugiura, Katsuaki

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the morbidity pattern of different diagnostic categories in insured cats in Japan by age, sex and breed. The annual incidence rates of having at least one insurance claim were calculated overall and stratified by diagnosis, age, sex and breed using data from insured cats in the period April 2008 to March 2013. The overall annual incidence rate of having at least one insurance claim was 4632 (95% confidence interval 4608-4656) cats per 10,000 cat-years at risk. The highest annual incidence rate was obtained for digestive system disorders, followed by urinary tract disorders and dermatological disorders. The incidence rates varied between breeds for most diagnostic categories: for cardiovascular system disorders, Scottish Fold, American Shorthair, Persian, Maine Coon, Norwegian Forest Cat, Ragdoll and Bengal had a higher annual incidence rate than crossbreeds. This study provides comparative and quantitative estimates of morbidity pattern in insured Japanese cats. These estimates can be utilised by veterinary practitioners, breeders and owners in diagnostic decision-making, breeding and when selecting a new pet, respectively. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Integrated analysis of ischemic stroke datasets revealed sex and age difference in anti-stroke targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Xing; Dai, Shao-Xing; Wang, Qian; Guo, Yi-Cheng; Hong, Yi; Zheng, Jun-Juan; Liu, Jia-Qian; Liu, Dahai; Li, Gong-Hua; Huang, Jing-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is a common neurological disorder and the burden in the world is growing. This study aims to explore the effect of sex and age difference on ischemic stroke using integrated microarray datasets. The results showed a dramatic difference in whole gene expression profiles and influenced pathways between males and females, and also in the old and young individuals. Furthermore, compared with old males, old female patients showed more serious biological function damage. However, females showed less affected pathways than males in young subjects. Functional interaction networks showed these differential expression genes were mostly related to immune and inflammation-related functions. In addition, we found ARG1 and MMP9 were up-regulated in total and all subgroups. Importantly, IL1A, ILAB, IL6 and TNF and other anti-stroke target genes were up-regulated in males. However, these anti-stroke target genes showed low expression in females. This study found huge sex and age differences in ischemic stroke especially the opposite expression of anti-stroke target genes. Future studies are needed to uncover these pathological mechanisms, and to take appropriate pre-prevention, treatment and rehabilitation measures.

  16. Oxytocin Modulates Meta-Mood as a Function of Age and Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie eEbner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Attending to and understanding one’s own feelings are components of meta-mood and constitute important socio-affective skills across the entire lifespan. Growing evidence suggests a neuromodulatory role of the neuropeptide oxytocin on various socio-affective processes. Going beyond previous work that almost exclusively examined young men and perceptions of emotions in others, the current study investigated effects of intranasal oxytocin on meta-mood in young and older men and women. In a double-blind between-group design, participants were randomly assigned to self-administer either intranasal oxytocin or a placebo before responding to items from the Trait Meta-Mood Scale about attention to feelings and clarity of feelings. In contrast to older women, oxytocin relative to placebo increased attention to feelings in older men. Oxytocin relative to placebo enhanced meta-mood in young female participants but reduced it in older female participants. This pattern of findings supports an age- and sex-differential modulatory function of the neuropeptide oxytocin on meta-mood, possibly associated with neurobiological differences with age and sex.

  17. Health risk assessment of ochratoxin A for all age-sex strata in a market economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper-Goodman, T; Hilts, C; Billiard, S M; Kiparissis, Y; Richard, I D K; Hayward, S

    2010-02-01

    In order to manage risk of ochratoxin A (OTA) in foods, we re-evaluated the tolerable daily intake (TDI), derived the negligible cancer risk intake (NCRI), and conducted a probabilistic risk assessment. A new approach was developed to derive 'usual' probabilistic exposure in the presence of highly variable occurrence data, such as encountered with low levels of OTA. Canadian occurrence data were used for various raw food commodities or finished foods and were combined with US Department of Agriculture (USDA) food consumption data, which included data on infants and young children. Both variability and uncertainty in input data were considered in the resulting exposure estimates for various age/sex strata. Most people were exposed to OTA on a daily basis. Mean adjusted exposures for all age-sex groups were generally below the NCRI of 4 ng OTA kg bw(-1), except for 1-4-year-olds as a result of their lower body weight. For children, the major contributors of OTA were wheat-based foods followed by oats, rice, and raisins. Beer, coffee, and wine also contributed to total OTA exposure in older individuals. Predicted exposure to OTA decreased when European Commission maximum limits were applied to the occurrence data. The impact on risk for regular eaters of specific commodities was also examined.

  18. LIFE QUALITY IN CASES WITH CHRONICAL DEGENERATIVE ILLNESS OF LOCOMOTIVE SYSTEM REGARDING SEX, AGE AND OVERWEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munevera Bećarević

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances of muscle and skeleton system are related to pain, functional damages and inability to work. Measure of life quality offers a sequence of data on illness influence on everyday functioning. The aim of this paper is evaluation of life quality in cases with degenerative illnesses of locomotive system and influence of sex, age, weist and BMI on life quality. Epidemiologic research was conducted on 71 tested subjects with diagnosis of chronical degenerative reumatical illness. Tested subject were measured weist values, BMI was determined and all of them fulfilled EQ5D questionnaire for life quality assessment. According to VAS scale their health condition was evaluated. Life quality of tested subjects was decreased especially in department of depression and increased concern (2.30 – 2.57 as well as pain and discomfort (2.11 – 2.31. We didn't determine statistically significant sex influence (p> 0,05, age, (p> 0,05 weist values (p> 0,05 or BMI (p> 0,05 our tested subjects life quality. According to VAS scale health condition of tested subjects is low (6, 76 ± 1,04.

  19. Effect of age and sex in determining cognitive ability in Vanaraja chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahy, K K; Behera, K; Sethy, K; Panda, S; Mandal, A K

    2017-09-04

    1. To evaluate the cognitive ability of male and female Vanaraja birds, 360 1-d-old sexed chickens were reared under similar conditions in three treatment groups with 4 replicates in each group: 120 females in Treatment 1, 120 males in Treatment 2 and both males and females (60 + 60) as a mixed group in Treatment 3. 2. To assess learning ability, the birds were trained in T and Y-mazes and tested at three-week intervals in 4 test schedules (21, 42, 63 and 84 d). The birds were put into tonic immobility (TI) in each test schedule. 3. In each maze test, the latency to find the feed was regarded as a successful completion of the task. In the TI-test, the time taken to stabilise on a plane surface after swinging in the hanging cradle for 20-25 s was recorded. 4. The results indicated that male birds appeared to be cognitively superior to females in terms of learning and cognitive evolution in all the mazes, but by d 84, the females performed as well as the males. With increasing age, spatial memory gathering and processing improved. In the TI-test the effect of sex or grouping system had no significant effect on the performance of birds at the various ages.

  20. Associations between AUDIT-C and mortality vary by age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alex H S; Bradley, Katharine A; Bowe, Thomas; Henderson, Patricia; Moos, Rudolf

    2010-10-01

    We sought to determine the sex- and age-specific risk of mortality associated with scores on the 3-item Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) questionnaire using data from a national sample of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients. Men (N = 215,924) and women (N = 9168) who completed the AUDIT-C in a patient survey were followed for 24 months. AUDIT-C categories (0, 1-4, 5-8, 9-12) were evaluated as predictors of mortality in logistic regression models, adjusted for age, race, education, marital status, smoking, depression, and comorbidities. For women, AUDIT-C scores of 9-12 were associated with a significantly increased risk of death compared to the AUDIT-C 1-4 group (odds ratio [OR] 7.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.67, 18.82). For men overall, AUDIT-C scores of 5-8 and 9-12 were associated with increased risk of death compared to the AUDIT-C 1-4 group (OR 1.13, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.21, and OR 1.63, 95% CI = 1.45, 1.84, respectively) but these associations varied by age. These results provide sex- and age-tailored risk information that clinicians can use in evidence-based conversations with patients about the health-related risks of their alcohol consumption. This study adds to the growing literature establishing the AUDIT-C as a scaled marker of alcohol-related risk or "vital sign" that might facilitate the detection and management of alcohol-related risks and problems.

  1. Age-stage, two-sex life table of Parapoynx crisonalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Li, Ni; Wang, Xing; Ma, Li; Huang, Jian-Bin; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Parapoynx crisonalis is an important pest of many aquatic vegetables including water chestnuts. Understanding the relationship between temperature variations and the population growth rates of P. crisonalis is essential to predicting its population dynamics in water chestnuts ponds. These relationships were examined in this study based on the age-stage, two-sex life table of P. crisonalis developed in the laboratory at 21, 24, 27, 30, 33 and 36°C. The results showed that the values of Sxj (age-stage-specific survival rate), fxj (age-stage-specific fecundity), lx (age specific survival rate) and mx (age-specific fecundity) increased as the temperature rose from 21 to 27°C, then decreased from 30 to 36°C. Temperature also had a significant effect on the net reproductive rate (R0), gross reproductive rate (GRR), intrinsic rate of increase (r) and finite rate of increase (λ). The value of these parameters were at low levels at 21, 33, and 36°C. Further, the r value decreased as the temperature rose from 24 to 30°C, while the GRR reached its highest level at 27°C. The results indicated that optimal growth and development of P. crisonalis occurred at temperatures between 24°C to 30°C when compared to the lowest temperature (21°C) and higher temperatures of 33°C and 36°C.

  2. Age-stage, two-sex life table of Parapoynx crisonalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Li, Ni; Wang, Xing; Ma, Li; Huang, Jian-Bin; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Parapoynx crisonalis is an important pest of many aquatic vegetables including water chestnuts. Understanding the relationship between temperature variations and the population growth rates of P. crisonalis is essential to predicting its population dynamics in water chestnuts ponds. These relationships were examined in this study based on the age-stage, two-sex life table of P. crisonalis developed in the laboratory at 21, 24, 27, 30, 33 and 36°C. The results showed that the values of Sxj (age-stage–specific survival rate), fxj (age-stage-specific fecundity), lx (age specific survival rate) and mx (age-specific fecundity) increased as the temperature rose from 21 to 27°C, then decreased from 30 to 36°C. Temperature also had a significant effect on the net reproductive rate (R0), gross reproductive rate (GRR), intrinsic rate of increase (r) and finite rate of increase (λ). The value of these parameters were at low levels at 21, 33, and 36°C. Further, the r value decreased as the temperature rose from 24 to 30°C, while the GRR reached its highest level at 27°C. The results indicated that optimal growth and development of P. crisonalis occurred at temperatures between 24°C to 30°C when compared to the lowest temperature (21°C) and higher temperatures of 33°C and 36°C. PMID:28264022

  3. Morning Salivary Cortisol in Young Children: Reference Values and the Effects of Age, Sex, and Acute Bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfsjord, Leif Bjarte; Bakkeheim, Egil; Berents, Teresa Løvold; Alm, Johan; Skjerven, Håvard Ove; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Mowinckel, Petter; Sjöbeck, Ann-Christine; Carlsen, Karin Cecilie Lødrup

    2017-05-01

    To identify morning salivary cortisol reference values in infancy and at 2 years of age and to investigate the influence of age, sex and acute bronchiolitis. In this South-East Norwegian cohort study, 308 children hospitalized with moderate to severe acute bronchiolitis in infancy in 2010-2011 were compared with 223 healthy controls included in 2012 by measuring morning salivary cortisol levels at inclusion and at 2 years of age. Samples were collected shortly after awakening after 6 am. The influences of age, sex, and acute bronchiolitis were assessed by regression analysis. In infancy, cortisol values were higher in acute bronchiolitis, with an age- and sex-adjusted weighted mean group difference of 13.9 nmol/L (95% CI 8.1-19.7; P bronchiolitis than in healthy infants. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00817466. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of sex steroid ablation on viral, tumour and vaccine responses in aged mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy S P Heng

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that the decline in resistance to viral infections with age occurs predominantly as a result of a gradual loss of naïve antigen-specific T cells. As such, restoration of the naïve T cell repertoire to levels seen in young healthy adults may improve defence against infection in the aged. We have previously shown that sex steroid ablation (SSA rejuvenates the ageing thymus and increases thymic export of naïve T cells, but it remains unclear whether T cell responses are improved. Using mouse models of clinically relevant diseases, we now demonstrate that SSA increases the number of naïve T cells able to respond to antigen, thereby enhancing effector responses in aged mice. Specifically, aged mice exhibit a delay in clearing influenza A virus, which correlates with diminished specific cytotoxic activity. This is due to a decreased magnitude of response and not an intrinsic defect in effector T cell function. Upon SSA, aged mice exhibit increased T cell responsiveness that restores efficient viral clearance. We further demonstrate that SSA decreases the incidence of an inducible tumour in aged mice and can potentially increase their responsiveness to a low-dose human papillomavirus vaccine in clearing pre-formed tumours. As thymectomy abrogates the increase in T cell numbers and responsiveness following SSA, we propose that the T cell effects of SSA are dependent on thymic reactivation and subsequent replenishment of the peripheral T cell pool with newly emigrated naïve T cells. These findings have important implications for strategies to improve protection from infection and responsiveness to vaccination in the aged.

  5. Female migrant sex workers in Moscow: gender and power factors and HIV risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weine, Stevan; Golobof, Alexandra; Bahromov, Mahbat; Kashuba, Adrianna; Kalandarov, Tohir; Jonbekov, Jonbek; Loue, Sana

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to build formative knowledge regarding HIV risks in female migrant sex workers in Moscow, focusing on gender and power. This was a collaborative ethnographic study, informed by the theory of gender and power, in which researchers conducted minimally structured interviews with 24 female sex workers who were migrants to Moscow and who provided sexual services to male migrant laborers. Overall, the female migrant sex workers engaged in HIV risk behaviors and practiced inadequate HIV protection with their clients. These behaviors were shaped by gender and power factors in the realms of labor, behavior, and cathexis. In the labor realm, because some female migrants were unable to earn enough money to support their families, they were pushed or pulled into sex work providing service to male migrants. In the behavior realm, many female migrant sex workers were intimidated by their male clients, feared violence, and lacked access to women's health care and prevention. In the cathexis realm, many had a sense of shame, social isolation, emotional distress, and lacked basic HIV knowledge and prevention skills. To prevent HIV transmission requires addressing the gender and power factors that shape HIV/AIDS risks among female migrant sex workers through multilevel intervention strategies.

  6. Interactions among age, adiposity, bodyweight, lifestyle factors and sex steroid hormones in healthy Singaporean Chinese men%健康新加坡华裔男性年龄、肥胖症、体重、生活方式要素和性类固醇激素的相互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V. H. H. Goh; T. Y. Y. Tong; H.P.P. Mok; B.Said

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To examine the inter-relationships among age, lifestyle factors, anthropometric parameters, percent body fat and steroid hormone parameters in 531 healthy Singaporean Chinese men aged between 29 and 72 years old. Methods:Various lifestyle parameters were quantified through a survey, and testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured using established methods.Anthropometric parameters were collected and computed, and percent body fat (Siri) was measured using the DEXA scanner. Results: SHBG, DHEAS, bioavailable-T (Bio-T), E2, Siri, Ht, W/H, W/Ht and work stress were independently correlated with age. Using multivariate analyses and adjusting for age and other related factors, exercise,smoking and alcohol consumption have positive impacts on androgen levels and body composition. However, black and green tea consumption was associated with negative effects on body composition and with higher levels of E2 and Free Estradiol Index (FEI). Men with shorter sleep duration had significantly lower T levels as compared to those with 6 h or more of nightly sleep. Higher T levels were associated with lower levels of adiposity and other indices of adiposity, whereas higher E2 levels were related to higher levels of adiposity. Men with higher DHEAS were significantly taller and heavier than those with low DHEAS levels. Conclusion: The study showed the close interactions among the gonadal/adrenal and metabolic compartments, with age being a key determinant in their interactions.Lifestyle factors such as exercise, smoking, sleeping and alcohol and tea consumption might play significantly roles in determining the status of health in men. (Asian JAndrol 2007 Sep; 9: 611-621)%目的:检测在531个年龄在29到72岁之间的健康新加坡华裔男性的年龄、生活方式要素、人体测量参数、体脂含量和类固醇激素参数的相互关系.方法:用调查量化各种生活

  7. Confirmatory factor analysis of a Spanish version of the sex fantasy questionnaire: assessing gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Juan Carlos; Ortega, Virgilio; Zubeidat, Ihab

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to validate the factor structure of Wilson's Sex Fantasy Questionnaire (SFQ; Wilson, 1978; Wilson & Lang, 1981) using a Spanish version. In order to do this, we conducted confirmatory factor analysis on two nonclinical samples containing 195 men and 315 women. Both groups were tested for the structure proposed by Wilson and also for some alternative models. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that four factors were reasonably distinct, especially for the men. We proposed shortened version of the instrument that would have sufficient psychometric guarantees for assessing sexual fantasies in both genders. This abridged version improved the fit of the four-factor oblique factor equally for both the samples of men and women. In the light of the results of the validation hypothesis established with some criterion variables (dyadic sexual desire, unconventional sex, homophobia), we discuss discrepancies between both versions.

  8. Factors influencing HIV infection in men who have sex with men in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Lv Xu; Man-Hong Jia; Xiang-Dong Min; Ren-Zhong Zhang; Chun-Jie Yu; Jue Wang; You-Fang Li

    2013-01-01

    To identify risk factors for HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) and to provide a theoretical basis for prevention interventions.Between December 2011 and August 2012,a case-control study was conducted among MSM who underwent voluntary counselling and testing for HIV.Confirmed HIV-positive MSM were included in the case group,and HIV-negative MSM were included in the control group.Information on possible risk factors was collected by a survey questionnaire and a qualitative interview.The results of a conditional logistic regression showed that the following were influencing factors for H IV infection:average monthly income between 2001 and 3000 Yuan (odds ratio (0R)=6.341,95% Cl:1.714-12.544),only sometimes using condoms when having anal sex with men in the last 6 months (0R=7.601,95% CI:1.359-23.083),having HIV-positive sex partners (0R=5.273,95% Cl:1.572-17.691),rectal trauma with bleeding in the last 6 months (0R=2.947,95% CI:1.308-6.638),not using condoms at last sexual encounter (OR=1.278,95% CI:1.012-5.595),engaging in commercial sex (0R=5.925,95% CI:1.923-13.890) and having more than 16 sex partners in the last 6 months (0R=1.175,95% Cl:1.021-1.353).These seven factors were the risk factors of HIV infection (OR> 1).However,having anal sex less than 10 times in the previous 1 month (OR=0.002,95% CI:0.000-0.287) was a protective factor against HIV infection among MSM (OR<1),and insertive (0R=0.116,95% Cl:0.000-0.236) (OR<1) anal intercourse influenced HIV infection.Interventions should be targeted at MSM whose average monthly income is between 2001 and 3000 Yuan,and who engage in commercial sex.In addition,the importance of using condoms at every sexual encounter should be emphasised in health education,as should the treatment of rectal trauma with bleeding.Finally,MSM should decrease the number of sex partners and frequency of anal sex to decrease the rate of HIV infection.

  9. Variations of Weight of Thyroid Gland in Different Age and Sex Groups of Bangladeshi Cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, R; Khan, M K; Mannan, S; Asaduzzaman, S M; Sultana, M; Sultana, J; Farzana, T; Epsi, E Z; Wahed, F; Sultana, S

    2015-07-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study was designed to find out the difference in weight of the thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age and sex. The present study was performed on 70 post mortem human thyroid gland (35 of male and 35 of female) collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh by purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of age ranging from 10 years to 85 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories Group A (upto 20 years), Group B (21 to 50 years) and Group C (>50 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the thyroid glands were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the thyroid gland was 6.94 ± 5.20 gm in Group A, 7.91 ± 5.89 gm in Group B and 10.42 ± 6.27 gm in Group C. The mean weight of the thyroid gland in male was 7.0 ± 5.77 gm in Group A, 9.94 ± 7.63 gm in Group B and 11.89 ± 5.73 gm in Group C and in female was 6.88 ± 4.88 gm in Group A, 5.88 ± 2.15 gm in Group B and 9.10 ± 6.74 gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that there was no significant difference in mean weight between the Age Group A & B, B & C and C & A. There was significant difference of weight of thyroid gland between sex in age Group B but in Group A and Group C were statistically insignificant. The weight of the thyroid gland was found to increases with age. In statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using one way ANOVA test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people.

  10. Male Adolescent Birth Control Behavior: The Importance of Developmental Factors and Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Donald D.; Rose, Ryda D.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of sex and birth control behavior of 51 male adolescents aged 15-17 was conducted using structured interviews. Based on research with teenage females, three social influences were examined for their possible impact on male birth control behavior. (Author/BW)

  11. Male Adolescent Birth Control Behavior: The Importance of Developmental Factors and Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Donald D.; Rose, Ryda D.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of sex and birth control behavior of 51 male adolescents aged 15-17 was conducted using structured interviews. Based on research with teenage females, three social influences were examined for their possible impact on male birth control behavior. (Author/BW)

  12. Explaining the Rapid Increase in Nigeria's Sex Ratio at Birth: Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    for this development are: historical fluctuations of sex ratio at birth; geography and ethnicity; male preference/chasing a son; Age of parents; high death rates of male infants and males in general; and wealth/socioeconomic .... younger than most countries in Africa, with over ...... kinds of benefits that accrue from children born.

  13. Self-Esteem, Parent Identification and Sex Role Development in Preschool Age Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammer, Donald P.

    1971-01-01

    Self esteem was shown to be associated more closely to high sex role orientation for boys and low sex role adoption for girls; while father identification, for boys only, was related to moderate levels of sex role orientation and sex role preference. Bibliography. (Author)

  14. Age and Sex Differences in Controlled Force Exertion Measured by a Computing Bar Chart Target-Pursuit System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Yoshinori; Demura, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the age and sex differences in controlled force exertion measured by the bar chart display in 207 males (age 42.1 [plus or minus] 19.8 years) and 249 females (age 41.7 [plus or minus] 19.1 years) aged 15 to 86 years. The subjects matched their submaximal grip strength to changing demand values, which appeared as a…

  15. Growth factors, aging and age-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Priya; Longo, Valter D

    2016-06-01

    Simple organisms including yeast and flies with mutations in the IGF-1 and Tor-S6K pathways are dwarfs, are highly protected from toxins, and survive up to 3 times longer. Similarly, dwarf mice with deficiencies in the growth hormone-IGF-I axis are also long lived and protected from diseases. We recently reported that humans with Growth Hormone Receptor Deficiency (GHRD) rarely develop cancer or diabetes. These findings are in agreement with the effect of defects in the Tor-S6K pathways in causing dwarfism and protection of DNA. Because protein restriction reduces both GHR-IGF-1 axis and Tor-S6K activity, we examined links between protein intake, disease, and mortality in over 6000 US subjects in the NHANES CDC database. Respondents aged 50-65 reporting a high protein intake displayed an increase in IGF-I levels, a 75% increased risk of overall mortality and a 3-4 fold increased risk of cancer mortality in agreement with findings in mouse experiments. These studies point to a conserved link between proteins and amino acids, GHR-IGF-1/insulin, Tor-S6k signaling, aging, and diseases.

  16. Who gets dipyrone (metamizole) in Germany? Prescribing by age, sex and region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, F; Meinecke, P; Freitag, M H; Glaeske, G; Schulze, J; Schmiemann, G

    2015-06-01

    Metamizole (dipyrone) is an analgesic that has been the focus of considerable controversy regarding its safety. Because of potentially life-threatening blood disorders such as agranulocytosis, it has been withdrawn in many countries but not in Germany, where prescribing even increased over recent years. We aimed to evaluate prescribing of metamizole in Germany with respect to age, sex and regional variations. Using data of a statutory health insurance, we analysed a cohort of 1·7 million persons who were insured at least 1 day in each quarter of 2009. Outcome of interest was the outpatient prescription prevalence, for example the proportion of persons receiving at least one prescription of metamizole. A total of 6·8% received metamizole with a higher prescribing prevalence in females (7·8% vs. 6·0%). The prevalence increased with age up to 26·7% in persons ≥85 years (men: 21·1%; and women: 30·4%). We found large regional variations with higher prevalences in the northern part of Germany. Most of the prescriptions were issued by general practitioners (78·9%). 58·3% were liquid oral formulations with considerable regional variations ranging between 32·3% in Mecklenburg-West Pomerania and 67·3% in North Rhine-Westphalia. Overall, liquid oral forms are much more often prescribed in the western than in the eastern part of Germany. Metamizole - a drug with a relatively narrow indication - is often prescribed in Germany with relevant differences by age, sex and region. Qualitative studies should clarify reasons for this. Further quantitative research should investigate small-area variations, indications and treatment durations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Sex and age affect agreement between fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin for diagnosis of dysglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Medina, Mercedes; Uranga, Begoña; Rus, Antonio; Martínez, Rosa; Puertas, Carolina; Blanco, María Dolores; Casís, Ernesto; Corcoy, Rosa

    To assess agreement between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels for diagnosis of dysglycemia (diabetes and risk of diabetes), overall and depending on clinical characteristics. The study enrolled 1020 adult subjects without drug-treated diabetes who underwent a laboratory test at a Spanish health care center. The criteria for dysglycemia of the American Diabetes Association were used. A logistic regression analysis was used to predict de novo diagnosis of dysglycemia based on sex, age, body mass index, anemia, and iron levels. Overall prevalence of dysglycemia was 28.04%, and was identified by FPG only in 13.63% of subjects, by both FPG and HbA1c in 7.65%, and by HbA1c only in 6.76% (de novo diagnoses). Independent predictors of de novo diagnoses based on HbA1c were female sex (odds ratio [OR]: 2.119, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.133-4.020; p<0.020), age (OR for 42-56 years: 2.541, 95% CI: 0.634-17.140; OR for ≥57 years: 5.656, 95% CI: 1.516-36.980; overall p<0.007), and serum ferritin levels (borderline significance). In this study population, agreement between FPG and HbA1c for diagnosis of dysglycemia was poor, with FPG being the test that identified more subjects. De novo diagnoses based on HbA1c were more common in females and increased with age. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of age and sex on pharmacodynamics of propofol in neurosurgical patients: model development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-hong LI; Fu-sheng WU; Jian-guo XU

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To determine propofol concentration in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) of neurosurgical patients and carry out a preliminary population pharmacodynamic study. Methods: Twenty-seven elective neurosurgical patients (12 men and 15 women) aged 17-74 years received propofol in a bolus dose of 2 mg/kg for 5 min and an infusion of 10 mg/kg per h for 5 min. Frequent CSF samples were drawn and assayed for propofol concentration. The bispectral index (BIS) was used to measure the drug effect. All data were analyzed first with the Excel software package, then pharmacodynamics modeling was performed using the NONMEM software package. Results: The CSF concentration was related to the drug effect with linear and sigmoid Emax models. The parameters for the linear addictive model were a= 1.11 and b=95.4. The parameters for the linear exponential model were a= 1.05 and b=92.7. The parameters for the sigmoid Emax model were Emax=119, EC50= 53.6 ng/Ml, and W=1.51. When the covariates of age, weight and sex were considered, the parameters of models, objective function, the standard error of the mean and the prediction error were not optimized. Conclusion: Linear additive, linear exponential and sigmoid Emax models can be used to describe the pharmacodynamics of propofol with respect to the concentration in CSF. In this small population, age (17-74 years), weight (47-98 kg) and sex did not influence any of the pharmacodynamic parameters of propofol. To verify these preliminary results, a larger study population is required.

  19. Compulsive buying disorder clustering based on sex, age, onset and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Baño, Marta; Steward, Trevor; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Aymamí, Neus; Goméz-Peña, Mónica; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2016-07-01

    In spite of the revived interest in compulsive buying disorder (CBD), its classification into the contemporary nosologic systems continues to be debated, and scarce studies have addressed heterogeneity in the clinical phenotype through methodologies based on a person-centered approach. To identify empirical clusters of CBD employing personality traits, as well as patients' sex, age and the age of CBD onset as indicators. An agglomerative hierarchical clustering method defining a combination of the Schwarz Bayesian Information Criterion and log-likelihood was used. Three clusters were identified in a sample of n=110 patients attending a specialized CBD unit a) "male compulsive buyers" reported the highest prevalence of comorbid gambling disorder and the lowest levels of reward dependence; b) "female low-dysfunctional" mainly included employed women, with the highest level of education, the oldest age of onset, the lowest scores in harm avoidance and the highest levels of persistence, self-directedness and cooperativeness; and c) "female highly-dysfunctional" with the youngest age of onset, the highest levels of comorbid psychopathology and harm avoidance, and the lowest score in self-directedness. Sociodemographic characteristics and personality traits can be used to determine CBD clusters which represent different clinical subtypes. These subtypes should be considered when developing assessment instruments, preventive programs and treatment interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of growth hormone and/or sex steroid administration on whole-body protein turnover in healthy aged women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Blackman, Marc R; Herreman, Karen; Pabst, Katharine M; Harman, S Mitchell; Caballero, Benjamin

    2005-09-01

    Aging is associated with reduced activities of the growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and sex steroid axes, and with decreased lean body mass and protein synthesis. Using a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled design, we studied the effects of 6 months of administration of GH alone, sex hormone alone (hormone replacement therapy in women, testosterone enanthate [T] in men), or GH plus sex hormone on protein turnover in healthy men (n=60) and women (n=43), aged 65 to 88 years (mean, 71+/-4.4 years). Growth hormone administration significantly increased IGF-I levels in both sexes, more markedly in men. Sex steroid administration increased the levels of estrogen and testosterone in women and men, respectively (P=.05). Protein turnover was measured before and after the 26-week treatment period by means of a primed, constant l-[1-(13)C]leucine infusion. In men, GH plus T administration increased leucine flux from 80.2+/-2.8 to 93.6+/-4.2 micromol.h-1.kg-1 (P=.02). Leucine oxidation did not change significantly after hormone treatment in either sex. Growth hormone treatment led to nonsignificant upward trends in nonoxidative leucine disposal in men (9.1+/-5.2 mol.h-1.kg-1) and women (7.6+/-7.1 mol.h-1.kg-1). Among all groups combined, changes in nonoxidative leucine disposal were directly related to those of serum IGF-I level (r=0.248, P<.02). Whole-body protein turnover increased in GH plus T-treated men (0.6+/-0.2 g protein.kg-1.d-1; P<.01). These data suggest that low-dose GH administration increases protein synthesis in healthy aged women and men, and that the coadministration of testosterone plus GH enhances this effect in elderly men.

  1. Relationship Between Break-Time Physical Activity, Age, and Sex in a Rural Primary Schools, Wales, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Escalante, Yolanda; Backx, Karianne; Saavedra, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the physical activity during the break-times of primary school children in rural areas, and its relationship with age and sex. 380 children (192 boys and 188 girls; age=9.5±1.1 years) participated in the study. Break-time physical activity in the morning and lunch breaks was measured by accelerometry. An ANOVA was used to determine differences by sex in each age group, together with the respective confidence intervals and effect sizes. The results showed t...

  2. Blood acid-base and plasma electrolyte values in healthy ostriches: the effect of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouda, J; Núñez-Ochoa, L; Avila-González, E; Doubek, J; Fuente-Martínez, B; Aguilar-Bobadilla, J

    2009-08-01

    The effect of age and sex on blood acid-base and plasma electrolyte values was determined in venous blood samples from 45 clinically healthy ostriches (Struthio camelus) from 26 days to 6 years of age. Animals were divided by age into four groups and the group of adults was divided by sex into two subgroups. Blood samples were collected without sedation. There was a significant (Pvalues of base excess (BE), plasma HCO(3)(-), total CO(2) (TCO(2)), Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) and anion gap (AG). The highest plasma concentrations of Na(+), Cl(-) and value of AG were found in adult ostriches with a steady decrease to chicks. A significant (Psex difference in adult animals with higher blood pH, lower blood values of pCO(2), BE, plasma concentrations of HCO(3)(-), TCO(2) and K(+) was found in females. We concluded that blood acid-base values and plasma electrolyte concentrations in ostriches are affected by age and sex.

  3. Differential Predation by Age and Sex Classes in Blue Wildebeest in Serengeti: Study of a Modern Carnivore Den in Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaza, Mari Carmen; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Martínez-Maza, Cayetana; Mabulla, Audax; Baquedano, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Age and sex selection of prey is an aspect of predator ecology which has been extensively studied in both temperate and African ecosystems. This dimension, along with fecundity, survival rates of prey and mortality factors other than predation are important in laying down the population dynamics of prey and have important implications in the management of species. A carnivore den located in the short-grassland ecological unit of the Serengeti was studied. Sex- and age- class (using five age categories) of the wildebeest remains recovered were analyzed through horn morphology, biometrics of the bones and tooth wear patterns. We compared our results with previous studies from lion and hyaena kills through multivariate analyses. Seasonality of the accumulation was analyzed through tooth histology. PCA and CVA results show that age class selection by predators depends on season, habitat-type, and growth rate of the wildebeest population. Female-biased predation was found to contradict classical hypotheses based on territorial male behaviour. The lion and spotted hyaena showed strong selection on age classes, contrary to previous studies. Migratory wildebeest sex ratio is regulated through differential predation by seasons and female deaths in the wet season are a trade-off for population stability. These data are crucial for an effective management of the species and the new method created may be useful for different carnivore species and their prey. PMID:26017363

  4. The anterior tooth development of cattle presented for slaughter: an analysis of age, sex and breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, K J; Brown, S N; Browne, W J; Hadley, P J; Knowles, T G

    2013-08-01

    In a cross-sectional study, data from records of cattle slaughtered over a 1-year period at a large abattoir in South West England were analysed using an ordered category response model to investigate the inter-relationships between age, sex and breed on development of the permanent anterior (PA) teeth. Using the model, transition points at which there was a 50% probability of membership of each category of paired PA teeth were identified. Data from ∼60,000 animals were initially analysed for age and sex effect. The age transition was found to be ∼23 months moving from zero to two teeth; 30 months for two to four teeth; 37 months for four to six teeth and 42 months for six to eight teeth. Males were found to develop, on average, ∼22 days earlier than females across all stages. A reduced data set of ∼23,000 animals registered as pure-bred only was used to compare breed and type interactions and to investigate sex effects within the sub-categories. Breeds were grouped into dairy and beef-type and beef breeds split into native and continental. It was found that dairy-types moved through the transition points earlier than beef-types across all stages (interval varying between ∼8 and 12 weeks) and that collectively, native beef breeds moved through the transition points by up to 3 weeks earlier than the continental beef breeds. Interestingly, in contrast to beef animals, dairy females matured before dairy males. However, the magnitude of the difference between dairy females and males diminished at the later stages of development. Differences were found between breeds. Across the first three stages, Ayrshires and Guernseys developed between 3 and 6 weeks later than Friesian/Holsteins and Simmental, Limousin and Blonde Aquitaine 6 and 8 weeks later than Aberdeen Angus. Herefords, Charolais and South Devon developed later but by a smaller interval and Red Devon and Galloway showed the largest individual effect with transition delayed by 8 to 12 weeks.

  5. Does breeding population trajectory and age of nesting females influence disparate nestling sex ratios in two populations of Cooper's hawks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Robert N; Stout, William E; Giovanni, Matthew D; Levine, Noah H; Cava, Jenna A; Hardin, Madeline G; Haynes, Taylor G

    2015-09-01

    Offspring sex ratios at the termination of parental care should theoretically be skewed toward the less expensive sex, which in most avian species would be females, the smaller gender. Among birds, however, raptors offer an unusual dynamic because they exhibit reversed size dimorphism with females being larger than males. And thus theory would predict a preponderance of male offspring. Results for raptors and birds in general have been varied although population-level estimates of sex ratios in avian offspring are generally at unity. Adaptive adjustment of sex ratios in avian offspring is difficult to predict perhaps in part due to a lack of life-history details and short-term investigations that cannot account for precision or repeatability of sex ratios across time. We conducted a novel comparative study of sex ratios in nestling Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) in two study populations across breeding generations during 11 years in Wisconsin, 2001-2011. One breeding population recently colonized metropolitan Milwaukee and exhibited rapidly increasing population growth, while the ex-Milwaukee breeding population was stable. Following life-history trade-off theory and our prediction regarding this socially monogamous species in which reversed sexual size dimorphism is extreme, first-time breeding one-year-old, second-year females in both study populations produced a preponderance of the smaller and cheaper sex, males, whereas ASY (after-second-year), ≥2-year-old females in Milwaukee produced a nestling sex ratio near unity and predictably therefore a greater proportion of females compared to ASY females in ex-Milwaukee who produced a preponderance of males. Adjustment of sex ratios in both study populations occurred at conception. Life histories and selective pressures related to breeding population trajectory in two age cohorts of nesting female Cooper's hawk likely vary, and it is possible that these differences influenced the sex ratios we documented for

  6. Indicators of abdominal size relative to height associated with sex, age, socioeconomic position and ancestry among US adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, Kai McKeever

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives The supine sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and standing waist circumference (WC) describe abdominal size. The SAD/height ratio (SADHtR) or WC/height ratio (WHtR) may better identify cardiometabolic disorders than BMI (weight/height2), but population-based distributions of SADHtR and WHtR are not widely available. Abdominal adiposity may differ by sociodemographic characteristics. Subjects/Methods Anthropometry, including SAD by sliding-beam caliper, was performed on 9894 non-pregnant adults ≥20 years in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys of 2011–2014. Applying survey design factors and sampling weights, we estimated nationally representative SADHtR and WHtR distributions by sex, age, educational attainment, and four ancestral groups. Results The median (10th percentile, 90th percentile) for men’s SADHtR was 0.130 (0.103, 0.165) and WHtR 0.569 (0.467, 0.690). For women, median SADHtR was 0.132 (0.102, 0.175) and WHtR 0.586 (0.473, 0.738). Medians for SADHtR and WHtR increased steadily through age 79. The median BMI, however, reached maximum values at ages 40–49 (men) or 60–69 (women) and then declined. Low educational attainment, adjusted for age and ancestry, was associated with elevated SADHtR more strongly than elevated BMI. While non-Hispanic Asians had substantially lower BMI compared to all other ancestral groups (adjusted for sex, age and education), their relative reductions in SADHtR and WHtR, were less marked. Conclusions These cross-sectional data are consistent with monotonically increasing abdominal adipose tissue through the years of adulthood but decreasing mass in non-abdominal regions beyond middle age. They suggest also that visceral adipose tissue, estimated by SADHtR, expands differentially in association with low socioeconomic position. Insofar as Asians have lower BMIs than other populations, employing abdominal indicators may attenuate the adiposity differences reported between ancestral

  7. Age- and sex-related differences of organic anion-transporting polypeptide gene expression in livers of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Wei-Yu; Xu, Shang-Fu; Zhu, Qiong-Ni; Lu, Yuan-Fu [Key Lab for Pharmacology of Ministry of Education, Zunyi Medical College, Zunyi 563003 (China); Cheng, Xing-Guo [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. John’s University, New York, NY 11439 (United States); Liu, Jie, E-mail: Jieliu@zmc.edu.cn [Key Lab for Pharmacology of Ministry of Education, Zunyi Medical College, Zunyi 563003 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Organic anion-transporting polypeptides (Oatps) play important roles in transporting endogenous substances and xenobiotics into the liver and are implicated in drug-drug interactions. Many factors could influence their expression and result in alterations in drug disposition, efficacy and toxicity. This study was aimed to examine the development-, aging-, and sex-dependent Oatps expression in livers of rats. The livers from SD rats during development (− 2, 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 60 d) and aging (60, 180, 540 and/or 800 d) were collected and total RNAs were extracted, purified, and subjected to real-time PCR analysis. Total proteins were extracted for western-blot analysis. Results showed that Oatp1a1, Oatp1a4, Oatp1a5 and Oatp1b2 were all hardly detectable in fetal rat livers, low at birth, rapidly increased after weaning (21 d), and reached the peak at 60 d. The Oatps remained stable during the age between 60–180 d, and decreased at elderly (540 and/or 800 d). After birth, Oatp1a1, Oatp1a4, and Oatp1b2 were all highly expressed in liver, in contrast, Oatp1a5 expression was low. Oatp expressions are male-predominant in rat livers. In the livers of aged rats, the Oatp expression decreased and shared a consistent ontogeny pattern at the mRNA and protein level. In conclusion, this study showed that in rat liver, Oatp1a1, Oatp1a4, Oatp1a5 and Oatp1b2 gene expressions are influenced by age and gender, which could provide a basis of individual variation in drug transport, metabolism and toxicity in children, elderly and women. - Highlights: • Oatp1a1, Oatp1a4, Oatp1a5 and Oatp1b2 expression in livers of rats. • Ontogenic changes of Oatps at − 2, 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 60 days. • Age-related changes of Oatps at 60, 180, 540, and 800 days. • Sex-difference of Oatps at the both mRNA and protein levels.

  8. Sex- and age-dependent patterns of survival and breeding success in a long-lived endangered avian scavenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Aguilar, Ana; Cortés-Avizanda, Ainara; Serrano, David; Blanco, Guillermo; Ceballos, Olga; Grande, Juan M.; Tella, José L.; Donázar, José A.

    2017-01-01

    In long-lived species, the age-, stage- and/or sex-dependent patterns of survival and reproduction determine the evolution of life history strategies, the shape of the reproductive value, and ultimately population dynamics. We evaluate the combined effects of age and sex in recruitment, breeder survival and breeding success of the globally endangered Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus), using 31-years of exhaustive data on marked individuals in Spain. Mean age of first reproduction was 7-yrs for both sexes, but females showed an earlier median and a larger variance than males. We found an age-related improvement in breeding success at the population level responding to the selective appearance and disappearance of phenotypes of different quality but unrelated to within-individual aging effects. Old males (≥8 yrs) showed a higher survival than both young males (≤7 yrs) and females, these later in turn not showing aging effects. Evolutionary trade-offs between age of recruitment and fitness (probably related to costs of territory acquisition and defense) as well as human-related mortality may explain these findings. Sex- and age-related differences in foraging strategies and susceptibility to toxics could be behind the relatively low survival of females and young males, adding a new concern for the conservation of this endangered species.

  9. Sex offender treatment outcome, actuarial risk, and the aging sex offender in Canadian corrections: a long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Mark E; Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Gu, Deqiang; Wong, Stephen C P

    2013-08-01

    The present study is an examination of sex offender treatment outcome in a large national cohort of Canadian Federally incarcerated sex offenders followed up an average of 11.7 years postrelease. A brief actuarial risk scale (BARS), which predicted sexual and violent recidivism, was created for the purposes of the present study to control for risk-related differences between treated and untreated offenders. In total, 732 offenders were identified as having completed (n = 625) or not attended (n = 107) a sex offender treatment program and for whom sufficient information was available to complete the scale. Controlling for risk and individual differences in follow-up time using Cox regression survival analyses and an 8-year fixed follow-up period, treated sex offenders demonstrated significantly lower rates of violent, but not sexual, recidivism. When the treated and untreated groups were stratified by risk level, significant differences were observed only among moderate or high risk offenders. Some significant group differences also emerged on indicators of recidivism severity, with treated offenders demonstrating slower times to sexual reoffense and lower scores on a quantified metric of sexual and violent recidivism severity after controlling for risk. Differences in recidivism base rates between treated and untreated offenders were also larger in magnitude for younger offenders (i.e., under age 50 at release), than for older offenders; however, interactions between age and treatment were not found. The findings are consistent with the risk principle and have possible implications regarding the dynamic nature of sexual violence risk.

  10. Factors impacting on the nutritional status of population aged 45 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors impacting on the nutritional status of population aged 45 years and ... Information on selected demographic and socio-economic household ... and obesity are problems facing this population group aged 45 years and above in Nairobi.

  11. Ultrasonographic measurement of normal common bile duct diameter and its correlation with age, sex and anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Nidhi; Mehra, Simmi; Lal, Vivek

    2014-12-01

    Ultrasonography is the diagnostic method of choice for visualization and rational work-up of abdominal organs. The dilatation of the common bile duct helps distinguish obstructive from non-obstructive causes of jaundice. Availability of normal measurements of the common bile duct is therefore important. There exists significant variations in the anthropometric features of various populations, regions and races. Study was conducted to obtain data on sonographically measured diameters of common bile duct in a series of normal Rajasthani population and to measure its correlation with age, sex and anthropometry. Cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted at Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, India. Study included 200 participants with equal proportion belonging to either sex. Common bile duct was measured at three locations- at the porta hepatis, in the most distal aspect of head of pancreas and mid-way between these points. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight, chest circumference, circumference at transpyloric plane, circumference at umbilicus and circumference at hip were obtained using standard procedures. Univariable analysis with measures of frequency and standard deviation and bivariable analysis using correlation. Mean age of study subjects was 34.5 years (Range 18-85 years). Mean diameters of the common bile duct in the three locations were: proximal, 4.0 mm (SD 1.02 mm); middle, 4.1 mm (SD 1.01 mm); and distal, 4.2 mm (SD 1.01 mm) and overall mean for all measures 4.1 mm (SD 1.01 mm). Average diameter ranged from 2.0 mm to 7.9 mm, with 95 percent of the subjects having a diameter of less than 6 mm. We observed a statistically significant relation of common bile duct with age, along with a linear trend. There was no statistically significant difference in common bile duct diameter between male and female subjects. The diameter did not show any statistically significant correlation with any of the anthropometric

  12. The value of genetic information for diabetes risk prediction - differences according to sex, age, family history and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Mühlenbruch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with type 2 diabetes through the past years. In previous studies, the usefulness of these genetic markers for prediction of diabetes was found to be limited. However, differences may exist between substrata of the population according to the presence of major diabetes risk factors. This study aimed to investigate the added predictive value of genetic information (42 single nucleotide polymorphisms in subgroups of sex, age, family history of diabetes, and obesity. METHODS: A case-cohort study (random subcohort N = 1,968; incident cases: N = 578 within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Potsdam study was used. Prediction models without and with genetic information were evaluated in terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and the integrated discrimination improvement. Stratified analyses included subgroups of sex, age (<50 or ≥50 years, family history (positive if either father or mother or a sibling has/had diabetes, and obesity (BMI< or ≥30 kg/m(2. RESULTS: A genetic risk score did not improve prediction above classic and metabolic markers, but - compared to a non-invasive prediction model - genetic information slightly improved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (difference [95%-CI]: 0.007 [0.002-0.011]. Stratified analyses showed stronger improvement in the older age group (0.010 [0.002-0.018], the group with a positive family history (0.012 [0.000-0.023] and among obese participants (0.015 [-0.005-0.034] compared to the younger participants (0.005 [-0.004-0.014], participants with a negative family history (0.003 [-0.001-0.008] and non-obese (0.007 [0.000-0.014], respectively. No difference was found between men and women. CONCLUSION: There was no incremental value of genetic information compared to standard non-invasive and metabolic

  13. Psychosocial factors for influencing healthy aging in adults in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Han, KyungHun; Lee, YunJung; Gu, JaSung; Oh, Hee; Han, JongHee; Kim, KwuyBun

    2015-01-01

    Background Healthy aging includes physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being in later years. The purpose of this study is to identify the psychosocial factors influencing healthy aging and examining their socio-demographic characteristics. Perceived health status, depression, self-esteem, self-achievement, ego-integrity, participation in leisure activities, and loneliness were identified as influential factors in healthy aging. Methods 171 Korean adults aged between 45 and 77 y...

  14. [Seasonal effect of age, sex and drinking water composition on nephritic colic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Ramírez, C; Navarro Sánchez-Ortiz, A; Zuluaga Gómez, A; Aguilar Ruiz, J; Espejo Maldonado, E; Abad Menor, F

    1981-01-01

    The influence of the season, age, sex and composition of the drinking water on the incidence of kidney colics in patients of different villages, attended at the "San Cecilio" Clinical Hospital in Granada, is assessed. The average, of kidney colics per 1.000 inhabitants was 4.2% with 51.27% in females and 48.73% in males. We found that in the summer months the frequency of kidney colics was double that in the winter months, which may be due to a relative D hypervitaminosis, a greater intake of oxalates or a relative dehydration. No influence of the calcium, magnesium, chlorine and sulphate contents of the water, was detected. In some villages, a high calcium and magnesium content in the water, posed problems for the urolithogenic prophylaxis in some patients.

  15. Prevalence, and Intellectual Outcome of Unilateral Focal Cortical Brain Damage as a Function of Age, Sex and Aetiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. J. Braun

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurologists and neuropsychologists are aware that aging men are more at risk than women for brain damage, principally because of the well known male-predominant risk for cardiovascular disease and related cerebrovascular accidents. However, a disproportion in prevalence of brain damage between the sexes in childhood may be less suspected. Furthermore, sex-specific risk for other aetiologies of brain damage may be little known, whether in the pediatric or adult populations. Proposals of a sex difference in cognitive recovery from brain damage have also been controversial. Six hundred and thirty five “consecutive” cases with cortical focal lesions including cases of all ages and both sexes were reviewed. Aetiology of the lesion was determined for each case as was postlesion IQ. Risk was highly male prevalent in all age groups, with a predominance of cardiovascular aetiology explaining much of the adult male prevalence. However, several other aetiological categories were significantly male prevalent in juveniles (mitotic, traumatic, dysplasic and adults (mitotic, traumatic. There was no sex difference in outcome (i.e., postlesion IQ of these cortical brain lesions for the cohort as a whole, after statistical removal of the influence of lesion extent, aetiology and presence of epilepsy. Mechanisms potentially responsible for sex differences in prevalence, aetiology of brain damage, and recovery, are reviewed and discussed.

  16. Community and Individual Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Rice, Eric; Schrager, Sheree M.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Jean; Kipke, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have higher rates of cigarette smoking than their heterosexual counterparts, yet few studies have examined factors associated with cigarette smoking among YMSM. The present study sought to understand how different types of gay community connection (i.e., gay community identification and involvement, gay bar…

  17. Community and Individual Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Rice, Eric; Schrager, Sheree M.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Jean; Kipke, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have higher rates of cigarette smoking than their heterosexual counterparts, yet few studies have examined factors associated with cigarette smoking among YMSM. The present study sought to understand how different types of gay community connection (i.e., gay community identification and involvement, gay bar…

  18. Comparative Factor Analyses of the Personal Attributes Questionnaire and the Bem Sex-Role Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antill, John K.; Cunningham, John D.

    1982-01-01

    Compared the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) and the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) as measures of androgyny. Results showed that femininty (Concern for Others) and masculinity (Dominance) accounted for most of the variance, but for PAQ, clusters of male- and female-valued items (i.e., Extroversion and Insecurity) formed subsidiary factors.…

  19. Effect of age and sex on the association between lipid profile and obesity among telecomunication workers in Palembang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardi Darmawan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study objective is to examine the effects of age and sex on the association between various obesity parameters and lipid profile. The measurements of whole body obesity (body fat, body fat % and BMI, abdominal obesity (waist to hip ratio, waist to thigh ratio and waist circumference and lipid profile (HDL, LDL, VLDL, total cholesterol and triglyceride were performed on 112 telecom workers in Palembang (84 men and 28 women, age 25, 35, 45, and 55 years. All lipid parameters results depend on sex and age of subjects. The association between obesity assessments and HDL or LDL was independent of sex and age of subjects, whereas the association between obesity assessments and total cholesterol, VLDL and triglyceride is dependent on sex and age of subjects. Abdominal obesity has greater effect on VLDL and triglyceride levels than on other lipid parameters. Whole body obesity has equal effects on all lipid parameters. When comparing results of male and female subjects, obesity measurements and lipid profile association is stronger in male subjects of almost all age groups. The exception is a stronger association between abdominal obesity and VLDL or triglyceride levels in 45 years old female subjects. Obesity measurements and VLDL or triglyceride level association is independent of age, whereas obesity and total cholesterol association is stronger in younger subjects. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:251-6Keywords: Lipid profile, fat distribution, obesity, abdominal obesity

  20. Effects of age, colony, and sex on mercury concentrations in California sea lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHuron, Elizibeth A; Peterson, Sarah H.; Ackerman, Josh; Melin, Sharon R.; Harris, Jeffrey D.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    We measured total mercury (THg) concentrations in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and examined how concentrations varied with age class, colony, and sex. Because Hg exposure is primarily via diet, we used nitrogen (δ 15N) and carbon (δ 13C) stable isotopes to determine if intraspecific differences in THg concentrations could be explained by feeding ecology. Blood and hair were collected from 21 adult females and 57 juveniles from three colonies in central and southern California (San Nicolas, San Miguel, and Año Nuevo Islands). Total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.31 μg g−1 wet weight (ww) in blood and 0.74 to 21.00 μg g−1 dry weight (dw) in hair. Adult females had greater mean THg concentrations than juveniles in blood (0.15 vs. 0.03 μg−1 ww) and hair (10.10 vs. 3.25 μg−1 dw). Age class differences in THg concentrations did not appear to be driven by trophic level or habitat type because there were no differences in δ 15N or δ 13C values between adults and juveniles. Total Hg concentrations in adult females were 54 % (blood) and 24 % (hair) greater in females from San Miguel than females from San Nicolas Island, which may have been because sea lions from the two islands foraged in different areas. For juveniles, we detected some differences in THg concentrations with colony and sex, although these were likely due to sampling effects and not ecological differences. Overall, THg concentrations in California sea lions were within the range documented for other marine mammals and were generally below toxicity benchmarks for fish-eating wildlife.

  1. [Analysis on the intention of marriage and the influence factors among unmarried men who have sex with men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Li, Liu-Lin; Zhang, Guong-Gui; Fan, Jing; Zhao, Xi-He; Li, Ke

    2012-10-01

    To understand the intention on marriage and the related influence factors among men who have sex with men (MSM). Using the snowball sampling method, an anonymous questionnaire survey was achieved by recruiting MSM. A total number of 308 people were included in this survey, the numbers of 'planning to get married' was 34.4%, intended not to get married accounted for 65.6%; and the average age of intending to marry was (28.1 ± 3.3) years old. The intended marriage partners were ordinary women accounted for 83.8%, while another 16.2% were lesbians. Reasons for getting married were under social pressure (65.1%), under family pressure (12.3%), and under personal desire (22.6%). Those who intended to remain contact with gay after marriage accounted for 66.7%, with 16.2% did not and those were not sure accounted for 17.1%. Using the multivariate analysis method, results showed that the independent factors for intention of marriage were: age, sexual orientation, registration for residency, cumulative numbers of regular sexual partners, number of anal sex in the last week, proportion of intention to get married was relatively low among those who were over 35 years of age and their residence of registration were in the city. However those who were bisexual, with uncertain sexual orientation, and with low cumulative numbers of regular sexual partners as well as less anal sex in the past week, occupied higher proportions. MSM population under our current study showed a high percentage on marriage intention which posed serious challenges to the society and families. AIDS prevention on this population seemed to be impacted by demographic characteristics and sexual behavior.

  2. Age-Related Factors That Influence Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be found at the NICHD Pregnancy Loss topic page . Committee on Gynecologic Practice of American College of ... 2012, from http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/pregnancyloss/researchinfo/Pages/default.aspx [top] « Lifestyle Factors That Influence Fertility ...

  3. Menthol disrupts nicotine's psychostimulant properties in an age and sex-dependent manner in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fait, Benjamin W; Thompson, David C; Mose, Tenna N; Jatlow, Peter; Jordt, Sven E; Picciotto, Marina R; Mineur, Yann S

    2017-09-15

    Menthol is a commonly used flavorant in tobacco and e-cigarettes, and could contribute to nicotine sensitivity. To understand how menthol could contribute to nicotine intake and addiction, it is important to determine whether specific mechanisms related to sex and age could underlie behavioral changes induced by menthol-laced nicotinic products. Using a validated paradigm of nicotine-dependent locomotor stimulation, adolescent and adult C57BL/6J mice of both sexes were exposed to nicotine, or nicotine laced with menthol, as their sole source of fluid, and psychostimulant effects were evaluated by recording home cage locomotor activity for ten days. Nicotine and cotinine blood levels were measured following exposure. Results show an interaction between treatment, age, and sex on liquid consumption, indicating that mice responded differently to menthol and nicotine based on their age and sex. Adult male mice greatly increased their nicotine intake when given menthol. In female mice of both age groups, menthol did not have this effect. Despite an increase in nicotine intake promoted by menthol, adult male mice showed a significant decrease in locomotion, suggesting that menthol blunted nicotine-induced psychostimulation. This behavioral response to menthol was not detected in adolescent mice of either sex. These data confirm that menthol is more than a flavorant, and can influence both nicotine intake and its psychostimulant effects. These results suggest that age- and sex-dependent mechanisms could underlie menthol's influence on nicotine intake and that studies including adolescent and adult menthol smokers of both sexes are warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Internalizing Symptoms and Safe Sex Intentions among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment: Personal Factors as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppa, Meredith C.; Rizzo, Christie J.; Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Dattadeen, Jodi-Ann; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about why some adolescents with internalizing symptoms engage in sexual behaviors that increase their risk for HIV. This study tested a mediation model of internalizing symptoms and safe sex intentions among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Self-efficacy for HIV prevention, HIV knowledge, and worry about HIV were hypothesized to mediate associations between internalizing symptoms and safe sex intentions among sexually active and non-active adolescents receiving mental health treatment (N = 893, M age = 14.9). Significant indirect effects from internalizing symptoms to safe sex intentions varied according sexual experience: for sexually non-active adolescents, HIV worry and knowledge mediated this link, whereas for sexually active adolescents, HIV self-efficacy was the significant mediator. Increasing both HIV knowledge and self-efficacy for HIV prevention are important targets for HIV prevention with adolescents with internalizing symptoms, and careful attention should be paid towards targeting these interventions to sexually experienced and inexperienced youth. PMID:25284921

  5. Influence of age and sex on winter site fidelity of sanderlings Calidris alba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, José A.; Reneerkens, Jeroen; Loonstra, AH Jelle; Potts, Peter M.; Granadeiro, José P.; Catry, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Many migratory bird species show high levels of site fidelity to their wintering sites, which confers advantages due to prior knowledge, but may also limit the ability of the individual to move away from degrading sites or to detect alternative foraging opportunities. Winter site fidelity often varies among age groups, but sexual differences have seldom been recorded in birds. We studied a population of individually colour-marked sanderlings wintering in and around the Tejo estuary, a large estuarine wetland on the western coast of Portugal. For 160 individuals, sighted a total of 1,249 times between November 2009 and March 2013, we calculated the probability that they moved among five distinct wintering sites and how this probability is affected by distance between them. To compare site fidelity among age classes and sexes, as well as within the same winter and over multiple winters, we used a Site Fidelity Index (SFI). Birds were sexed using a discriminant function based on biometrics of a large set of molecularly sexed sanderlings (n = 990). The vast majority of birds were observed at one site only, and the probability of the few detected movements between sites was negatively correlated with the distance among each pair of sites. Hardly any movements were recorded over more than 15 km, suggesting small home ranges. SFI values indicated that juveniles were less site-faithful than adults which may reflect the accumulated knowledge and/or dominance of older animals. Among adults, females were significantly less site faithful than males. A sexual difference in winter site fidelity is unusual in shorebirds. SFI values show site-faithfulness is lower when multiple winters were considered, and most birds seem to chose a wintering site early in the season and use that site throughout the winter. Sanderlings show a very limited tendency to explore alternative wintering options, which might have implications for their survival when facing habitat change or loss (e

  6. Influence of age and sex on winter site fidelity of sanderlings Calidris alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M. Lourenço

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many migratory bird species show high levels of site fidelity to their wintering sites, which confers advantages due to prior knowledge, but may also limit the ability of the individual to move away from degrading sites or to detect alternative foraging opportunities. Winter site fidelity often varies among age groups, but sexual differences have seldom been recorded in birds. We studied a population of individually colour-marked sanderlings wintering in and around the Tejo estuary, a large estuarine wetland on the western coast of Portugal. For 160 individuals, sighted a total of 1,249 times between November 2009 and March 2013, we calculated the probability that they moved among five distinct wintering sites and how this probability is affected by distance between them. To compare site fidelity among age classes and sexes, as well as within the same winter and over multiple winters, we used a Site Fidelity Index (SFI. Birds were sexed using a discriminant function based on biometrics of a large set of molecularly sexed sanderlings (n = 990. The vast majority of birds were observed at one site only, and the probability of the few detected movements between sites was negatively correlated with the distance among each pair of sites. Hardly any movements were recorded over more than 15 km, suggesting small home ranges. SFI values indicated that juveniles were less site-faithful than adults which may reflect the accumulated knowledge and/or dominance of older animals. Among adults, females were significantly less site faithful than males. A sexual difference in winter site fidelity is unusual in shorebirds. SFI values show site-faithfulness is lower when multiple winters were considered, and most birds seem to chose a wintering site early in the season and use that site throughout the winter. Sanderlings show a very limited tendency to explore alternative wintering options, which might have implications for their survival when facing habitat change

  7. Factors Associated with Alcohol Use Before or During Sex Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in a Large Internet Sample from Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cui; Guadamuz, Thomas E; Lim, Sin How; Koe, Stuart; Wei, Chongyi

    2016-04-01

    We explored factors associated with alcohol use before or during sex among a sample of 10,861 men who have sex with men (MSM) in Asia who were recruited online for the study. Multinomial logistic regression analysis indicated that having sex under the influence of alcohol was associated with having multiple male partners, seeking partners primarily through gay bar/gym/dance party/friends, selling sex and using multiple drugs during the past 6 months, and unprotected anal sex. More efforts are needed to better assess alcohol use and misuse among MSM in Asia and understand contextual influences on alcohol use and HIV-related behaviors in order to implement culturally-specific interventions.

  8. Establishment of age- and sex-adjusted reference data for hand bone mass and investigation of hand bone loss in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørnbjerg, Lykke Midtbøll; Østergaard, Mikkel; Jensen, Trine

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis is characterised by progressive joint destruction and loss of periarticular bone mass. Hand bone loss (HBL) has therefore been proposed as an outcome measure for treatment efficacy. A definition of increased HBL adjusted for age- and sex-related bone loss is lacking....... In this study, we aimed to: 1) establish reference values for normal hand bone mass (bone mineral density measured by digital x-ray radiogrammetry (DXR-BMD)); and 2) examine whether HBL is normalised in rheumatoid arthritis patients during treatment with tumour necrosis factor alpha inhibitors (TNFI). METHODS......: DXR-BMD was measured from hand x-rays in a reference cohort (1485 men/2541 women) without arthritis randomly selected from an urban Danish population. Sex- and age-related HBL/year was estimated. DXR-BMD was measured in rheumatoid arthritis patients (n = 350: at start of TNFI, and ~2 years after TNFI...

  9. The evolution of labile traits in sex- and age-structured populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Dylan Z; Sheldon, Ben C; Rees, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Many quantitative traits are labile (e.g. somatic growth rate, reproductive timing and investment), varying over the life cycle as a result of behavioural adaptation, developmental processes and plastic responses to the environment. At the population level, selection can alter the distribution of such traits across age classes and among generations. Despite a growing body of theoretical research exploring the evolutionary dynamics of labile traits, a data-driven framework for incorporating such traits into demographic models has not yet been developed. Integral projection models (IPMs) are increasingly being used to understand the interplay between changes in labile characters, life histories and population dynamics. One limitation of the IPM approach is that it relies on phenotypic associations between parents and offspring traits to capture inheritance. However, it is well-established that many different processes may drive these associations, and currently, no clear consensus has emerged on how to model micro-evolutionary dynamics in an IPM framework. We show how to embed quantitative genetic models of inheritance of labile traits into age-structured, two-sex models that resemble standard IPMs. Commonly used statistical tools such as GLMs and their mixed model counterparts can then be used for model parameterization. We illustrate the methodology through development of a simple model of egg-laying date evolution, parameterized using data from a population of Great tits (Parus major). We demonstrate how our framework can be used to project the joint dynamics of species' traits and population density. We then develop a simple extension of the age-structured Price equation (ASPE) for two-sex populations, and apply this to examine the age-specific contributions of different processes to change in the mean phenotype and breeding value. The data-driven framework we outline here has the potential to facilitate greater insight into the nature of selection and its

  10. Age- and sex-related emotional and behavioral problems in children with autism spectrum disorders: comparison with control children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Fumie; Oka, Yasunori; Uno, Hiroyuki; Kawabe, Kentaro; Okada, Fumi; Saito, Isao; Tanigawa, Takeshi; Ueno, Shu-ichi

    2014-07-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often present with emotional and behavioral problems, which could change the clinical course, especially during childhood, and affect future quality of life. The aim of this study was to clarify the age- and sex-related differences of these problems in ASD. The study subjects were 173 patients with ASD (age: 4-16 years) and 173 age- and sex-matched community children (control group). The parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used for comparison of the emotional and behavioral problems between the two groups. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scores were significantly higher in children with ASD than controls at all ages. The score of total difficulties was significantly higher in girls with ASD than in boys, while the score in male controls was significantly higher than in female controls. Age-related differences in emotional and behavioral problems were observed both in children with ASD and controls, but the characteristics were different: in children with ASD, emotional symptoms and peer problems in both sexes and conduct problems in girls increased significantly with age, while none of the problems in the controls changed with age except for a decrease in the score of hyperactivity/inattention developmentally in both sexes. Prosocial behaviors of children with ASD and controls showed small changes with age. Emotional and behavioral problems are common in children with ASD and showed age- and sex-related differences. Our study emphasizes the importance of recognizing those differences among children with ASD for early intervention. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  11. Age trend of the male to female sex ratio in surgical gastric cancer patients at a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junxiu; He, Yongjun; Guo, Zhen

    2014-08-21

    In previous reports concerning the association between sex disparity and age, gastric cancer (GC) patients were simply divided into younger and older groups by age. We analyzed the age trend of the male to female sex ratio (MFSR) in GC based on patient sequential age in order to observe the changing process of MFSR with age. One thousand seven hundred fifty-one surgical gastric adenocarcinoma patients aged 26 to 85 years were investigated between January 1996 and December 2010. The patients were grouped by age intervals of 5 years. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to determine how the MFSR changed with age. The median age of the 1,751 patients with GC was 60 years (26 to 85 years). There were 1,334 male and 417 female patients (MFSR was 3.20). Cochran-Armitage trend test analysis showed that total MFSR increased significantly with age (Z = 5.964, P trend test showed that MFSR increased significantly with age from 26 to 60 years (Z = 7.433, P trend until 60 years of age. The male GC patients showed an increasing tendency, and female GC patients showed a decreasing tendency with age. This trend reached a plateau phase after 60 years of age.

  12. Patient Age, Sex, and Inflammatory Bowel Disease Phenotype Associate With Course of Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weismüller, Tobias J.; Trivedi, Palak J.; Bergquist, Annika; Imam, Mohamad; Lenzen, Henrike; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; Holm, Kristian; Gotthardt, Daniel; Färkkilä, Martti A.; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Thorburn, Douglas; Weersma, Rinse K.; Fevery, Johan; Mueller, Tobias; Chazouillères, Olivier; Schulze, Kornelius; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.; Almer, Sven; Pereira, Stephen P.; Levy, Cynthia; Mason, Andrew; Naess, Sigrid; Bowlus, Christopher L.; Floreani, Annarosa; Halilbasic, Emina; Yimam, Kidist K.; Milkiewicz, Piotr; Beuers, Ulrich; Huynh, Dep K.; Pares, Albert; Manser, Christine N.; Dalekos, George N.; Eksteen, Bertus; Invernizzi, Pietro; Berg, Christoph P.; Kirchner, Gabi I.; Sarrazin, Christoph; Zimmer, Vincent; Fabris, Luca; Braun, Felix; Marzioni, Marco; Juran, Brian D.; Said, Karouk; Rupp, Christian; Jokelainen, Kalle; Benito de Valle, Maria; Saffioti, Francesca; Cheung, Angela; Trauner, Michael; Schramm, Christoph; Chapman, Roger W.; Karlsen, Tom H.; Schrumpf, Erik; Strassburg, Christian P.; Manns, Michael P.; Lindor, Keith D.; Hirschfield, Gideon M.; Hansen, Bettina E.; Boberg, Kirsten M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is an orphan hepatobiliary disorder associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We aimed to estimate the risk of disease progression based on distinct clinical phenotypes in a large international cohort of patients with PSC. METHODS We performed a retrospective outcome analysis of patients diagnosed with PSC from 1980 through 2010 at 37 centers in Europe, North America, and Australia. For each patient, we collected data on sex, clinician-reported age at and date of PSC and IBD diagnoses, phenotypes of IBD and PSC, and date and indication of IBD-related surgeries. The primary and secondary endpoints were liver transplantation or death (LTD) and hepatopancreatobiliary malignancy, respectively. Cox proportional hazards models were applied to determine the effects of individual covariates on rates of clinical events, with time-to-event analysis ascertained through Kaplan-Meier estimates. RESULTS Of the 7121 patients in the cohort, 2616 met the primary endpoint (median time to event of 14.5 years) and 721 developed hepatopancreatobiliary malignancy. The most common malignancy was cholangiocarcinoma (n = 594); patients of advanced age at diagnosis had an increased incidence compared with younger patients (incidence rate: 1.2 per 100 patient-years for patients younger than 20 years old, 6.0 per 100 patient-years for patients 21–30 years old, 9.0 per 100 patient-years for patients 31–40 years old, 14.0 per 100 patient-years for patients 41–50 years old, 15.2 per 100 patient-years for patients 51–60 years old, and 21.0 per 100 patient-years for patients older than 60 years). Of all patients with PSC studied, 65.5% were men, 89.8% had classical or large-duct disease, and 70.0% developed IBD at some point. Assessing the development of IBD as a time-dependent covariate, Crohn’s disease and no IBD (both vs ulcerative colitis) were associated with a lower risk of LTD (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.62; P

  13. Quality of life in Swedish patients with post-polio syndrome with a focus on age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Tae-Du; Broman, Lisbet; Stibrant-Sunnerhagen, Katharina; Gonzalez, Henrik; Borg, Kristian

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the health-related quality of life (QOL) in Swedish patients with post-polio syndrome (PPS), with a focus on sex and age. A total of 364 patients were recruited from five Swedish post-polio clinics. Analysis was carried out using SF-36 and data were compared with those of a normal population. QOL was significantly lower in PPS patients for all eight subdomains and the two main scores (physical compound score and mental compound score) when compared with the controls. Male patients had a significantly higher QOL than female patients for all subdomains and also for mental compound score and physical compound score, a phenomenon also observed in the normal population. There was a decrease in QOL in the physical domains and an increase in vitality with age. PPS decreases health-related QOL in both sexes, more in female patients. QOL for physical domains decreases whereas vitality increases with age in both sexes.

  14. Prevalence and Distribution of Abdominal Aortic Calcium by Sex and Age-Group in a Community-based Cohort (From The Framingham Heart Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Michael L.; Massaro, Joseph M.; Levitzky, Yamini S.; Fox, Caroline S.; Manders, Emily S.; Hoffmann, Udo; O'Donnell, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal aortic calcium (AAC) is associated with incident cardiovascular disease but the age and sex-related distribution of AAC in a community-dwelling population free of standard cardiovascular disease risk factors has not been described. A total of 3285 participants (aged 50.2±9.9 years) in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation cohorts underwent abdominal multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanning during 1998-2005. The presence and amount of AAC was quantified (Agatston score) by an experienced reader using standardized criteria. A healthy referent subsample (N=1656, 803 men) free of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity and smoking was identified, and participants were stratified by sex and age group (0 AAC. Across the entire study sample, AAC prevalence and burden similarly increased with greater age. Defining the 90th percentile of referent group AAC as “high,” the prevalence of high AAC was 19% for each sex in the overall study sample. AAC also increased across categories of 10-year coronary heart disease risk, as calculated using the Framingham Risk Score, in the entire study sample. We found AAC to be widely prevalent, with the burden of AAC associated with 10-year coronary risk, in a white, free-living adult cohort. PMID:22727181

  15. Sex, race and age differences in muscle strength and limitations in community dwelling older adults: Data from the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Cassandra M; Vasquez, Elizabeth; Batsis, John A; McQuoid, Douglas R

    2016-01-01

    Aging-related muscle weakness is associated with increased risk of functional limitations and disability. This study examined the association between varying degrees of hand grip strength on functional ability in community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional analysis of 4289 men and 5860 women ≥60 from 2006 and 2008 waves of the population-based Health and Retirement Study (HRS) were stratified by sex-specific grip strength tertiles (low, mid, high). Prevalence and adjusted odds of physical limitations (PL), and ADL/IADL limitation were calculated by sex, race/ethnicity and age group (60-69, 70-79, 80+). Models were weighted, adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, smoking status, BMI, comorbidities and participation in physical activity. Prevalence of PL, ADL and IADL limitations were significantly lower among adults in the highest grip category as compared to those in the lowest grip category. Adjusted odds for PL OR 0.41[0.33,0.52]; ADL OR.51 [0.39,0.67], and IADL OR 0.47 [0.38-0.59] limitations were significantly lower among adults in the highest grip compared to the lowest grip category. However, notable differences were observed in the strength of these associations by gender, race and age group. Demographic characteristics are important factors to consider for risk stratification and the development of effective grip strength training interventions for older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Differences in genetic and environmental variation in adult BMI by sex, age, time period, and region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Genes and the environment contribute to variation in adult body mass index [BMI (in kg/m2)], but factors modifying these variance components are poorly understood. Objective: We analyzed genetic and environmental variation in BMI between men and women from young adulthood to old age f...