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Sample records for factorization height length

  1. Foot length is a functional parameter for assessment of height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2013-03-01

    Stature estimation is considered as an important parameter in the examination of unknown human remains and during the analysis of evidence in crime scene investigations. During mass disasters isolated foot can be found enclosed in the shoes while footprints may be recovered at the crime scenes. Foot length and footprint length can provide valuable estimates of stature. The present communication makes a few pertinent observations on a recently published article in 'The Foot' entitled 'Foot length-a functional parameter for assessment of height, The Foot 2012, 22(1):31-34' and presents an insight into the literature available on the subject which is likely to be of value to future researchers in the field of Forensic Podiatry. The foot length and the footprint length of individuals differ from each other and hence, the research observations made in a study on foot prints cannot be applied to foot dimensions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of Displacement Height and Surface Roughness Length to Determination Boundary Layer Development Length over Stepped Spillway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangju Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most uncertain parameters in stepped spillway design is the length (from the crest of boundary layer development. The normal velocity profiles responding to the steps as bed roughness are investigated in the developing non-aerated flow region. A detailed analysis of the logarithmic vertical velocity profiles on stepped spillways is conducted through experimental data to verify the computational code and numerical experiments to expand the data available. To determine development length, the hydraulic roughness and displacement thickness, along with the shear velocity, are needed. This includes determining displacement height d and surface roughness length z0 and the relationship of d and z0 to the step geometry. The results show that the hydraulic roughness height ks is the primary factor on which d and z0 depend. In different step height, step width, discharge and intake Froude number, the relations d/ks = 0.22–0.27, z0/ks = 0.06–0.1 and d/z0 = 2.2–4 result in a good estimate. Using the computational code and numerical experiments, air inception will occur over stepped spillway flow as long as the Bauer-defined boundary layer thickness is between 0.72 and 0.79.

  3. Effect of fiber post length and abutment height on fracture resistance of endodontically treated premolars prepared for zirconia crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jie; Matinlinna, Jukka Pekka; Shinya, Akikazu; Botelho, Michael George; Zheng, Zhiqiang

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the fracture resistance, mode of fracture, and stress distribution of endodontically treated teeth prepared with three different fiber post lengths and two different abutment heights, using both experimental and finite element (FE) approaches. Forty-eight human maxillary premolars with two roots were selected and endodontically treated. The teeth were randomly distributed into six equally sized groups (n = 8) with different combinations of post lengths (7.5, 11, and 15 mm) and abutment heights (3 and 5 mm). All the teeth restored with glass fiber post (Rely X Fiber Post, 3M ESPE, USA) and a full zirconia crown. All the specimens were thermocycled and then loaded to failure at an oblique angle of 135°. Statistical analysis was performed for the effects of post length and abutment height on failure loads using ANOVA and Tukey's honestly significant difference test. In addition, corresponding FE models of a premolar restored with a glass fiber post were developed to examine mechanical responses. The factor of post length (P abutment height (P > 0.05) did not have a significant effect on failure load. The highest mean fracture resistance was recorded for the 15 mm post length and 5 mm abutment height test group, which was significantly more resistant to fracture than the 7.5 mm post and 5 mm abutment height group (P abutment heights.

  4. Standing Height and its Estimation Utilizing Foot Length Measurements in Adolescents from Western Region in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevo Popović

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine standing height in both Kosovan genders in the Western Region as well as its association with foot length, as an alternative to estimating standing height. A total of 664 individuals (338 male and 326 female participated in this research. The anthropometric measurements were taken according to the protocol of ISAK. The relationships between body height and foot length were determined using simple correlation coefficients at a ninety-five percent confidence interval. A comparison of means of standing height and foot length between genders was performed using a t-test. After that a linear regression analysis were carried out to examine extent to which foot length can reliably predict standing height. Results displayed that Western Kosovan male are 179.71±6.00cm tall and have a foot length of 26.73±1.20cm, while Western Kosovan female are 166.26±5.23cm tall and have a foot length of 23.66±1.06cm. The results have shown that both genders made Western-Kosovans a tall group, a little bit taller that general Kosovan population. Moreover, the foot length reliably predicts standing height in both genders; but, not reliably enough as arm span. This study also confirms the necessity for developing separate height models for each region in Kosovo as the results from Western-Kosovans don’t correspond to the general values.

  5. Leg length, sitting height, and body proportions references for achondroplasia: New tools for monitoring growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino, Mariana; Ramos Mejía, Rosario; Fano, Virginia

    2018-04-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common form of inherited disproportionate short stature. We report leg length, sitting height, and body proportion curves for achondroplasia. Seven centile format of sitting height, leg length, sitting height/leg length ratio, sitting height/height ratio, and head circumference/height ratio were estimated by the LMS method. The Q-test was applied to assess the goodness of fit. For comparison, centiles of sitting height and leg length were graphed using Argentine national growth references for achondroplasia and non-achondroplasia populations. The sample consisted of 342 children with achondroplasia (171 males, 171 females) aged 0-18 years. The median (interquartile range) number of measurements per child was 6 (3, 12) for sitting height and 8 (3, 13) for head circumference. Median leg length increased from 14 cm at age 1 week to 44 and 40 cm (males and females, respectively) in achondroplasia adolescents which is 3.5 cm shorter than non-achondroplasia children at age 1 week and, 38 cm shorter at adolescence. Median sitting height increased from 34 cm at birth to 86 and 81 in adolescents' boys and girls respectively, only 5 cm shorter than non-achondroplasia children. Sitting height/leg length decreased from 2.61 at birth to approximately 1.90 at adolescent. Median head circumference/height ratio decreased from 0.79 at birth to 0.46 at 18 years in both sexes. Growth of lower limbs is affected early in life and becomes more noticeable throughout childhood. The disharmonic growth between the less affected trunk and the severely affected limbs determine body disproportion in achondroplasia. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The Effect of Height, Wing Length, and Wing Symmetry on Tabebuia rosea Seed Dispersal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Moussa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the vertical drop height and the horizontal distance traveled (dispersal ratio was investigated for a sample of fifty Tabebuia rosea seeds by dropping the seeds from five heights ranging from 1.00 to 2.00 meters. The dispersal ratio was found to be a constant 0.16 m/m for these heights. The effects of total seed length and asymmetry of seed wings on dispersal ratio were also measured using separate samples of fifty Tabebuia rosea seeds. It was found that neither seed length nor asymmetry had a significant effect on the dispersal ratio.

  7. Correlation of Index Finger Length (2D with Height, Weight and BMI in Adult Bangladeshi Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Rezwan Hasan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human hand is one of the most versatile parts of the human body which plays an important role in modern medical science and evolutionary biology. By virtue of evolution and genetic arrangements, digital lengths vary from person to person according to age, sex, races, occupation or even environmental influences. It has been found that the digital lengths and their ratios are not same in different sexes and even in both hands of same individual. Specially, index to ring digit lengths and their ratios which already have been proved to represent sexual dimorphism may differ in both hands of an individual and show positive correlations with other morphological attributes like height, weight and BMI. Objectives: To analyze the variation of index finger (2D length and its correlation with height, weight and BMI in adult Bangladeshi male. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in the department of Anatomy, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka from July 2012 to June 2013 on 100 male MBBS students (20−25 years of age. With the help of digital vernier caliper measurements of index finger length (2D was recorded. Height and weight were measured by the stadiometer and weighing scale respectively. BMI was calculated from height and weight. Pearson’s correlation analysis was done to find out the correlation of index finger length with height, weight and BMI. Results: Significant correlation has been found between the lengths of index fingers (2D and height (p0.05. Conclusion: In this study, we found variation in index finger lengths of both hands of Bangladeshi male subjects, which needs further study and comparison.

  8. Maternal height and length of gestation: does this impact on preterm labour in Asian women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ben Chong-Pun; Lao, Terence Tzu-Hsi

    2009-08-01

    Both maternal height and ethnicity may influence the gestation length, but their independent effect is unclear. This study was performed to examine the relationship between maternal height and gestational length in women with singleton pregnancies in a Chinese and southeast Asian population. A retrospective cohort study was performed on women carrying singleton pregnancies with spontaneous labour in a 48-month period managed under our department to determine the relationship between maternal height, expressed in quartiles, with the mean gestational age and incidence of preterm labour. Of the 16 384 women who delivered within this period, the 25th, 50th and 75th percentile values of maternal height were 153 cm, 156 cm and 160 cm respectively. Excluded from analysis were 6597 women because of multifetal pregnancy, teenage pregnancy (maternal age women with shorter stature. In our population, maternal height has an influence on gestational length, and the lower three quartiles was associated with increased odds of labour at > 32 to management and intervention.

  9. New Finnish growth references for children and adolescents aged 0 to 20 years: Length/height-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and body mass index-for-age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, Antti; Sankilampi, Ulla; Hannila, Marja-Leena; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Kesseli, Kari; Dunkel, Leo

    2011-05-01

    Growth curves require regular updates due to secular trends in linear growth. We constructed contemporary growth curves, assessed secular trends in height, and defined body mass index (BMI) cut-off points for thinness, overweight, and obesity in Finnish children. Mixed cross-sectional/longitudinal data of 73,659 healthy subjects aged 0-20 years (born 1983-2008) were collected from providers in the primary health care setting. Growth references for length/height-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and BMI-for-age were fitted using generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS). BMI percentile curves passing through BMIs 30, 25, 18.5, 17, and 16 kg/m(2) at the age of 18 years were calculated to define limits for obesity, overweight, and various grades of thinness. Increased length/height-for-age was seen in virtually all age-groups when compared to previous Finnish growth data from 1959 to 1971. Adult height was increased by 1.9 cm in girls and 1.8 cm in boys. The largest increases were seen during the peripubertal years: up to 2.8 cm in girls and 5.6 cm in boys. Median weight-for-length/height had not increased. New Finnish references for length/height-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and BMI-for-age were constructed and should be implemented to monitor growth of children in Finland.

  10. INS/EKF-based stride length, height and direction intent detection for walking assistance robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brescianini, Dario; Jung, Jun-Young; Jang, In-Hun; Park, Hyun Sub; Riener, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We propose an algorithm used to obtain the information on stride length, height difference, and direction based on user's intent during walking. For exoskeleton robots used to assist paraplegic patients' walking, this information is used to generate gait patterns by themselves in on-line. To obtain this information, we attach an inertial measurement unit(IMU) on crutches and apply an extended kalman filter-based error correction method to reduce the phenomena of drift due to bias of the IMU. The proposed method is verifed in real walking scenarios including walking, climbing up-stairs, and changing direction of walking with normal. © 2011 IEEE

  11. Sexual Dimorphism and Estimation of Height from Body Length Anthropometric Parameters among the Hausa Ethnic Group of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaafar Aliyu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the sexual dimorphism in length and other anthropometric parameters. To also generate formulae for height estimation using anthropometric measurements of some length parameters among Hausa ethnic group of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A cross sectional study was conducted and a total of 500 subjects participated in this study which was mainly secondary school students between the age ranges of 16-27 years, anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard protocols. It was observed that there was significant sexual dimorphism in all the parameters except for body mass index. In all the parameters males tend to have significantly (P < 0.05 higher mean values except biaxillary distances. Height showed positive and strongest correlations with demispan length, followed by knee height, thigh length, sitting height, hand length, foot length, humeral length, forearm length and weight respectively. There were weak and positive correlations between height and neck length as well as biaxillary length. The demi span length showed the strongest correlation coefficient and low standard error of estimate indicating the strong estimation ability than other parameters. The combination of two parameters tends to give better estimations and low standard error of estimates, so also combining the three parameters gives better estimations with a lower standard error of estimates. The better correlation coefficient was also observed with the double and triple parameters respectively. Male Hausa tend to have larger body proportion compared to female. Height showed positive and strongest correlations with demispan length. Body length anthropometric proved to be useful in estimation of stature among Hausa ethnic group of Kaduna state Nigeria.

  12. A parameterization of momentum roughness length and displacement height for a wide range of canopy densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Verhoef

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Values of the momentum roughness length, z0, and displacement height, d, derived from wind profiles and momentum flux measurements, are selected from the literature for a variety of sparse canopies. These include savannah, tiger-bush and several row crops. A quality assessment of these data, conducted using criteria such as available fetch, height of wind speed measurement and homogeneity of the experimental site, reduced the initial total of fourteen sites to eight. These datapoints, combined with values carried forward from earlier studies on the parameterization of z0 and d, led to a maximum number of 16 and 24 datapoints available for d and z0, respectively. The data are compared with estimates of roughness length and displacement height as predicted from a detailed drag partition model, R92 (Raupach, 1992, and a simplified version of this model, R94 (Raupach, 1994. A key parameter in these models is the roughness density or frontal area index, λ. Both the comprehensive and the simplified model give accurate predictions of measured z0 and d values, but the optimal model coefficients are significantly different from the ones originally proposed in R92 and R94. The original model coefficients are based predominantly on measured aerodynamic parameters of relatively closed canopies and they were fitted `by eye'. In this paper, best-fit coefficients are found from a least squares minimization using the z0 and d values of selected good-quality data for sparse canopies and for the added, mainly closed canopies. According to a statistical analysis, based on the coefficient of determination (r2, the number of observations and the number of fitted model coefficients, the simplified model, R94, is deemed to be the most appropriate for future z0 and d predictions. A CR value of 0.35 and a cd1 value of about 20 are found to be appropriate for a large range of canopies varying in density from closed to very sparse. In this case, 99% of the total variance

  13. Development of the Heated Length Correction Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ho-Young; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Nahm, Kee-Yil; Jung, Yil-Sup; Park, Eung-Jun

    2008-01-01

    The Critical Heat Flux (CHF) on a nuclear fuel is defined by the function of flow channel geometry and flow condition. According to the selection of the explanatory variable, there are three hypotheses to explain CHF at uniformly heated vertical rod (inlet condition hypothesis, exit condition hypothesis, local condition hypothesis). For inlet condition hypothesis, CHF is characterized by function of system pressure, rod diameter, rod length, mass flow and inlet subcooling. For exit condition hypothesis, exit quality substitutes for inlet subcooling. Generally the heated length effect on CHF in exit condition hypothesis is smaller than that of other variables. Heated length is usually excluded in local condition hypothesis to describe the CHF with only local fluid conditions. Most of commercial plants currently use the empirical CHF correlation based on local condition hypothesis. Empirical CHF correlation is developed by the method of fitting the selected sensitive local variables to CHF test data using the multiple non-linear regression. Because this kind of method can not explain physical meaning, it is difficult to reflect the proper effect of complex geometry. So the recent CHF correlation development strategy of nuclear fuel vendor is making the basic CHF correlation which consists of basic flow variables (local fluid conditions) at first, and then the geometrical correction factors are compensated additionally. Because the functional forms of correction factors are determined from the independent test data which represent the corresponding geometry separately, it can be applied to other CHF correlation directly only with minor coefficient modification

  14. Evaluation of skeletal and dental age using third molar calcification, condylar height and length of the mandibular body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedarisetty, Sunil Gupta; Rao, Guttikonda Venkateswara; Rayapudi, Naveen; Korlepara, Rajani

    2015-01-01

    To identify the most reliable method for age estimation among three variables, that is, condylar height, length of mandibular body and third molar calcification by Demirjian's method. Orthopantomograms and lateral cephalograms of 60 patients with equal gender ratio were included in the study, among each gender 15 subjects were below 18 years and 15 subjects were above 18 years. Lateral cephalograms were traced, height of condyle and mandibular body are measured manually on the tracing paper, OPG's were observed on radiographic illuminator and maturity score of third molar calcification was noted according to Demirjian's method. All the measurements were subjected to statistical analysis. The results obtained are of no significant difference between estimated age and actual age with all three parameters (P > 0.9780 condylar height, P > 0.9515 length of mandibular body, P > 0.8611 third molar calcification). Among these three, length of mandibular body shows least standard error test (i.e. 0.188). Although all three parameters can be used for age estimation, length of mandibular body is more reliable followed by height of condyle and third molar calcification.

  15. An anthropometric analysis of facial height, arch length, and palatal rugae in the Indian and Nepalese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallianpur, Shreenivas; Desai, Ami; Kasetty, Sowmya; Sudheendra, Us; Joshi, Prathamesh

    2011-01-01

    A country such as India abounds with diverse population groups with distinct anthropometric characteristics. Among these, numerous Nepalese population groups are present in different states of India comprising one of the most common immigrant races. The aim of the study is to compare two distinct races, Indians and Nepalese on the basis of facial height proportions, arch length and palatal rugae patterns and assess their significance in racial identification. A total of 120 subjects comprising of 60 Indians and 60 Nepalese were selected, with each group including 30 males and 30 females. Facial heights were measured using sliding digital calipers, arch lengths with the help of a brass wire and rugae patterns were traced on dental casts obtained with alginate impressions. Facial height measurements did not give significant results for racial or gender identification of given races. Differences between arch length parameters were found to be significant between the two population groups. Secondary and fragmentary palatal rugae forms were found to be more common in Nepalese than Indians. The Indian and Nepalese have similar anthropometric characteristics with regard to facial height. However, arch length and palatal rugae characteristics vary between the two races.

  16. Skeletal height estimation from regression analysis of sternal lengths in a Northwest Indian population of Chandigarh region: a postmortem study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jagmahender; Pathak, R K; Chavali, Krishnadutt H

    2011-03-20

    Skeletal height estimation from regression analysis of eight sternal lengths in the subjects of Chandigarh zone of Northwest India is the topic of discussion in this study. Analysis of eight sternal lengths (length of manubrium, length of mesosternum, combined length of manubrium and mesosternum, total sternal length and first four intercostals lengths of mesosternum) measured from 252 male and 91 female sternums obtained at postmortems revealed that mean cadaver stature and sternal lengths were more in North Indians and males than the South Indians and females. Except intercostal lengths, all the sternal lengths were positively correlated with stature of the deceased in both sexes (P regression analysis of sternal lengths was found more useful than the linear regression for stature estimation. Using multivariate regression analysis, the combined length of manubrium and mesosternum in both sexes and the length of manubrium along with 2nd and 3rd intercostal lengths of mesosternum in males were selected as best estimators of stature. Nonetheless, the stature of males can be predicted with SEE of 6.66 (R(2) = 0.16, r = 0.318) from combination of MBL+BL_3+LM+BL_2, and in females from MBL only, it can be estimated with SEE of 6.65 (R(2) = 0.10, r = 0.318), whereas from the multiple regression analysis of pooled data, stature can be known with SEE of 6.97 (R(2) = 0.387, r = 575) from the combination of MBL+LM+BL_2+TSL+BL_3. The R(2) and F-ratio were found to be statistically significant for almost all the variables in both the sexes, except 4th intercostal length in males and 2nd to 4th intercostal lengths in females. The 'major' sternal lengths were more useful than the 'minor' ones for stature estimation The universal regression analysis used by Kanchan et al. [39] when applied to sternal lengths, gave satisfactory estimates of stature for males only but female stature was comparatively better estimated from simple linear regressions. But they are not proposed for the

  17. Weight-for-length/height growth curves for children and adolescents in China in comparison with body mass index in prevalence estimates of malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Xinnan; Li, Hui; Zhang, Yaqin; Wu, Huahong

    2017-05-01

    It is important to update weight-for-length/height growth curves in China and re-examine their performance in screening malnutrition. To develop weight-for-length/height growth curves for Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 94 302 children aged 0-19 years with complete sex, age, weight and length/height data were obtained from two cross-sectional large-scaled national surveys in China. Weight-for-length/height growth curves were constructed using the LMS method before and after average spermarcheal/menarcheal ages, respectively. Screening performance in prevalence estimates of wasting, overweight and obesity was compared between weight-for-height and body mass index (BMI) criteria based on a test population of 21 416 children aged 3-18. The smoothed weight-for-length percentiles and Z-scores growth curves with length 46-110 cm for both sexes and weight-for-height with height 70-180 cm for boys and 70-170 cm for girls were established. The weight-for-height and BMI-for-age had strong correlation in screening wasting, overweight and obesity in each age-sex group. There was no striking difference in prevalence estimates of wasting, overweight and obesity between two indicators except for obesity prevalence at ages 6-11. This set of smoothed weight-for-length/height growth curves may be useful in assessing nutritional status from infants to post-pubertal adolescents.

  18. The growth of different body length dimensions is not predictive for the peak growth velocity of sitting height in the individual child.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, I.; Gerver, W.J.M.; Kingma, I.; Wapstra, F.H.; Verkerke, G.J.; Veldhuizen, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the differences in timing of the peak growth velocity (PGV) between sitting height, total body height, subischial leg length, and foot length can be used to predict whether the individual patient with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is before or past

  19. The growth of different body length dimensions is not predictive for the peak growth velocity of sitting height in the individual child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Iris; Gerver, W. J. M.; Kingma, Idsart; Wapstra, Frits Hein; Verkerke, Gijsvertus J.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the differences in timing of the peak growth velocity (PGV) between sitting height, total body height, subischial leg length, and foot length can be used to predict whether the individual patient with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is before or past

  20. Vertebral height as the measure of lesion length in carcinoma of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the modified tech- nique it was possible to decrease treat- ment length and the number of nor- mal oesophageal mucosa in the treat- ment volume, thereby reducing the chance of treatment-related complica- tions such as strictures and ulceration. Introduction. The majority of patients with car- cinoma of the oesophagus ...

  1. Length-Weight Relationship and Condition Factor (K constant) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—Length-weight relationships and condition factors of Sparidae along the. Kenyan coast are unknown. This study investigated the length-weight relationship and condition factor of Dentex maroccanus Valenciennes, 1830, a sparid, found in. Malindi, Kenya, from June to August 2008. The length-weight coefficients ...

  2. DMSA scan nomograms for renal length and area: Related to patient age and to body weight, height or surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, I.M.; Que, L.; Rutland, M.D.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To create nomograms for renal size as measured from DMSA renal studies, and to test the nomograms for their ability to separate normal from abnormal kidneys. Method: Renal length was measured from posterior oblique views and renal area from posterior views. Results from 253 patients with bilateral normal kidneys were used to create nomograms for renal size relative to patient age, body height, weight or body surface area (BSA). The nomograms enclosed 95% of the normal kidneys, thus indicating the range for 95% confidence limits, and hence the specificity. Each nomogram was then tested against 46 hypertrophied kidneys and 46 damaged kidneys. Results: The results from nomograms of renal length and renal area, compared to age, body height, body weight and BSA are presented. For each nomogram, the range is presented as a fraction of the mean value, and the number of abnormal kidneys (hypertrophied or damaged) outside the normal range is presented as a percentage (indicating the sensitivity). Conclusion: Renal Area was no better than renal length for detecting abnormal kidneys. Patient age was the least useful method of normalisation. BSA normalisation produced the best results most frequently (narrower ranges and highest detection of abnormal kidneys)

  3. Aerodynamic study of a blade with sine variation of chord length along the height for Darrieus wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crunteanu, D. E.; Constantinescu, S. G.; Niculescu, M. L.

    2013-10-01

    The wind energy is deemed as one of the most durable energetic variants of the future because the wind resources are immense. Furthermore, one predicts that the small wind turbines will play a vital role in the urban environment. Unfortunately, the complexity and the price of pitch regulated small horizontal-axis wind turbines represent ones of the main obstacles to widespread the use in populated zones. In contrast to these wind turbines, the Darrieus wind turbines are simpler and their price is lower. Unfortunately, their blades run at high variations of angles of attack, in stall and post-stall regimes, which can induce significant vibrations, fatigue and even the wind turbine failure. For this reason, the present paper deals with a blade with sine variation of chord length along the height because it has better behavior in stall and post-stall regimes than the classic blade with constant chord length.

  4. LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIP AND CONDITION FACTOR OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data Collection and Analysis. The measurements of length (cm), weight (g) and the condition factor of individual fish sampled were recorded. The relationship between length and weight of the fish was examined by simple linear regression using WINKS software. The variations in the length-weight represented by 'b' were.

  5. Intercomparison of methods for the estimation of displacement height and roughness length from single-level eddy covariance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Alexander; van de Boer, Anneke; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Moene, Arnold; Vereecken, Harry

    2013-04-01

    The displacement height d and roughness length z0 are parameters of the logarithmic wind profile and as such these are characteristics of the surface, that are required in a multitude of meteorological modeling applications. Classically, both parameters are estimated from multi-level measurements of wind speed over a terrain sufficiently homogeneous to avoid footprint-induced differences between the levels. As a rule-of thumb, d of a dense, uniform crop or forest canopy is 2/3 to 3/4 of the canopy height h, and z0 about 10% of canopy height in absence of any d. However, the uncertainty of this rule-of-thumb becomes larger if the surface of interest is not "dense and uniform", in which case a site-specific determination is required again. By means of the eddy covariance method, alternative possibilities to determine z0 and d have become available. Various authors report robust results if either several levels of sonic anemometer measurements, or one such level combined with a classic wind profile is used to introduce direct knowledge on the friction velocity into the estimation procedure. At the same time, however, the eddy covariance method to measure various fluxes has superseded the profile method, leaving many current stations without a wind speed profile with enough levels sufficiently far above the canopy to enable the classic estimation of z0 and d. From single-level eddy covariance measurements at one point in time, only one parameter can be estimated, usually z0 while d is assumed to be known. Even so, results tend to scatter considerably. However, it has been pointed out, that the use of multiple points in time providing different stability conditions can enable the estimation of both parameters, if they are assumed constant over the time period regarded. These methods either rely on flux-variance similarity (Weaver 1990 and others following), or on the integrated universal function for momentum (Martano 2000 and others following). In both cases

  6. Word length, set size, and lexical factors: Re-examining what causes the word length effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitard, Dominic; Gabel, Andrew J; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Surprenant, Aimée M; Neath, Ian

    2018-04-19

    The word length effect, better recall of lists of short (fewer syllables) than long (more syllables) words has been termed a benchmark effect of working memory. Despite this, experiments on the word length effect can yield quite different results depending on set size and stimulus properties. Seven experiments are reported that address these 2 issues. Experiment 1 replicated the finding of a preserved word length effect under concurrent articulation for large stimulus sets, which contrasts with the abolition of the word length effect by concurrent articulation for small stimulus sets. Experiment 2, however, demonstrated that when the short and long words are equated on more dimensions, concurrent articulation abolishes the word length effect for large stimulus sets. Experiment 3 shows a standard word length effect when output time is equated, but Experiments 4-6 show no word length effect when short and long words are equated on increasingly more dimensions that previous demonstrations have overlooked. Finally, Experiment 7 compared recall of a small and large neighborhood words that were equated on all the dimensions used in Experiment 6 (except for those directly related to neighborhood size) and a neighborhood size effect was still observed. We conclude that lexical factors, rather than word length per se, are better predictors of when the word length effect will occur. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Length-weight relationships, condition factors and relative weight of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to record the length-weight relationship parameters and condition factors for some commercially important fish of Bushehr coastal waters of Persian Gulf. The length-weight relationships were calculated for five species caught during fishing surveys using different types of fishing gears (trawls, pots ...

  8. Length-weight relationship and condition factor of clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Length-Weight relationship and condition factor of Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia Zillii were studiedin lake Alau and Monguno hatchery, both in Borno State of Nigeria, for a period of two weeks. A total of 98 C. gariepinus and 140. T. zillii were measured. The length-weight regression coefficient (b) for both fishes in lake Alau ...

  9. Lengths of Orthologous Prokaryotic Proteins Are Affected by Evolutionary Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Tatarinova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins of the same functional family (for example, kinases may have significantly different lengths. It is an open question whether such variation in length is random or it appears as a response to some unknown evolutionary driving factors. The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate existence of factors affecting prokaryotic gene lengths. We believe that the ranking of genomes according to lengths of their genes, followed by the calculation of coefficients of association between genome rank and genome property, is a reasonable approach in revealing such evolutionary driving factors. As we demonstrated earlier, our chosen approach, Bubble-sort, combines stability, accuracy, and computational efficiency as compared to other ranking methods. Application of Bubble Sort to the set of 1390 prokaryotic genomes confirmed that genes of Archaeal species are generally shorter than Bacterial ones. We observed that gene lengths are affected by various factors: within each domain, different phyla have preferences for short or long genes; thermophiles tend to have shorter genes than the soil-dwellers; halophiles tend to have longer genes. We also found that species with overrepresentation of cytosines and guanines in the third position of the codon (GC3 content tend to have longer genes than species with low GC3 content.

  10. Lengths of Orthologous Prokaryotic Proteins Are Affected by Evolutionary Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarinova, Tatiana; Salih, Bilal; Dien Bard, Jennifer; Cohen, Irit; Bolshoy, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Proteins of the same functional family (for example, kinases) may have significantly different lengths. It is an open question whether such variation in length is random or it appears as a response to some unknown evolutionary driving factors. The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate existence of factors affecting prokaryotic gene lengths. We believe that the ranking of genomes according to lengths of their genes, followed by the calculation of coefficients of association between genome rank and genome property, is a reasonable approach in revealing such evolutionary driving factors. As we demonstrated earlier, our chosen approach, Bubble-sort, combines stability, accuracy, and computational efficiency as compared to other ranking methods. Application of Bubble Sort to the set of 1390 prokaryotic genomes confirmed that genes of Archaeal species are generally shorter than Bacterial ones. We observed that gene lengths are affected by various factors: within each domain, different phyla have preferences for short or long genes; thermophiles tend to have shorter genes than the soil-dwellers; halophiles tend to have longer genes. We also found that species with overrepresentation of cytosines and guanines in the third position of the codon (GC3 content) tend to have longer genes than species with low GC3 content.

  11. Rural-urban variations in age at menarche, adult height, leg-length and abdominal adiposity in black South African women in transitioning South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; Prioreschi, Alessandra; Nyati, Lukhanyo H; van Heerden, Alastair; Munthali, Richard J; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc Xavier; Houle, Brian; Dunger, David B; Norris, Shane A

    2018-03-01

    The pre-pubertal socioeconomic environment may be an important determinant of age at menarche, adult height, body proportions and adiposity: traits closely linked to adolescent and adult health. This study explored differences in age at menarche, adult height, relative leg-length and waist circumference between rural and urban black South African young adult women, who are at different stages of the nutrition and epidemiologic transitions. We compared 18-23 year-old black South African women, 482 urban-dwelling from Soweto and 509 from the rural Mpumalanga province. Age at menarche, obstetric history and household socio-demographic and economic information were recorded using interview-administered questionnaires. Height, sitting-height, hip and waist circumference were measured using standardised techniques. Urban and rural black South African women differed in their age at menarche (at ages 12.7 and 14.5 years, respectively). In urban women, a one-year increase in age at menarche was associated with a 0.65 cm and 0.16% increase in height and relative leg-length ratio, respectively. In both settings, earlier age at menarche and shorter relative leg-length were independently associated with an increase in waist circumference. In black South African women, the earlier onset of puberty, and consequently an earlier growth cessation process, may lead to central fat mass accumulation in adulthood.

  12. Rural–urban variations in age at menarche, adult height, leg-length and abdominal adiposity in black South African women in transitioning South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: The pre-pubertal socioeconomic environment may be an important determinant of age at menarche, adult height, body proportions and adiposity: traits closely linked to adolescent and adult health. Aims: This study explored differences in age at menarche, adult height, relative leg-length and waist circumference between rural and urban black South African young adult women, who are at different stages of the nutrition and epidemiologic transitions. Subjects and methods: We compared 18–23 year-old black South African women, 482 urban-dwelling from Soweto and 509 from the rural Mpumalanga province. Age at menarche, obstetric history and household socio-demographic and economic information were recorded using interview-administered questionnaires. Height, sitting-height, hip and waist circumference were measured using standardised techniques. Results: Urban and rural black South African women differed in their age at menarche (at ages 12.7 and 14.5 years, respectively). In urban women, a one-year increase in age at menarche was associated with a 0.65 cm and 0.16% increase in height and relative leg-length ratio, respectively. In both settings, earlier age at menarche and shorter relative leg-length were independently associated with an increase in waist circumference. Conclusions: In black South African women, the earlier onset of puberty, and consequently an earlier growth cessation process, may lead to central fat mass accumulation in adulthood. PMID:29557678

  13. Association of Telomere Length with Breast Cancer Prognostic Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoutar Ennour-Idrissi

    Full Text Available Telomere length, a marker of cell aging, seems to be affected by the same factors thought to be associated with breast cancer prognosis.To examine associations of peripheral blood cell-measured telomere length with traditional and potential prognostic factors in breast cancer patients.We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data collected before surgery from 162 breast cancer patients recruited consecutively between 01/2011 and 05/2012, at a breast cancer reference center. Data on the main lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity were collected using standardized questionnaires. Anthropometric factors were measured. Tumor biological characteristics were extracted from pathology reports. Telomere length was measured using a highly reproducible quantitative PCR method in peripheral white blood cells. Spearman partial rank-order correlations and multivariate general linear models were used to evaluate relationships between telomere length and prognostic factors.Telomere length was positively associated with total physical activity (rs = 0.17, P = 0.033; Ptrend = 0.069, occupational physical activity (rs = 0.15, P = 0.054; Ptrend = 0.054 and transportation-related physical activity (rs = 0.19, P = 0.019; P = 0.005. Among post-menopausal women, telomere length remained positively associated with total physical activity (rs = 0.27, P = 0.016; Ptrend = 0.054 and occupational physical activity (rs = 0.26, P = 0.021; Ptrend = 0.056 and was only associated with transportation-related physical activity among pre-menopausal women (rs = 0.27, P = 0.015; P = 0.004. No association was observed between telomere length and recreational or household activities, other lifestyle factors or traditional prognostic factors.Telomeres are longer in more active breast cancer patients. Since white blood cells are involved in anticancer immune responses, these findings suggest that even regular low-intensity physical activity, such as that

  14. CHANG-ES. IX. Radio scale heights and scale lengths of a consistent sample of 13 spiral galaxies seen edge-on and their correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Marita; Irwin, Judith; Wiegert, Theresa; Miskolczi, Arpad; Damas-Segovia, Ancor; Beck, Rainer; Li, Jiang-Tao; Heald, George; Müller, Peter; Stein, Yelena; Rand, Richard J.; Heesen, Volker; Walterbos, Rene A. M.; Dettmar, Ralf-Jürgen; Vargas, Carlos J.; English, Jayanne; Murphy, Eric J.

    2018-03-01

    Aim. The vertical halo scale height is a crucial parameter to understand the transport of cosmic-ray electrons (CRE) and their energy loss mechanisms in spiral galaxies. Until now, the radio scale height could only be determined for a few edge-on galaxies because of missing sensitivity at high resolution. Methods: We developed a sophisticated method for the scale height determination of edge-on galaxies. With this we determined the scale heights and radial scale lengths for a sample of 13 galaxies from the CHANG-ES radio continuum survey in two frequency bands. Results: The sample average values for the radio scale heights of the halo are 1.1 ± 0.3 kpc in C-band and 1.4 ± 0.7 kpc in L-band. From the frequency dependence analysis of the halo scale heights we found that the wind velocities (estimated using the adiabatic loss time) are above the escape velocity. We found that the halo scale heights increase linearly with the radio diameters. In order to exclude the diameter dependence, we defined a normalized scale height h˜ which is quite similar for all sample galaxies at both frequency bands and does not depend on the star formation rate or the magnetic field strength. However, h˜ shows a tight anticorrelation with the mass surface density. Conclusions: The sample galaxies with smaller scale lengths are more spherical in the radio emission, while those with larger scale lengths are flatter. The radio scale height depends mainly on the radio diameter of the galaxy. The sample galaxies are consistent with an escape-dominated radio halo with convective cosmic ray propagation, indicating that galactic winds are a widespread phenomenon in spiral galaxies. While a higher star formation rate or star formation surface density does not lead to a higher wind velocity, we found for the first time observational evidence of a gravitational deceleration of CRE outflow, e.g. a lowering of the wind velocity from the galactic disk.

  15. Correlations between some physiographic factors and diameter, height and cone characteristics in stone pine (Pinus pinea L. afforestation areas in Balıkesir-Burhaniye region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ömer Üçler

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effects of some physiographic factors (aspect, slope and elevation on breast diameter, height and cone properties (cone weight, number of cones, cone width and cone length in stone pine (Pinus pinea L. afforestation areas in Balıkesir-Burhaniye region were investigated. To determine to effects of physiographic conditions, study area is separated according to aspect, slope and elevation groups. Aspect is separated two groups which are shady aspect (B1 and sunny aspect (B2. Slope is separated two groups which are small from 36 percent (E1 and big from 36 percent (E2. Elevation also is separated two groups which are under 400 meters (Y1 and over 400 meters (Y2. Sample areas were scattering to land classifications by using Stratified Sampling Method. Thus, each aspect, slope and elevation classifications were obtained from sample area where are provided from 32 different areas. Tree heights, the diameter at breast height and cone number were measured on saplings. In addition, in each sample area five Pinus pinea trees were selected. It was measured cone diameter, cone height and air-dries weight values of cones which are picked from selecting trees. According to statistical analysis results, aspect effects to tree heights, cone number and cone weight; slope effects the diameter at breast height, cone number and cone diameter; elevation effects the diameter at breast height, tree height, cone number and cone weight. In terms of tree height and diameter values; the highest average breast height diameter was found in the B1E1Y1 with 13.6 cm, and the highest average height value was found in the B2E2Y2 by interaction. In terms of cone characteristics; with the highest average cone number of 8.5 in B1E1Y1, the highest mean cone weight in B1E1Y1 with 232 gr and the highest cone diameter in B2E2Y1 with 5.4 cm. According to the results of correlation analysis; it was determined that slope and elevation factors have positive effect on breast

  16. Prediction of vertical jump height from anthropometric factors in male and female martial arts athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Nahdiya Zainal; Adam, Mohd Bakri

    2013-01-01

    Vertical jump is an index representing leg/kick power. The explosive movement of the kick is the key to scoring in martial arts competitions. It is important to determine factors that influence the vertical jump to help athletes improve their leg power. The objective of the present study is to identify anthropometric factors that influence vertical jump height for male and female martial arts athletes. Twenty-nine male and 25 female athletes participated in this study. Participants were Malaysian undergraduate students whose ages ranged from 18 to 24 years old. Their heights were measured using a stadiometer. The subjects were weighted using digital scale. Body mass index was calculated by kg/m(2). Waist-hip ratio was measured from the ratio of waist to hip circumferences. Body fat % was obtained from the sum of four skinfold thickness using Harpenden callipers. The highest vertical jump from a stationary standing position was recorded. The maximum grip was recorded using a dynamometer. For standing back strength, the maximum pull upwards using a handle bar was recorded. Multiple linear regression was used to obtain the relationship between vertical jump height and explanatory variables with gender effect. Body fat % has a significant negative relationship with vertical jump height (P martial arts athletes can be predicted by body fat %. The vertical jump for male is higher than for their female counterparts. Reducing body fat by proper dietary planning will help to improve leg power.

  17. Risk factors for prolonged length of stay after colorectal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe de Campos Lobato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Colorectal surgeons often struggle to explain to administrators/payers reasons for prolonged length of stay (LOS. This study aim was to identify factors associated with increased LOS after colorectal surgery. Design: The study population included patients from the 2007 American-College-of-Sur- geons-National-Surgical-Quality-Improvement-Program (ACS-NSQIP database undergoing ileocolic resection, segmental colectomy, or anterior resection. The study population was divided into normal (below 75th percentile and prolonged LOS (above the 75th percentile. A multivariate analysis was performed using prolonged LOS as dependent variable and ACS- NSQIP variables as predictive variables. P-value < 0.01 was considered significant. Results: 12,269 patients with a median LOS of 6 (inter-quartile range 4-9 days were includ- ed. There were 2,617 (21.3% patients with prolonged LOS (median 15 days, inter-quartile range 13-22. 1,308 (50% were female, and the median age was 69 (inter-quartile range 57-79 years. Risk factors for prolonged LOS were male gender, congestive heart failure, weight loss, Crohn's disease, preoperative albumin < 3.5 g/dL and hematocrit < 47%, base- line sepsis, ASA class ≥ 3, open surgery, surgical time ≥ 190 min, postoperative pneumonia, failure to wean from mechanical ventilation, deep venous thrombosis, urinary-tract in- fection, systemic sepsis, surgical site infection and reoperation within 30-days from the primary surgery. Conclusion: Multiple factors are associated with increased LOS after colorectal surgery. Our results are useful for surgeons to explain prolonged LOS to administrators/payers who are critical of this metric. Resumo: Objetivo: Os cirurgiões proctologistas muitas vezes enfrentam dificuldades para explicar aos administradores/contribuintes as razões para o prolongamento do tempo de interna- ção hospitalar (TIH. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar os fatores associados ao aumen- to do TIH ap

  18. Species composition, length-weight relationship and condition factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on length-weight relationship and condition of landed fish catch at Elechi Creek is inadequate despite different human activities taking place there. Fish specimens were procured twice monthly between April and September 2012 from artisanal fishers and middlemen at three landing sites (stations) in study area.

  19. The Length-Weight Relationship, Condition Factor and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The length–weight relationship (LWR), condition factor (K), sex ratio, gonadosomatic index (GI) and hepatosomatic index (HI) of 412 specimens of Pseudotolithus senegalensis (Valenciennes, 1833) from Tombo a coastal fishing community in the western rural district of Sierra Leone were studied for twelve months. Samples ...

  20. Breeding season, length-weight relationship and condition factor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Poor body conditions coincided with time of peak breeding activity. The interaction effects of sex and month on Fulton's and Relative condition factors were not significant. (p=0.127 ..... reach bigger size in Lake Zwai environment, which is worth ...

  1. Influence of gap length on the field increase factor β of an electrode projection (whisker)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    β, the increase of the macroscopic electric field at the tip of a projection, varies with the gap length. The sign and magnitude of this variation depends upon how the gap length is defined. If gap length is defined as x, the distance from the projection tip to the opposing electrode, then β is a strong function of x and may be approximated by β(x) = β/sub infinity/x/(x+h) [h = projection height] in the region where x/h>10/β/sub infinity/. If gap length is defined as d, the interelectrode distance ignoring the projection, then β is a weak function of d and may be set equal to β/sub infinity/ in the region d/h>2

  2. Biomechanical Factors Associated With Jump Height: A Comparison of Cross-Sectional and Pre-to-Posttraining Change Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Brendan M; Moran, Kieran A

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies investigating the biomechanical factors associated with maximal countermovement jump height have typically used cross-sectional data. An alternative but less common approach is to use pre-to-posttraining change data, where the relationship between an improvement in jump height and a change in a factor is examined more directly. Our study compared the findings of these approaches. Such an evaluation is necessary because cross-sectional studies are currently a primary source of information for coaches when examining what factors to train to enhance performance. The countermovement jump of 44 males was analyzed before and after an 8-week training intervention. Correlations with jump height were calculated using both cross-sectional (pretraining data only) and pre-to-posttraining change data. Eight factors identified in the cross-sectional analysis were not significantly correlated with a change in jump height in the pre-to-post analysis. Additionally, only 6 of 11 factors identified in the pre-to-post analysis were identified in the cross-sectional analysis. These findings imply that (a) not all factors identified in a cross-sectional analysis may be critical to jump height improvement and (b) cross-sectional analyses alone may not provide an insight into all of the potential factors to train to enhance jump height. Coaches must be aware of these limitations when examining cross-sectional studies to identify factors to train to enhance jump ability. Additional findings highlight that although exercises prescribed to improve jump height should aim to enhance concentric power production at all joints, a particular emphasis on enhancing hip joint peak power may be warranted.

  3. Luminosity geometric reduction factor from colliding bunches with different lengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdu-Andres, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-09-29

    In the interaction point of the future electron-Ion collider eRHIC, the electron beam bunches are at least one order of magnitude shorter than the proton beam bunches. With the introduction of a crossing angle, the actual number of collisions resulting from the bunch collision gets reduced. Here we derive the expression for the luminosity geometric reduction factor when the bunches of the two incoming beams are not equal.

  4. Regional and historical factors supplement current climate in shaping global forest canopy height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jian; Nielsen, Scott; Mao, Lingfeng

    2016-01-01

    on Light Detection and Ranging-derived maximum forest canopy height (Hmax) to test hypotheses relating Hmax to current climate (water availability, ambient energy and water–energy dynamics), regional evolutionary and biogeographic history, historical climate change, and human disturbance. We derived Hmax...... biogeographic regions, supporting the role of regional evolutionary and biogeographic history in structuring broad-scale patterns in canopy height. Furthermore, there were divergent relationships between climate and Hmax between the Southern and Northern Hemispheres, consistent with historical evolutionary...... contingencies modulating these relationships. Historical climate change was also related to Hmax, albeit not as strongly, with shorter canopy heights where late-Quaternary climate has been less stable. In contrast, human disturbance was only weakly related to Hmax at the scale (55 km) examined here. Synthesis...

  5. [Clinic-internal and -external factors of length of hospital stay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schariatzadeh, R; Imoberdorf, R; Ballmer, P E

    2011-01-19

    In the context of forthcoming initiation of Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG) in Switzerland, the objective of the study was to find factors having an impact on the inpatient's length of hospital stay. The study was performed on two general-medical wards of the Kantonsspital Winterthur, where all admitted patients were included in the study over two months. The various periods of diagnostic and therapeutic management of the patients and all diagnostic and therapeutic measures plus the arrangements after hospitalization were recorded. The determinants influencing the length of hospital stay were classified in clinic-internal or -external. 124 inpatients entered the study. 91 (73.4%) had a length of hospital stay without delay, whereas 33 (26.6%) patients had an extended length of hospital stay. The cumulative length of hospital stay of all patients was 1314 days, whereof 216 days (16.4%) were caused by delays. 67 days were caused by clinic-internal (5.1%) and 149 days by clinic-external factors (11.3%). Delays were substantially more generated by clinic-internal than -external factors. Clinic-internal factors were mainly weekends with interruption of the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, dead times waiting for diagnostic results and waiting times for consultations. Clinic-external factors were caused by delayed transfer in nursing homes or rehabilitation institutions, waiting for family members for the backhaul and by indetermination of the patient. Also factors relating to the patients' characteristics had an influence on the length of hospital stay. Summing up, a substantial part of the length of hospital stay was caused by delays. However, the many different clinic-internal factors complicate solutions to lower the length of hospital stay. Moreover, factors that cannot be influenced such as waiting for microbiological results, contribute to extended length of hospital stay. Early scheduling of post-hospital arrangements may lower length of hospital stay

  6. Plastic Models Designed to Produce Large Height-to-Length Ratio Steady-State Planar and Axisymmetric (Radial) Viscous Liquid Laminar Flow Gravity Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanck, Harvey F.

    2012-01-01

    Naturally occurring gravity currents include events such as air flowing through an open front door, a volcanic eruption's pyroclastic flow down a mountainside, and the spread of the Bhopal disaster's methyl isocyanate gas. Gravity currents typically have a small height-to-distance ratio. Plastic models were designed and constructed with a…

  7. Factors influencing the height of Hawaiian lava fountains: implications for the use of fountain height as an indicator of magma gas content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfitt, E.A.; Wilson, L.; Neal, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    The heights of lava fountains formed in Hawaiian-style eruptions are controlled by magma gas content, volume flux and the amounts of lava re-entrainment and gas bubble coalescence. Theoretical models of lava fountaining are used to analyse data on lava fountain height variations collected during the 1983-1986 Pu'u 'O'o vent of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. The results show that the variable fountain heights can be largely explained by the impact of variations in volume flux and amount of lava re-entrainment on erupting magmas with a constant gas content of ???0.32 wt.% H2O. However, the gas content of the magma apparently declined by ???0.05 wt.% during the last 10 episodes of the eruption series and this decline is attributed to more extensive pre-eruption degassing due to a shallowing of the sub-vent feeder dike. It is concluded that variations in lava fountain height cannot be simply interpreted as variations in gas content, as has previously been suggested, but that fountain height can still be a useful guide to minimum gas contents. Where sufficient data are available on eruptive volume fluxes and extent of lava entrainment, greatly improved estimates can be made of magma gas content from lava fountain height. ?? 1995 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Profile correction to electron temperature and enhancement factor in soft-x-ray pulse-height-analysis measurements in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesnic, S.; Diesso, M.; Hill, K.; Holland, A.; Pohl, F.

    1988-01-01

    Because soft-x-ray pulse-height-analysis spectra contain chordal information, the electron temperature and the radiation intensity (enhancement factor) measurements do not represent the local values. The correction factors for the electron temperature and the enhancement factor as a function of the temperature and density profile parameters and the energy are obtained. The spectrum distortion due to pulse pileup effects is also evaluated. A set of curves is given from which the distortion of the spectrum can be obtained if the electron temperature, the Be filter thickness, and the electronic parameters of the acquisition system are known. PG 1810,1812 ID 131801CON N X-ray diagnostics TT Profile correction to electron temperature and enhancement factor in soft-x-ray pulse-height-analysis measurements in tokamaks AU S. Sesnic, M. Diesso, K. Hill, and A. Holland LO Princeton University, Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 AU F. Pohl LO Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 8046-Garching, Federal Republic of Germany SD (Presented on 16 March 1988) AB Because soft-x-ray pulse-height-analysis spectra contain chordal information, the electron temperature and the radiation intensity (enhancement factor) measurements do not represent the local values. The correction factors for the electron temperature and the enhancement factor as a function of the temperature and density profile parameters and the energy are obtained. The spectrum distortion due to pulse pileup effects is also evaluated. A set of curves is given from which the distortion of the spectrum can be obtained if the electron tempe

  9. Height, socioeconomic and subjective well-being factors among U.S. women, ages 49-79.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Wyshak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A vast literature has associated height with numerous factors, including biological, psychological, socioeconomic, anthropologic, genetic, environmental, and ecologic, among others. The aim of this study is to examine, among U.S. women, height factors focusing on health, income, education, occupation, social activities, religiosity and subjective well-being. METHODS/FINDINGS: Data are from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI Observational Study. Participants are 93,676 relatively healthy women ages 49-79; 83% of whom are White, 17% Non-White. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, chi-square and multivariable covariance analyses. The mean height of the total sample is 63.67 inches. White women are significantly taller than Non-White women, mean heights 63.68 vs. 63.63 inches (p= 0.0333. Among both Non-White and White women height is associated with social behavior, i.e. attendance at clubs/lodges/groups. Women who reported attendance 'once a week or more often' were taller than those who reported 'none' and 'once to 3 times a month'. Means in inches are respectively for: White women-63.73 vs. 63.67 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, p = 0.0027. p = 0.0298; Non-White women: 63.77 vs. 63.61 and 63.77 vs. 63.60, p = 0.0050, P = 0.0094. In both White and Non-White women, income, education and subjective well-being were not associated with height. However, other factors differed by race/ethnicity. Taller White women hold or have held managerial/professional jobs-yes vs. no-63.70 vs. 63.66 inches; P = 0.036; and given 'a little' strength and comfort from religion' compared to 'none' and 'a great deal', 63.73 vs. 63.66 P = 0.0418 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, P = 0.0130. Taller Non-White women had better health-excellent or very good vs. good, fair or poor-63.70 vs. 63.59, P = 0.0116. CONCLUSIONS: Further research in diverse populations is suggested by the new findings: being taller is associated with social activities -frequent attendance clubs

  10. Height, socioeconomic and subjective well-being factors among U.S. women, ages 49-79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyshak, Grace

    2014-01-01

    A vast literature has associated height with numerous factors, including biological, psychological, socioeconomic, anthropologic, genetic, environmental, and ecologic, among others. The aim of this study is to examine, among U.S. women, height factors focusing on health, income, education, occupation, social activities, religiosity and subjective well-being. Data are from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Participants are 93,676 relatively healthy women ages 49-79; 83% of whom are White, 17% Non-White. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, chi-square and multivariable covariance analyses. The mean height of the total sample is 63.67 inches. White women are significantly taller than Non-White women, mean heights 63.68 vs. 63.63 inches (p= 0.0333). Among both Non-White and White women height is associated with social behavior, i.e. attendance at clubs/lodges/groups. Women who reported attendance 'once a week or more often' were taller than those who reported 'none' and 'once to 3 times a month'. Means in inches are respectively for: White women-63.73 vs. 63.67 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, p = 0.0027. p = 0.0298; Non-White women: 63.77 vs. 63.61 and 63.77 vs. 63.60, p = 0.0050, P = 0.0094. In both White and Non-White women, income, education and subjective well-being were not associated with height. However, other factors differed by race/ethnicity. Taller White women hold or have held managerial/professional jobs-yes vs. no-63.70 vs. 63.66 inches; P = 0.036; and given 'a little' strength and comfort from religion' compared to 'none' and 'a great deal', 63.73 vs. 63.66 P = 0.0418 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, P = 0.0130. Taller Non-White women had better health-excellent or very good vs. good, fair or poor-63.70 vs. 63.59, P = 0.0116. Further research in diverse populations is suggested by the new findings: being taller is associated with social activities -frequent attendance clubs/lodges/groups", and with 'a little' vs. 'none' or 'great deal

  11. Height, Socioeconomic and Subjective Well-Being Factors among U.S. Women, Ages 49–79

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyshak, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Background A vast literature has associated height with numerous factors, including biological, psychological, socioeconomic, anthropologic, genetic, environmental, and ecologic, among others. The aim of this study is to examine, among U.S. women, height factors focusing on health, income, education, occupation, social activities, religiosity and subjective well-being. Methods/Findings Data are from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Participants are 93,676 relatively healthy women ages 49–79; 83% of whom are White, 17% Non-White. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, chi-square and multivariable covariance analyses. The mean height of the total sample is 63.67 inches. White women are significantly taller than Non-White women, mean heights 63.68 vs. 63.63 inches (p = 0.0333). Among both Non-White and White women height is associated with social behavior, i.e. attendance at clubs/lodges/groups. Women who reported attendance ‘once a week or more often’ were taller than those who reported ‘none’ and ‘once to 3 times a month’. Means in inches are respectively for: White women–63.73 vs. 63.67 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, p = 0.0027. p = 0.0298; Non-White women: 63.77 vs. 63.61 and 63.77 vs. 63.60, p = 0.0050, P = 0.0094. In both White and Non-White women, income, education and subjective well-being were not associated with height. However, other factors differed by race/ethnicity. Taller White women hold or have held managerial/professional jobs–yes vs. no–63.70 vs. 63.66 inches; P = 0.036; and given ‘a little’ strength and comfort from religion’ compared to ‘none’ and ‘a great deal’, 63.73 vs. 63.66 P = 0.0418 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, P = 0.0130. Taller Non-White women had better health—excellent or very good vs. good, fair or poor–63.70 vs. 63.59, P = 0.0116. Conclusions Further research in diverse populations is suggested by the new findings: being taller is associated

  12. Oblique-Length Contraction Factor in the Special Theory of Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smarandache F.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper one generalizes the Lorentz Contraction Factor for the case when the lengths are moving at an oblique angle with respect to the motion direction. One shows that the angles of the moving relativistic objects are distorted.

  13. Factors related to axial length elongation and myopia progression in orthokeratology practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingjie Wang

    Full Text Available To investigate which baseline factors are predictive for axial length growth over an average period of 2.5 years in a group of children wearing orthokeratology (OK contact lenses.In this retrospective study, the clinical records of 249 new OK wearers between January 2012 and December 2013 from the contact lens clinic at the Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University were reviewed. The primary outcome measure was axial length change from baseline to the time of review (July-August 2015. Independent variables included baseline measures of age at initiation of OK wear, gender, refractive error (spherical equivalent, astigmatism, average keratometry, corneal toricity, central corneal thickness, white-to-white corneal diameter, pupil size, corneal topography eccentricity value (e-value, intraocular pressure (IOP and total time in follow-up (months total. The contributions of all independent variables on axial length change at the time of review were assessed using univariate and multivariable regression analyses.Univariate analyses of the right eyes of 249 OK patients showed that smaller increases in axial length were associated with older age at the onset of OK lens wear, greater baseline spherical equivalent myopic refractive error, less time in follow-up and a smaller e-value. Multivariable analyses of the significant right eye variables showed that the factors associated with smaller axial length growth were older age at the onset of OK lens wear (p<0.0001, greater baseline spherical equivalent myopic refractive error (p = 0.0046 and less time in follow-up (p<0.0001.The baseline factors demonstrating the greatest correlation with reduced axial length elongation during OK lens wear in myopic children included greater baseline spherical equivalent myopic refractive error and older age at the onset of OK lens wear.

  14. Parentally-adjusted deficit of height as a prognostic factor of the effectiveness of growth hormone (GH) therapy in children with GH deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilczer, Maciej; Smyczyńska, Joanna; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    Parental height is the most important identifiable factor influencing final height (FH) of children with growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD), treated with GH. Assessment of FH of patients with GHD--classified into familial short stature (FSS) and non-familial short stature (non-FSS) according to parentally adjusted deficit of height. The analysis comprised 101 patients (76 boys) with childhood-onset GHD. Final height was compared with patients' height before GH therapy, predicted adult height (PAH) and target height (TH). Both GH peak in stimulating tests and height standard deviation score (SDS) before the therapy were significantly lower in non-FSS than in FSS. Target height was significantly lower in FSS than in non-FSS. Parentally-adjusted deficit of height was significantly more profound in non-FSS than in FSS. The prognosis of adult height was very similar in both groups of patients, being significantly worse in non-FSS than in FSS while corrected by TH. The absolute FH was similar in FSS and non-FSS, being, however, significantly lower in non-FSS than in FSS while corrected by TH. Improvement of height was significantly better in non-FSS than in FSS. In both groups, FH SDS was significantly better than height SDS before the therapy (H0SDS). In FSS group, PAH was similar to TH, moreover, FH corresponded to both PAH and TH. In non-FSS group FH was significantly higher than PAH, but both FH and PAH were significantly lower than TH. 1) Growth hormone therapy was more effective in the patients with non-FSS than in those with FSS. 2) Parentally-adjusted deficit of height is an important prognostic factor of GH therapy effectiveness.

  15. Length of stay after vaginal birth: sociodemographic and readiness-for-discharge factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Marianne; Ryan, Polly; Lokken, Lisa; Nelson, Magdalen

    2004-06-01

    The impact of reductions in postpartum length of stay have been widely reported, but factors influencing length of hospital stay after vaginal birth have received less attention. The study purpose was to compare the sociodemographic characteristics and readiness for discharge of new mothers and their newborns at 3 discharge time intervals, and to determine which variables were associated with postpartum length of stay. The study sample comprised 1,192 mothers who were discharged within 2 postpartum days after uncomplicated vaginal birth at a tertiary perinatal center in the midwestern United States. The sample was divided into 3 postpartum length-of-stay groups: group 1 (18-30 hr), group 2 (31-42 hr), and group 3 (43-54 hr). Sociodemographic and readiness-for-discharge data were collected by self-report and from a computerized hospital information system. Measures of readiness for discharge included perceived readiness (single item and Readiness for Discharge After Birth Scale), documented maternal and neonatal clinical problems, and feeding method. Compared with other groups, the longest length-of-stay group was older; of higher socioeconomic status and education; and with more primiparous, breastfeeding, white, married mothers who were living with the baby's father, had adequate home help, and had a private payor source. This group also reported greater readiness for discharge, but their newborns had more documented clinical problems during the postbirth hospitalization. In logistic regression modeling, earlier discharge was associated with young age, multiparity, public payor source, low socioeconomic status, lack of readiness for discharge, bottle-feeding, and absence of a neonatal clinical problem. Sociodemographic characteristics and readiness for discharge (clinical and perceived) were associated with length of postpartum hospital stay. Length of stay is an outcome of a complex interface between patient, provider, and payor influences on discharge timing

  16. Double tube heat exchanger with novel enhancement: Part I - flow development length and adiabatic friction factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiruselvam, R.; Raghavan, Vijay R. [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Tronoh (Malaysia)

    2012-04-15

    The study is conducted to evaluate the flow characteristics in a double tube heat exchanger using two new and versatile enhancement configurations. The novelty is that they are usable in single phase forced convection, evaporation and condensation. Correlations are proposed for flow development length and friction factor for use in predicting fluid pumping power in thermal equipment as well as in subsequent heat transfer characterization of the surface. (orig.)

  17. Comparison of the Effects of the Different Methods for Computing the Slope Length Factor at a Watershed Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Suhua

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The slope length factor is one of the parameters of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE and the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE and is sometimes calculated based on a digital elevation model (DEM. The methods for calculating the slope length factor are important because the values obtained may depend on the methods used for calculation. The purpose of this study was to compare the difference in spatial distribution of the slope length factor between the different methods at a watershed scale. One method used the uniform slope length factor equation (USLFE where the effects of slope irregularities (such as slope gradient, etc. on soil erosion by water were not considered. The other method used segmented slope length factor equation(SSLFE which considered the effects of slope irregularities on soil erosion by water. The Arc Macro Language (AML Version 4 program for the revised universal soil loss equation(RUSLE.which uses the USLFE, was chosen to calculate the slope length factor. In a parallel analysis, the AML code of RUSLE Version 4 was modified according to the SSLFE to calculate the slope length factor. Two watersheds with different slope and gully densities were chosen. The results show that the slope length factor and soil loss using the USLFE method were lower than those using the SSLFE method, especially on downslopes watershed with more frequent steep slopes and higher gully densities. In addition, the slope length factor and soil loss calculated by the USLFE showed less spatial variation.

  18. A New European Slope Length and Steepness Factor (LS-Factor for Modeling Soil Erosion by Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panos Panagos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE model is the most frequently used model for soil erosion risk estimation. Among the six input layers, the combined slope length and slope angle (LS-factor has the greatest influence on soil loss at the European scale. The S-factor measures the effect of slope steepness, and the L-factor defines the impact of slope length. The combined LS-factor describes the effect of topography on soil erosion. The European Soil Data Centre (ESDAC developed a new pan-European high-resolution soil erosion assessment to achieve a better understanding of the spatial and temporal patterns of soil erosion in Europe. The LS-calculation was performed using the original equation proposed by Desmet and Govers (1996 and implemented using the System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses (SAGA, which incorporates a multiple flow algorithm and contributes to a precise estimation of flow accumulation. The LS-factor dataset was calculated using a high-resolution (25 m Digital Elevation Model (DEM for the whole European Union, resulting in an improved delineation of areas at risk of soil erosion as compared to lower-resolution datasets. This combined approach of using GIS software tools with high-resolution DEMs has been successfully applied in regional assessments in the past, and is now being applied for first time at the European scale.

  19. Factors associated with changes in vaginal length and diameter during pelvic radiotherapy for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Jumara; Vaz, Ana Francisca; Grion, Regina Celia; Esteves, Sérgio Carlos Barros; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; Baccaro, Luiz Francisco

    2017-12-01

    This study reports the incidence and factors associated with vaginal stenosis and changes in vaginal dimensions after pelvic radiotherapy for cervical cancer. A descriptive longitudinal study with 139 women with cervical cancer was conducted from January 2013 to November 2015. The outcome variables were vaginal stenosis assessed using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE v3.0) and changes in vaginal diameter and length after the end of radiotherapy. Independent variables were the characteristics of the neoplasm, clinical and sociodemographic data. Bivariate analysis was carried out using χ 2 , Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney's test. Multiple analysis was carried out using Poisson regression and a generalized linear model. Most women (50.4%) had stage IIIB tumors. According to CTCAE v3.0 scale, 30.2% had no stenosis, 69.1% had grade 1 and 0.7% had grade 2 stenosis after radiotherapy. Regarding changes in vaginal measures, the mean variation in diameter was - 0.6 (± 1.7) mm and the mean variation in length was - 0.6 (± 1.3) cm. In the final statistical model, having tumoral invasion of the vaginal walls (coefficient + 0.73, p vaginal stenosis and lower reduction of vaginal dimensions. Advanced clinical stage (coefficient + 1.44; p = 0.02) and receiving brachytherapy/teletherapy (coefficient - 1.17, p vaginal dimensions. Most women had mild vaginal stenosis with slight reductions in both diameter and length of the vaginal canal. Women with tumoral invasion of the vagina have an increase in vaginal length soon after radiotherapy due to a reduction in tumoral volume.

  20. Organizational factors affecting length of stay in the emergency department: initial observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashkin, Osnat; Caspi, Sigalit; Haligoa, Rachel; Mizrahi, Sari; Stalnikowicz, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Length of stay (LOS) is considered a key measure of emergency department throughput, and from the perspective of the patient, it is perceived as a measure of healthcare service quality. Prolonged LOS can be caused by various internal and external factors. This study examined LOS in the emergency department and explored the main factors that influence LOS and cause delay in patient care. Observations of 105 patients were performed over a 3-month period at the emergency room of a community urban hospital. Observers monitored patients from the moment of entrance to the department until discharge or admission to another hospital ward. Analysis revealed a general average total emergency department LOS of 438 min. Significant differences in average LOS were found between admitted patients (Mean = 544 min, SD = 323 min) and discharged patients (Mean = 291 min, SD = 286 min). In addition, nurse and physician change of shifts and admissions to hospital wards were found to be significant factors associated with LOS. Using an Ishikawa causal diagram, we explored various latent organizational factors that may prolong this time. The study identified several factors that are associated with high average emergency department LOS. High LOS may lead to increases in expenditures and may have implications for patient safety, whereas certain organizational changes, communication improvement, and time management may have a positive effect on it. Interdisciplinary methods can be used to explore factors causing prolonged emergency department LOS and contribute to a better understanding of them.

  1. Fall from heights: does height really matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizo, G; Sciarretta, J D; Gibson, S; Muertos, K; Romano, A; Davis, J; Pepe, A

    2018-06-01

    Fall from heights is high energy injuries and constitutes a fraction of all fall-related trauma evaluations while bearing an increase in morbidity and mortality. We hypothesize that despite advancements in trauma care, the overall survivability has not improved in this subset of trauma patients. All adult trauma patients treated after sustaining a fall from heights during a 40-month period were retrospectively reviewed. Admission demographics, clinical data, fall height (ft), injury patterns, ISS, GCS, length of stay, and mortality were reviewed. 116 patients sustained a fall from heights, 90.4% accidental. A mean age of 37± 14.7 years, 86% male, and a fall height of 19 ± 10 ft were encountered. Admission GCS was 13 ± 2 with ISS 10 ± 11. Overall LOS was 6.6 ± 14.9 days and an ICU LOS of 2.8 ± 8.9 days. Falls ≥ 25 ft.(16%) had lower GCS 10.4 ± 5.8, increased ISS 22.6 ± 13.8, a fall height 37.9 ± 13.1 ft and associated increased mortality (p < 0.001). Mortality was 5.2%, a mean distance fallen of 39 ± 22 ft. and an ISS of 31.5 ±16.5. Brain injury was the leading cause of death, 50% with open skull fractures. Level of height fallen is a good predictor of overall outcome and survival. Despite advances in trauma care, death rates remain unchanged. Safety awareness and injury prevention programs are needed to reduce the risk of high-level falls.

  2. Sense of security felt by the armed police with different service length and influential factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing CHEN

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the status of sense of security felt by the armed police and the influential factors thereof.Methods The sense of security,stress level,comprehension of social supports and the coping styles were measured and evaluated by use of Security Questionnaire(SQ,Psychological Stress Self-Evaluation Test(PSET,Perceived Social Support Scale(PSSS and Coping Style Scale(CSS in 725 armed police,and the differences were compared between the servicemen with different service length(1,2 and 3 years.The correlation between security sense(expressed as personal safety and determination of control and comprehension of social supports,coping styles and T score on stress level were analyzed.A stepwise regression analysis was done to screen the factors influencing the security sense of servicemen with the overall score of security sense as the dependent variable and the comprehension of social supports(expressed as inside-and outside-family support,coping styles(expressed as illusion,resignation,rationalization,self-condemned determinant,resort and problem-solving capacity and T score on stress level as the independent variables.Results Compared with the armed police with 1 year of military service,those with 2 or 3 years of military service got lower scores in personal safety,determination of control,inside-and outside-family support,and resort and problem-solving capacity(P 0.05.The two factors of comprehension of social supports(inside-and outside-family support,and the two factors of coping styles(resort and problem-solving capacity were positively correlated with the sense of security(personal safety and determination of control(P < 0.001;while the four factors of coping styles(illusion,resignation,rationalization and self-condemned determinant and the T score on stress level were negatively correlated with the sense of security(P < 0.001.It was proved by multivariate linear regression analysis that outside-family support

  3. Dlf1, a WRKY transcription factor, is involved in the control of flowering time and plant height in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhui Cai

    Full Text Available Flowering time and plant height are important agronomic traits for crop production. In this study, we characterized a semi-dwarf and late flowering (dlf1 mutation of rice that has pleiotropic effects on these traits. The dlf1 mutation was caused by a T-DNA insertion and the cloned Dlf1 gene was found to encode a WRKY transcription factor (OsWRKY11. The dlf1 mutant contains a T-DNA insertion at the promoter region, leading to enhanced accumulation of Dlf1 transcripts, resulting in a semidominant mutation. The dlf1 mutation suppressed the transcription of Ehd2/RID1/OsId1 and its downstream flowering-time genes including Hd1, Ehd1 and Hd3a under both long-day (LD and short-day (SD conditions. Knock-down of Dlf1 expression exhibited early flowering at LD condition related to the wild-type plants. Accumulation of Dlf1 mRNA was observed in most tissues, and two splicing forms of Dlf1 cDNAs were obtained (OsWRKY11.1 and OsWRKY11.2. These two proteins showed transactivation activity in yeast cells. Dlf1 protein was found to be localized in the nucleus. Enhanced expression of OsWRKY11.2 or its 5' truncated gene showed similar phenotypes to the dlf1 mutant, suggesting that it might function as a negative regulator. We conclude that Dlf1 acts as a transactivator to downregulate Ehd2/RID1/OsId1 in the signal transduction pathway of flowering and plays an important role in the regulation of plant height in rice.

  4. Race, Ethnicity, Psychosocial Factors, and Telomere Length in a Multicenter Setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M Lynch

    Full Text Available Leukocyte telomere length(LTL has been associated with age, self-reported race/ethnicity, gender, education, and psychosocial factors, including perceived stress, and depression. However, inconsistencies in associations of LTL with disease and other phenotypes exist across studies. Population characteristics, including race/ethnicity, laboratory methods, and statistical approaches in LTL have not been comprehensively studied and could explain inconsistent LTL associations.LTL was measured using Southern Blot in 1510 participants from a multi-ethnic, multi-center study combining data from 3 centers with different population characteristics and laboratory processing methods. Main associations between LTL and psychosocial factors and LTL and race/ethnicity were evaluated and then compared across generalized estimating equations(GEE and linear regression models. Statistical models were adjusted for factors typically associated with LTL(age, gender, cancer status and also accounted for factors related to center differences, including laboratory methods(i.e., DNA extraction. Associations between LTL and psychosocial factors were also evaluated within race/ethnicity subgroups (Non-hispanic Whites, African Americans, and Hispanics.Beyond adjustment for age, gender, and cancer status, additional adjustments for DNA extraction and clustering by center were needed given their effects on LTL measurements. In adjusted GEE models, longer LTL was associated with African American race (Beta(β(standard error(SE = 0.09(0.04, p-value = 0.04 and Hispanic ethnicity (β(SE = 0.06(0.01, p-value = 0.02 compared to Non-Hispanic Whites. Longer LTL was also associated with less than a high school education compared to having greater than a high school education (β(SE = 0.06(0.02, p-value = 0.04. LTL was inversely related to perceived stress (β(SE = -0.02(0.003, p<0.001. In subgroup analyses, there was a negative association with LTL in African Americans with a high

  5. The Role of Chain Length in Nonergodicity Factor and Fragility of Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalle-Ferrie, Cecile; Niss, Kristine; Sokolov, Alexei

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism that leads to different fragility values upon approaching the glass transition remains a topic of active discussion. Many researchers are trying to find an answer in the properties of the frozen glassy state. Following this approach, we focus here on a previously proposed relationship...... between the fragility of glass-formers and their nonergodicity factor, determined by inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) in the glass. We extend this molecular liquid study to two model polymers— polystyrene (PS) and polyisobutylene (PIB)—for which we change the molecular weight. Polymers offer...... the opportunity to change the fragility without altering the chemical structure, just by changing the chain length. Thus, we specifically chose PS and PIB because they exhibit opposite dependences of fragility with molecular weight. Our analysis for these two polymers reveals no unique correlation between...

  6. Factors associated with mortality and length of stay in the Oporto burn unit (2006-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosch, Isabel; Bartosch, Carla; Egipto, Paula; Silva, Alvaro

    2013-05-01

    Retrospective studies are essential to evaluate and improve the efficiency of care of burned patients. This study analyses the work done in the burn unit of Hospital de S. João in the north of Portugal. A retrospective review was performed in patients admitted from 2006 to 2009. The study population was characterised regarding patient demographics, admissions profile, burn aetiology, burn site, extension and treatment. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were done in order to elucidate which of these factors influenced the mortality and length of stay. The characteristics before and after the creation of the burn unit, as well as the similarities and differences with the published data of other national and international burn units, are analysed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. Breed, Coat Color, and Hair Length as Risk Factors for Hyperthyroidism in Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, V J; Debnath, A; Chang, Y M; Fowkes, R C; Elliott, J; Syme, H M

    2017-07-01

    Hyperthyroidism is very common in older cats, but the etiopathogenesis is poorly understood. Decreased risk of hyperthyroidism has been reported in certain colorpoint breeds, and this observation previously has been hypothesized to result from relatively greater tyrosine availability for thyroid hormone production because of limited ability to convert tyrosine to melanin pigment. However, studies investigating a potential link between coat pigmentation and risk of hyperthyroidism are limited. To identify associations between coat phenotype and hyperthyroidism by investigation of breed, coat color, and hair length as risk factors for the disease. Data were used from 4,705 cats aged ≥10 years, referred to a single veterinary teaching hospital (2006-2014) in the United Kingdom. Retrospective, epidemiological, cross-sectional study using Bayesian multivariable logistic regression to assess risk factors for hyperthyroidism. Burmese (odds ratio [OR], 0.01; 0.00-0.23; P = .004), Tonkinese (OR, 0.05; 0.00-0.95; P = .046), Persian (OR, 0.21; 0.10-0.44; P hyperthyroidism compared to domestic shorthairs. Longhaired, nonpurebred cats (OR, 1.30; 1.03-1.64; P = .028) were at increased risk of hyperthyroidism. Coat color/pattern was not associated with hyperthyroidism in nonpurebred cats. We identified decreased risk of hyperthyroidism in the Tonkinese, Abyssinian, and British shorthair breeds, identified an association between risk of hyperthyroidism and hair length, and confirmed decreased risk in Burmese, Siamese, and Persian breeds. Additional studies are warranted to further investigate these findings. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Asthma length of stay in hospitals in London 2001-2006: demographic, diagnostic and temporal factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneous N Soyiri

    Full Text Available Asthma is a condition of significant public health concern associated with morbidity, mortality and healthcare utilisation. This study identifies key determinants of length of stay (LOS associated with asthma-related hospital admissions in London, and further explores their effects on individuals. Subjects were primarily diagnosed and admitted for asthma in London between 1(st January 2001 and 31(st December 2006. All repeated admissions were treated uniquely as independent cases. Negative binomial regression was used to model the effect(s of demographic, temporal and diagnostic factors on the LOS, taking into account the cluster effect of each patient's hospital attendance in London. The median and mean asthma LOS over the period of study were 2 and 3 days respectively. Admissions increased over the years from 8,308 (2001 to 10,554 (2006, but LOS consistently declined within the same period. Younger individuals were more likely to be admitted than the elderly, but the latter significantly had higher LOS (p<0.001. Respiratory related secondary diagnoses, age, and gender of the patient as well as day of the week and year of admission were important predictors of LOS. Asthma LOS can be predicted by socio-demographic factors, temporal and clinical factors using count models on hospital admission data. The procedure can be a useful tool for planning and resource allocation in health service provision.

  9. Asthma length of stay in hospitals in London 2001-2006: demographic, diagnostic and temporal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyiri, Ireneous N; Reidpath, Daniel D; Sarran, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is a condition of significant public health concern associated with morbidity, mortality and healthcare utilisation. This study identifies key determinants of length of stay (LOS) associated with asthma-related hospital admissions in London, and further explores their effects on individuals. Subjects were primarily diagnosed and admitted for asthma in London between 1(st) January 2001 and 31(st) December 2006. All repeated admissions were treated uniquely as independent cases. Negative binomial regression was used to model the effect(s) of demographic, temporal and diagnostic factors on the LOS, taking into account the cluster effect of each patient's hospital attendance in London. The median and mean asthma LOS over the period of study were 2 and 3 days respectively. Admissions increased over the years from 8,308 (2001) to 10,554 (2006), but LOS consistently declined within the same period. Younger individuals were more likely to be admitted than the elderly, but the latter significantly had higher LOS (p<0.001). Respiratory related secondary diagnoses, age, and gender of the patient as well as day of the week and year of admission were important predictors of LOS. Asthma LOS can be predicted by socio-demographic factors, temporal and clinical factors using count models on hospital admission data. The procedure can be a useful tool for planning and resource allocation in health service provision.

  10. Growing season length as a key factor of cumulative net ecosystem exchange over the pine forest ecosystems in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Danielewska, A.; Urbaniak, M.; Olejnik, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2015), s. 129-135 ISSN 0236-8722 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : forest * carbon dioxide * eddy covariance * growing season length Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.067, year: 2015

  11. Race, Ethnicity, Psychosocial Factors, and Telomere Length in a Multicenter Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Shannon M; Peek, M K; Mitra, Nandita; Ravichandran, Krithika; Branas, Charles; Spangler, Elaine; Zhou, Wenting; Paskett, Electra D; Gehlert, Sarah; DeGraffinreid, Cecilia; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Riethman, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length(LTL) has been associated with age, self-reported race/ethnicity, gender, education, and psychosocial factors, including perceived stress, and depression. However, inconsistencies in associations of LTL with disease and other phenotypes exist across studies. Population characteristics, including race/ethnicity, laboratory methods, and statistical approaches in LTL have not been comprehensively studied and could explain inconsistent LTL associations. LTL was measured using Southern Blot in 1510 participants from a multi-ethnic, multi-center study combining data from 3 centers with different population characteristics and laboratory processing methods. Main associations between LTL and psychosocial factors and LTL and race/ethnicity were evaluated and then compared across generalized estimating equations(GEE) and linear regression models. Statistical models were adjusted for factors typically associated with LTL(age, gender, cancer status) and also accounted for factors related to center differences, including laboratory methods(i.e., DNA extraction). Associations between LTL and psychosocial factors were also evaluated within race/ethnicity subgroups (Non-hispanic Whites, African Americans, and Hispanics). Beyond adjustment for age, gender, and cancer status, additional adjustments for DNA extraction and clustering by center were needed given their effects on LTL measurements. In adjusted GEE models, longer LTL was associated with African American race (Beta(β)(standard error(SE)) = 0.09(0.04), p-value = 0.04) and Hispanic ethnicity (β(SE) = 0.06(0.01), p-value = 0.02) compared to Non-Hispanic Whites. Longer LTL was also associated with less than a high school education compared to having greater than a high school education (β(SE) = 0.06(0.02), p-value = 0.04). LTL was inversely related to perceived stress (β(SE) = -0.02(0.003), pethnic circumstances and could impact future health disparity studies.

  12. Agreement between measured height, and height predicted from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lower limb measurements, such as knee height, as well as upper limb measures ... had with bone injuries/fractures affecting height or ulna length; and n = 1 had a ... and heels, buttocks and upper back in contact with the vertical surface of the .... found striking similarity in linear growth of infants to five-year- olds among all ...

  13. Wuthering Heights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronte, Emily

    2005-01-01

    Wuthering Heights tells the story of a romance between two youngsters: Catherine Earnshaw and an orphan boy, Heathcliff. After she rejects him for a boy from a better background he develops a lust for revenge that takes over his life. In attempting to win her back and destroy those he blames for his

  14. Naturally together: pitch-height and brightness as coupled factors for eliciting the SMARC effect in non-musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitteri, Marco; Marchetti, Mauro; Priftis, Konstantinos; Grassi, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Pitch-height is often labeled spatially (i.e., low or high) as a function of the fundamental frequency of the tone. This correspondence is highlighted by the so-called Spatial-Musical Association of Response Codes (SMARC) effect. However, the literature suggests that the brightness of the tone's timbre might contribute to this spatial association. We investigated the SMARC effect in a group of non-musicians by disentangling the role of pitch-height and the role of tone-brightness. In three experimental conditions, participants were asked to judge whether the tone they were listening to was (or was not) modulated in amplitude (i.e., vibrato). Participants were required to make their response in both the horizontal and the vertical axes. In a first condition, tones varied coherently in pitch (i.e., manipulation of the tone's F0) and brightness (i.e., manipulation of the tone's spectral centroid); in a second condition, pitch-height varied whereas brightness was fixed; in a third condition, pitch-height was fixed whereas brightness varied. We found the SMARC effect only in the first condition and only in the vertical axis. In contrast, we did not observe the effect in any of the remaining conditions. The present results suggest that, in non-musicians, the SMARC effect is not due to the manipulation of the pitch-height alone, but arises because of a coherent change of pitch-height and brightness; this effect emerges along the vertical axis only.

  15. Nature vs nurture: interplay between the genetic control of telomere length and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Yaniv; Romano, Gal-Hagit; Ungar, Lior; Kupiec, Martin

    2013-11-15

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures that cap the ends of the linear eukaryotic chromosomes, thus protecting their stability and integrity. They play important roles in DNA replication and repair and are central to our understanding of aging and cancer development. In rapidly dividing cells, telomere length is maintained by the activity of telomerase. About 400 TLM (telomere length maintenance) genes have been identified in yeast, as participants of an intricate homeostasis network that keeps telomere length constant. Two papers have recently shown that despite this extremely complex control, telomere length can be manipulated by external stimuli. These results have profound implications for our understanding of cellular homeostatic systems in general and of telomere length maintenance in particular. In addition, they point to the possibility of developing aging and cancer therapies based on telomere length manipulation.

  16. Stature and jumping height are required in female volleyball, but motor coordination is a key factor for future elite success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pion, Johan A; Fransen, Job; Deprez, Dieter N; Segers, Veerle I; Vaeyens, Roel; Philippaerts, Renaat M; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2015-06-01

    It was hypothesized that differences in anthropometry, physical performance, and motor coordination would be found between Belgian elite and sub-elite level female volleyball players using a retrospective analysis of test results gathered over a 5-year period. The test sample in this study consisted of 21 young female volleyball players (15.3 ± 1.5 years) who were selected to train at the Flemish Top Sports Academy for Volleyball in 2008. All players (elite, n = 13; sub-elite, n = 8) were included in the same talent development program, and the elite-level athletes were of a high to very high performance levels according to European competition level in 2013. Five multivariate analyses of variance were used. There was no significant effect of playing level on measures of anthropometry (F = 0.455, p = 0.718, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.07), flexibility (F = 1.861, p = 0.188, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.19), strength (F = 1.218, p = 0.355, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.32); and speed and agility (F = 1.176, p = 0.350, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.18). Multivariate analyses of variance revealed significant multivariate effects between playing levels for motor coordination (F = 3.470, p = 0.036, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.59). A Mann-Whitney U test and a sequential discriminant analysis confirmed these results. Previous research revealed that stature and jump height are prerequisites for talent identification in female volleyball. In addition, the results show that motor coordination is an important factor in determining inclusion into the elite level in female volleyball.

  17. Influence of The -202 A/C insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 promoter polymorphism on individual variation in height in Korean girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ju Yi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThe most common single nucleotide polymorphism in the IGFBP3 promoter region occurs at position -202. This polymorphic variation occurs frequently and may influence growth hormone responsiveness and somatic growth. However, the effects of IGFBP3 promoter polymorphism on growth in children are unknown.MethodsRestriction fragment length polymorphism-based genotyping of the -202 single nucleotide polymorphism was performed in 146 Korean girls aged between 15 and 16 years, who were selected randomly from the Seoul School Health Promotion Center. The participants were divided into 3 groups (tall, medium, and short according to the height percentile established from normal reference values for Korean children. The serum levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 were then compared according to genotype.ResultsThe genotype distribution in the participants was 79 AA (54.1%, 60 AC (41.1%, and 7 CC (4.8%. The C allele frequency at the -202 IGFBP3 position was 25.4% in this group. The mean serum IGFBP-3 concentration in girls with the AA genotype was higher than that in girls with the AC genotype in the medium (P=0.047 and short (P=0.035 groups, respectively. There was no difference in the IGF-I to IGFBP-3 molar ratio between the AA and AC genotype groups (P=0.161.ConclusionIn conclusion, the -202 polymorphism in the IGFBP3 promoter region is assumed to affect the serum concentration of IGFBP-3 in children as well as in adults. However, it is unclear whether this affects physical development according to the concentration of IGFBP-3.

  18. Length of Service versus Employee Retention Factors: Hotels in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikechukwu O. Ezeuduji

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Employee retention can be measured quite accurately by the actual number of years that employees have worked in an organisation. This study investigates relationships between hotel employees’ length of service and responses to individual variables explaining employee retention factors. A structured questionnaire survey of 217 hotel employees in Cape Town, South Africa was used to obtain information that were subjected to bivariate and multivariate analyses. Key results show that the employees who have worked longer in the hotel have particular characteristics: they perceive that working hours in the hotel do not infringe on their personal quality time with friends; they perceive it will be difficult for them to leave the hotel; they want to remain in the hotel for a long time; and quite interestingly, they perceive they do not receive continuous training in the hotel. Further costs of hiring and developing new employees can be reduced if loyal and talented employees are retained for longer periods through continuous career development. This study is of particular interest to the hotel sector management, as it is focussed on retaining those staff who really want to build a career in the hospitality industry.

  19. Continuous correction of differential path length factor in near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Tanveer; Moore, Jason H; Diamond, Solomon G

    2013-05-01

    In continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS), changes in the concentration of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin can be calculated by solving a set of linear equations from the modified Beer-Lambert Law. Cross-talk error in the calculated hemodynamics can arise from inaccurate knowledge of the wavelength-dependent differential path length factor (DPF). We apply the extended Kalman filter (EKF) with a dynamical systems model to calculate relative concentration changes in oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin while simultaneously estimating relative changes in DPF. Results from simulated and experimental CW-NIRS data are compared with results from a weighted least squares (WLSQ) method. The EKF method was found to effectively correct for artificially introduced errors in DPF and to reduce the cross-talk error in simulation. With experimental CW-NIRS data, the hemodynamic estimates from EKF differ significantly from the WLSQ (p EKF method compared to WLSQ in three physiologically relevant spectral bands 0.04 to 0.15 Hz, 0.15 to 0.4 Hz and 0.4 to 2.0 Hz (p EKF method.

  20. Investigation of Simultaneous Effects of Aerosol Properties and Aerosol Peak Height on the Air Mass Factors for Space-Borne NO2 Retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunkee Hong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the simultaneous effects of aerosol peak height (APH, aerosol properties, measurement geometry, and other factors on the air mass factor for NO2 retrieval at sites with high NO2 concentration. A comparison of the effects of high and low surface reflectance reveals that NO2 air mass factor (AMF values over a snowy surface (surface reflectance 0.8 are generally higher than those over a deciduous forest surface (surface reflectance 0.05. Under high aerosol optical depth (AOD conditions, the aerosol shielding effect over a high-albedo surface is revealed to reduce the path-length of light at the surface, whereas high single scattering albedo (SSA conditions (e.g., SSA = 0.95 lead to an increase in the aerosol albedo effect, which results in an increased AMF over areas with low surface reflectance. We also conducted an in-depth study of the APH effect on AMF. For an AOD of 0.1 and half width (HW of 5 km, NO2 AMF decreases by 29% from 1.36 to 0.96 as APH changes from 0 to 2 km. In the case of high-AOD conditions (0.9 and HW of 5 km, the NO2 AMF decreases by 240% from 1.85 to 0.54 as APH changes from 0 to 2 km. The AMF variation due to error in the model input parameters (e.g., AOD, SSA, aerosol shape, and APH is also examined. When APH is 0 km with an AOD of 0.4, SSA of 0.88, and surface reflectance of 0.05, a 30% error in AOD induces an AMF error of between 4.85% and −3.67%, an SSA error of 0.04 leads to NO2 VCD errors of between 4.46% and −4.77%, and a 30% error in AOD induces an AMF error of between −9.53% and 8.35% with an APH of 3 km. In addition to AOD and SSA, APH is an important factor in calculating AMF, due to the 2 km error in APH under high-SZA conditions, which leads to an NO2 VCD error of over 60%. Aerosol shape is also found to have a measureable effect on AMF under high-AOD and small relative azimuth angle (RAA conditions. The diurnal effect of the NO2 profile is also examined and discussed.

  1. DETERMINATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING LENGTH OF STAY WITH MULTINOMIAL LOGISTIC REGRESSION IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öğr. Gör. Rukiye NUMAN TEKİN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Length of stay (LOS has important implications in various aspects of health services, can vary according to a wide range of factors. It is noticed that LOS has been neglected mostly in both theoratical studies and practice of health care management in Turkey. The main purpose of this study is to identify factors related to LOS in Turkey. A retrospective analysis of 2.255.836 patients hospitalized to private, university, foundation university and other (municipality, association and foreigners/minority hospitals hospitals which have an agreement with Social Security Institution (SSI in Turkey, from January 1, 2010, until the December 31, 2010, was examined. Patient’s data were taken from MEDULA (National Electronic Invoice System and SPSS 18.0 was used to perform statistical analysis. In this study t-test, one way anova and multinomial logistic regression are used to determine variables that may affect to LOS. The average LOS of patients was 3,93 days (SD = 5,882. LOS showed a statistically significant difference according to all independent variables used in the study (age, gender, disease class, type of hospitalization, presence of comorbidity, type and number of surgery, season of hospitalization, hospital ownership/bed capacity/ geographical region/residential area/type of service. According to the results of the multinomial lojistic regression analysis, LOS was negatively affected in terms of gender, presence of comorbidity, geographical region of hospital and was positively affected in terms of age, season of hospitalization, hospital bed capacity/ ownership/type of service/residential area.

  2. Biosynthesis of Colabomycin E, a New Manumycin-Family Metabolite, Involves an Unusual Chain-Length Factor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petříčková, Kateřina; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Kuzma, Marek; Tylová, Tereza; Jágr, Michal; Tomek, P.; Chroňáková, Alica; Brabcová, E.; Anděra, Ladislav; Krištůfek, Václav; Petříček, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 9 (2014), s. 1334-1345 ISSN 1439-4227 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13012 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:60077344 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : biosynthesis * chain-length factors * manumycins Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.088, year: 2014

  3. Waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and BMI as indicators of percentage fat mass and cardiometabolic risk factors in children aged 3-7 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, Anna; Bocca, Gianni; L'abée, Carianne; Liem, Eryn T; Sauer, Pieter J J; Corpeleijn, Eva

    Objective: To assess whether waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR) is a better estimate of body fat percentage (BF %) and a better indicator of cardiometabolic risk factors than BMI or waist circumference (WC) in young children. Methods: WHtR, WC and BMI were measured by trained staff according to

  4. Biotic and Abiotic factors governing nestling-period length in the ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Stodola; David Buehler; Daniel Kim; Kathleen Franzreb; Daniel Linder

    2010-01-01

    In many songbirds, the nesting period for a breeding attempt is extremely short, often lasting only a few weeks. Breeding adults can shorten this period by decreasing the number of eggs laid or reducing the length of the nestling period. Nestling-period length has received little attention in the literature but could have profound effects on annual fecundity, because...

  5. Effect of Air Pollution on Menstrual Cycle Length-A Prognostic Factor of Women's Reproductive Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merklinger-Gruchala, Anna; Jasienska, Grazyna; Kapiszewska, Maria

    2017-07-20

    Air pollution can influence women's reproductive health, specifically menstrual cycle characteristics, oocyte quality, and risk of miscarriage. The aim of the study was to assess whether air pollution can affect the length of the overall menstrual cycle and the length of its phases (follicular and luteal). Municipal ecological monitoring data was used to assess the air pollution exposure during the monitored menstrual cycle of each of 133 woman of reproductive age. Principal component analyses were used to group pollutants (PM 10 , SO₂, CO, and NO x ) to represent a source-related mixture. PM 10 and SO₂ assessed separately negatively affected the length of the luteal phase after standardization (b = -0.02; p = 0.03; b = -0.06; p = 0.02, respectively). Representing a fossil fuel combustion emission, they were also associated with luteal phase shortening (b = -0.32; p = 0.02). These pollutants did not affect the follicular phase length and overall cycle length, neither in single- nor in multi-pollutant models. CO and NO x assessed either separately or together as a traffic emission were not associated with overall cycle length or the length of cycle phases. Luteal phase shortening, a possible manifestation of luteal phase deficiency, can result from fossil fuel combustion. This suggests that air pollution may contribute to fertility problems in women.

  6. Systematic correlation of environmental exposure and physiological and self-reported behaviour factors with leukocyte telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chirag J; Manrai, Arjun K; Corona, Erik; Kohane, Isaac S

    2017-02-01

    It is hypothesized that environmental exposures and behaviour influence telomere length, an indicator of cellular ageing. We systematically associated 461 indicators of environmental exposures, physiology and self-reported behaviour with telomere length in data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 1999-2002. Further, we tested whether factors identified in the NHANES participants are also correlated with gene expression of telomere length modifying genes. We correlated 461 environmental exposures, behaviours and clinical variables with telomere length, using survey-weighted linear regression, adjusting for sex, age, age squared, race/ethnicity, poverty level, education and born outside the USA, and estimated the false discovery rate to adjust for multiple hypotheses. We conducted a secondary analysis to investigate the correlation between identified environmental variables and gene expression levels of telomere-associated genes in publicly available gene expression samples. After correlating 461 variables with telomere length, we found 22 variables significantly associated with telomere length after adjustment for multiple hypotheses. Of these varaibales, 14 were associated with longer telomeres, including biomarkers of polychlorinated biphenyls([PCBs; 0.1 to 0.2 standard deviation (SD) increase for 1 SD increase in PCB level, P  environmental exposures and chronic disease-related risk factors may play a role in telomere length. Our secondary analysis found no evidence of association between PCBs/smoking and gene expression of telomere-associated genes. All correlations between exposures, behaviours and clinical factors and changes in telomere length will require further investigation regarding biological influence of exposure. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  7. Factors affecting length of hospital stay for people with spinal cord injuries at Kanombe military hospital, Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PB Bwanjugu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In patients with spinal cord injuries increased length ofhospital stay is often as a result of secondary complications such as pressuresores, urinary tract infection and respiratory infection. An increased lengthof hospital stay was observed at Kanombe Military Hospital in Rwanda.The aim of this study was to determine specific factors affecting length ofhospital stay for individuals with spinal cord injuries at Kanombe MilitaryHospital in Rwanda. The records of 124 individuals with spinal cordinjuries who were discharged from the hospital between 1st January1996and 31st December 2007 were reviewed to collect data. Information collected and captured on a data gathering sheetincluded demographic data, information relating to the injury, occurrence of medical complications and length ofhospital stay. Linear regression analysis was computed in SPSS to determine factors affecting the length of stay.The necessary ethical considerations were adhered to during the implementation of the study. Current employmentstatus and the occurrence of pressure sores were significantly associated with the length of hospital stay (p=0.021 andp=0.000 respectively. A strong relationship was noted between pressure sores and length of stay (R= 0.703. There is aneed for all members of the rehabilitation team to devise and implement effective measures to prevent the developmentof pressure sores, in patients with spinal cord injuries in the study setting.

  8. Do climate variables and human density affect Achatina fulica (Bowditch) (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) shell length, total weight and condition factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, F S; Peso-Aguiar, M C; Assunção-Albuquerque, M J T; Gálvez, L

    2009-08-01

    The length-weight relationship and condition factor have been broadly investigated in snails to obtain the index of physical condition of populations and evaluate habitat quality. Herein, our goal was to describe the best predictors that explain Achatina fulica biometrical parameters and well being in a recently introduced population. From November 2001 to November 2002, monthly snail samples were collected in Lauro de Freitas City, Bahia, Brazil. Shell length and total weight were measured in the laboratory and the potential curve and condition factor were calculated. Five environmental variables were considered: temperature range, mean temperature, humidity, precipitation and human density. Multiple regressions were used to generate models including multiple predictors, via model selection approach, and then ranked with AIC criteria. Partial regressions were used to obtain the separated coefficients of determination of climate and human density models. A total of 1.460 individuals were collected, presenting a shell length range between 4.8 to 102.5 mm (mean: 42.18 mm). The relationship between total length and total weight revealed that Achatina fulica presented a negative allometric growth. Simple regression indicated that humidity has a significant influence on A. fulica total length and weight. Temperature range was the main variable that influenced the condition factor. Multiple regressions showed that climatic and human variables explain a small proportion of the variance in shell length and total weight, but may explain up to 55.7% of the condition factor variance. Consequently, we believe that the well being and biometric parameters of A. fulica can be influenced by climatic and human density factors.

  9. Do climate variables and human density affect Achatina fulica (Bowditch (Gastropoda: Pulmonata shell length, total weight and condition factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FS. Albuquerque

    Full Text Available The length-weight relationship and condition factor have been broadly investigated in snails to obtain the index of physical condition of populations and evaluate habitat quality. Herein, our goal was to describe the best predictors that explain Achatina fulica biometrical parameters and well being in a recently introduced population. From November 2001 to November 2002, monthly snail samples were collected in Lauro de Freitas City, Bahia, Brazil. Shell length and total weight were measured in the laboratory and the potential curve and condition factor were calculated. Five environmental variables were considered: temperature range, mean temperature, humidity, precipitation and human density. Multiple regressions were used to generate models including multiple predictors, via model selection approach, and then ranked with AIC criteria. Partial regressions were used to obtain the separated coefficients of determination of climate and human density models. A total of 1.460 individuals were collected, presenting a shell length range between 4.8 to 102.5 mm (mean: 42.18 mm. The relationship between total length and total weight revealed that Achatina fulica presented a negative allometric growth. Simple regression indicated that humidity has a significant influence on A. fulica total length and weight. Temperature range was the main variable that influenced the condition factor. Multiple regressions showed that climatic and human variables explain a small proportion of the variance in shell length and total weight, but may explain up to 55.7% of the condition factor variance. Consequently, we believe that the well being and biometric parameters of A. fulica can be influenced by climatic and human density factors.

  10. Perioperative risk factors for mortality and length of hospitalization in mares with dystocia undergoing general anesthesia: A retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioja, Eva; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Costa, Maria Carolina; Valverde, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated associations between perioperative factors and probability of death and length of hospitalization of mares with dystocia that survived following general anesthesia. Demographics and perioperative characteristics from 65 mares were reviewed retrospectively and used in a risk factor analysis. Mortality rate was 21.5% during the first 24 h post-anesthesia. The mean ± standard deviation number of days of hospitalization of surviving mares was 6.3 ± 5.4 d. Several factors were found in the univariable analysis to be significantly associated (P dystocia, intraoperative hypotension, and drugs used during recovery. Type of delivery and day of the week the surgery was performed were significantly associated with length of hospitalization in the multivariable mixed effects model. The study identified some risk factors that may allow clinicians to better estimate the probability of mortality and morbidity in these mares. PMID:23115362

  11. Sarcopenia is a risk factor for complications and an independent predictor of hospital length of stay in trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAndrade, James; Pedersen, Mark; Garcia, Luis; Nau, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Sarcopenia is an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes in critically ill patients. The impact of sarcopenia on morbidity and length of stay in a trauma population has not been completely defined. This project evaluated the influence of sarcopenia on patients admitted to the trauma service. A retrospective review of 778 patients presenting as a trauma alert at a single institution from 2012-2014 was completed. Records were abstracted for comorbidities and hospital complications. The Hounsfield Unit Area Calculation was collected from admission computed tomography scans. Criteria for sarcopenia were based on the lowest 25th percentile of muscle density measurements. Relationships to patient outcomes were evaluated by univariate and multivariable regression or analyses of variance, when applicable. A total of 432 (55.6%) patients suffered a complication. Sarcopenia was associated with overall complications (P sarcopenia into a novel length of stay calculator showed increased prognostic ability for prolonged length of stay over Abbreviated Injury Scale alone (P = 0.0002). Sarcopenia is an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes and increased length of stay in trauma patients. Prognostic algorithms incorporating sarcopenia better predict hospital length of stay. Identification of patients at risk may allow for targeted interventions early in the patient's hospital course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors that influence femoral neck length. Analysis of 1543 patients with advanced osteoarthritis of the hip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Wybren; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Ettema, Harmen B.; Verheyen, Cees C. P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: There is little known about the relationship between patient characteristic and the variance in geometrical properties of the femoral neck. The length of the femoral neck is relevant when considering a femoral neck preserving hip replacement. Based on surgical experience we

  13. Factors affecting length of stay in forensic hospital setting: need for therapeutic security and course of admission.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davoren, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Patients admitted to a secure forensic hospital are at risk of a long hospital stay. Forensic hospital beds are a scarce and expensive resource and ability to identify the factors predicting length of stay at time of admission would be beneficial. The DUNDRUM-1 triage security scale and DUNDRUM-2 triage urgency scale are designed to assess need for therapeutic security and urgency of that need while the HCR-20 predicts risk of violence. We hypothesized that items on the DUNDRUM-1 and DUNDRUM-2 scales, rated at the time of pre-admission assessment, would predict length of stay in a medium secure forensic hospital setting.

  14. Height, age at menarche and risk of hormone receptor-positive and -negative breast cancer: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritte, Rebecca; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Mesrine, Sylvie; Fagherazzi, Guy; Dossus, Laure; Teucher, Birgit; Steindorf, Karen; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Quirós, José Ramón; Buckland, Genevieve; Molina-Montes, Esther; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; van Duijnhoven, Franzel; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra Hm; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Krum-Hansen, Sanda; Gram, Inger Torhild; Lund, Eiliv; Sund, Malin; Andersson, Anne; Romieu, Isabelle; Rinaldi, Sabina; McCormack, Valerie; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2013-06-01

    Associations of breast cancer overall with indicators of exposures during puberty are reasonably well characterized; however, uncertainty remains regarding the associations of height, leg length, sitting height and menarcheal age with hormone receptor-defined malignancies. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, Cox proportional hazards models were used to describe the relationships of adult height, leg length and sitting height and age at menarche with risk of estrogen and progesterone receptor negative (ER-PR-) (n = 990) and ER+PR+ (n = 3,524) breast tumors. Height as a single risk factor was compared to a model combining leg length and sitting height. The possible interactions of height, leg length and sitting height with menarche were also analyzed. Risk of both ER-PR- and ER+PR+ malignancies was positively associated with standing height, leg length and sitting height and inversely associated with increasing age at menarche. For ER+PR+ disease, sitting height (hazard ratios: 1.14[95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.20]) had a stronger risk association than leg length (1.05[1.00-1.11]). In comparison, for ER-PR- disease, no distinct differences were observed between leg length and sitting height. Women who were tall and had an early menarche (≤13 years) showed an almost twofold increase in risk of ER+PR+ tumors but no such increase in risk was observed for ER-PR- disease. Indicators of exposures during rapid growth periods were associated with risks of both HR-defined breast cancers. Exposures during childhood promoting faster development may establish risk associations for both HR-positive and -negative malignancies. The stronger associations of the components of height with ER+PR+ tumors among older women suggest possible hormonal links that could be specific for postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  15. Development of the heated length to diameter correction factor on critical heat flux using the artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Ho; Baek, Won Pil; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Tae Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-31

    With using artificial neural networks (ANNs), an analytical study related to the heated length effect on critical heat flux (CHF) has been carried out to make an improvement of the CHF prediction accuracy based on local condition correlations or table. It has been carried out to suggest a feasible criterion of the threshold length-to-diameter (L/D) value in which heated length could affect CHF. And within the criterion, a L/D correction factor has been developed through conventional regression. In order to validate the developed L/D correction factor, CHF experiments for various heated lengths have been carried out under low and intermediate pressure conditions. The developed threshold L/D correlation provides a new feasible criterion of L/D threshold value. The developed correction factor gives a reasonable accuracy for the original database, showing the error of -2.18% for average and 27.75% for RMS, and promising results for new experimental data. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  16. Development of the heated length to diameter correction factor on critical heat flux using the artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Ho; Baek, Won Pil; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Tae Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    With using artificial neural networks (ANNs), an analytical study related to the heated length effect on critical heat flux (CHF) has been carried out to make an improvement of the CHF prediction accuracy based on local condition correlations or table. It has been carried out to suggest a feasible criterion of the threshold length-to-diameter (L/D) value in which heated length could affect CHF. And within the criterion, a L/D correction factor has been developed through conventional regression. In order to validate the developed L/D correction factor, CHF experiments for various heated lengths have been carried out under low and intermediate pressure conditions. The developed threshold L/D correlation provides a new feasible criterion of L/D threshold value. The developed correction factor gives a reasonable accuracy for the original database, showing the error of -2.18% for average and 27.75% for RMS, and promising results for new experimental data. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  17. Asthma Length of Stay in Hospitals in London 2001?2006: Demographic, Diagnostic and Temporal Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Soyiri, Ireneous N.; Reidpath, Daniel D.; Sarran, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is a condition of significant public health concern associated with morbidity, mortality and healthcare utilisation. This study identifies key determinants of length of stay (LOS) associated with asthma-related hospital admissions in London, and further explores their effects on individuals. Subjects were primarily diagnosed and admitted for asthma in London between 1(st) January 2001 and 31(st) December 2006. All repeated admissions were treated uniquely as independent cases. Negative...

  18. The influence of quantum-dash height on the differential gain and linewidth enhancement factor of InAs/InP quantum-dash lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2010-12-01

    We present a rate equation model for the analysis of static and dynamic characteristics of InAs/InP quantumdash (Qdash) semiconductor laser. The model is applied to calculate the differential modal gain (DMG) and linewidth enhancement factor (LEF) of the Qdash laser. In addition, the effect of varying the Qdash height on these dynamic parameters is evaluated. The model predicts a decrease in the differential modal gain with increase in the Qdash height while the LEF value generally does not get affected. The LEF and DMG of the Qdash laser at peak gain attain a value of ∼1-1.5 and ∼0.6×10 -15 -1.0×10-15 cm2, respectively. © 2010 IEEE.

  19. The influence of quantum-dash height on the differential gain and linewidth enhancement factor of InAs/InP quantum-dash lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa; Ng, Tien Khee; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Ooi, Boon S.

    2010-01-01

    We present a rate equation model for the analysis of static and dynamic characteristics of InAs/InP quantumdash (Qdash) semiconductor laser. The model is applied to calculate the differential modal gain (DMG) and linewidth enhancement factor (LEF) of the Qdash laser. In addition, the effect of varying the Qdash height on these dynamic parameters is evaluated. The model predicts a decrease in the differential modal gain with increase in the Qdash height while the LEF value generally does not get affected. The LEF and DMG of the Qdash laser at peak gain attain a value of ∼1-1.5 and ∼0.6×10 -15 -1.0×10-15 cm2, respectively. © 2010 IEEE.

  20. Factors Associated with Length of Hospital Stay among HIV Positive and HIV Negative Patients with Tuberculosis in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Maria Jacirema Ferreira; Ferreira, Alaidistania A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Identify and analyze the factors associated to length of hospital stay among HIV positive and HIV negative patients with tuberculosis in Manaus city, state of Amazonas, Brazil, in 2010. Methods Epidemiological study with primary data obtained from monitoring of hospitalized patients with tuberculosis in Manaus. Data were collected by interviewing patients and analyzing medical records, according to the following study variables age, sex, co-morbidities, education, race, income, lifestyle, history of previous treatment or hospitalization due to tuberculosis, treatment regimen, adverse reactions, smear test, clinical form, type of discharge, and length of hospital stay. The associated factors were identified through chi-square or t-Student test at a 5% significance level. Results Income from 1 to 3 minimum wages (P = 0.028), pulmonary tuberculosis form (P = 0.011), negative smear test or no information in this regard (P = 0.014), initial 6-month treatment scheme (P = 0.029), and adverse drug reactions (P = 0.021) were associated to prolonged hospital stay in HIV positive patients. Conclusion We found out that although there were no significant differences in the length of hospital stay in HIV positive patients, all factors significantly associated to prolonged hospital stay occurred in this group of patients. This finding corroborates other studies indicating the severity of tuberculosis in HIV patients, which may also contribute to lengthen their hospital stay. PMID:23593227

  1. Factors limiting vocal-tract length discrimination in cochlear implant simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudrain, Etienne; Başkent, Deniz

    2015-03-01

    Perception of voice characteristics allows normal hearing listeners to identify the gender of a speaker, and to better segregate speakers from each other in cocktail party situations. This benefit is largely driven by the perception of two vocal characteristics of the speaker: The fundamental frequency (F0) and the vocal-tract length (VTL). Previous studies have suggested that cochlear implant (CI) users have difficulties in perceiving these cues. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible causes for limited sensitivity to VTL differences in CI users. Different acoustic simulations of CI stimulation were implemented to characterize the role of spectral resolution on VTL, both in terms of number of channels and amount of channel interaction. The results indicate that with 12 channels, channel interaction caused by current spread is likely to prevent CI users from perceiving VTL differences typically found between male and female speakers.

  2. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and mural nodule height as predictive factors for malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yusuke; Niina, Yusuke; Nishihara, Kazuyoshi; Okayama, Takafumi; Tamiya, Sadafumi; Nakano, Toru

    2018-01-15

    Accurate preoperative prediction for malignant IPMN is still challenging. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and mural nodule height (MNH) for predicting malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). The medical records of 60 patients who underwent pancreatectomy for IPMN were retrospectively reviewed. NLR tended to be higher in malignant IPMN (median: 2.23) than in benign IPMN (median: 2.04; p = .14). MNH was significantly greater in malignant IPMN (median: 16 mm) than in benign IPMN (median: 8 mm; p MNH were 3.60 and 11 mm, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of NLR ≥3.60 for predicting malignant IPMN were 40% and 93%, and those of MNH ≥11 mm were 73% and 77%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that NLR ≥3.60 (p MNH ≥11 mm (p MNH ≥11 mm were not. NLR and MNH are suboptimal tests in predicting malignant IPMN; however, they can be useful to assist in clinical decision-making.

  3. Quantitative analysis of Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP microbial community profiles: peak height data showed to be more reproducible than peak area Análise quantitativa de perfis de T-RFLP de comunidades microbianas: dados de altura de picos mostraram-se mais reprodutíveis do que os de área

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto A. Caffaro-Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP is a culture-independent fingerprinting method for microbial community analysis. Profiles generated by an automated electrophoresis system can be analysed quantitatively using either peak height or peak area data. Statistical testing demontrated that peak height data showed to be more reproducible than peak area data.Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP é um método molecular, independente de cultivo, para análise de comunidades microbianas. Perfis gerados por um sistema automatizado de eletroforese podem ser analisados quantitativamente usando dados de altura ou área dos picos. Os dados de altura mostraram-se mais reprodutíveis do que os de área.

  4. Cardiac-Specific Conversion Factors to Estimate Radiation Effective Dose From Dose-Length Product in Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattner, Sigal; Halliburton, Sandra; Thompson, Carla M; Xu, Yanping; Chelliah, Anjali; Jambawalikar, Sachin R; Peng, Boyu; Peters, M Robert; Jacobs, Jill E; Ghesani, Munir; Jang, James J; Al-Khalidi, Hussein; Einstein, Andrew J

    2018-01-01

    This study sought to determine updated conversion factors (k-factors) that would enable accurate estimation of radiation effective dose (ED) for coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) and calcium scoring performed on 12 contemporary scanner models and current clinical cardiac protocols and to compare these methods to the standard chest k-factor of 0.014 mSv·mGy -1 cm -1 . Accurate estimation of ED from cardiac CT scans is essential to meaningfully compare the benefits and risks of different cardiac imaging strategies and optimize test and protocol selection. Presently, ED from cardiac CT is generally estimated by multiplying a scanner-reported parameter, the dose-length product, by a k-factor which was determined for noncardiac chest CT, using single-slice scanners and a superseded definition of ED. Metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor radiation detectors were positioned in organs of anthropomorphic phantoms, which were scanned using all cardiac protocols, 120 clinical protocols in total, on 12 CT scanners representing the spectrum of scanners from 5 manufacturers (GE, Hitachi, Philips, Siemens, Toshiba). Organ doses were determined for each protocol, and ED was calculated as defined in International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 103. Effective doses and scanner-reported dose-length products were used to determine k-factors for each scanner model and protocol. k-Factors averaged 0.026 mSv·mGy -1 cm -1 (95% confidence interval: 0.0258 to 0.0266) and ranged between 0.020 and 0.035 mSv·mGy -1 cm -1 . The standard chest k-factor underestimates ED by an average of 46%, ranging from 30% to 60%, depending on scanner, mode, and tube potential. Factors were higher for prospective axial versus retrospective helical scan modes, calcium scoring versus coronary CTA, and higher (100 to 120 kV) versus lower (80 kV) tube potential and varied among scanner models (range of average k-factors: 0.0229 to 0.0277 mSv·mGy -1 cm -1 ). Cardiac k-factors

  5. The Length of Residence is Associated with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Foreign-English Teachers in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice Wilfried Obiang-Obounou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is a group of disorders that involve the heart and blood vessels. Acculturation is associated with CVD risk factors among immigrants in Western countries. In this study, the association between acculturation and CVD risk factors was examined among English teachers from Europe and the USA living in Korea. English teachers were defined as those who reported their profession as “English Teacher”. Only English teachers from Europe (UK, and Ireland, n = 81 and North America (Canada and USA, n = 304 were selected. The length of residence and eating Korean ethnic food were used as proxy indicators for acculturation. Gender was associated with hypertension: 17.6% of males self-reported to have the cardiovascular risk factor when compared to females (7.4%. The length of residence in Korea was associated with hypertension (p = 0.045, BMI (p = 0.028, and physical inactivity (p = 0.046. English teachers who had been residing in Korea for more than five years were more likely to report hypertension (OR = 2.16; p = 0.011, smoking (OR = 1.51; p = 0.080, and overweight/obesity (OR = 1.49; p = 0.009 than participants who had been living in Korea for less than five years. This study found evidence of the healthy immigrant effect and less favorable cardiovascular risk profiles among English teachers who have lived in Korea for over five years.

  6. The Contributing Factors to Injury’s Length of Stay in Hospital Among Productive Age Workers in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusianawaty Tana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Injury is one of the factors that contribute to health problems and disabilities. In Indonesia, the data oninjury and its impact are still limited and only focus on formal workers. Methods: This research aimed to describe thecharacteristics of injury by occupation and to identify factors contributed to severity (length of stay in hospital amongproductive age workers in Indonesia, using the data of National Health Research (Riskesdas in 2013. Results: We analyzed30.455 data using complex samples at 95% confi dence level. People worked as farmer, fi sherman, labor, entrepreneur,and others had more injuries in 12 months than employee (p = 0.0001. Non traffi c accident as cause of injury was alsohigher in those group of occupations than employee (p = 0.0001. The contributing factors of length of stay in hospital werethe injury with concussion (OR 23.1; 95% CI 9.2–58.1 p = 0.0001, fractures (OR 6.3; 95%CI 4.6–8.6 p = 0.0001, eyeinjury (OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.2–7.3 p = 0.0001, followed by road traffi c accident (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.5–2.9 p = 0.0001, andinjury occurred in the business/industry/construction/farm area (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.2–2.4 p = 0.006. Conclusion: Factorsthat contributed to the length of stay in hospital of the injury were the type of injury, cause of injury, and the area of injury.Recommendation: Efforts to overcome the injury need to be improved, especially for traffi c accidents and injury in thebusiness/industry/construction/farm area.

  7. Multivariate Analysis of Factors Influencing Length of Hospital Stay after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Torabipour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Length of hospital stay (LOS is a key indicator for hospital management. Reducing hospital stay is a priority for all health systems. We aimed to determine the length of hospital stay following Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery (CABG based on its clinical and non-clinical factors. A cross-sectional study of 649 consecutive patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery was conducted in Imam Khomeini and Shariati university hospitals, Tehran, Iran. Data was analyzed by using non-parametric univariate tests and multiple linier regression models. Thirty seven independent variables including pre-operative, intra-operative and post-operative variables were analyzed. Finally, an appropriate model was constructed based on the associated factors. The results showed that 70.3% of the patients were male, and the mean age of the patients was 59.3 ± 10.4 years. The Mean (±SD and median of the LOS were 11.7 ± 7.1 and 9 days, respectively. Of 37 investigated variables, 24 qualitative and quantitative variables were significantly associated with length of stay (p<0.05. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that independent variables including age, medical insurance type, body mass index, and prior myocardial infarction; admission day, admission season, Cross-clamp time, pump usage, admission type, the number of laboratory tests and the number of specialty consultation had more effect on the hospital stay. We concluded that some significant factors influencing hospital stay after CABG were predictable and modifiable by hospital managers and decision makers to manage hospital beds.

  8. Readily Identifiable Risk Factors of Nursing Home Residents' Oral Hygiene: Dementia, Hospice, and Length of Stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Sheryl; Austin, Sophie; Cohen, Lauren; Reed, David; Poole, Patricia; Ward, Kimberly; Sloane, Philip D

    2017-11-01

    The poor oral hygiene of nursing home (NH) residents is a matter of increasing concern, especially because of its relationship with pneumonia and other health events. Because details and related risk factors in this area are scant and providers need to be able to easily identify those residents at most risk, this study comprehensively examined the plaque, gingival, and denture status of NH residents, as well as readily available correlates of those indicators of oral hygiene, including items from the Minimum Data Set (MDS). Oral hygiene assessment and chart abstract conducted on a cross-section of NH residents. NHs in North Carolina (N = 14). NH residents (N = 506). Descriptive data from the MDS and assessments using three standardized measures: the Plaque Index for Long-Term Care (PI-LTC), the Gingival Index for Long-Term Care (GI-LTC), and the Denture Plaque Index (DPI). Oral hygiene scores averaged 1.7 (of 3) for the PI-LTC, 1.5 (of 4) for the GI-LTC, and 2.2 (of 4) for the DPI. Factors most strongly associated with poor oral hygiene scores included having dementia, being on hospice care, and longer stay. MDS ratings of gingivitis differed significantly from oral hygiene assessments. The findings identify resident subgroups at especially high risk of poor oral health who can be targeted in quality improvement efforts related to oral hygiene; they also indicate need to improve the accuracy of how MDS items are completed. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. Can body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and waist-height ratio predict the presence of multiple metabolic risk factors in Chinese subjects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Liping

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is associated with metabolic risk factors. Body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR and waist-height ratio (WHtR are used to predict the risk of obesity related diseases. However, it has not been examined whether these four indicators can detect the clustering of metabolic risk factors in Chinese subjects. Methods There are 772 Chinese subjects in the present study. Metabolic risk factors including high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and glucose intolerance were identified according to the criteria from WHO. All statistical analyses were performed separately according to sex by using the SPSS 12.0. Results BMI, waist circumference and WHtR values were all significantly associated with blood pressure, glucose, triglyceride and also with the number of metabolic risk factors in both male and female subjects (all of P Conclusion The BMI, waist circumference and WHtR values can similarly predict the presence of multiple metabolic risk factors in Chinese subjects.

  10. Cold Ischemia Time is an Important Risk Factor for Post-Liver Transplant Prolonged Length of Stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Evelyn T; Yoeli, Dor; Galvan, N Thao N; Kueht, Michael L; Cotton, Ronald T; O'Mahony, Christine A; Goss, John A; Rana, Abbas

    2018-02-24

    Risk analysis of cold ischemia time (CIT) in liver transplantation has largely focused on patient and graft survival. Post-transplant length of stay is a sensitive marker of morbidity and cost. We hypothesize that CIT is a risk factor for post-transplant prolonged length of stay (PLOS) and aim to conduct an hour-by-hour analysis of CIT and PLOS. We retrospectively reviewed all adult, first-time liver transplants between March 2002 and September 2016 in the United Network for Organ Sharing database. 67,426 recipients were categorized by hourly CIT increments. Multivariable logistic regression of PLOS (defined as > 30 days), CIT groups, and an extensive list of confounding variables was performed. Linear regression between length of stay and CIT as continuous variables was also performed. CIT 1-6 hours was protective against PLOS, while CIT greater than 7 hours was associated with increased odds for PLOS. The lowest odds for PLOS were observed with 1-2 (odds ratio (OR) = 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45-0.92) and 2-3 hours (OR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.55-0.78) of CIT. OR for PLOS steadily increased with increasing CIT, reaching the greatest odds for PLOS with 13-14 hours (OR = 2.05, 95% CI 1.57-2.67) and 15-16 hours (OR = 2.06, 95% CI 1.27-3.33) of CIT. Linear regression revealed a positive correlation between length of stay and cold ischemia time with a correlation coefficient of +0.35 (p < 0.001). Post-liver transplant length of stay is sensitive to CIT, with substantial increase in the odds of PLOS observed with nearly every additional hour of cold ischemia. We conclude that CIT should be minimized to protect against the morbidity and cost associated with post-transplant PLOS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  11. Software Development for Estimating the Conversion Factor (K-Factor) at Suitable Scan Areas, Relating the Dose Length Product to the Effective Dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masanao; Asada, Yasuki; Matsubara, Kosuke; Suzuki, Syouichi; Koshida, Kichiro; Matsunaga, Yuta; Kawaguchi, Ai; Haba, Tomonobu; Toyama, Hiroshi; Kato, Ryouichi

    2017-05-01

    We developed a k-factor-creator software (kFC) that provides the k-factor for CT examination in an arbitrary scan area. It provides the k-factor from the effective dose and dose-length product by Imaging Performance Assessment of CT scanners and CT-EXPO. To assess the reliability, we compared the kFC-evaluated k-factors with those of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) publication 102. To confirm the utility, the effective dose determined by coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) was evaluated by a phantom study and k-factor studies. In the CCTA, the effective doses were 5.28 mSv in the phantom study, 2.57 mSv (51%) in the k-factor of ICRP, and 5.26 mSv (1%) in the k-factor of the kFC. Effective doses can be determined from the kFC-evaluated k-factors in suitable scan areas. Therefore, we speculate that the flexible k-factor is useful in clinical practice, because CT examinations are performed in various scan regions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Software development for estimating the conversion factor (k-factor) at suitable scan areas, relating the dose length product to the effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masanao; Asada, Yasuki; Suzuki, Syouichi; Kato, Ryouichi; Matsubara, Kosuke; Koshida, Kichiro; Matsunaga, Yuta; Kawaguchi, Ai; Haba, Tomonobu; Toyama, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    We developed a k-factor-creator software (kFC) that provides the k-factor for CT examination in an arbitrary scan area. It provides the k-factor from the effective dose and dose-length product by Imaging Performance Assessment of CT scanners and CT-EXPO. To assess the reliability, we compared the kFC-evaluated k-factors with those of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) publication 102. To confirm the utility, the effective dose determined by coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) was evaluated by a phantom study and k-factor studies. In the CCTA, the effective doses were 5.28 mSv in the phantom study, 2.57 mSv (51%) in the k-factor of ICRP, and 5.26 mSv (1%) in the k-factor of the kFC. Effective doses can be determined from the kFC-evaluated k-factors in suitable scan areas. Therefore, we speculate that the flexible k-factor is useful in clinical practice, because CT examinations are performed in various scan regions. (authors)

  13. Length-weight relation and condition factor of @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@ in the Cochin Backwater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.; Nair, K.K.C.; Balasubramanian, T.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Aravindakshan, P.N.; Kutty, M.K.

    Length-weight relation and condition factor of @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@ were estimated using samples from Cochin backwater. Statistical tests support the view that the length-weight exponent of these species may be species...

  14. Fear of heights and visual height intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Thomas; Huppert, Doreen

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this review is, first, to cover the different aspects of visual height intolerance such as historical descriptions, definition of terms, phenomenology of the condition, neurophysiological control of gaze, stance and locomotion, and therapy, and, second, to identify warranted epidemiological and experimental studies. Vivid descriptions of fear of heights can be found in ancient texts from the Greek, Roman, and Chinese classics. The life-time prevalence of visual height intolerance is as high as 28% in the general population, and about 50% of those who are susceptible report an impact on quality of life. When exposed to heights, visual exploration by eye and head movements is restricted, and the velocity of locomotion is reduced. Therapy for fear of heights is dominated by the behavioral techniques applied during real or virtual reality exposure. Their efficacy might be facilitated by the administration of D-cycloserine or glucocorticoids. Visual height intolerance has a considerable impact on daily life and interpersonal interactions. It is much more frequent than fear of heights, which is defined as an environmental subtype of a specific phobia. There is certainly a continuum stretching from acrophobia to a less-pronounced visual height intolerance, to which the categorical distinction of a specific phobia does not apply.

  15. Studies on the growth of penaeid prawns: 1. Length-weight relation and condition factor under different levels of feeding

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Iyer, H.K.; Devi, C.B.L.; Kutty, M.K.

    Length-weight relation and earthworm feeding conditions under different levels for @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@ were estimated. Length-weight exponent in both species was unaffected by the feeding levels and the consequent...

  16. Is Waist-to-Height Ratio a Better Obesity Risk-Factor Indicator for Puerto Rican Children than is BMI or Waist Circumference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Soto, Winna T; Rodríguez-Figueroa, Linnette

    2016-03-01

    Puerto Rican children could have a higher prevalence of obesity, compared to US children or even to US Hispanic children. Obese youths are more likely to have risk factors for cardiovascular conditions, such as hypertension. Although BMI provides a simple, convenient measurement of obesity, it does not measure body fat distribution, associated with mortality and morbidity. Waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) have been suggested to estimate obesity health risks. This study aimed to explore the association of a single blood pressure reading with 3 different obesity indicators (WC, BMI, and WHtR). A representative sample of students (first to sixth grade) from public and private schools in Puerto Rico was selected. The sample size consisted of 249 students, representing a 63% response rate. According to the sex-specific BMIs, approximately 38.1% of the children were obese or overweight. The prevalence of obesity was slightly higher when determined using WHtR but lower when using WC as the overweight indicator. The prevalence of high blood pressure among students was 12.5%; an additional 11.3% of the students were classified as possible prehypertensive. Regardless of the weight indicator used, overweight children were shown to have a higher risk of pre-hypertension/hypertension (as defined by a single BP measure) than were non-overweight children. The odds for high blood pressure were almost 3 times higher using WHtR. Logistic regression showed a stronger relationship between WHtR and the risk of pre-hypertension/hypertension than that between the former and either BMI or WC. This study suggests the possibility of higher prevalence of high blood pressure in obese Puerto Rican children. The waist-to height ratio could be the best indicator to measure obesity and potential hypertension in Puerto Rican children.

  17. Foot length before and during insulin-like growth factor-I treatment of children with laron syndrome compared to human growth hormone treatment of children with isolated growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbergeld, Aviva; Lilos, Pearl; Laron, Zvi

    2007-12-01

    To compare foot length deficits between patients with Laron syndrome (LS) (primary growth hormone [GH] insensitivity) and congenital isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) and their response to replacement therapy with insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and hGH, respectively. Data for the study were collected from the records of nine children with LS (3 M, 6 F) 7.8 +/- 4.8 years old (mean +/- SD), and nine children with IGHD (3 M, 6 F), 3.8 +/- 3.3 years old. Fifteen non-treated adult patients with LS were also included in the study. Measurements of foot length were recorded without treatment and monitored during 9 years of treatment in the children and in the untreated adult patients. For statistical analysis the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was used. With almost similar basal values in growth deficit and pre-treatment growth velocities, the achievements towards norms after 9 years of treatment were greater in the patients with IGHD than in the patients with LS: foot length reached -1.4 +/- 0.8 vs. -3.3 +/- 1.0 SDS (mean +/- SD), and body height -2.2 +/- 1.0 vs. -3.9 +/- 0.5 SDS. The difference between the two groups could be due to the initiation of replacement therapy in the patients with IGHD at a younger age. Adult foot size of untreated patients with LS is small but less retarded than the height deficit. Both IGF-I and hGH are potent growth stimulating hormones of linear growth and acrae as exemplified by foot growth.

  18. Influence of contact height on the performance of vertically aligned carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jingqi; Cheng, Yingchun; Guo, Zaibing; Wang, Zhihong; Zhu, Zhiyong; Zhang, Qing; Chan-Park, Chanpark; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Zhang, Xixiang

    2013-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) have been experimentally demonstrated (J. Li et al., Carbon, 2012, 50, 4628-4632). The source and drain contact heights in vertical CNTFETs could be much higher than in flat CNTFETs if the fabrication process is not optimized. To understand the impact of contact height on transistor performance, we use a semi-classical method to calculate the characteristics of CNTFETs with different contact heights. The results show that the drain current decreases with increasing contact height and saturates at a value governed by the thickness of the oxide. The current reduction caused by the increased contact height becomes more significant when the gate oxide is thicker. The higher the drain voltage, the larger the current reduction. It becomes even worse when the band gap of the carbon nanotube is larger. The current can differ by a factor of more than five between the CNTEFTs with low and high contact heights when the oxide thickness is 50 nm. In addition, the influence of the contact height is limited by the channel length. The contact height plays a minor role when the channel length is less than 100 nm. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. A Novel mouse model of enhanced proteostasis: Full-length human heat shock factor 1 transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, Anson; Wei, Rochelle; Halade, Dipti; Yoo, Si-Eun; Ran, Qitao; Richardson, Arlan

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Development of mouse overexpressing native human HSF1 in all tissues including CNS. → HSF1 overexpression enhances heat shock response at whole-animal and cellular level. → HSF1 overexpression protects from polyglutamine toxicity and favors aggresomes. → HSF1 overexpression enhances proteostasis at the whole-animal and cellular level. -- Abstract: The heat shock response (HSR) is controlled by the master transcriptional regulator heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). HSF1 maintains proteostasis and resistance to stress through production of heat shock proteins (HSPs). No transgenic model exists that overexpresses HSF1 in tissues of the central nervous system (CNS). We generated a transgenic mouse overexpressing full-length non-mutant HSF1 and observed a 2-4-fold increase in HSF1 mRNA and protein expression in all tissues studied of HSF1 transgenic (HSF1 +/0 ) mice compared to wild type (WT) littermates, including several regions of the CNS. Basal expression of HSP70 and 90 showed only mild tissue-specific changes; however, in response to forced exercise, the skeletal muscle HSR was more elevated in HSF1 +/0 mice compared to WT littermates and in fibroblasts following heat shock, as indicated by levels of inducible HSP70 mRNA and protein. HSF1 +/0 cells elicited a significantly more robust HSR in response to expression of the 82 repeat polyglutamine-YFP fusion construct (Q82YFP) and maintained proteasome-dependent processing of Q82YFP compared to WT fibroblasts. Overexpression of HSF1 was associated with fewer, but larger Q82YFP aggregates resembling aggresomes in HSF1 +/0 cells, and increased viability. Therefore, our data demonstrate that tissues and cells from mice overexpressing full-length non-mutant HSF1 exhibit enhanced proteostasis.

  20. ESTIMATION OF YELLOWFIN TUNA PRODUCTION LANDED IN BENOA PORT WITH WEIGHT-WEIGHT, LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIPS AND CONDITION FACTOR APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Jatmiko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares is one of the important catch for the fishing industry in Indonesia. Length-weight relationship study is one of important tools to support fisheries management. However it could not be done to yellowfin tuna landed in Benoa port since they are in the form of gilled-gutted condition. The objectives of this study are to determine the relationship between gilled-gutted weight (GW and whole weight (WW, to calculate length weight relationship between fork length (FL and estimated whole weight (WW and to assess the relative condition factor (Kn of yellowfin tuna in Eastern Indian Ocean. Data were collected from three landing sites i.e. Malang, East Java; Benoa, Bali and Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara from January 2013 to February 2014. Linear regression analysis applied to test the significance baseline between weight-weight relationships and log transformed length weight relationship. Relative condition factor (Kn used to identify fish condition among length groups and months. The results showed a significant positive linear relationships between whole weight (WW and gilled-gutted weight (GW of T. albacares (p<0.001. There was a significant positive linier relationships between log transformed fork length and log transformed whole weight of T. albacares (p<0.001. Relative condition factor (Kn showed declining pattern along with length increase and varied among months. The findings from this study provide data for management of yellowfin tuna stock and population.

  1. Association of the Waist-to-Height Ratio with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children and Adolescents: The Three Cities Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robespierre C Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the best anthropometric index in relation tocardiovascular disease risk factors among children and adolescents.Methods: This cross-sectional school-based study was conductedamong a random sample of 3179 students, aged 6 to 18 years, in threelarge cities in Brazil.Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 10% and 5%,respectively. In relation to the students in the lower quartile (Q1 of thedistribution of subscapular skinfold, the students in the upper quartile(Q4 presented a 2.0 times higher risk (odds ratio of having elevatedtotal cholesterol levels. Overweight and obese students had a 3.3 timeshigher risk of having elevated systolic blood pressure, and a 1.9 timeshigher risk of elevated diastolic blood pressure than other students.The less active students presented a 1.58 times higher risk of havingwaist-to-height ratio (WHtR above the upper tertile (Q3. WHtR meanvalues was 0.46 (SE 0.00 presented the largest area under the curve(AUC [0.613 (CI995%:0.578-0.647] for high total cholesterol levels,[0.546 (CI995%: 0.515-0.578] for low HDL-C levels, and [0.614(CI95%: 0.577-0.651] for high LDL-C levels, while body mass indexpresented the largest AUC [0.669 (CI95%: 0.64-0.699] for increaseddiastolic blood pressure followed by the waist circumference for increasedsystolic blood pressure [0.761 (CI95%: 0.735-0.787].Conclusions: WHtR is considered as a simple and accurate anthropometricparameter that identifies youth with cardiovascular risk factors.In this study, WHtR above 0.44 was indicative of risk factors inchildren and adolescents. These findings can be applied in future preventivestrategies against CVDs, and screening programs.

  2. TH-CD-207B-06: Swank Factor of Segmented Scintillators in Multi-Slice CT Detectors: Pulse Height Spectra and Light Escape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howansky, A; Peng, B; Lubinsky, A; Zhao, W [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Pulse height spectra (PHS) have been used to determine the Swank factor of a scintillator by measuring fluctuations in its light output per x-ray interaction. The Swank factor and x-ray quantum efficiency of a scintillator define the upper limit to its imaging performance, i.e. DQE(0). The Swank factor below the K-edge is dominated by optical properties, i.e. variations in light escape efficiency from different depths of interaction, denoted e(z). These variations can be optimized to improve tradeoffs in x-ray absorption, light yield, and spatial resolution. This work develops a quantitative model for interpreting measured PHS, and estimating e(z) on an absolute scale. The method is used to investigate segmented ceramic GOS scintillators used in multi-slice CT detectors. Methods: PHS of a ceramic GOS plate (1 mm thickness) and segmented GOS array (1.4 mm thick) were measured at 46 keV. Signal and noise propagation through x-ray conversion gain, light escape, detection by a photomultiplier tube and dynode amplification were modeled using a cascade of stochastic gain stages. PHS were calculated with these expressions and compared to measurements. Light escape parameters were varied until modeled PHS agreed with measurements. The resulting estimates of e(z) were used to calculate PHS without measurement noise to determine the inherent Swank factor. Results: The variation in e(z) was 67.2–89.7% in the plate and 40.2–70.8% in the segmented sample, corresponding to conversion gains of 28.6–38.1 keV{sup −1} and 17.1–30.1 keV{sup −1}, respectively. The inherent Swank factors of the plate and segmented sample were 0.99 and 0.95, respectively. Conclusion: The high light escape efficiency in the ceramic GOS samples yields high Swank factors and DQE(0) in CT applications. The PHS model allows the intrinsic optical properties of scintillators to be deduced from PHS measurements, thus it provides new insights for evaluating the imaging performance of

  3. Weight-length relationship, condition factor and blood parameters of farmed Cichla temensis Humboldt, 1821 (Cichlidae in central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Tavares-Dias

    Full Text Available Farming of native carnivore fish species has drawn attention due to their promising use in aquaculture. Among these species, tucunaré of the genus Cichla stand out, them being of high economical interest for sport fishing and Amazon's industry of ornamental fish. The present study describes the weight-length relationship (WLR, relative condition factor (Kn, red blood cell parameters, thrombocytes and leukocytes count of Cichla temensis Humboldt, 1821, farmed in central Amazon. Fish that underwent food training during fingerling culture received extruded ration containing 45% of crude protein during fattening, and had Kn with values from 0.925-1.199, which indicated good health condition during the culture. The equation obtained from the WLR was W = 0.0073Lt3.1435, indicating an isometric growth, which is the desirable for fish of fish farm. Red blood cell counts, total thrombocyte and leukocyte counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, concentration of mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCHC, lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils had intra-specific variation. A significant (p<0.001 positive correlation of the red blood cells number with the hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit was found. These are the first sets of blood parameters for C. temensis and could be used as reference for comparison in further studies to evaluate the health status of this fish in different environments, because assessment of these parameters may be used as quick tool for diagnosing diseases, stress and malnutrition.

  4. Factors associated to the length of time on mechanical ventilation in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fonseca

    Full Text Available Our objective was to identify factors associated with the duration of mechanical ventilation (MV postoperative to cardiac surgery and assess the association between duration of endotracheal intubation, length of stay in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU and hospital. Longitudinal, retrospective study of medical records of 116 adults undergoing cardiac surgery from March 2012 to May 2013. The mean age was 57±14 years, predominantly male and coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (52.6%. The MV time was 15.25(7.66 to 23.68 hours. Associated with longer MV was the age (r=0.5,p<0.001, comorbidities (r=0.344,p<0.001, cardiopulmonary bypass time (r=0.244,p=0.008, duration of continuous sedation (r=0.607,p<0.001, sedative doses (r=0.4, p<0.001, time of vasoconstrictors and vasodilators (r=0.711, p< 0.001, r=0.368, p<0.001, drainage of the 1st time (r=0.201, p<0.031, presence of drains (r=0.445, p<0.001, postoperative complications (r=0.524, p< 0.001 and hospital stay. Our data confirms that both preoperative, transoperative and postoperative variables prolong the VM and therefore the hospital stay.

  5. Factors Associated with a Prolonged Length of Hospital Stay in Patients with Diabetic Foot: A Single-Center Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang Kyu; Kim, Cheol Keun; Jo, Dong In; Lee, Myung Chul; Kim, Jee Nam; Choi, Hyun Gon; Shin, Dong Hyeok; Kim, Soon Heum

    2017-11-01

    We conducted this study to identify factors that may prolong the length of the hospital stay (LHS) in patients with diabetic foot (DF) in a single-institution setting. In this single-center retrospective study, we evaluated a total of 164 patients with DF, and conducted an intergroup comparison of their baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, including sex, age, duration of diabetes, smoking status, body mass index, underlying comorbidities (e.g., hypertension or diabetic nephropathy), wound characteristics,type of surgery, the total medical cost, white blood cell (WBC) count, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and albumin, protein, glycated hemoglobin, and 7-day mean blood glucose (BG) levels. Pearson correlation analysis showed that an LHS of >5 weeks had a significant positive correlation with the severity of the wound (r=0.647), WBC count (r=0.571), CRP levels (r=0.390), DN (r=0.020), and 7-day mean BG levels (r=0.120) (PLHS of >5 weeks had a significant positive correlation with the severity of the wound (odds ratio [OR]=3.297; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.324-10.483; P=0.020), WBC count (OR=1.423; 95% CI, 0.046-0.356; P=0.000), CRP levels (OR=1.079; 95% CI, 1.015-1.147; P=0.014), albumin levels (OR=0.263; 95% CI, 0.113-3.673; P=0.007), and 7-day mean BG levels (OR=1.018; 95% CI, 1.001-1.035; P=0.020). Surgeons should consider the factors associated with a prolonged LHS in the early management of patients with DF. Moreover, this should also be accompanied by a multidisciplinary approach to reducing the LHS.

  6. Factors Associated with a Prolonged Length of Hospital Stay in Patients with Diabetic Foot: A Single-Center Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Kyu Choi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background We conducted this study to identify factors that may prolong the length of the hospital stay (LHS in patients with diabetic foot (DF in a single-institution setting. Methods In this single-center retrospective study, we evaluated a total of 164 patients with DF, and conducted an intergroup comparison of their baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, including sex, age, duration of diabetes, smoking status, body mass index, underlying comorbidities (e.g., hypertension or diabetic nephropathy, wound characteristics,type of surgery, the total medical cost, white blood cell (WBC count, C-reactive protein (CRP levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and albumin, protein, glycated hemoglobin, and 7-day mean blood glucose (BG levels. Results Pearson correlation analysis showed that an LHS of >5 weeks had a significant positive correlation with the severity of the wound (r=0.647, WBC count (r=0.571, CRP levels (r=0.390, DN (r=0.020, and 7-day mean BG levels (r=0.120 (P5 weeks had a significant positive correlation with the severity of the wound (odds ratio [OR]=3.297; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.324–10.483; P=0.020, WBC count (OR=1.423; 95% CI, 0.046–0.356; P=0.000, CRP levels (OR=1.079; 95% CI, 1.015–1.147; P=0.014, albumin levels (OR=0.263; 95% CI, 0.113–3.673; P=0.007, and 7-day mean BG levels (OR=1.018; 95% CI, 1.001–1.035; P=0.020. Conclusions Surgeons should consider the factors associated with a prolonged LHS in the early management of patients with DF. Moreover, this should also be accompanied by a multidisciplinary approach to reducing the LHS.

  7. Depressive and anxiety disorders and short leukocyte telomere length: mediating effects of metabolic stress and lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Révész, D; Verhoeven, J E; Milaneschi, Y; Penninx, B W J H

    2016-08-01

    Depressive and anxiety disorders are associated with shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL), an indicator of cellular aging. It is, however, unknown which pathways underlie this association. This study examined the extent to which lifestyle factors and physiological changes such as inflammatory or metabolic alterations mediate the relationship. We applied mediation analysis techniques to data from 2750 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. LTL was assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Independent variables were current depressive (30-item Inventory of Depressive Symptoms - Self Report) and anxiety (21-item Beck's Anxiety Inventory) symptoms and presence of a depressive or anxiety disorder diagnosis based on DSM-IV; mediator variables included physiological stress systems, metabolic syndrome components and lifestyle factors. Short LTL was associated with higher symptom severity (B = -2.4, p = 0.002) and current psychiatric diagnosis (B = -63.3, p = 0.024). C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cigarette smoking were significant mediators in the relationship between psychopathology and LTL. When all significant mediators were included in one model, the effect sizes of the relationships between LTL and symptom severity and current diagnosis were reduced by 36.7 and 32.7%, respectively, and the remaining direct effects were no longer significant. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, metabolic alterations and cigarette smoking are important mediators of the association between depressive and anxiety disorders and LTL. This calls for future research on intervention programs that take into account lifestyle changes in mental health care settings.

  8. The Length-Weight, Length-Length Relationship and Condition Factor of Angora Loach, Oxynoemacheilus angorae (Steindachner, 1897 Inhabiting Kılıçözü Stream in Kızılırmak River Basin (Central Anatolia-Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Yazıcıoğlu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, length-weight relationship (LWR, length- length relationship (LLR and condition factor (K of Angora loach, Oxynoemacheilus angorae were determined. A total of 103 specimens were sampled from Kılıçözü Stream in 2014. The length and weight of specimens were ranged 3.5-9.8 cm and 0.38-6.58 g, respectively. Length-weight relationships for female, male and all samples were found as W= 0.01056.TL2.896 (r²= 0.923, W= 0.00963.TL2.940 (r²= 0.978 and W= 0.00987.TL2.929 (r²= 0.963, respectively. LWRs indicated an isometric growth in female, male and all samples. The values of Fulton’s condition factor (K ranged from 0.699 to 1.246 for females and from 0.654 to 1.072 for males. All length-length relationships were statistically significant.

  9. Temperature and voltage dependence of barrier height and ideality factor in Au/0.07 graphene-doped PVA/n-Si structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altındal Yerişkin, S.; Balbaşı, M.; Demirezen, S.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, Au/0.07 graphene-doped PVA/n-Si structures were fabricated and current conduction mechanism in these structures were investigated in the temperature range of 80-380 K through forward bias current-voltage ( I- V) measurements. Main electrical parameters were extracted from I-V data. Zero-bias barrier height (\\overline{Φ}_{B0}) and ideality factor (n) were found strong functions of temperature and their values ranged from 0.234 eV and 4.98 (at 80 K) to 0.882 eV and 1.15 (at 380 K), respectively. Φ ap versus q/2k T plot was drawn to obtain an evidence of a Gaussian distribution of the barrier heights (BHs) and it revealed two distinct linear regions with different slopes and intercepts. The mean values of BH ( Φ Bo) and zero-bias standard deviation (σ s ) were obtained from the intercept and slope of the linear regions of this plot as 1.30 eV and 0.16 V for the first region (280-380 K) and 0.74 eV and 0.085 V for the second region (80-240 K), respectively. Thus, the values of \\overline{Φ}_{B0} and effective Richardson constant ( A*) were also found from the intercept and slope of the modified Richardson plot [ln( I s /T 2) - q 2 σ o 2 /2k 2 T 2 vs q/ kT] as 1.31 eV and 130 A/cm2 K2 for the first region and 0.76 eV and 922 A/cm2 K2 for the second region, respectively. The value of A* for the first region was very close to the theoretical value for n-Si (112 A/cm2 K2). The energy density distribution profile of surface states (Nss) was also extracted from the forward bias I-V data by taking into account voltage dependent effective BH (Φe) and n.

  10. Association of the waist-to-height ratio with cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents: The three cities heart study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robespierre C Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the best anthropometric index in rela-tion to cardiovascular disease risk factors among children and adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional school-based study was conducted among a random sample of 3179 students, aged 6 to 18 years, in three large cities in Brazil. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 10% and 5%, respectively. In relation to the students in the lower quartile (Q1 of the distribution of subscapular skinfold, the students in the upper quartile (Q4 presented a 2.0 times higher risk (odds ratio of having elevated total cholesterol levels. Overweight and obese students had a 3.3 times higher risk of having elevated sys-tolic blood pressure, and a 1.9 times higher risk of elevated diastolic blood pressure than other students. The less active students presented a 1.58 times higher risk of having waist-to-height ratio (WHtR above the upper tertile (Q3. WHtR mean values was 0.46 (SE 0.00 presented the largest area under the curve (AUC [0.613 (CI995%:0.578-0.647] for high total cholesterol levels, [0.546 (CI995%: 0.515-0.578] for low HDL-C levels, and [0.614 (CI95%: 0.577-0.651] for high LDL-C levels, while body mass index presented the largest AUC [0.669 (CI95%: 0.64-0.699] for increased diastolic blood pressure followed by the waist circum-ference for increased systolic blood pressure [0.761 (CI95%: 0.735-0.787]. Conclusions: WHtR is considered as a simple and accurate anthropometric parameter that identifies youth with cardiovascular risk factors. In this study, WHtR above 0.44 was indicative of risk factors in children and adolescents. These findings can be applied in future preventive strategies against CVDs, and screening pro-grams.

  11. Factors influencing the pattern of malnutrition among acutely ill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing the pattern of malnutrition among acutely ill children presenting in ... height/length) measurements and z-scores calculated for the individual nutritional ... The factors associated with malnutrition included early introduction of ...

  12. Cross-Sectional Association between Length of Incarceration and Selected Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases in Two Male Prisons of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman-Retana, Omar; Lopez-Ridaura, Ruy; Servan-Mori, Edson; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Bertozzi, Stefano M

    2015-01-01

    Mexico City prisons are characterized by overcrowded facilities and poor living conditions for housed prisoners. Chronic disease profile is characterized by low prevalence of self reported hypertension (2.5%) and diabetes (1.8%) compared to general population; 9.5% of male inmates were obese. There is limited evidence regarding on the exposure to prison environment over prisoner's health status; particularly, on cardiovascular disease risk factors. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between length of incarceration and selected risk factors for non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs). We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from two large male prisons in Mexico City (n = 14,086). Using quantile regression models we assessed the relationship between length of incarceration and selected risk factors for NCDs; stratified analysis by age at admission to prison was performed. We found a significant negative trend in BMI and WC across incarceration length quintiles. BP had a significant positive trend with a percentage change increase around 5% mmHg. The greatest increase in systolic blood pressure was observed in the older age at admission group. This analysis provides insight into the relationship between length of incarceration and four selected risk factors for NCDs; screening for high blood pressure should be guarantee in order to identify at risk individuals and linked to the prison's health facility. It is important to assess prison environment features to approach potential risk for developing NCDs in this context.

  13. Cross-Sectional Association between Length of Incarceration and Selected Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases in Two Male Prisons of Mexico City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Silverman-Retana

    Full Text Available Mexico City prisons are characterized by overcrowded facilities and poor living conditions for housed prisoners. Chronic disease profile is characterized by low prevalence of self reported hypertension (2.5% and diabetes (1.8% compared to general population; 9.5% of male inmates were obese. There is limited evidence regarding on the exposure to prison environment over prisoner's health status; particularly, on cardiovascular disease risk factors. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between length of incarceration and selected risk factors for non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs.We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from two large male prisons in Mexico City (n = 14,086. Using quantile regression models we assessed the relationship between length of incarceration and selected risk factors for NCDs; stratified analysis by age at admission to prison was performed. We found a significant negative trend in BMI and WC across incarceration length quintiles. BP had a significant positive trend with a percentage change increase around 5% mmHg. The greatest increase in systolic blood pressure was observed in the older age at admission group.This analysis provides insight into the relationship between length of incarceration and four selected risk factors for NCDs; screening for high blood pressure should be guarantee in order to identify at risk individuals and linked to the prison's health facility. It is important to assess prison environment features to approach potential risk for developing NCDs in this context.

  14. NcoI restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF alpha) region in primary biliary cirrhosis and in healthy Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugger, L; Morling, N; Ryder, L P

    1989-01-01

    The restriction fragment length polymorphism of the human tumour necrosis factor (TNF alpha) region was investigated by means of 20 different restriction enzymes and a human TNF alpha cDNA probe. Only one of the enzymes, NcoI, revealed a polymorphic pattern consisting of fragments of 10.5 and 5.5...

  15. Fundamental length and relativistic length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem

  16. Early survival and height growth of Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine seedlings and variations in site factors following treatment of logging residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Lopushlnsky; D. Zabowskl; T.D. Anderson

    1992-01-01

    Logging residues were broadcast burned, piled and burned, removed, or left in place after clearcutting in a high-elevation subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) forest in north-central Washington. Survival, height growth and foliar nutrient content of planted Douglas-fir...

  17. Birth Weight and Length as Predictors for Adult Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Sabroe, Svend; Rothman, Kenneth J.

    1999-01-01

    . They conducted the study in the fifth conscription district of Denmark including all the men born after January 1, 1973 who were residents in the study area during the period August 1, 1993 to July 31, 1994. The Danish Medical Birth Register contains information on all births in Denmark since January 1, 1973...

  18. Width, Length, and Height Conceptions of Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güven, N. Dilsad; Argün, Ziya

    2018-01-01

    Teaching responsive to the needs of students with learning disabilities (LD) can be provided through understanding students' conceptions and their ways of learning. The current research, as a case study based on qualitative design, aimed to investigate the conceptions of students with learning disabilities with regard to the different…

  19. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  20. Psychosocial factors predicting length of hospitalization in elderly individuals with diabetes in selected hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran, in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omeleila Baharlooei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Currently, researchers seek to identify factors related to length of hospital stay in elderly in order to reduce burden on the health system. The importance of either physiological or psychological factors in determining health outcomes has been well stablished; however, the possible contribution of psychosocial factors particularly in elderly patients with diabetes is also of special importance. This study aimed to know what psychosocial variables predicts length of hospital stay in elderly patients with diabetes. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, correlational study conducted on 150 elderly patients from July-October 2015. Convenient sampling method was used to recruit the subjects. The data was collected by a three-part questionnaire consisted of demographic and health related characteristics, 21-item depression anxiety stress scale (DASS-21 and multidimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS. RESULTS: The mean ± standard deviation of length of hospital stay was 15.6 ± 7.7 days. Findings from multiple regression analysis showed that the models of predicting length of hospital stay in subgroups of both women (P = 0.001, F6,77 = 4.45 and men (P = 0.03, F6,71 = 2.43 were significant. The entered variables in subgroups of women and men accounted for 27% and 18% of total variance (R2 of the length of hospital stay, respectively. None of the psychosocial variables in women significantly predicted the lengths of hospital stay. However, one out of three predicting psychosocial variables (i.e. stress in men significantly predicted the length of hospital stay (β = 0.39, t = 2.1, P = 0.04. CONCLUSION: The results emphasized the importance of promoting social support of elderly patients with diabetes, particularly in patients who are women, have higher levels of stress, have higher period of disease and a history of hospitalization in the past 6 months in order to lower length of hospital stay and finally promote health status

  1. Mixed-mode stress intensity factors for kink cracks with finite kink length loaded in tension and bending: application to dentin and enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtle, Sabine; Fett, Theo; Rizzi, Gabriele; Habelitz, Stefan; Schneider, Gerold A

    2010-05-01

    Fracture toughness resistance curves describe a material's resistance against crack propagation. These curves are often used to characterize biomaterials like bone, nacre or dentin as these materials commonly exhibit a pronounced increase in fracture toughness with crack extension due to co-acting mechanisms such as crack bridging, crack deflection and microcracking. The knowledge of appropriate stress intensity factors which depend on the sample and crack geometry is essential for determining these curves. For the dental biomaterials enamel and dentin it was observed that, under bending and tensile loading, crack propagation occurs under certain constant angles to the initial notch direction during testing procedures used for fracture resistance curve determination. For this special crack geometry (a kink crack of finite length in a finite body) appropriate geometric function solutions are missing. Hence, we present in this study new mixed-mode stress intensity factors for kink cracks with finite kink length within samples of finite dimensions for two loading cases (tension and bending) which were derived from a combination of mixed-mode stress intensity factors of kink cracks with infinitely small kinks and of slant cracks. These results were further applied to determine the fracture resistance curves of enamel and dentin by testing single edge notched bending (SENB) specimens. It was found that kink cracks with finite kink length exhibit identical stress fields to slant cracks as soon as the kink length exceeds 0.15 times the initial straight crack or notch length. The use of stress intensity factor solutions for infinitely small kink cracks for the determination of dentin fracture resistance curves (as was done by other researchers) leads to an overestimation of dentin's fracture resistance of up to 30%. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Imagery and fear influence height perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Elise M; Cody, Meghan W; Stefanucci, Jeanine K; Proffitt, Dennis R; Teachman, Bethany A

    2009-04-01

    The current study tested whether height overestimation is related to height fear and influenced by images of falling. To assess perceptual biases, participants high (n=65) versus low (n=64) in height fear estimated the vertical extents of two balconies using a visual matching task. On one of the balconies, participants engaged in an imagery exercise designed to enhance the subjective sense that they were acting in a dangerous environment by picturing themselves falling. As expected, we found that individuals overestimated the balcony's height more after they imagined themselves falling, particularly if they were already afraid of heights. These findings suggest that height fear may serve as a vulnerability factor that leads to perceptual biases when triggered by a stressor (in this case, images of falling).

  3. Influence of the social and economical factors on the indicators of height and weight among the pupils, residents of the city and villages in eastern Georgia (Kakheti region).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharabadze, M; Khetsuriani, R; Betaneli, M; Mekokishvili, L; Chkuaseli, N

    2012-11-01

    The research has been held in the city and its villages among schoolgirls and schoolboys out of them are city (n=613) and village (n=241) residents. The body height and mass, was calculated according to standard methods. Also research based on questionnaires has been held .This research determines social-economic statement, physical activities and diets of students. Statistical processing of data was done with the help of statistic method ANOVA. Data compared to WHO child grows standard percentage-charts, and to percentile diagram made for georgian children and adolescents in 2001-2003. Concerning the height indexes stunting was noticed among the village resident girls at the age 9-14 (8,9%) and 9-11 year old boys (3,8%) and it also prevails among girls that require further researches to reveal reasons. Also the amount of law height index among girls and boys is high in the cities as well as villages although it prevails in the villages, mostly among boys (30, 8%). Comparing with village residents high height index prevails among the city resident boys (18,7%) and among girls (11, 9%), and higher than 97 percentile indexes is revealed among 4,9% of boys living in the city. Mass deficiency was reveled among the city girls 2,4 % and the village resident girls 5,1%; accordingly it is prevailed among girls living in the villages. Mass deficiency among the boys was only revealed among the city residents and it was 3,9 %. According to our data, decrease of the body mass average index is fixed among girls but among the boys it increase. and among 2,4% of girls. So village resident girls are shorter and thinner, but boys are short and overweight, comparing with the city residents. Research based on questionnaires showed that city resident school children food ration, whose social-economic condition is better, is rich with proteins, when majority of village residents food ration lack proteins and mostly consist of those products which are rich of carbohydrates. According to

  4. Length-weight relationship and condition factor of white shrimp Penaeus merguiensis captured in ecosystem mangrove of Bagan Asahan, Tanjungbalai, Asahan, North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanti, A.; Riza, N.; Raza'i, T. S.

    2018-02-01

    White Shrimp Penaeus merguiensis was commonly found in Mangrove Ecosystem of Bagan Asahan Village. The purpose of this research are to determine length-weight relationship and condition factor of white shrimp Penaeus merguiensis around ecosystem mangrove waters in Bagan Asahan Village. This research was conducted for 3 month in Maret until Mei 2017 with determination of research station used purposive sampling method. The shrimp samples were taken by shrimp trawl. The result showed that 98 shrimp which consists of 58 males and 40 female. The carapace length of female shrimp between 6,05 - 22,125 mm and total weight ranged from 0,12 - 6,95 g. Male shrimp had carapace length between 7.125 - 18.25 mm and total weigth ranged from 0.14 - 3.82 g. Female and male white shrimp had different growth pattern. Female shrimp had b = 2.984 included in negaive allometric and male shrimps with b = 3.187 included in positive allometric. The value of correlation coefficients was more than 90% for both male and female showed very strong relation between length carapace and body weight. The value of shrimp condition factor ranged from 0.570 - 1.773 and included to flat (thin) body shrimp.

  5. Global effects of income and income inequality on adult height and sexual dimorphism in height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogin, Barry; Scheffler, Christiane; Hermanussen, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Average adult height of a population is considered a biomarker of the quality of the health environment and economic conditions. The causal relationships between height and income inequality are not well understood. We analyze data from 169 countries for national average heights of men and women and national-level economic factors to test two hypotheses: (1) income inequality has a greater association with average adult height than does absolute income; and (2) neither income nor income inequality has an effect on sexual dimorphism in height. Average height data come from the NCD-RisC health risk factor collaboration. Economic indicators are derived from the World Bank data archive and include gross domestic product (GDP), Gross National Income per capita adjusted for personal purchasing power (GNI_PPP), and income equality assessed by the Gini coefficient calculated by the Wagstaff method. Hypothesis 1 is supported. Greater income equality is most predictive of average height for both sexes. GNI_PPP explains a significant, but smaller, amount of the variation. National GDP has no association with height. Hypothesis 2 is rejected. With greater average adult height there is greater sexual dimorphism. Findings support a growing literature on the pernicious effects of inequality on growth in height and, by extension, on health. Gradients in height reflect gradients in social disadvantage. Inequality should be considered a pollutant that disempowers people from the resources needed for their own healthy growth and development and for the health and good growth of their children. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Do family history of CHD, education, paternal social class, number of siblings and height explain the association between psychosocial factors at work and coronary heart disease? The Whitehall II study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintsa, T; Shipley, M; Gimeno, D; Elovainio, M; Chandola, T; Jokela, M; Keltikangas-Järvinen, L; Vahtera, J; Marmot, MG; Kivimäki, M

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether the association between psychosocial factors at work and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) is explained by pre-employment factors such as family history of CHD, education, paternal social class, number of siblings and height. Methods A prospective cohort study of 6435 of British men aged 35–55 years at phase 1 (1985–1988) and free from prevalent CHD at phase 2 (1989–1990) was conducted. Psychosocial factors at work were assessed at phases 1 and 2 and mean scores across the two phases were used to determine long-term exposure. Selected pre-employment factors were assessed at phase 1. Follow-up for coronary death, first non-fatal myocardial infarction or definite angina between phase 2 and 1999 was based on clinical records (250 events, follow-up 8.7 years). Results Pre-employment factors were associated with risk for CHD: hazard ratio, HRs (95% CI) were 1.33 (1.03 to 1.73) for family history of CHD, 1.18 (1.05–1.32) for each quartile decrease in height, and marginally 1.16 (0.99–1.35) for each category increase in number of siblings. Psychosocial work factors predicted CHD: 1.72 (1.08–2.74) for low job control and 1.72 (1.10–2.67) for low organisational justice. Adjustment for pre-employment factors changed these associations by 4.1% or less. Conclusions In this well-characterised occupational cohort of British men, the association between psychosocial factors at work and CHD was largely independent of family history of CHD, education, paternal education and social class, number of siblings and height. PMID:19819857

  7. Fundamental length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, T.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of fundamental length was first put forward by Heisenberg from purely dimensional reasons. From a study of the observed masses of the elementary particles known at that time, it is sumrised that this length should be of the order of magnitude 1 approximately 10 -13 cm. It was Heisenberg's belief that introduction of such a fundamental length would eliminate the divergence difficulties from relativistic quantum field theory by cutting off the high energy regions of the 'proper fields'. Since the divergence difficulties arise primarily due to infinite number of degrees of freedom, one simple remedy would be the introduction of a principle that limits these degrees of freedom by removing the effectiveness of the waves with a frequency exceeding a certain limit without destroying the relativistic invariance of the theory. The principle can be stated as follows: It is in principle impossible to invent an experiment of any kind that will permit a distintion between the positions of two particles at rest, the distance between which is below a certain limit. A more elegant way of introducing fundamental length into quantum theory is through commutation relations between two position operators. In quantum field theory such as quantum electrodynamics, it can be introduced through the commutation relation between two interpolating photon fields (vector potentials). (K.B.)

  8. Adult height, nutrition, and population health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jessica M.; Subramanian, S.V.; Davey Smith, George

    2016-01-01

    In this review, the potential causes and consequences of adult height, a measure of cumulative net nutrition, in modern populations are summarized. The mechanisms linking adult height and health are examined, with a focus on the role of potential confounders. Evidence across studies indicates that short adult height (reflecting growth retardation) in low- and middle-income countries is driven by environmental conditions, especially net nutrition during early years. Some of the associations of height with health and social outcomes potentially reflect the association between these environmental factors and such outcomes. These conditions are manifested in the substantial differences in adult height that exist between and within countries and over time. This review suggests that adult height is a useful marker of variation in cumulative net nutrition, biological deprivation, and standard of living between and within populations and should be routinely measured. Linkages between adult height and health, within and across generations, suggest that adult height may be a potential tool for monitoring health conditions and that programs focused on offspring outcomes may consider maternal height as a potentially important influence. PMID:26928678

  9. The association between height and birth order: evidence from 652,518 Swedish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrskylä, Mikko; Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn

    2013-07-01

    Birth order is associated with outcomes such as birth weight and adult socioeconomic position (SEP), but little is known about the association with adult height. This potential birth order-height association is important because height predicts health, and because the association may help explain population-level height trends. We studied the birth order-height association and whether it varies by family characteristics or birth cohort. We used the Swedish Military Conscription Register to analyse adult height among 652,518 men born in 1951-1983 using fixed effects regression models that compare brothers and account for genetic and social factors shared by brothers. We stratified the analysis by family size, parental SEP and birth cohort. We compared models with and without birth weight and birth length controls. Unadjusted analyses showed no differences between the first two birth orders but in the fixed effects regression, birth orders 2, 3 and 4 were associated with 0.4, 0.7 and 0.8 cm (pbirth order 1, respectively. The associations were similar in large and small and high-SEP and low-SEP families, but were attenuated in recent cohorts. Birth characteristics did not explain these associations. Birth order is an important determinant of height. The height difference between birth orders 3 and 1 is larger than the population-level height increase achieved over 10 years. The attenuation of the effect over cohorts may reflect improvements in living standards. Decreases in family size may explain some of the secular-height increases in countries with decreasing fertility.

  10. Factors Associated With Length of Stay and Hospital Charges among Pediatric Burn Injury in Kermanshah, West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satar Rezaei

    2015-01-01

    This study highlights that the independent predictors affecting hospital costs and LOS associated with pediatric burn injury in Kermanshah. Also, our study indicates the BBS was the main factors affecting hospital costs and LOS for the study population. 

  11. Love and fear of heights: the pathophysiology and psychology of height imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salassa, John R; Zapala, David A

    2009-01-01

    Individual psychological responses to heights vary on a continuum from acrophobia to height intolerance, height tolerance, and height enjoyment. This paper reviews the English literature and summarizes the physiologic and psychological factors that generate different responses to heights while standing still in a static or motionless environment. Perceptual cues to height arise from vision. Normal postural sway of 2 cm for peripheral objects within 3 m increases as eye-object distance increases. Postural sway >10 cm can result in a fall. A minimum of 20 minutes of peripheral retinal arc is required to detect motion. Trigonometry dictates that a 20-minute peripheral retinal arch can no longer be achieved in a standing position at an eye-object distance of >20 m. At this distance, visual cues conflict with somatosensory and vestibular inputs, resulting in variable degrees of imbalance. Co-occurring deficits in the visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems can significantly increase height imbalance. An individual's psychological makeup, influenced by learned and genetic factors, can influence reactions to height imbalance. Enhancing peripheral vision and vestibular, proprioceptive, and haptic functions may improve height imbalance. Psychotherapy may improve the troubling subjective sensations to heights.

  12. Lucas Heights technology park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The proposed Lucas Heights Technology Park will pound together the applied research programs of Government, tertiary and industry sectors, aiming to foster technology transfer particularly to the high-technology manufacturing industry. A description of the site is given along with an outline of the envisaged development, existing facilities and expertise. ills

  13. The association between adult attained height and sitting height with mortality in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawada, Norie; Wark, Petra A.; Merritt, Melissa A.; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Ward, Heather A.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Dartois, Laureen; His, Mathilde; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Turzanski-Fortner, Renée; Kaaks, Rudolf; Overvad, Kim; Redondo, María Luisa; Travier, Noemie; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Dorronsoro, Miren; Cirera, Lluis; Ardanaz, Eva; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Valanou, Elissavet; Masala, Giovanna; Pala, Valeria; Peeters, Petra H M; Van Der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Melander, Olle; Manjer, Jonas; Silva, Marisa Da; Skeie, Guri; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Gunter, Marc J.; Riboli, Elio; Cross, Amanda J.

    2017-01-01

    Adult height and sitting height may reflect genetic and environmental factors, including early life nutrition, physical and social environments. Previous studies have reported divergent associations for height and chronic disease mortality, with positive associations observed for cancer mortality

  14. Copy number variants and VNTR length polymorphisms of the carboxyl-ester lipase (CEL) gene as risk factors in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalva, Monica; El Jellas, Khadija; Steine, Solrun J; Johansson, Bente B; Ringdal, Monika; Torsvik, Janniche; Immervoll, Heike; Hoem, Dag; Laemmerhirt, Felix; Simon, Peter; Lerch, Markus M; Johansson, Stefan; Njølstad, Pål R; Weiss, Frank U; Fjeld, Karianne; Molven, Anders

    We have recently described copy number variants (CNVs) of the human carboxyl-ester lipase (CEL) gene, including a recombined deletion allele (CEL-HYB) that is a genetic risk factor for chronic pancreatitis. Associations with pancreatic disease have also been reported for the variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) region located in CEL exon 11. Here, we examined if CEL CNVs and VNTR length polymorphisms affect the risk for developing pancreatic cancer. CEL CNVs and VNTR were genotyped in a German family with non-alcoholic chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, in 265 German and 197 Norwegian patients diagnosed with pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and in 882 controls. CNV screening was performed using PCR assays followed by agarose gel electrophoresis whereas VNTR lengths were determined by DNA fragment analysis. The investigated family was CEL-HYB-positive. However, an association of CEL-HYB or a duplication CEL allele with pancreatic cancer was not seen in our two patient cohorts. The frequency of the 23-repeat VNTR allele was borderline significant in Norwegian cases compared to controls (1.2% vs. 0.3%; P = 0.05). For all other VNTR lengths, no statistically significant difference in frequency was observed. Moreover, no association with pancreatic cancer was detected when CEL VNTR lengths were pooled into groups of short, normal or long alleles. We could not demonstrate an association between CEL CNVs and pancreatic cancer. An association is also unlikely for CEL VNTR lengths, although analyses in larger materials are necessary to completely exclude an effect of rare VNTR alleles. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Social inequalities in height: persisting differences today depend upon height of the parents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Galobardes

    Full Text Available Substantial increases in height have occurred concurrently with economic development in most populations during the last century. In high-income countries, environmental exposures that can limit genetic growth potential appear to have lessened, and variation in height by socioeconomic position may have diminished. The objective of this study is to investigate inequalities in height in a cohort of children born in the early 1990s in England, and to evaluate which factors might explain any identified inequalities.12,830 children from The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, a population based cohort from birth to about 11.5 years of age, were used in this analysis. Gender- and age-specific z-scores of height at different ages were used as outcome variables. Multilevel models were used to take into account the repeated measures of height and to analyze gender- and age-specific relative changes in height from birth to 11.5 years. Maternal education was the main exposure variable used to examine socioeconomic inequalities. The roles of parental and family characteristics in explaining any observed differences between maternal education and child height were investigated. Children whose mothers had the highest education compared to those with none or a basic level of education, were 0.39 cm longer at birth (95% CI: 0.30 to 0.48. These differences persisted and at 11.5 years the height difference was 1.4 cm (95% CI: 1.07 to 1.74. Several other factors were related to offspring height, but few changed the relationship with maternal education. The one exception was mid-parental height, which fully accounted for the maternal educational differences in offspring height.In a cohort of children born in the 1990s, mothers with higher education gave birth to taller boys and girls. Although height differences were small they persisted throughout childhood. Maternal and paternal height fully explained these differences.

  16. Length of Residence in the United States is Associated With a Higher Prevalence of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Immigrants: A Contemporary Analysis of the National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commodore-Mensah, Yvonne; Ukonu, Nwakaego; Obisesan, Olawunmi; Aboagye, Jonathan Kumi; Agyemang, Charles; Reilly, Carolyn M; Dunbar, Sandra B; Okosun, Ike S

    2016-11-04

    Cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors including hypertension, overweight/obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia are high among United States ethnic minorities, and the immigrant population continues to burgeon. Hypothesizing that acculturation (length of residence) would be associated with a higher prevalence of CMR factors, the authors analyzed data on 54, 984 US immigrants in the 2010-2014 National Health Interview Surveys. The main predictor was length of residence. The outcomes were hypertension, overweight/obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia. The authors used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between length of US residence and these CMR factors.The mean (SE) age of the patients was 43 (0.12) years and half were women. Participants residing in the United States for ≥10 years were more likely to have health insurance than those with income ratio, age, and sex, immigrants residing in the United States for ≥10 years were more likely to be overweight/obese (odds ratio [OR], 1.19; 95% CI, 1.10-1.29), diabetic (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.17-1.73), and hypertensive (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.05-1.32) than those residing in the United States for <10 years. In an ethnically diverse sample of US immigrants, acculturation was associated with CMR factors. Culturally tailored public health strategies should be developed in US immigrant populations to reduce CMR. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  17. Factors affecting the duration of nestling period and fledging order in Tengmalm's owl (Aegolius funereus: effect of wing length and hatching sequence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kouba

    Full Text Available In altricial birds, the nestling period is an important part of the breeding phase because the juveniles may spend quite a long time in the nest, with associated high energy costs for the parents. The length of the nestling period can be variable and its duration may be influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors; however, studies of this have mostly been undertaken on passerine birds. We studied individual duration of nestling period of 98 Tengmalm's owl chicks (Aegolius funereus at 27 nests during five breeding seasons using a camera and chip system and radio-telemetry. We found the nestlings stayed in the nest box for 27 - 38 days from hatching (mean ± SD, 32.4 ± 2.2 days. The individual duration of nestling period was negatively related to wing length, but no formally significant effect was found for body weight, sex, prey availability and/or weather conditions. The fledging sequence of individual nestlings was primarily related to hatching order; no relationship with wing length and/or other factors was found in this case. We suggest the length of wing is the most important measure of body condition and individual quality in Tengmalm's owl young determining the duration of the nestling period. Other differences from passerines (e.g., the lack of effect of weather or prey availability on nestling period are considered likely to be due to different life-history traits, in particular different food habits and nesting sites and greater risk of nest predation among passerines.

  18. Estimation of performance shaping factors for overtime and shift length using expert judgment based on related assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vickroy, S.C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study to estimate human performance and error rate under several amounts of overtime and different shifts without the use of human subjects. Ten chronobiology, fatigue, and shift scheduling experts were administered a questionnaire to rate the effects that several shifts and overtime amounts might have on the performance of individuals working under their constraints. The data from the ratings were transformed to generate performance shaping factors used for sensitivity analyses on three previously published probabilistic risk assessments. This procedure was performed to determine the effect that different shift schedules and amounts of overtime would have on overall plant performance. The results of the analysis suggest that the risk due to human errors caused by the shift scheduling and overtime could increase the risk of accidents at a nuclear power plant caused by humans by up to a factor of five. This could increase the chance for an accident at a nuclear power plant by a factor of about three

  19. APTCARE - Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    This plan details command co-ordination and support responses of Commonwealth and State Authorities in the event of an accident with offsite consequences at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories. The plan has been prepared by the AAEC Local Liaison Working Party, comprising representatives of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission, NSW Police Department, NSW Board of Fire Commissioners, NSW State Emergency Services and Civil Defence Organisation, NSW Department of Health, NSW Department of Environment and Planning and Sutherland Shire Council

  20. Estimating Effective Dose of Radiation From Pediatric Cardiac CT Angiography Using a 64-MDCT Scanner: New Conversion Factors Relating Dose-Length Product to Effective Dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattner, Sigal; Chelliah, Anjali; Prinsen, Peter; Ruzal-Shapiro, Carrie B; Xu, Yanping; Jambawalikar, Sachin; Amurao, Maxwell; Einstein, Andrew J

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the conversion factors that enable accurate estimation of the effective dose (ED) used for cardiac 64-MDCT angiography performed for children. Anthropomorphic phantoms representative of 1- and 10-year-old children, with 50 metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor dosimeters placed in organs, underwent scanning performed using a 64-MDCT scanner with different routine clinical cardiac scan modes and x-ray tube potentials. Organ doses were used to calculate the ED on the basis of weighting factors published in 1991 in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) publication 60 and in 2007 in ICRP publication 103. The EDs and the scanner-reported dose-length products were used to determine conversion factors for each scan mode. The effect of infant heart rate on the ED and the conversion factors was also assessed. The mean conversion factors calculated using the current definition of ED that appeared in ICRP publication 103 were as follows: 0.099 mSv · mGy -1 · cm -1 , for the 1-year-old phantom, and 0.049 mSv · mGy -1 · cm -1 , for the 10-year-old phantom. These conversion factors were a mean of 37% higher than the corresponding conversion factors calculated using the older definition of ED that appeared in ICRP publication 60. Varying the heart rate did not influence the ED or the conversion factors. Conversion factors determined using the definition of ED in ICRP publication 103 and cardiac, rather than chest, scan coverage suggest that the radiation doses that children receive from cardiac CT performed using a contemporary 64-MDCT scanner are higher than the radiation doses previously reported when older chest conversion factors were used. Additional up-to-date pediatric cardiac CT conversion factors are required for use with other contemporary CT scanners and patients of different age ranges.

  1. Modelling foot height and foot shape-related dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shuping; Goonetilleke, Ravindra S; Witana, Channa P; Lee Au, Emily Yim

    2008-08-01

    The application of foot anthropometry to design good-fitting footwear has been difficult due to the lack of generalised models. This study seeks to model foot dimensions so that the characteristic shapes of feet, especially in the midfoot region, can be understood. Fifty Hong Kong Chinese adults (26 males and 24 females) participated in this study. Their foot lengths, foot widths, ball girths and foot heights were measured and then evaluated using mathematical models. The results showed that there were no significant allometry (p > 0.05) effects of foot length on ball girth and foot width. Foot height showed no direct relationship with foot length. However, a normalisation with respect to foot length and foot height resulted in a significant relationship for both males and females with R(2) greater than 0.97. Due to the lack of a direct relationship between foot height and foot length, the current practice of grading shoes with a constant increase in height or proportionate scaling in response to foot length is less than ideal. The results when validated with other populations can be a significant way forward in the design of footwear that has an improved fit in the height dimension.

  2. Childhood height, adult height, and the risk of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lise Geisler; Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We previously showed that childhood height is positively associated with prostate cancer risk. It is, however, unknown whether childhood height exerts its effects independently of or through adult height. We investigated whether and to what extent childhood height has a direct effect...... on the risk of prostate cancer apart from adult height. METHODS: We included 5,871 men with height measured at ages 7 and 13 years in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register who also had adult (50-65 years) height measured in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study. Prostate cancer status was obtained...... through linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Direct and total effects of childhood height on prostate cancer risk were estimated from Cox regressions. RESULTS: From 1996 to 2012, 429 prostate cancers occurred. Child and adult heights were positively and significantly associated with prostate cancer risk...

  3. Can infundibular height predict the clearance of lower pole calyceal stone after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arzoz-Fabregas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL on lower calyceal calculi in relation to the renal anatomical factors and determine which of these factors can be used to select patients who will benefit from SWL. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed retrospectively 78 patients with single radiopaque lower calyceal stones treated with SWL. The patients were evaluated 3 months after lithotripsy with a simple abdominal X-ray and a kidney ultrasound scan. The success of the treatment, removal of all fragments, was correlated with renal anatomical factors measured in the pre-treatment intravenous urography: infundibulopelvic angle, lower infundibulum width, lower infundibulum length, ratio length/width, infundibulum height, and number of minor calyces in the lower calyceal group. RESULTS: Three months after SWL treatment, 39 patients were stone-free (NR group and 39 had residual fragments (R group. Both groups presented no differences in relation to infundibulopelvic angle, width and length of the lower calyceal infundibulum, length/width ratio of the lower infundibulum or number of lower calyces. Height of the infundibulum, described as the distance between the line passing through the lowest part of the calyx containing the calculus and the highest point of the lower lip of renal pelvis, was the only parameter in which significant differences (p = 0.002 were found between the NR and R groups. CONCLUSIONS: Lower Infundibular height could be a good measurement tool for deciding which patients with lower calyceal lithiasis would benefit from SWL treatment. Height of less than 22 mm suggests a good outcome from lithotripsy.

  4. Accuracy of recumbent height measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D S; Crider, J B; Kelley, C; Dickinson, L C

    1985-01-01

    Since many patients requiring specialized nutritional support are bedridden, measurement of height for purposes of nutritional assessment or prescription must often be done with the patient in bed. This study examined the accuracy of measuring body height in bed in the supine position. Two measurements were performed on 108 ambulatory inpatients: (1) standing height using a standard height-weight scale, and (2) bed height using a flexible tape. Patients were divided into four groups based on which of two researchers performed each of the two measurements. Each patient was also weighed and self-reported height, weight, sex, and age were recorded. Bed height was significantly longer than standing height by 3.68 cm, but the two measurements were equally precise. It was believed, however, that this 2% difference was probably not clinically significant in most circumstances. Bed height correlated highly with standing height (r = 0.95), and the regression equation was standing height = 13.82 +/- 0.09 bed height. Patients overestimated their heights. Heights recorded by nurses were more accurate when patients were measured than when asked about their heights, but the patients were more often asked than measured.

  5. The Association between Sexually Transmitted Infections, Length of Service and Other Demographic Factors in the U.S. Military.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Deiss

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have found higher rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs among military personnel than the general population, but the cumulative risk of acquiring STIs throughout an individual's military career has not been described.Using ICD-9 diagnosis codes, we analyzed the medical records of 100,005 individuals from all service branches, divided in equal cohorts (n = 6,667 between 1997 and 2011. As women receive frequent STI screening compared to men, these groups were analyzed separately. Incidence rates were calculated for pathogen-specific STIs along with syndromic diagnoses. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the individuals within each accession year cohort; repeat infections were censored.The total sample included 29,010 females and 70,995 males. The STI incidence rates (per 100 person-years for women and men, respectively, were as follows: chlamydia (3.5 and 0.7, gonorrhea (1.1 and 0.4, HIV (0.04 and 0.07 and syphilis (0.14 and 0.15. During the study period, 22% of women and 3.3% of men received a pathogen-specific STI diagnosis; inclusion of syndromic diagnoses increased STI prevalence to 41% and 5.5%, respectively. In multivariate analyses, factors associated with etiologic and syndromic STIs among women included African American race, younger age and fewer years of education. In the overall sample, increasing number of years of service was associated with an increased likelihood of an STI diagnosis (p<0.001 for trend.In this survey of military personnel, we found very high rates of STI acquisition throughout military service, especially among women, demonstrating that STI-related risk is significant and ongoing throughout military service. Lower STI incidence rates among men may represent under-diagnosis and demonstrate a need for enhancing male-directed screening and diagnostic interventions.

  6. The Association between Sexually Transmitted Infections, Length of Service and Other Demographic Factors in the U.S. Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiss, Robert; Bower, Richard J.; Co, Edgie; Mesner, Octavio; Sanchez, Jose L.; Masel, Jennifer; Ganesan, Anuradha; Macalino, Grace E.; Agan, Brian K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have found higher rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among military personnel than the general population, but the cumulative risk of acquiring STIs throughout an individual’s military career has not been described. Methods Using ICD-9 diagnosis codes, we analyzed the medical records of 100,005 individuals from all service branches, divided in equal cohorts (n = 6,667) between 1997 and 2011. As women receive frequent STI screening compared to men, these groups were analyzed separately. Incidence rates were calculated for pathogen-specific STIs along with syndromic diagnoses. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the individuals within each accession year cohort; repeat infections were censored. Results The total sample included 29,010 females and 70,995 males. The STI incidence rates (per 100 person-years) for women and men, respectively, were as follows: chlamydia (3.5 and 0.7), gonorrhea (1.1 and 0.4), HIV (0.04 and 0.07) and syphilis (0.14 and 0.15). During the study period, 22% of women and 3.3% of men received a pathogen-specific STI diagnosis; inclusion of syndromic diagnoses increased STI prevalence to 41% and 5.5%, respectively. In multivariate analyses, factors associated with etiologic and syndromic STIs among women included African American race, younger age and fewer years of education. In the overall sample, increasing number of years of service was associated with an increased likelihood of an STI diagnosis (pmilitary personnel, we found very high rates of STI acquisition throughout military service, especially among women, demonstrating that STI-related risk is significant and ongoing throughout military service. Lower STI incidence rates among men may represent under-diagnosis and demonstrate a need for enhancing male-directed screening and diagnostic interventions. PMID:27936092

  7. An antithetic variate to facilitate upper-stem height measurements for critical height sampling with importance sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas B. Lynch; Jeffrey H. Gove

    2013-01-01

    Critical height sampling (CHS) estimates cubic volume per unit area by multiplying the sum of critical heights measured on trees tallied in a horizontal point sample (HPS) by the HPS basal area factor. One of the barriers to practical application of CHS is the fact that trees near the field location of the point-sampling sample point have critical heights that occur...

  8. Memory for target height is scaled to observer height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Elyssa; Crawford, L Elizabeth; Proffitt, Dennis R

    2012-04-01

    According to the embodied approach to visual perception, individuals scale the environment to their bodies. This approach highlights the central role of the body for immediate, situated action. The present experiments addressed whether body scaling--specifically, eye-height scaling--occurs in memory when action is not immediate. Participants viewed standard targets that were either the same height as, taller than, or shorter than themselves. Participants then viewed a comparison target and judged whether the comparison was taller or shorter than the standard target. Participants were most accurate when the standard target height matched their own heights, taking into account postural changes. Participants were biased to underestimate standard target height, in general, and to push standard target height away from their own heights. These results are consistent with the literature on eye-height scaling in visual perception and suggest that body scaling is not only a useful metric for perception and action, but is also preserved in memory.

  9. Concordant preferences for actual height and facial cues to height

    OpenAIRE

    Re, Daniel Edward; Perrett, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Physical height has a well-documented effect on human mate preferences. In general, both sexes prefer opposite-sex romantic relationships in which the man is taller than the woman, while individual preferences for height are affected by a person’s own height. Research in human mate choice has demonstrated that attraction to facial characteristics, such as facial adiposity, may reflect references for body characteristics. Here, we tested preferences for facial cues to height. In general, incre...

  10. Clinicians' caseload management behaviours as explanatory factors in patients' length of time on caseloads: a predictive multilevel study in paediatric community occupational therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolehmainen Niina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long waiting times and large caseloads are a challenge to children's therapy services internationally. Research in hospital-based healthcare indicates that waiting times are a function of throughput, and that length of care episode is related to clinicians' caseload management behaviour (i.e. actions at assessment, treatment, post-treatment, and discharge. There have been few attempts to study this in community health services. The present study investigated whether community occupational therapists' behaviour predicts children's length of time (LoT on caseloads. Methods Retrospective survey of case notes of children recently discharged from occupational therapy services. Using cluster random sampling, case notes were drawn from therapy records in six NHSScotland Health Boards. Data about therapists' behaviours of assessing, treating, reviewing and discharging, together with child characteristics, were used to construct regression models of factors related to LoT. Results Twenty-six therapists [median(IQR time in paediatrics 8(6-13 years] and 154 of their cases [mean(SD age 7(3 years; median(IQR LoT 10(3-21] were included. A multi-level model, adjusting for clustering, for therapists' actions of communicating assessment outcomes to parents, providing treatment, and placing the child on review, and for a diagnosis of cerebral palsy, explained 44% of variation in LoT. Conclusions Occupational therapists' caseload management behaviours are associated with children's LoT on caseloads. Further research is required to investigate the direction of relationships between therapists' behaviours and LoT; and the relationships between contextual factors, therapists' caseload management behaviours and LoT. Further exploration of therapists' beliefs about caseload management could also be useful in identifying possible factors contributing to variation between therapists.

  11. LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIP AND RELATIVE CONDITION FACTOR OF Arapaima gigas SCHINZ, 1822 FROM EXTRACTIVE RESERVE OF JURUÁ RIVER, AMAZONAS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Silva da Cunha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Arapaima gigas (pirarucu is a large fish greatly appreciated in Amazon region. The present work determined the weight-length relationship and the relative condition factor (Kn of eviscerated pirarucu specimens from the extractive reserve (RESEX of Juruá river, Amazonas, Brazil. The relative frequency distributions by weight class indicated amplitude between 20,000 and 115,000g and the classes of greatest frequency were between 30,000 and 80,000g. The equation that describes 3.0157 this relationship is W = 0.0092L3.0157, showing an isometric growth. Kn presented values of 0.98 ± 0.01, ranging between 0.94-1.01. The results indicate that fish stock of A. gigas in the RESEX of Juruá river presents good management conditions since most of the fish caught presented commercial weight and high utilization of meat, and also the equations of weight-length relationship and Kn values can be considered as reference for A. gigas eviscerated of the studied region. Palavras-chave: pirarucu, biometric, homeostasis, management. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n4p124-126

  12. Sexual Orientation, Objective Height, and Self-Reported Height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorska, Malvina N; Bogaert, Anthony F

    2017-01-01

    Studies that have used mostly self-reported height have found that androphilic men and women are shorter than gynephilic men and women, respectively. This study examined whether an objective height difference exists or whether a psychosocial account (e.g., distortion of self-reports) may explain these putative height differences. A total of 863 participants, recruited at a Canadian university, the surrounding region, and through lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) events across Canada, self-reported their height and had their height measured. Androphilic men were shorter, on average, than gynephilic men. There was no objective height difference between gynephilic, ambiphilic, and androphilic women. Self-reported height, statistically controlling for objective height, was not related to sexual orientation. These findings are the first to show an objective height difference between androphilic and gynephilic men. Also, the findings suggest that previous studies using self-reported height found part of a true objective height difference between androphilic and gynephilic men. These findings have implications for existing biological theories of men's sexual orientation development.

  13. Agronomic characters and lodging resistance of plant height mutants of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhonggui; Wu Yuejin; Liu Binmei; Xu Xue; Zhang Lili; Wang Min

    2010-01-01

    Fourteen plant height mutants of Nipponbare were used to study the effect of plant height on the agronomic characters and lodging resistance. The results indicated that the plant height was positively correlated with spike length, third internode length, height of gravity center, fresh weight of main stem, dry weight of main stem, thousand-grain weight, grain-yield per plant and biological yield, and the second internode length. Meanwhile, plant height played an important role in lodging resistance, it was significantly positively correlated with lodging index and negatively correlated with bending moment and culm type index. The correlation between agronomic characters and lodging resistance showed that several agronomic characters had strong impact on the lodging resistance, such as spike length, height of gravity center, basal internode length ( first and second internode), fresh and dry weight of main stem, dry weight of basal internode, seed setting, thousand-grain weight, grain-weight per plant and biological yield. (authors)

  14. Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs

  15. Preoperative factors affecting cost and length of stay for isolated off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting: hierarchical linear model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinjo, Daisuke; Fushimi, Kiyohide

    2015-11-17

    To determine the effect of preoperative patient and hospital factors on resource use, cost and length of stay (LOS) among patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB). Observational retrospective study. Data from the Japanese Administrative Database. Patients who underwent isolated, elective OPCAB between April 2011 and March 2012. The primary outcomes of this study were inpatient cost and LOS associated with OPCAB. A two-level hierarchical linear model was used to examine the effects of patient and hospital characteristics on inpatient costs and LOS. The independent variables were patient and hospital factors. We identified 2491 patients who underwent OPCAB at 268 hospitals. The mean cost of OPCAB was $40 665 ±7774, and the mean LOS was 23.4±8.2 days. The study found that select patient factors and certain comorbidities were associated with a high cost and long LOS. A high hospital OPCAB volume was associated with a low cost (-6.6%; p=0.024) as well as a short LOS (-17.6%, pcost and LOS. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Sri Lanka, Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The topography of the island nation of Sri Lanka is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. For this special view heights below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored red. These low coastal elevations extend 5 to 10 km (3.1 to 6.2 mi) inland on Sri Lanka and are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges, rising sea level, or, as in the aftermath of the earthquake of December 26, 2004, tsunami. These so-called tidal waves have occurred numerous times in history and can be especially destructive, but with the advent of the near-global SRTM elevation data planners can better predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events. Sri Lanka is shaped like a giant teardrop falling from the southern tip of the vast Indian subcontinent. It is separated from India by the 50km (31mi) wide Palk Strait, although there is a series of stepping-stone coral islets known as Adam's Bridge that almost form a land bridge between the two countries. The island is just 350km (217mi) long and only 180km (112mi) wide at its broadest, and is about the same size as Ireland, West Virginia or Tasmania. The southern half of the island is dominated by beautiful and rugged hill country, and includes Mt Pidurutalagala, the islandaE(TM)s highest point at 2524 meters (8281 ft). The entire northern half comprises a large plain extending from the edge of the hill country to the

  17. Optimizing height presentation for aircraft cockpit displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Chris S.; Croft, D.; Selcon, Stephen J.; Markin, H.; Jackson, M.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes an experiment conducted to investigate the type of display symbology that most effectively conveys height information to users of head-down plan-view radar displays. The experiment also investigated the use of multiple information sources (redundancy) in the design of such displays. Subjects were presented with eight different height display formats. These formats were constructed from a control, and/or one, two, or three sources of redundant information. The three formats were letter coding, analogue scaling, and toggling (spatially switching the position of the height information from above to below the aircraft symbol). Subjects were required to indicate altitude awareness via a four-key, forced-choice keyboard response. Error scores and response times were taken as performance measures. There were three main findings. First, there was a significant performance advantage when the altitude information was presented above and below the symbol to aid the representation of height information. Second, the analogue scale, a line whose length indicated altitude, proved significantly detrimental to performance. Finally, no relationship was found between the number of redundant information sources employed and performance. The implications for future aircraft and displays are discussed in relation to current aircraft tactical displays and in the context of perceptual psychological theory.

  18. Factors associated with prolonged length of stay following cardiac surgery in a major referral hospital in Oman: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almashrafi, Ahmed; Alsabti, Hilal; Mukaddirov, Mirdavron; Balan, Baskaran; Aylin, Paul

    2016-06-08

    Two objectives were set for this study. The first was to identify factors influencing prolonged postoperative length of stay (LOS) following cardiac surgery. The second was to devise a predictive model for prolonged LOS in the cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) based on preoperative factors available at admission and to compare it against two existing cardiac stratification systems. Observational retrospective study. A tertiary hospital in Oman. All adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery at a major referral hospital in Oman between 2009 and 2013. 30.5% of the patients had prolonged LOS (≥11 days) after surgery, while 17% experienced prolonged ICU LOS (≥5 days). Factors that were identified to prolong CICU LOS were non-elective surgery, current congestive heart failure (CHF), renal failure, combined coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and valve surgery, and other non-isolated valve or CABG surgery. Patients were divided into three groups based on their scores. The probabilities of prolonged CICU LOS were 11%, 26% and 28% for group 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The predictive model had an area under the curve of 0.75. Factors associated with prolonged overall postoperative LOS included the body mass index, the type of surgery, cardiopulmonary bypass machine use, packed red blood cells use, non-elective surgery and number of complications. The latter was the most important determinant of postoperative LOS. Patient management can be tailored for individual patient based on their treatments and personal attributes to optimise resource allocation. Moreover, a simple predictive score system to enable identification of patients at risk of prolonged CICU stay can be developed using data that are routinely collected by most hospitals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In One; Cheon, Jung Eun; Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Hong Dae; Sim, Jung Suk

    2010-01-01

    Renal length offers important information to detect or follow-up various renal diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the kidney length of normal Korean children in relation to age, height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and body mass index (BMI). Children between 1 month and 15 years of age without urological abnormality were recruited. Children below 3rd percentile and over 97th percentile for height or weight were excluded. Both renal lengths were measured in the prone position three times and then averaged by experienced radiologists. The mean length and standard deviation for each age group was obtained, and regression equation was calculated between renal length and age, weight, height, BSA, and BMI, respectively. Renal length was measured in 550 children. Renal length grows rapidly until 24 month, while the growth rate is reduced thereafter. The regression equation for age is: renal length (mm) = 45.953 + 1.064 x age (month, ≤ 24 months) (R2 = 0.720) or 62.173 + 0.203 x age (months, > 24 months) (R2 = 0.711). The regression equation for height is: renal length (mm) = 24.494 + 0.457 x height (cm) (R2 = 0.894). The regression equation for weight is: renal length (mm) = 38.342 + 2.117 x weight (kg, ≤18 kg) (R2 = 0.852) or 64.498 + 0.646 x weight (kg, > 18 kg) (R2 = 0.651). The regression equation for BSA is: renal length (mm) = 31.622 + 61.363 x BSA (m2, ≤ 0.7) (R2 = 0.857) or 52.717 + 29.959 x BSA (m2, > 0.7) (R2 = 0.715). The regression equation for BMI is: renal length (mm) = 44.474 + 1.163 x BMI (R2 = 0.079). This study provides data on the normal renal length and its association with age, weight, height, BSA and BMI. The results of this study will guide the detection and follow-up of renal diseases in Korean children

  20. Height premium for job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Han, Euna

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed the relationship of height with wages, using the 1998 and 2012 Korean Labor and Income Panel Study data. The key independent variable was height measured in centimeters, which was included as a series of dummy indicators of height per 5cm span (wages to assess the heterogeneity in the height-wage relationship, across the conditional distribution of monthly wages. We found a non-linear relationship of height with monthly wages. For men, the magnitude of the height wage premium was overall larger at the upper quantile of the conditional distribution of log monthly wages than at the median to low quantile, particularly in professional and semi-professional occupations. The height-wage premium was also larger at the 90th quantile for self-employed women and salaried men. Our findings add a global dimension to the existing evidence on height-wage premium, demonstrating non-linearity in the association between height and wages and heterogeneous changes in the dispersion and direction of the association between height and wages, by wage level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. "I Swear I Will Never Betray You": Factors Reported by Spouses as Helping Them Resist Extramarital Sex in Relation to Gender, Marriage Length, and Religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Ido; Lubin, Or Ben-Haim; Asher, Sapir

    2018-02-01

    Studies suggest that married people frequently engage in intimate relationships with people other than their spouses, and the literature has extensively examined motives for doing so. However, less is known about what factors prevent spouses from engaging in extramarital sex. While investment theory, interdependence theory, and moral theories offer insights into this question, they have not been subject to much empirical research. We examine these theories in relation to several characteristics of individuals and couples: gender, length of the marriage, and religiosity. In two studies, 423 participants completed a questionnaire on the perceived importance of 29 reasons to resist the temptation for extramarital sex. Participants also reported the likelihood that they would engage in extramarital sex if the opportunity presented itself. Results show that being female, more religious, and married for less time were associated with greater expectations of refraining from extramarital sex when presented with a hypothetical scenario. Multiple hierarchical regression showed that among factors relevant to conscious decision making, moral standards and fundamental anxieties (fear of remaining alone) predict expectations of refraining from extramarital sex better than concerns about effects on the children or the other participant.

  2. Analysis of ureteral length in adult cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. F. Novaes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In some occasions, correlations between human structures can help planning surgical intra-abdominal interventions. The previous determination of ureteral length helps pre-operatory planning of surgeries, reduces costs of auxiliary exams, the correct choice of double-J catheter with low morbidity and fewer symptoms, and an adequate adhesion to treatment. Objective To evaluate ureteral length in adult cadavers and to analyze its correlation with anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to January 2012 we determined ureteral length of adult cadavers submitted to necropsy and obtained the following measures: height, distance from shoulder to wrist, elbow-wrist, xiphoid appendix-umbilicus, umbilicus-pubis, xiphoid appendix-pubis and between iliac spines. We analyzed the correlations between ureteral length and those anthropometric measures. Results We dissected 115 ureters from 115 adult corpses from April 2009 to January 2012. Median ureteral length didn't vary between sexes or according to height. It was observed no correlation among ureteral length and all considered anthropometric measures in all analyzed subgroups and in general population. There were no significant differences between right and left ureteral measures. Conclusions There is no difference of ureteral length in relation to height or gender (male or female. There is no significant correlation among ureteral length and the considered anthropometric measures.

  3. Comparison of telomere length and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 promoter methylation between breast cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues in Turkish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Zehra; Akkiprik, Mustafa; Karabulut, Sevgi; Peker, Irem; Gullu Amuran, Gokce; Ozmen, Tolga; Gulluoglu, Bahadır M; Kaya, Handan; Ozer, Ayse

    2017-09-01

    Both insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) and telomere length (TL) are associated with proliferation and senescence of human breast cancer. This study assessed the clinical significance of both TL and IGFBP7 methylation status in breast cancer tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. We also investigated whether IGFBP7 methylation status could be affecting TL. Telomere length was measured by quantitative PCR to compare tumors with their adjacent normal tissues. The IGFBP7 promoter methylation status was evaluated by methylation-specific PCR and its expression levels were determined by western blotting. Telomeres were shorter in tumor tissues compared to controls (Pbreast cancer with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC; n=72; P=.014) compared with other histological type (n=29), and TL in IDC with HER2 negative (n=53; P=.017) was higher than TL in IDC with HER2 positive (n=19). However, telomeres were shortened in advanced stages and growing tumors. IGFBP7 methylation was observed in 90% of tumor tissues and 59% of controls (P=.0002). Its frequency was significantly higher in IDC compared with invasive mixed carcinoma (IMC; P=.002) and it was not correlated either with protein expression or the other clinicopathological parameters. These results suggest that IGFBP7 promoter methylation and shorter TL in tumor compared with adjacent tissues may be predictive biomarkers for breast cancer. Telomere maintenance may be indicative of IDC and IDC with HER2 (-) of breast cancer. Further studies with larger number of cases are necessary to verify this association. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Evidence of inbreeding depression on human height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. McQuillan (Ruth); N. Eklund (Niina); N. Pirastu (Nicola); M. Kuningas (Maris); B.P. McEvoy (Brian); T. Esko (Tõnu); T. Corre (Tanguy); G. Davies (Gail); M. Kaakinen (Marika); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); K. Kristiansson (Kati); A.S. Havulinna (Aki); M. Gögele (Martin); V. Vitart (Veronique); A. Tenesa (Albert); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); C. Hayward (Caroline); A. Johansson (Åsa); M. Boban (Mladen); S. Ulivi (Shelia); A. Robino (Antonietta); V. Boraska (Vesna); W. Igl (Wilmar); S.H. Wild (Sarah); L. Zgaga (Lina); N. Amin (Najaf); E. Theodoratou (Evropi); O. Polasek (Ozren); S. Girotto; L.M. Lopez (Lorna); C. Sala (Cinzia); J. Lahti (Jari); T. Laatikainen (Tiina); I. Prokopenko (Inga); M. Kals (Mart); J. Viikari (Jorma); J. Yang (Joanna); A. Pouta (Anneli); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); A. Hofman (Albert); N.B. Freimer (Nelson); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M. Kähönen (Mika); L. Milani (Lili); M. Heliovaara (Markku); E. Vartiainen (Erkki); K. Räikkönen (Katri); C. Masciullo (Corrado); J.M. Starr (John); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); L. Esposito (Laura); I. Kolcic (Ivana); S.M. Farrington (Susan); B.A. Oostra (Ben); T. Zemunik (Tatijana); H. Campbell (Harry); M. Kirin (Mirna); M. Pehlic (Marina); F. Faletra (Flavio); D.J. Porteous (David J.); G. Pistis (Giorgio); E. Widen (Elisabeth); V. Salomaa (Veikko); S. Koskinen (Seppo); K. Fischer (Krista); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); A.C. Heath (Andrew); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); A.L. Hartikainen; P.A.F. Madden (Pamela); P. d' Adamo (Pio); N. Hastie (Nick); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); A.F. Wright (Alan); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); M.G. Dunlop (Malcolm); I. Rudan (Igor); P. Gasparini (Paolo); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); I.J. Deary (Ian); D. Toniolo (Daniela); K. Hagen (Knut); A. Jula (Antti); O. Raitakari (Olli); A. Metspalu (Andres); M. Perola (Markus); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P.M. Visscher (Peter); J.F. Wilson (James)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractStature is a classical and highly heritable complex trait, with 80%-90% of variation explained by genetic factors. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified many common additive variants influencing human height; however, little attention has

  5. Adult height, dietary patterns, and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenjie; Hagan, Kaitlin A; Heianza, Yoriko; Sun, Qi; Rimm, Eric B; Qi, Lu

    2017-08-01

    Background: Adult height has shown directionally diverse associations with several age-related disorders, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, decline in cognitive function, and mortality. Objective: We investigated the associations of adult height with healthy aging measured by a full spectrum of health outcomes, including incidence of chronic diseases, memory, physical functioning, and mental health, among populations who have survived to older age, and whether lifestyle factors modified such relations. Design: We included 52,135 women (mean age: 44.2 y) from the Nurses' Health Study without chronic diseases in 1980 and whose health status was available in 2012. Healthy aging was defined as being free of 11 major chronic diseases and having no reported impairment of subjective memory, physical impairment, or mental health limitations. Results: Of all eligible study participants, 6877 (13.2%) were classified as healthy agers. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, we observed an 8% (95% CI: 6%, 11%) decrease in the odds of healthy aging per SD (0.062 m) increase in height. Compared with the lowest category of height (≤1.57 m), the OR of achieving healthy aging in the highest category (≥1.70 m) was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.87; P -trend healthy aging ( P -interaction = 0.005), and among the individual dietary factors characterizing the prudent dietary pattern, fruit and vegetable intake showed the strongest effect modification ( P -interaction = 0.01). The association of greater height with reduced odds of healthy aging appeared to be more evident among women with higher adherence to the prudent dietary pattern rich in vegetable and fruit intake. Conclusions: Greater height was associated with a modest decrease in the likelihood of healthy aging. A prudent diet rich in fruit and vegetables might modify the relation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. More practical critical height sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas B. Lynch; Jeffrey H. Gove

    2015-01-01

    Critical Height Sampling (CHS) (Kitamura 1964) can be used to predict cubic volumes per acre without using volume tables or equations. The critical height is defined as the height at which the tree stem appears to be in borderline condition using the point-sampling angle gauge (e.g. prism). An estimate of cubic volume per acre can be obtained from multiplication of the...

  7. Height-Deterministic Pushdown Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowotka, Dirk; Srba, Jiri

    2007-01-01

    We define the notion of height-deterministic pushdown automata, a model where for any given input string the stack heights during any (nondeterministic) computation on the input are a priori fixed. Different subclasses of height-deterministic pushdown automata, strictly containing the class...... of regular languages and still closed under boolean language operations, are considered. Several of such language classes have been described in the literature. Here, we suggest a natural and intuitive model that subsumes all the formalisms proposed so far by employing height-deterministic pushdown automata...

  8. Unified height systems after GOCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Reiner; Gruber, Thomas; Sideris, Michael; Rangelova, Elena; Woodworth, Phil; Hughes, Chris; Ihde, Johannes; Liebsch, Gunter; Rülke, Axel; Gerlach, Christian; Haagmans, Roger

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of global height unification are twofold, (1) the realization of accurate geopotential numbers C together with their standard deviation σ(C) at a selected set of stations (datum points of national height systems, geodetic fundamental stations (IERS), primary tide gauges (PSMSL) and primary reference clocks (IERS)) and (2) the determination of height off-sets between all existing regional/national height systems and one global height reference. In the future the primary method of height determination will be GPS-levelling with very stringent requirements concerning the consistency of the positioning and the gravity potential difference part. Consistency is required in terms of the applied standards (ITRF, zero tide system, geodetic reference system). Geopotential differences will be based on a next generation geopotential model combining GOCE and GRACE and a best possible collection of global terrestrial and altimetric gravity and topographic data. Ultimately, the envisaged accuracy of height unification is about 10 cm2/s2 (or 1cm). At the moment, in well surveyed regions, an accuracy of about 40 to 60 cm2/s2 (or 4 to 6cm) is attainable. Objective One can be realized by straight forward computation of geopotential numbers C, i.e. geopotential differences relative to an adopted height reference. No adjustment is required for this. Objective Two, the unification of existing height systems is achieved by employing a least-squares adjustment based on the GBVP-approach. In order to attain a non-singular solution, this requires for each included datum zone at least one geo-referenced station per zone, i.e. its ellipsoidal height h and, in addition, the corresponding physical height H (geopotential number, normal height, orthometric height, etc.). Changes in geopotential numbers of consecutive realizations reflect (1) temporal changes of station heights, (2) improvements or changes of the applied geopotential (or geoid) model and (3) improvements of the

  9. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Třebický

    Full Text Available Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM. Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits.

  10. Footprint parameters as a measure of arch height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, M R; Nachbauer, W; Sovak, D; Nigg, B M

    1992-01-01

    The human foot has frequently been categorized into arch height groups based upon analysis of footprint parameters. This study investigates the relationship between directly measured arch height and many of the footprint parameters that have been assumed to represent arch height. A total of 115 male subjects were measured and footprint parameters were calculated from digitized outlines. Correlation and regression analyses were used to determine the relationship between footprint measures and arch height. It may be concluded from the results that footprint parameters proposed in the literature (arch angle, footprint index, and arch index) and two further parameters suggested in this study (arch length index and truncated arch index) are invalid as a basis for prediction or categorization of arch height. The categorization of the human foot according to the footprint measures evaluated in this paper represent no more than indices and angles of the plantar surface of the foot itself.

  11. Meteorological Factors Affecting Evaporation Duct Height Climatologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Italy Maritime Meteorology Division Japan Meteorological Agency Ote-Machi 1-3-4 Chiyoda-Ku Tokyo, Japan Instituto De Geofisica U.N.A.M. Biblioteca ...Torre De Ciencias, 3ER Piso Ciudad Universitaria Mexico 20, D.F. Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituu. Postbus 201 3730 AE Debilt Netherlands

  12. Factors that influence length of stay for in-patient gynaecology surgery: is the Case Mix Group (CMG) or type of procedure more important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Mark S; Victory, Rahi; Stitt, Larry; Tsang, Nicole

    2006-02-01

    To compare the association between the Case Mix Group (CMG) code and length of stay (LOS) with the association between the type of procedure and LOS in patients admitted for gynaecology surgery. We examined the records of women admitted for surgery in CMG 579 (major uterine/adnexal procedure, no malignancy) or 577 (major surgery ovary/adnexa with malignancy) between April 1997 and March 1999. Factors thought to influence LOS included age, weight, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, physician, day of the week on which surgery was performed, and procedure type. Procedures were divided into six categories, four for CMG 579 and two for CMG 577. Data were abstracted from the hospital information costing system (T2 system) and by retrospective chart review. Multivariable analysis was performed using linear regression with backwards elimination. There were 606 patients in CMG 579 and 101 patients in CMG 577, and the corresponding median LOS was four days (range 1-19) for CMG 579 and nine days (range 3-30) for CMG 577. Combined analysis of both CMGs 577 and 579 revealed the following factors as highly significant determinants of LOS: procedure, age, physician, and ASA score. Although confounded by procedure type, the CMG did not significantly account for differences in LOS in the model if procedure was considered. Pairwise comparisons of procedure categories were all found to be statistically significant, even when controlled for other important variables. The type of procedure better accounts for differences in LOS by describing six statistically distinct procedure groups rather than the traditional two CMGs. It is reasonable therefore to consider changing the current CMG codes for gynaecology to a classification based on the type of procedure.

  13. Height and Tilt Geometric Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vedrana; Desbrun, Mathieu; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2009-01-01

    compromise between functionality and simplicity: it can efficiently handle and process geometric texture too complex to be represented as a height field, without having recourse to full blown mesh editing algorithms. The height-and-tilt representation proposed here is fully intrinsic to the mesh, making...

  14. Fluctuations in Schottky barrier heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    A double Schottky barrier is often formed at the grain boundary in polycrystalline semiconductors. The barrier height is shown to fluctuate in value due to the random nature of the impurity positions. The magnitude of the fluctuations is 0.1 eV, and the fluctuations cause the barrier height measured by capacitance to differ from the one measured by electrical conductivity

  15. Wind‐gust parametrizations at heights relevant for wind energy: a study based on mast observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suomi, I.; Vihma, T.; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Wind gusts are traditionally observed and reported at the reference height of 10 m and most gust parametrization methods have been developed only for this height. In many practical applications, e.g. in wind energy, the relevant heights are, however, up to a few hundred metres. In this study, mean...... speed, which is parametrized on the basis of the surface friction velocity, the Obukhov length and height and the boundary‐layer height. The new gust parametrization method outperformed the two older methods: the effects of surface roughness, stability and the height above the surface were well...

  16. The Sitting-Height Index of Build, (Body Mass/(Sitting Height3, as an Improvement on the Body Mass Index for Children, Adolescents and Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Burton

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The body mass index (BMI is unsatisfactory in being affected by both relative leg length and height, and, for use with children and adolescents, therefore needs to be interpreted in relation to age. The sitting-height index of build (body mass/(sitting height3, is largely free of these disadvantages. Furthermore, because that index is independent of relative leg length, the latter can be treated as a separate indicator of nutritional history and health risks. Past studies on white children and adults have shown body mass to be approximately proportional to (sitting height3. Moreover, multiple regression of (body mass1/3 on sitting height and leg length, using year-by-year averages, has indicated that leg length is an insignificant predictor of body mass. The present study used data for individuals, namely 2–20 years old males and females, black as well as white. Regression analysis as above again showed leg length to be an insignificant predictor of body mass, but only above the age of about nine years. However, sitting height is still a stronger predictor of body mass than leg length at all ages. The advantages of the sitting-height index of build for use with young people are confirmed.

  17. Mesoscopic Length Scale Controls the Rheology of Dense Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnoit, Claire; Lanuza, Jose; Lindner, Anke; Clement, Eric

    2010-09-01

    From the flow properties of dense granular suspensions on an inclined plane, we identify a mesoscopic length scale strongly increasing with volume fraction. When the flowing layer height is larger than this length scale, a diverging Newtonian viscosity is determined. However, when the flowing layer height drops below this scale, we evidence a nonlocal effective viscosity, decreasing as a power law of the flow height. We establish a scaling relation between this mesoscopic length scale and the suspension viscosity. These results support recent theoretical and numerical results implying collective and clustered granular motion when the jamming point is approached from below.

  18. Evidence of inbreeding depression on human height.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth McQuillan

    Full Text Available Stature is a classical and highly heritable complex trait, with 80%-90% of variation explained by genetic factors. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS have successfully identified many common additive variants influencing human height; however, little attention has been given to the potential role of recessive genetic effects. Here, we investigated genome-wide recessive effects by an analysis of inbreeding depression on adult height in over 35,000 people from 21 different population samples. We found a highly significant inverse association between height and genome-wide homozygosity, equivalent to a height reduction of up to 3 cm in the offspring of first cousins compared with the offspring of unrelated individuals, an effect which remained after controlling for the effects of socio-economic status, an important confounder (χ(2 = 83.89, df = 1; p = 5.2 × 10(-20. There was, however, a high degree of heterogeneity among populations: whereas the direction of the effect was consistent across most population samples, the effect size differed significantly among populations. It is likely that this reflects true biological heterogeneity: whether or not an effect can be observed will depend on both the variance in homozygosity in the population and the chance inheritance of individual recessive genotypes. These results predict that multiple, rare, recessive variants influence human height. Although this exploratory work focuses on height alone, the methodology developed is generally applicable to heritable quantitative traits (QT, paving the way for an investigation into inbreeding effects, and therefore genetic architecture, on a range of QT of biomedical importance.

  19. Plantar fascia coronal length: a new parameter for plantar fascia assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Ahmet Sinan; Demircay, Emre; Cakmak, Gokhan; Sahin, M Sukru; Tuncay, I Cengiz; Altun, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    The effects of gender and various anthropometric variables were previously reported as significant predictors of plantar fascia thickness. Although a strong correlation between either the body weight or body mass index (BMI) and plantar fascia thickness were not demonstrated, a moderate relation was stated. We retrospectively investigated the role of gender, height, weight, and body mass index on plantar fascia thickness at the calcaneal origin (PFCO) and 1 cm distal from the calcaneal origin (PF1cm) and the coronal length of the plantar fascia at the calcaneal origin (CLPF) in healthy subjects. The PFCO, PF1cm, and CLPF were retrospectively measured from magnetic resonance images of 100 healthy subjects. The gender, height, weight, and body mass index of the participants were also noted. Gender was a predictive factor for the length of the CLPF. The subjects with a BMI >25 kg/m(2) had a significantly greater PFCO, PF1cm, and CLPF. Height was mildly and BMI and weight were moderately related to the PFCO. However the CLPF showed a better correlation with height, BMI, and weight than that of plantar fascia thickness. CLPF better reflected the role of weight, BMI, and height than its thickness. It is a new parameter that could be valuable in the evaluation of plantar fascia disorders. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Safety of PEGylated recombinant human full-length coagulation factor VIII (BAX 855) in the overall context of PEG and PEG conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stidl, R; Fuchs, S; Bossard, M; Siekmann, J; Turecek, P L; Putz, M

    2016-01-01

    BAX 855 is a PEGylated human full-length recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) based on licensed rFVIII (ADVATE). The applied PEGylation technology has been optimized to retain functionality of the FVIII molecule, improve its pharmacokinetic properties and allow less frequent injections while maintaining efficacy. The aim of this study was to confirm that the excellent safety profile of ADVATE remains unchanged after PEGylation. Non-clinical safety studies with BAX 855 and its respective unbound polyethylene glycol (PEG) were conducted in several species. The distribution of a single dose of radiolabelled BAX 855 was further investigated in rats. Publically available safety data on PEG alone and PEGylated biomolecules were summarized and reviewed for specific safety findings attributable to PEG or PEGylated biopharmaceuticals. Safety pharmacology studies in rabbits and macaques and repeated dose toxicity studies in rats and macaques identified no safety issues. Results of a distribution study in rats administered radiolabelled BAX 855 showed that radioactivity was completely excreted; urine was the major elimination route. A 28-day study in rats dosed with the unbound PEG constituent (PEG2ru20KCOOH) of BAX 855 showed no adverse or non-adverse effects. Safety data for PEG and PEG-protein conjugates indicate no safety concerns associated with PEG at clinically relevant dose levels. Although vacuolation of certain cell types has been reported in mammals, no such vacuolation was observed with BAX 855 or with the unbound PEG constituent. Non-clinical safety evaluation of PEG and BAX 855 identified no safety signals; the compound is now in clinical development for the treatment of patients with haemophilia A. © 2015 Baxalta Innovations GmbH. Haemophilia Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Structural characterization of a novel full-length transcript promoter from Horseradish Latent Virus (HRLV) and its transcriptional regulation by multiple stress responsive transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahamed; Shrestha, Ankita; Bhuyan, Kashyap; Maiti, Indu B; Dey, Nrisingha

    2018-01-01

    The promoter fragment described in this study can be employed for strong transgene expression under both biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Plant-infecting Caulimoviruses have evolved multiple regulatory mechanisms to address various environmental stimuli during the course of evolution. One such mechanism involves the retention of discrete stress responsive cis-elements which are required for their survival and host-specificity. Here we describe the characterization of a novel Caulimoviral promoter isolated from Horseradish Latent Virus (HRLV) and its regulation by multiple stress responsive Transcription factors (TFs) namely DREB1, AREB1 and TGA1a. The activity of full length transcript (Flt-) promoter from HRLV (- 677 to + 283) was investigated in both transient and transgenic assays where we identified H12 (- 427 to + 73) as the highest expressing fragment having ~ 2.5-fold stronger activity than the CaMV35S promoter. The H12 promoter was highly active and near-constitutive in the vegetative and reproductive parts of both Tobacco and Arabidopsis transgenic plants. Interestingly, H12 contains a distinct cluster of cis-elements like dehydration-responsive element (DRE-core; GCCGAC), an ABA-responsive element (ABRE; ACGTGTC) and as-1 element (TGACG) which are known to be induced by cold, drought and pathogen/SA respectively. The specific binding of DREB1, AREB1 and TGA1a to DRE, ABRE and as-1 elements respectively were confirmed by the gel-binding assays using H12 promoter-specific probes. Detailed mutational analysis of the H12 promoter suggested that the presence of DRE-core and as-1 element was indispensable for its activity which was further confirmed by the transactivation assays. Our studies imply that H12 could be a valuable genetic tool for regulated transgene expression under diverse environmental conditions.

  2. Empirical evaluation of humpback whale telomere length estimates; quality control and factors causing variability in the singleplex and multiplex qPCR methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Morten Tange; Bérubé, Martine; Robbins, Jooke

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Telomeres, the protective cap of chromosomes, have emerged as powerful markers of biological age and life history in model and non-model species. The qPCR method for telomere length estimation is one of the most common methods for telomere length estimation, but has received recent...... steps of qPCR. In order to evaluate the utility of the qPCR method for telomere length estimation in non-model species, we carried out four different qPCR assays directed at humpback whale telomeres, and subsequently performed a rigorous quality control to evaluate the performance of each assay. RESULTS...... to 40% depending on assay and quantification method, however this variation only affected telomere length estimates in the worst performing assays. CONCLUSION:Our results suggest that seemingly well performing qPCR assays may contain biases that will only be detected by extensive quality control...

  3. Clinically Significant Contrast Induced Acute Kidney Injury after Non-Emergent Cardiac Catheterization - Risk Factors and Impact on Length of Hospital Stay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashif, W.; Yaqub, S.; Khawaja, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the frequency and risk factors associated with clinically significant contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients undergoing non-emergent coronary angiography. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2005 to December 2007. Methodology: Case records of patients who underwent coronary angiography with a serum creatinine of >= 1.5 mg/dl at the time of procedure were evaluated. Clinically significant contrast induced nephropathy (CSCIN) was defined as either doubling of serum creatinine from baseline value within a week following the procedure or need for emergency hemodialysis after the procedure. Results: One hundred and sixteen patients met the inclusion criteria. Mean age was 64.0 +- 11.5 years, 72% were males. Overall prevalence of CIN was 17% (rise of serum creatinine by A= 0.5 mg/dl) while that of clinically significant CIN (CSCIN) was 9.5% (11 patients). Patients with CSCIN had significantly lower left ventricular ejection fraction (p = 0.03, OR: 0.24; 95% CI = 0.06 A= 0.91) and higher prevalence of cerebrovascular disease (p < 0.001, OR: 14.66; 95% CI = 3.30 - 65.08). Mean baseline serum creatinine was significantly higher, 3.0 +- 1.5 vs. 2.0 +- 1.1 mg/dl (p = 0.03, OR: 1.47; 95% CI = 1.03 - 2.11) whereas mean GFR estimated by Cockcroft-Gault formula was significantly lower at 25 +- 7.4 vs. 41.0 +- 14.6 ml/minute (p = 0.001, OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.84 A= 0.95) at the time of procedure in patients with CSCIN. Mean length of hospital stay was significantly higher in this group compared to those without CIN, 9.0 +- 5.1 vs. 3.0 +- 3.2 days (p = 0.001, OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.12 - 1.54). Multivariate analysis revealed low GFR (p = 0.001, OR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.82 - 0.95) and low ejection fraction (p = 0.03, OR = 0.20; 95% CI = 0.04 - 0.91) to be independent factors associated with CSCIN. No significant differences were noted between the two groups in patients with

  4. The length of the male urethra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias. S. Kohler

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Catheter-based medical devices are an important component of the urologic armamentarium. To our knowledge, there is no population-based data regarding normal male urethral length. We evaluated the length of the urethra in men with normal genitourinary anatomy undergoing either Foley catheter removal or standard cystoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male urethral length was obtained in 109 men. After study permission was obtained, the subject's penis was placed on a gentle stretch and the catheter was marked at the tip of the penis. The catheter was then removed and the distance from the mark to the beginning of the re-inflated balloon was measured. Alternatively, urethral length was measured at the time of cystoscopy, on removal of the cystoscope. Data on age, weight, and height was obtained in patients when possible. RESULTS: The mean urethral length was 22.3 cm with a standard deviation of 2.4 cm. Urethral length varied between 15 cm and 29 cm. No statistically significant correlation was found between urethral length and height, weight, body mass index (BMI, or age. CONCLUSIONS: Literature documenting the length of the normal male adult urethra is scarce. Our data adds to basic anatomic information of the male urethra and may be used to optimize genitourinary device design.

  5. Mexico Geoid Heights (MEXICO97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for Mexico, and North-Central America, is the MEXICO97 geoid model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine gravity...

  6. Alaska Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' x 4' geoid height grid for Alaska is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 1.1 million terrestrial and marine gravity data held in the...

  7. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...

  8. Height suppression of tomato plug seedlings by an environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted to investigate appropriate concentrations of plant growth retardants (PGRs) and duration of seed soaking in order to suppress hypocotyl length and plug seedling height of 2 tomato cultivars ( Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. cv. Seogeon and Seokwang). Daminozide (B-9), uniconazole ...

  9. Length of Stay After Childbirth in 92 Countries and Associated Factors in 30 Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Compilation of Reported Data and a Cross-sectional Analysis from Nationally Representative Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oona M R Campbell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Following childbirth, women need to stay sufficiently long in health facilities to receive adequate care. Little is known about length of stay following childbirth in low- and middle-income countries or its determinants.We described length of stay after facility delivery in 92 countries. We then created a conceptual framework of the main drivers of length of stay, and explored factors associated with length of stay in 30 countries using multivariable linear regression. Finally, we used multivariable logistic regression to examine the factors associated with stays that were "too short" (<24 h for vaginal deliveries and <72 h for cesarean-section deliveries. Across countries, the mean length of stay ranged from 1.3 to 6.6 d: 0.5 to 6.2 d for singleton vaginal deliveries and 2.5 to 9.3 d for cesarean-section deliveries. The percentage of women staying too short ranged from 0.2% to 83% for vaginal deliveries and from 1% to 75% for cesarean-section deliveries. Our conceptual framework identified three broad categories of factors that influenced length of stay: need-related determinants that required an indicated extension of stay, and health-system and woman/family dimensions that were drivers of inappropriately short or long stays. The factors identified as independently important in our regression analyses included cesarean-section delivery, birthweight, multiple birth, and infant survival status. Older women and women whose infants were delivered by doctors had extended lengths of stay, as did poorer women. Reliance on factors captured in secondary data that were self-reported by women up to 5 y after a live birth was the main limitation.Length of stay after childbirth is very variable between countries. Substantial proportions of women stay too short to receive adequate postnatal care. We need to ensure that facilities have skilled birth attendants and effective elements of care, but also that women stay long enough to benefit from these. The

  10. Accuracy of Jump-Mat Systems for Measuring Jump Height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueo, Basilio; Lipinska, Patrycja; Jiménez-Olmedo, José M; Zmijewski, Piotr; Hopkins, Will G

    2017-08-01

    Vertical-jump tests are commonly used to evaluate lower-limb power of athletes and nonathletes. Several types of equipment are available for this purpose. To compare the error of measurement of 2 jump-mat systems (Chronojump-Boscosystem and Globus Ergo Tester) with that of a motion-capture system as a criterion and to determine the modifying effect of foot length on jump height. Thirty-one young adult men alternated 4 countermovement jumps with 4 squat jumps. Mean jump height and standard deviations representing technical error of measurement arising from each device and variability arising from the subjects themselves were estimated with a novel mixed model and evaluated via standardization and magnitude-based inference. The jump-mat systems produced nearly identical measures of jump height (differences in means and in technical errors of measurement ≤1 mm). Countermovement and squat-jump height were both 13.6 cm higher with motion capture (90% confidence limits ±0.3 cm), but this very large difference was reduced to small unclear differences when adjusted to a foot length of zero. Variability in countermovement and squat-jump height arising from the subjects was small (1.1 and 1.5 cm, respectively, 90% confidence limits ±0.3 cm); technical error of motion capture was similar in magnitude (1.7 and 1.6 cm, ±0.3 and ±0.4 cm), and that of the jump mats was similar or smaller (1.2 and 0.3 cm, ±0.5 and ±0.9 cm). The jump-mat systems provide trustworthy measurements for monitoring changes in jump height. Foot length can explain the substantially higher jump height observed with motion capture.

  11. Growth in Total Height and Its Components and Cardiometabolic Health in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Line Klingen; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Perng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Short stature or short legs is associated with cardiometabolic disease. Few studies have addressed this issue in children, incorporated repeated measures, or studied modern cohorts. METHODS: We examined if change in total height, leg length and trunk length between two time points from...... was a cardiometabolic risk score based on sex-specific internal z-scores for systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. RESULTS: Mean (SD) total height was 97.9 (4.5) cm in boys and 97.1 (4.7) cm in girls...... in early childhood and 129.1 (7.2) cm in boys and 128.3 (7.9) cm in girls in mid-childhood. Trunk length constituted about half of total height. In linear regression models adjusted for parental anthropometry and socio-demographics, faster growth in total height, leg length and particularly trunk length...

  12. Encounter Probability of Significant Wave Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Z.; Burcharth, H. F.

    The determination of the design wave height (often given as the significant wave height) is usually based on statistical analysis of long-term extreme wave height measurement or hindcast. The result of such extreme wave height analysis is often given as the design wave height corresponding to a c...

  13. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta......-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using...... a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence...

  14. Decreased calorie and protein intake is a risk factor for infection and prolonged length of stay in surgical patients: A prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelli Cristina Silva de ASSIS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective The aim was to assess whether postoperative calorie and protein intakes increase the risk of infection and prolonged length of stay in a tertiary care university hospital in Southern Brazil. Methods This is a prospective cohort study approved by the hospital's Research Ethics Committee. The sample consisted of adult patients undergoing elective surgery. The exclusion criteria included patients who could not undergo nutritional assessment and those with a planned hospital stay of fewer than 72 hours. Nutritional status was assessed on admission and every seven days thereafter until hospital discharge or death. Demographic and clinical data, as well as information regarding independent and outcome variables, were collected from the patient's records. Food intake assessment was conducted by researchers six times a week. Calorie and protein intakes were considered adequate if equal to or greater than 75% of the prescribed amount, and length of stay was considered prolonged when above the average for specialty and type of surgery. Data was analyzed using Poisson regression. Results Of the 519 study patients, 16.2% had adequate nutritional therapy. Most of these patients were men with ischemic heart disease and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. After adjusting for confounders, inadequate nutritional therapy increased risk of infection by 121.0% (RR=2.21; 95%CI=1.01-4.86 and risk of prolonged length of stay by 89.0% (RR=1.89; 95%CI=1.01-3.53. Conclusion Most patients did not have adequate nutritional therapy. Those with inadequate nutritional therapy had a higher risk of infection and longer length of stay.

  15. [Fire behavior of Mongolian oak leaves fuel bed under no-wind and zero-slope conditions. II. Analysis of the factors affecting flame length and residence time and related prediction models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Li; Liu, Bo-Fei; Di, Xue-Ying; Chu, Teng-Fei; Jin, Sen

    2012-11-01

    Taking fuel moisture content, fuel loading, and fuel bed depth as controlling factors, the fuel beds of Mongolian oak leaves in Maoershan region of Northeast China in field were simulated, and a total of one hundred experimental burnings under no-wind and zero-slope conditions were conducted in laboratory, with the effects of the fuel moisture content, fuel loading, and fuel bed depth on the flame length and its residence time analyzed and the multivariate linear prediction models constructed. The results indicated that fuel moisture content had a significant negative liner correlation with flame length, but less correlation with flame residence time. Both the fuel loading and the fuel bed depth were significantly positively correlated with flame length and its residence time. The interactions of fuel bed depth with fuel moisture content and fuel loading had significant effects on the flame length, while the interactions of fuel moisture content with fuel loading and fuel bed depth affected the flame residence time significantly. The prediction model of flame length had better prediction effect, which could explain 83.3% of variance, with a mean absolute error of 7.8 cm and a mean relative error of 16.2%, while the prediction model of flame residence time was not good enough, which could only explain 54% of variance, with a mean absolute error of 9.2 s and a mean relative error of 18.6%.

  16. Theoretical Calculations of the Seasonal and Solar Activity Variations for Ionospheric Collision Frequency and Debye Length over Baghdad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hussein Ni'ma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two important ionospheric factors have been calculated, the collision frequency of electron and Deby length for a height range from 80 Km to a height approaching the maximum height of the F2 region of the ionosphere above the Earth's surface. Both above factors have been calculated for two different levels of solar activity and for two seasons (winter and summer. Also, six months were adopted for every level of solar activity and season. The estimation of collision frequency of electron is depends on the contribution of neutral constituents and ions. Three neutral atmospheric gases have been adopted to calculate the collision frequency, Molecular and atomic oxygen O2 and O respectively and molecular nitrogen N2, as well as the singly charged ions were taken into account in calculation.

  17. ANALYSIS AND CORRECTION OF SYSTEMATIC HEIGHT MODEL ERRORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jacobsen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The geometry of digital height models (DHM determined with optical satellite stereo combinations depends upon the image orientation, influenced by the satellite camera, the system calibration and attitude registration. As standard these days the image orientation is available in form of rational polynomial coefficients (RPC. Usually a bias correction of the RPC based on ground control points is required. In most cases the bias correction requires affine transformation, sometimes only shifts, in image or object space. For some satellites and some cases, as caused by small base length, such an image orientation does not lead to the possible accuracy of height models. As reported e.g. by Yong-hua et al. 2015 and Zhang et al. 2015, especially the Chinese stereo satellite ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3 has a limited calibration accuracy and just an attitude recording of 4 Hz which may not be satisfying. Zhang et al. 2015 tried to improve the attitude based on the color sensor bands of ZY-3, but the color images are not always available as also detailed satellite orientation information. There is a tendency of systematic deformation at a Pléiades tri-stereo combination with small base length. The small base length enlarges small systematic errors to object space. But also in some other satellite stereo combinations systematic height model errors have been detected. The largest influence is the not satisfying leveling of height models, but also low frequency height deformations can be seen. A tilt of the DHM by theory can be eliminated by ground control points (GCP, but often the GCP accuracy and distribution is not optimal, not allowing a correct leveling of the height model. In addition a model deformation at GCP locations may lead to not optimal DHM leveling. Supported by reference height models better accuracy has been reached. As reference height model the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital surface model (DSM or the new AW3D30 DSM, based on ALOS

  18. Associations between birth size and later height from infancy through adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sund, Reijo

    2018-01-01

    height was analyzed at both the individual and within-pair level by linear regression analyses. Results: Within twin pairs, regression coefficients showed that a 1-kg increase in birth weight and a 1-cm increase in birth length were associated with 1.14–4.25 cm and 0.18–0.90 cm taller height...

  19. Ultrasonographic assessment of renal length in 310 Turkish children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scanning was performed with a 3.5 MHz ultrasound probe in the supine position. The ultrasonographic appearance of the kidneys we measured was normal. The maximum length of each kidney was measured. The renal length was correlated with somatic parameters including age, body height and weight. Regression ...

  20. Heritability of adult body height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Sammalisto, Sampo; Perola, Markus

    2003-01-01

    /unique environment (AE) model. Among women the heritability estimates were generally lower than among men with greater variation between countries, ranging from 0.68 to 0.84 when an additive genes/shared environment/unique environment (ACE) model was used. In four populations where an AE model fit equally well...... countries; body height was least in Italy (177 cm in men and 163 cm in women) and greatest in the Netherlands (184 cm and 171 cm, respectively). In men there was no corresponding variation in heritability of body height, heritability estimates ranging from 0.87 to 0.93 in populations under an additive genes...... or better, heritability ranged from 0.89 to 0.93. This difference between the sexes was mainly due to the effect of the shared environmental component of variance, which appears to be more important among women than among men in our study populations. Our results indicate that, in general, there are only...

  1. Length of a Hanging Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Costello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shape of a cable hanging under its own weight and uniform horizontal tension between two power poles is a catenary. The catenary is a curve which has an equation defined by a hyperbolic cosine function and a scaling factor. The scaling factor for power cables hanging under their own weight is equal to the horizontal tension on the cable divided by the weight of the cable. Both of these values are unknown for this problem. Newton's method was used to approximate the scaling factor and the arc length function to determine the length of the cable. A script was written using the Python programming language in order to quickly perform several iterations of Newton's method to get a good approximation for the scaling factor.

  2. Five-Factor Model of Personality, Work Behavior Self-Efficacy, and Length of Prior Employment for Individuals with Disabilities: An Exploratory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Deirdre; Strauser, David R.; Wong, Alex W. K.

    2012-01-01

    With the continued lower employment rate for persons with disabilities, researchers are focusing more on barriers to employment that reach beyond functional impairment. Personality and self-efficacy have consistently been important factors when considering employment outcomes for persons without disability; less is known about these factors as…

  3. On the Extreme Wave Height Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    1994-01-01

    The determination of the design wave height is usually based on the statistical analysis of long-term extreme wave height measurements. After an introduction to the procedure of the extreme wave height analysis, the paper presents new development concerning various aspects of the extreme wave...... height analysis. Finally, the paper gives a practical example based on a data set of the hindcasted wave heights for a deep water location in the Mediterranean Sea....

  4. Stress Concentration Factor and Stress Intensity Factor with U-notch and Crack in the Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Bo Seong; Lee, Kwang Ho [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The stress concentration factors and stress intensity factors for a simple beam and a cantilever are analyzed by using finite element method and photoelasticity. Using the analyzed results, the estimated graphs on stress concentration factors and stress intensity factors are obtained. To analyze stress concentration factors of notch, the dimensionless notch length H(height of specimen)/h=1.1-2 and dimensionless gap space r(radius at the notch tip)/h=0.1~0.5 are used, where h=H-c and c is the notch length. As the notch gap length increases and the gap decreases, the stress concentration factors increase. Stress concentration factors of a simple beam are greater than those of a cantilever beam. However, actually, the maximum stress values under a load, a notch length and a gap occur more greatly in the cantilever beam than in the simple beam. To analyze stress intensity factors, the normalized crack length α(crack length)/H=0.2~0.5 is used. As the length of the crack increases, the normalized stress intensity factors increase. The stress intensity factors under a constant load and a crack length occur more greatly in the cantilever beam than in the simple beam.

  5. Overview of bunch length measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpkin, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed

  6. Encounter Probability of Individual Wave Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Z.; Burcharth, H. F.

    1998-01-01

    wave height corresponding to a certain exceedence probability within a structure lifetime (encounter probability), based on the statistical analysis of long-term extreme significant wave height. Then the design individual wave height is calculated as the expected maximum individual wave height...... associated with the design significant wave height, with the assumption that the individual wave heights follow the Rayleigh distribution. However, the exceedence probability of such a design individual wave height within the structure lifetime is unknown. The paper presents a method for the determination...... of the design individual wave height corresponding to an exceedence probability within the structure lifetime, given the long-term extreme significant wave height. The method can also be applied for estimation of the number of relatively large waves for fatigue analysis of constructions....

  7. The study on length and diameter ratio of nail as preliminary design for slope stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Indra; Silmi Surjandari, Niken; Muslih Purwana, Yusep

    2017-11-01

    Soil nailing technology has been widely applied in practice for reinforced slope. The number of studies for the effective design of nail-reinforced slopes has also increased. However, most of the previous study was focused on a safety factor of the slope; the ratio of length and diameter itself has likely never been studied before. The aim of this study is to relate the length and diameter ratio of the nail with the safety factor of the 20 m height of sand slope in the various angle of friction and steepness of the slope. Simplified Bishop method was utilized to analyze the safety factor of the slope. This study is using data simulation to calculate the safety factor of the slope with soil nailing reinforcement. The results indicate that safety factor of slope stability increases with the increase of length and diameter ratio of the nail. At any angle of friction and steepness of the slope, certain effective length and diameter ratio was obtain. These results may be considered as a preliminary design for slope stabilization.

  8. Final height in survivors of childhood cancer compared with Height Standard Deviation Scores at diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijnenburg, S. L.; Raemaekers, S.; van den Berg, H.; van Dijk, I. W. E. M.; Lieverst, J. A.; van der Pal, H. J.; Jaspers, M. W. M.; Caron, H. N.; Kremer, L. C.; van Santen, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate final height in a cohort of Dutch childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and assess possible determinants of final height, including height at diagnosis. We calculated standard deviation scores (SDS) for height at initial cancer diagnosis and height in adulthood in a cohort of

  9. Does length or neighborhood size cause the word length effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, Annie; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2011-10-01

    Jalbert, Neath, Bireta, and Surprenant (2011) suggested that past demonstrations of the word length effect, the finding that words with fewer syllables are recalled better than words with more syllables, included a confound: The short words had more orthographic neighbors than the long words. The experiments reported here test two predictions that would follow if neighborhood size is a more important factor than word length. In Experiment 1, we found that concurrent articulation removed the effect of neighborhood size, just as it removes the effect of word length. Experiment 2 demonstrated that this pattern is also found with nonwords. For Experiment 3, we factorially manipulated length and neighborhood size, and found only effects of the latter. These results are problematic for any theory of memory that includes decay offset by rehearsal, but they are consistent with accounts that include a redintegrative stage that is susceptible to disruption by noise. The results also confirm the importance of lexical and linguistic factors on memory tasks thought to tap short-term memory.

  10. Association between height and coronary heart disease mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Zdravkovic, Slobodan; Skytthe, Axel

    2006-01-01

    An inverse association between height and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) is well demonstrated, but it is not known whether this association is because of genetic factors, socioeconomic background, or other environmental factors. Four population-based twin cohorts with register-based follow...

  11. [Influence of disc height on outcome of posterolateral fusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drain, O; Lenoir, T; Dauzac, C; Rillardon, L; Guigui, P

    2008-09-01

    level, there was a 30% mean decrease in disc height and intervertebral angle. These variations were not correlated with functional outcome or quality of fusion observed at last follow-up. Disc height preoperatively did not affect these variations. The only factor correlated with decreased disc height was T9 sagittal tilt: disc height decreased more when T9 sagittal tilt approached 0 degrees . In this very restricted context (retrospective study, short arthrodesis for degenerative spondylolisthesis), we were unable to find any evidence supporting the notion that high disc height is an argument which should favor complementary intersomatic arthrodesis in combination with posterolateral fusion. Analysis of the spinal balance in the sagittal plane would probably allow a more pertinent assessment of the specific needs of individual patients.

  12. Maternal and Paternal Height and the Risk of Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunsung; Magnus, Per

    2018-04-01

    The etiology of preeclampsia is unknown. Tall women have been found to have lower incidence of preeclampsia. This points to a possible biological causal effect but may be because of socioeconomic confounding. We used paternal height as an unexposed control to examine confounding. The MoBa (Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study) was used to extract data on parental heights, maternal prepregnancy weight, other background factors, and pregnancy outcomes for 99 968 singleton births. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios for preeclampsia according to parental height. The adjusted odds ratio for preeclampsia was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.66-0.82) for women >172 cm as compared with women 186 cm was 1.03 (95% CI, 0.93-1.15) compared with men <178 cm. The association between maternal height and preeclampsia is unlikely to be because of confounding by familial, socioeconomic factors or by fetal genes related to height. The observed association between maternal height and preeclampsia merits further investigation. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Telomere length analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Andrés; Klatt, Peter; Blasco, María A

    2007-01-01

    Most somatic cells of long-lived species undergo telomere shortening throughout life. Critically short telomeres trigger loss of cell viability in tissues, which has been related to alteration of tissue function and loss of regenerative capabilities in aging and aging-related diseases. Hence, telomere length is an important biomarker for aging and can be used in the prognosis of aging diseases. These facts highlight the importance of developing methods for telomere length determination that can be employed to evaluate telomere length during the human aging process. Telomere length quantification methods have improved greatly in accuracy and sensitivity since the development of the conventional telomeric Southern blot. Here, we describe the different methodologies recently developed for telomere length quantification, as well as their potential applications for human aging studies.

  14. Effects of Wheelchair Seat-height Settings on Alternating Lower Limb Propulsion With Both Legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Tomoyuki; Asami, Toyoko; Matsuo, Kiyomi; Kubo, Atsuko; Okigawa, Etsumi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of seat-height settings of wheelchairs with alternating propulsion with both legs. Seven healthy individuals with no orthopedic disease participated. Flexion angles at initial contact (FA-IC) of each joint, range of motion during propulsion period (ROM-PP), and ground reaction force (GRF) were measured using a three dimensional motion capture system and force plates, and compared with different seat-height settings. Statistically significant relationships were found between seat-height and speed, stride length, knee FA-IC, ankle FA-IC, hip ROM-PP, vertical ground reaction force (VGRF), and anterior posterior ground reaction force (APGRF). Speed, hip ROM-PP, VGRF and APGRF increased as the seat-height was lowered. This effect diminished when the seat-height was set below -40 mm. VGRF increased as the seat-height was lowered. The results suggest that the seat-height effect can be attributed to hip ROM-PP; therefore, optimal foot propulsion cannot be achieved when the seat height is set either too high or too low. Efficient foot propulsion of the wheelchair can be achieved by setting the seat height to lower leg length according to a combination of physical characteristics, such as the user's physical functions, leg muscles, and range of motion.

  15. Accuracy of height estimation and tidal volume setting using anthropometric formulas in an ICU Caucasian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'her, Erwan; Martin-Babau, Jérôme; Lellouche, François

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of patients' height is essential for daily practice in the intensive care unit. However, actual height measurements are unavailable on a daily routine in the ICU and measured height in the supine position and/or visual estimates may lack consistency. Clinicians do need simple and rapid methods to estimate the patients' height, especially in short height and/or obese patients. The objectives of the study were to evaluate several anthropometric formulas for height estimation on healthy volunteers and to test whether several of these estimates will help tidal volume setting in ICU patients. This was a prospective, observational study in a medical intensive care unit of a university hospital. During the first phase of the study, eight limb measurements were performed on 60 healthy volunteers and 18 height estimation formulas were tested. During the second phase, four height estimates were performed on 60 consecutive ICU patients under mechanical ventilation. In the 60 healthy volunteers, actual height was well correlated with the gold standard, measured height in the erect position. Correlation was low between actual and calculated height, using the hand's length and width, the index, or the foot equations. The Chumlea method and its simplified version, performed in the supine position, provided adequate estimates. In the 60 ICU patients, calculated height using the simplified Chumlea method was well correlated with measured height (r = 0.78; ∂ ventilation, alternative anthropometric methods to obtain patient's height based on lower leg and on forearm measurements could be useful to facilitate the application of protective mechanical ventilation in a Caucasian ICU population. The simplified Chumlea method is easy to achieve in a bed-ridden patient and provides accurate height estimates, with a low bias.

  16. Maternal Height and Child Growth Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Addo, O. Yaw; Stein, Aryeh D.; Fall, Caroline H.; Gigante, Denise P.; Guntupalli, Aravinda M.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Lee, Nanette; Norris, Shane A.; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Richter, Linda M.; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:\\ud To examine associations between maternal height and child growth during 4 developmental periods: intrauterine, birth to age 2 years, age 2 years to mid-childhood (MC), and MC to adulthood.\\ud \\ud STUDY DESIGN:\\ud Pooled analysis of maternal height and offspring growth using 7630 mother-child pairs from 5 birth cohorts (Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa). We used conditional height measures that control for collinearity in height across periods. We estim...

  17. The taking of Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandilands, B.

    1993-01-01

    Plans for a new research reactor at Lucas Heights have sparked a 'civil war' in New South Wales. The author considers the arguments. The leading antagonists are the local government body - The Sutherland Shire Council, Greenpeace, and the Sutherland Shire Environment Centre. Many of the economic benefits claimed for the existing and proposed replacement reactor have been tagged with question marks. However, ANSTO is confident of refuting claims that the money could be better spent on alternative methods of producing medical isotopes and neutron streams for industry or research, such as particle accelerators. If ANSTO's critics have their way, non-reactor-dependent work like the laser enrichment project could continue without the alleged hazards of sustained nuclear fission. If ANSTO wins the day, a far more efficient reactor will be built which is capable of keeping pace with the emerging nuclear industries of Asia. ills

  18. Genetically Determined Height and Coronary Artery Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelson, Christopher P.; Hamby, Stephen E.; Saleheen, Danish; Hopewell, Jenna C.; Zeng, Lingyao; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Willenborg, Christina; Burgess, Stephen; Amouyel, Phillipe; Anand, Sonia; Blankenberg, Stefan; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Clarke, Robert J.; Collins, Rory; Dedoussis, George; Farrall, Martin; Franks, Paul W.; Groop, Leif; Hall, Alistair S.; Hamsten, Anders; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hovingh, G. Kees; Ingelsson, Erik; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kee, Frank; König, Inke R.; Kooner, Jaspal; Lehtimäki, Terho; März, Winifred; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Nieminen, Markku S.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Peters, Annette; Perola, Markus; Reilly, Muredach P.; Ripatti, Samuli; Roberts, Robert; Salomaa, Veikko; Shah, Svati H.; Schreiber, Stefan; Siegbahn, Agneta; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Veronesi, Giovani; Wareham, Nicholas; Willer, Cristen J.; Zalloua, Pierre A.; Erdmann, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The nature and underlying mechanisms of an inverse association between adult height and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) are unclear. METHODS We used a genetic approach to investigate the association between height and CAD, using 180 height-associated genetic variants. We tested

  19. Subexponential estimates in Shirshov's theorem on height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, Aleksei Ya; Kharitonov, Mikhail I

    2012-01-01

    Suppose that F 2,m is a free 2-generated associative ring with the identity x m =0. In 1993 Zelmanov put the following question: is it true that the nilpotency degree of F 2,m has exponential growth? We give the definitive answer to Zelmanov's question by showing that the nilpotency class of an l-generated associative algebra with the identity x d =0 is smaller than Ψ(d,d,l), where Ψ(n,d,l)=2 18 l(nd) 3log 3 (nd)+13 d 2 . This result is a consequence of the following fact based on combinatorics of words. Let l, n and d≥n be positive integers. Then all words over an alphabet of cardinality l whose length is not less than Ψ(n,d,l) are either n-divisible or contain x d ; a word W is n-divisible if it can be represented in the form W=W 0 W 1 …W n so that W 1 ,...,W n are placed in lexicographically decreasing order. Our proof uses Dilworth's theorem (according to V.N. Latyshev's idea). We show that the set of not n-divisible words over an alphabet of cardinality l has height h 87 l·n 12log 3 n+48 . Bibliography: 40 titles.

  20. Study and Evaluation of Ultrasound System for Detecting the Height of Corn Canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Mesri Gundoshmian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Growth of population, deficiency of resources, environmental hazards, fast spatial science progress and relevant subjects have resulted in significant effects of enhanced accuracy and modern technologies in agricultural technology and management methods. One of the modern technologies’ utilities in production and nondestructive tests is determination of product characteristics (such as product height, using electronic sensors at different stages of plant growth. In recent years, electric sensors improved widely in farm science. Regarding to wide performance of sensors, from simple sensors such as thermo, light and moisture sensors, to complex ones such as GPS and lidar, also the ability of electronic sensors to exact identification and measurement of special farm properties, makes these sensors to an important part of precision agriculture. The subject of this study is to identify and measure the height of the product using ultrasonic technology to automate control of breeding and harvesting operations. Suitable price and noise and dust resistance of ultrasonic sensor, make it an attractive subject in biosystem industries and farm operations. Materials and Methods Plant height measurement Ultrasonic sensor includes an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver with more than 20 kHz frequency. As other waves, ultrasonic waves diffuse constantly from a source by mechanical distracting in a gas, liquid or solid environment. The distance between sensor and object is a function of the wave passing time from generation point to receive point. Plant height calculated by estimating this distance and minus it from sensor height. The sensor used in this research had a diffuse angle of 40 degrees to center axis of source. The sensor ability to height measurement depends on leaves angle, leaves surface, plant aggregation in area and plant height. Leaves angle is the most important factor in recognization ability of ultrasonic sensor. Electronic

  1. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...... as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication....... RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0...

  2. In defense of the classical height system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Ismael; Vaníček, Petr; Sheng, Michael; Kingdon, Robert William; Santos, Marcelo C.

    2017-11-01

    In many European countries, normal heights referred to the quasi-geoid as introduced by Molodenskij in the mid-20th century are preferred to the classical height system that consists of orthometric heights and the geoid as a reference surface for these heights. The rationale for this choice is supposed to be that in the classical height system, neither the geoid, nor the orthometric height can be ever known with centimetre level accuracy because one would need to know the topographical mass density to a level that can never be achieved. The aim of this paper is to question the validity of this rationale. The common way of assessing the congruency of a local geoid model and the orthometric heights is to compare the geoid heights with the difference between orthometric heights provided by leveling and geodetic heights provided by GNSS. On the other hand, testing the congruency of a quasi-geoidal model with normal height a similar procedure is used, except that instead of orthometric heights, normal heights are employed. For the area of Auvergne, France, which is now a more or less standard choice for precise geoid or quasi-geoid testing, only the normal heights are supplied by the Institute Geographic National, the provider of the data. This is clearly the consequence of the European preference for the Molodenskij system. The quality of the height system is to be judged by the congruency of the difference of the geoid/quasi-geoid heights subtracted from the geodetic heights and orthometric/normal heights. To assess the congruency of the classical height system, the Helmert approximation of orthometric heights is typically used as the transformation between normal and Helmert's heights is easily done. However, the evaluation of the differences between Helmert's and the rigorous orthometric heights is somewhat more involved as will be seen from the review in this paper. For the area of interest, the differences between normal and Helmert's heights at the control

  3. Weighting of field heights for sharpness and noisiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keelan, Brian W.; Jin, Elaine W.

    2009-01-01

    Weighting of field heights is important in cases when a single numerical value needs to be calculated that characterizes an attribute's overall impact on perceived image quality. In this paper we report an observer study to derive the weighting of field heights for sharpness and noisiness. One-hundred-forty images were selected to represent a typical consumer photo space distribution. Fifty-three sample points were sampled per image, representing field heights of 0, 14, 32, 42, 51, 58, 71, 76, 86% and 100%. Six observers participated in this study. The field weights derived in this report include both: the effect of area versus field height (which is a purely objective, geometric factor); and the effect of the spatial distribution of image content that draws attention to or masks each of these image structure attributes. The results show that relative to the geometrical area weights, sharpness weights were skewed to lower field heights, because sharpness-critical subject matter was often positioned relatively near the center of an image. Conversely, because noise can be masked by signal, noisiness-critical content (such as blue skies, skin tones, walls, etc.) tended to occur farther from the center of an image, causing the weights to be skewed to higher field heights.

  4. ESTIMATION OF STATURE BASED ON FOOT LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyullatha Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Stature is the height of the person in the upright posture. It is an important measure of physical identity. Estimation of body height from its segments or dismember parts has important considerations for identifications of living or dead human body or remains recovered from disasters or other similar conditions. OBJECTIVE : Stature is an important indicator for identification. There are numerous means to establish stature and their significance lies in the simplicity of measurement, applicability and accuracy in prediction. Our aim of the study was to review the relationship between foot length and body height. METHODS : The present study reviews various prospective studies which were done to estimate the stature. All the measurements were taken by using standard measuring devices and standard anthropometric techniques. RESULTS : This review shows there is a correlation between stature and foot dimensions it is found to be positive and statistically highly significant. Prediction of stature was found to be most accurate by multiple regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS : Stature and gender estimation can be done by using foot measurements and stud y will help in medico - legal cases in establishing identity of an individual and this would be useful for Anatomists and Anthropologists to calculate stature based on foot length

  5. Bunch length measurements in the SLC damping ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, F.J.; Limberg, T.; Minty, M.; Ross, M.

    1993-05-01

    The synchrotron light of the SLC damping ring was used to measure the bunch length with a streak camera at different times in the damping cycle. There are bunch length oscillations after injection, different equilibrium length during the cycle due to rf manipulations to avoid microwave instability oscillations, and just before extraction there is a longitudinal phase space rotation (bunch muncher) to shorten the bunch length. Measurements under these different conditions are presented and compared with BPM pulse height signals. Calibration and adjustment issues and the connection of the streak camera to the SLC control system are also discussed

  6. The benefits of longer fuel cycle lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesler, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    Longer fuel cycle lengths have been found to increase generation and improve outage management. A study at Duke Power Company has shown that longer fuel cycles offer both increased scheduling flexibility and increased capacity factors

  7. Physiological pattern of lumbar disc height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggemann, M.; Frobin, W.; Brinckmann, P.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to present a new method of quantifying objectively the height of all discs in lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine and of analysing the normal craniocaudal sequence pattern of lumbar disc heights. Methods: The new parameter is the ventrally measured disc height corrected for the dependence on the angle of lordosis by normalisation to mean angles observed in the erect posture of healthy persons. To eliminate radiographic magnification, the corrected ventral height is related to the mean depth of the cranially adjoining vertebra. In this manner lumbar disc heights were objectively measured in young, mature and healthy persons (146 males and 65 females). The craniocaudal sequence pattern was analysed by mean values from all persons and by height differences of adjoining discs in each individual lumbar spine. Results: Mean normative values demonstrated an increase in disc height between L1/L2 and L4/L5 and a constant or decreasing disc height between L4/L5 and L5/S1. However, this 'physiological sequence of disc height in the statistical mean' was observed in only 36% of normal males and 55% of normal females. Conclusion: The radiological pattern of the 'physiological sequence of lumbar disc height' leads to a relevant portion of false positive pathological results especially at L4/L5. An increase of disc height from L4/L5 to L5/S1 may be normal. The recognition of decreased disc height should be based on an abrupt change in the heights of adjoining discs and not on a deviation from a craniocaudal sequence pattern. (orig.) [de

  8. Extended fuel cycle length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyere, M.; Vallee, A.; Collette, C.

    1986-09-01

    Extended fuel cycle length and burnup are currently offered by Framatome and Fragema in order to satisfy the needs of the utilities in terms of fuel cycle cost and of overall systems cost optimization. We intend to point out the consequences of an increased fuel cycle length and burnup on reactor safety, in order to determine whether the bounding safety analyses presented in the Safety Analysis Report are applicable and to evaluate the effect on plant licensing. This paper presents the results of this examination. The first part indicates the consequences of increased fuel cycle length and burnup on the nuclear data used in the bounding accident analyses. In the second part of this paper, the required safety reanalyses are presented and the impact on the safety margins of different fuel management strategies is examined. In addition, systems modifications which can be required are indicated

  9. Tree Diamter Effects on Cost and Productivity of Cut-to-Length Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew A. Holtzscher; Bobby L. Lanford

    1997-01-01

    Currently, there is a lack of economic information concerning cut-to-length harvesting systems. This study examined and measured the different costs of operating cut-to-length logging equipment over a range of average stand diameters at breast height. Three different cut-to-length logging systems were examined in this study. Systems included: 1) felier-buncher/manual/...

  10. Final height in survivors of childhood cancer compared with Height Standard Deviation Scores at diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knijnenburg, S L; Raemaekers, S; van den Berg, H; van Dijk, I W E M; Lieverst, J A; van der Pal, H J; Jaspers, M W M; Caron, H N; Kremer, L C; van Santen, H M

    2013-04-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate final height in a cohort of Dutch childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and assess possible determinants of final height, including height at diagnosis. We calculated standard deviation scores (SDS) for height at initial cancer diagnosis and height in adulthood in a cohort of 573 CCS. Multivariable regression analyses were carried out to estimate the influence of different determinants on height SDS at follow-up. Overall, survivors had a normal height SDS at cancer diagnosis. However, at follow-up in adulthood, 8.9% had a height ≤-2 SDS. Height SDS at diagnosis was an important determinant for adult height SDS. Children treated with (higher doses of) radiotherapy showed significantly reduced final height SDS. Survivors treated with total body irradiation (TBI) and craniospinal radiation had the greatest loss in height (-1.56 and -1.37 SDS, respectively). Younger age at diagnosis contributed negatively to final height. Height at diagnosis was an important determinant for height SDS at follow-up. Survivors treated with TBI, cranial and craniospinal irradiation should be monitored periodically for adequate linear growth, to enable treatment on time if necessary. For correct interpretation of treatment-related late effects studies in CCS, pre-treatment data should always be included.

  11. Bunch Length Measurements in SPEAR3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, W.J.; Fisher, A.; Huang, X.; Safranek, J.; Sebek, J.; /SLAC; Lumpkin, A.; /Argonne; Sannibale, F.; /LBL, Berkeley; Mok, W.; /Unlisted

    2007-11-28

    A series of bunch length measurements were made in SPEAR3 for two different machine optics. In the achromatic optics the bunch length increases from the low-current value of 16.6ps rms to about 30ps at 25ma/bunch yielding an inductive impedance of -0.17{Omega}. Reducing the momentum compaction factor by a factor of {approx}60 [1] yields a low-current bunch length of {approx}4ps rms. In this paper we review the experimental setup and results.

  12. Telomeric repeat factor 1 protein levels correlates with telomere length in colorectal cancer Los niveles proteicos del factor de repetición telomérico 1 se correlacionan con la longitud del telómero en el cáncer colorrectal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Valls-Bautista

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: colorectal cancer is the third cancer cause of death in Spain. It is important to investigate new tumoral markers for early diagnosis, disease monitoring and prevention strategies. Telomeres protect the chromosome from degradation by nucleases and end-to-end fusion. The progressive loss of the telomeric ends of chromosomes is an important mechanism in the timing of human cellular aging. Telomeric Repeat Factor 1 (TRF1 is a protein that binds at telomere ends. Purpose: to measure the concentrations of TRF1 and the relationships among telomere length, telomerase activity, and TRF1 levels in tumor and normal colorectal mucosa. Method: from normal and tumoral samples of 83 patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer we analyzed TRF1 protein concentration by Western Blot, telomerase activity, by the fluorescent-telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay and telomere length by Southern Blot. Results: high levels of TRF1 were observed in 68.7% of tumor samples, while the majority of normal samples (59% showed negative or weak TRF1 concentrations. Among the tumor samples, telomere length was significantly associated with TRF1 protein levels (p = 0.023. Conclusions: a relationship was found between telomere length and TRF1 abundance protein in tumor samples, which means that TRF1 is an important factor in the tumor progression and maybe a diagnostic factor.

  13. Ethnic differences in trabecular meshwork height by optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rebecca I; Barbosa, Diego T; Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Porco, Travis C; Lin, Shan C

    2015-04-01

    Differences in ocular anatomy may contribute to ethnic differences in glaucoma risk. Because the trabecular meshwork (TM) plays an important role in aqueous outflow, its anatomy in relation to at-risk populations may provide insight into a potential contributor to elevated intraocular pressure and thus to probability of glaucoma development. To investigate whether differences exist in TM height between ethnic groups. This prospective study took place from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2013. Adult patients who self-reported as being of white, Asian, Hispanic, or African American ethnicity were recruited from ophthalmology clinics at the University of California, San Francisco. The TM height was assessed using spectral-domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Trabecular meshwork height was measured from the scleral spur to the Schwalbe line. We hypothesized that ethnicities with a higher prevalence of glaucoma would tend to have shorter TM heights. We collected data from 460 eyes of 291 participants after excluding 34 optical coherence tomographic scans owing to poor image quality. The final sample was 32.2% white, 45.1% Asian, 10.5% African American, and 12.1% Hispanic. There were 64.2% women, and the mean age was 68.1 years. The mean (SD) TM height among all eyes included in the study was 836 (131) μm. The mean (SD) TM height was characterized among white (851 [131] μm), Asian (843 [126] μm), Hispanic (822 [147] μm), and African American (771 [118] μm) persons. Ethnicity was not associated with TM height overall (P = .23, linear mixed regression model). However, the TM heights of African American participants (771 μm) were shorter than those of white (851 μm; adjusted difference 95% CI, -119.8 to -8.1; P = .02) and Asian (843 μm; adjusted difference 95% CI, -117.4 to -10.8; P = .02) participants. Although TM height is not associated with ethnicity overall, African American individuals have shorter TM heights compared with Asian and white

  14. Measuring the fill height of sealed cans with a compound pendulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinard, P.M.

    1995-06-01

    A compound pendulum has been designed, fabricated, tested, and used to determine the fill height of material in sealed cans. The specific cans that stimulated this work are partially filled with uranium and plutonium oxide. Fill height affects nondestructive assays using fission neutrons, but corrections for various fill heights can be made once the height is known. Heights vary with use as the powder compacts or loosens, so it is necessary to determine the height at the time of the neutron measurement. The pendulum is small and readily portable so it can be taken to the location of the neutron measurement. Tests with open cans filled with sand to various known heights had accuracies generally within 3%. Factors that can affect the accuracy are examined and discussed. Experience in using the pendulum on sealed cans is related

  15. Foot and Ankle Kinematics During Descent From Varying Step Heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstle, Emily E; O'Connor, Kristian; Keenan, Kevin G; Cobb, Stephen C

    2017-12-01

    In the general population, one-third of incidences during step negotiation occur during the transition to level walking. Furthermore, falls during curb negotiation are a common cause of injury in older adults. Distal foot kinematics may be an important factor in determining injury risk associated with transition step negotiation. The purpose of this study was to identify foot and ankle kinematics of uninjured individuals during descent from varying step heights. A 7-segment foot model was used to quantify kinematics as participants walked on a level walkway, stepped down a single step (heights: 5 cm, 15 cm, 25 cm), and continued walking. As step height increased, landing strategy transitioned from the rearfoot to the forefoot, and the rearfoot, lateral and medial midfoot, and medial forefoot became more plantar flexed. During weight acceptance, sagittal plane range of motion of the rearfoot, lateral midfoot, and medial and lateral forefoot increased as step height increased. The changes in landing strategy and distal foot function suggest a less stable ankle position at initial contact and increased demand on the distal foot at initial contact and through the weight acceptance phase of transition step negotiation as step height increases.

  16. πK-scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, M.K.; Osipov, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The msub(π)asub(0)sup(1/2)=0.1, msub(π)asub(0)sup(3/2)=-0.1, msub(π)asub(0)sup((-))=0.07, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)sup(1/2)=0.018, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)aup(3/2)=0.002, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)sup((-))=0.0044, msub(π)sup(5)asub(2)sup(1/2)=2.4x10sup(-4) and msub(π)sup(5)asub(2)sup(3/2)=-1.2x10sup(-4) scattering lengths are calculated in the framework of the composite meson model which is based on four-quark interaction. The decay form factors of (rho, epsilon, S*) → 2π, (K tilde, K*) → Kπ are used. The q 2 -terms of the quark box diagrams are taken into account. It is shown that the q 2 -terms of the box diagrams give the main contribution to the s-wave scattering lengths. The diagrams with the intermediate vector mesons begin to play the essential role at calculation of the p- and d-wave scattering lengths

  17. Nonpharmacological Interventions Targeted at Delirium Risk Factors, Delivered by Trained Volunteers (Medical and Psychology Students, Reduced Need for Antipsychotic Medications and the Length of Hospital Stay in Aged Patients Admitted to an Acute Internal Medicine Ward: Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Gorski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Effectiveness of nonpharmacological multicomponent prevention delivered by trained volunteers (medical and psychology students, targeted at delirium risk factors in geriatric inpatients, was assessed at an internal medicine ward in Poland. Patients and Methods. Participants were recruited to intervention and control groups at the internal medicine ward (inclusion criteria: age ≥ 75, acute medical condition, basic orientation, and logical contact on admission; exclusion criteria: life expectancy < 24 hours, surgical hospitalization, isolation due to infectious disease, and discharge to other medical wards. Every day trained volunteers delivered a multicomponent standardized intervention targeted at risk factors of in-hospital complications to the intervention group. The control group, selected using a retrospective individual matching strategy (1 : 1 ratio, regarding age, gender, and time of hospitalization, received standard care. Outcome Measures. Hospitalization time, deaths, falls, delirium episodes, and antipsychotic prescriptions were assessed retrospectively from medical documentation. Results. 130 patients (38.4% males participated in the study, with 65 in the intervention group. Antipsychotic medications were initiated less frequently in the intervention group compared to the control group. There was a trend towards a shorter hospitalization time and a not statistically significant decrease in deaths in the intervention group. Conclusion. Nonpharmacological multicomponent intervention targeted at delirium risk factors effectively reduced length of hospitalization and need for initiating antipsychotic treatment in elderly patients at the internal medicine ward.

  18. Pion nucleus scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.T.; Levinson, C.A.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1971-09-01

    Soft pion theory and the Fubini-Furlan mass dispersion relations have been used to analyze the pion nucleon scattering lengths and obtain a value for the sigma commutator term. With this value and using the same principles, scattering lengths have been predicted for nuclei with mass number ranging from 6 to 23. Agreement with experiment is very good. For those who believe in the Gell-Mann-Levy sigma model, the evaluation of the commutator yields the value 0.26(m/sub σ//m/sub π/) 2 for the sigma nucleon coupling constant. The large dispersive corrections for the isosymmetric case implies that the basic idea behind many of the soft pion calculations, namely, slow variation of matrix elements from the soft pion limit to the physical pion mass, is not correct. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  19. Length Scales of the Neutral Wind Profile over Homogeneous Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Mann, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    The wind speed profile for the neutral boundary layer is derived for a number of mixing-length parameterizations, which account for the height of the boundary layer. The wind speed profiles show good agreement with the reanalysis of the Leipzig wind profile (950 m high) and with combined cup–soni...

  20. Gap length distributions by PEPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warszawer, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions guaranteeing exponential gap length distributions are formulated and discussed. Exponential gap length distributions of bubble chamber tracks first obtained on a CRT device are presented. Distributions of resulting average gap lengths and their velocity dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Evolutionary perspectives on human height variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulp, Gert; Barrett, Louise

    Human height is a highly variable trait, both within and between populations, has a high heritability, and influences the manner in which people behave and are treated in society. Although we know much about human height, this information has rarely been brought together in a comprehensive,

  2. Relativistic length agony continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  3. Final height and intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Maïthé

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 10% of small for gestational age (SGA) children maintain a small body size throughout childhood and often into adult life with a decreased pubertal spurt. Growth hormone (GH) therapy increases short-term growth in a dose-dependent manner and adult height had now been well documented. Shorter children might benefit from a higher dose at start (50μg/kg/day). The response to GH treatment was similar for both preterm and term short SGA groups and the effect of GH treatment on adult height showed a wide variation in growth response. As a whole, mean adult height is higher than -2 SDS in 60% of patients and 70% reached an adult height in their target height with better results with higher doses and combined GnRH analog therapy in those who were short at onset of puberty. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Relationship of lifestyle and body stature growth with the development of myopia and axial length elongation in Taiwanese elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chung-Ying; Hou, Chiun-Ho; Lin, Ken-Kuo; Lee, Jiahn-Shing; Yang, Meng-Ling

    2014-08-01

    The development of myopia and growth of the eye, occur at a time when body stature is increasing. To investigate the relationship of lifestyle and body growth with axial elongation and myopia development among schoolchildren aged 7 to 9 years. Prospective study. Children in elementary schools without serious eye disorders were invited to participate. We measured cycloplegic refraction, corneal curvature, intraocular pressure, axial length, body height, and weight. Questionnaires about the children's daily lifestyles, family members' myopia and parents' socio-demographic status were completed. The children were followed up every 6 months in a 3-year period. Bivariate correlations, simple and multiple regression. Eighty-eight children participated in this study. Forty-eight were myopic at the beginning of the study, and their myopia correlated with longer axial length and parental myopia (P = 0.015, 0.012). Sixty-five children (74%) completed the study, and the rates of change per year were -0.43 ± 0.58 (mean + standard deviation) diopters in spherical equivalence, 0.32 ± 0.25 mm in axial length (AL), 5.73 ± 2.71 cm in body height, and 3.84 ± 2.23 kg in weight. The axial length change was positively correlated with the height change (P influence on myopia development, and the environment factor as near work intensity was related to myopia progression.

  5. Inhomogeneity in barrier height at graphene/Si (GaAs) Schottky junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Tomer, D.; Rajput, S.; Hudy, L. J.; Li, C. H.; Li, L.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene interfaced with a semiconductor forms a Schottky junction with rectifying properties, however, fluctuations in the Schottky barrier height are often observed. In this work, Schottky junctions are fabricated by transferring chemical vapor deposited monolayer graphene onto n-type Si and GaAs substrates. Temperature dependence of the barrier height and ideality factor are obtained by current-voltage measurements between 215 and 350 K. An increase in the zero bias barrier height and decr...

  6. Normal growth spurt and final height despite low levels of all forms of circulating insulin-like growth factor-I in a patient with acid-labile subunit deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domené, Horacio M; Martínez, Alicia S; Frystyk, Jan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a recently described patient with acid-labile subunit (ALS) deficiency, the inability to form ternary complexes resulted in a marked reduction in circulating total insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, whereas skeletal growth was only marginally affected. To further study the role of...

  7. Economic issues of broiler production length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szőllősi László

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The length of broiler production cycle is also an important factor when profitability is measured. This paper is to determine the effects of different market ages and down-time period, overall broiler production cycle length on performance and economic parameters based on Hungarian production and financial circumstances. A deterministic model was constructed to manage the function-like correlations of age-related daily weight gain, daily feed intake and daily mortality data. The results show that broiler production cycle length has a significant effect on production and economic performance. Cycle length is determined by the length of down-time and grow-out periods. If down-time period is reduced by one day, an average net income of EUR 0.55 per m2 is realizable. However, the production period is not directly proportional either with emerging costs or obtainable revenues. Profit maximization is attainable if the production period is 41-42 days.

  8. Microcomputer system for controlling fuel rod length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, E.R.; Bouldin, D.W.; Bolfing, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    A system is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to automatically measure and control the length of fuel rods for use in a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). The system utilizes an LSI-11 microcomputer for monitoring fuel rod length and for adjusting the primary factor affecting length. Preliminary results indicate that the automated system can maintain fuel rod length within the specified limits of 1.940 +- 0.040 in. This system provides quality control documentation and eliminates the dependence of the current fuel rod molding process on manual length control. In addition, the microcomputer system is compatible with planned efforts to extend control to fuel rod fissile and fertile material contents

  9. [Is olfactory function impaired in moderate height?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, M; Welsch, H; Zahnert, T; Hummel, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    The human sense of smell seems to be influenced by the surrounding barometric pressure. These factors appear to be especially important during flights, for example, in order to recognize the smell of fire etc. Thus, questions are whether pilots or passengers exhibit an impaired smell sensitivity when tested at moderate heights, or, whether changes in humidity would affect the sense of smell. Using climate chambers, odor discrimination and butanol odor thresholds were tested in 77 healthy normosmic volunteers (5 female, 72 male; aged 25+/-8 years from 18 up to 53 years) under hypobaric (2 700+/-20 m, 20 degrees C+/-1 K, rh=50+/-5%) and hyperbaric, (10+/-0.5 m (2 bar)) and different humidity conditions (30 vs. 80%, 20 degrees C+/-1 K, normobaric). During all conditions cognitive performance was tested. Among other effects, olfactory sensitivity was impaired at threshold, but not suprathreshold level, in a hypobaric compared to a hyperbaric milieu, and thresholds were lower in humid, compared to relatively dry conditions. In conclusion, environmental conditions modulate the sense of smell, and may, consecutively, influence results from olfactory tests. During flight hypobaric conditions, mild hypoxia and dry air may cause impaired sensitivity of smell. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart * New York.

  10. Relationships between otolith size and fish length in some mesopelagic teleosts (Myctophidae, Paralepididae, Phosichthyidae and Stomiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, P; Malara, D; Ammendolia, G; Romeo, T; Andaloro, F

    2015-09-01

    Length-mass relationships and linear regressions are given for otolith size (length and height) and standard length (LS ) of certain mesopelagic fishes (Myctophidae, Paralepididae, Phosichthyidae and Stomiidae) living in the central Mediterranean Sea. The length-mass relationship showed isometric growth in six species, whereas linear regressions of LS and otolith size fit the data well for all species. These equations represent a useful tool for dietary studies on Mediterranean marine predators. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. Odd Length Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2013-09-01

    Let's denote by VE the speed of the Earth and byVR the speed of the rocket. Both travel in the same direction on parallel trajectories. We consider the Earth as a moving (at a constant speed VE -VR) spacecraft of almost spherical form, whose radius is r and thus the diameter 2r, and the rocket as standing still. The non-proper length of Earth's diameter, as measured by the astronaut is: L = 2 r√{ 1 -|/VE -VR|2 c2 } rocket! Also, let's assume that the astronaut is laying down in the direction of motion. Therefore, he would also shrink, or he would die!

  12. discouraged by queue length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Parthasarathy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient solution is obtained analytically using continued fractions for a state-dependent birth-death queue in which potential customers are discouraged by the queue length. This queueing system is then compared with the well-known infinite server queueing system which has the same steady state solution as the model under consideration, whereas their transient solutions are different. A natural measure of speed of convergence of the mean number in the system to its stationarity is also computed.

  13. Height perception influenced by texture gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozawa, Junko

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out to examine whether a texture gradient influences perception of relative object height. Previous research implicated texture cues in judgments of object width, but similar influences have not been demonstrated for relative height. In this study, I evaluate a hypothesis that the projective ratio of the number of texture elements covered by the objects combined with the ratio of the retinal object heights determines percepts of relative object height. Density of texture background was varied: four density conditions ranged from no-texture to very dense texture. In experiments 1 and 2, participants judged the height of comparison bar compared to the standard bar positioned on no-texture or textured backgrounds. Results showed relative height judgments differed with texture manipulations, consistent with predictions from a hypothesised combination of the number of texture elements with retinal height (experiment 1), or partially consistent with this hypothesis (experiment 2). In experiment 2, variations in the position of a comparison object showed that comparisons located far from the horizon were judged more poorly than in other positions. In experiment 3 I examined distance perception; relative distance judgments were found to be also affected by textured backgrounds. Results are discussed in terms of Gibson's relational theory and distance calibration theory.

  14. Relationship between the DC Bias and Debye Length in a Complex Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Jie; Reyes, Jorge C.; Creel, James; Hyde, Truell

    2007-01-01

    The levitation height of a dust particle layer within a RF discharge plasma sheath is known to be related to the DC bias, the background pressure, and the Debye length. In this paper, a new experimental technique for measurement of the Debye length is introduced. This technique is based on the relationship between an externally applied DC bias and the particle levitation height and shows that under appropriate conditions, the addition of an externally applied DC bias provides a mechanism for ...

  15. Differences between height- and light-dependent changes in shoot traits in five deciduous tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Noriyuki; Okabe, Yoshihiko; Hayashi, Daisuke; Katsuyama, Tomonori; Tokuchi, Naoko

    2014-01-01

    The effects of tree height on shoot traits may in some cases differ in magnitude and direction from the effects of light. Nevertheless, general patterns of change in shoot traits in relation to variations in height and light have not so far been revealed. A comprehensive analysis of the differences between the effects of height and light on a range of leaf and shoot traits is important for the scaling of these traits to individual trees. We investigated the biomass allocation and structure of current-year shoots at the top of the crowns of five deciduous tree species in Japan. Height effect was investigated by comparing shoot traits among trees of different heights growing under a high light environment. The effects of light were examined by comparing saplings growing in high- and low-light environments. The effects of light were significant for most traits, while those of height were not significant for some traits. The magnitudes of the effects of light were larger than those of height for most traits related to biomass allocation. There was an extreme difference between the effects of height and light in the direction of change in the length of current-year shoots and in the number of standing leaves. The measures of both parameters increased with the increase in light, but decreased with the increase in tree height. Thus, the effects of height and light on diverse traits at the level of current-year shoots were not always similar. These results suggest that great care must be taken when scaling shoot traits from small trees to tall trees because the effects of height and light can be complex.

  16. Discrimination of Vegetation Height Categories With Passive Satellite Sensor Imagery Using Texture Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrou, Z.; Manakos, I.; Stathaki, T.; Mücher, C.A.; Adamo, M.

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation height is a crucial factor in environmental studies, landscape analysis, and mapping applications. Its estimation may prove cost and resource demanding, e.g., employing light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. This study presents a cost-effective framework for height estimation, built

  17. Forensic Physics 101: Falls from a height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2008-09-01

    The physics of falling from a height, a topic that could be included in a course on forensic physics or in an undergraduate class as an example of Newton's laws, is applied to a common forensic problem.

  18. Estimating Mixing Heights Using Microwave Temperature Profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson-Gammon, John; Powell, Christina; Mahoney, Michael; Angevine, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    A paper describes the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) for making measurements of the planetary boundary layer thermal structure data necessary for air quality forecasting as the Mixing Layer (ML) height determines the volume in which daytime pollution is primarily concentrated. This is the first time that an airborne temperature profiler has been used to measure the mixing layer height. Normally, this is done using a radar wind profiler, which is both noisy and large. The MTP was deployed during the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study (TexAQS-2000). An objective technique was developed and tested for estimating the ML height from the MTP vertical temperature profiles. In order to calibrate the technique and evaluate the usefulness of this approach, estimates from a variety of measurements during the TexAQS-2000 were compared. Estimates of ML height were used from radiosondes, radar wind profilers, an aerosol backscatter lidar, and in-situ aircraft measurements in addition to those from the MTP.

  19. Soft computing methods for geoidal height transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyilmaz, O.; Özlüdemir, M. T.; Ayan, T.; Çelik, R. N.

    2009-07-01

    Soft computing techniques, such as fuzzy logic and artificial neural network (ANN) approaches, have enabled researchers to create precise models for use in many scientific and engineering applications. Applications that can be employed in geodetic studies include the estimation of earth rotation parameters and the determination of mean sea level changes. Another important field of geodesy in which these computing techniques can be applied is geoidal height transformation. We report here our use of a conventional polynomial model, the Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy (or in some publications, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy) Inference System (ANFIS), an ANN and a modified ANN approach to approximate geoid heights. These approximation models have been tested on a number of test points. The results obtained through the transformation processes from ellipsoidal heights into local levelling heights have also been compared.

  20. U.S. Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for the conterminous United States is the GEOID96 model. The computation used about 1.8 million terrestrial and marine gravity data held in...

  1. PR/VI Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 26,000 terrestrial and marine gravity data...

  2. Principal Hawaiian Islands Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for the Principal Hawaiian Islands is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 61,000 terrestrial and marine gravity data held...

  3. Challenges in Defining Tsunami Wave Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroker, K. J.; Dunbar, P. K.; Mungov, G.; Sweeney, A.; Arcos, N. P.

    2017-12-01

    The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) and co-located World Data Service for Geophysics maintain the global tsunami archive consisting of the historical tsunami database, imagery, and raw and processed water level data. The historical tsunami database incorporates, where available, maximum wave heights for each coastal tide gauge and deep-ocean buoy that recorded a tsunami signal. These data are important because they are used for tsunami hazard assessment, model calibration, validation, and forecast and warning. There have been ongoing discussions in the tsunami community about the correct way to measure and report these wave heights. It is important to understand how these measurements might vary depending on how the data were processed and the definition of maximum wave height. On September 16, 2015, an 8.3 Mw earthquake located 48 km west of Illapel, Chile generated a tsunami that was observed all over the Pacific region. We processed the time-series water level data for 57 tide gauges that recorded this tsunami and compared the maximum wave heights determined from different definitions. We also compared the maximum wave heights from the NCEI-processed data with the heights reported by the NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers. We found that in the near field different methods of determining the maximum tsunami wave heights could result in large differences due to possible instrumental clipping. We also found that the maximum peak is usually larger than the maximum amplitude (½ peak-to-trough), but the differences for the majority of the stations were Warning Centers. Since there is currently only one field in the NCEI historical tsunami database to store the maximum tsunami wave height, NCEI will consider adding an additional field for the maximum peak measurement.

  4. Relationship between hamstring length and gluteus maximus strength with and without normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed the relationship between hamstring length and gluteus maximus (GM) strength with and without normalization by body weight and height. [Subjects and Methods] In total, 34 healthy male subjects volunteered for this study. To measure GM strength, subjects performed maximal hip joint extension with the knee joints flexed to 90° in the prone position. GM strength was normalized for body weight and height. [Results] GM strength with normalization was positively correlated with hamstring length, whereas GM strength without normalization was negatively correlated with hamstring length. [Conclusion] The normalization of GM strength by body weight and height has the potential to lead to more appropriate conclusions and interpretations about its correlation with hamstring length. Hamstring length may be related to GM strength.

  5. Fatores associados à maior mortalidade e tempo de internação prolongado em uma unidade de terapia intensiva de adultos Factors associated with increased mortality and prolonged length of stay in an adult intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Francioso de Oliveira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A unidade de terapia intensiva é sinônimo de gravidade e apresenta taxa de mortalidade entre 5,4% e 33%. Com o aperfeiçoamento de novas tecnologias, o paciente pode ser mantido por longo período nessa unidade, ocasionando altos custos financeiros, morais e psicológicos para todos os envolvidos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os fatores associados à maior mortalidade e tempo de internação prolongado em uma unidade de terapia intensiva adulto. MÉTODOS: Participaram deste estudo todos os pacientes admitidos consecutivamente na unidade de terapia intensiva de adultos, clínica/cirúrgica do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Estadual de Campinas, no período de seis meses. Foram coletados dados como: sexo, idade, diagnóstico, antecedentes pessoais, APACHE II, dias de ventilação mecânica invasiva, reintubação orotraqueal, traqueostomia, dias de internação na unidade de terapia intensiva, alta ou óbito na unidade de terapia intensiva. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos no estudo 401 pacientes, sendo 59,6% homens e 40,4% mulheres, com idade média de 53,8±18,0 anos. A média de internação na unidade de terapia intensiva foi de 8,2±10,8 dias, com taxa de mortalidade de 13,46%. Dados significativos para mortalidade e tempo de internação prolongado em unidade de terapia intensiva (p11, traqueostomia e reintubação. CONCLUSÃO: APACHE >11, traqueostomia e reintubação estiveram associados, neste estudo, à maior taxa de mortalidade e tempo de permanência prolongado em unidade de terapia intensiva.OBJECTIVE: The intensive care unit is synonymous of high severity, and its mortality rates are between 5.4 and 33%. With the development of new technologies, a patient can be maintained for long time in the unit, causing high costs, psychological and moral for all involved. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors for mortality and prolonged length of stay in an adult intensive care unit. METHODS: The study

  6. Full Length Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ahmed

    some rural communities of Zaria, Nigeria for microbial index of water quality in relation to ... These factors, together with the inadequate waste treatment facilities and ..... The Need for an Integrated Approach to Water Supply and. Sanitation in ...

  7. A novel length back-calculation approach accounting for ontogenetic changes in the fish length - otolith size relationship during the early life of sprat (Sprattus sprattus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guenther, Claudia C.; Temming, Axel; Baumann, Hannes

    2012-01-01

    An individual-based length back-calculation method was developed for juvenile Baltic sprat (Sprattus sprattus), accounting for ontogenetic changes in the relationship between fish length and otolith length. In sprat, metamorphosis from larvae to juveniles is characterized by the coincidence of low...... length growth, strong growth in body height, and maximal otolith growth. Consequently, the method identifies a point of metamorphosis for an individual as the otolith radius at maximum increment widths. By incorporating this information in our back-calculation method, estimated length growth...

  8. The association between adult attained height and sitting height with mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norie Sawada

    Full Text Available Adult height and sitting height may reflect genetic and environmental factors, including early life nutrition, physical and social environments. Previous studies have reported divergent associations for height and chronic disease mortality, with positive associations observed for cancer mortality but inverse associations for circulatory disease mortality. Sitting height might be more strongly associated with insulin resistance; however, data on sitting height and mortality is sparse. Using the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study, a prospective cohort of 409,748 individuals, we examined adult height and sitting height in relation to all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Height was measured in the majority of participants; sitting height was measured in ~253,000 participants. During an average of 12.5 years of follow-up, 29,810 deaths (11,931 from cancer and 7,346 from circulatory disease were identified. Hazard ratios (HR with 95% confidence intervals (CI for death were calculated using multivariable Cox regression within quintiles of height. Height was positively associated with cancer mortality (men: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 1.11, 95%CI = 1.00-1.24; women: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 1.17, 95%CI = 1.07-1.28. In contrast, height was inversely associated with circulatory disease mortality (men: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.63, 95%CI = 0.56-0.71; women: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.70-0.93. Although sitting height was not associated with cancer mortality, it was inversely associated with circulatory disease (men: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.64, 95%CI = 0.55-0.75; women: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.49-0.74 and respiratory disease mortality (men: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.45, 95%CI = 0.28-0.71; women: HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.40-0.89. We observed opposing effects of height on cancer and circulatory disease mortality. Sitting height was inversely associated with circulatory disease and respiratory disease mortality.

  9. [Renal length measured by ultrasound in adult mexican population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyuela-Carrasco, J; Rodríguez-Castellanos, F; Kimura, E; Delgado-Hernández, R; Herrera-Félix, J P

    2009-01-01

    Renal length estimation by ultrasound is an important parameter in clinical evaluation of kidney disease and healthy donors. Changes in renal volume may be a sign of kidney disease. Correct interpretation of renal length requires the knowledge of normal limits, these have not been described for Latin American population. To describe normal renal length (RL) by ultrasonography in a group of Mexican adults. Ultrasound measure of RL in 153 healthy Mexican adults stratified by age. Describe the association of RL to several anthropometric variables. A total of 77 males and 76 females were scanner. The average age for the group was 44.12 +/- 15.44 years. The mean weight, body mass index (BMI) and height were 68.87 +/- 11.69 Kg, 26.77 +/- 3.82 kg/m2 and 160 +/- 8.62 cm respectively. Dividing the population by gender, showed a height of 166 +/- 6.15 cm for males and 154.7 +/- 5.97 cm for females (p =0.000). Left renal length (LRL) in the whole group was 105.8 +/- 7.56 mm and right renal length (RRL) was 104.3 +/- 6.45 mm (p = 0.000.) The LRL for males was 107.16 +/- 6.97 mm and for females was 104.6 +/- 7.96 mm. The average RRL for males was 105.74 +/- 5.74 mm and for females 102.99 +/- 6.85 mm (p = 0.008.) We noted that RL decreased with age and the rate of decline accelerates alter 60 years of age. Both lengths correlated significantly and positively with weight, BMI and height. The RL was significantly larger in males than in females in both kidneys (p = 0.036) in this Mexican population. Renal length declines after 60 years of age and specially after 70 years.

  10. Modeling of the height control system using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R Tahavvor

    2016-09-01

    action. The mechanical parts were computer-generated by engineering software in assembled, exploded and standard two-dimensional drawing required for the manufacturing process. Carrier and framework of control unit and actuator mainly designed to have the capability to support and hold the hardware and sensor assembly in an easy mountable fashion. This arrangement performed feasibility of the movement and allocating of control unit along the travel length of belt above the conveyor unit. In this work a multilayer perceptron network with different training algorithm was used and it is found that the backpropagation algorithm with Levenberge-Marquardt learning rule was the best choice for this analysis because of the accurate and faster training procedure. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was an iterative technique that locates the minimum of a multivariate function that was expressed as the sum of squares of nonlinear real-valued functions. It has become a standard technique for non-linear least-squares problems, widely adopted in a broad spectrum of disciplines. LM can be thought of as a combination of steepest descent and the Gauss-Newton method. When the current solution was far from the correct one, the algorithm behaves like a steepest descent method: slow, but guaranteed to converge. When the current solution is close to the correct solution, it becomes a Gauss-Newton method. The Levenberg algorithm is: 1. Do an update as directed by the rule above. 2. Evaluate the error at the new parameter vector. 3. If the error has increased as a result the update, then retract the step (i.e. reset the weights to their previous values and increase l by a factor of 10 or some such significant factor, then goes to (1 and try an update again. 4. If the error has decreased as a result of the update, then accept the step (i.e. keep the weights at their new values and decrease l by a factor of 10 or so. Results and Discussion The study of multi artificial neural network learning

  11. The relationship between tree height and leaf area: sapwood area ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, N; Barnard, H; Bond, B; Hinckley, T; Hubbard, R; Ishii, H; Köstner, B; Magnani, F; Marshall, J; Meinzer, F; Phillips, N; Ryan, M; Whitehead, D

    2002-06-01

    The leaf area to sapwood area ratio (A l :A s ) of trees has been hypothesized to decrease as trees become older and taller. Theory suggests that A l :A s must decrease to maintain leaf-specific hydraulic sufficiency as path length, gravity, and tortuosity constrain whole-plant hydraulic conductance. We tested the hypothesis that A l :A s declines with tree height. Whole-tree A l :A s was measured on 15 individuals of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) ranging in height from 13 to 62 m (aged 20-450 years). A l :A s declined substantially as height increased (P=0.02). Our test of the hypothesis that A l :A s declines with tree height was extended using a combination of original and published data on nine species across a range of maximum heights and climates. Meta-analysis of 13 whole-tree studies revealed a consistent and significant reduction in A l :A s with increasing height (P<0.05). However, two species (Picea abies and Abies balsamea) exhibited an increase in A l :A s with height, although the reason for this is not clear. The slope of the relationship between A l :A s and tree height (ΔA l :A s /Δh) was unrelated to mean annual precipitation. Maximum potential height was positively correlated with ΔA l :A s /Δh. The decrease in A l :A s with increasing tree size that we observed in the majority of species may be a homeostatic mechanism that partially compensates for decreased hydraulic conductance as trees grow in height.

  12. Birth order progressively affects childhood height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Tim; Derraik, José G B; Miles, Harriet L; Mouat, Fran; Cutfield, Wayne S; Hofman, Paul L

    2013-09-01

    There is evidence suggesting that first-born children and adults are anthropometrically different to later-borns. Thus, we aimed to assess whether birth order was associated with changes in growth and metabolism in childhood. We studied 312 healthy prepubertal children: 157 first-borns and 155 later-borns. Children were aged 3-10 years, born 37-41 weeks gestation, and of birth weight appropriate-for-gestational-age. Clinical assessments included measurement of children's height, weight, fasting lipid and hormonal profiles and DEXA-derived body composition. First-borns were taller than later-borns (P < 0·0001), even when adjusted for parents' heights (0·31 vs 0·03 SDS; P = 0·001). There was an incremental height decrease with increasing birth order, so that first-borns were taller than second-borns (P < 0·001), who were in turn taller than third-borns (P = 0·007). Further, among sibling pairs both height SDS (P = 0·009) and adjusted height SDS (P < 0·0001) were lower in second- vs first-born children. Consistent with differences in stature, first- (P = 0·043) and second-borns (P = 0·003) had higher IGF-I concentrations than third-borns. Both first- (P < 0·001) and second-borns (P = 0·004) also had reduced abdominal adiposity (lower android fat to gynoid fat ratio) when compared with third-borns. Other parameters of adiposity and blood lipids were unaffected by birth order. First-borns were taller than later-born children, with an incremental height reduction from first to third birth order. These differences were present after correction for genetic height, and associated to some extent with alterations in plasma IGF-I. Our findings strengthen the evidence that birth order is associated with phenotypic changes in childhood. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Characteristic length of the knotting probability revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Erica; Deguchi, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    We present a self-avoiding polygon (SAP) model for circular DNA in which the radius of impermeable cylindrical segments corresponds to the screening length of double-stranded DNA surrounded by counter ions. For the model we evaluate the probability for a generated SAP with N segments having a given knot K through simulation. We call it the knotting probability of a knot K with N segments for the SAP model. We show that when N is large the most significant factor in the knotting probability is given by the exponentially decaying part exp(−N/N K ), where the estimates of parameter N K are consistent with the same value for all the different knots we investigated. We thus call it the characteristic length of the knotting probability. We give formulae expressing the characteristic length as a function of the cylindrical radius r ex , i.e. the screening length of double-stranded DNA. (paper)

  14. Chord length distribution for a compound capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitřík, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Chord length distribution is a factor important in the calculation of ionisation chamber responses. This article describes Monte Carlo calculations of the chord length distribution for a non-convex compound capsule. A Monte Carlo code was set up for generation of random chords and calculation of their lengths based on the input number of generations and cavity dimensions. The code was written in JavaScript and can be executed in the majority of HTML viewers. The plot of occurrence of cords of different lengths has 3 peaks. It was found that the compound capsule cavity cannot be simply replaced with a spherical cavity of a triangular design. Furthermore, the compound capsule cavity is directionally dependent, which must be taken into account in calculations involving non-isotropic fields of primary particles in the beam, unless equilibrium of the secondary charged particles is attained. (orig.)

  15. [Influence of Mapuche origin and socioeconomic conditions on adult height].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erazo B, Marcia; Amigo C, Hugo; Bustos M, Patricia

    2005-04-01

    Studies in Chilean adults of low socioeconomic level suggest that their low height is likely to be due to their indigenous background. However this group also has been marginalized from socioeconomic development. To determine the influence of Mapuche ethnic origin and socioeconomic factors on the height of adults. In a cross sectional design, the height of 1,293 adults (528 males and 765 females) of Mapuche and non Mapuche origin were studied in the Araucania Region (Southern Chile) and in the Metropolitan Region (Central Chile). Subjects with Mapuche surnames were considered as pertaining to this ethnic community and those with Spanish surnames were considered as non Mapuche. Linear regression models were done, stratifying by sex, considering ethnic origin, to live in counties of different social vulnerability, and the level of family poverty. Among males, the mean height was 166.6+/-7.3 cm and among females, the figure was 153.6+/-5.9 cm. Mapuche subjects were significantly shorter: -3.2 cm (95% Confidence Interval (CI) -4.0 to -2.3) among females and -4.8 cm (CI -6.0 to -3.6) among males (non adjusted models). This deficit increased to -4.5 and -7.6 cm among females and males, respectively when they lived in poverty and in areas with highest social vulnerability. These differences decreased significantly if Mapuche subjects lived in communities with low social vulnerability and less poverty (-0.59 and -1.14 cm among females and males respectively). The studied population had low height, being lower in Mapuche subjects. The differences decreased among subjects living in counties of less vulnerability and less family poverty.

  16. The Effects of Microgravity on Seated Height (Spinal Elongation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. S.; Rajulu, S.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many physiological factors, such as spinal elongation, fluid shifts, bone atrophy, and muscle loss, occur during an exposure to a microgravity environment. Spinal elongation is just one of the factors that can also affect the safety and performance of a crewmember while in space. Spinal elongation occurs due to the lack of gravity/compression on the spinal column. This allows for the straightening of the natural spinal curve. There is a possible fluid shift in the inter-vertebral disks that may also result in changes in height. This study aims at collecting the overall change in seated height for crewmembers exposed to a microgravity environment. During previous Programs, Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) and Skylab, spinal elongation data was collected from a small number of subjects in a standing posture but were limited in scope. Data from these studies indicated a quick increase in stature during the first few days of weightlessness, after which stature growth reached a plateau resulting in up to a 3% increase of the original measurement [1-5]. However, this data was collected only for crewmembers in standing posture and not in a seated posture. Seated height may have a different effect than standing height due to a change in posture as well as due to a compounded effect of wearing restraints and a potential compression of the gluteal area. Seated height was deemed as a critical measurement in the design of the Constellation Program s (CxP) Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), called Orion which is now the point-of-departure vehicle for the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program; therefore a better understanding of the effects of microgravity on seated height is necessary. Potential changes in seated height that may not have impacted crew accommodation in previous Programs will have significant effects on crew accommodation due to the layout of seats in the Orion.. The current and existing configuration is such that the four crewmembers are stacked two by

  17. Reduced Height (Rht Alleles Affect Wheat Grain Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Casebow

    Full Text Available The effects of dwarfing alleles (reduced height, Rht in near isogenic lines on wheat grain quality are characterised in field experiments and related to effects on crop height, grain yield and GA-sensitivity. Alleles included those that conferred GA-insensitivity (Rht-B1b, Rht-B1c, Rht-D1b, Rht-D1c as well as those that retained GA-sensitivity (rht(tall, Rht8, Rht8 + Ppd-D1a, Rht12. Full characterisation was facilitated by including factors with which the effects of Rht alleles are known to interact for grain yield (i.e. system, [conventional or organic]; tillage intensity [plough-based, minimum or zero]; nitrogen fertilizer level [0-450 kg N/ha]; and genetic backgrounds varying in height [cvs Maris Huntsman, Maris Widgeon, and Mercia]. Allele effects on mean grain weight and grain specific weight were positively associated with final crop height: dwarfing reduced these quality criteria irrespective of crop management or GA-sensitivity. In all but two experiments the effects of dwarfing alleles on grain nitrogen and sulphur concentrations were closely and negatively related to effects on grain yield, e.g. a quadratic relationship between grain yield and crop height manipulated by the GA-insensitive alleles was mirrored by quadratic relationships for nitrogen and sulphur concentrations: the highest yields and most dilute concentrations occurred around 80cm. In one of the two exceptional experiments the GA-insensitive Rht-B1b and Rht-B1c significantly (P<0.05 reduced grain nitrogen concentration in the absence of an effect on yield, and in the remaining experiment the GA-sensitive Rht8 significantly reduced both grain yield and grain nitrogen concentration simultaneously. When Rht alleles diluted grain nitrogen concentration, N:S ratios and SDS-sedimentation volumes were often improved. Hagberg falling number (HFN was negatively related to crop height but benefits from dwarfing were only seen for GA-insensitive alleles. For HFN, therefore, there

  18. Reduced Height (Rht) Alleles Affect Wheat Grain Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casebow, Richard; Hadley, Caroline; Uppal, Rajneet; Addisu, Molla; Loddo, Stefano; Kowalski, Ania; Griffiths, Simon; Gooding, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The effects of dwarfing alleles (reduced height, Rht) in near isogenic lines on wheat grain quality are characterised in field experiments and related to effects on crop height, grain yield and GA-sensitivity. Alleles included those that conferred GA-insensitivity (Rht-B1b, Rht-B1c, Rht-D1b, Rht-D1c) as well as those that retained GA-sensitivity (rht(tall), Rht8, Rht8 + Ppd-D1a, Rht12). Full characterisation was facilitated by including factors with which the effects of Rht alleles are known to interact for grain yield (i.e. system, [conventional or organic]; tillage intensity [plough-based, minimum or zero]; nitrogen fertilizer level [0-450 kg N/ha]; and genetic backgrounds varying in height [cvs Maris Huntsman, Maris Widgeon, and Mercia]. Allele effects on mean grain weight and grain specific weight were positively associated with final crop height: dwarfing reduced these quality criteria irrespective of crop management or GA-sensitivity. In all but two experiments the effects of dwarfing alleles on grain nitrogen and sulphur concentrations were closely and negatively related to effects on grain yield, e.g. a quadratic relationship between grain yield and crop height manipulated by the GA-insensitive alleles was mirrored by quadratic relationships for nitrogen and sulphur concentrations: the highest yields and most dilute concentrations occurred around 80cm. In one of the two exceptional experiments the GA-insensitive Rht-B1b and Rht-B1c significantly (Pgrain nitrogen concentration in the absence of an effect on yield, and in the remaining experiment the GA-sensitive Rht8 significantly reduced both grain yield and grain nitrogen concentration simultaneously. When Rht alleles diluted grain nitrogen concentration, N:S ratios and SDS-sedimentation volumes were often improved. Hagberg falling number (HFN) was negatively related to crop height but benefits from dwarfing were only seen for GA-insensitive alleles. For HFN, therefore, there was the strongest evidence for

  19. O esôfago curto e o refluxo distal são fatores de risco para o refluxo proximal? Short length of the esophagus and distal reflux are risk factors for proximal esophageal reflux?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Oliveira Serra

    2010-12-01

    esophageal distal reflux are risk factors for proximal reflux among patients presenting respiratory symptoms. METHODS: A hundred and seven patients were evaluated prospectively by interview, esophagoscopy, manometry and 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring. Student's t test (two-sided, Spearman's rank correlation, Chi-square and odds ratio were used in the statistical analysis. Significance level was set at 0.05. RESULTS: Respiratory symptoms that motivated the search for gastroesophageal reflux disease were cough 43 (40.2%; throat irritation 25 (23.4%, pharyngeal globe 23 (21.5% and hoarseness 16 (14.9 %. By esophagoscopy, 22 (27.2% presented some degree of esophagitis. A hiatal hernia was observed in 14 (17.5% patients. According to manometry, 11 (10.8% had lower esophageal sphincter hypotonia. The average esophageal body length was 24.3 (± 1.9 cm, ranging from 20 to 30 cm. The esophageal length was not associated with the presence of proximal esophageal reflux. As indicated by pH monitoring, 23 (21.5% presented pathologic distal reflux and 12 (11.2% had proximal reflux. CONCLUSION: The esophageal length was not associated with the presence of proximal esophageal reflux. Patients who had pathological distal esophageal reflux, independent of the esophageal length, were 4.6 times more likely to have proximal esophageal reflux.

  20. Study of the Inception Length of Flow over Stepped Spillway Models ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that the inception (development) length increases as the unit discharge increases and it decreases with an increase in both stepped roughness height and chute angle. The ratio of the development length, in this study, to that of Bauer's was found to be 4:5. Finally, SMM-5 produced the least velocity of ...

  1. The height of watermelons with wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feierl, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We derive asymptotics for the moments as well as the weak limit of the height distribution of watermelons with p branches with wall. This generalizes a famous result of de Bruijn et al (1972 Graph Theory and Computing (New York: Academic) pp 15–22) on the average height of planted plane trees, and results by Fulmek (2007 Electron. J. Combin. 14 R64) and Katori et al (2008 J. Stat. Phys. 131 1067–83) on the expected value and higher moments, respectively, of the height distribution of watermelons with two branches. The asymptotics for the moments depend on the analytic behaviour of certain multidimensional Dirichlet series. In order to obtain this information, we prove a reciprocity relation satisfied by the derivatives of one of Jacobi’s theta functions, which generalizes the well-known reciprocity law for Jacobi’s theta functions. (paper)

  2. Experiences of ZAMG on mixing height determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piringer, M. [Zentralanstalt fuer Meteorologie und Geodynamik, ZAMG, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-10-01

    Temperature inversions in the boundary layer occur quite often, esp. in mountainous terrain by which Austria is covered to a large extent, and can lead to enhanced pollution at the surface because the air volume available for dilution is then vertically limited. The Department of Environmental Meteorology of ZAMG therefore set up several field programs in the past to study such conditions at a variety of sites in Austria, using tethersondes and Sodars. Early investigations aimed at comparing Sodar echo profiles to the tethersonde temperature profiles to derive mixing heights from the Sodar echo structure. More recently, evolving from KONGEX, the `convective boundary layer experiment`, mixing heights calculated for Vienna by the OML model were compared to those derived from radiosonde and tethersonde potential temperature profiles. Results of these investigations will be presented, focussing on the problems when using the different methods. New efforts to derive mixing heights from data were also undertaken and are discussed separately. (au)

  3. Height, Relationship Satisfaction, Jealousy, and Mate Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Brewer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Male height is associated with high mate value. In particular, tall men are perceived as more attractive, dominant and of a higher status than shorter rivals, resulting in a greater lifetime reproductive success. Female infidelity and relationship dissolution may therefore present a greater risk to short men. It was predicted that tall men would report greater relationship satisfaction and lower jealousy and mate retention behavior than short men. Ninety eight heterosexual men in a current romantic relationship completed a questionnaire. Both linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and relationship satisfaction, cognitive and behavioral jealousy. Tall men reported greater relationship satisfaction and lower levels of cognitive or behavioral jealousy than short men. In addition, linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and a number of mate retention behaviors. Tall and short men engaged in different mate retention behaviors. These findings are consistent with previous research conducted in this area detailing the greater attractiveness of tall men.

  4. Characterization of model errors in the calculation of tangent heights for atmospheric infrared limb measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ridolfi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We review the main factors driving the calculation of the tangent height of spaceborne limb measurements: the ray-tracing method, the refractive index model and the assumed atmosphere. We find that commonly used ray tracing and refraction models are very accurate, at least in the mid-infrared. The factor with largest effect in the tangent height calculation is the assumed atmosphere. Using a climatological model in place of the real atmosphere may cause tangent height errors up to ± 200 m. Depending on the adopted retrieval scheme, these errors may have a significant impact on the derived profiles.

  5. Cephalometric risk factors of obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Mohamad; Shariati, Mahsa; Rakhshan, Vahid; Abbasi, Mohsen; Fateh, Ali; Sobouti, Farhad; Davoudmanesh, Zeinab

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies on risk factors of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are highly controversial and mostly identifying a few cephalometric risk factors. OSA diagnosis was made according to the patients' apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Included were 74 OSA patients (AHI > 10) and 52 control subjects (AHI ≤ 10 + free of other OSA symptoms). In both groups, 18 cephalometric parameters were traced (SNA, SNB, ANB, the soft palate's length (PNS-P), inferior airway space, the distance from the mandibular plane to the hyoid (MP-H), lengths of mandible (Go-Gn) and maxilla (PNS-ANS), vertical height of airway (VAL), vertical height of the posterior maxilla (S-PNS), superior posterior airway space (SPAS), middle airway space, distances from hyoid to third cervical vertebra and retrognathion (HH1), C3 (C3H), and RGN (HRGN), the maximum thickness of soft palate (MPT), tongue length (TGL), and the maximum height of tongue). These parameters were compared using t-test. Significant variables were SPAS (p = 0.027), MPT, TGL, HH1, C3H, HRGN, PNS-P, S-PNS, MP-H, VAL, and Go-Gn (all p values ≤ 0.006). OSA patients exhibited thicker and longer soft palates, hyoid bones more distant from the vertebrae, retrognathion, and mandibular plane, higher posterior maxillae, longer mandibles, and smaller superior-posterior airways.

  6. Risk assessment of work at height in construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letice Dalla Lana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The construction presents alarming statistics when it comes to the risks that these workers are subject. Higher risks still present work at a height where the fall is the biggest causal factor of fatal accidents. Thus the managements of companies who seek to reduce these risks and this has going for technical evaluation of operational risks. Three of these techniques are discussed in this article: PHA, FTA and CIT. The goal is to determine which one is most effective in assessing the risks of working at height in construction. The methodology used was case study of three works on three different construction of Santa Maria, RS. For a better understanding of the phenomenon suggests that the techniques are used together, but the CIT has provided a better quantitative analysis of incidents and the PHA contributes towards already establish the possible effects that each risk may have.

  7. The shifting trajectory of growth in femur length during gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnerem, Ashild; Johnsen, Synnøve L; Nguyen, Tuan V; Kiserud, Torvid; Seeman, Ego

    2010-05-01

    Bone size is a determinant of bone strength and tracks in its percentile of origin during childhood and adolescence. We hypothesized that the ranking of an individual's femur length (FL) is established in early gestation and tracks thereafter. Fetal FL was measured serially using 2D ultrasound in 625 Norwegian fetuses. Tracking was assessed using Pearson correlation, a generalized estimating equation model, and by calculating the proportion of fetuses whose FL remained within the same quartile. Baseline FL Z-score (weeks 10 to 19) and later measurements correlated, but more weakly as gestation advanced: r = 0.59 (weeks 20 to 26); r = 0.45 (weeks 27 to 33); and r = 0.32 (weeks 34 to 39) (p baseline FL Z-score, placental weight (150 g), maternal height (5 cm), and weight (10 kg), was associated with a 0.25, 0.15, 0.10, and 0.05 SD higher FL Z-score at the end of gestation, respectively (p ranging from <0.001 to 0.02). Tracking within the same percentile throughout the whole of gestation, as suggest by growth charts, is uncommon. Deviation from tracking is more common and is the result of changes in growth velocity within and between fetuses and is partly influenced by maternal, fetal, and placental factors. (c) 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  8. Relationships of 35 lower limb muscles to height and body mass quantified using MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handsfield, Geoffrey G; Meyer, Craig H; Hart, Joseph M; Abel, Mark F; Blemker, Silvia S

    2014-02-07

    Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in the body and serves various physiological functions including the generation of movement and support. Whole body motor function requires adequate quantity, geometry, and distribution of muscle. This raises the question: how do muscles scale with subject size in order to achieve similar function across humans? While much of the current knowledge of human muscle architecture is based on cadaver dissection, modern medical imaging avoids limitations of old age, poor health, and limited subject pool, allowing for muscle architecture data to be obtained in vivo from healthy subjects ranging in size. The purpose of this study was to use novel fast-acquisition MRI to quantify volumes and lengths of 35 major lower limb muscles in 24 young, healthy subjects and to determine if muscle size correlates with bone geometry and subject parameters of mass and height. It was found that total lower limb muscle volume scales with mass (R(2)=0.85) and with the height-mass product (R(2)=0.92). Furthermore, individual muscle volumes scale with total muscle volume (median R(2)=0.66), with the height-mass product (median R(2)=0.61), and with mass (median R(2)=0.52). Muscle volume scales with bone volume (R(2)=0.75), and muscle length relative to bone length is conserved (median s.d.=2.1% of limb length). These relationships allow for an arbitrary subject's individual muscle volumes to be estimated from mass or mass and height while muscle lengths may be estimated from limb length. The dataset presented here can further be used as a normative standard to compare populations with musculoskeletal pathologies. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Body Composition and Catch-up in Height after Treatment of Malnourished Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badaloo, Asha; Morris, Richard; Forrester, Terrence; Reid, Marvin; Wootton, Steve; Jackson, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background and Objectives: The use of enriched diets to promote rapid catch-up-growth and the delay in catch-up in length/height relative to catch-up in weight may be associated with excess adiposity and poor lean tissue deposition. We aimed to assess lean mass (LM) during treatment of Jamaican malnourished children and to investigate if stunted malnourished children remained stunted as adults. Methods: All participants were managed in hospital and in accordance with WHO guidelines. Diagnosis (marasmus, kwashiorkor, marasmic-kwashiorkor) was based on the Welcome Classification. LM was estimated from total body water(TBW)in 44 children (group 1), aged 3 to 32 months, during the stabilization period, mid catch-up growth and on achieving at least 90% of reference weight-for-length using deuterium dilution technique. Length-for-age (LAZ) and height-for-age (HAZ) Z-scores were determined in another group of 168 malnourished children (group 2) on admission, aged 3 to 33 months, and when they attained adulthood. LAZ was calculated using recent WHO child growth standards. Results: Data are mean ± SD. The participants included moderately and severely malnourished children based on weight-for-length Z-score (WLZ). In group 1, after initial stabilization intake increased to 685 ± 101 kJ/kg/d and 3.7 ± 0.6 g protein/kg/d resulting in rapid weight gain (16.5 ± 5.1 g/kg/d) and catch-up in weight over 20 ± 10 d. Consequently, WLZ at admission (non-oedematous: -3.0 ± 0.2; oedematous: -2.1 ± 0.2) improved to -0.48 ± 0.2. At recovery in weight, LM was consistent with reported values in normal children (71% to 92 % of body weight and 11 to 15 kg/m2) but the children remained stunted (LAZ: -3.3 ± 3.2). Insecurity of TBW measurement and estimating LM in the acute malnourished state and during rapid growth limits the ability to capture changes in lean and fat during rehabilitation. Similar to group 1, WLZ in group 2 was -3.2 ± 1.3 on admission; -0.6 ± 1 at recovery

  10. Prophylaxis vs. on-demand treatment with BAY 81-8973, a full-length plasma protein-free recombinant factor VIII product: results from a randomized trial (LEOPOLD II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavakli, K; Yang, R; Rusen, L; Beckmann, H; Tseneklidou-Stoeter, D; Maas Enriquez, M

    2015-03-01

    BAY 81-8973 is a new full-length human recombinant factor VIII product manufactured with technologies to improve consistency in glycosylation and expression to optimize clinical performance. To demonstrate superiority of prophylaxis vs. on demand therapy with BAY 81-8973 in patients with severe hemophilia A. In this multinational,randomized, open-label crossover study (LEOPOLD II;ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01233258), males aged 12–65 years with severe hemophilia A were randomized to twice-weekly prophylaxis (20-30 IU kg(-1)), 3-times-weekly prophylaxis (30-40 IU kg(-1)), or on-demand treatment with BAY 81-8973. Potency labeling for BAY 81-8973 was based on the chromogenic substrate assay or adjusted to the one-stage assay. Primary efficacy endpoint was annualized number of all bleeds (ABR). Adverse events (AEs)and immunogenicity were also assessed. Eighty patients (on demand, n = 21; twice-weekly prophylaxis, n = 28; 3-times-weekly prophylaxis, n = 31) were treated and analyzed. Mean ± SD ABR was significantly lower with prophylaxis (twice-weekly, 5.7 ± 7.2; 3-times-weekly, 4.3 ± 6.5; combined, 4.9 ± 6.8) vs. on-demand treatment (57.7 ± 24.6; P demand treatment (60.0). Median ABR was higher with twice-weekly vs. 3-times-weekly prophylaxis during the first 6-month treatment period (4.1 vs. 2.0) but was comparable in the second 6-month period (1.1 vs. 2.0). Few patients reported treatment-related AEs (4%); no treatment-related serious AEs or inhibitors were reported. Twice weekly or 3-times-weekly prophylaxis with BAY 81-8973 reduced median ABR by 97% compared with on-demand therapy, confirming the superiority of prophylaxis. Treatment with BAY 81-8973 was well tolerated.

  11. Low risk of inhibitor formation in haemophilia A patients following en masse switch in treatment to a third generation full length plasma and albumin-free recombinant factor VIII product (ADVATE®).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bacon, C L

    2011-05-01

    Previous studies have suggested that development of inhibitors in previously treated patients (PTPs) may be attributable to a switch in factor VIII (FVIII) therapeutic product. Consequently, it is widely recognized that inhibitor development must be assessed in PTPs following the introduction of any new FVIII product. Following a national tender process in 2006, all patients with haemophilia A in Ireland changed their FVIII treatment product en masse to a plasma and albumin-free recombinant full-length FVIII product (ADVATE(®)). In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the case records of Irish PTPs to evaluate risk of inhibitor formation following this treatment switch. One hundred and thirteen patients participated in the study. Most patients (89%) had severe haemophilia. Only one of 96 patients with no inhibitor history developed an inhibitor. Prior to the switch in his recombinant FVIII (rFVIII) treatment of choice, this child had only experienced three exposure days (EDs). Consequently, in total he had only received 6 EDs when his inhibitor was first diagnosed. In keeping with this lack of de novo inhibitor development, we observed no evidence of any recurrent inhibitor formation in any of 16 patients with previously documented inhibitors. Similarly, following a previous en masse switch, we have previously reported that changing from a Chinese hamster ovary cell-produced to a baby hamster kidney cell-produced rFVIII was also associated with a low risk of inhibitor formation in PTPs. Our cumulative findings from these two studies clearly emphasizes that the risk of inhibitor development for PTPs following changes in commercial rFVIII product is low, at least in the Irish population.

  12. Talent identification model for sprinter using discriminant factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusnanik, N. W.; Hariyanto, A.; Herdyanto, Y.; Satia, A.

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to identify young talented sprinter using discriminant factor. The research was conducted in 3 steps including item pool, screening of item pool, and trial of instruments at the small and big size of samples. 315 male elementary school students participated in this study with mean age of 11-13 years old. Data were collected by measuring anthropometry (standing height, sitting height, body mass, and leg length); testing physical fitness (40m sprint for speed, shuttle run for agility, standing broad jump for power, multistage fitness test for endurance). Data were analyzed using discriminant factor. The result of this study found that there were 5 items that selected as an instrument to identify young talented sprinter: sitting height, body mass, leg length, sprint 40m, and multistage fitness test. Model of Discriminant for talent identification in sprinter was D = -24,497 + (0,155 sitting height) + (0,080 body mass) + (0,148 leg length) + (-1,225 Sprint 40m) + (0,563 MFT). The conclusion of this study: instrument tests that have been selected and discriminant model that have been found can be applied to identify young talented as a sprinter.

  13. Smoking and health: association between telomere length and factors impacting on human disease, quality of life and life span in a large population-based cohort under the effect of smoking duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2011-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are of primary importance as they cause damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA either endogenously by cellular mechanism, or through exogenous exposure to environmental injury factors, including oxidation insult factors, such as tobacco smoke. Currently 46.3 million adults (25.7 percent of the population) are smokers. This includes 24 million men (28.1 percent of the total) and more than 22 million women (23.5 percent). The prevalence is highest among persons 25-44 years of age. Cigarette smokers have a higher risk of developing several chronic disorders. These include fatty buildups in arteries, several types of cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (lung problems). As peripheral leukocytes have been the main target of human telomere research, most of what is known about human telomere dynamics in vivo is based on these cells. Leukocyte telomere length (TL) is a complex trait that is shaped by genetic, epigenetic, and environmental determinants. In this article, we consider that smoking modifies leukocyte TL in humans and contributes to its variability among individuals, although the smoking effect on TL and its relation with other metabolic indices may accelerate biological aging and development of smoking-induced chronic diseases in a large human population-based cohorts with smoking behavior. Recent studies confirmed that individuals with shorter telomeres present a higher prevalence of arterial lesions and higher risk of cardiovascular disease mortality. This study originally suggests that efficient therapeutic protection of TL and structure in response to stresses that are known to reduce TL, such as oxidative damage or inflammation associated with tobacco smoking, would lead to better telomere maintenance. Recently, we have discovered the potential use of telomere-restorative imidazole-containing dipeptide (non-hydrolized carnosine, carcinine) based therapy for better survival of smokers. We conclude that a better

  14. Dog behavior co-varies with height, bodyweight and skull shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Paul D; Georgevsky, Dana; Carrasco, Johanna; Valenzuela, Michael; Duffy, Deborah L; Serpell, James A

    2013-01-01

    Dogs offer unique opportunities to study correlations between morphology and behavior because skull shapes and body shape are so diverse among breeds. Several studies have shown relationships between canine cephalic index (CI: the ratio of skull width to skull length) and neural architecture. Data on the CI of adult, show-quality dogs (six males and six females) were sourced in Australia along with existing data on the breeds' height, bodyweight and related to data on 36 behavioral traits of companion dogs (n = 8,301) of various common breeds (n = 49) collected internationally using the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ). Stepwise backward elimination regressions revealed that, across the breeds, 33 behavioral traits all but one of which are undesirable in companion animals correlated with either height alone (n = 14), bodyweight alone (n = 5), CI alone (n = 3), bodyweight-and-skull shape combined (n = 2), height-and-skull shape combined (n = 3) or height-and-bodyweight combined (n = 6). For example, breed average height showed strongly significant inverse relationships (psensitivity, urination when left alone, dog-directed fear, separation-related problems, non-social fear, defecation when left alone, owner-directed aggression, begging for food, urine marking and attachment/attention-seeking, while bodyweight showed strongly significant inverse relationships (p<0.001) with excitability and being reported as hyperactive. Apart from trainability, all regression coefficients with height were negative indicating that, across the breeds, behavior becomes more problematic as height decreases. Allogrooming increased strongly (p<0.001) with CI and inversely with height. CI alone showed a strong significant positive relationship with self-grooming (p<0.001) but a negative relationship with chasing (p = 0.020). The current study demonstrates how aspects of CI (and therefore brain shape), bodyweight and height co-vary with behavior. The

  15. Tree height and tropical forest biomass estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.O. Hunter; M. Keller; D. Vitoria; D.C. Morton

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests account for approximately half of above-ground carbon stored in global vegetation. However, uncertainties in tropical forest carbon stocks remain high because it is costly and laborious to quantify standing carbon stocks. Carbon stocks of tropical forests are determined using allometric relations between tree stem diameter and height and biomass....

  16. Falls from height: A retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Kasim; Sarihan, Mehmet Ediz; Colak, Cemil; Güven, Taner; Gür, Ali; Gürbüz, Sükrü

    2018-01-01

    Emergency services manage trauma patients frequently and falls from height comprise the main cause of emergency service admissions. In this study, we aimed to analyse the demographic characteristics of falls from height and their relationship to the mortality. A total of 460 patients, who admitted to the Emergency Department of Inonu University between November 2011 and November 2014 with a history of fall from height, were examined retrospectively. Demographic parameters, fall characteristics and their effect to mortality were evaluated statistically. The study comprised of 292 (63.5%) men and 168 (36.5%) women patients. The mean age of all patients was 27±24.99 years. Twenty-six (5.6%) patients died and the majority of them were in ≥62 years old group. The highest percentage of falls was at 0-5 years age group (28.3%). People fell mainly from 1.1-4 metres(m) level (46.1%). The causes of falls were ordered as unintentional (92.2%), workplace (8.1%) and suicidal (1.7%). Skin and soft tissue injuries (37.4%) were the main traumatic lesions. Age, fall height, fall place, lineer skull fracture, subarachnoidal hemorrhage, cervical fracture, thoracic vertebra fracture and trauma scores had statistically significant effect on mortality. The casualties died because of subarachnoid hemorrhage mostly.

  17. Pulse height model for deuterated scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Haitang; Enqvist, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    An analytical model of light pulse height distribution for finite deuterated scintillation detectors is created using the impulse approximation. Particularly, the energy distribution of a scattered neutron is calculated based on an existing collision probability scheme for general cylindrical shaped detectors considering double differential cross-sections. The light pulse height distribution is analytically and numerically calculated by convoluting collision sequences with the light output function for an EJ-315 detector from our measurements completed at Ohio University. The model provides a good description of collision histories capturing transferred neutron energy in deuterium-based scintillation materials. The resulting light pulse height distribution details pulse compositions and their corresponding contributions. It shows that probabilities of neutron collision with carbon and deuterium nuclei are comparable, however the light pulse amplitude due to collisions with carbon nuclei is small and mainly located at the lower region of the light pulse distribution axis. The model can explore those neutron interaction events that generate pulses near or below a threshold that would be imposed in measurements. A comparison is made between the light pulse height distributions given by the analytical model and measurements. It reveals a significant probability of a neutron generating a small light pulse due to collisions with carbon nuclei when compared to larger light pulse generated by collisions involving deuterium nuclei. This model is beneficial to understand responses of scintillation materials and pulse compositions, as well as nuclei information extraction from recorded pulses.

  18. Aircraft height estimation using 2-D radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hakl, H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to infer height information from an aircraft tracked with a single 2-D search radar is presented. The method assumes level flight in the target aircraft and a good estimate of the speed of the aircraft. The method yields good results...

  19. Sonographic Measurement of Normal Splenic Length in Korean Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang Bum; Cheon, Byung Kook; Kim, Jong Min; Oh, Kyung Seoung; Jung, Gyoo Sik; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk [Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-15

    To establish upper limit of normal splenic length of Korean adults on ultrasonography and to determice the degree of interobserver and intraobserver variation. Ultrasonographic scans were performed to measure the maximum length of spleen in 105 of 150 adults selected by convenience sampling. Remained 45 cases with any conditions that could alter splenic size were excluded from this study. The maximum length of spleen was measured and correlated with body surface area, patient height, weight, age and sex. In 31 of the 105 adults we evaluated the interobserver and intraobserver variations in sonographic measurements of splenic length obtained by three radiologists in blind fashion. The mean splenic length in 105 adults was 8.56cm ({+-} 0.95). The splenic length positively correlated with body surface area, patient height and weight (P <0.001), and negatively correlated with patient age (P < 0.01). Male spleen (8.87 cm {+-} 1.07) was longer than female spleen (8.35 cm {+-} 0.81) (P < 0.05). The following guidelines are proposed for the upper limit of normal splenic length at different groups of body surface area: no longer than 10 cm at 1.20{approx}1.59 m{sup 2}, 11 cm at1.60{approx}1.79 m{sup 2}, and 12 cm at 1.80{approx}1.99 m{sup 2}. The mean interobserver variation between any two radiologists ranged from 0.32 cm ({+-} 0.29) to 0.39 cm ({+-} 0.33) and interobserver variations were within 1 cm in 96%. The mean intraobserver variations were within 0.5 cm in 91%. The splenic length closely correlated with body surface area, patient height, weight and age. Particularly the upper limit of normal splenic length changed according to body surface area. Interobserver variation about 1 cm and intraobserver variation about 0.5 cm should be considered in the measurement of the splenic length on ultrasonography

  20. Effect of abutment height on interproximal implant bone level in the early healing: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Juan; Pico, Alexandre; Caneiro, Leticia; Nóvoa, Lourdes; Batalla, Pilar; Martín-Lancharro, Pablo

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to compare the effect on the interproximal implant bone loss (IBL) of two different heights (1 and 3 mm) of definitive abutments placed at bone level implants with a platform switched design. Twenty-two patients received forty-four implants (6.5-10 mm length and 3.5-4 mm diameter) to replace at least two adjacent missing teeth, one bridge set to each patient-two implants per bridge. Patients were randomly allocated, and two different abutment heights, 1 and 3 mm using only one abutment height per bridge, were used. Clinical and radiological measurements were performed at 3 and 6 months after surgery. Interproximal bone level changes were compared between treatment groups. The association between IBL and categorical variables (history of periodontitis, smoking, implant location, implant diameter, implant length, insertion torque, width of keratinized mucosa, bone density, gingival biotype and antagonist) was also performed. At 3 months, implants with a 1-mm abutment had significantly greater IBL (0.83 ± 0.19 mm) compared to implants with a 3-mm abutment (0.14 ± 0.08 mm). At 6 months, a greater IBL was observed at implants with 1-mm abutments compared to implants with 3-mm abutments (0.91 ± 0.19 vs. 0.11 ± 0.09 mm). The analysis of the relation between patient characteristics and clinical variables with IBL revealed no significant differences at any moment except for smoking. Abutment height is an important factor to maintain interproximal implant bone level in early healing. Short abutments led to a greater interproximal bone loss in comparison with long abutments after 6 months. Other variables except smoking showed no relation with interproximal bone loss in early healing. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance.

  2. Does Height to Width Ratio Correlate with Mean Volume in Gastropods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, R.; Seixas, G.; Payne, J.

    2012-12-01

    Marine organisms' shell shape and size show important biological information. For example, shape and size can dictate how the organism ranges for food and escapes predation. Due to lack of data and analysis, the evolution of shell size in marine gastropods (snails) remains poorly known. In this study, I attempt to find the relationship between height to width ratio and mean volume. I collected height and width measurements from primary literature sources and calculated volume from these measurements. My results indicate that there was no correlation between height to width ratio and mean volume between 500 to 200 Ma, but there was a correlation between 200 Ma to present where there is a steady increase in both height to width ratio and mean volume. This means that shell shape was not an important factor at the beginning of gastropod evolution but after 200 Ma body size evolution was increasingly driven by the height to width ratio.

  3. A GEOMETRICAL HEIGHT SCALE FOR SUNSPOT PENUMBRAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puschmann, K. G.; Ruiz Cobo, B.; MartInez Pillet, V.

    2010-01-01

    Inversions of spectropolarimetric observations of penumbral filaments deliver the stratification of different physical quantities in an optical depth scale. However, without establishing a geometrical height scale, their three-dimensional geometrical structure cannot be derived. This is crucial in understanding the correct spatial variation of physical properties in the penumbral atmosphere and to provide insights into the mechanism capable of explaining the observed penumbral brightness. The aim of this work is to determine a global geometrical height scale in the penumbra by minimizing the divergence of the magnetic field vector and the deviations from static equilibrium as imposed by a force balance equation that includes pressure gradients, gravity, and the Lorentz force. Optical depth models are derived from the inversion of spectropolarimetric data of an active region observed with the Solar Optical Telescope on board the Hinode satellite. We use a genetic algorithm to determine the boundary condition for the inference of geometrical heights. The retrieved geometrical height scale permits the evaluation of the Wilson depression at each pixel and the correlation of physical quantities at each height. Our results fit into the uncombed penumbral scenario, i.e., a penumbra composed of flux tubes with channeled mass flow and with a weaker and more horizontal magnetic field as compared with the background field. The ascending material is hotter and denser than their surroundings. We do not find evidence of overturning convection or field-free regions in the inner penumbral area analyzed. The penumbral brightness can be explained by the energy transfer of the ascending mass carried by the Evershed flow, if the physical quantities below z = -75 km are extrapolated from the results of the inversion.

  4. Comparison of Body Mass Index (BMI, Body Adiposity Index (BAI, Waist Circumference (WC, Waist-To-Hip Ratio (WHR and Waist-To-Height Ratio (WHtR as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk factors in an adult population in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Chih Chiang Lam

    Full Text Available Excess adiposity is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. Amongst the various measures of adiposity, the best one to help predict these risk factors remains contentious. A novel index of adiposity, the Body Adiposity Index (BAI was proposed in 2011, and has not been extensively studied in all populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to compare the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI, Waist Circumference (WC, Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR, Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR, Body Adiposity Index (BAI and CVD risk factors in the local adult population.This is a cross sectional study involving 1,891 subjects (Chinese 59.1% Malay 22.2%, Indian 18.7%, aged 21-74 years, based on an employee health screening (2012 undertaken at a hospital in Singapore. Anthropometric indices and CVD risk factor variables were measured, and Spearman correlation, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves and multiple logistic regressions were used. BAI consistently had the lower correlation, area under ROC and odd ratio values when compared with BMI, WC and WHtR, although differences were often small with overlapping 95% confidence intervals. After adjusting for BMI, BAI did not further increase the odds of CVD risk factors, unlike WC and WHtR (for all except hypertension and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol. When subjects with the various CVD risk factors were grouped according to established cut-offs, a BMI of ≥23.0 kg/m2 and/or WHtR ≥0.5 identified the highest proportion for all the CVD risk factors in both genders, even higher than a combination of BMI and WC.BAI may function as a measure of overall adiposity but it is unlikely to be better than BMI. A combination of BMI and WHtR could have the best clinical utility in identifying patients with CVD risk factors in an adult population in Singapore.

  5. Ion transition heights from topside electron density profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titheridge, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Theoretical electron density profiles are calculated for the topside ionosphere to determine the major factors controlling the profile shape. Only the mean temperature, the vertical temperature gradient and the O + /H + ion transition height are important. Vertical proton fluxes alter the ion transition height but have no other effect on the profile shape. Diffusive equilibrium profiles including only these three effects fit observed profiles, at all latitudes, to within experimental accuracy. Values of plasma temperature, temperature gradient and ion transition height hsub(T) were determined by fitting theoretical models to 60,000 experimental profiles obtained from Alouette 1 ionograms, at latitudes of 75 0 S to 85 0 N near solar minimum. Inside the plasmasphere hsub(T) varies from about 500 km on winter nights to 850 km on summer days. Diurnal variations are caused primarily by the production and loss of O + in the ionosphere. The approximately constant winter night value of hsub(T) is close to the level for chemical equilibrium. In summer hsub(T) is always above the equilibrium level, giving a continual production of protons which travel along lines of force to aid in maintaining the conjugate winter night ionosphere. Outside the plasmasphere hsub(T) is 300 to 600 km above the equilibrium level at all times. This implies a continual near-limiting upwards flux of protons which persists down to latitudes of about 60 0 at night and 50 0 during the day. (author)

  6. Genome-wide association study identified CNP12587 region underlying height variation in Chinese females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Ping Zhang

    Full Text Available Human height is a highly heritable trait considered as an important factor for health. There has been limited success in identifying the genetic factors underlying height variation. We aim to identify sequence variants associated with adult height by a genome-wide association study of copy number variants (CNVs in Chinese.Genome-wide CNV association analyses were conducted in 1,625 unrelated Chinese adults and sex specific subgroup for height variation, respectively. Height was measured with a stadiometer. Affymetrix SNP6.0 genotyping platform was used to identify copy number polymorphisms (CNPs. We constructed a genomic map containing 1,009 CNPs in Chinese individuals and performed a genome-wide association study of CNPs with height.We detected 10 significant association signals for height (p<0.05 in the whole population, 9 and 11 association signals for Chinese female and male population, respectively. A copy number polymorphism (CNP12587, chr18:54081842-54086942, p = 2.41 × 10(-4 was found to be significantly associated with height variation in Chinese females even after strict Bonferroni correction (p = 0.048. Confirmatory real time PCR experiments lent further support for CNV validation. Compared to female subjects with two copies of the CNP, carriers of three copies had an average of 8.1% decrease in height. An important candidate gene, ubiquitin-protein ligase NEDD4-like (NEDD4L, was detected at this region, which plays important roles in bone metabolism by binding to bone formation regulators.Our findings suggest the important genetic variants underlying height variation in Chinese.

  7. Grandparental education, parental education and child height: evidence from Hong Kong's "Children of 1997" birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M; Lam, Tai Hing; Leung, Shirley S L; Schooling, C Mary

    2013-08-01

    Adult height is the sum of growth during fetal, infancy, childhood, and puberty, controlled by different biological factors. In long-term developed Western populations, height is positively associated with socioeconomic position, but less clearly so in recently developing populations. We aimed to elucidate socioeconomic influences on height at different growth phases. We examined the associations of parents' education and grandparents' education with birth weight and height gain z-scores during infancy (birth to education, but not grandparents', was positively associated with birth weight (z-score, 0.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01-0.12 for grade ≥12 compared with grade ≤9) and height gain during infancy (0.11; 95% CI, 0.05-0.18), adjusted for gender, gestational age, initial size, parity, parents' age, parents' birthplace, and parents' height. Conversely, similarly adjusted, grandparents' education, but not parents', was associated with height gain during childhood (0.11; 95% CI, 0.04-0.18). Parental education was associated with fetal and infant, but not childhood, linear growth, suggesting the mechanism underlying socioeconomic influences on height at different growth phases may be contextually specific. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing Eruption Column Height in Ancient Flood Basalt Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Self, Stephen; Schmidt, Anja; Hunter, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    A buoyant plume model is used to explore the ability of flood basalt eruptions to inject climate-relevant gases into the stratosphere. An example from the 1986 Izu-Oshima basaltic fissure eruption validates the model's ability to reproduce the observed maximum plume heights of 12-16 km above sea level, sustained above fire-fountains. The model predicts maximum plume heights of 13-17 km for source widths of between 4-16 m when 32% (by mass) of the erupted magma is fragmented and involved in the buoyant plume (effective volatile content of 6 wt%). Assuming that the Miocene-age Roza eruption (part of the Columbia River Basalt Group) sustained fire-fountains of similar height to Izu-Oshima (1.6 km above the vent), we show that the Roza eruption could have sustained buoyant ash and gas plumes that extended into the stratosphere at approximately 45 deg N. Assuming 5 km long active fissure segments and 9000 Mt of SO2 released during explosive phases over a 10-15 year duration, the approximately 180 km of known Roza fissure length could have supported approximately 36 explosive events/phases, each with a duration of 3-4 days. Each 5 km fissure segment could have emitted 62 Mt of SO2 per day into the stratosphere while actively fountaining, the equivalent of about three 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruptions per day. Each fissure segment could have had one to several vents, which subsequently produced lava without significant fountaining for a longer period within the decades-long eruption. Sensitivity of plume rise height to ancient atmospheric conditions is explored. Although eruptions in the Deccan Traps (approximately 66 Ma) may have generated buoyant plumes that rose to altitudes in excess of 18 km, they may not have reached the stratosphere because the tropopause was substantially higher in the late Cretaceous. Our results indicate that some flood basalt eruptions, such as Roza, were capable of repeatedly injecting large masses of SO2 into the stratosphere. Thus sustained

  9. Memory for tonal pitches: a music-length effect hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiva-Kabiri, Lilach; Vecchi, Tomaso; Granot, Roni; Basso, Demis; Schön, Daniele

    2009-07-01

    One of the most studied effects of verbal working memory (WM) is the influence of the length of the words that compose the list to be remembered. This work aims to investigate the nature of musical WM by replicating the word length effect in the musical domain. Length and rate of presentation were manipulated in a recognition task of tone sequences. Results showed significant effects for both factors (length and presentation rate) as well as their interaction, suggesting the existence of different strategies (e.g., chunking and rehearsal) for the immediate memory of musical information, depending upon the length of the sequences.

  10. Body composition at birth and height at 2 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Admassu, Bitiya; Wells, Jonathan C; Girma, Tsinuel

    2017-01-01

    -free mass (FFM) were measured using air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth. Linear regression models were applied to study the relationship between BC at birth and HAZ at 24 months (±3 months). RESULTS: A total of 268 children with height assessment at 2 years were included. Mean±s.d. HAZ...... at 2 years of age was -1.2±1.2, with 25.8% classified as stunted (HAZFFM at birth was positively associated with HAZ at 2 years, independent of length at birth. When adjusted for potential confounders, HAZ at 2 years was 0.73 higher for each additional kg FFM at birth (β=0.73, 95%CI (0.08, 1.......38). FM was not associated with HAZ at 2 years in any model. CONCLUSION: The FFM component of birth weight, independent of length, explains variability in HAZ at 2 years. Further studies are required to explore how changes in early infant BC are associated with linear growth.Pediatric Research accepted...

  11. Aminophylline increases seizure length during electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, L; Dannon, P N; Hirschmann, S; Schriber, S; Amytal, D; Dolberg, O T; Grunhaus, L

    1999-12-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered to be one of the most effective treatments for patients with major depression and persistent psychosis. Seizure characteristics probably determine the therapeutic effect of ECT; as a consequence, short seizures are accepted as one of the factors of poor outcome. During most ECT courses seizure threshold increases and seizure duration decreases. Methylxanthine preparations, caffeine, and theophylline have been used to prolong seizure duration. The use of aminophylline, more readily available than caffeine, has not been well documented. The objective of this study was to test the effects of aminophylline on seizure length. Fourteen drug-free patients with diagnoses of affective disorder or psychotic episode receiving ECT participated in this study. Seizure length was assessed clinically and per EEG. Statistical comparisons were done using paired t tests. A significant increase (p < 0.04) in seizure length was achieved and maintained on three subsequent treatments with aminophylline. No adverse events were noted from the addition of aminophylline.

  12. [Mortality and length of stay in a surgical intensive care unit.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelha, Fernando José; Castro, Maria Ana; Landeiro, Nuno Miguel; Neves, Aida Maria; Santos, Cristina Costa

    2006-02-01

    Outcome in intensive care can be categorized as mortality related or morbidity related. Mortality is an insufficient measure of ICU outcome when measured alone and length of stay may be seen as an indirect measure of morbidity related outcome. The aim of the present study was to estimate the incidence and predictive factors for intrahospitalar outcome measured by mortality and LOS in patients admitted to a surgical ICU. In this prospective study all 185 patients, who underwent scheduled or emergency surgery admitted to a surgical ICU in a large tertiary university medical center performed during April and July 2004, were eligible to the study. The following variables were recorded: age, sex, body weight and height, core temperature (Tc), ASA physical status, emergency or scheduled surgery, magnitude of surgical procedure, anesthesia technique, amount of fluids during anesthesia, use of temperature monitoring and warming techniques, duration of the anesthesia, length of stay in ICU and in the hospital and SAPS II score. The mean length of stay in the ICU was 4.09 +/- 10.23 days. Significant risk factors for staying longer in ICU were SAPS II, ASA physical status, amount of colloids, fresh frozen plasma units and packed erythrocytes units used during surgery. Fourteen (7.60%) patients died in ICU and 29 (15.70%) died during their hospitalization. Statistically significant independent risk factors for mortality were emergency surgery, major surgery, high SAPS II scores, longer stay in ICU and in the hospital. Statistically significant protective factors against the probability of dying in the hospital were low body weight and low BMI. In conclusion, prolonged ICU stay is more frequent in more severely ill patients at admission and it is associated with higher hospital mortality. Hospital mortality is also more frequent in patients submitted to emergent and major surgery.

  13. Correlation among body height, intelligence, and brain gray matter volume in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Wu, Kai; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-16

    A significant positive correlation between height and intelligence has been demonstrated in children. Additionally, intelligence has been associated with the volume of gray matter in the brains of children. Based on these correlations, we analyzed the correlation among height, full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) and gray matter volume applying voxel-based morphometry using data from the brain magnetic resonance images of 160 healthy children aged 5-18 years of age. As a result, body height was significantly positively correlated with brain gray matter volume. Additionally, the regional gray matter volume of several regions such as the bilateral prefrontal cortices, temporoparietal region, and cerebellum was significantly positively correlated with body height and that the gray matter volume of several of these regions was also significantly positively correlated with full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) scores after adjusting for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Our results demonstrate that gray and white matter volume may mediate the correlation between body height and intelligence in healthy children. Additionally, the correlations among gray and white matter volume, height, and intelligence may be at least partially explained by the effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 and growth hormones. Given the importance of the effect of environmental factors, especially nutrition, on height, IQ, and gray matter volume, the present results stress the importance of nutrition during childhood for the healthy maturation of body and brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigation of temperature dependent barrier height of Au/ZnO/Si schottky diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghar, M.; Mahmood, K.; Rabia, S.; BM, S.; Shahid, M. Y.; Hasan, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, temperature dependent current-voltage (I-V) measurements have been performed to investigate the inhomogeneity in the temperature dependent barrier heights of Au/ZnO/Si Schottky barrier diode in the temperature range 150 - 400K. The room temperature values for ideality factor and barrier height were found to be 2.9 and 0.60 eV respectively indicating the inhomogenity in the barrier heights of grown samples. The Richardson plot and ideality factor verses barrier height graph were also drawn to verified the discontinuity between Au and ZnO. This barrier height inhomogenity was explained by applying Gaussian distribution model. The extrapolation of the linear Fap (n) plot to n= 1 has given a homogeneous barrier height of approximately 1.1 eV. Fap versus 1/T plot was drawn to obtain the values of mean barrier height for Au/ZnO/Si Schottky diode (1.1 eV) and standard deviation(ds) (0.02 V) at zero bais. (author)

  15. Investigation of temperature dependent barrier height of Au/ZnO/Si schottky diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghar, M; Mahmood, K; Rabia, S; M, Samaa B; Shahid, M Y; Hasan, M A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, temperature dependent current-voltage (I-V) measurements have been performed to investigate the inhomogeneity in the temperature dependent barrier heights of Au/ZnO/Si Schottky barrier diode in the temperature range 150 – 400K. The room temperature values for ideality factor and barrier height were found to be 2.9 and 0.60 eV respectively indicating the inhomogenity in the barrier heights of grown samples. The Richardson plot and ideality factor verses barrier height graph were also drawn to verified the discontinuity between Au and ZnO. This barrier height inhomogenity was explained by applying Gaussian distribution model. The extrapolation of the linear Φ ap (n) plot to n= 1 has given a homogeneous barrier height of approximately 1.1 eV. Φ ap versus 1/T plot was drawn to obtain the values of mean barrier height for Au/ZnO/Si Schottky diode (1.1 eV) and standard deviation(δ s ) (0.02 V) at zero bais

  16. BOREAS AFM-6 Boundary Layer Height Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) site. This data set provides boundary layer height information over the site. The data were collected from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994 and are stored in tabular ASCII files. The boundary layer height data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  17. Towards worldwide height unification using ocean information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Woodworth

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how we are contributing to worldwide height system unification (WHSU by using ocean models together with sea level (tide gauge and altimeter information, geodetic (GPS and levelling data, and new geoid models based on information from the GRACE and GOCE gravity missions, to understand how mean sea level (MSL varies from place to place along the coast. For the last two centuries, MSL has been used to define datums for national levelling systems. However, there are many problems with this. One consequence of WHSU will be the substitution of conventional datums as a reference for heights with the use of geoid, as the only true "level" or datum. This work is within a number of GOCE-related activities funded by the European Space Agency. The study is focused on the coastlines of North America and Europe where the various datasets are most copious.

  18. Bringing satellite winds to hub-height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Bredesen, Rolv Erlend

    2012-01-01

    Satellite observations of the ocean surface can provide detailed information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is very valuable for the mapping of wind resources offshore where other measurements are costly and sparse. Satellite sensors operating at microwave frequencies...... measure the amount of radar backscatter from the sea surface, which is a function of the instant wind speed, wind direction, and satellite viewing geometry. A major limitation related to wind retrievals from satellite observations is that existing empirical model functions relate the radar backscatter...... to wind speed at the height 10 m only. The extrapolation of satellite wind fields to higher heights, which are more relevant for wind energy, remains a challenge which cannot be addressed by means of satellite data alone. As part of the EU-NORSEWInD project (2008-12), a hybrid method has been developed...

  19. Height predicts jealousy differently for men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Park, Justin H.; Zurriaga, Rosario; Klavina, Liga; Massar, Karlijn

    Because male height is associated with attractiveness, dominance, and reproductive success, taller men may be less jealous. And because female height has a curvilinear relationship with health and reproductive success (with average-height females having the advantages), female height may have a

  20. Lucas Heights buffer zone: plan of management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This plan is being used by the Commission as a guide for its management of the Lucas Heights buffer zone, which is essentially a circular area having a 1-6 km radius around the HIFAR reactor. Aspects covered by this plan include past uses, current use, objectives for buffer zone land management, emergency evacuation, resource conservation, archaeology, fire, access, rehabilitation of disturbed areas, resource management and plan implementation

  1. Weight and height prediction of immobilized patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rabito,Estela Iraci; Vannucchi,Gabriela Bergamini; Suen,Vivian Marques Miguel; Castilho Neto,Laércio Lopes; Marchini,Júlio Sérgio

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To confirm the adequacy of the formula suggested in the literature and/or to develop appropriate equations for the Brazilian population of immobilized patients based on simple anthropometric measurements. METHODS: Hospitalized patients were submitted to anthropometry and methods to estimate weight and height of bedridden patients were developed by multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Three hundred sixty eight persons were evaluated at two hospital centers and five weight-predicting...

  2. The use of logarithmic pulse height and energy scales in organic scintillator spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittlestone, S.

    1980-01-01

    The use of logarithmic pulse height and energy scales is advantageous for organic for organic scintillator neutron spectroscopy, providing an expanded dynamic range and economy of computer usage. An experimental logarithmic pulse height analysis system is shown to be feasible. A pulse height spectrum from a neutron measurement has been analysed using linear and logarithmic scales; the latter reduced the computer storage requirements by a factor of 13 and analysis time by 8.7, and there was no degradation of the analysed spectrum. Most of the arguments favouring use of logarithmic scales apply equally well to other types of scintillation spectroscopy. (orig.)

  3. Gravity and Height Variations at Medicina, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Sara; Zerbini, Susanna; Errico, Maddalena; Santi, Efisio; Wziontek, Hartmut

    2017-04-01

    Since 1996, at the Medicina station, height and gravity variations are monitored continuously by means of GPS, VLBI and superconducting gravimeter (SG) data. Additionally, absolute gravity observations are performed twice a year and environmental parameters, among others water table levels, are regularly acquired. Levelling between the different monuments at the site area is also carried out repeatedly to constrain local ties in the vertical position. Two GPS systems are located very close to each other, and both are in close proximity to the VLBI antenna. Twenty years of data are now available, which allow investigating both long- and short-period height and gravity signals together with their relevant correlations. Natural land subsidence, which is well known to occur in the area, is a major component of the observed long-term behavior; however, non-linear long-period signatures are also present in the time series. On a shorter time scale, fingerprints of the water table seasonal oscillations can be recognized in the data. The Medicina site is characterized by clayey soil subjected to consolidation effects when the water table lowers during summer periods. The pillar on which the SG is installed is especially affected because of its shallow foundation, causing height decreases in the order of 2.5-3 cm for water table lowering of 2 m. This study presents a comparative analysis of the different data sets with the aim of separating mass and deformation contributions in the SG gravity record.

  4. A global boundary-layer height climatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dop, H. van; Krol, M.; Holtslag, B. [Inst. for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, IMAU, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1997-10-01

    In principle the ABL (atmospheric boundary layer) height can be retrieved from atmospheric global circulation models since they contain algorithms which determine the intensity of the turbulence as a function of height. However, these data are not routinely available, or on a (vertical) resolution which is too crude in view of the application. This justifies the development of a separate algorithm in order to define the ABL. The algorithm should include the generation of turbulence by both shear and buoyancy and should be based on readily available atmospheric parameters. There is obviously a wide application for boundary heights in off-line global and regional chemistry and transport modelling. It is also a much used parameter in air pollution meteorology. In this article we shall present a theory which is based on current insights in ABL dynamics. The theory is applicable over land and sea surfaces in all seasons. The theory is (for various reasons) not valid in mountainous areas. In areas where boundary-layer clouds or deep cumulus convection are present the theory does not apply. However, the same global atmospheric circulation models contain parameterizations for shallow and deep convection from which separate estimates can be obtained for the extent of vertical mixing. (au)

  5. Development of methods for inferring cloud thickness and cloud-base height from satellite radiance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William L., Jr.; Minnis, Patrick; Alvarez, Joseph M.; Uttal, Taneil; Intrieri, Janet M.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Clothiaux, Eugene

    1993-01-01

    Cloud-top height is a major factor determining the outgoing longwave flux at the top of the atmosphere. The downwelling radiation from the cloud strongly affects the cooling rate within the atmosphere and the longwave radiation incident at the surface. Thus, determination of cloud-base temperature is important for proper calculation of fluxes below the cloud. Cloud-base altitude is also an important factor in aircraft operations. Cloud-top height or temperature can be derived in a straightforward manner using satellite-based infrared data. Cloud-base temperature, however, is not observable from the satellite, but is related to the height, phase, and optical depth of the cloud in addition to other variables. This study uses surface and satellite data taken during the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Phase-2 Intensive Field Observation (IFO) period (13 Nov. - 7 Dec. 1991, to improve techniques for deriving cloud-base height from conventional satellite data.

  6. Does sitting height ratio affect estimates of obesity prevalence among Canadian Inuit? Results from the 2007-2008 Inuit Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Tracey; Chateau-Degat, Marie-Ludivine; Egeland, Grace M; Young, T Kue

    2011-01-01

    High sitting height ratio (SHR) is a characteristic commonly associated with Inuit morphology. Inuit are described as having short leg lengths and high trunk-to-stature proportions such that cutoffs for obesity derived from European populations may not adequately describe thresholds of disease risk. Further, high SHR may help explain the reduced impact of BMI on metabolic risk factors among Inuit relative to comparison populations. This study investigates the relationship between SHR and body mass index (BMI) in Inuit. Subjects are 2,168 individuals (837 males and 1,331 females) from 36 Inuit communities in the Canadian Arctic. Mean age is 42.63 ± 14.86 years in males and 41.71 ± 14.83 years in females. We use linear regression to examine the association between age, sex, height, sitting height, SHR, waist circumference (WC), and BMI. We then evaluate the efficacy of the relative sitting height adjustment as a method of correcting observed BMI to a population-standardized SHR. Mean BMI is significantly higher than among non-Inuit Canadians. Obesity prevalence is high, particularly among Inuit women. In the regression, only age and WC are significant predictors of BMI. While SHR is significantly greater than that of the US population, there is substantial agreement between overweight and obesity prevalence using observed and corrected BMI. We find no consistent relationship between SHR and BMI and suggest the unique anthropometric and metabolic profile observed in Inuit arise from factors not yet delineated. More complex anthropometric and imaging studies in Inuit are needed. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Degeneration and height of cervical discs classified from MRI compared with precise height measurements from radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolstad, Frode [National Centre of Spinal Disorders, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway)]. E-mail: frode.kolstad@medisin.ntnu.no; Myhr, Gunnar [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway); Kvistad, Kjell Arne [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway); Nygaard, Oystein P. [National Centre of Spinal Disorders, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway); Leivseth, Gunnar [Department of Neuromedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway)

    2005-09-01

    Study design: Descriptive study comparing MRI classifications with measurements from radiographs. Objectives: 1.Define the relationship between MRI classified cervical disc degeneration and objectively measured disc height. 2.Assess the level of inter- and intra-observer errors using MRI in defining cervical disc degeneration. Summary of background data: Cervical spine degeneration has been defined radiologically by loss of disc height, decreased disc and bone marrow signal intensity and disc protrusion/herniation on MRI. The intra- and inter-observer error using MRI in defining cervical degeneration influences data interpretation. Few previous studies have addressed this source of error. The relation and time sequence between cervical disc degeneration classified by MRI and cervical disc height decrease measured from radiographs is unclear. Methods: The MRI classification of degeneration was based on nucleus signal, prolaps identification and bone marrow signal. Two neuro-radiologists evaluated the MR-images independently in a blinded fashion. The radiographic disc height measurements were done by a new computer-assisted method compensating for image distortion and permitting comparison with normal level-, age- and gender-appropriate disc height. Results/conclusions: 1.Progressing disc degeneration classified from MRI is on average significantly associated with a decrease of disc height as measured from radiographs. Within each MRI defined category of degeneration measured disc heights, however, scatter in a wide range. 2.The inter-observer agreement between two neuro-radiologists in both defining degeneration and disc height by MRI was only moderate. Studies addressing questions related to cervical disc degeneration should take this into consideration.

  8. Degeneration and height of cervical discs classified from MRI compared with precise height measurements from radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolstad, Frode; Myhr, Gunnar; Kvistad, Kjell Arne; Nygaard, Oystein P.; Leivseth, Gunnar

    2005-01-01

    Study design: Descriptive study comparing MRI classifications with measurements from radiographs. Objectives: 1.Define the relationship between MRI classified cervical disc degeneration and objectively measured disc height. 2.Assess the level of inter- and intra-observer errors using MRI in defining cervical disc degeneration. Summary of background data: Cervical spine degeneration has been defined radiologically by loss of disc height, decreased disc and bone marrow signal intensity and disc protrusion/herniation on MRI. The intra- and inter-observer error using MRI in defining cervical degeneration influences data interpretation. Few previous studies have addressed this source of error. The relation and time sequence between cervical disc degeneration classified by MRI and cervical disc height decrease measured from radiographs is unclear. Methods: The MRI classification of degeneration was based on nucleus signal, prolaps identification and bone marrow signal. Two neuro-radiologists evaluated the MR-images independently in a blinded fashion. The radiographic disc height measurements were done by a new computer-assisted method compensating for image distortion and permitting comparison with normal level-, age- and gender-appropriate disc height. Results/conclusions: 1.Progressing disc degeneration classified from MRI is on average significantly associated with a decrease of disc height as measured from radiographs. Within each MRI defined category of degeneration measured disc heights, however, scatter in a wide range. 2.The inter-observer agreement between two neuro-radiologists in both defining degeneration and disc height by MRI was only moderate. Studies addressing questions related to cervical disc degeneration should take this into consideration

  9. Are Human Mating Preferences with Respect to Height Reflected in Actual Pairings?

    OpenAIRE

    Stulp, Gert; Buunk, Abraham P.; Pollet, Thomas V.; Nettle, Daniel; Verhulst, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Pair formation, acquiring a mate to form a reproductive unit, is a complex process. Mating preferences are a step in this process. However, due to constraining factors such as availability of mates, rival competition, and mutual mate choice, preferred characteristics may not be realised in the actual partner. People value height in their partner and we investigated to what extent preferences for height are realised in actual couples. We used data from the Millennium Cohort Study (UK) and comp...

  10. Respiratory disease mortality among uranium miners as related to height, radiation, smoking, and latent period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, V.E.; Gillam, J.D.; James, L.A.

    1975-11-01

    A prospective mortality study using a life table method was done on 3366 white underground uranium miners, and 1231 surface workers. Observed deaths were found to exceed those expected from respiratory cancer, pneumoconiosis and related diseases, and accidents related to work. Exposure - response relationships with radiation varied with cigarette smoking and with height of workers. Of four factors involved in both malignant and nonmalignant respiratory diseases (height, free silica, cigarette smoking and alpha radiation), radiation was considered to be most important

  11. Fluid selection and parametric analysis on condensation temperature and plant height for a thermogravimetric heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafi, Behzad; Obando Vega, Pedro; Guilizzoni, Manfredo; Rinaldi, Fabio; Arosio, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    the system, while the COP values remain in a relatively small range. - Highlights: • The required plant height with different working fluids for a thermogravimetric heat pump was determined. • A fluid selection diagram including COP and the required height for different fluids was presented. • Sensitivity analysis to study the effect of height increasing factor on COP was performed. • Sensitivity analysis to investigate the effect of condensation temperature on the COP was also carried out

  12. Prediction of Canopy Heights over a Large Region Using Heterogeneous Lidar Datasets: Efficacy and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjith Gopalakrishnan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Generating accurate and unbiased wall-to-wall canopy height maps from airborne lidar data for large regions is useful to forest scientists and natural resource managers. However, mapping large areas often involves using lidar data from different projects, with varying acquisition parameters. In this work, we address the important question of whether one can accurately model canopy heights over large areas of the Southeastern US using a very heterogeneous dataset of small-footprint, discrete-return airborne lidar data (with 76 separate lidar projects. A unique aspect of this effort is the use of nationally uniform and extensive field data (~1800 forested plots from the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA program of the US Forest Service. Preliminary results are quite promising: Over all lidar projects, we observe a good correlation between the 85th percentile of lidar heights and field-measured height (r = 0.85. We construct a linear regression model to predict subplot-level dominant tree heights from distributional lidar metrics (R2 = 0.74, RMSE = 3.0 m, n = 1755. We also identify and quantify the importance of several factors (like heterogeneity of vegetation, point density, the predominance of hardwoods or softwoods, the average height of the forest stand, slope of the plot, and average scan angle of lidar acquisition that influence the efficacy of predicting canopy heights from lidar data. For example, a subset of plots (coefficient of variation of vegetation heights <0.2 significantly reduces the RMSE of our model from 3.0–2.4 m (~20% reduction. We conclude that when all these elements are factored into consideration, combining data from disparate lidar projects does not preclude robust estimation of canopy heights.

  13. Assessing the Causal Relationship of Maternal Height on Birth Size and Gestational Age at Birth: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ge; Bacelis, Jonas; Lengyel, Candice; Teramo, Kari; Hallman, Mikko; Helgeland, Øyvind; Johansson, Stefan; Myhre, Ronny; Sengpiel, Verena; Njølstad, Pål Rasmus; Jacobsson, Bo; Muglia, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Background Observational epidemiological studies indicate that maternal height is associated with gestational age at birth and fetal growth measures (i.e., shorter mothers deliver infants at earlier gestational ages with lower birth weight and birth length). Different mechanisms have been postulated to explain these associations. This study aimed to investigate the casual relationships behind the strong association of maternal height with fetal growth measures (i.e., birth length and birth weight) and gestational age by a Mendelian randomization approach. Methods and Findings We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using phenotype and genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data of 3,485 mother/infant pairs from birth cohorts collected from three Nordic countries (Finland, Denmark, and Norway). We constructed a genetic score based on 697 SNPs known to be associated with adult height to index maternal height. To avoid confounding due to genetic sharing between mother and infant, we inferred parental transmission of the height-associated SNPs and utilized the haplotype genetic score derived from nontransmitted alleles as a valid genetic instrument for maternal height. In observational analysis, maternal height was significantly associated with birth length (p = 6.31 × 10−9), birth weight (p = 2.19 × 10−15), and gestational age (p = 1.51 × 10−7). Our parental-specific haplotype score association analysis revealed that birth length and birth weight were significantly associated with the maternal transmitted haplotype score as well as the paternal transmitted haplotype score. Their association with the maternal nontransmitted haplotype score was far less significant, indicating a major fetal genetic influence on these fetal growth measures. In contrast, gestational age was significantly associated with the nontransmitted haplotype score (p = 0.0424) and demonstrated a significant (p = 0.0234) causal effect of every 1 cm increase in maternal

  14. Modeling a secular trend by Monte Carlo simulation of height biased migration in a spatial network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Detlef

    2017-04-01

    Background: In a recent Monte Carlo simulation, the clustering of body height of Swiss military conscripts within a spatial network with characteristic features of the natural Swiss geography was investigated. In this study I examined the effect of migration of tall individuals into network hubs on the dynamics of body height within the whole spatial network. The aim of this study was to simulate height trends. Material and methods: Three networks were used for modeling, a regular rectangular fishing net like network, a real world example based on the geographic map of Switzerland, and a random network. All networks contained between 144 and 148 districts and between 265-307 road connections. Around 100,000 agents were initially released with average height of 170 cm, and height standard deviation of 6.5 cm. The simulation was started with the a priori assumption that height variation within a district is limited and also depends on height of neighboring districts (community effect on height). In addition to a neighborhood influence factor, which simulates a community effect, body height dependent migration of conscripts between adjacent districts in each Monte Carlo simulation was used to re-calculate next generation body heights. In order to determine the direction of migration for taller individuals, various centrality measures for the evaluation of district importance within the spatial network were applied. Taller individuals were favored to migrate more into network hubs, backward migration using the same number of individuals was random, not biased towards body height. Network hubs were defined by the importance of a district within the spatial network. The importance of a district was evaluated by various centrality measures. In the null model there were no road connections, height information could not be delivered between the districts. Results: Due to the favored migration of tall individuals into network hubs, average body height of the hubs, and later

  15. Maternal telomere length inheritance in the king penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, S; Rojas, E R; Zahn, S; Robin, J-P; Criscuolo, F; Massemin, S

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are emerging as a biomarker for ageing and survival, and are likely important in shaping life-history trade-offs. In particular, telomere length with which one starts in life has been linked to lifelong survival, suggesting that early telomere dynamics are somehow related to life-history trajectories. This result highlights the importance of determining the extent to which telomere length is inherited, as a crucial factor determining early life telomere length. Given the scarcity of species for which telomere length inheritance has been studied, it is pressing to assess the generality of telomere length inheritance patterns. Further, information on how this pattern changes over the course of growth in individuals living under natural conditions should provide some insight on the extent to which environmental constraints also shape telomere dynamics. To fill this gap partly, we followed telomere inheritance in a population of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). We tested for paternal and maternal influence on chick initial telomere length (10 days old after hatching), and how these relationships changed with chick age (at 70, 200 and 300 days old). Based on a correlative approach, offspring telomere length was positively associated with maternal telomere length early in life (at 10 days old). However, this relationship was not significant at older ages. These data suggest that telomere length in birds is maternally inherited. Nonetheless, the influence of environmental conditions during growth remained an important factor shaping telomere length, as the maternal link disappeared with chicks' age.

  16. Television Watching and Telomere Length Among Adults in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hong-Mei; Liu, Qian-Qian; Tian, Guo; Quan, Li-Ming; Zhao, Yong; Cheng, Guo

    2017-09-01

    To explore the independent associations of sedentary behavior and physical activity with telomere length among Chinese adults. Data on total time of sedentary behavior, screen-based sedentary behavior (including television watching and computer or phone use), moderate to vigorous physical activity, and dietary intake of 518 adults in Chengdu, Guizhou, and Xiamen in China (54.25% women) aged 20 to 70 years were obtained between 2013 and 2015 through questionnaires. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate body mass index and percentage of body fat. Telomere length was measured through Southern blot technique. Television watching was inversely related to adjusted telomere length (-71.75 base pair; SE = 34.40; P  = .04). Furthermore, a similar trend between telomere length and television watching was found in the group aged 20 to 40 years after adjusting for all covariates. Adults aged 20 to 40 years in the highest tertile of daily time spent on watching television had 4.0% shorter telomere length than adults in the lowest tertile (P = .03). Although the association is modest, television watching is inversely related to telomere length among Chinese adults, warranting further investigation in large prospective studies.

  17. Phase height measurements on the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyner, K.H.

    1974-01-01

    Phase height measurements have been taken on 2.5 MHz E-region reflection over two paths during the day. The two paths have equivalent vertical frequencies of 2.4 MHz and 1.8 MHz. Vertical pulse measurements on 2.4 MHz have also been recorded. Results and discussion on comparisons between these measurements are presented. Phase and amplitude measurements using 4.5 MHz O and E rays have also been taken at night, F-region reflection. In particular, spectral analysis of these results is discussed. (author)

  18. Boundary layer heights derived from velocity spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejstrup, J.; Barthelmie, R.J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Kaellstrand, B. [Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    It is a well-known fact that the height of the mixed layer determines the size of the largest and most energetic eddies that can be observed in the unstable boundary layer, and consequently a peak can be observed in the power spectra of the along-wind velocity component at scales comparable to the mixed layer depth. We will now show how the mixed layer depth can be derived from the u-specta and the results will be compared with direct measurements using pibal and tethersonde measurements. (au)

  19. Patella height changes post high tibial osteotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Ghim Gooi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO is a well-described treatment in early medial compartmental osteoarthritis of the knee. However, two undesirable sequelae may follow –patella baja and changes in the posterior tibial slope (TS. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study in patients who underwent HTO in our center between September 2009 and February 2017. Preoperative and 6-week postoperative long-leg weight bearing films and lateral knee radiographs were assessed. Pre- and postoperative radiological measurements include the Caton-Deschamps Index (CDI, the mechanical axis deviation (MAD, and the posterior TS. Independant t-test and Pearson correlation test were performed. Results: A total of 106 knees were recruited. The mean age was 48.8 ± 10.8 years. 66 (62.3% and 40 (37.7% knees were from males and females, respectively. The mean pre- and postoperative measurements was (−9.70° ± 3.67° to 0.08° ± 2.80° (−varus; +valgus for the MAD, (7.14° ± 1.78° to 8.72° ± 3.11° for posterior TS, and (0.93° ± 0.084° to 0.82° ± 0.13° for CDI (P ≤ 0.001 for all. The association between patella height change and the level of osteotomy (supra-tubercle vs. infra-tubercle was statistically significant (P < 0.001. A supra-tubercle osteotomy cut significantly lowering patella height (P = 0.011. There was otherwise no statistically significant correlations between patella height changes and the correction angle (P = 0.187 or posterior TS change (P = 0.744. Conclusions: A medial opening wedge HTO above the tibial tubercle was significantly associated with lowering patella height or reducing CDI postoperatively. Based on our results, we would recommend the use of an infra-tubercle osteotomy during the corrective surgery to prevent the complication of patella baja.

  20. The Influence of Tractor-Seat Height above the Ground on Lateral Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gomez-Gil

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Farmers experience whole-body vibrations when they drive tractors. Among the various factors that influence the vibrations to which the driver is exposed are terrain roughness, tractor speed, tire type and pressure, rear axle width, and tractor seat height above the ground. In this paper the influence of tractor seat height above the ground on the lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed is studied by means of a geometrical and an experimental analysis. Both analyses show that: (i lateral vibrations experienced by a tractor driver increase linearly with tractor-seat height above the ground; (ii lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed can equal or exceed vertical vibrations; (iii in medium-size tractors, a feasible 30 cm reduction in the height of the tractor seat, which represents only 15% of its current height, will reduce the lateral vibrations by around 20%; and (iv vertical vibrations are scarcely influenced by tractor-seat height above the ground. The results suggest that manufacturers could increase the comfort of tractors by lowering tractor-seat height above the ground, which will reduce lateral vibrations.

  1. As tall as my peers - similarity in body height between migrants and hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogin, Barry; Hermanussen, Michael; Scheffler, Christiane

    2018-01-12

    Background: We define migrants as people who move from their place of birth to a new place of residence. Migration usually is directed by "Push-Pull" factors, for example to escape from poor living conditions or to find more prosperous socio-economic conditions. Migrant children tend to assimilate quickly, and soon perceive themselves as peers within their new social networks. Differences exist between growth of first generation and second generation migrants. Methods: We review body heights and height distributions of historic and modern migrant populations to test two hypotheses: 1) that migrant and adopted children coming from lower social status localities to higher status localities adjust their height growth toward the mean of the dominant recipient social network, and 2) social dominant colonial and military migrants display growth that significantly surpasses the median height of both the conquered population and the population of origin. Our analytical framework also considered social networks. Recent publications indicate that spatial connectedness (community effects) and social competitiveness can affect human growth. Results: Migrant children and adolescents of lower social status rapidly adjust in height towards average height of their hosts, but tend to mature earlier, and are prone to overweight. The mean height of colonial/military migrants does surpass that of the conquered and origin population. Conclusion: Observations on human social networks, non-human animal strategic growth adjustments, and competitive growth processes strengthen the concept of social connectedness being involved in the regulation of human migrant growth.

  2. X-chromosome gene dosage as a determinant of impaired pre and postnatal growth and adult height in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiot, Elodie; Zenaty, Delphine; Boizeau, Priscilla; Haigneré, Jeremy; Dos Santos, Sophie; Léger, Juliane

    2016-03-01

    Short stature is a key aspect of the phenotype of patients with Turner syndrome (TS). SHOX haploinsufficiency is responsible for about two-thirds of the height deficit. The aim was to investigate the effect of X-chromosome gene dosage on anthropometric parameters at birth, spontaneous height, and adult height (AH) after growth hormone (GH) treatment. We conducted a national observational multicenter study. Birth parameter SDS for gestational age, height, and AH before and after GH treatment respectively, and height deficit with respect to target height (SDS) were classified by karyotype subgroup in a cohort of 1501 patients with TS: 45,X (36%), isoXq (19%), 45,X/46,XX (15%), XrX (7%), presence of Y (6%), or other karyotypes (17%). Birth weight, length (P<0.0001), and head circumference (P<0.001), height and height deficit with respect to target height (SDS) before GH treatment, at a median age of 8.8 (5.3-11.8) years and after adjustment for age and correction for multiple testing (P<0.0001), and AH deficit with respect to target height at a median age of 19.3 (18.0-21.8) years and with additional adjustment for dose and duration of GH treatment (P=0.006), were significantly associated with karyotype subgroup. Growth retardation tended to be more severe in patients with XrX, isoXq, and, to a lesser extent, 45,X karyotypes than in patients with 45,X/46,XX karyotypes or a Y chromosome. These data suggest that haploinsufficiency for an unknown Xp gene increases the risk of fetal and postnatal growth deficit and short AH with respect to target height after GH therapy. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  3. Austrian height and body proportion references for children aged 4 to under 19 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiss, Andreas; Lassi, Michael; Blümel, Peter; Borkenstein, Martin; Kapelari, Klaus; Mayer, Michael; Schemper, Michael; Häusler, Gabriele

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated differences between national and the WHO reference curves in children older than 5 years. Moreover, reference curves for body proportions (sitting height, subischial leg length and their ratio) based on state-of-the-art statistics are not available. To develop reference curves for height and body proportions for use in Austria and compare the curves with WHO reference curves. To estimate and statistically investigate extreme percentiles. A sample of ∼14 500 children between 4-19 years of age was drawn via schooling institutions, stratified by provinces according to age- and sex-specific population proportions. GAMLSS models were used for a flexible estimation of percentile curves. After the age of 5 years national reference curves are more suitable than the WHO reference curves for clinical use in Austria. These height curves are very similar to the German reference curves published recently. Therefore, these reference curves for criteria of body proportions are recommended for use in other populations. Further validation studies are needed to establish whether the recently recommended -2.5 and -3.0 SD for height are a sensitive and specific cut-off in the diagnostic work-up for children with a suspected growth disorder using this new Austrian height chart.

  4. Depletion length and space charge layer capacitance in doped semiconductor nanoshpere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nersesyan, S R; Petrosyan, S G

    2012-01-01

    The depletion length in a semiconductor nanosphere depends not only on the material parameters but on the nanosphere radius as well. For this reason, the depletion length does not present a universal characteristic length for all spherical interfaces. The difference from the standard flat model caused by the surface curvature is significant for a structure with the depletion length comparable to the radius of a nanosphere. We show that the depletion layer capacitance in a nanosphere becomes quite sensitive to the light intensity when, as a result of increasing optical generation rate, the surface potential barrier height is decreased and becomes very small. (paper)

  5. Spatial correlation length of normalized cone data in sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Firouzianbandpey, Sarah; Griffiths, D. V.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    The main topic of this study is to assess the anisotropic spatial correlation lengths of a sand layer deposit based on cone penetration testing with pore pressure measurement (CPTu) data. Spatial correlation length can be an important factor in reliability analysis of geotechnical systems, yet it...

  6. Development of a pulse height analizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, E.S.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a Pulse Height Analizer is described. This equipment is essential to analize data coming from detectors producing information codified in pulse amplitudes. The system developed consist of a Signal Input Module connected to a Controller Module based on a 8085A microprocessor capable to memorize pulses up to 1 uS in 256 channels with a resolution better than 20 mV. A Communication Module with a serial interface is used for data transfer to a host computer using RS232c protocol. The Monitoring and Operation Module consist of a hexadecimal Keybord, a 6 digit 7-segment display and a XY analog output enabling real time visualization of data on a XY monitor. The hardware and the software designed for this low cost system were optimized to obtain a typical dead time of approximately 100 uS. As application, this device was used to adquire curves at the Small Angle X-ray Scattering Laboratory in this Department. The apparatus performance was tested by comparing its data with a Northern Pulse Height Analizer model NS633 output, with favorable results. (Author) [pt

  7. Differences in height by education among 371,105 Dutch military conscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; van Poppel, Frans; Lumey, L H

    2015-04-01

    Adult height is associated with a variety of familial and socio-economic factors and large, well-defined populations are needed for a reliable assessment of their relative contributions. We therefore analyzed recorded heights from the military health examinations of 18-year conscripts in the Netherlands born between 1944 and 1947 and observed large differences by their attained education and by their father's occupation. The 5.1 cm height gradient from lowest to highest education level was more than twice as large as the gradient between father's occupation levels. The education gradient was not explained by common determinants of height including paternal occupation as a measure of familial background, region of birth, family size, or religion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The influence of recent climate change on tree height growth differs with species and spatial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaoud, Yassine; Chen, Han Y H

    2011-02-16

    Tree growth has been reported to increase in response to recent global climate change in controlled and semi-controlled experiments, but few studies have reported response of tree growth to increased temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentration in natural environments. This study addresses how recent global climate change has affected height growth of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) and black spruce (Picea mariana Mill B.S.) in their natural environments. We sampled 145 stands dominated by aspen and 82 dominated by spruce over the entire range of their distributions in British Columbia, Canada. These stands were established naturally after fire between the 19th and 20th centuries. Height growth was quantified as total heights of sampled dominant and co-dominant trees at breast-height age of 50 years. We assessed the relationships between 50-year height growth and environmental factors at both spatial and temporal scales. We also tested whether the tree growth associated with global climate change differed with spatial environment (latitude, longitude and elevation). As expected, height growth of both species was positively related to temperature variables at the regional scale and with soil moisture and nutrient availability at the local scale. While height growth of trembling aspen was not significantly related to any of the temporal variables we examined, that of black spruce increased significantly with stand establishment date, the anomaly of the average maximum summer temperature between May-August, and atmospheric CO₂ concentration, but not with the Palmer Drought Severity Index. Furthermore, the increase of spruce height growth associated with recent climate change was higher in the western than in eastern part of British Columbia. This study demonstrates that the response of height growth to recent climate change, i.e., increasing temperature and atmospheric CO₂ concentration, did not only differ with tree species, but

  9. Serum osteoprotegerin levels are related to height loss: The Tromsø Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jørgensen, Lone; Hansen, John-Bjarne; Brox, Jan; Mathiesen, Ellisiv; Vik, Anders; Jacobsen, Bjarne K.

    2011-01-01

    Severe loss of body height is often a consequence of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL) are cytokines essential for the regulation of bone resorption. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the OPG/RANKL system and height loss. A total of 4,435 inhabitants from the municipality of Tromsø, Norway (2,169 men and 2,266 women) were followed for 6 years. Baseline measurements included height, weight, bone mineral density, OPG, RANKL, serum parathyroid hormone and information about lifestyle, prevalent diseases and use of medication. Height was measured again at follow-up, and the loss of height was categorized into 4 groups: ≤1, 1.1–2, 2.1–3, >3 cm. We found increasing height loss with increasing baseline OPG levels in both men and women (P trend = 0.02 and 0.001, respectively), after adjustments for age and other confounders. However, when the women were stratified according to menopausal status and use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), a significant relationship was present only among postmenopausal women not using HRT (P trend = 0.02). No relations between OPG and height loss were found in post-menopausal HRT-users and premenopausal women (P trend ≥0.39). We conclude that height loss is positively associated with OPG in men and in postmenopausal women not using HRT. No relationship was found between RANKL and height loss.

  10. The length of teeth : A statistical analysis of the differences in length of human teeth for radiologic purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, J.W.; Aken, J. van; Weerdt, G.P. van der

    Intraoral radiograms can be made according to the long tube paralleling technique utilizing aiming devices. An important factor in the design of these instruments is the length of the teeth to be radiographed. Reliable data regarding the length of the teeth in the different regions of the mouth are

  11. Decomposing the queue length distribution of processor-sharing models into queue lengths of permanent customer queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, S.K.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Boucherie, Richardus J.

    2005-01-01

    We obtain a decomposition result for the steady state queue length distribution in egalitarian processor-sharing (PS) models. In particular, for an egalitarian PS queue with $K$ customer classes, we show that the marginal queue length distribution for class $k$ factorizes over the number of other

  12. CORRELATION BETWEEN PENIS LENGTH AND ANTHOPOMETRY OF 5 YEAR OLD CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doddy Kurnia Indrawan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Short penis still a problem for parents. Penis lenght is associated with  weight and considered abnormal in obese children. The purpose of this study was to find out the correlation between penis length and the anthropometry children aged 5 years. A cross sectional study was conducted, at the Division of Endocrinology, Department of Child Health, Medical Faculty of Udayana University, Sanglah Hospital Denpasar, during October 2010, at TK Sayang Ibu Sanglah Hospital. The calculation of the sample with a correlation coefficient of weight and  height obtained  9 people, taking in consecutive sampling and analyzed  with Pearson’s correlation. The mean body weight was 23.6 (SD 7.70 kg;  mean child height was 108.4 (SD 5.3 cm, and 47.1% were obese. The mean length of the penis was 4.7(SD1.30 cm. The correlation between weight and penis lenght was strong negative (r = -0.876; P = 0.000 and between penis length and height was r = -0.597; P = 0,011.There was a strong negative correlation between body weight and penis length and also negative correlation between penis length and height in kindergarten children. (MEDICINA 2012;43:19-22.

  13. The screening length of interatomic potential in atomic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Y.; Takeuchi, W.; Kawamura, T.

    1998-03-01

    In computer studies on the interaction of charged particle with solids, many authors treat the nuclear collision by the Thomas-Fermi screened Coulomb potential. For better agreement with experiment, the screening length is modified sometimes. We investigate the theoretical background for the correction factor of the screening length in the interatomic potential which can be deduced from two steps. The first step is to select the correction factor of an isolated atom so as to match the average radius of the Thomas-Fermi electron distribution with that of the Hartree-Fock electron distribution, where we use the Clementi and Roetti's table. The second step is to determine the correction factor of the screening length of the interatomic potential by using a combination rule. The correction factors obtained for the screening length are in good agreement with those determined by the computer analysis of the Impact Collision Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (ICISS) data. (author)

  14. Keeping disease at arm's length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2015-01-01

    active ageing change everyday life with chronic disease, and how do older people combine an active life with a range of chronic diseases? The participants in the study use activities to keep their diseases at arm’s length, and this distancing of disease at the same time enables them to engage in social...... and physical activities at the activity centre. In this way, keeping disease at arm’s length is analysed as an ambiguous health strategy. The article shows the importance of looking into how active ageing is practised, as active ageing seems to work well in the everyday life of the older people by not giving...... emphasis to disease. The article is based on ethnographic fieldwork and uses vignettes of four participants to show how they each keep diseases at arm’s length....

  15. Continuously variable focal length lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  16. CEBAF Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Many accelerators use short electron bunches and measuring the bunch length is important for efficient operations. CEBAF needs a suitable bunch length because bunches that are too long will result in beam interruption to the halls due to excessive energy spread and beam loss. In this work, bunch length is measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques at different beam energies. Two new measurement techniques have been commissioned; a harmonic cavity showed good results compared to expectations from simulation, and a real time interferometer is commissioned and first checkouts were performed. Three other techniques were used for measurements and comparison purposes without modifying the old procedures. Two of them can be used when the beam is not compressed longitudinally while the other one, the synchrotron light monitor, can be used with compressed or uncompressed beam.

  17. On the Flame Height Definition for Upward Flame Spread

    OpenAIRE

    Consalvi, Jean L; Pizzo, Yannick; Porterie, Bernard; Torero, Jose L

    2007-01-01

    Flame height is defined by the experimentalists as the average position of the luminous flame and, consequently is not directly linked with a quantitative value of a physical parameter. To determine flame heights from both numerical and theoretical results, a more quantifiable criterion is needed to define flame heights and must be in agreement with the experiments to allow comparisons. For wall flames, steady wall flame experiments revealed that flame height may be define...

  18. On the Predictability of Hub Height Winds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draxl, Caroline

    Wind energy is a major source of power in over 70 countries across the world, and the worldwide share of wind energy in electricity consumption is growing. The introduction of signicant amounts of wind energy into power systems makes accurate wind forecasting a crucial element of modern electrical...... grids. These systems require forecasts with temporal scales of tens of minutes to a few days in advance at wind farm locations. Traditionally these forecasts predict the wind at turbine hub heights; this information is then converted by transmission system operators and energy companies into predictions...... of power output at wind farms. Since the power available in the wind is proportional to the wind speed cubed, even small wind forecast errors result in large power prediction errors. Accurate wind forecasts are worth billions of dollars annually; forecast improvements will result in reduced costs...

  19. Spatial inhomogeneous barrier heights at graphene/semiconductor Schottky junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomer, Dushyant

    Graphene, a semimetal with linear energy dispersion, forms Schottky junction when interfaced with a semiconductor. This dissertation presents temperature dependent current-voltage and scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/S) measurements performed on graphene Schottky junctions formed with both three and two dimensional semiconductors. To fabricate Schottky junctions, we transfer chemical vapor deposited monolayer graphene onto Si- and C-face SiC, Si, GaAs and MoS2 semiconducting substrates using polymer assisted chemical method. We observe three main type of intrinsic spatial inhomogeneities, graphene ripples, ridges and semiconductor steps in STM imaging that can exist at graphene/semiconductor junctions. Tunneling spectroscopy measurements reveal fluctuations in graphene Dirac point position, which is directly related to the Schottky barrier height. We find a direct correlation of Dirac point variation with the topographic undulations of graphene ripples at the graphene/SiC junction. However, no such correlation is established at graphene/Si and Graphene/GaAs junctions and Dirac point variations are attributed to surface states and trapped charges at the interface. In addition to graphene ripples and ridges, we also observe atomic scale moire patterns at graphene/MoS2 junction due to van der Waals interaction at the interface. Periodic topographic modulations due to moire pattern do not lead to local variation in graphene Dirac point, indicating that moire pattern does not contribute to fluctuations in electronic properties of the heterojunction. We perform temperature dependent current-voltage measurements to investigate the impact of topographic inhomogeneities on electrical properties of the Schottky junctions. We observe temperature dependence in junction parameters, such as Schottky barrier height and ideality factor, for all types of Schottky junctions in forward bias measurements. Standard thermionic emission theory which assumes a perfect

  20. Comparisons of chewing rhythm, craniomandibular morphology, body mass and height between mothers and their biological daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Catherine; Louie, Ke'ale; Maawadh, Ahmed; Gerstner, Geoffrey E

    2015-11-01

    To study and compare the relationships between mean chewing cycle duration, selected cephalometric variables representing mandibular length, face height, etc., measured in women and in their teenage or young-adult biological daughters. Daughters were recruited from local high schools and the University of Michigan School of Dentistry. Selection criteria included healthy females with full dentition, 1st molar occlusion, no active orthodontics, no medical conditions nor medication use that could interfere with normal masticatory motor function. Mothers had to be biologically related to their daughters. All data were obtained in the School of Dentistry. Measurements obtained from lateral cephalograms included: two "jaw length" measures, condylion-gnathion and gonion-gnathion, and four measures of facial profile including lower anterior face height, and angles sella-nasion-A point (SNA), sella-nasion-B point (SNB) and A point-nasion-B point (ANB). Mean cycle duration was calculated from 60 continuous chewing cycles, where a cycle was defined as the time between two successive maximum jaw openings in the vertical dimension. Other variables included subject height and weight. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the mother-daughter relationships and to study the relationships between cephalometric variables and chewing cycle duration. Height, weight, Co-Gn and Go-Gn were significantly correlated between mother-daughter pairs; however, mean cycle duration was not (r(2)=0.015). Mean cycle duration was positively correlated with ANB and height in mothers, but negatively correlated with Co-Gn in daughters. Chewing rate is not correlated between mothers and daughters in humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Kondo length in bosonic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale; Trombettoni, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Motivated by the fact that the low-energy properties of the Kondo model can be effectively simulated in spin chains, we study the realization of the effect with bond impurities in ultracold bosonic lattices at half filling. After presenting a discussion of the effective theory and of the mapping of the bosonic chain onto a lattice spin Hamiltonian, we provide estimates for the Kondo length as a function of the parameters of the bosonic model. We point out that the Kondo length can be extracted from the integrated real-space correlation functions, which are experimentally accessible quantities in experiments with cold atoms.

  2. Continuous lengths of oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2000-01-01

    A layered oxide superconductor prepared by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon. A continuous length of a second substrate ribbon is overlaid on the first substrate ribbon. Sufficient pressure is applied to form a bound layered superconductor precursor powder between the first substrate ribbon and the second substrate ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to establish the oxide superconducting phase. The layered oxide superconductor has a smooth interface between the substrate and the oxide superconductor.

  3. Summary of neutron scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, L.

    1981-12-01

    All available neutron-nuclei scattering lengths are collected together with their error bars in a uniform way. Bound scattering lengths are given for the elements, the isotopes, and the various spin-states. They are discussed in the sense of their use as basic parameters for many investigations in the field of nuclear and solid state physics. The data bank is available on magnetic tape, too. Recommended values and a map of these data serve for an uncomplicated use of these quantities. (orig.)

  4. Dominant height-based height-diameter equations for trees in southern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A., Jr. Kershaw; Robert C. Morrissey; Douglass F. Jacobs; John R. Seifert; James B. McCarter

    2008-01-01

    Height-diameter equations are developed based on dominant tree data collected in 1986 in 8- to 17-year-old clearcuts and the phase 2 Forest Inventory and Analysis plots on the Hoosier National Forest in south central Indiana. Two equation forms are explored: the basic, three-parameter Chapman-Richards function, and a modification of the three-parameter equation...

  5. Boundary layer height determination under summertime anticyclonic weather conditions over the coastal area of Rijeka, Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitis, T.; Moussiopoulos, N. [Aristotle Univ. Thessaloniki (Greece). Lab. of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering; Klaic, Z.B. [Univ. of Zagreb (Croatia). Andrija Mohorovicic Geophysical Inst., Faculty of Science; Kitsiou, D. [Univ. of the Aegean, Mytilene (Greece). Dept. of Marine Sciences

    2004-07-01

    The atmospheric boundary layer height is a fundamental parameter characterising the structure of the lower troposphere. The determination of this parameter is important in applications that range from meteorological modelling and forecasting to dispersion problems of atmospheric pollutants. Since substances emitted into the atmospheric boundary layer are dispersed horizontally and vertically through the action of turbulence, they are well-mixed over this layer that is widely known as ''mixing layer''. There are two basic approaches for the practical estimation of this height; the first approach suggests profile measurements, either in-situ or by remote sounding (sodar, clear-air radar, lidar) and the second one, the use of models with only a few measured parameters as input. As far as the second approach is concerned, the majority of the models use relatively crude estimates of the roughness length that is often based on constant values for land cover. Consequently, the model results are not quite accurate. The present work aims firstly to evaluate the effect of alternative calculations of the roughness length on the non-hydrostatic mesoscale model (MEMO) performance, based on the use of satellite data, and secondly, to estimate the mixing layer height and analyze its variability in relation to underlying topography and land use. Rijeka, a region with complex topography and several islands in its surroundings, offers the opportunity to examine the above mentioned relationships. The non-hydrostatic mesoscale model MEMO was applied under summertime anticyclonic weather conditions during two multi-day periods characterised by stagnant meteorological conditions. The results proved MEMO capable of simulating mesoscale wind flow reasonably well, however, the use of AVHRR satellite data for calculating the roughness length based on the calculation of the NDVI parameter, optimised the model performance and resulted to a more accurate determination of

  6. Agreement between estimated and measured heights and weights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    index (BMI = kg/m2) and require accurate recording of a patient's height and weight.1. In reality, however, patients often cannot stand up straight for accurate height measurement, or are unable to step on a scale. In such cases, height and weight values are often obtained from the patient or their relatives, who either do not ...

  7. Anterior Face Height Values in a Nigerian Population | Folaranmi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Anterior Upper Face Height 47.7 (4) mm, Anterior Total Face Height (ATFH) 108.5 (5) mm, ratio of ALFH to ATFH ALFH: ATFH 56 (4)%. Conclusion: This study provides anterior face height measurements, which will be of great significance in evaluating facial proportions andesthetics in orthodontics, orthognathic surgery, ...

  8. Relationships between diameter and height of trees in natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationships between diameter and height of trees in natural tropical forest in Tanzania. Wilson A Mugasha, Ole M Bollandsås, Tron Eid. Abstract. The relationship between tree height (h) and tree diameter at breast height (dbh) is an important element describing forest stands. In addition, h often is a required variable in ...

  9. Estimation of Total Tree Height from Renewable Resources Evaluation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Many ecological, biological, and genetic studies use the measurement of total tree height. Until recently, the Southern Forest Experiment Station's inventory procedures through Renewable Resources Evaluation (RRE) have not included total height measurements. This note provides equations to estimate total height based on other RRE measurements.

  10. The Sine Method: An Alternative Height Measurement Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg; Lee E. Frelich; Robert T. Leverett; Will Blozan; Dale J. Luthringer

    2011-01-01

    Height is one of the most important dimensions of trees, but few observers are fully aware of the consequences of the misapplication of conventional height measurement techniques. A new approach, the sine method, can improve height measurement by being less sensitive to the requirements of conventional techniques (similar triangles and the tangent method). We studied...

  11. Practical application of the geometric geoid for heighting over ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is because a geoid model is required to convert ellipsoidal heights to orthometric heights that are used in practice. A local geometric geoid ... The geoid height is expressed as a function of the local plane coordinates through a biquadratic surface polynomial, using 14 GPS/levelling points. Five points have been used ...

  12. 14 CFR 27.87 - Height-speed envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable power failure condition in paragraph (b) of this section, a limiting height-speed envelope must be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Height-speed envelope. 27.87 Section 27.87... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 27.87 Height-speed envelope. (a) If there is any...

  13. 14 CFR 29.1517 - Limiting height-speed envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limiting height-speed envelope. 29.1517... Operating Limitations § 29.1517 Limiting height-speed envelope. For Category A rotorcraft, if a range of... following power failure, the range of heights and its variation with forward speed must be established...

  14. 14 CFR 29.87 - Height-velocity envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Category A engine isolation requirements, the height-velocity envelope for complete power failure must be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Height-velocity envelope. 29.87 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.87 Height-velocity envelope. (a...

  15. Is the speaking fundamental frequency in females related to body height?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsties, Ben; Verfaillie, Rudi; Dicks, Peter; Maryn, Youri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the impact of body height on speaking fundamental frequency (SF0) while controlling for as many as possible influencing factors such as habits, biophysical conditions, medication, diseases, and others. Fifty-eight females were analyzed during spontaneous speech (i.e. explaining driving directions or a cooking recipe) of at least 60 seconds at comfortable pitch and loudness. The subjects showed a moderate negative and significant correlation between body height and SF0 (r = -0.40, P = 0.002). With r(2) = 0.16, however, a reasonable portion (16%) of the variance in SF0 is explained by the variance in body height. In comparison with other factors for which a correlation with SF0 was mentioned in literature (hypothyrodism, hemodialysis, auditory-maleness after female-to-male transsexualism, body weight, body mass index, and body fat), body height accounted for most of the proportion of SF0 in females. It is therefore possible to validate body height as a factor to account for in clinical F0 measurement.

  16. Diet, nutrition and telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ligi

    2011-10-01

    The ends of human chromosomes are protected by DNA-protein complexes termed telomeres, which prevent the chromosomes from fusing with each other and from being recognized as a double-strand break by DNA repair proteins. Due to the incomplete replication of linear chromosomes by DNA polymerase, telomeric DNA shortens with repeated cell divisions until the telomeres reach a critical length, at which point the cells enter senescence. Telomere length is an indicator of biological aging, and dysfunction of telomeres is linked to age-related pathologies like cardiovascular disease, Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease and cancer. Telomere length has been shown to be positively associated with nutritional status in human and animal studies. Various nutrients influence telomere length potentially through mechanisms that reflect their role in cellular functions including inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA integrity, DNA methylation and activity of telomerase, the enzyme that adds the telomeric repeats to the ends of the newly synthesized DNA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tube Length and Water Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Ruktantichoke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study water flowed through a straight horizontal plastic tube placed at the bottom of a large tank of water. The effect of changing the length of tubing on the velocity of flow was investigated. It was found that the Hagen-Poiseuille Equation is valid when the effect of water entering the tube is accounted for.

  18. Finite length Taylor Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streett, C. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1987-01-01

    Axisymmetric numerical solutions of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for flow between concentric rotating cylinders of finite length are obtained by a spectral collocation method. These representative results pertain to two-cell/one-cell exchange process, and are compared with recent experiments.

  19. Convective mixing length and the galactic carbon to oxygen ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, A; Peimbert, M [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Astronomia

    1981-01-01

    We have studied chemical evolution models, assuming instantaneous recycling, and considering: a) the effects of mass loss both in massive stars and in intermediate mass stars, and b) the initial mass function of the solar neighbourhood (Serrano 1978). From these models we have derived the yields of carbon and oxygen. It is concluded that the condition C/O approximately 0.58 in the solar neighbourhood can only be satisfied if, during advanced stages of stellar evolution of intermediate mass stars, the ratio of the convective mixing length to the pressure scale height is > approximately 2.

  20. Dog behavior co-varies with height, bodyweight and skull shape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D McGreevy

    Full Text Available Dogs offer unique opportunities to study correlations between morphology and behavior because skull shapes and body shape are so diverse among breeds. Several studies have shown relationships between canine cephalic index (CI: the ratio of skull width to skull length and neural architecture. Data on the CI of adult, show-quality dogs (six males and six females were sourced in Australia along with existing data on the breeds' height, bodyweight and related to data on 36 behavioral traits of companion dogs (n = 8,301 of various common breeds (n = 49 collected internationally using the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ. Stepwise backward elimination regressions revealed that, across the breeds, 33 behavioral traits all but one of which are undesirable in companion animals correlated with either height alone (n = 14, bodyweight alone (n = 5, CI alone (n = 3, bodyweight-and-skull shape combined (n = 2, height-and-skull shape combined (n = 3 or height-and-bodyweight combined (n = 6. For example, breed average height showed strongly significant inverse relationships (p<0.001 with mounting persons or objects, touch sensitivity, urination when left alone, dog-directed fear, separation-related problems, non-social fear, defecation when left alone, owner-directed aggression, begging for food, urine marking and attachment/attention-seeking, while bodyweight showed strongly significant inverse relationships (p<0.001 with excitability and being reported as hyperactive. Apart from trainability, all regression coefficients with height were negative indicating that, across the breeds, behavior becomes more problematic as height decreases. Allogrooming increased strongly (p<0.001 with CI and inversely with height. CI alone showed a strong significant positive relationship with self-grooming (p<0.001 but a negative relationship with chasing (p = 0.020. The current study demonstrates how aspects of CI (and therefore brain shape

  1. Are human mating preferences with respect to height reflected in actual pairings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulp, Gert; Buunk, Abraham P; Pollet, Thomas V; Nettle, Daniel; Verhulst, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Pair formation, acquiring a mate to form a reproductive unit, is a complex process. Mating preferences are a step in this process. However, due to constraining factors such as availability of mates, rival competition, and mutual mate choice, preferred characteristics may not be realised in the actual partner. People value height in their partner and we investigated to what extent preferences for height are realised in actual couples. We used data from the Millennium Cohort Study (UK) and compared the distribution of height difference in actual couples to simulations of random mating to test how established mate preferences map on to actual mating patterns. In line with mate preferences, we found evidence for: (i) assortative mating (r = .18), (ii) the male-taller norm, and, for the first time, (iii) for the male-not-too-tall norm. Couples where the male partner was shorter, or over 25 cm taller than the female partner, occurred at lower frequency in actual couples than expected by chance, but the magnitude of these effects was modest. We also investigated another preference rule, namely that short women (and tall men) prefer large height differences with their partner, whereas tall women (and short men) prefer small height differences. These patterns were also observed in our population, although the strengths of these associations were weaker than previously reported strength of preferences. We conclude that while preferences for partner height generally translate into actual pairing, they do so only modestly.

  2. Are human mating preferences with respect to height reflected in actual pairings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Stulp

    Full Text Available Pair formation, acquiring a mate to form a reproductive unit, is a complex process. Mating preferences are a step in this process. However, due to constraining factors such as availability of mates, rival competition, and mutual mate choice, preferred characteristics may not be realised in the actual partner. People value height in their partner and we investigated to what extent preferences for height are realised in actual couples. We used data from the Millennium Cohort Study (UK and compared the distribution of height difference in actual couples to simulations of random mating to test how established mate preferences map on to actual mating patterns. In line with mate preferences, we found evidence for: (i assortative mating (r = .18, (ii the male-taller norm, and, for the first time, (iii for the male-not-too-tall norm. Couples where the male partner was shorter, or over 25 cm taller than the female partner, occurred at lower frequency in actual couples than expected by chance, but the magnitude of these effects was modest. We also investigated another preference rule, namely that short women (and tall men prefer large height differences with their partner, whereas tall women (and short men prefer small height differences. These patterns were also observed in our population, although the strengths of these associations were weaker than previously reported strength of preferences. We conclude that while preferences for partner height generally translate into actual pairing, they do so only modestly.

  3. High-Resolution Forest Canopy Height Estimation in an African Blue Carbon Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomasino, David; Fatoyinbo, Temilola; Lee, Seung-Kuk; Simard, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Mangrove forests are one of the most productive and carbon dense ecosystems that are only found at tidally inundated coastal areas. Forest canopy height is an important measure for modeling carbon and biomass dynamics, as well as land cover change. By taking advantage of the flat terrain and dense canopy cover, the present study derived digital surface models (DSMs) using stereophotogrammetric techniques on high-resolution spaceborne imagery (HRSI) for southern Mozambique. A mean-weighted ground surface elevation factor was subtracted from the HRSI DSM to accurately estimate the canopy height in mangrove forests in southern Mozambique. The mean and H100 tree height measured in both the field and with the digital canopy model provided the most accurate results with a vertical error of 1.18-1.84 m, respectively. Distinct patterns were identified in the HRSI canopy height map that could not be discerned from coarse shuttle radar topography mission canopy maps even though the mode and distribution of canopy heights were similar over the same area. Through further investigation, HRSI DSMs have the potential of providing a new type of three-dimensional dataset that could serve as calibration/validation data for other DSMs generated from spaceborne datasets with much larger global coverage. HSRI DSMs could be used in lieu of Lidar acquisitions for canopy height and forest biomass estimation, and be combined with passive optical data to improve land cover classifications.

  4. The role of height-associated loci identified in genome wide association studies in the determination of pediatric stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frackelton Edward C

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human height is considered highly heritable and correlated with certain disorders, such as type 2 diabetes and cancer. Despite environmental influences, genetic factors are known to play an important role in stature determination. A number of genetic determinants of adult height have already been established through genome wide association studies. Methods To examine 51 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs corresponding to the 46 previously reported genomic loci for height in 8,184 European American children with height measurements. We leveraged genotyping data from our ongoing GWA study of height variation in children in order to query the 51 SNPs in this pediatric cohort. Results Sixteen of these SNPs yielded at least nominally significant association to height, representing fifteen different loci including EFEMP1-PNPT1, GPR126, C6orf173, SPAG17, Histone class 1, HLA class III and GDF5-UQCC. Other loci revealed no evidence for association, including HMGA1 and HMGA2. For the 16 associated variants, the genotype score explained 1.64% of the total variation for height z-score. Conclusion Among 46 loci that have been reported to associate with adult height to date, at least 15 also contribute to the determination of height in childhood.

  5. Comparison of usual and alternative methods to measure height in mechanically ventilated patients: potential impact on protective ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojmehrani, Azadeh; Bergeron-Duchesne, Maude; Bouchard, Carmelle; Simard, Serge; Bouchard, Pierre-Alexandre; Vanderschuren, Abel; L'Her, Erwan; Lellouche, François

    2014-07-01

    Protective ventilation implementation requires the calculation of predicted body weight (PBW), determined by a formula based on gender and height. Consequently, height inaccuracy may be a limiting factor to correctly set tidal volumes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of different methods in measuring heights in mechanically ventilated patients. Before cardiac surgery, actual height was measured with a height gauge while subjects were standing upright (reference method); the height was also estimated by alternative methods based on lower leg and forearm measurements. After cardiac surgery, upon ICU admission, a subject's height was visually estimated by a clinician and then measured with a tape measure while the subject was supine and undergoing mechanical ventilation. One hundred subjects (75 men, 25 women) were prospectively included. Mean PBW was 61.0 ± 9.7 kg, and mean actual weight was 30.3% higher. In comparison with the reference method, estimating the height visually and using the tape measure were less accurate than both lower leg and forearm measurements. Errors above 10% in calculating the PBW were present in 25 and 40 subjects when the tape measure or visual estimation of height was used in the formula, respectively. With lower leg and forearm measurements, 15 subjects had errors above 10% (P bedridden patients on mechanical ventilation. Alternative methods based on lower leg and forearm measurements are potentially interesting solutions to facilitate the accurate application of protective ventilation. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  6. The determination of the mixing height. Current progress and problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryning, S.E.; Beyrich, F.; Batchvarova, E. [eds.

    1997-10-01

    This report contains extended abstracts of presentations given at a EURASAP Workshop on The Determination of the Mixing Height - Current Progress and Problems. The Workshop, initiated from discussions with Peter Builtjes, was held at Risoe National Laboratory 1-3 October 1997 within the framework of EURASAP (European Association for the Sciences of Air Pollution). The specific topics and chairpersons of the Workshop were: Theoretical Considerations (Sven-Erik Gryning), Mixing Height Estimation from Turbulence Measurements and In-Situ Soundings (Douw Steyn), Mixing Height Determination from NWP-Models (Han van Dop), Climatology and Global Aspects (Werner Klug), Mixing Height Determination from Remote Systems (Werner Klug), Verification of Mixing Height Parameterizations and Models (Frank Beyrich), Mixing Height over Complex Terrain (Ekaterina Batchvarova), Internal Boundary Layers: Mixing Height in Coastal Areas and Over Cities (Allen White). The discussion at the end of the Workshop was chaired by Robert Bornstein. (au)

  7. Earthquake Scenario-Based Tsunami Wave Heights in the Eastern Mediterranean and Connected Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necmioglu, Ocal; Özel, Nurcan Meral

    2015-12-01

    We identified a set of tsunami scenario input parameters in a 0.5° × 0.5° uniformly gridded area in the Eastern Mediterranean, Aegean (both for shallow- and intermediate-depth earthquakes) and Black Seas (only shallow earthquakes) and calculated tsunami scenarios using the SWAN-Joint Research Centre (SWAN-JRC) code ( Mader 2004; Annunziato 2007) with 2-arcmin resolution bathymetry data for the range of 6.5—Mwmax with an Mw increment of 0.1 at each grid in order to realize a comprehensive analysis of tsunami wave heights from earthquakes originating in the region. We defined characteristic earthquake source parameters from a compiled set of sources such as existing moment tensor catalogues and various reference studies, together with the Mwmax assigned in the literature, where possible. Results from 2,415 scenarios show that in the Eastern Mediterranean and its connected seas (Aegean and Black Sea), shallow earthquakes with Mw ≥ 6.5 may result in coastal wave heights of 0.5 m, whereas the same wave height would be expected only from intermediate-depth earthquakes with Mw ≥ 7.0 . The distribution of maximum wave heights calculated indicate that tsunami wave heights up to 1 m could be expected in the northern Aegean, whereas in the Black Sea, Cyprus, Levantine coasts, northern Libya, eastern Sicily, southern Italy, and western Greece, up to 3-m wave height could be possible. Crete, the southern Aegean, and the area between northeast Libya and Alexandria (Egypt) is prone to maximum tsunami wave heights of >3 m. Considering that calculations are performed at a minimum bathymetry depth of 20 m, these wave heights may, according to Green's Law, be amplified by a factor of 2 at the coastline. The study can provide a basis for detailed tsunami hazard studies in the region.

  8. Bali, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The volcanic nature of the island of Bali is evident in this shaded relief image generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM).Bali, along with several smaller islands, make up one of the 27 Provinces of Indonesia. It lies over a major subduction zone where the Indo-Australian tectonic plate collides with the Sunda plate, creating one of the most volcanically active regions on the planet.The most significant feature on Bali is Gunung Agung, the symmetric, conical mountain at the right-center of the image. This 'stratovolcano,' 3,148 meters (10,308 feet) high, is held sacred in Balinese culture, and last erupted in 1963 after being dormant and thought inactive for 120 years. This violent event resulted in over 1,000 deaths, and coincided with a purification ceremony called Eka Dasa Rudra, meant to restore the balance between nature and man. This most important Balinese rite is held only once per century, and the almost exact correspondence between the beginning of the ceremony and the eruption is though to have great religious significance.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot

  9. Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, Belize, southern Mexico and parts of Cuba and Jamaica are all seen in this image from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The dominant feature of the northern part of Central America is the Sierra Madre Range, spreading east from Mexico between the narrow Pacific coastal plain and the limestone lowland of the Yucatan Peninsula. Parallel hill ranges sweep across Honduras and extend south, past the Caribbean Mosquito Coast to lakes Managua and Nicaragua. The Cordillera Central rises to the south, gradually descending to Lake Gatun and the Isthmus of Panama. A highly active volcanic belt runs along the Pacific seaboard from Mexico to Costa Rica.High-quality satellite imagery of Central America has, until now, been difficult to obtain due to persistent cloud cover in this region of the world. The ability of SRTM to penetrate clouds and make three-dimensional measurements has allowed the generation of the first complete high-resolution topographic map of the entire region. This map was used to generate the image.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations.For an annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Large image: 9 mB jpeg)Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect

  10. World Globes, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    These images of the world were generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM Project has recently released a new global data set called SRTM30, where the original one arcsecond of latitude and longitude resolution (about 30 meters, or 98 feet, at the equator) was reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters, or 1496 feet.) These images were created from that data set and show the Earth as it would be viewed from a point in space centered over the Americas, Africa and the western Pacific.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (about 30 meters or 98 feet

  11. Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, lying between the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and the Bering Sea and Pacific Ocean to the east, is one of the most active volcanic regions along the Pacific Ring of Fire. It covers an area about the size of Colorado but contains more than 100 volcanoes stretching across the 1000-kilometer-long (620-mile-long) land mass. A dozen or more of these have active vents, with the youngest located along the eastern half of the peninsula. This color-coded shaded relief image, generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), shows Kamchatka's volcanic nature to dramatic effect.Kliuchevskoi, one of the most active and renowned volcanoes in the world, dominates the main cluster of volcanoes called the Kliuchi group, visible as a circular feature in the center-right of the image. The two other main volcanic ranges lie along northeast-southwest lines, with the older, less active range occupying the center and western half of Kamchatka. The younger, more active belt begins at the southernmost point of the peninsula and continues upward along the Pacific coastline.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction, so northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission flew aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (200

  12. Sinai Peninsula, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The Sinai Peninsula, located between Africa and Asia, is a result of those two continents pulling apart from each other. Earth's crust is cracking, stretching, and lowering along the two northern branches of the Red Sea, namely the Gulf of Suez, seen here on the west (left), and the Gulf of Aqaba, seen to the east (right). This color-coded shaded relief image shows the triangular nature of the peninsula, with the coast of the Mediterranean Sea forming the northern side of the triangle. The Suez Canal can be seen as the narrow vertical blue line in the upper left connecting the Red Sea to the Mediterranean. The peninsula is divided into three distinct parts; the northern region consisting chiefly of sandstone, plains and hills, the central area dominated by the Tih Plateau, and the mountainous southern region where towering peaks abound. Much of the Sinai is deeply dissected by river valleys, or wadis, that eroded during an earlier geologic period and break the surface of the plateau into a series of detached massifs with a few scattered oases. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed

  13. Ireland, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The island of Ireland comprises a large central lowland of limestone with a relief of hills surrounded by a discontinuous border of coastal mountains which vary greatly in geological structure. The mountain ridges of the south are composed of old red sandstone separated by limestone river valleys. Granite predominates in the mountains of Galway, Mayo and Donegal in the west and north-west and in Counties Down and Wicklow on the east coast, while a basalt plateau covers much of the north-east of the country. The central plain, which is broken in places by low hills, is extensively covered with glacial deposits of clay and sand. It has considerable areas of bog and numerous lakes. The island has seen at least two general glaciations and everywhere ice-smoothed rock, mountain lakes, glacial valleys and deposits of glacial sand, gravel and clay mark the passage of the ice. Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

  14. Could Crop Height Affect the Wind Resource at Agriculturally Productive Wind Farm Sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2016-03-01

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length in a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. These considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.

  15. Building a Model Using Bayesian Network for Assessment of Posterior Probabilities of Falling From Height at Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Shamseddin Alizadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falls from height are one of the main causes of fatal occupational injuries. The objective of this study was to present a model for estimating occurrence probability of falling from height. Methods: In order to make a list of factors affecting falls, we used four expert group's judgment, literature review and an available database. Then the validity and reliability of designed questionnaire were determined and Bayesian networks were built. The built network, nodes and curves were quantified. For network sensitivity analysis, four types of analysis carried out. Results: A Bayesian network for assessment of posterior probabilities of falling from height proposed. The presented Bayesian network model shows the interrelationships among 37 causes affecting the falling from height and can calculate its posterior probabilities. The most important factors affecting falling were Non-compliance with safety instructions for work at height (0.127, Lack of safety equipment for work at height (0.094 and Lack of safety instructions for work at height (0.071 respectively. Conclusion: The proposed Bayesian network used to determine how different causes could affect the falling from height at work. The findings of this study can be used to decide on the falling accident prevention programs.

  16. A truly Newtonian softening length for disc simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huré, J.-M.; Trova, A.

    2015-02-01

    The softened point mass model is commonly used in simulations of gaseous discs including self-gravity while the value of associated length λ remains, to some degree, controversial. This `parameter' is however fully constrained when, in a discretized disc, all fluid cells are demanded to obey Newton's law. We examine the topology of solutions in this context, focusing on cylindrical cells more or less vertically elongated. We find that not only the nominal length depends critically on the cell's shape (curvature, radial extension, height), but it is either a real or an imaginary number. Setting λ as a fraction of the local disc thickness - as usually done - is indeed not the optimal choice. We then propose a novel prescription valid irrespective of the disc properties and grid spacings. The benefit, which amounts to 2-3 more digits typically, is illustrated in a few concrete cases. A detailed mathematical analysis is in progress.

  17. Hilar height ratio in normal Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Kyung Ho; Lee, Nam Joon; Seol, Hae Young; Chung, Kyoo Byung

    1979-01-01

    Hilar displacement is one of the significant sign of pulmonary volume change. The hilar height ratio (HHR) is a value that express the normal position of hilum in its hemithorax, and it is calculated by dividing the distance from the hilum to the lung apex by the distance from the hilum to the diaphragm. Displacement of one hilum is usually easy to detect but both are displaced in the same direction especially, recognition is more difficult. Knowledge of normal HHR allows evaluation of hilar positional change even when the relative hilar position are not altered. Normal chest PA views of 275 cases taken at Korea University Hospital during the period of April 1978 to Jun 1979 were analyzed. The right hilum is positioned in lower half of the right hemithorax, while the left hilum is situated in the upper half of left hemithorax. The difference of hilar ratio according to age group is slight, but there is significant difference between right-HHR and left-HHR. The value of right-HHR is 1.28 ± 0.14, the value of left-HHR is 0.88 ± 0.09.

  18. Clinical longitudinal standards for height, weight, height velocity, weight velocity, and stages of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J M; Whitehouse, R H

    1976-01-01

    New charts for height, weight, height velocity, and weight velocity are presented for clinical (as opposed to population survey) use. They are based on longitudinal-type growth curves, using the same data as in the British 1965 growth standards. In the velocity standards centiles are given for children who are early- and late-maturing as well as for those who mature at the average age (thus extending the use of the previous charts). Limits of normality for the age of occurrence of the adolescent growth spurt are given and also for the successive stages of penis, testes, and pubic hair development in boys, and for stages of breast and pubic hair development in girls. PMID:952550

  19. Interaction between sapwood and foliage area in alpine ash (Eucalyptus delegatensis) trees of different heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokany, Karel; McMurtrie, Ross E; Atwell, Brian J; Keith, Heather

    2003-10-01

    In native stands of Eucalyptus delegatensis R. T. Baker, sapwood area (As) to foliage area (Af) ratios (As:Af) decreased as tree height increased, contradicting the common interpretation of the Pipe Model Theory as well as the generally observed trend of increasing As:Af ratios with tree height. To clarify this relationship, we estimated sapwood hydraulic conductivity theoretically based on measurements of sapwood vessel diameters and Poiseuille's law for fluid flow through pipes. Despite the observed decrease in As:Af ratios with tree height, leaf specific conductivity increased with total tree height, largely as a result of an increase in the specific conductivity of sapwood. This observation supports the proposition that the stem's ability to supply foliage with water must increase as trees grow taller, to compensate for the increased hydraulic path length. The results presented here highlight the importance of measuring sapwood hydraulic conductivity in analyses of sapwood-foliage interactions, and suggest that measurements of sapwood hydraulic conductivity may help to resolve conflicting observations of how As:Af ratios change as trees grow taller.

  20. Charnock's Roughness Length Model and Non-dimensional Wind Profiles Over the Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2008-01-01

    An analysis tool for the study of wind speed profiles over the water has been developed. The profiles are analysed using a modified dimensionless wind speed and dimensionless height, assuming that the sea surface roughness can be predicted by Charnock's roughness length model. In this form, the r...

  1. Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, Shaded Relief with Height as Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Shenandoah National Park lies astride part of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which form the southeastern range of the greater Appalachian Mountains in Virginia. The park is well framed by this one-degree of latitude (38-39 north) by one-degree of longitude (78-79 west) cell of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data, and it appears here as the most prominent ridge trending diagonally across the scene. Skyline Drive, a 169-kilometer (105-mile) road that winds along the crest of the mountains through the length the park, provides vistas of the surrounding landscape. The Shenandoah River flows through the valley to the west, with Massanutten Mountain standing between the river's north and south forks. Unusually pronounced meanders of both river forks are very evident near the top center of this scene. Massanutten Mountain itself is an unusually distinctive landform also, consisting of highly elongated looping folds of sedimentary rock. The rolling Piedmont country lies to the southeast of the park, with Charlottesville located at the bottom center of the scene.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to bluish-white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60

  2. Minimal Length, Measurability and Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shalyt-Margolin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a continuation of the previous papers written by the author on the subject. In terms of the measurability (or measurable quantities notion introduced in a minimal length theory, first the consideration is given to a quantum theory in the momentum representation. The same terms are used to consider the Markov gravity model that here illustrates the general approach to studies of gravity in terms of measurable quantities.

  3. Inhomogeneity in barrier height at graphene/Si (GaAs) Schottky junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomer, D; Rajput, S; Hudy, L J; Li, C H; Li, L

    2015-05-29

    Graphene (Gr) interfaced with a semiconductor forms a Schottky junction with rectifying properties, however, fluctuations in the Schottky barrier height are often observed. In this work, Schottky junctions are fabricated by transferring chemical vapor deposited monolayer Gr onto n-type Si and GaAs substrates. Temperature dependence of the barrier height and ideality factor are obtained by current-voltage measurements between 215 and 350 K. An increase in the zero bias barrier height and decrease in the ideality factor are observed with increasing temperature for both junctions. Such behavior is attributed to barrier inhomogeneities that arise from interfacial disorders as revealed by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of the barrier heights, mean values of 1.14 ± 0.14 eV and 0.76 ± 0.10 eV are found for Gr/Si and Gr/GaAs junctions, respectively. These findings resolve the origin of barrier height inhomogeneities in these Schottky junctions.

  4. Inhomogeneity in barrier height at graphene/Si (GaAs) Schottky junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomer, D; Rajput, S; Hudy, L J; Li, L; Li, C H

    2015-01-01

    Graphene (Gr) interfaced with a semiconductor forms a Schottky junction with rectifying properties, however, fluctuations in the Schottky barrier height are often observed. In this work, Schottky junctions are fabricated by transferring chemical vapor deposited monolayer Gr onto n-type Si and GaAs substrates. Temperature dependence of the barrier height and ideality factor are obtained by current–voltage measurements between 215 and 350 K. An increase in the zero bias barrier height and decrease in the ideality factor are observed with increasing temperature for both junctions. Such behavior is attributed to barrier inhomogeneities that arise from interfacial disorders as revealed by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of the barrier heights, mean values of 1.14 ± 0.14 eV and 0.76 ± 0.10 eV are found for Gr/Si and Gr/GaAs junctions, respectively. These findings resolve the origin of barrier height inhomogeneities in these Schottky junctions. (paper)

  5. Investigation of significantly high barrier height in Cu/GaN Schottky diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjari Garg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current-voltage (I-V measurements combined with analytical calculations have been used to explain mechanisms for forward-bias current flow in Copper (Cu Schottky diodes fabricated on Gallium Nitride (GaN epitaxial films. An ideality factor of 1.7 was found at room temperature (RT, which indicated deviation from thermionic emission (TE mechanism for current flow in the Schottky diode. Instead the current transport was better explained using the thermionic field-emission (TFE mechanism. A high barrier height of 1.19 eV was obtained at room temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS was used to investigate the plausible reason for observing Schottky barrier height (SBH that is significantly higher than as predicted by the Schottky-Mott model for Cu/GaN diodes. XPS measurements revealed the presence of an ultrathin cuprous oxide (Cu2O layer at the interface between Cu and GaN. With Cu2O acting as a degenerate p-type semiconductor with high work function of 5.36 eV, a high barrier height of 1.19 eV is obtained for the Cu/Cu2O/GaN Schottky diode. Moreover, the ideality factor and barrier height were found to be temperature dependent, implying spatial inhomogeneity of barrier height at the metal semiconductor interface.

  6. Leg Length, Body Proportion, and Health: A Review with a Note on Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogin, Barry; Varela-Silva, Maria Inês

    2010-01-01

    Decomposing stature into its major components is proving to be a useful strategy to assess the antecedents of disease, morbidity and death in adulthood. Human leg length (femur + tibia), sitting height (trunk length + head length) and their proportions, for example, (leg length/stature), or the sitting height ratio (sitting height/stature × 100), among others) are associated with epidemiological risk for overweight (fatness), coronary heart disease, diabetes, liver dysfunction and certain cancers. There is also wide support for the use of relative leg length as an indicator of the quality of the environment for growth during infancy, childhood and the juvenile years of development. Human beings follow a cephalo-caudal gradient of growth, the pattern of growth common to all mammals. A special feature of the human pattern is that between birth and puberty the legs grow relatively faster than other post-cranial body segments. For groups of children and youth, short stature due to relatively short legs (i.e., a high sitting height ratio) is generally a marker of an adverse environment. The development of human body proportions is the product of environmental x genomic interactions, although few if any specific genes are known. The HOXd and the short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX) are genomic regions that may be relevant to human body proportions. For example, one of the SHOX related disorders is Turner syndrome. However, research with non-pathological populations indicates that the environment is a more powerful force influencing leg length and body proportions than genes. Leg length and proportion are important in the perception of human beauty, which is often considered a sign of health and fertility. PMID:20617018

  7. The effects of social status on biological aging as measured by white-blood-cell telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkas, L F; Aviv, A; Valdes, A M; Hunkin, J L; Gardner, J P; Surdulescu, G L; Kimura, M; Spector, T D

    2006-10-01

    Low socio-economic status (SES) is associated with a shortened life expectancy, but its effect on aging is unknown. The rate of white-blood-cell (WBC) telomere attrition may be a biological indicator of human aging. We tested the hypothesis that SES is associated with telomere attrition independent of known risk factors influencing the aging process. We studied 1552 female twins. A venous blood sample was taken from each twin and isolated WBCs used for extraction of DNA. Terminal restriction fragment length (TRFL) was measured. Questionnaire data were collected on occupation, education, income, smoking, exercise, height and weight. Standard multiple linear regression and multivariate analyses of variance tested for associations between SES and TRFL, adjusting for covariates. A discordant twin analysis was conducted on a subset to verify findings. WBC telomere length was highly variable but significantly shorter in lower SES groups. The mean difference in TRFL between nonmanual and manual SES groups was 163.2 base pairs (bp) of which 22.9 bp (approximately 14%) was accounted for by body mass index, smoking and exercise. Comparison of TRFL in the 17 most discordant SES twin pairs confirmed this difference. Low SES, in addition to the harmful effects of smoking, obesity and lack of exercise, appears to have an impact on telomere length.

  8. Focused CT using a height-adjusted metric and the umbilicus as a landmark for children undergoing evaluation for appendicitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Suzanne [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Emergency Medicine, Jacobi Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Emergency Medicine, Children' s Hospital at Montefiore, Bronx, NY (United States); Nixon, Abigail F.; Meltzer, James A. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Emergency Medicine, Jacobi Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Blumfield, Einat [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Division of Pediatrics, Jacobi Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Confirmation of appendicitis in children often requires CT. A focused CT scan that is limited to the lower abdomen/pelvis might help to reduce radiation exposure. To determine the position of the appendix relative to the umbilicus and derive a height-adjusted threshold for a focused CT that would identify most appendices. We conducted a retrospective study of children younger than 18 years who underwent a CT scan for suspected appendicitis. A pediatric radiologist determined the distance from the most cephalad portion of the appendix to the center of the umbilicus. This distance was divided by the child's height to create a ratio for each child. We then assessed the largest of these distance/height ratios (''height constants'') as potential height-adjusted thresholds that, when multiplied by any patient's height, would yield the superior threshold for the focused CT scan. Radiation reduction was calculated as percentage decrease in scan length compared to a complete abdominopelvic CT. Of 270 patients whose entire appendix was identified on CT, all were identified within 10.5 cm above the umbilicus. A focused CT using a height constant of 0.07 identified 100% of the appendices visualized on the complete CT scan and resulted in an estimated mean percentage radiation reduction of 27% (standard deviation [SD] +/-4.7). If a height constant of 0.03 was used, 97% of appendices were identified and the estimated radiation reduction was 43% (SD +/-4.3). A height-adjusted focused abdominopelvic CT scan might reduce radiation exposure without sacrificing the diagnostic accuracy of the complete CT scan. (orig.)

  9. The Storage and Composition of Inflected Forms in Adult-Learned Second Language: A Study of the Influence of Length of Residence, Age of Arrival, Sex, and Other Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Laura; Stowe, John C.; Maloof, Christopher J.; Brovetto, Claudia; Ullman, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    It remains unclear whether adult-learned second language (L2) depends on similar or different neurocognitive mechanisms as those involved in first language (L1). We examined whether English past tense forms are computed similarly or differently by L1 and L2 English speakers, and what factors might affect this: regularity (regular vs. irregular…

  10. Australia, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C. Location: 45 to 10 degrees South latitude, 112 to 155 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  11. Guiana Highlands, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Doyle's 1912 best-seller 'The Lost World.'Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.Location: 0.2 South to 8.7 degrees North latitude, 60 to 67.9 degrees West longitude Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM30 and GTOPO30 elevation models Data Resolution: SRTM 30 arcsecond (about 928 meters or 1496 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 for SRTM

  12. Olduvai Gorge, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C. Location: 3 degrees south latitude, 35 degrees east longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 223 by 223 kilometers (138 by 138 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  13. France, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This image of France was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was reduced to 6 arcseconds (about 185 meters north-south and 127 meters east-west), resampled to a Mercator projection, and the French border outlined. Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the country is readily apparent.The upper central part of this scene is dominated by the Paris Basin, which consists of a layered sequence of sedimentary rocks. Fertile soils over much of the area make good agricultural land. The Normandie coast to the upper left is characterized by high, chalk cliffs, while the Brittany coast (the peninsula to the left) is highly indented where deep valleys were drowned by the sea, and the Biscay coast to the southwest is marked by flat, sandy beaches.To the south, the Pyrenees form a natural border between France and Spain, and the south-central part of the country is dominated by the ancient Massif Central. Subject to volcanism that has only subsided in the last 10,000 years, these central mountains are separated from the Alps by the north-south trending Rhone River Basin.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D

  14. Childhood body mass index and height and risk of histologic subtypes of endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J.; Gamborg, M.; Ulrich, L. G.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer risk factors include adult obesity and taller stature, but the influence of size earlier in life is incompletely understood. We examined whether childhood body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) and height were associated with histologic subtypes of endometrial cancer...

  15. Interacting effects of grass height and herbivores on the establishment of an encroaching savanna shrub

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenah, N.; Munkert, H.; Gerhardt, K.; Olff, H.

    2009-01-01

    Shrub encroachment is a widely observed problem in Southern African savannas. Although the effects of herbivory and grass height on woody species recruitment have been studied individually, little information exists about how these factors interact. In this study seeds and seedlings of the

  16. Investigation of the Pulse Height Distribution of Boron Trifluoride Proportional Counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, I Oe; Malmskog, S

    1962-08-15

    The report describes a theoretical and experimental investigation of the factors that determine the pulse height distribution of BF{sub 3}, proportional counters irradiated by thermal neutrons. The branching ratio of the {sup 10}B (n,{alpha}) {sup 7}Li reaction for thermal neutrons has been measured.

  17. Genetic and environmental influences on adult human height across birth cohorts from 1886 to 1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sund, Reijo

    2016-01-01

    Human height variation is determined by genetic and environmental factors, but it remains unclear whether their influences differ across birth-year cohorts. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 40 twin cohorts including 143,390 complete twin pairs born 1886-1994. Although genetic...

  18. Burst pressure of phaseguide structures of different heights in all-polymer microfluidic channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garbarino, Francesca; Kistrup, Kasper; Rizzi, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    We present an experimental investigation of the burst/overflow pressure of water and a representative surfactant-containing buffer in microfluidic channels with phaseguide structures oriented at an angle of 90° to the channel length as a function of their height, . The all-polymer chips were...... structures were found able to pin both liquids and the burst pressure was found to increase approximately linearly with the height of the phaseguide from about 100–350 Pa for water and from about 25–200 Pa for the buffer. The burst pressure was found not to depend on the channel width and it was only weakly...... influenced by the presence of a branch on the phaseguide. For phaseguides with a branch, the liquid was always found to burst at the branch location. The measured burst pressures were compared to those estimated using a simple theory. The knowledge obtained in this study enables simple tuning of liquid...

  19. Height, weight and body mass index in early adulthood and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, E L; Reinisch, J M

    2006-01-01

    individuals born between 1959 and 1961. In 1999, cases of schizophrenia were identified in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and the cases were compared with the cohort pool of controls with respect to height, weight, and BMI from draft records. The effect of low BMI was adjusted for parental social...... status when the cohort members were 1 year old, birth weight, birth length, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. RESULTS: Forty-five cases of schizophrenia had a lower young adult mean body weight and BMI than controls. A significant inverse relationship between BMI and risk of later schizophrenia was found....... No significant differences between cases and controls were observed with respect to adult height. CONCLUSION: Independent of several possible confounders, an inverse relationship between young adult BMI and risk of later development of schizophrenia was demonstrated in this all-male sample....

  20. Some Non Genetic Factors Effects on Morphostructural Growth of Local Kids in Tunisian Arid Area

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Ammar Elgaaied Amel; Khorchani Touhami; Ben Amor Mohamed; Gaddour Amor; Najari Sghaier; Ouni Mabrouk

    2008-01-01

    Data corresponding of 276 local kids` periodic control, harvested during 4 years (2001-2005) under pastoral mode in Tunisian arid region, was used to study some factors effects upon body parts evolution after birth. Morphostructural variables were; body length, height-at-withers and heart girth. The linear measurement periodically registered at every control day from birth and till 5 months age. For each kid, performances were standardized at typical ages; birth, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150...

  1. Neck length and mean arterial pressure in the sauropod dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen; Barry, John; Russell, Jeremy; Bell, Robert; Gurung, Som

    2016-04-15

    How blood was able to reach the heads of the long-necked sauropod dinosaurs has long been a matter of debate and several hypotheses have been presented. For example, it has been proposed that sauropods had exceptionally large hearts, multiple 'normal' sized hearts spaced at regular intervals up the neck or held their necks horizontal, or that the siphon effect was in operation. By means of an experimental model, we demonstrate that the siphon principle is able to explain how blood was able to adequately perfuse the sauropod brain. The return venous circulation may have been protected from complete collapse by a structure akin to the vertebral venous plexus. We derive an equation relating neck height and mean arterial pressure, which indicates that with a mean arterial pressure similar to that of the giraffe, the maximum safe vertical distance between heart and head would have been about 12 m. A hypothesis is presented that the maximum neck length in the fossil record is due to the siphon height limit. The equation indicates that to migrate over high ground, sauropods would have had to either significantly increase their mean arterial pressure or keep their necks below a certain height dependent on altitude. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Combined Treatment with Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Analog and Anabolic Steroid Hormone Increased Pubertal Height Gain and Adult Height in Boys with Early Puberty for Height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Naiki, Yasuhiro; Horikawa, Reiko

    2012-04-01

    Twenty-one boys with a height of 135 cm or less at onset of puberty were treated with a combination of GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone, and their pubertal height gain and adult height were compared with those of untreated 29 boys who enter puberty below 135 cm. The mean age at the start of treatment with a GnRH analog, leuprorelin acetate depot (Leuplin(®)) was 12.3 yr, a mean of 1.3 yr after the onset of puberty, and GnRH analog was administered every 3 to 5 wk thereafter for a mean duration of 4.1 yr. The anabolic steroid hormone was started approximately 1 yr after initiation of treatment with the GnRH analog. The mean pubertal height gain from onset of puberty till adult height was significantly greater in the combination treatment group (33.9 cm) than in the untreated group (26.4 cm) (ppenis and pubic hair is promoted by the anabolic steroid hormone, no psychosocial problems arose because of delayed puberty. No clinically significant adverse events appeared. Combined treatment with GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone significantly increased height gain during puberty and adult height in boys who entered puberty with a short stature, since the period until epiphyseal closure was extended due to deceleration of the bone age maturation by administration of the GnRH analog and the growth rate at this time was maintained by the anabolic steroid hormone.

  3. Length-weight and length-length relationships of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in the middle and southern Iraq provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-jebory, Taymaa A.; Das, Simon K.; Usup, Gires; Bakar, Y.; Al-saadi, Ali H.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, length-weight and length-length relationships of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in the middle and southern Iraq provinces were determined. Fish specimens were procured from seven provinces from July to December, 2015. A negative and positive allometric growth pattern was obtained, where the total length (TL) ranged from 25.60 cm to 33.53 cm, and body weight (BW) ranged from 700 g to 1423 g. Meanwhile, the lowest of 1.03 and highest of 3.54 in "b" value was recorded in group F and group C, respectively. Therefore, Fulton condition factor (K) range from 2.57 to 4.94. While, relative condition factor (Kn) was in the ranged of 0.95 to 1.01. A linear relationship between total length (TL) and standard length (SL) among the provinces for fish groups was obtained. The variances in "b" value ranged from 0.10 to 0.93 with correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.02 to 0.97. This research could be used as a guide to study the ecology and biology of common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in the middle and southern Iraq provinces.

  4. Combined Treatment with Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Analog and Anabolic Steroid Hormone Increased Pubertal Height Gain and Adult Height in Boys with Early Puberty for Height

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Naiki, Yasuhiro; Horikawa, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-one boys with a height of 135 cm or less at onset of puberty were treated with a combination of GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone, and their pubertal height gain and adult height were compared with those of untreated 29 boys who enter puberty below 135 cm. The mean age at the start of treatment with a GnRH analog, leuprorelin acetate depot (Leuplin?) was 12.3 yr, a mean of 1.3 yr after the onset of puberty, and GnRH analog was administered every 3 to 5 wk thereafter for a mean d...

  5. Simulation of ICESat-2 canopy height retrievals for different ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    Slated for launch in late 2017 (or early 2018), the ICESat-2 satellite will provide a global distribution of geodetic measurements from a space-based laser altimeter of both the terrain surface and relative canopy heights which will provide a significant benefit to society through a variety of applications ranging from improved global digital terrain models to producing distribution of above ground vegetation structure. The ATLAS instrument designed for ICESat-2, will utilize a different technology than what is found on most laser mapping systems. The photon counting technology of the ATLAS instrument onboard ICESat-2 will record the arrival time associated with a single photon detection. That detection can occur anywhere within the vertical distribution of the reflected signal, that is, anywhere within the vertical distribution of the canopy. This uncertainty of where the photon will be returned from within the vegetation layer is referred to as the vertical sampling error. Preliminary simulation studies to estimate vertical sampling error have been conducted for several ecosystems including woodland savanna, montane conifers, temperate hardwoods, tropical forest, and boreal forest. The results from these simulations indicate that the canopy heights reported on the ATL08 data product will underestimate the top canopy height in the range of 1 - 4 m. Although simulation results indicate the ICESat-2 will underestimate top canopy height, there is, however, a strong correlation between ICESat-2 heights and relative canopy height metrics (e.g. RH75, RH90). In tropical forest, simulation results indicate the ICESat-2 height correlates strongly with RH90. Similarly, in temperate broadleaf forest, the simulated ICESat-2 heights were also strongly correlated with RH90. In boreal forest, the simulated ICESat-2 heights are strongly correlated with RH75 heights. It is hypothesized that the correlations between simulated ICESat-2 heights and canopy height metrics are a

  6. Report on the calculations of the height of the stack for PUSPATI laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    This report outlines the method used in the calculation of the required stack height in order to ensure adequate dispersion and dilution of radioactive materials emitted through the stack under routine as well as accident conditions. The calculations were based on the most predominant radioactive material 1-131, possibly to be discharged from the establishment. Some general assumptions were considered and these include maximum activity of 1-131, production efficiency, filter decontamination factor, MPCa value, topography, meteorological conditions, building wake effect, downwash and plume rise. The calculations have indicated that a stack of 40 meters in height is adequate.

  7. Instrument modifications that produced reduced plate heights supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Terry A

    2016-04-29

    The concept of peak fidelity was shown to be helpful in modeling tubing and detector cell dimensions. Connection tubing and flow cell variances were modeled to determine appropriate internal ID's, lengths, and volumes. A low dispersion plumbing configuration, based on these calculations, was assembled to replace the standard plumbing and produced the reported results. The modifications made were straightforward using commercially available parts. The full theoretical efficiency of a 3×100 mm column packed with 1.8 μm totally porous particles was achieved for the first time in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). Peak fidelity of >0.95 was maintained to below k=2. A reduced plate height as low as 1.87 was measured. Thus, true "ultra high performance" SFC was achieved, with the results a major improvement from all previous SFC reports. Since there were no efficiency losses, none could be attributed to thermal gradients caused by the expansion of the fluid over large pressure drops, under the conditions used. Similarly, changes in diffusion coefficients caused by significant decreases in density during expansion are apparently balanced by the increase in linear velocity, keeping the ratio between the diffusion coefficient and the linear velocity a constant. Changing modifier concentration to change retention was shown to not be a significant problem. All these issues have been a concern in the past. Diffusion coefficients, and viscosity data needs to be collected at high pressures before the actual limits of SFC can be discovered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Measuring the height-to-height correlation function of corrugation in suspended graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirilenko, D.A.; Brunkov, P.N.

    2016-01-01

    Nanocorrugation of 2D crystals is an important phenomenon since it affects their electronic and mechanical properties. The corrugation may have various sources; one of them is flexural phonons that, in particular, are responsible for the thermal conductivity of graphene. A study of corrugation of just the suspended graphene can reveal much of valuable information on the physics of this complicated phenomenon. At the same time, the suspended crystal nanorelief can hardly be measured directly because of high flexibility of the 2D crystal. Moreover, the relief portion related to rapid out-of-plane oscillations (flexural phonons) is also inaccessible by such measurements. Here we present a technique for measuring the Fourier components of the height–height correlation function H(q) of suspended graphene which includes the effect of flexural phonons. The technique is based on the analysis of electron diffraction patterns. The H(q) is measured in the range of wavevectors q≈0.4–4.5 nm"−"1. At the upper limit of this range H(q) does follow the T/κq"4 law. So, we measured the value of suspended graphene bending rigidity κ=1.2±0.4 eV at ambient temperature T≈300 K. At intermediate wave vectors, H(q) follows a slightly weaker exponent than theoretically predicted q"−"3"."1"5 but is closer to the results of the molecular dynamics simulation. At low wave vectors, the dependence becomes even weaker, which may be a sign of influence of charge carriers on the dynamics of undulations longer than 10 nm. The technique presented can be used for studying physics of flexural phonons in other 2D materials. - Highlights: • A technique for measuring free-standing 2D crystal corrugation is proposed. • The height-to-height correlation function of the suspended graphene corrugation is measured. • Various parameters of the intrinsic graphene properties are experimentally determined.

  9. Measured parental height in Turner syndrome-a valuable but underused diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouarezki, Yasmine; Cizmecioglu, Filiz Mine; Mansour, Chourouk; Jones, Jeremy Huw; Gault, Emma Jane; Mason, Avril; Donaldson, Malcolm D C

    2018-02-01

    Early diagnosis of Turner syndrome (TS) is necessary to facilitate appropriate management, including growth promotion. Not all girls with TS have overt short stature, and comparison with parental height (Ht) is needed for appropriate evaluation. We examined both the prevalence and diagnostic sensitivity of measured parental Ht in a dedicated TS clinic between 1989 and 2013. Lower end of parental target range (LTR) was calculated as mid-parental Ht (correction factor 12.5 cm minus 8.5 cm) and converted to standard deviation scores (SDS) using UK 1990 data, then compared with patient Ht SDS at first accurate measurement aged > 1 year. Information was available in 172 girls of whom 142 (82.6%) were short at first measurement. However, both parents had been measured in only 94 girls (54.6%). In 92 of these girls age at measurement was 6.93 ± 3.9 years, Ht SDS vs LTR SDS - 2.63 ± 0.94 vs - 1.77 ± 0.81 (p Turner syndrome are short in relation to parental heights, with untreated final height approximately 20 cm below female population mean. • Measured parental height is more accurate than reported height. What is New: • In a dedicated Turner clinic, there was 85% sensitivity when comparing patient height standard deviation score at first accurate measurement beyond 1 year of age with the lower end of the parental target range standard deviation. • However, measured height in both parents had been recorded in only 54.6% of the Turner girls attending the clinic. This indicates the need to improve the quality of growth assessment in tertiary care.

  10. Barrier height inhomogeneity in electrical transport characteristics of InGaN/GaN heterostructure interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roul, Basanta [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Central Research Laboratory, Bharat Electronics, Bangalore 560013 (India); Mukundan, Shruti; Chandan, Greeshma; Mohan, Lokesh; Krupanidhi, S. B., E-mail: sbk@mrc.iisc.ernet.in [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2015-03-15

    We have grown InGaN/GaN heterostructures using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and studied the temperature dependent electrical transport characteristics. The barrier height (φ{sub b}) and the ideally factor (η) estimated using thermionic emission model were found to be temperature dependent. The conventional Richardson plot of ln(J{sub s}/T{sup 2}) versus 1/kT showed two temperature regions (region-I: 400–500 K and region-II: 200–350 K) and it provides Richardson constants (A{sup ∗}) which are much lower than the theoretical value of GaN. The observed variation in the barrier height and the presence of two temperature regions were attributed to spatial barrier inhomogeneities at the heterojunction interface and was explained by assuming a double Gaussian distribution of barrier heights with mean barrier height values 1.61 and 1.21 eV with standard deviation (σ{sub s}{sup 2}) of 0.044 and 0.022 V, respectively. The modified Richardson plot of ln(J{sub s}/T{sup 2}) − (q{sup 2}σ{sub s}{sup 2}/2k{sup 2}T{sup 2}) versus 1/kT for two temperature regions gave mean barrier height values as 1.61 eV and 1.22 eV with Richardson constants (A{sup ∗}) values 25.5 Acm{sup −2}K{sup −2} and 43.9 Acm{sup −2}K{sup −2}, respectively, which are very close to the theoretical value. The observed barrier height inhomogeneities were interpreted on the basis of the existence of a double Gaussian distribution of barrier heights at the interface.

  11. Socioeconomic variation in height: analysis of National Child Measurement Programme data for England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Caroline; Bettiol, Silvana; Smith, Lesley

    2016-05-01

    Short stature is associated with increased risk of ill health and mortality and can negatively impact on an individual's economic opportunity and psychological well-being. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between height and area-level deprivation by ethnic group in children in England. Cross-sectional analysis of data gathered from the National Child Measurement Programme 2008/2009 to 2012/2013. Children (n=1 213 230) aged 4-5 and 10-11 years attending state-maintained primary schools in England. Mean height SD score (SDS) (based on the British 1990 growth reference) was calculated for children by Income Deprivation Affecting Children Index as a measure of area-level deprivation. Analyses were performed by sex and age group for white British, Asian and black ethnicities. For white British children mean height decreased 0.2 SDS between the least and the most deprived quintile. For Asian children the relationship was weaker and varied between 0.08 and 0.18 SDS. For white British boys the magnitude of association was similar across age groups; for Asian boys the magnitude was higher in the age group of 10-11 years and in white British girls aged 10-11 years the association decreased. Height SDS was similar across all levels of deprivation for black children. Social inequalities were shown in the height of children from white British and Asian ethnic groups. Further evaluation of height in black children is warranted. Action is needed to reduce inequalities in height by addressing the modifiable negative environmental factors that prevent healthy growth and development of children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Length Contraction Should not be Independent of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2013-10-01

    In Special Theory of Relativity it looks that the length contraction along the direction of the motion is independent of time, i.e. if a rocket flies one second, or the rocket flies one year the rocket's along-the-motion length contraction is the same, since the contraction factor C (v) =√{ 1 -v2/c2 } depends on the rocket's relativistic speed (v) and on the light speed in vacuum (c) only. We find this as unrealistic, incomplete. It is logical that flying more and more it should increase the length contraction. What about the cosmic bodies that continuously travel, do they contract only once or are they continuously contracting?

  13. Hydrogen atom in momentum space with a minimal length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouaziz, Djamil; Ferkous, Nourredine

    2010-01-01

    A momentum representation treatment of the hydrogen atom problem with a generalized uncertainty relation, which leads to a minimal length ΔX imin =(ℎ/2π)√(3β+β ' ), is presented. We show that the distance squared operator can be factorized in the case β ' =2β. We analytically solve the s-wave bound-state equation. The leading correction to the energy spectrum caused by the minimal length depends on √(β). An upper bound for the minimal length is found to be about 10 -9 fm.

  14. Plume Dispersion over Idealized Urban-liked Roughness with Height Variation: an LES Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Colman Ching Chi; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2013-04-01

    Human activities (e.g. vehicular emission) are the primary pollutant sources affecting the health and living quality of stakeholders in modern compact cities. Gaussian plume dispersion model is commonly used for pollutant distribution estimate that works well over rural areas with flat terrain. However, its major parameters, dispersion coefficients, exclude the effect of surface roughness that unavoidably prone to error handling the pollutant transport in the urban boundary layer (UBL) over building roughness. Our recent large-eddy simulation (LES) has shown that urban surfaces affect significantly the pollutant dispersion over idealized, identical two-dimensional (2D) street canyons of uniform height. As an extension to our on-going effort, this study is conceived to investigate how rough urban surfaces, which are constructed by 2D street canyons of non-uniform height, modify the UBL pollutant dispersion . A series of LESs with idealized roughness elements of non-uniform heights were performed in neutral stratification. Building models with two different heights were placed alternatively in the computational domain to construct 2D street canyons in cross flows. The plume dispersion from a ground-level passive pollutant source over more realistic urban areas was then examined. Along with the existing building-height-to-street-width (aspect) ratio (AR), a new parameter, building-height variability (BHV), is used to measure the building height unevenness. Four ARs (1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125) and three BHVs (20%, 40% and 60%) were considered in this study. Preliminary results show that BHV greatly increases the aerodynamic roughness of the hypothetical urban surfaces for narrow street canyons. Analogous to our previous findings, the air exchange rate (ACH) of street canyons increases with increasing friction factor, implying that street-level ventilation could be improved by increasing building roughness via BHV. In addition, the parameters used in dispersion coefficient

  15. Optimization of fracture length in gas/condensate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, J.; Sharma, M.M.; Pope, G.A. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    2006-07-01

    A common practice that improves the productivity of gas-condensate reservoirs is hydraulic fracturing. Two important variables that determine the effectiveness of hydraulic fractures are fracture length and fracture conductivity. Although there are no simple guidelines for the optimization of fracture length and the factors that affect it, it is preferable to have an optimum fracture length for a given proppant volume in order to maximize productivity. An optimization study was presented in which fracture length was estimated at wells where productivity was maximized. An analytical expression that takes into account non-Darcy flow and condensate banking was derived. This paper also reviewed the hydraulic fracturing process and discussed previous simulation studies that investigated the effects of well spacing and fracture length on well productivity in low permeability gas reservoirs. The compositional simulation study and results and discussion were also presented. The analytical expression for optimum fracture length, analytical expression with condensate dropout, and equations for the optimum fracture length with non-Darcy flow in the fracture were included in an appendix. The Computer Modeling Group's GEM simulator, an equation-of-state compositional simulator, was used in this study. It was concluded that for cases with non-Darcy flow, the optimum fracture lengths are lower than those obtained with Darcy flow. 18 refs., 5 tabs., 22 figs., 1 appendix.

  16. South America, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    occurrence of simple erosional processes acting upon fairly uniform bedrock. Very smooth plateaus here are remnants of landforms most likely developed under geologic and environmental conditions much different than those present today. Fractures paralleling the coast are likely related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean as South America drifted away from Africa, starting about 130 million years ago.To the southwest, broad lowlands host the Gran Chaco and Pampas regions. The depositional Gran Chaco drainages run almost exclusively from west to east from the Andes Mountains to the western edge of the Brazilian Highlands as a result of the much greater sediment supply from the Andes. Geologic processes on the Pampas are much more diverse, with stream erosion, stream deposition, subsidence, and wind processes all evident, even at the one-kilometer resolution shown here.Further south, Patagonia also displays these geologic processes plus more prominent volcanic features, including bumpy mesas, which are lava plateaus with small (and some large) volcanic cones. At its southern tip South America breaks into islands that include Tierra del Fuego and the Straits of Magellan.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of

  17. Spatial inhomogeneity in Schottky barrier height at graphene/MoS2 Schottky junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomer, D.; Rajput, S.; Li, L.

    2017-04-01

    Transport properties of graphene semiconductor Schottky junctions strongly depend on interfacial inhomogeneities due to the inherent formation of ripples and ridges. Here, chemical vapor deposited graphene is transferred onto multilayer MoS2 to fabricate Schottky junctions. These junctions exhibit rectifying current-voltage behavior with the zero bias Schottky barrier height increases and ideality factor decreases with increasing temperature between 210 and 300 K. Such behavior is attributed to the inhomogeneous interface that arises from graphene ripples and ridges, as revealed by atomic force and scanning tunneling microscopy imaging. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of the barrier height, a mean value of 0.96  ±  0.14 eV is obtained. These findings indicate a direct correlation between temperature dependent Schottky barrier height and spatial inhomogeneity in graphene/2D semiconductor Schottky junctions.

  18. Spatial inhomogeneity in Schottky barrier height at graphene/MoS2 Schottky junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomer, D; Rajput, S; Li, L

    2017-01-01

    Transport properties of graphene semiconductor Schottky junctions strongly depend on interfacial inhomogeneities due to the inherent formation of ripples and ridges. Here, chemical vapor deposited graphene is transferred onto multilayer MoS 2 to fabricate Schottky junctions. These junctions exhibit rectifying current–voltage behavior with the zero bias Schottky barrier height increases and ideality factor decreases with increasing temperature between 210 and 300 K. Such behavior is attributed to the inhomogeneous interface that arises from graphene ripples and ridges, as revealed by atomic force and scanning tunneling microscopy imaging. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of the barrier height, a mean value of 0.96  ±  0.14 eV is obtained. These findings indicate a direct correlation between temperature dependent Schottky barrier height and spatial inhomogeneity in graphene/2D semiconductor Schottky junctions. (paper)

  19. Wireless Monitoring of the Height of Condensed Water in Steam Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Badescu, Mircea; Dingizian, Arsham; Takano, Nobuyuki; Blosiu, Julian O.

    2014-01-01

    A wireless health monitoring system has been developed for determining the height of water condensation in the steam pipes and the data acquisition is done remotely using a wireless network system. The developed system is designed to operate in the harsh environment encountered at manholes and the pipe high temperature of over 200 °C. The test method is an ultrasonic pulse-echo and the hardware includes a pulser, receiver and wireless modem for communication. Data acquisition and signal processing software were developed to determine the water height using adaptive signal processing and data communication that can be controlled while the hardware is installed in a manhole. A statistical decision-making tool is being developed based on the field test data to determine the height of in the condensed water under high noise conditions and other environmental factors.

  20. Childhood conditions and education as determinants of adult height and obesity among Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Height and obesity are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and other physical and mental health conditions. Their association with childhood socioeconomic position has been demonstrated in studies among European and a few third world populations. In a random sample of adult Greenland Inuit (N...... = 2302) we studied the association between childhood socioeconomic conditions and height as well as prevalence of obesity (BMI > or = 30) in a cross sectional design. In block recursive graphical independence models, height was associated with mother's place of birth, birth cohort, childhood residence......, alcohol problems in childhood home, and education among both men and women. Obesity was associated with mother's place of birth (for men) and with alcohol problems (for women). In General Linear Models, men with an all rural background and no education beyond primary school measured on average 165.1 cm...

  1. Waist-to-height ratio as index of cardiometabolic risk among the doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miliva Mozaffor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to see the cardiometabolic risk among doctors using waist-to-height ratio index as tool. Cardiometabolic risk is an umbrella term that includes all the risk factors of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The study was conducted among 195 doctors. According to waist-to-height ratio index 167 (85.6% doctors had cardiometabolic risk. Waist-to-height ratio index was found good (area under the curve >0.5, sensitivity 88.1%, specificity 23.2%, positive predictive value 53.9%, and negative predictive value 66.7% for their predictive value of cardiometabolic risk. Age grouping was done and found that no age group was free from cardiometabolic risk.

  2. Impact of height and shape of building roof on air quality in urban street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Mohamed F.

    2011-09-01

    A building's roof shape and roof height play an important role in determining pollutant concentrations from vehicle emissions and its complex flow patterns within urban street canyons. The impact of the roof shape and height on wind flow and dispersion of gaseous pollutants from vehicle exhaust within urban canyons were investigated numerically using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model. Two-dimensional flow and dispersion of gaseous pollutants were analyzed using standard κ- ɛ turbulence model, which was numerically solved based on Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The diffusion fields in the urban canyons were examined with three roof heights ( Z H/ H = 0.17, 0.33 and 0.5) and five roof shapes: (1) flat-shaped roof, (2) slanted-shaped roof, (3) downwind wedge-shaped roof, (4) upwind wedge-shaped roof, and (5) trapezoid-shaped roof. The numerical model was validated against the wind tunnels results in order to optimize the turbulence model. The numerical simulations agreed reasonably with the wind tunnel results. The results obtained indicated that the pollutant concentration increased as the roof height decreases. It also decreased with the slanted and trapezoid-shaped roofs but increased with the flat-shaped roof. The pollutant concentration distributions simulated in the present work, indicated that the variability of the roof shapes and roof heights of the buildings are important factors for estimating air quality within urban canyons.

  3. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren: a study in Cuba and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim; van der Werff, Suzanne D; D'Haese, Patrick C; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Perignon, Marlene; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Parker, Megan E; Díaz, Raquel Junco; Núñez, Fidel Angel; Rivero, Lázara Rojas; Gorbea, Mariano Bonet; Doak, Colleen M; Ponce, Maiza Campos; Wieringa, Frank T; Polman, Katja

    2015-04-20

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029), but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051). Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms.

  4. Shift work with and without night work as a risk factor for fatigue and changes in sleep length: A cohort study with linkage to records on daily working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härmä, Mikko; Karhula, Kati; Puttonen, Sampsa; Ropponen, Annina; Koskinen, Aki; Ojajärvi, Anneli; Kivimäki, Mika

    2018-01-31

    We examined shift work with or without night work as a risk factor for fatigue and short or long sleep. In a prospective cohort study with 4- and 6-year follow-ups (the Finnish Public Sector study), we linked survey responses of 3,679 full-time hospital employees on sleep duration and fatigue to records on daily working hours in 2008 (baseline), 2012 and 2014. We used logistic regression to estimate risk ratios and their confidence intervals to examine whether continuous exposure to shift work or changes between shift work and day work were associated with short (≤6.5 hr) or long (≥9.0 hr) sleep over 24 hr and fatigue at work and during free days. Compared with continuous day work and adjusting for age, gender, education and fatigue/sleep duration at baseline, continuous shift work with night shifts was associated with increased fatigue during free days (risk ratio = 1.38, 95% confidence interval 1.17-1.63) and long sleep (risk ratio = 8.04, 95% confidence interval 2.88-22.5, without adjustment for education) after 6-year follow-up. Exposure to shift work without night shifts increased only long sleep after 6 years (risk ratio = 5.87, 95% confidence interval 1.94-17.8). A change from day work to shift work with or without night shifts was associated with an increased risk for long sleep, and a change from shift work to day work with a decreased risk for long sleep and fatigue. This study suggests that irregular shift work is a modifiable risk factor for long sleep and increased fatigue, probably reflecting a higher need for recovery. © 2018 European Sleep Research Society.

  5. Effect of firing conditions & release height on terminal performance of submunitions and conditions for optimum height of release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.K. Gite

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Submunitions should exhibit optimum terminal performance at target end when released from certain pre-determined height. Selection of an optimum height of release of the submunitions depends on the terminal parameters like forward throw, remaining velocity, impact angle and flight time. In this paper, the effects of initial firing conditions and height of release on terminal performance of submunitions discussed in detail. For different height of release, the relation between range and forward throw is also established & validated for a number of firing altitude and rocket configurations.

  6. An attempt to link the Brazilian Height System to a World Height System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Ferreira

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the geopotential approach to investigate the present Brazilian Height System (BHS. Geopotential numbers are derived from Global Positioning System (GPS satellite surveying and disturbing potential on selected benchmarks. A model for the disturbing potential can be obtained by an existing set of spherical harmonic coefficients such as the Earth Gravity Model 2008 (EGM08. The approach provides absolute evaluation of local normal geopotential numbers (aka spheropotential numbers related to a so-called World Height System (WHS. To test the validity of the proposed methodology, a numerical experiment was carried out related to a test region in Southern Brazil. The accuracy of the derived geopotential numbers was tested versus local normal geopotential numbers based on 262 GPS/leveling points. The root mean square error (RMSE value for metric offset of BHS derived from geopotential numbers and the disturbing potential modeling in the test area was estimated to be near 0.224 meters in the absolute view. Therefore, since these spheropotential numbers are referred to a local datum, these results of comparisons may be an indicator of the mean bias of local network due to the effect of local Sea Surface Topography (SSTop and possible offset between the unknown reference for the BHS and the quasigeoid model in the region.

  7. Diagnostic reliability of the cervical vertebral maturation method and standing height in the identification of the mandibular growth spurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinetti, Giuseppe; Contardo, Luca; Castaldo, Attilio; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the capability of both cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages 3 and 4 (CS3-4 interval) and the peak in standing height to identify the mandibular growth spurt throughout diagnostic reliability analysis. A previous longitudinal data set derived from 24 untreated growing subjects (15 females and nine males,) detailed elsewhere were reanalyzed. Mandibular growth was defined as annual increments in Condylion (Co)-Gnathion (Gn) (total mandibular length) and Co-Gonion Intersection (Goi) (ramus height) and their arithmetic mean (mean mandibular growth [mMG]). Subsequently, individual annual increments in standing height, Co-Gn, Co-Goi, and mMG were arranged according to annual age intervals, with the first and last intervals defined as 7-8 years and 15-16 years, respectively. An analysis was performed to establish the diagnostic reliability of the CS3-4 interval or the peak in standing height in the identification of the maximum individual increments of each Co-Gn, Co-Goi, and mMG measurement at each annual age interval. CS3-4 and standing height peak show similar but variable accuracy across annual age intervals, registering values between 0.61 (standing height peak, Co-Gn) and 0.95 (standing height peak and CS3-4, mMG). Generally, satisfactory diagnostic reliability was seen when the mandibular growth spurt was identified on the basis of the Co-Goi and mMG increments. Both CVM interval CS3-4 and peak in standing height may be used in routine clinical practice to enhance efficiency of treatments requiring identification of the mandibular growth spurt.

  8. The influence of anthropometric factors on postural balance: the relationship between body composition and posturographic measurements in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Castilho Alonso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of anthropometric characteristics and gender on postural balance in adults. One hundred individuals were examined (50 males, 50 females; age range 20-40 years. METHODS: The following body composition measurements were collected (using bone densitometry measurements: fat percentage (% fat, tissue (g, fat (g, lean mass (g, bone mineral content (g, and bone mineral density (g/cm2. In addition, the following anthropometric measurements were collected: body mass (kg, height (cm, length of the trunk-cephalic region (cm, length of the lower limbs (cm and length of the upper limbs (cm. The following indices were calculated: body mass index (kg/m², waist-hip ratio and the support base (cm². Also, a postural balance test was performed using posturography variables with open and closed eyes. RESULTS: The analysis revealed poor correlations between postural balance and the anthropometric variables. A multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that the whole group (female and male height explained 12% of the medial-lateral displacement, 10% of the speed of oscillation, and 11% of the displacement area. The length of the trunk-cephalic length explained 6% of the displacement in the anteroposterior direction. With eyes closed, the support base and height explained 18% of the medial displacement, and the lateral height explained 10% of the displacement speed and 5% of the scroll area. CONCLUSION: Measured using posturography, the postural balance was only slightly influenced by the anthropometric variables, both with open and closed eyes. Height was the anthropometric variable that most influenced postural balance, both in the whole group and separately for each gender. Postural balance was more influenced by anthropometric factors in males than females.

  9. Does neighborhood size really cause the word length effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitard, Dominic; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Tehan, Gerald; Tolan, Anne

    2018-02-01

    In short-term serial recall, it is well-known that short words are remembered better than long words. This word length effect has been the cornerstone of the working memory model and a benchmark effect that all models of immediate memory should account for. Currently, there is no consensus as to what determines the word length effect. Jalbert and colleagues (Jalbert, Neath, Bireta, & Surprenant, 2011a; Jalbert, Neath, & Surprenant, 2011b) suggested that neighborhood size is one causal factor. In six experiments we systematically examined their suggestion. In Experiment 1, with an immediate serial recall task, multiple word lengths, and a large pool of words controlled for neighborhood size, the typical word length effect was present. In Experiments 2 and 3, with an order reconstruction task and words with either many or few neighbors, we observed the typical word length effect. In Experiment 4 we tested the hypothesis that the previous abolition of the word length effect when neighborhood size was controlled was due to a confounded factor: frequency of orthographic structure. As predicted, we reversed the word length effect when using short words with less frequent orthographic structures than the long words, as was done in both of Jalbert et al.'s studies. In Experiments 5 and 6, we again observed the typical word length effect, even if we controlled for neighborhood size and frequency of orthographic structure. Overall, the results were not consistent with the predictions of Jalbert et al. and clearly showed a large and reliable word length effect after controlling for neighborhood size.

  10. Relationship between width and length ratios of upper anterior teeth in young Chilean population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Troncoso-Pazos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Knowledge about the size and proportion of upper anterior teeth allows dental rehabilitation taking into consideration the local parameters of a population. The aim of this research is to determine the width, length and the relationship between width and length of central incisor, lateral incisor and canine teeth in both sexes in young Chilean population. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was performed. Study subjects included 187 dentistry students from two Chilean cities (mean age 21.35±2.7 years, 52.9% men. The teeth width and height were measured and the width/height ratio was calculated. Differences in measurements according to sex was analyzed (p<0.05; STATA v.10.0. Results: The width and height of the teeth were statistically and proportionally larger in men (p<0.05. The width/height ratio of lateral and canine incisors was significantly higher in women (p<0.05. Conclusion: In a sample of young Chileans, upper anterior teeth were longer and wider in men. However, the width/height ratio of teeth was found to be significantly higher in women.

  11. Measuring perceived ceiling height in a visual comparison task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Castell, Christoph; Hecht, Heiko; Oberfeld, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    When judging interior space, a dark ceiling is judged to be lower than a light ceiling. The method of metric judgments (e.g., on a centimetre scale) that has typically been used in such tasks may reflect a genuine perceptual effect or it may reflect a cognitively mediated impression. We employed a height-matching method in which perceived ceiling height had to be matched with an adjustable pillar, thus obtaining psychometric functions that allowed for an estimation of the point of subjective equality (PSE) and the difference limen (DL). The height-matching method developed in this paper allows for a direct visual match and does not require metric judgment. It has the added advantage of providing superior precision. Experiment 1 used ceiling heights between 2.90 m and 3.00 m. The PSE proved sensitive to slight changes in perceived ceiling height. The DL was about 3% of the physical ceiling height. Experiment 2 found similar results for lower (2.30 m to 2.50 m) and higher (3.30 m to 3.50 m) ceilings. In Experiment 3, we additionally varied ceiling lightness (light grey vs. dark grey). The height matches showed that the light ceiling appeared significantly higher than the darker ceiling. We therefore attribute the influence of ceiling lightness on perceived ceiling height to a direct perceptual rather than a cognitive effect.

  12. Oxygen–induced barrier height changes in aluminium – amorphous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that the application of voltage causes charge exchange between the surface states and the semiconductor leading to a change in the height of the potential barrier for electrons passing from aluminium into the a-Se films. The empirically determined values of barrier height of Al/a-Se diodes with thin and ...

  13. Diagnosis of childhood hypertension: is blood pressure height ratio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure was also recorded according to the standard method. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure to height ratio were then calculated. Receiver operating curves was used to assess the ability of systolic blood and diastolic blood pressure height ratio to discriminate childhood prehypertension and hypertension.

  14. 17 Years of Cloud Heights from Terra, and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, R.

    2017-12-01

    The effective cloud height, H, is the integral of observed cloud-top heights, weighted by their frequency of occurrence. Here we look at changes in the effective cloud height, H', as measured by the Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) on the first Earth Observing System platform, Terra. Terra was launched in December 1999, and now has over 17 years of consistently measured climate records. Globally, HG' has an important influence on Earth's climate, whereas regionally, HR' is a useful measure of low frequency changes in circulation patterns. MISR has a sampling error in the annual mean HG' of ≈11 m, allowing fairly small interannual variations to be detected. This paper extends the previous 15-year summary that showed significant differences in the long term mean hemispheric cloud height changes. Also of interest are the correlations in tropical cloud height changes and related teleconnections. The largest ephemeral values in the annual HR' [over 1.5 km] are noted over the Central Pacific and the Maritime Continent. These changes are strongly anticorrelated with each other, being directly related to changes in ENSO. They are also correlated with the largest ephemeral changes in HG'. Around the equator, we find at least four distinct centres of similar fluctuations in cloud height. This paper examines the relative time dependence of these regional height changes, separately for La Niña and El Niño events, and stresses the value of extending the time series of uniformly measured cloud heights from space beyond EOS-Terra.

  15. Developmental decline in height growth in Douglas-fir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Bond; Nicole M. Czarnomski; Clifton Cooper; Michael E. Day; Michael S. Greenwood

    2007-01-01

    The characteristic decline in height growth that occurs over a tree's lifespan is often called "age-related decline." But is the reduction in height growth in aging trees a function of age or of size? We grafted shoot tips across different ages and sizes of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees to determine whether...

  16. Stereoscopic Roadside Curb Height Measurement using V-Disparity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matu, Florin-Octavian; Vlaykov, Iskren; Thøgersen, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    Managing road assets, such as roadside curbs, is one of the interests of municipalities. As an interesting application of computer vision, this paper proposes a system for automated measurement of the height of the roadside curbs. The developed system uses the spatial information available...... results show that the system can measure the height of the roadside curb with good accuracy and precision....

  17. A century of trends in adult human height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Molbo, Drude

    2016-01-01

    the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8-144.8). The height differential between the tallest...

  18. human pelvis height is associated with other pelvis measurements

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    guyton2

    no study seeking to relate pelvis height to the other pelvis measurements of obstetric importance in Ugandans. In this paper we set out to answer the research question what are the associations between the various pelvis anthropometric measurements of obstetric importance with pelvis height in a sample of bones from the ...

  19. Generalized height-diameter models for Populus tremula L. stands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... and stand density) into the base height-diameter models increased the accuracy of prediction for P. tremula. .... parameter estimates compared with those obtained with ... using coefficient of determination for non-linear regression (. 2. R ), ..... stochastic height-diameter model for maritime pine ecoregions in.

  20. Height among Women is Curvilinearly Related to Life History Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham P. Buunk

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available It was hypothesized that women of medium height would show a more secure, long-term mating pattern characterized by less jealousy, less intrasexual competition and a “slower” life history strategy. In three samples of female undergraduate students clear support was found for these hypotheses. In Study 1, among 120 participants, height was curvilinearly related to well-established measures of possessive and reactive jealousy, with women of medium height being less jealous than tall as well as short women. In Study 2, among 40 participants, height was curvilinearly related to intrasexual competition, with women of medium height being less competitive towards other women than tall as well as short women. In Study 3, among 299 participants, height was curvilinearly related to the Mini-K, a well-validated measure of “slower” life history strategy, with women of medium height having a slower life history strategy than tall as well as short women. The results suggest that women of medium height tend to follow a different mating strategy than either tall or short women. Various explanations and implications of these results are discussed.

  1. A century of trends in adult human height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentham, J. (James); Di Cesare, M. (Mariachiara); Stevens, G.A. (Gretchen A.); Zhou, B. (Bin); Bixby, H. (Honor); Cowan, M. (Melanie); Fortunato, L. (Léa); Bennett, J.E. (James E.); G. Danaei (Goodarz); Hajifathalian, K. (Kaveh); Lu, Y. (Yuan); Riley, L.M. (Leanne M.); Laxmaiah, A. (Avula); Kontis, V. (Vasilis); Paciorek, C.J. (Christopher J.); M. Ezzati (Majid); Abdeen, Z.A. (Ziad A.); Hamid, Z.A. (Zargar Abdul); Abu-Rmeileh, N.M. (Niveen M.); Acosta-Cazares, B. (Benjamin); Adams, R. (Robert); Aekplakorn, W. (Wichai); C.A. Aguilar-Salinas (Carlos A.); C.O. Agyemang (Charles); Ahmadvand, A. (Alireza); W. Ahrens (W.); Al-Hazzaa, H.M. (Hazzaa M.); Al-Othman, A.R. (Amani Rashed); Raddadi, R.A. (Rajaa Al); Ali, M.M. (Mohamed M.); Alkerwi, A. (Ala’a); M. Alvarez-Pedrerol (Mar); Aly, E. (Eman); P. Amouyel (Philippe); A. Amuzu (Antoinette); Andersen, L.B. (Lars Bo); Anderssen, S.A. (Sigmund A.); Anjana, R.M. (Ranjit Mohan); Aounallah-Skhiri, H. (Hajer); Ariansen, I. (Inger); Aris, T. (Tahir); Arlappa, N. (Nimmathota); Arveiler, D. (Dominique); Assah, F.K. (Felix K.); Avdicová, M. (Mária); J. Azizi (Joshan); Babu, B.V. (Bontha V.); Bahijri, S. (Suhad); Balakrishna, N. (Nagalla); Bandosz, P. (Piotr); Banegas, J.R. (José R.); Barbagallo, C.M. (Carlo M.); Barceló, A. (Alberto); Barkat, A. (Amina); Barros, M.V. (Mauro V.); Bata, I. (Iqbal); Batieha, A.M. (Anwar M.); Batista, R.L. (Rosangela L.); Baur, L.A. (Louise A.); Beaglehole, R. (Robert); Romdhane, H.B. (Habiba Ben); Benet, M. (Mikhail); Bernabe-Ortiz, A. (Antonio); Bernotiene, G. (Gailute); Bettiol, H. (Heloisa); Bhagyalaxmi, A. (Aroor); Bharadwaj, S. (Sumit); Bhargava, S.K. (Santosh K.); Bhatti, Z. (Zaid); Z.A. Bhutta (Zulfiqar A); Bi, H. (Hongsheng); Bi, Y. (Yufang); Bjerregaard, P. (Peter); Bjertness, E. (Espen); Bjertness, M.B. (Marius B.); Björkelund, C. (Cecilia); Blokstra, A. (Anneke); Bo, S. (Simona); M. Bobak (Martin); Boddy, L.M. (Lynne M.); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); H. Boeing (Heiner); Boissonnet, C.P. (Carlos P.); Bongard, V. (Vanina); P. Bovet (Pascal); Braeckman, L. (Lutgart); Bragt, M.C.E. (Marjolijn C. E.); Brajkovich, I. (Imperia); Branca, F. (Francesco); Breckenkamp, J. (Juergen); H. Brenner (Hermann); L.M. Brewster (Lizzy); Brian, G.R. (Garry R.); Bruno, G. (Graziella); Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B. (H. Bas); Bugge, A. (Anna); Burns, C. (Con); De León, A.C. (Antonio Cabrera); Cacciottolo, J. (Joseph); Cama, T. (Tilema); Cameron, C. (Christine); Camolas, J. (José); G. Can (Günay); Cândido, A.P.C. (Ana Paula C.); Capuano, V. (Vincenzo); Cardoso, V.C. (Viviane C.); Carlsson, A.C. (Axel C.); Carvalho, M.J. (Maria J.); Casanueva, F.F. (Felipe F.); J.P. Casas (Juan Pablo); Caserta, C.A. (Carmelo A.); Chamukuttan, S. (Snehalatha); A.W.M. Chan (Angelique); Chan, Q. (Queenie); Chaturvedi, H.K. (Himanshu K.); Chaturvedi, N. (Nishi); Chen, C.-J. (Chien-Jen); Chen, F. (Fangfang); Chen, H. (Huashuai); Chen, S. (Shuohua); Chen, Z. (Zhengming); Cheng, C.-Y. (Ching-Yu); A. Chetrit (Angela); Chiolero, A. (Arnaud); Chiou, S.-T. (Shu-Ti); Chirita-Emandi, A. (Adela); Cho, B. (Belong); Cho, Y. (Yumi); Christensen, K. (Kaare); Chudek, J. (Jerzy); R. Cifkova (Renata); F. Claessens; E. Clays (Els); Concin, H. (Hans); C. Cooper (Charles); Cooper, R. (Rachel); Coppinger, T.C. (Tara C.); Costanzo, S. (Simona); D. Cottel (Dominique); Cowell, C. (Chris); Craig, C.L. (Cora L.); Crujeiras, A.B. (Ana B.); D’Arrigo, G. (Graziella); d’Orsi, E. (Eleonora); J. Dallongeville; Damasceno, A. (Albertino); Damsgaard, C.T. (Camilla T.); Dankner, R. (Rachel); Dauchet, L. (Luc); G. De Backer (Guy); D. De Bacquer (Dirk); de Gaetano, G. (Giovanni); De Henauw, S. (Stefaan); D. De Smedt (Delphine); Deepa, M. (Mohan); Deev, A.D. (Alexander D.); A. Dehghan (Abbas); Delisle, H. (Hélène); Delpeuch, F. (Francis); Deschamps, V. (Valérie); K. Dhana (Klodian); Di Castelnuovo, A.F. (Augusto F.); Dias-da-Costa, J.S. (Juvenal Soares); Diaz, A. (Alejandro); Djalalinia, S. (Shirin); Do, H.T.P. (Ha T. P.); Dobson, A.J. (Annette J.); C. Donfrancesco (Chiara); Donoso, S.P. (Silvana P.); A. Döring (Angela); Doua, K. (Kouamelan); Drygas, W. (Wojciech); Dzerve, V. (Vilnis); Egbagbe, E.E. (Eruke E.); Eggertsen, R. (Robert); U. Ekelund (Ulf); El Ati, J. (Jalila); P. Elliott (Paul); Engle-Stone, R. (Reina); Erasmus, R.T. (Rajiv T.); Erem, C. (Cihangir); Eriksen, L. (Louise); Escobedo-de la Peña, J. (Jorge); A. Evans (Alun); Faeh, D. (David); Fall, C.H. (Caroline H.); F. Farzadfar (Farshad); Felix-Redondo, F.J. (Francisco J.); Ferguson, T.S. (Trevor S.); Fernández-Bergés, D. (Daniel); Ferrante, D. (Daniel); Ferrari, M. (Marika); Ferreccio, C. (Catterina); J. Ferrieres (Jean); Finn, J.D. (Joseph D.); K. Fischer (Krista); Flores, E.M. (Eric Monterubio); Föger, B. (Bernhard); Foo, L.H. (Leng Huat); Forslund, A.-S. (Ann-Sofie); Forsner, M. (Maria); S.P. Fortmann (Stephen); Fouad, H.M. (Heba M.); Francis, D.K. (Damian K.); Do Carmo Franco, M. (Maria); O.H. Franco (Oscar); Frontera, G. (Guillermo); Fuchs, F.D. (Flavio D.); Fuchs, S.C. (Sandra C.); Fujita, Y. (Yuki); Furusawa, T. (Takuro); Gaciong, Z. (Zbigniew); Gafencu, M. (Mihai); Gareta, D. (Dickman); Garnett, S.P. (Sarah P.); J.-M. Gaspoz (Jean-Michel); Gasull, M. (Magda); Gates, L. (Louise); J.M. Geleijnse (Marianne); Ghasemian, A. (Anoosheh); S. Giampaoli (Simona); F. Gianfagna (Francesco); Giovannelli, J. (Jonathan); A. Giwercman (Aleksander); Goldsmith, R.A. (Rebecca A.); Gonçalves, H. (Helen); M. Gross; González Rivas, J.P. (Juan P.); Gorbea, M.B. (Mariano Bonet); Gottrand, F. (Frederic); Graff-Iversen, S. (Sidsel); Grafnetter, D. (Dušan); Grajda, A. (Aneta); Grammatikopoulou, M.G. (Maria G.); Gregor, R.D. (Ronald D.); T. Grodzicki (Tomasz); Grøntved, A. (Anders); Gruden, G. (Grabriella); Grujic, V. (Vera); Gu, D. (Dongfeng); Gualdi-Russo, E. (Emanuela); Guan, O.P. (Ong Peng); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); Guerrero, R. (Ramiro); I. Guessous (Idris); Guimaraes, A.L. (Andre L.); Gulliford, M.C. (Martin C.); Gunnlaugsdottir, J. (Johanna); Gunter, M. (Marc); Guo, X. (Xiuhua); Guo, Y. (Yin); Gupta, P.C. (Prakash C.); Gureje, O. (Oye); Gurzkowska, B. (Beata); Gutierrez, L. (Laura); Gutzwiller, F. (Felix); J. Halkjær; Hambleton, I.R. (Ian R.); R. Hardy; Kumar, R.H. (Rachakulla Hari); Hata, J. (Jun); Hayes, A.J. (Alison J.); He, J. (Jiang); M.E. Hendriks (Marleen); Cadena, L.H. (Leticia Hernandez); Herrala, S. (Sauli); Heshmat, R. (Ramin); Hihtaniemi, I.T. (Ilpo Tapani); Ho, S.Y. (Sai Yin); Ho, S.C. (Suzanne C.); Hobbs, M. (Michael); Hofman, A. (Albert); Hormiga, C.M. (Claudia M.); Horta, B.L. (Bernardo L.); Houti, L. (Leila); Howitt, C. (Christina); Htay, T.T. (Thein Thein); Htet, A.S. (Aung Soe); Htike, M.M.T. (Maung Maung Than); Hu, Y. (Yonghua); A. Husseini (Abdullatif); Huu, C.N. (Chinh Nguyen); Huybrechts, I. (Inge); Hwalla, N. (Nahla); L. Iacoviello (Licia); Iannone, A.G. (Anna G.); Ibrahim, M.M. (Mohsen M.); Ikeda, N. (Nayu); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); V. Irazola (Vilma); M. Islam (Muhammad); Ivkovic, V. (Vanja); Iwasaki, M. (Masanori); Jackson, R.T. (Rod T.); Jacobs, J.M. (Jeremy M.); T.H. Jafar (Tazeen); Jamil, K.M. (Kazi M.); K. Jamrozik; Janszky, I. (Imre); Jasienska, G. (Grazyna); Jelakovic, B. (Bojan); Jiang, C.Q. (Chao Qiang); Joffres, M. (Michel); M. Johansson (Mattias); J.B. Jonas (Jost B.); T. Jorgensen (Torben); Joshi, P. (Pradeep); Juolevi, A. (Anne); Jurak, G. (Gregor); Jureša, V. (Vesna); R. Kaaks (Rudolf); Kafatos, A. (Anthony); Kalter-Leibovici, O. (Ofra); Kapantais, E. (Efthymios); Kasaeian, A. (Amir); Katz, J. (Joanne); Kaur, P. (Prabhdeep); M. Kavousi (Maryam); M. Keil (Mark); Boker, L.K. (Lital Keinan); S. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi (Sirkka); Kelishadi, R. (Roya); H.C.G. Kemper; A.P. Kengne (Andre Pascal); Kersting, M. (Mathilde); T. Key (Tim); Y.S. Khader (Yousef Saleh); D. Khalili (Davood); Khang, Y.-H. (Young-Ho); K.-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); Khouw, I.M.S.L. (Ilse M. S. L.); S. Kiechl (Stefan); Killewo, J. (Japhet); Kim, J. (Jeongseon); Klimont, J. (Jeannette); J. Klumbiene (Jurate); Koirala, B. (Bhawesh); Kolle, E. (Elin); P. Kolsteren (Patrick); Korrovits, P. (Paul); S. Koskinen (Seppo); Kouda, K. (Katsuyasu); Koziel, S. (Slawomir); W. Kratzer (Wolfgang); Krokstad, S. (Steinar); Kromhout, D. (Daan); Kruger, H.S. (Herculina S.); R. Kubinova; U.M. Kujala (Urho); Kula, K. (Krzysztof); Kulaga, Z. (Zbigniew); Krishna Kumar, R.; Kurjata, P. (Pawel); Kusuma, Y.S. (Yadlapalli S.); K. Kuulasmaa (Kari); Kyobutungi, C. (Catherine); Laamiri, F.Z. (Fatima Zahra); T. Laatikainen (Tiina); C. Lachat (Carl); Laid, Y. (Youcef); Lam, T.H. (Tai Hing); Landrove, O. (Orlando); Lanska, V. (Vera); Lappas, G. (Georg); Larijani, B. (Bagher); L.E. Laugsand (Lars E.); Bao, K.L.N. (Khanh Le Nguyen); Le, T.D. (Tuyen D.); Leclercq, C. (Catherine); J.J.M. Lee (Jeannette); Lee, J. (Jeonghee); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Lekhraj, R. (Rampal); León-Muñoz, L.M. (Luz M.); Y. Li (Yanping); Lilly, C.L. (Christa L.); W.-Y. Lim (Wei-Yen); Fernanda Lima-Costa, M.; Lin, H.-H. (Hsien-Ho); X. Lin (Xu); A. Linneberg (Allan); L. Lissner (Lauren); Litwin, M. (Mieczyslaw); Liu, J. (Jing); R. Lorbeer (Roberto); P.A. Lotufo (Paulo A); Lozano, J.E. (José Eugenio); Luksiene, D. (Dalia); A. Lundqvist (Annamari); Lunet, N. (Nuno); Lytsy, P. (Per); Ma, G. (Guansheng); Ma, J. (Jun); Machado-Coelho, G.L.L. (George L. L.); Machi, S. (Suka); Maggi, S. (Stefania); D.J. Magliano; Maire, B. (Bernard); Makdisse, M. (Marcia); R. Malekzadeh (Reza); Malhotra, R. (Rahul); Rao, K.M. (Kodavanti Mallikharjuna); S. Malyutina; Y. Manios; Mann, J.I. (Jim I.); Manzato, E. (Enzo); Margozzini, P. (Paula); Markey, O. (Oonagh); P. Marques-Vidal (Pedro); J. Marrugat (Jaume); Martin-Prevel, Y. (Yves); Martorell, R. (Reynaldo); Masoodi, S.R. (Shariq R.); E.B. Mathiesen (Ellisiv); Matsha, T.E. (Tandi E.); Mazur, A. (Artur); Mbanya, J.C.N. (Jean Claude N.); McFarlane, S.R. (Shelly R.); McGarvey, S.T. (Stephen T.); McKee, M. (Martin); S. McLachlan (Stela); McLean, R.M. (Rachael M.); McNulty, B.A. (Breige A.); Yusof, S.M. (Safiah Md); Mediene-Benchekor, S. (Sounnia); A. Meirhaeghe (Aline); C. Meisinger (Christa); Menezes, A.M.B. (Ana Maria B.); Mensink, G.B.M. (Gert B. M.); Meshram, I.I. (Indrapal I.); A. Metspalu (Andres); J. Mi (Jie); K.F. Michaelsen; Mikkel, K. (Kairit); Miller, J.C. (Jody C.); Miquel, J.F. (Juan Francisco); Jaime Miranda, J.; Mišigoj-Durakovic, M. (Marjeta); Mohamed, M.K. (Mostafa K.); K. Mohammad (Kazem); Mohammadifard, N. (Noushin); V. Mohan (Viswanathan); Yusoff, M.F.M. (Muhammad Fadhli Mohd); Molbo, D. (Drude); Møller, N.C. (Niels C.); Molnár, D. (Dénes); Mondo, C.K. (Charles K.); Monterrubio, E.A. (Eric A.); Monyeki, K.D.K. (Kotsedi Daniel K.); Moreira, L.B. (Leila B.); Morejon, A. (Alain); Moreno, L.A. (Luis A.); Morgan, K. (Karen); Mortensen, E.L. (Erik Lykke); G. Moschonis; Mossakowska, M. (Malgorzata); Mostafa, A. (Aya); Mota, J. (Jorge); Motlagh, M.E. (Mohammad Esmaeel); Motta, J. (Jorge); Mu, T.T. (Thet Thet); M.L. Muiesan (Maria Lorenza); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); Murphy, N. (Neil); Mursu, J. (Jaakko); Murtagh, E.M. (Elaine M.); Musa, K.I. (Kamarul Imran); Musil, V. (Vera); Nagel, G. (Gabriele); Nakamura, H. (Harunobu); Námešná, J. (Jana); Nang, E.E.K. (Ei Ei K.); M. Nangia (Monika); Nankap, M. (Martin); Narake, S. (Sameer); E.M. Navarrete-Muñoz; Neal, W.A. (William A.); Nenko, I. (Ilona); Neovius, M. (Martin); Nervi, F. (Flavio); Neuhauser, H.K. (Hannelore K.); Nguyen, N.D. (Nguyen D.); Nguyen, Q.N. (Quang Ngoc); Nieto-Martínez, R.E. (Ramfis E.); Ning, G. (Guang); T. Ninomiya (Toshiharu); Nishtar, S. (Sania); Noale, M. (Marianna); Norat, T. (Teresa); Noto, D. (Davide); Nsour, M.A. (Mohannad Al); O’Reilly, D. (Dermot); Oh, K. (Kyungwon); Olayan, I.H. (Iman H.); Olinto, M.T.A. (Maria Teresa Anselmo); Oltarzewski, M. (Maciej); Omar, M.A. (Mohd A.); A. Onat (Altan); Ordunez, P. (Pedro); Ortiz, A.P. (Ana P.); Osler, M. (Merete); Osmond, C. (Clive); Ostojic, S.M. (Sergej M.); Otero, J.A. (Johanna A.); K. Overvad (Kim); E. Owusu-Dabo (Ellis); Paccaud, F.M. (Fred Michel); Padez, C. (Cristina); Pahomova, E. (Elena); A. Pajak (Andrzej); D. Palli (Domenico); Palloni, A. (Alberto); Palmieri, L. (Luigi); S. Panda-Jonas (Songhomitra); F. Panza (Francesco); Parnell, W.R. (Winsome R.); Parsaeian, M. (Mahboubeh); Pecin, I. (Ivan); Pednekar, M.S. (Mangesh S.); P.H.M. Peeters; Peixoto, S.V. (Sergio Viana); Peltonen, M. (Markku); A. Pereira (A.); Pérez, C.M. (Cynthia M.); A. Peters; Petkeviciene, J. (Janina); Peykari, N. (Niloofar); Pham, S.T. (Son Thai); Pigeot, I. (Iris); H. Pikhart (Hynek); Pilav, A. (Aida); A. Pilotto (Alberto); Pistelli, F. (Francesco); Pitakaka, F. (Freda); Piwonska, A. (Aleksandra); Plans-Rubió, P. (Pedro); Poh, B.K. (Bee Koon); M. Porta; M.L.P. Portegies (Marileen); Poulimeneas, D. (Dimitrios); Pradeepa, R. (Rajendra); Prashant, M. (Mathur); J.F. Price (Jackie F.); Puiu, M. (Maria); M. Punab (Margus); Qasrawi, R.F. (Radwan F.); Qorbani, M. (Mostafa); Bao, T.Q. (Tran Quoc); Radic, I. (Ivana); Radisauskas, R. (Ricardas); Rahman, M.-M. (Mah-mudur); O. Raitakari (Olli); Raj, M. (Manu); Rao, S.R. (Sudha Ramachandra); Ramachandran, A. (Ambady); Ramke, J. (Jacqueline); Ramos, R. (Rafel); Rampal, S. (Sanjay); Rasmussen, F. (Finn); J. Redón (Josep); Reganit, P.F.M. (Paul Ferdinand M.); Ribeiro, R. (Robespierre); Riboli, E. (Elio); Rigo, F. (Fernando); T.F. Rinke de Wit (Tobias); Ritti-Dias, R.M. (Raphael M.); Rivera, J.A. (Juan A.); S.M. Robinson (Siân); Robitaille, C. (Cynthia); F. Rodríguez Artalejo (Fernando); Del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez, M. (María); Rodríguez-Villamizar, L.A. (Laura A.); Rojas-Martinez, R. (Rosalba); Rojroong-Wasinkul, N. (Nipa); Romaguera, D. (Dora); K. Ronkainen (Kimmo); A. Rosengren (Annika); Rouse, I. (Ian); Rubinstein, A. (Adolfo); Rühli, F.J. (Frank J.); Rui, O. (Ornelas); Ruiz-Betancourt, B.S. (Blanca Sandra); Russo Horimoto, A.R.V. (Andrea R. V.); Rutkowski, M. (Marcin); C. Sabanayagam (Charumathi); Sachdev, H.S. (Harshpal S.); Saidi, O. (Olfa); Salanave, B. (Benoit); Martinez, E.S. (Eduardo Salazar); V. Salomaa (Veikko); Salonen, J.T. (Jukka T.); M. Salvetti (Massimo); Sánchez-Abanto, J. (Jose); Sandjaja,; S. Sans (Susana); Santos, D.A. (Diana A.); Santos, O. (Osvaldo); Dos Santos, R.N. (Renata Nunes); Santos, R. (Rute); J. Saramies (Jouko); Sardinha, L.B. (Luis B.); Sarrafzadegan, N. (Nizal); Saum, K.-U. (Kai-Uwe); S. Savva; Scazufca, M. (Marcia); Rosario, A.S. (Angelika Schaffrath); Schargrodsky, H. (Herman); Schienkiewitz, A. (Anja); Schmidt, I.M. (Ida Maria); I.J.C. Schneider (Ione J C); C. Schultsz (Constance); Schutte, A.E. (Aletta E.); Sein, A.A. (Aye Aye); Sen, A. (Abhijit); Senbanjo, I.O. (Idowu O.); S.G. Sepanlou (Sadaf G); Shalnova, S.A. (Svetlana A.); Sharma, S.K. (Sanjib K.); J.E. Shaw; K. Shibuya (Kenji); Shin, D.W. (Dong Wook); Y. Shin (Youchan); R. Shiri (Rahman); R. Siantar (Rosalynn); Sibai, A.M. (Abla M.); Silva, A.M. (Antonio M.); Silva, D.A.S. (Diego Augusto Santos); Simon, M. (Mary); J. Simons (Judith); L.A. Simons (Leon); Sjostrom, M. (Michael); J. Slowikowska-Hilczer (Jolanta); Slusarczyk, P. (Przemyslaw); L. Smeeth (Liam); Smith, M.C. (Margaret C.); M.B. Snijder (Marieke); So, H.-K. (Hung-Kwan); Sobngwi, E. (Eugène); S. Söderberg (Stefan); Soekatri, M.Y.E. (Moesijanti Y. E.); Solfrizzi, V. (Vincenzo); E. Sonestedt (Emily); Song, Y. (Yi); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); Soric, M. (Maroje); Jérome, C.S. (Charles Sossa); Soumare, A. (Aicha); J.A. Staessen (Jan); Starc, G. (Gregor); Stathopoulou, M.G. (Maria G.); Staub, K. (Kaspar); Stavreski, B. (Bill); Steene-Johannessen, J. (Jostein); Stehle, P. (Peter); Stein, A.D. (Aryeh D.); Stergiou, G.S. (George S.); Stessman, J. (Jochanan); Stieber, J. (Jutta); D. Stöckl (Doris); Stocks, T. (Tanja); Stokwiszewski, J. (Jakub); Stratton, G. (Gareth); K. Stronks (Karien); Strufaldi, M.W. (Maria Wany); Sun, C.-A. (Chien-An); Sundström, J. (Johan); Sung, Y.-T. (Yn-Tz); J. Sunyer (Jordi); Suriyawongpaisal, P. (Paibul); Swinburn, B.A. (Boyd A.); Sy, R.G. (Rody G.); Szponar, L. (Lucjan); E. Shyong Tai; M.L. Tammesoo; A. Tamosiunas (Abdonas); Tang, L. (Line); Tang, X. (Xun); F. Tanser (Frank); Tao, Y. (Yong); Tarawneh, M.R. (Mohammed Rasoul); Tarp, J. (Jakob); Tarqui-Mamani, C.B. (Carolina B.); Taylor, A. (Anne); Tchibindat, F. (Félicité); Theobald, H. (Holger); L. Thijs (Lutgarde); L. Thuesen (Leif); A. Tjønneland (Anne); Tolonen, H.K. (Hanna K.); Tolstrup, J.S. (Janne S.); Topbas, M. (Murat); Topór-Madry, R. (Roman); M. Torrent (Maties); Toselli, S. (Stefania); Traissac, P. (Pierre); A. Trichopoulou (Antonia); Trichopoulos, D. (Dimitrios); Trinh, O.T.H. (Oanh T. H.); Trivedi, A. (Atul); Tshepo, L. (Lechaba); Tulloch-Reid, M.K. (Marshall K.); Tuomainen, T.-P. (Tomi-Pekka); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); Turley, M.L. (Maria L.); Tynelius, P. (Per); Tzotzas, T. (Themistoklis); C. Tzourio (Christophe); Ueda, P. (Peter); Ukoli, F.A.M. (Flora A. M.); Ulmer, H. (Hanno); Unal, B. (Belgin); Uusitalo, H.M.T. (Hannu M. T.); Valdivia, G. (Gonzalo); Vale, S. (Susana); D. Valvi (Damaskini); Y.T. van der Schouw (Yvonne); Van Herck, K. (Koen); Van Minh, H. (Hoang); L. van Rossem (Lenie); I. van Valkengoed (Irene); D. Vanderschueren (Dirk); D. Vanuzzo (Diego); L. Vatten (Lars); Vega, T. (Tomas); Velasquez-Melendez, G. (Gustavo); G. Veronesi (Giovanni); Monique Verschuren, W.M.; Verstraeten, R. (Roosmarijn); Victora, C.G. (Cesar G.); G. Viegi; L. Viet (Lucie); E. Viikari-Juntura (Eira); P. Vineis (Paolo); J. Vioque (Jesus); Virtanen, J.K. (Jyrki K.); S. Visvikis-Siest (Sophie); B. Viswanathan (Bharathi); P. Vollenweider (Peter); Voutilainen, S. (Sari); Vrdoljak, A. (Ana); M. Vrijheid (Martine); Wade, A.N. (Alisha N.); Wagner, A. (Aline); Walton, J. (Janette); Mohamud, W.N.W. (Wan Nazaimoon Wan); Wang, M.-D. (Ming-Dong); Wang, Q. (Qian); Y. Wang (Ying); Goya Wannamethee, S.; N.J. Wareham (Nick); Weerasekera, D. (Deepa); P.H. Whincup (Peter); Widhalm, K. (Kurt); Widyahening, I.S. (Indah S.); Wiecek, A. (Andrzej); A.H. Wijga (Alet); Wilks, R.J. (Rainford J.); J. Willeit (Johann); T. Wilsgaard (Tom); B. Wojtyniak (Bogdan); Wong, J.E. (Jyh Eiin); Wong, T.Y. (Tien Yin); Woo, J. (Jean); M. Woodward (Mark); F.C.W. Wu (Frederick C.); Wu, J. (Jianfeng); Wu, S.L. (Shou Ling); Xu, H. (Haiquan); Xu, L. (Liang); Yamborisut, U. (Uruwan); Yan, W. (Weili); Yang, X. (Xiaoguang); Yardim, N. (Nazan); X. Ye (Xingwang); P.K. Yiallouros (P.); Yoshihara, A. (Akihiro); You, Q.S. (Qi Sheng); Younger-Coleman, N.O. (Novie O.); Yusoff, A.F. (Ahmad F.); Zainuddin, A.A. (Ahmad A.); Zambon, S. (Sabina); T. Zdrojewski (T.); Zeng, Y. (Yi); Zhao, D. (Dong); Zhao, W. (Wenhua); Y. Zheng (Yingfeng); M. Zhou (Ming); Zhu, D. (Dan); E. Zimmermann; Cisneros, J.Z. (Julio Zuñiga)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBeing taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The

  2. Variability of the Mixed-Layer Height Over Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Franco, J. L.; Stremme, W.; Bezanilla, A.; Ruiz-Angulo, A.; Grutter, M.

    2018-02-01

    The diurnal and seasonal variability of the mixed-layer height in urban areas has implications for ground-level air pollution and the meteorological conditions. Measurements of the backscatter of light pulses with a commercial lidar system were performed for a continuous period of almost six years between 2011 and 2016 in the southern part of Mexico City. The profiles were temporally and vertically smoothed, clouds were filtered out, and the mixed-layer height was determined with an ad hoc treatment of both the filtered and unfiltered profiles. The results are in agreement when compared with values of mixed-layer height reconstructed from, (i) radiosonde data, and (ii) surface and vertical column densities of a trace gas. The daily maxima of the mean mixed-layer height reach values > 3 km above ground level in the months of March-April, and are clearly lower (pollution episodes and the height of the mixed layer. The growth rate of the convective mixed-layer height has a seasonal behaviour, which is characterized together with the mixed-layer-height anomalies. A clear residual layer is evident from the backscattered signals recorded in days with specific atmospheric conditions, but also from the cloud-filtered mean diurnal profiles. The occasional presence of a residual layer results in an overestimation of the reported mixed-layer height during the night and early morning hours.

  3. A century of trends in adult human height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentham, James; Di Cesare, Mariachiara; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Zhou, Bin; Bixby, Honor; Cowan, Melanie; Fortunato, Léa; Bennett, James E.; Danaei, Goodarz; Hajifathalian, Kaveh; Lu, Yuan; Riley, Leanne M.; Laxmaiah, Avula; Kontis, Vasilis; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Riboli, Elio; Ezzati, Majid; Abdeen, Ziad A.; Hamid, Zargar Abdul; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin; Adams, Robert; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Agyemang, Charles; Ahmadvand, Alireza; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M.; Al-Othman, Amani Rashed; Raddadi, Rajaa Al; Ali, Mohamed M.; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Aly, Eman; Amouyel, Philippe; Amuzu, Antoinette; Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund A.; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Ariansen, Inger; Aris, Tahir; Arlappa, Nimmathota; Brewster, Lizzy M.; Hendriks, Marleen Elisabeth; Wit, Tobias F. Rinke de; Schultsz, Constance; Snijder, Marieke B.; Stronks, Karien; Valkengoed, Irene Gm van

    2016-01-01

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in

  4. Height estimations based on eye measurements throughout a gait cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjær, Tine

    2014-01-01

    (EH) measurement, on the other hand, is less prone to concealment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate: (1) how the eye height varies during the gait cycle, and (2) how the eye height changes with head position. The eyes were plotted manually in APAS for 16 test subjects during...

  5. Mixing height measurements from UHF wind profiling radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angevine, W.M.; Grimsdell, A.W. [CIRES, Univ. of Colorado, and NOAA Aeronomy Lab., Boulder, Colorado (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Mixing height in convective boundary layers can be detected by wind profiling radars (profilers) operating at or near 915 MHZ. We have made such measurements in a variety of settings including Alabama in 1992; Nova Scotia, Canada, during the North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE) 1993; Tennessee during the Southern Oxidant Study (SOS) 1994; near a 450 m tower in Wisconsin in 1995; and extensively in Illinois during the Flatland95, `96, and `97 experiments, as well as continuous operations at the Flatland Atmospheric Observatory. Profiler mixing height measurements, like all measurements, are subject to some limitations. The most important of these are due to rainfall, minimum height, and height resolution. Profilers are very sensitive to rain, which dominates the reflectivity and prevents the mixing height from being detected. Because the best height resolution is currently 60 m and the minimum height is 120-150 m AGL, the profiler is not suited for detecting mixing height in stable or nocturnal boundary layers. Problems may also arise in very dry or cold environments. (au) 12 refs.

  6. Accurate tool height control by bearing gap adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielen, van der A.M.; Schellekens, P.H.J.; Jaartsveld, F.T.M.

    2002-01-01

    Face turning of optical surfaces on precision lathes needs high precision tool height adjustment, which may be a difficult and time-consuming task. In this paper we present a new tool adjustment mechanism based on varying the bearing gap height of the hydrostatic bearings present in precision lathe

  7. Ocular growth in the fetus. 1. Comparative study of axial length and biometric parameters in the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, D; Righini, M; Scheiner, C; Volot, F; Boubli, L; Dezard, X; Vola, J; Saracco, J B

    1993-01-01

    The knowledge of ocular growth during fetal life, when compared with other fetal biometric parameters, could not only provide a better definition of malformation syndromes but could also give a better understanding of certain pathological processes in premature babies and in newborns. As the literature concerning prenatal ocular dimensions contains few data, the aim of this study was to measure the axial length of the globe (AL) in fetuses and compare this measurement with their gestational age, weight, height, head circumference (HC) and thoracic circumference (TC) in order to compile a reference table. In the present study, 76 globes from 38 fetuses (18-41 weeks gestational age) from the Department of Pathology (Timone University Hospital, Marseille) were examined. Ultrasonography A and B were used to measure the AL, and a pathological examination determined fetal weight, HC, TC and height. We were interested to find out which of the parameters studied would give the best correlation with ocular growth. Statistical analysis showed that HC remained the most discriminant factor and correlated best with ocular growth. We thus obtained an equation for ocular size according to HC that could serve as a basis for detecting pre- or postnatal ocular defects.

  8. Definition of Physical Height Systems for Telluric Planets and Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenzer, Robert; Foroughi, Ismael; Sjöberg, Lars E.; Bagherbandi, Mohammad; Hirt, Christian; Pitoňák, Martin

    2018-01-01

    In planetary sciences, the geodetic (geometric) heights defined with respect to the reference surface (the sphere or the ellipsoid) or with respect to the center of the planet/moon are typically used for mapping topographic surface, compilation of global topographic models, detailed mapping of potential landing sites, and other space science and engineering purposes. Nevertheless, certain applications, such as studies of gravity-driven mass movements, require the physical heights to be defined with respect to the equipotential surface. Taking the analogy with terrestrial height systems, the realization of height systems for telluric planets and moons could be done by means of defining the orthometric and geoidal heights. In this case, however, the definition of the orthometric heights in principle differs. Whereas the terrestrial geoid is described as an equipotential surface that best approximates the mean sea level, such a definition for planets/moons is irrelevant in the absence of (liquid) global oceans. A more natural choice for planets and moons is to adopt the geoidal equipotential surface that closely approximates the geometric reference surface (the sphere or the ellipsoid). In this study, we address these aspects by proposing a more accurate approach for defining the orthometric heights for telluric planets and moons from available topographic and gravity models, while adopting the average crustal density in the absence of reliable crustal density models. In particular, we discuss a proper treatment of topographic masses in the context of gravimetric geoid determination. In numerical studies, we investigate differences between the geodetic and orthometric heights, represented by the geoidal heights, on Mercury, Venus, Mars, and Moon. Our results reveal that these differences are significant. The geoidal heights on Mercury vary from - 132 to 166 m. On Venus, the geoidal heights are between - 51 and 137 m with maxima on this planet at Atla Regio and Beta

  9. Imaging height fluctuations in free-standing graphene membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Kyle; Miskin, Marc; Barnard, Arthur; Rose, Peter; Cohen, Itai; McEuen, Paul

    We present a technique based on multi-wavelength interference microscopy to measure the heights of observed ripples in free-standing graphene membranes. Graphene membranes released from a transparent substrate produce interference fringes when viewed in the reflection mode of an inverted microscope(Blees et. al. Nature 524 (7564): 204-207 (2015)). The fringes correspond to corrugation of the membrane as it floats near an interface. A single set of fringes is insufficient to uniquely determine the height profile, as a given fringe spacing can correspond to an increase or decrease in height by λ / 2 . Imaging at multiple wavelengths resolves the ambiguities in phase, and enables unique determination of the height profile of the membrane (Schilling et. al.Phys. Rev. E, 69:021901, 2004). We utilize this technique to map out the height fluctuations in free-standing graphene membranes to answer questions about fundamental mechanical properties of two-dimensional materials.

  10. Height, selected genetic markers and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia

    2017-01-01

    Background:Evidence on height and prostate cancer risk is mixed, however, recent studies with large data sets support a possible role for its association with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer.Methods:We analysed data from the PRACTICAL consortium consisting of 6207 prostate cancer cases...... and 6016 controls and a subset of high grade cases (2480 cases). We explored height, polymorphisms in genes related to growth processes as main effects and their possible interactions.Results:The results suggest that height is associated with high-grade prostate cancer risk. Men with height >180 cm...... are at a 22% increased risk as compared to men with height prostate cancer risk. The aggregate scores of the selected variants identified a significantly increased risk of overall prostate cancer...

  11. Electron plasma oscillations at arbitrary Debye lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1990-12-01

    A solution is presented for electron plasma oscillation in a thermalized homogeneous plasma, at arbitrary ratios between the Debye length λ D and the perturbation wave length λ. The limit λ D D >> λ corresponds to the free-streaming limit of strong kinetic phase-mixing due to large particle excursions. A strong large Debye distance (LDD) effect already appears when λ D > approx λ. The initial amplitude of the fluid-like contribution to the macroscopic density perturbation then becomes small as compared to the contribution from the free-streaming part. As a consequence, only a small fraction of the density perturbation remains after a limited number of kinetic damping times of the free-streaming part. The analysis further shows that a representation in terms of normal model of the form exp(-iωt) leads to amplitude factors of these modes which are related to each other and which depend on the combined free-streaming and fluid behaviour of the plasma. Consequently, these modes are coupled and cannot be treated as being independent of each other. (au)

  12. A study of the heated length to diameter effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Ho; Baek, Won Pil; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    An analytical and experimental investigation has been performed on the heated length-to-diameter effect on critical heat flux exit conditions. A L/D correction factor is developed by applying artificial neural network and conventional regression techniques to the KAIST CHF data base. In addition, experiment is being performed to validate the developed L/D correction factor with independent data. Assessment shows that the developed correction factor is promising for practical applications. 6 refs., 8 figs. (Author)

  13. A study of the heated length to diameter effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Ho; Baek, Won Pil; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    An analytical and experimental investigation has been performed on the heated length-to-diameter effect on critical heat flux exit conditions. A L/D correction factor is developed by applying artificial neural network and conventional regression techniques to the KAIST CHF data base. In addition, experiment is being performed to validate the developed L/D correction factor with independent data. Assessment shows that the developed correction factor is promising for practical applications. 6 refs., 8 figs. (Author)

  14. Sensitivity of the urban airshed model to mixing height profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, S.T.; Sistla, G.; Ku, J.Y.; Zhou, N.; Hao, W. [New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has recommended the use of the Urban Airshed Model (UAM), a grid-based photochemical model, for regulatory applications. One of the important parameters in applications of the UAM is the height of the mixed layer or the diffusion break. In this study, we examine the sensitivity of the UAM-predicted ozone concentrations to (a) a spatially invariant diurnal mixing height profile, and (b) a spatially varying diurnal mixing height profile for a high ozone episode of July 1988 for the New York Airshed. The 1985/88 emissions inventory used in the EPA`s Regional Oxidant Modeling simulations has been regridded for this study. Preliminary results suggest that the spatially varying case yields a higher peak ozone concentrations compared to the spatially invariant mixing height simulation, with differences in the peak ozone ranging from a few ppb to about 40 ppb for the days simulated. These differences are attributed to the differences in the shape of the mixing height profiles and its rate of growth during the morning hours when peak emissions are injected into the atmosphere. Examination of the impact of emissions reductions associated with these two mixing height profiles indicates that NO{sub x}-focussed controls provide a greater change in the predicted ozone peak under spatially invariant mixing heights than under the spatially varying mixing height profile. On the other hand, VOC-focussed controls provide a greater change in the predicted peak ozone levels under spatially varying mixing heights than under the spatially invariant mixing height profile.

  15. Evolution of Human Body Height and Its Implications in Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İzzet DUYAR

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Body height is an crucial variable in the design and production of all physical spaces, primarily in the manifacturing of clothes and means of transportation. Having such an ergonomic significance, the height of the human being has constantly changed during the course of history. There exist strong data suggesting that this change is still continue. To find out stages of evolution of human height throughout the ages up to the present will help us to illuminate the human-environment relations, and to predict the possible changes that the human height might be subjected to in the future. In view of these reasons, the changes that has occured in human height from the period at which hominids appeared until humans’ transition into settled life have been closely examined. The study was carried out on the basis of the data obtained from the earlier studies in literature. These data, when considered as a whole, reveal that the human height did not continuously increase in a linear fashion in its evolutionary path but recorded some increases and decreases at different stages. The difference between males and females (sexual dimorphism has not shown a steady decrease either; instead, it has exhibited an oscillating pattern. The modern humans as a species is not unique in terms of their height; as a matter of fact, two million years ago hominids had existed at approximately the same height as the Homo sapiens. Although the average height had shown some decrease in Homo erectus, its distribution pattern was not much different than the one observed in the modern human societies. In the findings dated to the early stages of the Upper Paleolithic Age, height showed a tendency to increase again

  16. Adult body height is a good predictor of different dimensions of cognitive function in aged individuals

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    Vitor Hugo Pereira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adult height, weight and adiposity measures have been suggested by some studies to be predictors of depression, cognitive impairment and dementia. However, the presence of confounding factors and the lack of a thorough neuropsychological evaluation in many of these studies have precluded a definitive conclusion about the influence of anthropometric measures in cognition and depression. In this study we aim to assess the value of adult height and weight to predict cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms in aged individuals.Methods and Findings: Cross-sectional study performed between 2010 and 2012 in the Portuguese general community. A total of 1050 participants were included in the study and randomly selected from local area health autho