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Sample records for factor-alpha induced expression

  1. Expression of transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor receptor in rat lung neoplasms induced by plutonium-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegelmeier, B.L.; Gillett, N.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Kelly, G.; Rebar, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    Ninety-two rat lung proliferative lesions and neoplasms induced by inhaled 239 PuO 2 were evaluated for aberrant expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Expression of TGF-α protein, measured by immunohistochemistry, was higher in 94% of the squamous cell carcinomas and 87% of the foci of alveolar epithelial squamous metaplasia than that exhibited by the normal-appearing, adjacent lung parenchyma. In contrast, only 20% of adenocarcinomas and foci of epithelial hyperplasia expressed elevated levels of TGF-α. Many neoplasms expressing TGF-α also expressed excessive levels of EGFR mRNA. Southern and DNA slot blot analyses showed that the elevated EGFR expression was not due to amplification of the EGFR gene. These data suggest that increased amounts of TGF-α were early alterations in the progression of plutonium-induced squamous cell carcinoma, and these increases may occur in parallel with overexpression of the receptor for this growth factor. Together, these alterations create a potential autocrine loop for sustaining clonal expansion of cells initiated by high-LET radiation. 44 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  2. Substance P ameliorates tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced endothelial cell dysfunction by regulating eNOS expression in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Jiyuan; Hong, Hyun Sook; Son, Youngsook

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the beneficial effects of SP on NO production and inflammation-induced vascular endothelium cell death. To mimic the inflammatory environment, TNF-α was treated with HUVECs, and SP was added prior to TNF-α to determine its protective effect. WST-1 assay was performed to detect cell viability. NO level in conditioned medium was measured by Griess Reagent System. The protein level of cleaved caspase-3, eNOS, and phosphorylated Akt was detected by Western blot analysis. TNF-α declined endothelial cell viability by downregulating Akt and NO production. TNF-α-induced cell death was reliably restored by NO, confirming the requirement of NO for cell survival. By contrast, pretreatment of SP attenuated TNF-α-induced cellular apoptosis, accompanied by an increase in the phosphorylation of Akt, eNOS expression, and NO production. Blockage of NK-1R, phosphorylated Akt or eNOS by CP-96345, A6730, or L-NAME entirely eliminated the effect of SP. SP can protect the vascular endothelium against inflammation-induced damage through modulation of the Akt/eNOS/NO signaling pathway. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Extract of corn silk (stigma of Zea mays) inhibits the tumour necrosis factor-alpha- and bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced cell adhesion and ICAM-1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtemariam, S

    1998-05-01

    Treatment of human endothelial cells with cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) or E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces the expression of several adhesion molecules and enhances leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cell surface. Interfering with this leukocyte adhesion or adhesion molecules upregulation is an important therapeutic target for the treatment of bacterial sepsis and various inflammatory diseases. In the course of screening marketed European anti-inflammatory herbal drugs for TNF antagonistic activity, a crude ethanolic extract of corn silk (stigma of Zea mays) exhibited significant activity. The extract at concentrations of 9-250 micrograms/ml effectively inhibited the TNF- and LPS-induced adhesiveness of EAhy 926 endothelial cells to monocytic U937 cells. Similar concentration ranges of corn silk extract did also block the TNF and LPS but not the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced ICAM-1 expression on EAhy 926 endothelial cell surface. The extract did not alter the production of TNF by LPS-activated macrophages and failed to inhibit the cytotoxic activity of TNF. It is concluded that corn silk possesses important therapeutic potential for TNF- and LPS-mediated leukocyte adhesion and trafficking.

  4. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8) expression associated with cell survival and death in cancer cell lines infected with canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J A; Ferreira, H L; Vieira, F V; Gameiro, R; Andrade, A L; Eugênio, F R; Flores, E F; Cardoso, T C

    2017-06-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy is a novel strategy for treatment of cancer in humans and companion animals as well. Canine distemper virus (CDV), a paramyxovirus, has proven to be oncolytic through induction of apoptosis in canine-derived tumour cells, yet the mechanism behind this inhibitory action is poorly understood. In this study, three human mammary tumour cell lines and one canine-derived adenofibrosarcoma cell line were tested regarding to their susceptibility to CDV infection, cell proliferation, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential and expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8). CDV replication-induced cytopathic effect, decrease of cell proliferation rates, and >45% of infected cells were considered death and/or under late apoptosis/necrosis. TNFAIP8 and CDVM gene expression were positively correlated in all cell lines. In addition, mitochondrial membrane depolarization was associated with increase in virus titres (p < 0.005). Thus, these results strongly suggest that both human and canine mammary tumour cells are potential candidates for studies concerning CDV-induced cancer therapy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Intermitted pharmacologic pretreatment by xenon, isoflurane, nitrous oxide, and the opioid morphine prevents tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced adhesion molecule expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Nina C.; Kandler, Jennis; Schlack, Wolfgang; Grueber, Yvonne; Frädorf, Jan; Preckel, Benedikt

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The barrier properties of the endothelium are of critical importance during pathophysiologic processes. These barrier properties depend on an intact cytoskeleton and are regulated by cell adhesion molecules. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is known to induce cell adhesion

  6. Interferon beta 1, an intermediate in the tumor necrosis factor alpha- induced increased MHC class I expression and an autocrine regulator of the constitutive MHC class I expression

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    In conclusion, our observations indicate that the constitutive MHC class I expression is regulated by autocrine production of IFN-beta 1. TNF-alpha acts as an enhancer of the autocrine production of IFN-beta 1, and consequently as an enhancer of the MHC class I expression and viral protection.

  7. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits advanced glycation end product-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and matrix metalloproteinase-13 in human chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Zafar; Anbazhagan, Arivarasu N; Akhtar, Nahid; Ramamurthy, Sangeetha; Voss, Frank R; Haqqi, Tariq M

    2009-01-01

    The major risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA) is aging, but the mechanisms underlying this risk are only partly understood. Age-related accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) can activate chondrocytes and induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In the present study, we examined the effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on AGE-modified-BSA (AGE-BSA)-induced activation and production of TNFalpha and MMP-13 in human OA chondrocytes. Human chondrocytes were derived from OA cartilage by enzymatic digestion and stimulated with in vitro-generated AGE-BSA. Gene expression of TNFalpha and MMP-13 was measured by quantitative RT-PCR. TNFalpha protein in culture medium was determined using cytokine-specific ELISA. Western immunoblotting was used to analyze the MMP-13 production in the culture medium, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and the activation of NF-kappaB. DNA binding activity of NF-kappaB p65 was determined using a highly sensitive and specific ELISA. IkappaB kinase (IKK) activity was determined using an in vitro kinase activity assay. MMP-13 activity in the culture medium was assayed by gelatin zymography. EGCG significantly decreased AGE-stimulated gene expression and production of TNFalpha and MMP-13 in human chondrocytes. The inhibitory effect of EGCG on the AGE-BSA-induced expression of TNFalpha and MMP-13 was mediated at least in part via suppression of p38-MAPK and JNK activation. In addition, EGCG inhibited the phosphorylating activity of IKKbeta kinase in an in vitro activity assay and EGCG inhibited the AGE-mediated activation and DNA binding activity of NF-kappaB by suppressing the degradation of its inhibitory protein IkappaBalpha in the cytoplasm. These novel pharmacological actions of EGCG on AGE-BSA-stimulated human OA chondrocytes provide new suggestions that EGCG or EGCG-derived compounds may inhibit cartilage degradation by suppressing AGE

  8. The major surface glycoprotein of Pneumocystis carinii induces release and gene expression of interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha in monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Lundgren, Bettina; Levine, S J

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) may play a central role in host defense and pathogenesis during Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. In order to investigate whether the major surface antigen (MSG) of human P. carinii is capable of eliciting...... the release of IL-8 and TNF-alpha, human monocytes were cultured in the presence of purified MSG. MSG-stimulated cells released significant amounts of IL-8 within 4 h, and at 20 h, cells stimulated with MSG released 45.5 +/- 9.3 ng of IL-8/ml versus 3.7 +/- 1.1 ng/ml for control cultures (P = 0.......01). In a similar fashion, MSG elicited release of TNF-alpha. Initial increases were also seen at 4 h, and at 20 h, TNF-alpha levels reached 6.4 +/- 1.1 ng/ml, compared to 0.08 +/- 0.01 ng/ml for control cultures (P alpha secretion was observed at 20 h...

  9. The MC160 Protein Expressed by the Dermatotropic Poxvirus Molluscum Contagiosum Virus Prevents Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced NF-κB Activation via Inhibition of I Kappa Kinase Complex Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Daniel Brian; Shisler, Joanna L.

    2006-01-01

    The pluripotent cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) binds to its cognate TNF receptor I (TNF-RI) to stimulate inflammation via activation of the NF-κB transcription factor. To prevent the detrimental effects of TNF-α in keratinocytes infected with the molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV), this poxvirus is expected to produce proteins that block at least one step of the TNF-RI signal transduction pathway. One such product, the MC160 protein, is predicted to interfere with this cellular response because of its homology to other proteins that regulate TNF-RI-mediated signaling. We report here that expression of MC160 molecules did significantly reduce TNF-α-mediated NF-κB activation in 293T cells, as measured by gene reporter and gel mobility shift assays. Since we observed that MC160 decreased other NF-κB activation pathways, namely those activated by receptor-interacting protein, TNF receptor-associated factor 2, NF-κB-inducing kinase, or MyD88, we hypothesized that the MC160 product interfered with I kappa kinase (IKK) activation, an event common to multiple signal transduction pathways. Indeed, MC160 protein expression was associated with a reduction in in vitro IKK kinase activity and IKK subunit phosphorylation. Further, IKK1-IKK2 interactions were not detected in MC160-expressing cells, under conditions demonstrated to induce IKK complex formation, but interactions between the MC160 protein and the major IKK subunits were undetectable. Surprisingly, MC160 expression correlated with a decrease in IKK1, but not IKK2 levels, suggesting a mechanism for MC160 disruption of IKK1-IKK2 interactions. MCV has probably retained its MC160 gene to inhibit NF-κB activation by interfering with signaling via multiple biological mediators. In the context of an MCV infection in vivo, MC160 protein expression may dampen the cellular production of proinflammatory molecules and enhance persistent infections in host keratinocytes. PMID:16378960

  10. Expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha and accumulation of fibronectin in coronary artery restenotic lesions retrieved by atherectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausell, N.; de Lima, V. C.; Molossi, S.; Liu, P.; Turley, E.; Gotlieb, A. I.; Adelman, A. G.; Rabinovitch, M.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The formation of coronary artery neointima experimentally induced in piglets after cardiac transplantation is related to an immune-inflammatory reaction associated with increased expression of T cells and inflammatory mediators (tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta) and upregulation of fibronectin. In vivo blockade of tumour necrosis factor alpha in rabbits after cardiac transplantation results in reduced neointimal formation. The objective of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that coronary restenosis after atherectomy or percutaneous balloon angioplasty is associated with a similar inflammatory cascade initiated by mechanical injury. METHODS--Specimens taken at coronary atherectomy were analysed from 16 patients. Nine had had the procedure performed twice, firstly, to remove a primary lesion, and secondly, to remove a restenotic lesion. Seven had percutaneous balloon angioplasty after removal of restenotic tissue. Coronary atherectomy specimens were analysed by immunohistochemistry for the presence of T cells, macrophages, major histocompatibility complex II, interleukin 1 beta, tumour necrosis factor alpha, fibronectin, and the receptor for hyaluronan mediated motility. RESULTS--The groups were clinically and angiographically similar with equivalent lumens before and after atherectomy. Restenotic lesions had increased expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha and fibronectin compared with the primary lesions (P < 0.05 for both). There was also a trend towards a greater number of T cells and increased expression of interleukin 1 beta. CONCLUSIONS--Restenosis is associated with increased expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha and fibronectin, suggesting that an immune-inflammatory reaction probably contributes to neointimal formation and may represent a form of wound healing and repair secondary to mechanical injury. Images PMID:7626352

  11. Interleukin-4 and 13 induce the expression and release of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, interleukin-6 and stem cell factor from human detrusor smooth muscle cells: synergy with interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Andresen, Lars; Alvarez, Susana

    2006-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis is characterized by an increased number of activated MCs in the detrusor muscle. However, to our knowledge the factors that influence the anatomical relationship between MCs and HDSMCs are unknown. MCP-1, IL-6 and SCF have a critical role in the regulation of MC development,......, signaling and function. We investigated whether HDSMCs are capable of expressing and releasing MCP-1, IL-6 and SCF in response to IL-4, IL-13, IL-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.......Interstitial cystitis is characterized by an increased number of activated MCs in the detrusor muscle. However, to our knowledge the factors that influence the anatomical relationship between MCs and HDSMCs are unknown. MCP-1, IL-6 and SCF have a critical role in the regulation of MC development...

  12. Expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha after focal cerebral ischaemia in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buttini, M; Appel, K; Sauter, A; GebickeHaerter, PJ; Boddeke, HWGM

    Induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha was studied in the brain of rats after focal cerebral ischaemia by occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. Using a specific antisense riboprobe for in situ hybridization histochemistry, cells positive for tumor necrosis factor alpha messenger RNA were

  13. Diesel exhaust particles induce the over expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene in alvelor machrophage and failed to induce apoptosis through activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5-10), including diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been reported to induce lung injury and exacerbation of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Alveolar macrophages play a major role in the lung's response to inhaled particles and...

  14. [Cellular adhesion signal transduction network of tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced hepatocellular carcinoma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yongchang; Du, Shunda; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Yiyao; Zhao, Haitao; Chi, Tianyi; Lu, Xin; Sang, Xinting; Mao, Yilei

    2014-11-18

    To systemically explore the cellular adhesion signal transduction network of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma cells with bioinformatics tools. Published microarray dataset of TNF-α-induced HepG2, human transcription factor database HTRI and human protein-protein interaction database HPRD were used to construct and analyze the signal transduction network. In the signal transduction network, MYC and SP1 were the key nodes of signaling transduction. Several genes from the network were closely related with cellular adhesion.Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a possible key gene of effectively regulating cellular adhesion during the induction of TNF-α. EGFR is a possible key gene for TNF-α-induced metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  15. Phospholipase C-{delta}{sub 1} regulates interleukin-1{beta} and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} mRNA expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eric; Jakinovich, Paul; Bae, Aekyung [Department of Anesthesiology, Health Sciences Center L4 Rm 081, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Rebecchi, Mario, E-mail: Mario.rebecchi@SBUmed.org [Department of Anesthesiology, Health Sciences Center L4 Rm 081, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Phospholipase C-{delta}{sub 1} (PLC{delta}{sub 1}) is a widely expressed highly active PLC isoform, modulated by Ca{sup 2+} that appears to operate downstream from receptor signaling and has been linked to regulation of cytokine production. Here we investigated whether PLC{delta}{sub 1} modulated expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in rat C6 glioma cells. Expression of PLC{delta}{sub 1} was specifically suppressed by small interfering RNA (siRNA) and the effects on cytokine mRNA expression, stimulated by the Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), were examined. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results showed that PLC{delta}{sub 1} knockdown enhanced expression IL-1{beta} and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) mRNA by at least 100 fold after 4 h of LPS stimulation compared to control siRNA treatment. PLC{delta}{sub 1} knock down caused persistently high Nf{kappa}b levels at 4 h of LPS stimulation compared to control siRNA-treated cells. PLC{delta}{sub 1} knockdown was also associated with elevated nuclear levels of c-Jun after 30 min of LPS stimulation, but did not affect LPS-stimulated p38 or p42/44 MAPK phosphorylation, normally associated with TLR activation of cytokine gene expression; rather, enhanced protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation of cellular proteins was observed in the absence of LPS stimulation. An inhibitor of PKC, bisindolylmaleimide II (BIM), reversed phosphorylation, prevented elevation of nuclear c-Jun levels, and inhibited LPS-induced increases of IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha} mRNA's induced by PLC{delta}{sub 1} knockdown. Our results show that loss of PLC{delta}{sub 1} enhances PKC/c-Jun signaling and up-modulates pro-inflammatory cytokine gene transcription in concert with the TLR-stimulated p38MAPK/Nf{kappa}b pathway. Our findings are consistent with the idea that PLC{delta}{sub 1} is a

  16. Expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and receptor I(P55in pterygium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Wu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the expression of tumor necrosis factor- alpha(TNF-αand its receptor I(P55in different pterygium and discuss the role of TNF-α and receptor I(P55in pterygium.METHODS: Immunohistochemistical staining method(PVwas adopted to detect the expression of TNF-α and receptor I in pterygium(72 eyesand para-pterygium conjunctival tissue(30 eyes. The relationship between the expression and clinical-pathological parameters was also analyzed. RESULTS: The positive rates of TNF-α were 65.3%(47/72, 26.7%(8/30in pterygium and para-pterygium conjunctival tissue. The positive expression of TNF-α had statistic difference between the two groups(χ2=12.706, Pχ2=13.875, Pχ2=6.547, P=0.011. There had no statistically significance of the expression intensity between the two groups(F=1.288, P=0.393; the positive rate in advanced pterygium group was higher than quiescent pterygium group(χ2=4.082, P=0.043. The expression intensity had no statistically significance between the two groups(F=0.489, P=0.708. The positive rate of P55 in recurrent pterygium group was higher than primary pterygium group(χ2=9.907, P=0.002. There had no statistically significance of the two group's expression intensity(F=1.175, P=0.424; the positive rate in advanced pterygium group was higher than in quiescent pterygium group(χ2=11.140, P=0.001. The expression intensity had no statistically significance between the two groups(F=0.665, P=0.621. CONCLUSION:The expression of TNF-α and P55 are changing according to the development of clinical staging and onset. The expression of TNF-α and P55 may be related to clinical classification, staging and patient's working conditions of pterygium. There has no significant difference expression intensity of TNF-α and P55 in clinical staging and onset of pterygium.

  17. Modulation of tumor necrosis factor {alpha} expression in mouse brain after exposure to aluminum in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunoda, M.; Sharma, R.P. [Georgia Univ., Athens (Greece). College of Veterinary Medicine

    1999-11-01

    Aluminum, a known neurotoxic substance and a ground-water pollutant, is a possible contributing factor in various nervous disorders including Alzheimer's disease. It has been hypothesized that cytokines are involved in aluminum neurotoxicity. We investigated the alterations in mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF{alpha}), interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), and interferon {gamma} (IFN{gamma}), cytokines related to neuronal damage, in cerebrum and peripheral immune cells of mice after exposure to aluminum through drinking water. Groups of male BALB/c mice were administered aluminum ammonium sulfate in drinking water ad libitum at 0, 5, 25, and 125 ppm aluminum for 1 month. An additional group received 250 ppm ammonium as ammonium sulfate. After treatment, the cerebrum, splenic macrophages and lymphocytes were collected. The expression of TNF{alpha} mRNA in cerebrum was significantly increased among aluminum-treated groups compared with the control, in a dose-dependent manner. Other cytokines did not show any aluminum-related effects. In peripheral cells, there were no significant differences of cytokine mRNA expressions among treatment groups. Increased expression of TNF{alpha} mRNA by aluminum in cerebrum may reflect activation of microglia, a major source of TNF{alpha} in this brain region. Because the aluminum-induced alteration in cytokine message occurred at aluminum concentrations similar to those noted in contaminated water, these results may be relevant in considering the risk of aluminum neurotoxicity in drinking water. (orig.)

  18. Suppressor of cytokine signalling-3 inhibits Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced apoptosis and signalling in beta cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Christine; Heding, Peter E; Rønn, Sif G

    2009-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases including type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). TNFalpha in combination with interleukin-1-beta (IL-1beta) and/or interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) induces specific destruction...

  19. MutY DNA Glycosylase Protects Cells From Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced Necroptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, An Hue Vy; Han, Se Hee; Kim, Joon; Grasso, Francesca; Kim, In San; Han, Ye Sun

    2017-07-01

    Numerous studies have implied that mutY DNA glycosylase (MYH) is involved in the repair of post-replicative mispairs and plays a critical role in the base excision repair pathway. Recent in vitro studies have shown that MYH interacts with tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1-associated death domain (TRADD), a key effector protein of tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR1) signaling. The association between MYH and TRADD is reversed during tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)- and camptothecin (CPT)-induced apoptosis, and enhanced during TNF-α-induced survival. After investigating the role of MYH interacts with various proteins following TNF-α stimulation, here, we focus on MYH and TRADD interaction functions in necroptosis and its effects to related proteins. We report that the level of the MYH and TRADD complex was also reduced during necroptosis induced by TNF-α and zVAD-fmk. In particular, we also found that MYH is a biologically important necrosis suppressor. Under combined TNF-α and zVAD-fmk treatment, MYH-deficient cells were induced to enter the necroptosis pathway but primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were not. Necroptosis in the absence of MYH proceeds via the inactivation of caspase-8, followed by an increase in the formation of the kinase receptor- interacting protein 1 (RIP1)-RIP3 complex. Our results suggested that MYH, which interacts with TRADD, inhibits TNF-α necroptotic signaling. Therefore, MYH inactivation is essential for necroptosis via the downregulation of caspase-8. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1827-1838, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 8 family in immune homeostasis and inflammatory cancer diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Y Y; Yao, Y M; Sheng, Z Y

    2013-01-01

    Within the immune system homeostasis is maintained by a myriad of mechanisms that include the regulation of immune cell activation and programmed cell death. The breakdown of immune homeostasis may lead to fatal inflammatory diseases. We set out to identify genes of tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8) family that has a functional role in the process of immune homeostasis. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8), which functions as an oncogenic molecule, is also associated with enhanced cell survival and inhibition of apoptosis. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 8-like 2 (TIPE2) governs immune homeostasis in both the innate and adaptive immune system and prevents hyper-responsiveness by negatively regulating signaling via T cell receptors and Toll-like receptors (TLRs). There also exist two highly homologous but uncharacterized proteins, TIPE1 and TIPE3. This review is an attempt to provide a summary of TNFAIP8 family associated with immune homeostasis and inflammatory cancer diseases.

  1. Evaluation of Cucurbita maxima extract against scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats: implication of tumour necrosis factor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaid, Talha; Shakya, Ashok K; Siddiqui, Hefazat Hussain; Kamal, Mehnaz

    2014-01-01

    Cucurbita maxima (CM) seed oil is commonly used in Indian folk medicine to treat various ailments. We have investigated the effect of CM seed oil on memory impairment induced by scopolamine in rats. Male adult Wistar rats were administered scopolamine 1 mg/kg body weight, i.p. or 1.25 mg/kg body weight, s.c. to induce memory impairment. The nootropic agent piracetam 100 mg/kg body weight, i.p. and CM seed oil 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, p.o. were administered daily for five consecutive days. The memory function was evaluated in the Morris water maze (MWM) test, the social recognition test (SRT), the elevated plus maze (EPM) test, and the pole climbing test (PCT). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and oxidative stress parameters were estimated in the cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of the brains after completion of the behavioural studies. The effects of scopolamine on the levels of the tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) transcript were also investigated. Scopolamine caused memory impairment in all the behavioural paradigms along with a significant increase in the AChE activity and oxidative stress in the brain. Scopolamine also caused a significant increase in the expression of TNF-α in the hippocampus. CM seed oil exhibited antiamnesic activity as indicated by a significant reduction in the latency time in the MWM test and decreased social interaction during trial 2 in the SRT. Further, treatment with CM seed oil significantly decreased the AChE activity and malondialdehyde levels and increased the glutathione level in brain regions. CM seed oil also significantly decreased the expression of TNF-α in the hippocampus. The effect of CM seed oil on behavioural and biochemical parameters was comparable to that observed in rats treated with piracetam. These results indicate that CM seed oil may exert antiamnesic activity which may be attributed to the inhibition of AChE and inflammation as well as its antioxidant activity in the brain.

  2. Nitric oxide mediates angiogenesis induced in vivo by platelet-activating factor and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrucchio, G.; Lupia, E.; de Martino, A.; Battaglia, E.; Arese, M.; Tizzani, A.; Bussolino, F.; Camussi, G.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the role of an endogenous production of nitric oxide (NO) in the in vitro migration of endothelial cells and in the in vivo angiogenic response elicited by platelet-activating factor (PAF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The NO synthase inhibitor, N omega-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME), but not its enantiomer D-NAME, prevented chemotaxis of endothelial cells induced in vitro by PAF and by TNF. The motogenic activity of TNF was also inhibited by WEB 2170, a specific PAF-receptor antagonist. In contrast, chemotaxis induced by bFGF was not prevented by L-NAME or by WEB 2170. Angiogenesis was studied in vivo in a murine model in which Matrigel was used as a vehicle for the delivery of mediators. In this model, the angiogenesis induced by PAF and TNF was inhibited by WEB 2170 and L-NAME but not by D-NAME. In contrast, angiogenesis induced by bFGF was not affected by L-NAME or by WEB 2170. TNF, but not bFGF, induced PAF synthesis within Matrigel. These results suggest that NO mediates the angiogenesis induced by PAF as well as that induced by TNF, which is dependent on the production of PAF. In contrast, the angiogenic effect of bFGF appears to be both PAF and NO independent. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9250168

  3. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha activates signal transduction in hypothalamus and modulates the expression of pro-inflammatory proteins and orexigenic/anorexigenic neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Maria E; Barbuio, Raquel; Milanski, Marciane; Romanatto, Talita; Barbosa, Helena C; Nadruz, Wilson; Bertolo, Manoel B; Boschero, Antonio C; Saad, Mario J A; Franchini, Kleber G; Velloso, Licio A

    2006-07-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is known to participate in the wastage syndrome that accompanies cancer and severe infectious diseases. More recently, a role for TNF-alpha in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity has been shown. Much of the regulatory action exerted by TNF-alpha upon the control of energy stores depends on its action on the hypothalamus. In this study, we show that TNF-alpha activates canonical pro-inflammatory signal transduction pathways in the hypothalamus of rats. These signaling events lead to the transcriptional activation of an early responsive gene and to the induction of expression of cytokines and a cytokine responsive protein such as interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, interleukin-10 and suppressor of cytokine signalling-3, respectively. In addition, TNF-alpha induces the expression of neurotransmitters involved in the control of feeding and thermogenesis. Thus, TNF-alpha may act directly in the hypothalamus inducing a pro-inflammatory response and the modulation of expression of neurotransmitters involved in energy homeostasis.

  4. Generalised pustular psoriasis induced by cyclosporin a withdrawal responding to the tumour necrosis factor alpha inhibitor etanercept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarashev, J; Lor, P; Forster, A; Heinzerling, L; Burg, G; Nestle, F O

    2002-01-01

    We report a 50-year-old male patient with a 15-year history of psoriasis including mutilating psoriatic arthritis, in whom the withdrawal of cyclosporin A induced a generalised pustular exacerbation and a aggravation of the joint condition. Two weekly injections of 25 mg of the tumour necrosis factor alpha inhibitor etanercept led to a rapid improvement of his psoriatic arthritis, as well as regression of the pustular eruption, while residual erythema was still present. The clinical response was reflected by an increase in circulating interleukin (IL) 10 and a decrease in IL-6 and IL-8 serum levels during treatment. We conclude that etanercept may be a safe and effective therapy not only in severe psoriatic arthritis, but also in cases of pustular rebound after withdrawal of immunosuppressive agents. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. Interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha are expressed by different subsets of microglia and macrophages after ischemic stroke in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Bettina H; Lambertsen, Kate L; Babcock, Alicia A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are expressed by microglia and infiltrating macrophages following ischemic stroke. Whereas IL-1beta is primarily neurotoxic in ischemic stroke, TNF-alpha may have neurotoxic and/or neuroprotective effects. We inv...

  6. Effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma on expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 in human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, K Y; Moon, H S; Park, H Y; Lee, T Y; Woo, Y N; Kim, H J; Lee, S J; Kong, G

    2000-10-31

    We have investigated the effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon (INF-gamma), the potent Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-induced cytokines on the production of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and MT1-MMP in high grade human bladder cancer cell lines, T-24, J-82 and HT-1376 cell lines. MMP-2 expression and activity were decreased in T-24 cells treated with both cytokines in a dose dependent manner. However, J-82 cells treated with TNF-alpha and INF-gamma revealed dose dependent increases of MMP-9 expression and activity with similar baseline expression and activity of MMP-2. HT-1376 cells after exposure to TNF-alpha only enhanced the expression and activity of MMP-9. These results indicate that TNF-alpha and INF-gamma could regulate the production of MMP-2 or MMP-9 on bladder cancer cells and their patterns of regulation are cell specific. Furthermore, this diverse response of bladder cancer cells to TNF-alpha and INF-gamma suggests that BCG immunotherapy may enhance the invasiveness of bladder cancer in certain conditions with induction of MMPs.

  7. IgE-mediated basophil tumour necrosis factor alpha induces matrix metalloproteinase-9 from monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkencrone, Sidsel; Poulsen, Lars K.; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    IgE-mediated activation of mast cells has been reported to induce the release of tumour necrosis alpha (TNF-α), which may display autocrine effects on these cells by inducing the generation of the tissue remodelling protease matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). While mast cells and basophils have...

  8. Tumor necrosis factor alpha promotes the expression of immunosuppressive proteins and enhances the cell growth in a human bone marrow-derived stem cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miettinen, Johanna A.; Pietilae, Mika; Salonen, Riikka J.; Ohlmeier, Steffen; Ylitalo, Kari; Huikuri, Heikki V.; Lehenkari, Petri

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used in experimental treatments for various conditions that involve normal tissue regeneration via inflammatory repair. It is known that MSCs can secrete multiple soluble factors and suppress inflammation. Even though the effect of MSCs on inflammation has been extensively studied, the effect of inflammation on MSCs is poorly understood. One of the major cytokines released at the site of inflammation is tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) which is known to induce MSC invasion and proliferation. Therefore, we wanted to test the effects of TNF-α exposure on MSCs derived from human bone marrow. We found, as expected, that cell proliferation was significantly enhanced during TNF-α exposure. However, according to the cell surface marker analysis, the intensity of several antigens in the minimum criteria panel for MSCs proposed by International Society of Cellular Therapy (ISCT) was decreased dramatically, and in certain cases, the criteria for MSCs were not fulfilled. In addition, TNF-α exposure resulted in a significant but transient increase in human leukocyte antigen and CD54 expression. Additional proteomic analysis by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry revealed three proteins whose expression levels decreased and 8 proteins whose expression levels increased significantly during TNF-α exposure. The majority of these proteins could be linked to immunosuppressive and signalling pathways. These results strongly support reactive and immunosuppressive activation of MSCs during TNF-α exposure, which might influence MSC differentiation stage and capacity.

  9. Tumor necrosis factor alpha promotes the expression of immunosuppressive proteins and enhances the cell growth in a human bone marrow-derived stem cell culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miettinen, Johanna A., E-mail: johanna.miettinen@oulu.fi [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland); Pietilae, Mika [Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland); Salonen, Riikka J. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland); Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland); Ohlmeier, Steffen [Proteomics Core Facility, Biocenter Oulu, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland); Ylitalo, Kari; Huikuri, Heikki V. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland); Lehenkari, Petri [Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland)

    2011-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used in experimental treatments for various conditions that involve normal tissue regeneration via inflammatory repair. It is known that MSCs can secrete multiple soluble factors and suppress inflammation. Even though the effect of MSCs on inflammation has been extensively studied, the effect of inflammation on MSCs is poorly understood. One of the major cytokines released at the site of inflammation is tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-{alpha}) which is known to induce MSC invasion and proliferation. Therefore, we wanted to test the effects of TNF-{alpha} exposure on MSCs derived from human bone marrow. We found, as expected, that cell proliferation was significantly enhanced during TNF-{alpha} exposure. However, according to the cell surface marker analysis, the intensity of several antigens in the minimum criteria panel for MSCs proposed by International Society of Cellular Therapy (ISCT) was decreased dramatically, and in certain cases, the criteria for MSCs were not fulfilled. In addition, TNF-{alpha} exposure resulted in a significant but transient increase in human leukocyte antigen and CD54 expression. Additional proteomic analysis by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry revealed three proteins whose expression levels decreased and 8 proteins whose expression levels increased significantly during TNF-{alpha} exposure. The majority of these proteins could be linked to immunosuppressive and signalling pathways. These results strongly support reactive and immunosuppressive activation of MSCs during TNF-{alpha} exposure, which might influence MSC differentiation stage and capacity.

  10. Infection of Human Fallopian Tube Epithelial Cells with Neisseria gonorrhoeae Protects Cells from Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Priscilla; Reyes, Paz; Vargas, Macarena; Rios, Miguel; Imarai, Mónica; Cardenas, Hugo; Croxatto, Horacio; Orihuela, Pedro; Vargas, Renato; Fuhrer, Juan; Heckels, John E.; Christodoulides, Myron; Velasquez, Luis

    2006-01-01

    Following infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, bacteria may ascend into the Fallopian tubes (FT) and induce salpingitis, a major cause of infertility. In the FT, interactions between mucosal epithelial cells and gonococci are pivotal events in the pathogen's infection cycle and the inflammatory response. In the current study, primary FT epithelial cells were infected in vitro with different multiplicities of infection (MOI) of Pil+ Opa+ gonococci. Bacteria showed a dose-dependent association with cells and induced the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). A significant finding was that gonococcal infection (MOI = 1) induced apoptosis in approximately 30% of cells, whereas increasing numbers of bacteria (MOI = 10 to 100) did not induce apoptosis. Apoptosis was observed in only 11% of cells with associated bacteria, whereas >84% of cells with no adherent bacteria were apoptotic. TNF-α was a key contributor to apoptosis, since (i) culture supernatants from cells infected with gonococci (MOI = 1) induced apoptosis in naïve cultures, suggesting that a soluble factor was responsible; (ii) gonococcal infection-induced apoptosis was inhibited with anti-TNF-α antibodies; and (iii) the addition of exogenous TNF-α induced apoptosis, which was inhibited by the presence of increasing numbers of bacteria (MOI = 10 to 100). These data suggest that TNF-α-mediated apoptosis of FT epithelial cells is likely a primary host defense mechanism to prevent pathogen colonization. However, epithelial cell-associated gonococci have evolved a mechanism to protect the cells from undergoing TNF-α-mediated apoptosis, and this modulation of the host innate response may contribute to establishment of infection. Understanding the antiapoptotic mechanisms used by Neisseria gonorrhoeae will inform the pathogenesis of salpingitis and could suggest new intervention strategies for prevention and treatment of the disease. PMID:16714596

  11. Establishment and evaluation of a transgenic mouse model of arthritis induced by overexpressing human tumor necrosis factor alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα plays a key role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Blockade of TNFα by monoclonal antibody has been widely used for the therapy of RA since the 1990s; however, its mechanism of efficacy, and potential safety concerns of the treatment are still not fully understood. This study sought to establish a transgenic arthritic mouse model by overexpressing human TNFα (hTNFα and to apply this model as a means to evaluate therapeutic consequences of TNFα inhibitors. The transgenic mouse line (TgTC with FVB background was generated by incorporating 3′-modified hTNFα gene sequences. A progressively erosive polyarthritis developed in the TgTC mice, with many characteristics observed in human rheumatoid arthritis, including polyarticular swelling, impairment of movement, synovial hyperplasia, and cartilage and bone erosion. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that hTNFα is not only expressed in hyperplastic synovial membrane, but also in tissues without lesions, including brain, lung and kidney. Treatment of the TgTC mice with anti-hTNFα monoclonal antibodies (mAb significantly decreased the level of hTNFα in the diseased joint and effectively prevented development of arthritis in a dose-dependent response fashion. Our results indicated that the TgTC mice represent a genetic model which can be used to comprehensively investigate the pathogenesis and therapeutics of TNFα-related diseases.

  12. Effect of particle size on hydroxyapatite crystal-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha secretion by macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadra, Imad; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Philippidis, Pandelis; Whelan, Linda C; McCarthy, Geraldine M; Haskard, Dorian O; Landis, R Clive

    2008-01-01

    Macrophages may promote a vicious cycle of inflammation and calcification in the vessel wall by ingesting neointimal calcific deposits (predominantly hydroxyapatite) and secreting tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha, itself a vascular calcifying agent. Here we have investigated whether particle size affects the proinflammatory potential of hydroxyapatite crystals in vitro and whether the nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB pathway plays a role in the macrophage TNFalpha response. The particle size and nano-topography of nine different crystal preparations was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and gas sorbtion analysis. Macrophage TNFalpha secretion was inversely related to hydroxyapatite particle size (P=0.011, Spearman rank correlation test) and surface pore size (P=0.014). A necessary role for the NF-kappaB pathway was demonstrated by time-dependent I kappaB alpha degradation and sensitivity to inhibitors of I kappaB alpha degradation. To test whether smaller particles were intrinsically more bioactive, their mitogenic activity on fibroblast proliferation was examined. This showed close correlation between TNFalpha secretion and crystal-induced fibroblast proliferation (P=0.007). In conclusion, the ability of hydroxyapatite crystals to stimulate macrophage TNFalpha secretion depends on NF-kappaB activation and is inversely related to particle and pore size, with crystals of 1-2 microm diameter and pore size of 10-50 A the most bioactive. Microscopic calcific deposits in early stages of atherosclerosis may therefore pose a greater inflammatory risk to the plaque than macroscopically or radiologically visible deposits in more advanced lesions.

  13. Characteristics of recovery from the euthyroid sick syndrome induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feelders, R. A.; Swaak, A. J.; Romijn, J. A.; Eggermont, A. M.; Tielens, E. T.; Vreugdenhil, G.; Endert, E.; van Eijk, H. G.; Berghout, A.

    1999-01-01

    Cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the euthyroid sick syndrome. Isolated limb perfusion (ILP) with recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha (rTNF) and melphalan in patients with melanoma or sarcoma is accompanied by high systemic TNF levels. We examined the prolonged effects

  14. Hantaan Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Binds to Importin alpha Proteins and Inhibits Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced Activation of Nuclear Factor Kappa B

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-19

    Microbiology . All Rights Reserved. Hantaan Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Binds to Importin Proteins and Inhibits Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced...Division, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702,1 and Department of Microbiology , Mount Sinai...34–36. 32. Prescott , J., C. Ye, G. Sen, and B. Hjelle. 2005. Induction of innate immune response genes by Sin Nombre hantavirus does not require

  15. Supernatants from Staphylococcus epidermidis grown in the presence of different antibiotics induce differential release of tumor necrosis factor alpha from human monocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Mattsson, E; Van Dijk, H; Verhoef, J; Norrby, R; Rollof, J

    1996-01-01

    Bacterial products from gram-positive bacteria, such as peptidoglycan, teichoic acid, and toxins, activate mononuclear cells to produce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF). The present study evaluated the release of soluble cell wall components from Staphylococcus epidermidis capable of inducing TNF after exposure of the bacteria to various antibiotics. A clinical S. epidermidis isolate (694) was incubated with either penicillin, oxacillin, vancomycin, or clindamycin at five times the MIC. Supe...

  16. Protective specific immunity induced by cyclophosphamide plus tumor necrosis factor alpha combination treatment of EL4-lymphoma-bearing C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, C M; Verstovsek, S; Ujházy, P; Maccubbin, D; Ehrke, M J

    1995-06-01

    A combination treatment protocol initiated 12 days after tumor injection, when the tumor was large, by administering cyclophosphamide (CY, 150 or 250 mg/kg) intraperitoneally followed by intravenous tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha, 1000 units injection) on days 13, 16, 18, 21, and 23, resulted in about 60% long-term survival (i.e., survival for at least 60 days) in the syngeneic C57BL/6 mouse/EL4 lymphoma model system. The establishment of a specific antitumor immune memory and its possible therapeutic relevance was verified by reinjecting 60-day survivors with EL4 cells; all 60-day survivors that had received the combination treatments rejected the implants and survived for a further 60 days. Thymic cellularity was reduced during treatment and its recovery appeared to correlate with long-term survival and immunity. Thymocytes from mice treated with the combination were found to express significant levels of specific anti-EL4 cytolytic activity following a 4-day stimulation culture with X-irradiated EL4 cells and low concentrations of interleukin-2. This response could not be generated with thymocytes from naive animals. In each case the effect seen with the combination of a moderate CY dose (150 mg/kg) with TNF alpha was better than that seen with either dose of CY alone and equal to or better than that seen with the higher dose of CY combined with TNF alpha. These results indicate that treatment with a single moderate dose of CY in combination with TNF alpha is effective against a large, established tumor in this murine model. Furthermore, all the long-term survivors induced by this treatment developed protective immunity against reimplanted tumor and demonstrated a long-term specific immune memory in the thymus.

  17. The effect of clomethiazole on plasma concentrations of interleukin-6, -8, -1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and neutrophil adhesion molecule expression during experimental extracorporeal circulation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harmon, D

    2012-02-03

    Clomethiazole (CMZ), a neuroprotective drug, has antiinflammatory actions. We investigated the effects of CMZ administration on plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and neutrophil adhesion molecule expression during experimental extracorporeal circulation. Five healthy volunteers each donated 500 mL of blood, which was subsequently divided into equal portions. Identical extracorporeal circuits were simultaneously primed with donated blood (250 mL) and circulated for 2 h at 37 degrees C. CMZ was added to 1 of the circuits of each pair to achieve a total plasma concentration of 40 micro mol\\/L. Blood samples were withdrawn at (i) donation, (ii) immediately after addition of CMZ, and at (iii) 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after commencing circulation. Plasma concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were less in the CMZ group compared with control after 60 min of circulation (2.2 [0.3] versus 3.2 [0.4], 14.9 [4.8] versus 21.9 [18.4], 63.3 [43.5] versus 132.2 [118.9] pg\\/mL, respectively, P < 0.05). After 120 min of circulation, neutrophils from CMZ-treated circuits showed significantly less CD18 expression compared with control (237.5 [97.4] versus 280.5 [111.5], P = 0.03). The addition of CMZ to experimental extracorporeal circuits decreases the inflammatory response. This effect may be of clinical benefit by decreasing inflammatory-mediated neurological injury during cardiopulmonary bypass. IMPLICATIONS: Enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid(A)-mediated effects by clomethiazole (CMZ) and associated neuroprotection has been established in animal models of cerebral ischemia. In an ex vivo study, we demonstrated antiinflammatory activity of CMZ in experimental extracorporeal circulation. This represents a potential neuroprotective mechanism of CMZ in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery.

  18. Garlic (Allium sativum) stimulates lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from J774A.1 murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jessica; Harfouche, Youssef; De La Cruz, Melissa; Zamora, Martha P; Liu, Yan; Rego, James A; Buckley, Nancy E

    2015-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is known to have many beneficial attributes such as antimicrobial, antiatherosclerotic, antitumorigenetic, and immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the effects of an aqueous garlic extract on macrophage cytokine production by challenging the macrophage J774A.1 cell line with the garlic extract in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) under different conditions. The effect of allicin, the major component of crushed garlic, was also investigated. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, it was found that garlic and synthetic allicin greatly stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production in macrophages treated with LPS. The TNF-α secretion levels peaked earlier and were sustained for a longer time in cells treated with garlic and LPS compared with cells treated with LPS alone. Garlic acted in a time-dependent manner. We suggest that garlic, at least partially via its allicin component, acts downstream from LPS to stimulate macrophage TNF-α secretion. © 2014 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Ultraviolet B irradiation of skin induces mast cell degranulation and release of tumour necrosis factor-{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, L.J. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Dept. of Dentistry, Immunopathology Unit

    1995-06-01

    In the `sunburn` response in skin, dermal blood vessels are activated and traffic of dendritic Langerhans` cells altered. While these changes have been attributed to the cytokine TNF-{alpha}, the source of this acutely released TNF has not been identified. This report demonstrates that the `sunburn` response, both in vivo and in vitro, is accompanied by rapid degranulation of cutaneous mast cells, with consequential release of intracellular stores of TNF. Epidermal keratinocytes were only minor contributors to local TNF production. Expression of the TNF-inducible CD62E (E-selectin/ELAM-1) and CD54 adhesion molecules on cutaneous endothelium occurred 2 hours following mast cell degranulation, and this event was sensitive to blockade of mast cells with disodium cromoglycate. These results indicate that TNF release in skin in the acute sunburn response can largely be attributed to mast cells. 47 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  20. Expression of toll-like receptor 4, tumor necrosis factor- alpha, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and effects of benazepril in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ping; Cao, Yun-Shan; Su, Peng; Li, Yu-Hong; Gao, Zhi-Ling; Borst, Mathias M

    2010-10-11

    The study aims to explore the relationship between expressions of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on peripheral blood monocytes, serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in patients with acute coronary syndromes(ACS), and to investigate the possible mechanisms of Benazepril stabilizing atherosclerosis plaques. 70 patients selected were randomly divided into Benazepril treatment group (35 patients) and regular treatment group (35 patients). Meanwhile, Stable angina pectoris (SAP) group of 32 patients and control group of 22 patients were also set up. With the help of flow-cytometry, expressions of TLR4 on peripheral blood monocytes of the four groups were analyzed and compared to show differences, correlations and changes of the above mentioned indicators. The concentration of TNF-α and MMP-9 in serum were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (1) Expressions of TLR4, levels of TNF-α and MMP-9 were increased and the rate was rising from the control group, to SAP group and then to ACS group. All these indicators in ACS group are significantly higher than those in other groups (P Benazepril treatment group and regular treatment group before treatment (P > 0.05) while they all fell after treatment (P Benazepril can inhibit over-expression of TLR4 and reduce serum levels of TNF-α and MMP-9, thus stabilize the vulnerable plaques and improve the condition of the patients with ACS.

  1. Modulator effects of interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on AMPA-induced excitotoxicity in mouse organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernardino, Liliana; Xapelli, Sara; Silva, Ana P

    2005-01-01

    The inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) have been identified as mediators of several forms of neurodegeneration in the brain. However, they can produce either deleterious or beneficial effects on neuronal function. We investigated the effects...... of mouse recombinant TNF-alpha (10 ng/ml) enhanced excitotoxicity when the cultures were simultaneously exposed to AMPA and to this cytokine. Decreasing the concentration of TNF-alpha to 1 ng/ml resulted in neuroprotection against AMPA-induced neuronal death independently on the application protocol....... By using TNF-alpha receptor (TNFR) knock-out mice, we demonstrated that the potentiation of AMPA-induced toxicity by TNF-alpha involves TNF receptor-1, whereas the neuroprotective effect is mediated by TNF receptor-2. AMPA exposure was associated with activation and proliferation of microglia as assessed...

  2. Efficacy of Omega Fatty Acid Supplementation on mRNA Expression Level of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha in Patients with Gastric Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Asghar; Ardebili, Seyed Mojtaba Mohaddes

    2016-09-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), a multifunctional cytokine, is involved in apoptosis, cell proliferation, cell survival, and inflammation. It plays a dual role in cancer development and progression. It has been revealed that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) modulate the production and activity of TNF family cytokines. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of PUFAs on messenger RNA expression levels of TNF-α in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. Thirty-four chemotherapy-naive patients diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma were randomly divided into two groups. The first group (17 individuals) received cisplatin without supplements and the second group (17 individuals) received cisplatin plus orally administered PUFA supplements for 3 weeks, based on treatment strategies. The gastric biopsy samples were obtained from all participants before and after treatment, and TNF-α mRNA expression levels were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR procedure. Our findings revealed that TNF-α mRNA expression is downregulated in group II, after receiving cisplatin and omega fatty acid supplement for 3 weeks. However, this difference is not statistically significant (p > 0.05). TNF-α mRNA expression did not show significant alteration in group I, after receiving cisplatin alone. Taken together, we concluded that omega fatty acids reduce TNF-α expression at the mRNA level in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. These data suggest that TNF-α may act as a potential target for the therapy of human gastric adenocarcinoma.

  3. Trovafloxacin-induced replication stress sensitizes HepG2 cells to tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced cytotoxicity mediated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beggs, Kevin M.; Maiuri, Ashley R.; Fullerton, Aaron M.; Poulsen, Kyle L.; Breier, Anna B.; Ganey, Patricia E.; Roth, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Use of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic trovafloxacin (TVX) was restricted due to idiosyncratic, drug-induced liver injury (IDILI). Previous studies demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) and TVX interact to cause death of hepatocytes in vitro that was associated with prolonged activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), activation of caspases 9 and 3, and DNA damage. The purpose of this study was to explore further the mechanism by which TVX interacts with TNF to cause cytotoxicity. Treatment with TVX caused cell cycle arrest, enhanced expression of p21 and impaired proliferation, but cell death only occurred after cotreatment with TVX and TNF. Cell death involved activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), which in turn activated caspase 3 and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR), both of which contributed to cytotoxicity. Cotreatment of HepG2 cells with TVX and TNF caused double-strand breaks in DNA, and ERK contributed to this effect. Inhibition of caspase activity abolished the DNA strand breaks. The data suggest a complex interaction of TVX and TNF in which TVX causes replication stress, and the downstream effects are exacerbated by TNF, leading to hepatocellular death. These results raise the possibility that IDILI from TVX results from MAPK and ATR activation in hepatocytes initiated by interaction of cytokine signaling with drug-induced replication stress

  4. A comprehensive study of tumor necrosis factor-alpha genetic polymorphisms, its expression in skin and relation to histopathological features in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil N Moorchung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα is an important inflammatory mediator in psoriasis and several genetic polymorphisms of this cytokine have been reported. Majority of studies have focused on the increased G- A polymorphism at the -308 position in psoriasis. There has been no comprehensive study evaluating the genetic polymorphisms, TNFα expression in the skin and histopathology. We are undertaking this study to outline TNFα genetic polymorphisms, its skin expression and histopathological correlation to help determine its role at the genetic and protein level. Materials and Methods : 112 patients of psoriasis and 243 healthy controls were included in this prospective study. 5 ml of peripheral blood was collected to study the TNFα genetic polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Histopathological analysis of biopsies from the 112 patients were done using visual analogue scale and correlated with the findings. 61 of these cases were analyzed for TNFα expression by immunohistochemistry. The results of study were statistically analyzed using SPSS 13.0 statistical package program. Results: A strong association of TNFα -308 G/A polymorphism in psoriasis cases was detected. The A allele of the TNFα -308 G/A polymorphism occurs rarely in the Indian population, however there is an over representation of this allele in psoriatic patients. There was no association seen between TNFα genotype and histopathological severity of psoriasis. Conclusion: The study emphasized the central role of TNFα in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. TNFα genotyping may be helpful in identifying subjects in whom anti-TNFα therapeutic strategies may be tried.

  5. Assessment of chronic spontaneous urticaria by serum-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha and matrix metalloproteinase-9 release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkencrone, Sidsel; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Skov, Per Stahl

    BACKGROUND Previous studies from our group have demonstrated that IgE-mediated basophil activation leads to release of TNFα that in turn can induce matrix metallo-proteinase-9 (MMP-9) release from monocytes. We wished to investigate if serum from chronic spontaneous urticaria-patients with auto-a...

  6. Interleukin-4 inhibits both paracrine and autocrine tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced proliferation of B chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooten, C.; Rensink, I.; Aarden, L.; van Oers, R.

    1992-01-01

    The proliferative response of purified malignant B cells from 26 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was investigated in vitro. In the majority of these patients, a proliferative response could be induced by the combination of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and PMA. The concentration

  7. L-Cysteine-induced up-regulation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor is mediated via a transforming growth factor-alpha signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yuma; Shimada, Masaya; Nagaoka, Satoshi

    2014-02-14

    Sulphur-containing amino acids regulate plasma cholesterol levels in animals and humans. However, their mechanism of action remains unclear. Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) plays an important role in cholesterol metabolism. We therefore investigated the effects of sulphur-containing amino acids on the expression of LDLR in hepatocytes. HepG2 cells were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium with or without sulphur-containing amino acids and cysteine-containing compounds. We found that L-cysteine increased LDLR mRNA and enhanced LDLR gene promoter activity through the extracellular-signal-related kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways in HepG2 cells. Moreover, we observed that L-cysteine stimulated the release of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α) and that TGF-α increased the LDLR mRNA levels. This study provides a report of the L-cysteine mediated up-regulation of the LDLR expression via TGF-α signalling pathway. Our findings provide insights into cholesterol homeostasis and amino acid signalling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibits growth of methylcholanthrene-induced sarcoma and enhances natural killer activity of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in aging rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziolkowska, Maria; Nowak Joanna, J.; Janiak, Marek; Ryzewska, Alicja

    1994-01-01

    The effect of recombinant human tumor necrosis factors alpha (rHuTNF-α) on the growth of immunogenic, methylcholanthrene-induced sarcoma (MC-Sa) and natural killer (NK) cell activity of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in adult and aging rats was investigated. In both groups of animals the growth of transplantable MC-Sa was markedly and similarly inhibited by multiple intratumoral (i.t.) injections of rHuTF-α. This effect was accompanied by stimulation of NK activity of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in adult as well as in aging rats. Studies ''in vitro'' demonstrated additionally that rHuTNF-α was a potent stimulator of NK but not of ADCC (antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity) activity of spleen lymphocytes from healthy animals. Our results indicate that the antitumor effect of TNF-α is comparable in adult and in aging rats bearing immunogenic MC-Sa. The inhibition of MC-Sa growth may be attributed not only to the TNF-α-induced necrosis of the neoplastic tissue but also to the ''in vivo'' stimulatory effect of this cytokine upon the NK-type function of lymphocytes infiltrating the tumor mass. (author). 31 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  9. The Neutrophil Response Induced by an Agonist for Free Fatty Acid Receptor 2 (GPR43) Is Primed by Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and by Receptor Uncoupling from the Cytoskeleton but Attenuated by Tissue Recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkman, Lena; Mårtensson, Jonas; Winther, Malene

    2016-01-01

    by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in a process associated with a recruitment of easily mobilizable granules, but neutrophils recruited to an aseptic inflammation in vivo were nonresponding. Superoxide production induced by Cmp1 was increased in latrunculin A-treated neutrophils, but no reactivation...

  10. N-Acetylcysteine Supplementation Controls Total Antioxidant Capacity, Creatine Kinase, Lactate, and Tumor Necrotic Factor-Alpha against Oxidative Stress Induced by Graded Exercise in Sedentary Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donrawee Leelarungrayub

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-term (7 days N-acetylcysteine (NAC at 1,200 mg daily supplementation on muscle fatigue, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, lactate, creatine kinase (CK, and tumor necrotic factor-alpha (TNF-α. Twenty-nine sedentary men (13 controls; 16 in the supplement group from a randomized control were included. At before and after supplementation, fatigue index (FI was evaluated in the quadriceps muscle, and performed a graded exercise treadmill test to induce oxidative stress, and as a measure of VO2max. Blood samples were taken before exercise and 20 minutes after it at before and after supplementation, to determine TAC, CK, lactate, and TNF-α levels. Results showed that FI and VO2max increased significantly in the supplement group. After exercise decreased the levels of TAC and increased lactate, CK, and TNF-α of both groups at before supplementation. After supplementation, lactate, CK, and TNF-α levels significantly increased and TAC decreased after exercise in the control group. Whereas the TAC and lactate levels did not change significantly, but CK and TNF-α increased significantly in the supplement group. Therefore, this results showed that NAC improved the muscle fatigue, VO2max, maintained TAC, controlled lactate production, but had no influence on CK and TNF-α.

  11. [Association of occupational chronic psychological stress with heat shock protein 70 in serum and tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, F Y; Tian, R L; Qiang, Y; He, K P; Liu, H R; Zhang, W; Song, H

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between occupational chronic psychological stress with heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Using case-control study design, we selected 622 cases in 20 to 60 years old and unrelated patients with metabolic syndrome as the case group between October 2011 and October 2012 at two hospitals of Ningxia hui autonomous region. At the same time, we selected 600 healthy people from health check-up crowd in the above two hospitals as control group. The the research objects were sex, age, nation, height, weight, smoking, drinking, exercise, and so on. After informed consent, all the research objects were collected fasting venous blood samples 10 ml in order to proceed laboratory testing of biochemical indicators. The expression of HSP70 and TNF-α in serum was determined by ELISA. Using the revised occupational stress inventory (OSI) to survey the occupational chronic psychological stress factors and stress level of research object. The correlation of occupational chronic psychological stress scores with HSP70 and TNF-α was investigated by partial correlation analysis. We built a multivariate linear regression equation With HSP70 and TNF alpha as the independent variable and occupational chronic psychological stress scores as the dependent variable, using equation of the determination coefficient R(2) to judge the degree of fitting equation. The total points of chronic stress factors in all respondents was (136.65±16.19). Among them, the mild stress level group was 313, moderate was 588, severe was 321, chronic heart stress factors scores were (119.96±13.30), (135.33±3.23), (155.33±13.55) points, respectively. In the case group subjects, the expression of HSP70 in mild, moderate and severe occupational chronic psychological stress levels were (29.88±30.08), (36.38±30.08), (27.16±23.77) ng/ml (F=6.85, P=0.001). The control group were (27.64±9.89), (39.78±29.77), (3.94±3.09) ng/ml (F=125.71, Pstress

  12. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis in baboons through an exclusive effect on the p55 receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poll, T.; Jansen, P. M.; van Zee, K. J.; Welborn, M. B.; de Jong, I.; Hack, C. E.; Loetscher, H.; Lesslauer, W.; Lowry, S. F.; Moldawer, L. L.

    1996-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) can bind to two distinct transmembrane receptors, the p55 and p75 TNF receptors. We compared the capability of two mutant TNF proteins with exclusive affinity for the p55 or p75 TNF receptor with that of wild type TNF, to activate the hemostatic mechanism in

  13. The serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha is not an index of growth-hormone- or obesity-induced insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincelli, A I; Brunani, A; Scacchi, M; Dubini, A; Borsotti, R; Tibaldi, A; Pasqualinotto, L; Maestri, E; Cavagnini, F

    2001-01-01

    The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) might play a central role in insulin resistance, a frequent correlate of obesity likely contributing to some obesity-associated complications. Adult growth hormone (GH) deficiency syndrome (GHDA) shares with obesity excessive fat mass, hyperlipidemia, increased cardiovascular risk, and insulin resistance. On the other hand, GH has been shown to induce transient deterioration of glucose metabolism and insulin resistance when administered in normal humans and in GHDA patients. No information is presently available on the relationship between serum TNF-alpha levels and insulin sensitivity in GHDA. We compared the serum TNF-alpha levels found in 10 GHDA patients before and after a 6-month recombinant human GH therapy (Genotropin), in an insulin resistance prone population of 16 obese (OB) patients and in 38 normal-weight healthy blood donors (controls). The insulin sensitivity was assessed by a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp in all the GHDA patients and in 10 OB and in 6 control subjects. The serum TNF-alpha levels were not significantly different in OB patients (42.2 +/- 12.81 pg/ml), in GHDA patients at baseline (71.3 +/- 23.97 pg/ml), and in controls (55.3 +/- 14.28 pg/ml). A slight decrease of TNF-alpha values was noted in GHDA patients after 6 months of recombinant human GH treatment (44.5 +/- 20.19 pg/ml; NS vs. baseline). The insulin sensitivity (M) was significantly reduced in OB patients (2.4 +/- 0.30 mg/kg/min) as compared with control subjects (7.5 +/- 0.39 mg/kg/min) and in GHDA patients both at baseline (6.6 +/- 0.6 mg/kg/min) and after recombinant human GH therapy (5.6 +/- 0.7 mg/kg/min). The insulin sensitivity in the GHDA patients, similar to that of controls at baseline, worsened after recombinant human GH treatment (p < 0.05 vs. baseline; p = 0.05 vs. controls). Linear regression analysis showed no correlation between TNF-alpha and M values (see text) in all patient groups. These data indicate

  14. Gestational Day-Dependent Expression of Interleukin-10 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha in Porphyromonas gingivalis-infected Pregnant Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banun Kusumawardani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Fetal growth restriction remains a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Porphyromonas gingivaliscan induce placental inflammatory response resulting in fetal growth restriction. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the potential utility of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in rat placental tissues to understand whether these events were causally related. Methods: Female rats were infected with live-Porphyromonas gingivalis at concentration of 2x109 cells/ml into subgingival sulcus area of the maxillary first molar before and/or during pregnancy. They were sacrificed on gestational day (GD-14 and GD20. The expression of TNF-α and IL-10 in macrophages and trophoblast cells were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results: A higher expression of TNF-α was found in spongiotrophoblast of the Pg-BD group on GD14 (6.30±1.16, and in trophoblastic giant cells of Pg-D group on GD20 (5.50±1.35. Furthermore, a higher expression of IL-10 was found in trophoblastic giant cells of the Pg-BD group on GD14 (4.50±1.51 and in syncytiotrophoblasts of Pg-BD group on GD20 (8.70±2.67. Conclusion: The expression of TNF-α on GD14 and GD20 were accompanied by increased expression of IL-10. The placental pathologic conditions induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis can be inhibited by elevated expression of IL-10 in macrophages and trophoblast cells.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i3.199

  15. A Role for Protein Phosphatase 2A in Regulating p38 Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Activation and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Expression during Influenza Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna H. Y. Law

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses of avian origin continue to pose pandemic threats to human health. Some of the H5N1 and H9N2 virus subtypes induce markedly elevated cytokine levels when compared with the seasonal H1N1 virus. We previously showed that H5N1/97 hyperinduces tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha through p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK. However, the detailed mechanisms of p38MAPK activation and TNF-alpha hyperinduction following influenza virus infections are not known. Negative feedback regulations of cytokine expression play important roles in avoiding overwhelming production of proinflammatory cytokines. Here we hypothesize that protein phosphatases are involved in the regulation of cytokine expressions during influenza virus infection. We investigated the roles of protein phosphatases including MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1 and protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A in modulating p38MAPK activation and downstream TNF-alpha expressions in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (PBMac infected with H9N2/G1 or H1N1 influenza virus. We demonstrate that H9N2/G1 virus activated p38MAPK and hyperinduced TNF-alpha production in PBMac when compared with H1N1 virus. H9N2/G1 induced PP2A activity in PBMac and, with the treatment of a PP2A inhibitor, p38MAPK phosphorylation and TNF-alpha production were further increased in the virus-infected macrophages. However, H9N2/G1 did not induce the expression of PP2A indicating that the activation of PP2A is not mediated by p38MAPK in virus-infected PBMac. On the other hand, PP2A may not be the targets of H9N2/G1 in the upstream of p38MAPK signaling pathways since H1N1 also induced PP2A activation in primary macrophages. Our results may provide new insights into the control of cytokine dysregulation.

  16. Inhibition of Hypoxia Inducible Factor Alpha and Astrocyte-Elevated Gene-1 Mediates Cryptotanshinone Exerted Antitumor Activity in Hypoxic PC-3 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Jeong Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cryptotanshinone (CT was known to exert antitumor activity in several cancers, its molecular mechanism under hypoxia still remains unclear. Here, the roles of AEG-1 and HIF-1α in CT-induced antitumor activity were investigated in hypoxic PC-3 cells. CT exerted cytotoxicity against prostate cancer cells and suppressed HIF-1α accumulation and AEG-1 expression in hypoxic PC-3 cells. Also, AEG-1 was overexpressed in prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, HIF-1α siRNA transfection enhanced the cleavages of caspase-9,3, and PAPR and decreased expression of Bcl-2 and AEG1 induced by CT in hypoxic PC-3 cells. Of note, DMOG enhanced the stability of AEG-1 and HIF-1α during hypoxia. Additionally, CT significantly reduced cellular level of VEGF in PC-3 cells and disturbed tube formation of HUVECs. Consistently, ChIP assay revealed that CT inhibited the binding of HIF-1α to VEGF promoter. Furthermore, CT at 10 mg/kg suppressed the growth of PC-3 cells in BALB/c athymic nude mice by 46.4% compared to untreated control. Consistently, immunohistochemistry revealed decreased expression of Ki-67, CD34, VEGF, carbonic anhydrase IX, and AEG-1 indices in CT-treated group compared to untreated control. Overall, our findings suggest that CT exerts antitumor activity via inhibition of HIF-1α, AEG1, and VEGF as a potent chemotherapeutic agent.

  17. Nodularin induces tumor necrosis factor-alpha and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and leads to induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meili, Nicole; Christen, Verena [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland (FHNW), Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Fent, Karl, E-mail: karl.fent@fhnw.ch [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland (FHNW), Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich (ETH Zürich), Department of Environmental Systems Science, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2016-06-01

    Nodularin is produced by the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena. It is of concern due to hepatotoxicity in humans and animals. Here we investigated unexplored molecular mechanisms by transcription analysis in human liver cells, focusing on induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and components of the activator protein-1 complex in human hepatoma cells (Huh7) exposed to non-cytotoxic (0.1 and 1 μM) and toxic concentrations (5 μM) for 24, 48, and 72 h. Transcripts of TNF-α and ER stress marker genes were strongly induced at 1 and 5 μM at all time-points. TNF-α led to induction of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), as demonstrated by induction of CJUN and CFOS, which form the AP-1 complex. Human primary liver cells reacted more sensitive than Huh7 cells. They showed higher cytotoxicity and induction of TNF-α and ER stress at 2.5 nM, while HepG2 cells were insensitive up to 10 μM due to low expression of organic anion transporting polypeptides. Furthermore, nodularin led to induction of TNF-α protein, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous (CHOP) protein. Our data indicate that nodularin induces inflammation and ER stress and leads to activation of MAPK in liver cells. All of these activated pathways, which were analysed here for the first time in detail, may contribute to the hepatotoxic, and tumorigenic action of nodularin. - Highlights: • Toxicity of nodularin and its mechanisms of action are poorly understood. • We investigated mechanisms of nodularin toxicity in human liver cell lines and human hepatocytes. • We identified several pathways involved in nodularin toxicity. • Nodularin induces TNF-α, MAPK pathway and ER stress • These activated pathways may contribute to the hepatotoxic and tumorigenic action of nodularin.

  18. Nodularin induces tumor necrosis factor-alpha and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and leads to induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meili, Nicole; Christen, Verena; Fent, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Nodularin is produced by the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena. It is of concern due to hepatotoxicity in humans and animals. Here we investigated unexplored molecular mechanisms by transcription analysis in human liver cells, focusing on induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and components of the activator protein-1 complex in human hepatoma cells (Huh7) exposed to non-cytotoxic (0.1 and 1 μM) and toxic concentrations (5 μM) for 24, 48, and 72 h. Transcripts of TNF-α and ER stress marker genes were strongly induced at 1 and 5 μM at all time-points. TNF-α led to induction of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), as demonstrated by induction of CJUN and CFOS, which form the AP-1 complex. Human primary liver cells reacted more sensitive than Huh7 cells. They showed higher cytotoxicity and induction of TNF-α and ER stress at 2.5 nM, while HepG2 cells were insensitive up to 10 μM due to low expression of organic anion transporting polypeptides. Furthermore, nodularin led to induction of TNF-α protein, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous (CHOP) protein. Our data indicate that nodularin induces inflammation and ER stress and leads to activation of MAPK in liver cells. All of these activated pathways, which were analysed here for the first time in detail, may contribute to the hepatotoxic, and tumorigenic action of nodularin. - Highlights: • Toxicity of nodularin and its mechanisms of action are poorly understood. • We investigated mechanisms of nodularin toxicity in human liver cell lines and human hepatocytes. • We identified several pathways involved in nodularin toxicity. • Nodularin induces TNF-α, MAPK pathway and ER stress • These activated pathways may contribute to the hepatotoxic and tumorigenic action of nodularin.

  19. Mucosal expression of basic fibroblastic growth factor, Syndecan 1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in diverticular disease of the colon: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tursi, A; Elisei, W; Brandimarte, G; Giorgetti, G M; Inchingolo, C D; Nenna, R; Picchio, M; Giorgio, F; Ierardi, E

    2012-09-01

    Inflammation may be detected in diverticular disease (DD), and fibrosis may also develop. We assessed the mucosal expression of bFGF, SD1, and TNF-α in DD according to the severity of the disease. Moreover, we assessed the response to therapy of these cytokines in acute uncomplicated diverticulitis (AUD). Fifteen patients affected by AUD and seven patients affected by symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) were enrolled. Patients with asymptomatic diverticulosis (AD), segmental colitis associated with diverticulosis (SCAD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and healthy subjects (HC) served as control groups. The expression of bFGF, SD1, and TNF-α was significantly higher in diverticulitis than in healthy controls, in diverticulosis, and in uncomplicated diverticular disease. Cytokines were significantly higher in uncomplicated diverticular disease than in healthy controls. Cytokine expression in diverticulitis did not differ significantly from that of ulcerative colitis. After treatment, TNF-α expression dropped significantly. Mucosal TNF-α is overexpressed only in symptomatic DD, while SD1 and bFGF are already overexpressed in AD. Finally, TNF-α but not SD1 or bFGF expression seems to be influenced by the treatment in AUD. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells correlates with early childhood social interaction in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinodan, Manabu; Iwata, Keiko; Ikawa, Daisuke; Yamashita, Yasunori; Yamamuro, Kazuhiko; Toritsuka, Michihiro; Kimoto, Sohei; Okumura, Kazuki; Yamauchi, Takahira; Yoshino, Hiroki; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Mori, Norio; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2017-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, poor communication skills, and repetitive/restrictive behaviors. Elevated blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been reported in subjects with autism spectrum disorder. On the other hand, early childhood adverse experience also increases blood levels of these cytokines. Since social experience of children with autism spectrum disorder is generally unlike to typically developing children, we hypothesized that social interaction during childhood contribute to pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in subjects with autism spectrum disorder. We compared revised Autism Diagnostic Interview scores and expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of subjects with autism spectrum disorder (n = 30). The score of domain A on the revised Autism Diagnostic Interview, indicating social interaction impairment in early childhood, was negatively correlated with tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA expression level in peripheral blood mononuclear cells but not interleukin-1β or -6. Consistently, tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA expression was markedly low in subjects with autism spectrum disorder compared to typically developing children who presumably experienced the regular levels of social interaction. These findings suggest that the low blood levels of tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA in subjects with autism spectrum disorder might be due to impaired social interaction in early childhood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Inflammatory microenvironment and tumor necrosis factor alpha as modulators of periostin and CCN2 expression in human non-healing skin wounds and dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Christopher G; Forbes, Thomas L; Leask, Andrew; Hamilton, Douglas W

    2015-04-01

    Non-healing skin wounds remain a significant clinical burden, and in recent years, the regulatory role of matricellular proteins in skin healing has received significant attention. Periostin and CCN2 are both upregulated at day 3 post-wounding in murine skin, where they regulate aspects of the proliferative phase of repair including mesenchymal cell infiltration and myofibroblast differentiation. In this study, we examined 1) the wound phenotype and expression patterns of periostin and CCN2 in non-healing skin wounds in humans and 2) the regulation of their expression in wound fibroblasts by tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Chronic skin wounds had a pro-inflammatory phenotype, characterized by macrophage infiltration, TNFα immunoreactivity, and neutrophil infiltration. Periostin, but not CCN2, was significantly suppressed in non-healing wound edge tissue at the mRNA and protein level compared with non-involved skin. In vitro, human wound edge fibroblasts populations were still able to proliferate and contract collagen gels. Compared to cells from non-involved skin, periostin and α-SMA mRNA levels increased significantly in the presence of TGF-β1 in wound cells and were significantly decreased by TNFα, but not those of Col1A2 or CCN2. In the presence of both TGF-β1 and TNFα, periostin and α-SMA mRNA levels were significantly reduced compared to TGF-β1 treated wound cells. Effects of TGF-β1 and TNFα on gene expression were also more pronounced in wound edge cells compared to non-involved fibroblasts. We conclude that variations in the expression of periostin and CCN2, are related to an inflammatory microenvironment and the presence of TNFα in human chronic wounds. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Elevated Dengue Virus Nonstructural Protein 1 Serum Levels and Altered Toll-Like Receptor 4 Expression, Nitric Oxide, and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Production in Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Maciel Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. During dengue virus (DV infection, monocytes produce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO which might be critical to immunopathogenesis. Since intensity of DV replication may determine clinical outcomes, it is important to know the effects of viral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 on innate immune parameters of infected patients. The present study investigates the relationships between dengue virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 serum levels and innate immune response (TLR4 expression and TNF-α/NO production of DV infected patients presenting different clinical outcomes. Methodology/Principal Findings. We evaluated NO, NS1 serum levels (ELISA, TNF-α production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, and TLR4 expression on CD14+ cells from 37 dengue patients and 20 healthy controls. Early in infection, increased expression of TLR4 in monocytes of patients with dengue fever (DF was detected compared to patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. Moreover, PBMCs of DHF patients showed higher NS1 and lower NO serum levels during the acute febrile phase and a reduced response to TLR4 stimulation by LPS (with a reduced TNF-α production when compared to DF patients. Conclusions/Significance. During DV infection in humans, some innate immune parameters change, depending on the NS1 serum levels, and phase and severity of the disease which may contribute to development of different clinical outcomes.

  3. miR-19a promotes colitis-associated colorectal cancer by regulating tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3-NF-κB feedback loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T; Xu, X; Xu, Q; Ren, J; Shen, S; Fan, C; Hou, Y

    2017-06-08

    Chronic inflammation is believed to have a crucial role in colon cancer development. MicroRNA (miRNA) deregulation is common in human colorectal cancers, but little is known regarding whether miRNA drives tumor progression by regulating inflammation. Here, we showed that miR-19a can promote colitis and colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC) development using a CAC mouse model and an acute colitis mouse model. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) stimulation can increase miR-19a expression, and upregulated miR-19a can in turn activate nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling and TNF-α production by targeting TNF alpha-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3). miR-19a inhibition can also alleviate CAC in vivo. Moreover, the regulatory effects of miR-19a on TNFAIP3 and NF-κB signaling were confirmed using tumor samples from patients with colon cancer. These new findings demonstrate that miR-19a has a direct role in upregulating NF-κB signaling and that miR-19a has roles in inflammation and CAC.

  4. Role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and platelet-activating factor in neoangiogenesis induced by synovial fluids of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupia, E; Montrucchio, G; Battaglia, E; Modena, V; Camussi, G

    1996-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate in vivo in a mouse model the stimulation of neoangiogenesis by synovial fluids of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to determine the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and platelet-activating factor (PAF) in the formation of new vessels. Angiogenesis was studied in a mouse model in which Matrigel, injected subcutaneously, was used as a vehicle for the delivery of potential angiogenic stimuli. Synovial fluids of patients with RA but not with osteoarthritis (OA) were shown to induce neoangiogenesis. Since synovial fluid of patients with RA contained significantly higher levels of TNF-alpha-like bioactivity and of PAF than that of patients with OA, the role of these mediators was evaluated by using an anti-TNF-alpha neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) and a PAF receptor antagonist, WEB 2170. When added to Matrigel, anti-TNF-alpha mAb and particularly WEB 2170 significantly reduced neoangiogenesis induced by synovial fluids of RA patients. Moreover, PAF extracted and purified from synovial fluid induced angiogenesis. These results suggest that the neoangiogenesis observed in rheumatoid synovitis may be due, at least in part, to the angiogenic effect of locally produced TNF-alpha and PAF.

  5. Shiga toxin 1 induces on lipopolysaccharide-treated astrocytes the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha that alter brain-like endothelium integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica I Landoni

    Full Text Available The hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS is characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and renal dysfunction. The typical form of HUS is generally associated with infections by Gram-negative Shiga toxin (Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC. Endothelial dysfunction induced by Stx is central, but bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS and neutrophils (PMN contribute to the pathophysiology. Although renal failure is characteristic of this syndrome, neurological complications occur in severe cases and is usually associated with death. Impaired blood-brain barrier (BBB is associated with damage to cerebral endothelial cells (ECs that comprise the BBB. Astrocytes (ASTs are inflammatory cells in the brain and determine the BBB function. ASTs are in close proximity to ECs, hence the study of the effects of Stx1 and LPS on ASTs, and the influence of their response on ECs is essential. We have previously demonstrated that Stx1 and LPS induced activation of rat ASTs and the release of inflammatory factors such as TNF-α, nitric oxide and chemokines. Here, we demonstrate that rat ASTs-derived factors alter permeability of ECs with brain properties (HUVECd; suggesting that functional properties of BBB could also be affected. Additionally, these factors activate HUVECd and render them into a proagregant state promoting PMN and platelets adhesion. Moreover, these effects were dependent on ASTs secreted-TNF-α. Stx1 and LPS-induced ASTs response could influence brain ECs integrity and BBB function once Stx and factors associated to the STEC infection reach the brain parenchyma and therefore contribute to the development of the neuropathology observed in HUS.

  6. Shiga Toxin 1 Induces on Lipopolysaccharide-Treated Astrocytes the Release of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha that Alter Brain-Like Endothelium Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landoni, Verónica I.; Schierloh, Pablo; de Campos Nebel, Marcelo; Fernández, Gabriela C.; Calatayud, Cecilia; Lapponi, María J.; Isturiz, Martín A.

    2012-01-01

    The hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and renal dysfunction. The typical form of HUS is generally associated with infections by Gram-negative Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Endothelial dysfunction induced by Stx is central, but bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and neutrophils (PMN) contribute to the pathophysiology. Although renal failure is characteristic of this syndrome, neurological complications occur in severe cases and is usually associated with death. Impaired blood-brain barrier (BBB) is associated with damage to cerebral endothelial cells (ECs) that comprise the BBB. Astrocytes (ASTs) are inflammatory cells in the brain and determine the BBB function. ASTs are in close proximity to ECs, hence the study of the effects of Stx1 and LPS on ASTs, and the influence of their response on ECs is essential. We have previously demonstrated that Stx1 and LPS induced activation of rat ASTs and the release of inflammatory factors such as TNF-α, nitric oxide and chemokines. Here, we demonstrate that rat ASTs-derived factors alter permeability of ECs with brain properties (HUVECd); suggesting that functional properties of BBB could also be affected. Additionally, these factors activate HUVECd and render them into a proagregant state promoting PMN and platelets adhesion. Moreover, these effects were dependent on ASTs secreted-TNF-α. Stx1 and LPS-induced ASTs response could influence brain ECs integrity and BBB function once Stx and factors associated to the STEC infection reach the brain parenchyma and therefore contribute to the development of the neuropathology observed in HUS. PMID:22479186

  7. Maturation of human dendritic cells by monocyte-conditioned medium is dependent upon trace amounts of lipopolysaccharide inducing tumour necrosis factor alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nersting, Jacob; Svenson, Morten; Andersen, Vagn

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the ability of monocyte-conditioned medium (MCM), generated by monocytes cultured on plastic-immobilised immunoglobulin, to stimulate maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC). Earlier reports suggest that MCM is a strong inducer of irreversible DC maturation......, whereas we find, that adding a small amount of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to the MCM-generating cultures is required for the production of a DC-stimulatory MCM. Moreover, compared with addition of LPS directly to the DC cultures, stimulation via MCM cultures increases by several fold the DC...

  8. A role for b-cell-depleting agents in treating psoriatic skin lesions induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancuta Codrina Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in understanding the pathological pathways, clinical pattern and management opportunities for new-onset psoriasis as a paradoxical adverse event in patients receiving TNF inhibitors for their immune-mediated disorder, there is a subset of patients who are either partial responders or non-responders, whatever the therapeutic scenario. We present the case of new-onset psoriasis and severe alopecia development in a case study of long-standing rheumatoid arthritis (RA treated with adalimumab (ADA and leflunomide. Since skin lesions and alopecia are resistant to the classic protocol (topical treatment, ADA discontinuation and RA becomes highly active, rituximab (RTX was started. Dramatic improvement in joint disease, total remission of alopecia and partial remission of pustular psoriasis were described after the first RTX cycle. Although B-cell-depleting agents result in controversial effects on psoriatic skin lesions, this is the first case of ADA-induced psoriasis and alopecia that improved under RTX, suggesting a possible role in treating such a patient population.

  9. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha modulates effects of aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands on cell proliferation and expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes in rat liver "stem-like" cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Umannová, Lenka; Zatloukalová, Jiřina; Machala, M.; Krčmář, P.; Májková, Z.; Hennig, B.; Kozubík, Alois; Vondráček, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 1 (2007), s. 79-89 ISSN 0388-1350 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/05/0595 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : tumor necrosis factor-alpha * xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes * dioxin Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  10. Temporary reversal by topotecan of marked insulin resistance in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome: case report and possible mechanism for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, M O; Krell, K E; Armour , W E; Liljenquist, J E

    2001-06-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is an important mediator of insulin resistance in obesity and diabetes through its ability to decrease the tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor. We report here a remarkable degree of insulin resistance in a patient with adult respiratory distress syndrome and myelodysplasia.

  11. Tumor necrosis factor alpha selectively sensitizes human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells to heat and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, G.H.; McHugh, T.; Weber, R.; Goeddel, D.V.

    1991-01-01

    We report here that infection of the human T-cell line HUT-78 with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases its sensitivity to heat and radiation toxicity. A possible explanation for this result may be the reduced expression of manganous superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in HIV-infected cells compared to uninfected cells. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) further sensitizes HIV-infected cells but not uninfected cells to heat and radiation. This is consistent with the ability of TNF-alpha to induce the expression of MnSOD in uninfected but not in HIV-infected cells. HIV-infected HUT-78 cell lines engineered to overexpress MnSOD are more resistant to heat and radiation than HIV-infected cells that do not overexpress MnSOD. However, treatment with TNF-alpha still sensitizes these cells to heat and radiation

  12. Retinol as a micronutrients related to cervical local immunity: The expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha specifically stimulated with E6 epitope of human papillomavirus type-16 and ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T cell in natural history of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, T. W.; Aziz, M. F.; Ibrahim, F.; Andrijono

    2017-08-01

    Retinol is one of the antioxidant micronutrients that plays essential roles in the immune system, by preventing the persistence of modulating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and cytokines production. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-α) is an acute pro-inflammatory cytokine which has many crucial roles in controlling HPV. In contrast, when persistent infection occurs, TNF-α induces carcinogenesis. The ratio of CD4+ cells to CD8+ T cells and adequate TNF-α production in acute HPV infection are key points for clearance. The aim of this research is to analyze the sufficiency level of retinol deposit, the expression of TNF-α, and the ratio of CD4+: CD8+ T cells in a normal cervix, clearance and persistent HPV subclinical infection, and cervical cancer group. The sufficiency level of retinol deposit was analyzed from peripheral blood using the ELISA method. The cervico-vaginal secretions, which were incubated for 24 hours, were stimulated specifically by E6 epitope HPV type-16, measuring TNF-α expression semi-quantitatively by the ELISpot method and CD4+/CD8+ T cells quantitatively by flowcytometry method. The sufficient level of retinol deposit in a normal cervix, clearance HPV subclinical infection, persistent, and cervical cancer group was 85%, 75% (OR 1.89), 33.3% (OR 11.33), and 75% (OR 1.89), respectively. The expression of TNF-α in normal cervix group was 10%, while for cervical cancer it was 75% (OR 27.00; p CD4+: CD8+ T cells in the normal cervix and cervical cancer group was 10% and 25% (OR 0.33). There was no high ratio of CD4+: CD8+ T cells in clearance (OR 1.22) and persistent (OR 0.95) HPV subclinical infection groups. This study was able to prove that the normal cervix group has the highest retinol deposit sufficiency level and the cervical cancer group has the highest TNF-α expression (OR 27; p < 0.001). The lowest of retinol deposit sufficiency level was not in cervical cancer, but in the persistent HPV subclinical infection group (OR 11.33). There was

  13. Effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha infusion on the incretin effect in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Lehrskov-Schmidt, Louise; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with peripheral insulin resistance, impaired incretin effect, and increased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Whereas TNF-α infusion at a dose that induces systemic inflammation in healthy volunteers has been demonstrated to induce...

  14. Functional activities of receptors for tumor necrosis factor-alpha on human vascular endothelial cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paleolog, E.M.; Delasalle, S.A.; Buurman, W.A.; Feldmann, M.

    1994-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) plays a critical role in the control of endothelial cell function and hence in regulating traffic of circulating cells into tissues in vivo. Stimulation of endothelial cells in vitro by TNF-alpha increases the surface expression of leukocyte adhesion

  15. Cytokine production in the central nervous system of Lewis rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: dynamics of mRNA expression for interleukin-10, interleukin-12, cytolysin, tumor necrosis factor alpha and tumor necrosis factor beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Ljungdahl, A; Höjeberg, B

    1995-01-01

    in cryosections of spinal cords using in situ hybridization technique with synthetic oligonucleotide probes. Three stages of cytokine mRNA expression could be distinguished: (i) interleukin (IL)-12, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-beta (= lymphotoxin-alpha) and cytolysin appeared early and before onset of clinical...... signs of EAE; (ii) TNF-alpha peaked at height of clinical signs of EAE; (iii) IL-10 appeared increasingly at and after clinical recovery. The early expression of IL-12 prior to the expression of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) mRNA shown previously is consistent with a role of IL-12 in promoting...... proliferation and activation of T helper 1 (Th1) type cells producing IFN-gamma. The TNF-beta mRNA expression prior to onset of clinical signs favours a role for this cytokine in disease initiation. A pathogenic effector role of TNF-alpha was suggested from these observations that TNF-alpha mRNA expression...

  16. Endogenous brain IL-1 mediates LPS-induced anorexia and hypothalamic cytokine expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layé, S; Gheusi, G; Cremona, S; Combe, C; Kelley, K; Dantzer, R; Parnet, P

    2000-07-01

    The present study was designed to determine the role of endogenous brain interleukin (IL)-1 in the anorexic response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Intraperitoneal administration of LPS (5-10 microgram/mouse) induced a dramatic, but transient, decrease in food intake, associated with an enhanced expression of proinflammatory cytokine mRNA (IL-1beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) in the hypothalamus. This dose of LPS also increased plasma levels of IL-1beta. Intracerebroventricular pretreatment with IL-1 receptor antagonist (4 microgram/mouse) attenuated LPS-induced depression of food intake and totally blocked the LPS-induced enhanced expression of proinflammatory cytokine mRNA measured in the hypothalamus 1 h after treatment. In contrast, LPS-induced increases in plasma levels of IL-1beta were not altered. These findings indicate that endogenous brain IL-1 plays a pivotal role in the development of the hypothalamic cytokine response to a systemic inflammatory stimulus.

  17. Effect of apigenin, kaempferol and resveratrol on the gene expression and protein secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in RAW-264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacz-Wrobel, Marta; Borkowska, Paulina; Paul-Samojedny, Monika; Kowalczyk, Malgorzata; Fila-Danilow, Anna; Suchanek-Raif, Renata; Kowalski, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Polyphenols such as apigenin, kaempferol or resveratrol are typically found in plants, including fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices, which have a wide range of biological functions such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, vasodilative, anticoagulative and proapoptotic. Discovering such multifunctional compounds in widely consumed plant-based products - ones that both inhibit the release of TNF-α from tissue macrophages and at the same time enhance the secretion of IL-10 - would be an important signpost in the quest for effective pharmacological treatment of numerous diseases that have an inflammatory etiology. The aim of the study is to investigate the impact of biologically active polyphenols such as apigenin, resveratrol and kaempferol on gene expression and protein secretion of IL-10 and TNF-α in line RAW-264.7. Cells were cultured under standard conditions. IL-10 and TNF-α genes expression were examined using QRT-PCR and to assess cytokines concentration ELISA have been used. Apigenin, kaempferol and resveratrol at a dose 30μM significantly decrease the TNF-α expression and secretion. Apigenin decrease the IL-10 expression and secretion. Furthermore, increase in IL-10 secretion after administration of kaempferol and resveratrol were observed. In the process of administration of tested compounds before LPS, which activate macrophages, decrease of TNF-α secretion after apigenin and kaempferol and increase of IL-10 secretion after resveratrol were observed. The results of present work indicate that 1) apigenin, resveratrol and kaempferol may reduce the intensity of inflammatory processes by inhibiting the secretion of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α, and resveratrol and kaempferol additionally by increasing the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 2) the studies indicate the potentially beneficial - anti-inflammatory - impact of diet rich in products including apigenin, resveratrol and kaempferol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights

  18. Cytokines interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha regulate different transcriptional and alternative splicing networks in primary beta-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortis, Fernanda; Naamane, Najib; Flamez, Daisy

    2010-01-01

    by the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1beta + interferon (IFN)-gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha + IFN-gamma in primary rat beta-cells. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Fluorescence-activated cell sorter-purified rat beta-cells were exposed to IL-1beta + IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha + IFN-gamma for 6 or 24 h......-cells, with temporal differences in the number of genes modulated by IL-1beta + IFNgamma or TNF-alpha + IFN-gamma. These cytokine combinations induced differential expression of inflammatory response genes, which is related to differential induction of IFN regulatory factor-7. Both treatments decreased the expression...... of genes involved in the maintenance of beta-cell phenotype and growth/regeneration. Cytokines induced hypoxia-inducible factor-alpha, which in this context has a proapoptotic role. Cytokines also modified the expression of >20 genes involved in RNA splicing, and exon array analysis showed cytokine...

  19. Image Guidance and Assessment of Radiation Induced Gene Therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pelizzari, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Image guidance and assessment techniques are being developed for combined radiation/gene therapy, which utilizes a radiation-inducible gene promoter to cause expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha...

  20. Early correlation of microglial activation with enhanced tumor necrosis factor-alpha and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression specifically within the entorhinal cortex of triple transgenic Alzheimer's disease mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaFerla Frank M

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease is a complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized pathologically by a temporal and spatial progression of beta-amyloid (Aβ deposition, neurofibrillary tangle formation, and synaptic degeneration. Inflammatory processes have been implicated in initiating and/or propagating AD-associated pathology within the brain, as inflammatory cytokine expression and other markers of inflammation are pronounced in individuals with AD pathology. The current study examines whether inflammatory processes are evident early in the disease process in the 3xTg-AD mouse model and if regional differences in inflammatory profiles exist. Methods Coronal brain sections were used to identify Aβ in 2, 3, and 6-month 3xTg-AD and non-transgenic control mice. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was performed on microdissected entorhinal cortex and hippocampus tissue of 2, 3, and 6-month 3xTg-AD and non-transgenic mice. Microglial/macrophage cell numbers were quantified using unbiased stereology in 3xTg-AD and non-transgenic entorhinal cortex and hippocampus containing sections. Results We observed human Aβ deposition at 3 months in 3xTg-AD mice which is enhanced by 6 months of age. Interestingly, we observed a 14.8-fold up-regulation of TNF-α and 10.8-fold up-regulation of MCP-1 in the entorhinal cortex of 3xTg-AD mice but no change was detected over time in the hippocampus or in either region of non-transgenic mice. Additionally, this increase correlated with a specific increase in F4/80-positive microglia and macrophages in 3xTg-AD entorhinal cortex. Conclusion Our data provide evidence for early induction of inflammatory processes in a model that develops amyloid and neurofibrillary tangle pathology. Additionally, our results link inflammatory processes within the entorhinal cortex, which represents one of the earliest AD-affected brain regions.

  1. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the human platelet-derived growth factor alpha receptor gene promoter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afink, G. B.; Nistér, M.; Stassen, B. H.; Joosten, P. H.; Rademakers, P. J.; Bongcam-Rudloff, E.; van Zoelen, E. J.; Mosselman, S.

    1995-01-01

    Expression of the platelet-derived growth factor alpha receptor (PDGF alpha R) is strictly regulated during mammalian development and tumorigenesis. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specific regulation of PDGF alpha R expression are unknown, but transcriptional regulation of the PDGF alpha R

  2. Astrocyte-targeted expression of interleukin-6 protects the central nervous system during neuroglial degeneration induced by 6-aminonicotinamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Camats, Jordi; Hadberg, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    ). This study demonstrates that transgenic IL-6 expression significantly increases the 6-AN-induced inflammatory response of reactive astrocytes, microglia/macrophages, and lymphocytes in the brainstem. Also, IL-6 induced significant increases in proinflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor......-alpha as well as growth factors basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), transforming growth factor-beta, neurotrophin-3, angiopoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and the receptor for bFGF. In accordance, angiogenesis was increased in GFAP-IL6 mice relative to controls after 6-AN. Moreover, oxidative...

  3. Chronic liver injury in mice promotes impairment of skin barrier function via tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Satoshi; Hiramoto, Keiichi; Koyama, Mayu; Ooi, Kazuya

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol is frequently used to induce chronic liver injury in laboratory animals. Alcohol causes oxidative stress in the liver and increases the expression of inflammatory mediators that cause hepatocellular damage. However, during chronic liver injury, it is unclear if/how these liver-derived factors affect distal tissues, such as the skin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate skin barrier function during chronic liver injury. Hairless mice were administered 5% or 10% ethanol for 8 weeks, and damages to the liver and skin were assessed using histological and protein-analysis methods, as well as by detecting inflammatory mediators in the plasma. After alcohol administration, the plasma concentration of the aspartate and alanine aminotransferases increased, while albumin levels decreased. In mice with alcohol-induced liver injury, transepidermal water loss was significantly increased, and skin hydration decreased concurrent with ceramide and type I collagen degradation. The plasma concentrations of [Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were significantly increased in mice with induced liver injury. TNF receptor (TNFR) 2 expression was upregulated in the skin of alcohol-administered mice, while TNFR1 levels remained constant. Interestingly, the impairment of skin barrier function in mice administered with 10% ethanol was ameliorated by administering an anti-TNF-α antibody. We propose a novel mechanism whereby plasma TNF-α, via TNFR2 alone or with TNFR1, plays an important role in skin barrier function during chronic liver disease in these mouse models.

  4. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha regulates the Hypocretin system via mRNA degradation and ubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Shuqin; Cai, Guo-Qiang; Zheng, Anni; Wang, Yuping; Jia, Jianping; Fang, Haotian; Yang, Youfeng; Hu, Meng; Ding, Qiang

    2011-04-01

    Recent studies recognize that Hypocretin system (also known as Orexin) plays a critical role in sleep/wake disorders and feeding behaviors. However, little is known about the regulation of the Hypocretin system. It is also known that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is involved in the regulation of sleep/wake cycle. Here, we test our hypothesis that the Hypocretin system is regulated by TNF-α. Prepro-Hypocretin and Hypocretin receptor 2 (HcrtR2) can be detected at a very low level in rat B35 neuroblastoma cells. In response to TNF-α, Prepro-Hypocretin mRNA and protein levels are down-regulated, and also HcrtR2 protein level is down-regulated in B35 cells. To investigate the mechanism, exogenous rat Prepro-Hypocretin and rat HcrtR2 were overexpressed in B35 cells. In response to TNF-α, protein and mRNA of Prepro-Hypocretin are significantly decreased (by 93% and 94%, respectively), and the half-life of Prepro-Hypocretin mRNA is decreased in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The level of HcrtR2 mRNA level is not affected by TNF-α treatment; however, HcrtR2 protein level is significantly decreased (by 86%) through ubiquitination in B35 cells treated with TNF-α. Downregulation of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1 and -2 (cIAP-1 and -2) abrogates the HcrtR2 ubiquitination induced by TNF-α. The control green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression is not affected by TNF-α treatment. These studies demonstrate that TNF-α can impair the function of the Hypocretin system by reducing the levels of both Prepro-Hypocretin and HcrtR2. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced enhancement of cryosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Raghav; Paciotti, Guilio F.; Bischof, John C.

    2008-02-01

    Local recurrence of cancer after cryosurgery is related to the inability to monitor and predict destruction of cancer (temperatures > -40°C) within an iceball. We previously reported that a cytokine adjuvant TNF-α could be used to achieve complete cancer destruction at the periphery of an iceball (0 to -40°C). This study is a further development of that work in which cryosurgery was performed using cryoprobes operating at temperatures > -40°C. LNCaP Pro 5 tumor grown in a dorsal skin fold chamber (DSFC) was frozen at -6°C after TNF-α incubation for 4 or 24 hours. Tumors grown in the hind limb were frozen with a probe tip temperature of -40°C, 4 or 24 hours after systemic injection with TNF-α. Both cryosurgery alone or TNF-α treatment alone caused only a minimal damage to the tumor tissue at the conditions used in the study. The combination of TNF-α and cryosurgery produced a significant damage to the tumor tissue in both the DSFC and the hind limb model system. This augmentation in cryoinjury was found to be time-dependent with 4-hour time period between the two treatments being more effective than 24-hour. These results suggests the possibility of cryotreatment at temperatures > -40°C with the administration of TNF-α.

  6. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Signaling in Trigeminal Ganglion Contributes to Mechanical Hypersensitivity in Masseter Muscle During Temporomandibular Joint Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Reio; Shinoda, Masamichi; Honda, Kuniya; Urata, Kentaro; Lee, Jun; Maruno, Mitsuru; Soma, Kumi; Okada, Shinji; Gionhaku, Nobuhito; Iwata, Koichi

    To determine the involvement of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) signaling in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) in the mechanical hypersensitivity of the masseter muscle during temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation. A total of 55 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Following injection of Complete Freund's Adjuvant into the TMJ, the mechanical sensitivities of the masseter muscle and the overlying facial skin were measured. Satellite glial cell (SGC) activation and TNFα expression in the TG were investigated immunohistochemically, and the effects of their inhibition on the mechanical hypersensitivity of the masseter muscle were also examined. Student t test or two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni multiple comparisons test were used for statistical analyses. P < .05 was considered to reflect statistical significance. Mechanical allodynia in the masseter muscle was induced without any inflammatory cell infiltration in the muscle after TMJ inflammation. SGC activation and an increased number of TNFα-immunoreactive cells were induced in the TG following TMJ inflammation. Intra-TG administration of an inhibitor of SGC activity or of TNFα-neutralizing antibody depressed both the increased number of TG cells encircled by activated SGCs and the mechanical hypersensitivity of the masseter following TMJ inflammation. These findings suggest that persistent masseter hypersensitivity associated with TMJ inflammation was mediated by SGC-TG neuron interactions via TNFα signaling in the TG.

  7. Activated human mast cells induce LOX-1-specific scavenger receptor expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervi Alanne-Kinnunen

    Full Text Available Activated mast cells in atherosclerotic lesions degranulate and release bioactive compounds capable of regulating atherogenesis. Here we examined the ability of activated human primary mast cells to regulate the expression of the major scavenger receptors in cultured human primary monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs.Components released by immunologically activated human primary mast cells induced a transient expression of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor (LOX-1 mRNA in HMDMs, while the expression of two other scavenger receptors, MSR1 and CD36, remained unaffected. The LOX-1-inducing secretory components were identified as histamine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1, which exhibited a synergistic effect on LOX-1 mRNA expression. Histamine induced a transient expression of LOX-1 protein. Mast cell -induced increase in LOX-1 expression was not associated with increased uptake of oxidized LDL by the macrophages.Mast cell-derived histamine, TNF-α, and TGF-β1 act in concert to induce a transient increase in LOX-1 expression in human primary monocyte-derived macrophages. The LOX-1-inducing activity potentially endows mast cells a hitherto unrecognized role in the regulation of innate immune reactions in atherogenesis.

  8. Sialoadhesin expressed on IFN-induced monocytes binds HIV-1 and enhances infectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Rempel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 infection dysregulates the immune system and alters gene expression in circulating monocytes. Differential gene expression analysis of CD14(+ monocytes from subjects infected with HIV-1 revealed increased expression of sialoadhesin (Sn, CD169, Siglec 1, a cell adhesion molecule first described in a subset of macrophages activated in chronic inflammatory diseases.We analyzed sialoadhesin expression on CD14(+ monocytes by flow cytometry and found significantly higher expression in subjects with elevated viral loads compared to subjects with undetectable viral loads. In cultured CD14(+ monocytes isolated from healthy individuals, sialoadhesin expression was induced by interferon-alpha and interferon-gamma but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Using a stringent binding assay, sialoadhesin-expressing monocytes adsorbed HIV-1 through interaction with the sialic acid residues on the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120. Furthermore, monocytes expressing sialoadhesin facilitated HIV-1 trans infection of permissive cells, which occurred in the absence of monocyte self-infection.Increased sialoadhesin expression on CD14(+ monocytes occurred in response to HIV-1 infection with maximum expression associated with high viral load. We show that interferons induce sialoadhesin in primary CD14(+ monocytes, which is consistent with an antiviral response during viremia. Our findings suggest that circulating sialoadhesin-expressing monocytes are capable of binding HIV-1 and effectively delivering virus to target cells thereby enhancing the distribution of HIV-1. Sialoadhesin could disseminate HIV-1 to viral reservoirs during monocyte immunosurveillance or migration to sites of inflammation and then facilitate HIV-1 infection of permissive cells.

  9. Vibration induced hearing loss in guinea pig cochlea: expression of TNF-alpha and VEGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jing; Pyykkö, Ilmari; Sutinen, Päivi; Toppila, Esko

    2005-04-01

    Transcranial vibration was applied for seven animals at a frequency of 250 Hz for 15 min, and five animals were used as normal controls to investigate cellular and molecular mechanism linked to vibration-induced hearing loss in animal model. Compound action potential (CAP) thresholds were measured by round window niche electrode. The expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and its receptors (TNF R1, TNF R2), vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors (VEGF R1, VEGF R2) were analysed by immunohistochemistry. Transcranial vibration caused expression of TNF-alpha, TNF R1 and TNF R2 in the cochlea and the expression of TNF R2 was stronger than that of TNF R1. Vibration also induced VEGF and VEGF R2 expression in the cochlea. The average immediate hearing loss was 62 dB and after three days still 48 dB. It is concluded that transcranial vibration as during temporal bone drilling produces cochlear shear stress that is connected with up-regulation of TNF-alpha and its receptors. Also VEGF and VEGF R2 are up-regulated. These responses may be linked to both the damage and repair process of the cochlea.

  10. Tumor necrosis factor alpha increases epithelial barrier permeability by disrupting tight junctions in Caco-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Cui

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α on intestinal epithelial cell permeability and the expression of tight junction proteins. Caco-2 cells were plated onto Transwell® microporous filters and treated with TNF-α (10 or 100 ng/mL for 0, 4, 8, 16, or 24 h. The transepithelial electrical resistance and the mucosal-to-serosal flux rates of the established paracellular marker Lucifer yellow were measured in filter-grown monolayers of Caco-2 intestinal cells. The localization and expression of the tight junction protein occludin were detected by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis, respectively. SYBR-Green-based real-time PCR was used to measure the expression of occludin mRNA. TNF-α treatment produced concentration- and time-dependent decreases in Caco-2 transepithelial resistance and increases in transepithelial permeability to the paracellular marker Lucifer yellow. Western blot results indicated that TNF-α decreased the expression of phosphorylated occludin in detergent-insoluble fractions but did not affect the expression of non-phosphorylated occludin protein. Real-time RT-PCR data showed that TNF-α did not affect the expression of occludin mRNA. Taken together, our data demonstrate that TNF-α increases Caco-2 monolayer permeability, decreases occludin protein expression and disturbs intercellular junctions.

  11. Tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme: an encouraging target for various inflammatory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahia, Malkeet S; Silakari, Om

    2010-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha is one of the most common pro-inflammatory cytokines responsible for various inflammatory disorders. It plays an important role in the origin and progression of rheumatoid arthritis and also in other autoimmune disease conditions. Some anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha antibodies like Enbrel, Humira and Remicade have been successfully used in these disease conditions as antagonists of tumor necrosis factor alpha. Inhibition of generation of active form of tumor necrosis factor alpha is a promising therapy for various inflammatory disorders. Therefore, the inhibition of an enzyme (tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme), which is responsible for processing inactive form of tumor necrosis factor alpha into its active soluble form, is an encouraging target. Many tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme inhibitors have been the candidates of clinical trials but none of them have reached in to the market because of their broad spectrum inhibitory activity for other matrix metalloproteases. Selectivity of tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme inhibition over matrix metalloproteases is of utmost importance. If selectivity is achieved successfully, side-effects can be over-ruled and this approach may become a novel therapy for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory disorders. This cytokine not only plays a pivotal role in inflammatory conditions but also in some cancerous conditions. Thus, successful targeting of tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme may result in multifunctional therapy.

  12. Transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor in laryngeal carcinomas demonstrated by immunohistochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M E; Therkildsen, M H; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1993-01-01

    the basal cell layer. The present investigation and our previous results confirm the existence of EGF receptors, TGF-alpha and EGF in laryngeal carcinomas. In addition, we conclude that the conditions do exist for growth factors to act through an autocrine system in poorly differentiated tumours and through......Fifteen laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas were investigated for the presence of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) using immunohistochemical methods. In a recent study the same material was characterized for epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF...... receptors) which were confined predominantly to the undifferentiated cells. The expression of this growth factor system in malignant cells may play a role in carcinogenesis and/or tumour growth. All carcinomas were positive for TGF-alpha and 12 were positive for EGF. In moderately-to-well differentiated...

  13. Immunoreactive transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor in oral squamous cell carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Bretlau, P

    1993-01-01

    Forty oral squamous cell carcinomas have been investigated immunohistochemically for the presence of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). The same cases were recently characterized for the expression of EGF-receptors. TGF-alpha was detected...... previous results confirms the existence of TGF-alpha, EGF, and EGF-receptors in the majority of oral squamous cell carcinomas and their metastases......., the cells above the basal cell layer were positive for both TGF-alpha and EGF. The same staining pattern was observed in oral mucosa obtained from healthy persons. In moderately to well differentiated carcinomas, the immunoreactivity was mainly confined to the cytologically more differentiated cells, thus...

  14. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-independent downregulation of hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase gene in mice treated with lead nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Misaki; Sekikawa, Kenji; Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Degawa, Masakuni

    2005-10-01

    We previously reported that lead nitrate (LN), an inducer of hepatic tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), downregulated gene expression of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase. Herein, to clarify the role of TNF-alpha in LN-induced downregulation of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase, effects of LN on gene expression of hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1) in TNF-alpha-knockout (KO) and TNF-alpha-wild-type (WT) mice were comparatively examined. Gene expression of hepatic Cyp7a1 in both WT and KO mice decreased to less than 5% of the corresponding controls at 6-12 h after treatment with LN (100 mumol/kg body weight, iv). Levels of hepatic TNF-alpha protein in either WT or KO mice were below the detection limit, although expression levels of the TNF-alpha gene markedly increased at 6 h in WT mice by LN treatment, but not in KO mice. In contrast, in both WT and KO mice, levels of hepatic IL-1beta protein, which is known to be a suppressor of the cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase gene in hamsters, were significantly increased 3-6 h after LN treatment. Furthermore, LN-induced downregulation of the Cyp7a1 gene did not necessarily result from altered gene expression of hepatic transcription factors, including positive regulators (liver X receptor alpha, retinoid X receptor alpha, fetoprotein transcription factor, and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha) and a negative regulator small heterodimer partner responsible for expression of the Cyp7a1 gene. The present findings indicated that LN-induced downregulation of the Cyp7a1 gene in mice did not necessarily occur through a TNF-alpha-dependent pathway and might occur mainly through an IL-1beta-dependent pathway.

  15. Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Xia, E-mail: zhongxia1977@126.com [Department of Emergency, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China); Li, Xiaonan; Liu, Fuli; Tan, Hui [Department of Emergency, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China); Shang, Deya, E-mail: wenhuashenghuo1@163.com [Department of Emergency, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin reduces expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha} in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK and NF-{kappa}B activation in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin supreeses TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway. -- Abstract: In the present study, we investigated whether omentin affected the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our data showed that omentin decreased TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in HUVECs. In addition, omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Further, we found that omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-activated signal pathway of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) by preventing NF-{kappa}B inhibitory protein (I{kappa}B{alpha}) degradation and NF-{kappa}B/DNA binding activity. Omentin pretreatment significantly inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK activity and ERK phosphorylation in HUVECs. Pretreatment with PD98059 suppressed TNF-{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activity. Omentin, NF-kB inhibitor (BAY11-7082) and ERK inhibitor (PD98059) reduced the up-regulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha}. These results suggest that omentin may inhibit TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via blocking ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway.

  16. Tumour Necrosis Factor-alpha and Nuclear Factor-kappa B Gene Variants in Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Leyla; Atalan, Nazan; Karagedik, E Hande; Ergen, Arzu

    2018-01-20

    The humoral system is activated and various cytokines are released due to infections in tissues and traumatic damage. Nuclear factor-kappa B dimers are encoded by nuclear factor-kappa B genes and regulate transcription of several crucial proteins of inflammation such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha. To investigate the possible effect of polymorphisms on tumour necrosis factor-alpha serum levels with clinical and prognostic parameters of sepsis by determining the nuclear factor-kappa B-1-94 ins/del ATTG and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (-308 G/A) gene polymorphisms and tumour necrosis factor-alpha serum levels. Case-control study. Seventy-two patients with sepsis and 104 healthy controls were included in the study. In order to determine the polymorphisms of nuclear factor-kappa B-1-94 ins/del ATTG and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (-308 G/A), polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed and serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We observed no significant differences in tumour necrosis factor-alpha serum levels between the study groups. In the patient group, an increase in the tumour necrosis factor-alpha serum levels in patients carrying the tumour necrosis factor-alpha (-308 G/A) A allele compared to those without the A allele was found to be statistically significant. Additionally, an increase in the tumour necrosis factor-alpha serum levels in patients carrying tumour necrosis factor-alpha (-308 G/A) AA genotype compared with patients carrying the AG or GG genotypes was statistically significant. No significant differences were found in these 2 polymorphisms between the patient and control groups (p>0.05). Our results showed the AA genotype and the A allele of the tumour necrosis factor-alpha (-308 G/A) polymorphism may be used as a predictor of elevated tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels in patients with sepsis.

  17. Serum and Urinary Levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in Renal Transplant Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturk Ciftci, Hayriye; Demir, Erol; Savran Karadeniz, Meltem; Tefik, Tzevat; Yazici, Halil; Nane, Ismet; Savran Oguz, Fatma; Aydin, Filiz; Turkmen, Aydin

    2017-12-18

    Allograft rejection is an important cause of early and long-term graft loss in kidney transplant recipients. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha promotes T-cell activation, the key reaction leading to allograft rejection. Here, we investigated whether serum and urinary tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels can predict allograft rejection. This study included 65 living related-donor renal transplant recipients with mean follow-up of 26 ± 9 months. Serum and urinary tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels were measured at pretransplant and at posttransplant time points (days 1 and 7 and months 3 and 6); serum creatinine levels were also monitored during posttransplant follow-up. Standard enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay was used to detect tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels. Clinical variables were monitored. Nine of 65 patients (13.8%) had biopsy-proven rejection during follow-up. Preoperative serum and urinary tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels were not significantly different when we compared patients with and without rejection. Serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels (in pg/mL) were significantly higher in the allograft rejection versus nonrejection group at day 7 (11.5 ± 4.7 vs 15.4 ± 5.8; P = .029) and month 1 (11.1 ± 4.8 vs 17.8 ± 10.9; P =.003). Urinary tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels (in pg/mL) were also elevated in the allograft rejection versus the nonrejection group at days 1 (10.2 ± 2.5 vs 14.1 ± 6.8; P = .002) and 7 (9.8 ± 2.2 vs 14.5 ± 2.7; P tumor necrosis factor-alpha has a role in diagnosing renal transplant rejection. Serum and urinary tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels may be a possible predictor for allograft rejection.

  18. Mitochondria mediate tumor necrosis factor-alpha/NF-kappaB signaling in skeletal muscle myotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. P.; Atkins, C. M.; Sweatt, J. D.; Reid, M. B.; Hamilton, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is implicated in muscle atrophy and weakness associated with a variety of chronic diseases. Recently, we reported that TNF-alpha directly induces muscle protein degradation in differentiated skeletal muscle myotubes, where it rapidly activates nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). We also have found that protein loss induced by TNF-alpha is NF-kappaB dependent. In the present study, we analyzed the signaling pathway by which TNF-alpha activates NF-kappaB in myotubes differentiated from C2C12 and rat primary myoblasts. We found that activation of NF-kappaB by TNF-alpha was blocked by rotenone or amytal, inhibitors of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. On the other hand, antimycin A, an inhibitor of complex III, enhanced TNF-alpha activation of NK-kappaB. These results suggest a key role of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mediating NF-kappaB activation in muscle. In addition, we found that TNF-alpha stimulated protein kinase C (PKC) activity. However, other signal transduction mediators including ceramide, Ca2+, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and nitric oxide (NO) do not appear to be involved in the activation of NF-kappaB.

  19. Drug-induced regulation of target expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iskar, Murat; Campillos, Monica; Kuhn, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Drug perturbations of human cells lead to complex responses upon target binding. One of the known mechanisms is a (positive or negative) feedback loop that adjusts the expression level of the respective target protein. To quantify this mechanism systems-wide in an unbiased way, drug......-induced differential expression of drug target mRNA was examined in three cell lines using the Connectivity Map. To overcome various biases in this valuable resource, we have developed a computational normalization and scoring procedure that is applicable to gene expression recording upon heterogeneous drug treatments....... In 1290 drug-target relations, corresponding to 466 drugs acting on 167 drug targets studied, 8% of the targets are subject to regulation at the mRNA level. We confirmed systematically that in particular G-protein coupled receptors, when serving as known targets, are regulated upon drug treatment. We...

  20. Tumor necrosis factor alpha antibody (infliximab) therapy profoundly down-regulates the inflammation in Crohn's ileocolitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baert, F. J.; D'Haens, G. R.; Peeters, M.; Hiele, M. I.; Schaible, T. F.; Shealy, D.; Geboes, K.; Rutgeerts, P. J.

    1999-01-01

    Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha monoclonal antibody treatment (infliximab) reduces clinical signs and symptoms in patients with Crohn's disease. The effects of infliximab on mucosal histopathologic abnormalities in Crohn's ileocolitis were studied. Thirteen patients with steroid-refractory Crohn's

  1. Proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma alter tight junction structure and function in the rat parotid gland Par-C10 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Olga J; Camden, Jean M; Redman, Robert S; Jones, Jonathan E; Seye, Cheikh I; Erb, Laurie; Weisman, Gary A

    2008-11-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation and dysfunction of salivary glands, resulting in impaired secretory function. The production of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is elevated in exocrine glands of patients with SS, although little is known about the effects of these cytokines on salivary epithelial cell functions necessary for saliva secretion, including tight junction (TJ) integrity and the establishment of transepithelial ion gradients. The present study demonstrates that chronic exposure of polarized rat parotid gland (Par-C10) epithelial cell monolayers to TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma decreases transepithelial resistance (TER) and anion secretion, as measured by changes in short-circuit current (I(sc)) induced by carbachol, a muscarinic cholinergic receptor agonist, or UTP, a P2Y(2) nucleotide receptor agonist. In contrast, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma had no effect on agonist-induced increases in the intracellular calcium concentration [Ca(2+)](i) in Par-C10 cells. Furthermore, treatment of Par-C10 cell monolayers with TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma increased paracellular permeability to normally impermeant proteins, altered cell and TJ morphology, and downregulated the expression of the TJ protein, claudin-1, but not other TJ proteins expressed in Par-C10 cells. The decreases in TER, agonist-induced transepithelial anion secretion, and claudin-1 expression caused by TNF-alpha, but not IFN-gamma, were reversible by incubation of Par-C10 cell monolayers with cytokine-free medium for 24 h, indicating that IFN-gamma causes irreversible inhibition of cellular activities associated with fluid secretion in salivary glands. Our results suggest that cytokine production is an important contributor to secretory dysfunction in SS by disrupting TJ integrity of salivary epithelium.

  2. Cellular localization of transforming growth factor-alpha mRNA in rat forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seroogy, K B; Lundgren, K H; Lee, D C; Guthrie, K M; Gall, C M

    1993-05-01

    The cellular localization of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF alpha) mRNA in juvenile and adult rat forebrain was examined using in situ hybridization with a 35S-labeled cRNA probe. TGF alpha cRNA-labeled neuronal perikarya were distributed across many forebrain regions including the olfactory bulb, caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, ventral pallidum, amygdala, hippocampal stratum granulosum and CA3 stratum pyramidale, and piriform, entorhinal, and retrosplenial cortices. TGF alpha cRNA-hybridizing cells were also localized to several thalamic nuclei and to the suprachiasmatic, dorsomedial, and ventromedial nuclei of the hypothalamus. In addition, labeled cells were present in regions of white matter including the corpus callosum, anterior commissure, internal and external capsules, optic tract, and lateral olfactory tract. Thus, both neurons and glia appear to synthesize TGF alpha in normal brain. Hybridization densities were greater in neuronal fields at 2 weeks of age compared with the adult, suggesting a role for TGF alpha in the development of several forebrain systems. Our results demonstrating the prominent and wide-spread expression of TGF alpha mRNA in forebrain, combined with the extremely low abundance of epidermal growth factor mRNA in brain, support the argument that TGF alpha is the principal endogenous ligand for the epidermal growth factor receptor in normal brain.

  3. Association of transforming growth-factor alpha gene polymorphisms with nonsyndromic cleft palate only (CPO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiang, R. (Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)); Lidral, A.C.; Ardinger, H.H.; Murray, J.C.; Romitti, P.A.; Munger, R.G.; Buetow, K.H.

    1993-10-01

    Genetic analysis and tissue-specific expression studies support a role for transforming growth-factor alpha (TGFA) in craniofacial development. Previous studies have confirmed an association of alleles for TGFA with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) in humans. The authors carried out a retrospective association study to determine whether specific allelic variants of the TGFA gene are also associated with cleft palate only (CPO). The PCR products from 12 overlapping sets of primers to the TGFA cDNA were examined by using single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis. Four DNA polymorphic sites for TGFA were identified in the 3[prime] untranslated region of the TGFA gene. These variants, as well as previously identified RFLPs for TGFA, were characterized in case and control populations for CPO by using X[sup 2] analysis. A significant association between alleles of TGFA and CPO was identified which further supports a role for this gene as one of the genetic determinants of craniofacial development. Sequence analysis of the variants disclosed a cluster of three variable sites within 30 bp of each other in the 3[prime] untranslated region previously associated with an antisense transcript. These studies extend the role for TGFA in craniofacial morphogenesis and support an interrelated mechanism underlying nonsyndromic forms of CL/P. 46 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Targeting Can Protect against Arthritis with Low Sensitization to Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Belmellat

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α blockade is an effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA and other inflammatory diseases, but in patients, it is associated with reduced resistance to the infectious agents Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Listeria monocytogenes, among others. Our goal was to model infection and arthritis in mice and to compare etanercept, a currently used anti-TNF-α inhibitor, to an anti-TNF-α vaccine. We developed a murine surrogate of the TNF-α kinoid and produced an anti-murine TNF-α vaccine (TNFKi composed of keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugated to TNF-α, which resulted in anti-TNF-α antibody production in mice. We also used etanercept (a soluble receptor of TNF commonly used to treat RA as a control of TNF neutralization. In a mouse model of collagen-induced arthritis, TNFKi protected against inflammation similar to etanercept. In a mouse model of acute L. monocytogenes infection, all TNFKi-treated mice showed cleared bacterial infection and survived, whereas etanercept-treated mice showed large liver granulomas and quickly died. Moreover, TNFKi mice infected with the virulent H37Rv M. tuberculosis showed resistance to infection, in contrast with etanercept-treated mice or controls. Depending on the TNF-α blockade strategy, treating arthritis with a TNF-α inhibitor could result in a different profile of infection suceptibility. Our TNFKi vaccine allowed for a better remaining host defense than did etanercept.

  5. Genetically engineered bacteriophage delivers a tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist coating on neural electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Jun; Nam, Chang-Hoon; Jin, Young-Hyun; Stieglitz, Thomas; Salieb-Beugelaar, Georgette B

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a novel approach for the formation of anti-inflammatory surface coating on a neural electrode. The surface coating is realized using a recombinant f88 filamentous bacteriophage, which displays a short platinum binding motif and a tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist (TNF-α antagonist) on p3 and p8 proteins, respectively. The recombinant bacteriophages are immobilized on the platinum surface by a simple dip coating process. The selective and stable immobilization of bacteriophages on a platinum electrode is confirmed by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, atomic force microscope and fluorescence microscope. From the in vitro cell viability test, the inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α) induced cell death was prevented by presenting recombinant bacteriophage coating, albeit with no significant cytotoxic effect. It is also observed that the bacteriophage coating does not have critical effects on the electrochemical properties such as impedance and charge storage capacities. Thus, this approach demonstrates a promising anti-apoptotic as well as anti-inflammatory surface coating for neural implant applications. (paper)

  6. Dynamic distributions of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and its receptors in the red nucleus of rats with spared nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Ding, Cui-Ping; Yu, Jing; Zeng, Xiao-Yan; Han, Shui-Ping; Wang, Jun-Yang

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the red nucleus (RN) plays a facilitated role in the development of neuropathic pain, and its effect is transmitted through TNF-α receptor (TNFR) subtypes 1 and 2. Here, the dynamic distributions of TNF-α and TNFRs in the RN of rats with spared nerve injury (SNI) were investigated. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining indicated that TNF-α was hardly expressed in the RN of normal rats but significantly increased at 1 week and peaked at 2 weeks after SNI. Neurons and oligodendrocytes showed TNF-α expression at both 1 week and 2 weeks after SNI, while astrocytes and microglia produced TNF-α later than neurons and oligodendrocytes starting at 2 weeks after SNI. TNFR1 was constitutively expressed in the RN of normal rats and significantly enhanced at 2 weeks but not 1 week after SNI; it was mainly localized in neurons, oligodendrocytes and microglia. Astrocytes were not immunopositive for TNFR1 under normal conditions and at 1 week after injury, but small amounts of astrocytes showed TNFR1 expression at 2 weeks after SNI. A low level of TNFR2 was expressed in the RN of normal rats, but it was significantly increased at 1 week and 2 weeks after SNI and localized in neurons and all three types of glia. These findings suggest that neurons and three types of glia in the RN all contribute to TNF-α production and participate in the initiation and/or maintenance of neuropathic pain induced by SNI. TNF-α exerts its effects in different types of cells maybe through different receptors, TNFR1 and/or TNFR2, in the different stages of neuropathic pain. © 2015 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  7. Triiodothyronine (T3) induces HIF1A and TGFA expression in MCF7 cells by activating PI3K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Fernanda Cristina Fontes; De Sibio, Maria Teresa; Luvizon, Aline Carbonera; Olimpio, Regiane Marques Castro; de Oliveira, Miriane; Alves, Carlos Augusto Barnabe; Conde, Sandro José; Nogueira, Célia Regina

    2016-06-01

    High expression levels of hypoxia inducing factor 1 alpha are related to mammary carcinogenesis. In previous studies, we demonstrated that expression of transforming growth factor alpha increases upon treatment with triiodothyronine, but this expression does not occur in cellular models that do not express the estrogen receptor, or when cells are co-treated with the anti-estrogen, tamoxifen. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the hormone triiodothyronine on the expression of the genes HIF1A and TGFA in the breast cancer cell line MCF7. The cell line was subjected to treatment with triiodothyronine at the supraphysiological dose of 10(-8)M for 10min, 30min, 1h, and 4h in the presence or absence of actinomycin D, the gene expression inhibitor, cycloheximide, the protein synthesis inhibitor, and LY294002, the phosphoinositide 3 kinase inhibitor. HIF1A and TGFA mRNA expression was analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. For data analysis, we used analysis of variance complemented by Tukey test and an adopted minimum of 5% significance. We found that HIF1A and TGFA expression increased in the presence of triiodothyronine at all times studied. HIF1A expression decreased in triiodothyronine-treated cells when gene transcription was also inhibited; however, TGFA expression decreased after 10 and 30min of treatment even when transcription was not inhibited. We found that activation of PI3K was necessary for triiodothyronine to modulate HIF1A and TGFA expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Tumor necrosis factor alpha blockade exacerbates murine psoriasis-like disease by enhancing Th17 function and decreasing expansion of Treg cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hak-Ling; Napierata, Lee; Stedman, Nancy; Benoit, Stephen; Collins, Mary; Nickerson-Nutter, Cheryl; Young, Deborah A

    2010-02-01

    Patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis respond well to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) blockers in general; however, there is now mounting evidence that a small cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis who receive TNFalpha blockers develop psoriasis. This study was undertaken to explore the mechanisms underlying TNFalpha blockade-induced exacerbation of skin inflammation in murine psoriasis-like skin disease. Skin inflammation was induced in BALB/c scid/scid mice after they received CD4+CD45RB(high)CD25- (naive CD4) T cells from donor mice. These mice were treated with either anti-interleukin-12 (anti-IL-12)/23p40 antibody or murine TNFRII-Fc fusion protein and were examined for signs of disease, including histologic features, various cytokine levels in the serum, and cytokine or FoxP3 transcripts in the affected skin and draining lymph node (LN) cells. In a separate study, naive CD4+ T cells were differentiated into Th1 or Th17 lineages with anti-CD3/28 magnetic beads and appropriate cytokines in the presence or absence of TNFalpha. Cytokine gene expression from these differentiated cells was also determined. Neutralization of TNFalpha exacerbated skin inflammation and markedly enhanced the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-17, IL-21, and IL-22 but suppressed FoxP3 expression in the skin and reduced the number of FoxP3-positive Treg cells in the draining LNs. TNFalpha also demonstrated a divergent role during priming and reactivation of naive T cells. These results reveal a novel immunoregulatory role of TNFalpha on Th17 and Treg cells in some individuals, which may account for the exacerbation of skin inflammation in some patients who receive anti-TNF treatments.

  9. Evaluation of a nanotechnology-based approach to induce gene-expression in human THP-1 macrophages under inflammatory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Laura; Alvarado-Vázquez, Abigail; Ferreira, David Wilson; Paige, Candler A; Ulecia-Morón, Cristina; Hill, Bailey; Caesar, Marina; Romero-Sandoval, E Alfonso

    2017-02-01

    Macrophages orchestrate the initiation and resolution of inflammation by producing pro- and anti-inflammatory products. An imbalance in these mediators may originate from a deficient or excessive immune response. Therefore, macrophages are valid therapeutic targets to restore homeostasis under inflammatory conditions. We hypothesize that a specific mannosylated nanoparticle effectively induces gene expression in human macrophages under inflammatory conditions without undesirable immunogenic responses. THP-1 macrophages were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5μg/mL). Polyethylenimine (PEI) nanoparticles grafted with a mannose receptor ligand (Man-PEI) were used as a gene delivery method. Nanoparticle toxicity, Man-PEI cellular uptake rate and gene induction efficiency (GFP, CD14 or CD68) were studied. Potential immunogenic responses were evaluated by measuring the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10. Man-PEI did not produce cytotoxicity, and it was effectively up-taken by THP-1 macrophages (69%). This approach produced a significant expression of GFP (mRNA and protein), CD14 and CD68 (mRNA), and transiently and mildly reduced IL-6 and IL-10 levels in LPS-challenged macrophages. Our results indicate that Man-PEI is suitable for inducing an efficient gene overexpression in human macrophages under inflammatory conditions with limited immunogenic responses. Our promising results set the foundation to test this technology to induce functional anti-inflammatory genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Transforming growth factor alpha, Shope fibroma growth factor, and vaccinia growth factor can replace myxoma growth factor in the induction of myxomatosis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opgenorth, A; Nation, N; Graham, K; McFadden, G

    1993-02-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) homologues encoded by vaccinia virus, myxoma virus, and malignant rabbit fibroma virus have been shown to contribute to the pathogenicity of virus infection upon inoculation of susceptible hosts. However, since the primary structures of these growth factors and the disease profiles induced by different poxvirus genera vary substantially, the degree to which the various EGF homologues perform similar roles in viral pathogenesis remains unclear. In order to determine whether different EGF-like growth factors can perform qualitatively similar functions in the induction of myxomatosis in rabbits, we created recombinant myxoma virus variants in which the native growth factor, myxoma growth factor (MGF), was disrupted and replaced with either vaccinia virus growth factor, Shope fibroma growth factor, or rat transforming growth factor alpha. Unlike the control virus containing an inactivated MGF gene, which caused marked attenuation of the disease syndrome and substantially less proliferation of the epithelial cell layers in the conjunctiva and respiratory tract, the recombinant myxoma virus strains expressing heterologous growth factors produced infections which were both clinically and histopathologically indistinguishable from wild-type myxomatosis. We conclude that these poxviral and cellular EGF-like growth factors, which are diverse with respect to primary structure and origin, have similar biological functions in the context of myxoma virus pathogenesis and are mitogenic for the same target cells.

  11. Transcriptional activation of transforming growth factor alpha by estradiol: requirement for both a GC-rich site and an estrogen response element half-site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyhlidal, C; Samudio, I; Kladde, M P; Safe, S

    2000-06-01

    17beta-Estradiol (E2) induces transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha) gene expression in MCF-7 cells and previous studies have identified a 53 bp (-252 to -200) sequence containing two imperfect estrogen responsive elements (EREs) that contribute to E2 responsiveness. Deletion analysis of the TGFalpha gene promoter in this study identified a second upstream region of the promoter (-623 to -549) that is also E2 responsive. This sequence contains three GC-rich sites and an imperfect ERE half-site, and the specific cis-elements and trans-acting factors were determined by promoter analysis in transient transfection experiments, gel mobility shift assays and in vitro DNA footprinting. The results are consistent with an estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha)/Sp1 complex interacting with an Sp1(N)(30) ERE half-site ((1/2)) motif in which both ERalpha and Sp1 bind promoter DNA. The ER/Sp1-DNA complex is formed using nuclear extracts from MCF-7 cells but not with recombinant human ERalpha or Sp1 proteins, suggesting that other nuclear factor(s) are required for complex stabilization. The E2-responsive Sp1(N)(x)ERE(1/2) motif identified in the TGFalpha gene promoter has also been characterized in the cathepsin D and heat shock protein 27 gene promoters; however, in the latter two promoters the numbers of intervening nucleotides are 23 and 10 respectively.

  12. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha reduces the outgrowth of hepatic micrometastasis of colorectal tumors in a mouse model of liver ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Shu-Fan; Sun, Kai; Chen, Xiao-Jing; Zhao, Xue; Cai, Ning; Liu, Yan-Jun; Xu, Long-Mei; Kong, Xian-Ming; Wei, Li-Xin

    2014-01-08

    Patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) often develop liver metastases, in which case surgery is considered the only potentially curative treatment option. However, liver surgery is associated with a risk of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, which is thought to promote the growth of colorectal liver metastases. The influence of IR-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) elevation in the process still is unknown. To investigate the role of TNF-α in the growth of pre-existing micrometastases in the liver following IR, we used a mouse model of colorectal liver metastases. In this model, mice received IR treatment seven days after intrasplenic injections of colorectal CT26 cells. Prior to IR treatment, either TNF-α blocker Enbrel or low-dose TNF-α, which could inhibit IR-induced TNF-α elevation, was administered by intraperitoneal injection. Hepatic IR treatment significantly promoted CT26 tumor growth in the liver, but either Enbrel or low-dose TNF-α pretreatment reversed this trend. Further studies showed that the CT26 + IR group prominently increased the levels of ALT and AST, liver necrosis, inflammatory infiltration and the expressions of hepatic IL-6, MMP9 and E-selectin compared to those of CT26 group. Inhibition of TNF-α elevation remarkably attenuated the increases of these liver inflammatory damage indicators and tumor-promoting factors. These findings suggested that inhibition of TNF-α elevation delayed the IR-enhanced outgrowth of colorectal liver metastases by reducing IR-induced inflammatory damage and the formation of tumor-promoting microenvironments. Both Enbrel and low-dose TNF-α represented the potential therapeutic approaches for the protection of colorectal liver metastatic patients against IR injury-induced growth of liver micrometastases foci.

  13. Induction of Programmed Cell Death by Parvovirus H-1 in U937 Cells: Connection with the Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Signalling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayet, Béatrice; Lopez-Guerrero, José-Antonio; Rommelaere, Jean; Dinsart, Christiane

    1998-01-01

    The human promonocytic cell line U937 undergoes apoptosis upon treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). This cell line has previously been shown to be very sensitive to the lytic effect of the autonomous parvovirus H-1. Parvovirus infection leads to the activation of the CPP32 ICE-like cysteine protease which cleaves the enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase and induces morphologic changes that are characteristic of apoptosis in a way that is similar to TNF-α treatment. This effect is also observed when the U937 cells are infected with a recombinant H-1 virus which expresses the nonstructural (NS) proteins but in which the capsid genes are replaced by a reporter gene, indicating that the induction of apoptosis can be assigned to the cytotoxic nonstructural proteins in this cell system. The c-Myc protein, which is overexpressed in U937 cells, is rapidly downregulated during infection, in keeping with a possible role of this product in mediating the apoptotic cell death induced by H-1 virus infection. Interestingly, four clones (designated RU) derived from the U937 cell line and selected for their resistance to H-1 virus (J. A. Lopez-Guerrero et al., Blood 89:1642–1653, 1997) failed to decrease c-Myc expression upon treatment with differentiation agents and also resisted the induction of cell death after TNF-α treatment. Our data suggest that the RU clones have developed defense strategies against apoptosis, either by their failure to downregulate c-Myc and/or by activating antiapoptotic factors. PMID:9765434

  14. TNF-α promotes human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration by inducing matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression through activation of Akt/mTORC1 signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Cheng-hu; Cao, Guo-Fan; Jiang, Qin; Yao, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► TNF-α induces MMP-9 expression and secretion to promote RPE cell migration. ► MAPK activation is not critical for TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression. ► Akt and mTORC1 signaling mediate TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression. ► SIN1 knockdown showed no significant effect on MMP-9 expression by TNF-α. -- Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) promotes in vitro retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration to initiate proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Here we report that TNF-α promotes human RPE cell migration by inducing matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression. Inhibition of MMP-9 by its inhibitor or its neutralizing antibody inhibited TNF-α-induced in vitro RPE cell migration. Reversely, exogenously-added active MMP-9 promoted RPE cell migration. Suppression Akt/mTOR complex 1(mTORC1) activation by LY 294002 and rapamycin inhibited TNF-α-mediated MMP-9 expression. To introduce a constitutively active Akt (CA-Akt) in cultured RPE cells increased MMP-9 expression, and to block mTORC1 activation by rapamycin inhibited its effect. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of SIN1, a key component of mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), had no effect on MMP-9 expression or secretion. In conclusion, this study suggest that TNF-α promotes RPE cell migration by inducing MMP-9 expression through activation of Akt/ mTORC1, but not mTORC2 signaling.

  15. TNF-{alpha} promotes human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration by inducing matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression through activation of Akt/mTORC1 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Cheng-hu; Cao, Guo-Fan [The Affiliated Eye Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Jiang, Qin, E-mail: Jqin710@vip.sina.com [The Affiliated Eye Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Yao, Jin, E-mail: dryaojin@yahoo.com [The Affiliated Eye Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China)

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} induces MMP-9 expression and secretion to promote RPE cell migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAPK activation is not critical for TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Akt and mTORC1 signaling mediate TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIN1 knockdown showed no significant effect on MMP-9 expression by TNF-{alpha}. -- Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) promotes in vitro retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration to initiate proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Here we report that TNF-{alpha} promotes human RPE cell migration by inducing matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression. Inhibition of MMP-9 by its inhibitor or its neutralizing antibody inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced in vitro RPE cell migration. Reversely, exogenously-added active MMP-9 promoted RPE cell migration. Suppression Akt/mTOR complex 1(mTORC1) activation by LY 294002 and rapamycin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-mediated MMP-9 expression. To introduce a constitutively active Akt (CA-Akt) in cultured RPE cells increased MMP-9 expression, and to block mTORC1 activation by rapamycin inhibited its effect. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of SIN1, a key component of mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), had no effect on MMP-9 expression or secretion. In conclusion, this study suggest that TNF-{alpha} promotes RPE cell migration by inducing MMP-9 expression through activation of Akt/ mTORC1, but not mTORC2 signaling.

  16. Association of increased levels of plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha with primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondkar AA

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Altaf A Kondkar, Tahira Sultan, Faisal A Almobarak, Hatem Kalantan, Saleh A Al-Obeidan, Khaled K Abu-Amero Glaucoma Research Chair, Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Purpose: Retinal ganglion cell (RGC death is a key feature of glaucoma. Elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, can induce RGC apoptosis and play a critical role in glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Based on the possible role of inflammation and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, we investigated the association between plasma levels of TNF-α and POAG or its clinical indices in comparison to non-glaucomatous controls. Patients and methods: In a case–control retrospective cohort of 51 POAG cases and 88 controls, plasma TNF-α levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The assay was performed in duplicates on an automated ELISA analyzer. Results: Mean TNF-α level was significantly elevated in POAG cases (1.88 ± 2.17 pg/mL than the controls (0.93 ± 1.49 pg/mL; p = 0.003. The overall dose–response trend was significant (Χ2 = 6.12, df = 2; p = 0.047. No statistical difference was seen in age, gender and systemic disease distribution. A modest negative and significant correlation was seen between TNF-α level and number of antiglaucoma medications, an important clinical index of POAG severity. Moreover, logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of POAG was most significantly affected by TNF-α level and not by age and sex. Conclusion: High systemic level of an inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, is associated with POAG; however, its possible use as a biomarker for early glaucoma diagnosis and/or disease severity needs further investigation. Keywords: apoptosis, biomarker, cytokines, ELISA, inflammation, neurodegeneration, oxidative stress

  17. Inflammatory cascades driven by tumor necrosis factor-alpha play a major role in the progression of acute liver failure and its neurological complications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Chastre

    Full Text Available Acute liver failure (ALF due to ischemic or toxic liver injury is a clinical condition that results from massive loss of hepatocytes and may lead to hepatic encephalopathy (HE, a serious neuropsychiatric complication. Although increased expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α in liver, plasma and brain has been observed, conflicting results exist concerning its roles in drug-induced liver injury and on the progression of HE. The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic value of etanercept, a TNF-α neutralizing molecule, on the progression of liver injury and HE in mice with ALF resulting from azoxymethane (AOM hepatotoxicity.Mice were administered saline or etanercept (10 mg/kg; i.p. 30 minutes prior to, or up to 6 h after AOM. Etanercept-treated ALF mice were sacrificed in parallel with vehicle-treated comatose ALF mice and controls. AOM induced severe hepatic necrosis, leading to HE, and etanercept administered prior or up to 3 h after AOM significantly delayed the onset of coma stages of HE. Etanercept pretreatment attenuated AOM-induced liver injury, as assessed by histological examination, plasma ammonia and transaminase levels, and by hepatic glutathione content. Peripheral inflammation was significantly reduced by etanercept as shown by decreased plasma IL-6 (4.1-fold; p<0.001 and CD40L levels (3.7-fold; p<0.001 compared to saline-treated ALF mice. Etanercept also decreased IL-6 levels in brain (1.2-fold; p<0.05, attenuated microglial activation (assessed by OX-42 immunoreactivity, and increased brain glutathione concentrations.These results indicate that systemic sequestration of TNF-α attenuates both peripheral and cerebral inflammation leading to delayed progression of liver disease and HE in mice with ALF due to toxic liver injury. These results suggest that etanercept may provide a novel therapeutic approach for the management of ALF patients awaiting liver transplantation.

  18. Increased voluntary exercise in mice deficient for tumour necrosis factor-alpha and lymphotoxin-alpha.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netea, M.G.; Kullberg, B.J.; Vonk, A.G.; Verschueren, I.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The endogenous mediators playing a role in the sensing of fatigue and cessation of exercise are yet to be characterized. We hypothesized that proinflammatory cytokines, in particular tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and lymphotoxin-alpha (LT) transmit signals leading to fatigue.

  19. Anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha therapies attenuate adaptive arteriogenesis in the rabbit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundmann, Sebastian; Hoefer, Imo; Ulusans, Susann; van Royen, Niels; Schirmer, Stephan H.; Ozaki, C. Keith; Bode, Christoph; Piek, Jan J.; Buschmann, Ivo

    2005-01-01

    The specific antagonists of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), infliximab and etanercept, are established therapeutic agents for inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease. Although the importance of TNF-alpha in chronic inflammatory diseases is well established,

  20. Tumor necrosis factor alpha polymorphism correlates with deleterious effects of ultraviolet B light on cutaneous immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincek, V.; Kurimoto, I.; Medema, J. P.; Prieto, E.; Streilein, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Intradermally injected tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) mimics the effects of UV B light (UVB) radiation and neutralizing anti-TNF-alpha antibodies abolish the deleterious effects of UVB on induction of contact hypersensitivity suggesting that TNF-alpha is the major mediator of UVB effects on

  1. Divergent effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha on apoptosis of human neutrophils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, J. M.; Weyer, S.; Weening, J. J.; Roos, D.; Kuijpers, T. W.

    2001-01-01

    Apoptosis of neutrophils is a key mechanism to control the intensity of the acute inflammatory response. Previously, the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) was reported by some to have pro-apoptotic and by others to have antiapoptotic effects on neutrophils. The aim of this study was

  2. Systemic side effects of isolated limb perfusion with tumor necrosis factor alpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaveling, Jan Harm

    1997-01-01

    The main function of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a), a small polypeptide shared by all mammals, is probably protection against invading bacteria, parasites and viruses; killing of these microorganisms is facilitated in the presence of TNF-a. However, as its name suggest, TNF-a is also capable

  3. Inhibition of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 confers neuroprotection, reduces tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and increases IL-10 in a rat stroke model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimizadeh, Elham; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Roohbakhsh, Ali; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi; Hajizadeh, Mohammad R; Shariati, Mehdi; Rahmani, Mohammad R; Allahtavakoli, Mohammad

    2017-08-01

    Stroke is a major cause of mortality and long-term disability in adults. Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) plays a crucial role in neuroinflammation. In this study, the effects of TRPV1 agonist (capsaicin) and antagonist (AMG9810) on cerebral ischemia were investigated. Forty male Wistar rats were assigned to the following experimental groups: sham, vehicle) ischemic), AMG9810 (selective TRPV1 antagonist, 0.5 mg/kg; 3 h after stroke), and capsaicin (1 mg/kg; 3 h after stroke). Stroke was induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion and neurological deficits were evaluated 1, 3, and 7 days after stroke. Then, infarct volume, brain edema, body temperature, mRNA expression of TRPV1, and serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and IL-10 were measured. Compared to the vehicle group, AMG9810 significantly decreased the infarct volume (P < 0.01). Latency for the removal of sticky labels from the forepaw and the hanging time were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, following administration of AMG9810 (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001 vs. vehicle) 3 and 7 days after stroke. Compared to the sham group, the mRNA expression of TRPV1 was significantly increased in vehicle group (P < 0.01). Administration of AMG9810 significantly increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and decreased the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α (P < 0.05). Moreover, our results indicate that AMG9810 might a promising candidate for the hypothermic treatment of stroke. The findings also suggest a key role for AMG9810 in reducing inflammation after stroke and imply that TRPV1 could be a potential target for the treatment of ischemic stroke. © 2017 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  4. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1-infected T lymphocytes impair catabolism and uptake of glutamate by astrocytes via Tax-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymocha, R; Akaoka, H; Dutuit, M; Malcus, C; Didier-Bazes, M; Belin, M F; Giraudon, P

    2000-07-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of a chronic progressive myelopathy called tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). In this disease, lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) are associated with perivascular infiltration by lymphocytes. We and others have hypothesized that these T lymphocytes infiltrating the CNS may play a prominent role in TSP/HAM. Here, we show that transient contact of human or rat astrocytes with T lymphocytes chronically infected by HTLV-1 impairs some of the major functions of brain astrocytes. Uptake of extracellular glutamate by astrocytes was significantly decreased after transient contact with infected T cells, while the expression of the glial transporters GLAST and GLT-1 was decreased. In two-compartment cultures avoiding direct cell-to-cell contact, similar results were obtained, suggesting possible involvement of soluble factors, such as cytokines and the viral protein Tax-1. Recombinant Tax-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) decreased glutamate uptake by astrocytes. Tax-1 probably acts by inducing TNF-alpha, as the effect of Tax-1 was abolished by anti-TNF-alpha antibody. The expression of glutamate-catabolizing enzymes in astrocytes was increased for glutamine synthetase and decreased for glutamate dehydrogenase, the magnitudes of these effects being correlated with the level of Tax-1 transcripts. In conclusion, Tax-1 and cytokines produced by HTLV-1-infected T cells impair the ability of astrocytes to manage the steady-state level of glutamate, which in turn may affect neuronal and oligodendrocytic functions and survival.

  5. Effects of Puerariae Radix Extract on Endotoxin Receptors and TNF-α Expression Induced by Gut-Derived Endotoxin in Chronic Alcoholic Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Hua Peng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kudzu (Pueraria lobata is one of the earliest medicinal plants used to treat alcohol abuse in traditional Chinese medicine for more than a millennium. However, little is known about its effects on chronic alcoholic liver injury. Therefore, the present study observed the effects of puerariae radix extract (RPE on chronic alcoholic liver injury as well as Kupffer cells (KCs activation to release tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α induced by gut-derived endotoxin in rats and macrophage cell line. RPE was observed to alleviate the pathological changes and lipids deposition in liver tissues as well as the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and hepatic gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT activity. Meanwhile, RPE inhibited KCs activation and subsequent hepatic TNF-α expression and downregulated the protein expression of endotoxin receptors, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP, CD14, Toll-like receptor (TLR 2, and TLR4 in chronic alcohol intake rats. Furthermore, an in vitro study showed that RPE inhibited the expression of TNF-α and endotoxin receptors, CD14 and TLR4, induced by LPS in RAW264.7 cells. In summary, this study demonstrated that RPE mitigated liver damage and lipid deposition induced by chronic alcohol intake in rats, as well as TNF-α release, protein expression of endotoxin receptors in vivo or in vitro.

  6. Asiatic Acid Alleviates Hemodynamic and Metabolic Alterations via Restoring eNOS/iNOS Expression, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poungrat Pakdeechote

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Asiatic acid is a triterpenoid isolated from Centella asiatica. The present study aimed to investigate whether asiatic acid could lessen the metabolic, cardiovascular complications in rats with metabolic syndrome (MS induced by a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (HCHF diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with HCHF diet with 15% fructose in drinking water for 12 weeks to induce MS. MS rats were treated with asiatic acid (10 or 20 mg/kg/day or vehicle for a further three weeks. MS rats had an impairment of oral glucose tolerance, increases in fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and hindlimb vascular resistance; these were related to the augmentation of vascular superoxide anion production, plasma malondialdehyde and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α levels (p < 0.05. Plasma nitrate and nitrite (NOx were markedly high with upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression, but dowregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS expression (p < 0.05. Asiatic acid significantly improved insulin sensitivity, lipid profiles, hemodynamic parameters, oxidative stress markers, plasma TNF-α, NOx, and recovered abnormality of eNOS/iNOS expressions in MS rats (p < 0.05. In conclusion, asiatic acid improved metabolic, hemodynamic abnormalities in MS rats that could be associated with its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory effects and recovering regulation of eNOS/iNOS expression.

  7. The effect of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents on postoperative anastomotic complications in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Hussuna, Alaa Abdul-Hussein H; Krag, Aleksander; Olaison, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Patients with Crohn's disease treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents may have an increased risk of surgical complications.......Patients with Crohn's disease treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents may have an increased risk of surgical complications....

  8. Etanercept Promotes Bone Formation via Suppression of Dickkopf-1 Expression in Rats with Collagen-Induced Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanida, Atsushi; Kishimoto, Yuji; Okano, Toru; Hagino, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Background Various clinical reports suggest etanercept (ETN) has some efficacy in bone formation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To examine this effect, we investigated the gene expression of cytokines relevant to osteoblast/osteoclast differentiation, and evaluated histomorphometric findings in mature rats with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Methods Total RNA was extracted from knee joints with CIA after ETN or placebo administration. Subsequently, realtime-PCR was carried out to quantify the mRNAs encoding Wnt-1, Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegelin (OPG) and TNF (tumor necrosis factor)-alpha. In histomorphometric analysis, the infiltrating pannus volume and pannus surface, and the following items in contact with pannus surface were measured: osteoclast number, osteoid surface, osteoid volume and labeling surface. These were evaluated in the distal femur with CIA with or without ETN administration. Results TNF-alpha, RANKL and OPG mRNA expressions, linked to osteoclastogenesis, were not significantly different with or without ETN administration. ETN administration significantly increased Wnt-1 mRNA expression, the osteoblast promoter, and decreased DKK-1 mRNA expression, the Wnt signal inhibitor. In histomorphometric analysis, pannus volume, pannus surface and osteoclast number, parameters of bone destruction, were not significantly different among groups. Osteoid volume, osteoid surface and labeling surface, parameters of bone formation, increased significantly with ETN administration. Conclusion Our results suggest that ETN suppresses DDK-1 expression, and, as a result, Wnt expression is promoted and osteoblastogenesis becomes more active, independent of the regulation of osteoclast activity. Marked bone formation is attributed to the fact that ETN directly promotes osteoblastogenesis, not as a result of suppressing osteoclastogenesis. PMID:24031147

  9. Effects of the immunomodulator, VGX-1027, in endotoxin-induced uveitis in Lewis ratsTumor necrosis factor-alpha binding capacity and anti-infliximab antibodies measured by fluid-phase radioimmunoassays as predictors of clinical efficacy of infliximab in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangano, K.; Sardesai, N.Y.; Quattrocchi, C.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: VGX-1027 is a novel, low molecular weight, immunomodulatory compound that has shown efficacy against a variety of immuno-inflammatory disease models in animals including autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice, collagen-induced arthritis and chemically induced inflammatory colitis...... with VGX-1027 counteracts the uveitis-inducing effect of LPS in rats and suggests that this drug may have potential in the treatment of immuno-inflammatory conditions of the eye in humans Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11....... Here, we have studied the effects of VGX-1027 on the development of endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in male Lewis rats, as a model of inflammatory ocular diseases in humans. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: EIU was induced by a single footpad injection of 200 microg lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Groups of rats were......, immunological and histological signs of EIU. KEY RESULTS: The rats treated with VGX-1027 within 6 h after LPS challenge exhibited milder clinical, histological and laboratory signs of EIU than those treated with vehicle. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: This study provides the first evidence that systemic treatment...

  10. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha impairs neuronal differentiation but not proliferation of hippocampal neural precursor cells: Role of Hes1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Aoife; Ryan, Sinead; Maloney, Eimer; Sullivan, Aideen M; Nolan, Yvonne M

    2010-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine, which influences neuronal survival and function yet there is limited information available on its effects on hippocampal neural precursor cells (NPCs). We show that TNFalpha treatment during proliferation had no effect on the percentage of proliferating cells prepared from embryonic rat hippocampal neurosphere cultures, nor did it affect cell fate towards either an astrocytic or neuronal lineage when cells were then allowed to differentiate. However, when cells were differentiated in the presence of TNFalpha, significantly reduced percentages of newly born and post-mitotic neurons, significantly increased percentages of astrocytes and increased expression of TNFalpha receptors, TNF-R1 and TNF-R2, as well as expression of the anti-neurogenic Hes1 gene, were observed. These data indicate that exposure of hippocampal NPCs to TNFalpha when they are undergoing differentiation but not proliferation has a detrimental effect on their neuronal lineage fate, which may be mediated through increased expression of Hes1. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Potent, selective, orally bioavailable inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme (TACE): discovery of indole, benzofuran, imidazopyridine and pyrazolopyridine P1' substituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhonghui; Ott, Gregory R; Anand, Rajan; Liu, Rui-Qin; Covington, Maryanne B; Vaddi, Krishna; Qian, Mingxin; Newton, Robert C; Christ, David D; Trzaskos, James; Duan, James J-W

    2008-03-15

    Potent and selective inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme (TACE) were discovered with several new heterocyclic P1' groups in conjunction with cyclic beta-amino hydroxamic acid scaffolds. Among them, the pyrazolopyridine provided the best overall profile when combined with tetrahydropyran beta-amino hydroxamic acid scaffold. Specifically, inhibitor 49 showed IC(50) value of 1 nM against porcine TACE and 170 nM in the suppression of LPS-induced TNF-alpha of human whole blood. Compound 49 also displayed excellent selectivity over a wide panel of MMPs as well as excellent oral bioavailability (F%>90%) in rat n-in-1 PK studies.

  12. Effect of Egg White Combined with Chalcanthite on Lipopolysaccharide induced Inflammatory Cytokine Expression in RAW 264.7 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Eun-A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Historically, mineral compound herbal medicines have long been used in treatments of immune-related diseases in Korea, China and other Asian countries. In this study, we inv-estigated the anti-inflammatory effect of egg white combined with chalcanthite (IS4 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. RAW 264.7 cells cultured with LPS and various con-centrations of IS4 were analyzed to determine the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators by using enzyme-linked immune sorbent assays (ELISAs. IS4 concentration inhibited the production of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF induced by LPS. IS4 at high concentrations (25 and 50`㎍/ml inhibited, in concentration-dependent manner, the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF–α stimulated by LPS. IS4 has shown an anti-inflammatory effect in RAW 264.7 cells.

  13. Critical roles of mucin-1 in sensitivity of lung cancer cells to tumor necrosis factor-alpha and dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Menglin; Wang, Xiangdong

    2017-08-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer. Mucins are glycoproteins with high molecular weight, responsible for cell growth, differentiation, and signaling, and were proposed to be correlated with gene heterogeneity of lung cancer. Here, we report aberrant expression of mucin genes and tumor necrosis factor receptors in lung adenocarcinoma tissues compared with normal tissues in GEO datasets. Mucin-1 (MUC1) gene was selected and considered as the target gene; furthermore, the expression pattern of adenocarcinomic cells (A549, H1650, or H1299 cells) was validated under the stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) or dexamethasone (DEX), separately. MUC1 gene interference was done to A549 cells to show its role in sensitivity of lung cancer cells to TNFα and DEX. Results of our experiments indicate that MUC1 may regulate the influence of inflammatory mediators in effects of glucocorticoids (GCs), as a regulatory target to improve therapeutics. It shows the potential effect of MUC1 and GCs in lung adenocarcinoma (LADC), which may help in LADC treatment in the future.

  14. Wound-induced expression of horseradish peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaoka, A; Kawamoto, T; Ohta, H; Sekine, M; Takano, M; Shinmyo, A

    1994-01-01

    Peroxidases have been implicated in the responses of plants to physiological stress and to pathogens. Wound-induced peroxidase of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) was studied. Total peroxidase activity was increased by wounding in cell wall fractions extracted from roots, stems and leaves of horseradish. On the other hand, wounding decreased the peroxidase activity in the soluble fraction from roots. The enzyme activities of the basic isozymes were induced by wounding in horseradish leaves based on data obtained by fractionation of crude enzyme in isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis followed by activity staining. We have previously isolated genomic clones for four peroxidase genes, namely, prxC1a, prxC1b, prxC2 and prxC3. Northern blot analysis using gene-specific probes showed that mRNA of prxC2, which encodes a basic isozyme, accumulated by wounding, while the mRNAs for other peroxidase genes were not induced. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants were transformed with four chimeric gene constructs, each consisting of a promoter from one of the peroxidase genes and the β-glucuronidase (GUS) structural gene. High level GUS activity induced in response to wounding was observed in tobacco plants containing the prxC2-GUS construct.

  15. Ligand Binding Domain Protein in Tetracycline-Inducible Expression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate tetracycline-inducible expression system for producing clinically usable, highquality liver X receptor ligand-binding domain recombinant protein. Methods: In this study, we have expressed and purified the recombinant liver X receptor β-ligand binding domain proteins in E. coli using a tetracycline ...

  16. Differential expression of ozone-induced gene during exposures to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential expression of ozone-induced gene during exposures to salt stress in Polygonum sibiricum Laxm leaves, stem and underground stem. ... PcOZI-1 mRNA in untreated plants was detected at low levels in underground stem, leaves and at higher levels in stem. PcOZI-1 mRNA accumulation was transiently induced ...

  17. Individualized monitoring of drug bioavailability and immunogenicity in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with the tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor infliximab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, Klaus; Geborek, Pierre; Svenson, Morten

    2006-01-01

    Infliximab, an anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNFalpha) antibody, is effective in the treatment of several immunoinflammatory diseases. However, many patients experience primary or secondary response failure, suggesting that individualization of treatment regimens may be beneficial...

  18. Effects of morphine on the expression of cytokines and inflammatory mediators in a rabbit model of endotoxin-induced experimental uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kethye P. Ortencio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the effects of 1% morphine instillation on clinical parameters, aqueous humor turbidity, and expression levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, and myeloperoxidase (MPO in rabbits with endotoxin-induced experimental uveitis. Methods: Twenty four New Zealand white rabbits were divided into four groups (n=6 each: control (CG, morphine (MG, naloxone (NG, and morphine-naloxone (MNG groups. Under dissociative anesthesia, 0.1 mL of solution containing 0.2 µg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS endotoxin from the Salmonella typhimurium cell wall was injected in the vitreous chamber. Clinical evaluations (conjunctical hyperemia, chemosis blepharospasm, and ocular discharge and laser flaremetry were performed before (baseline, and 10 and 20 hours after induction of uveitis. Rabbits were subsequently euthanized and eyes were enucleated to quantify expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1 beta, PGE2, and MPO. Results: No significant differences in clinical parameters and flare values were observed between the study groups. TNF-α and IL-1 beta levels increased significantly in the CG, MG, NG, and MNG groups compared to baseline (P0.05. Conclusions: Morphine has no effect on clinical parameters, flare, or expression levels of inflammatory mediators in a rabbit model of uveitis induced by intravitreal injection of LPS.

  19. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha infusion produced insulin resistance but no change in the incretin effect in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Lehrskov-Schmidt, Louise; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Solomon, Thomas P J; Lehrskov-Schmidt, Lars; Holst, Jens Juul; Møller, Kirsten

    2013-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with peripheral insulin resistance, impaired incretin effect, and increased plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Although TNF-α infusion at a dose that induces systemic inflammation in healthy volunteers has been demonstrated to induce peripheral insulin resistance, the influence of this cytokine on the incretin effect is unknown. We investigated whether systemic inflammation induced by TNF-α infusion in healthy volunteers alters the incretin hormone response to oral and intravenous glucose loads in a crossover study design with ten healthy male volunteers (mean age 24 years, mean body mass index 23.7 kg/m(2) ). The study consisted of four study days: days 1 and 2, 6-h infusion of saline; days 3 and 4, 6-h infusion of TNF-α; days 1 and 3, 4-h oral glucose tolerance test; and days 2 and 4, 4-h corresponding intravenous isoglycaemic glucose tolerance test. Glucose tolerance tests were initiated after 2 h of saline/TNF-α infusion. Plasma concentrations of TNF-α, interleukin 6, glucose, incretin hormones, and cortisol, and serum concentrations of C-peptide and insulin were measured throughout the study days. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by the Matsuda index and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Prehepatic insulin secretion rates were calculated. TNF-α infusion induced symptoms of systemic inflammation; increased plasma levels of cortisol, TNF-α, and interleukin 6; and increased the HOMA-IR. The secretion of incretin hormones as well as the incretin effect remained unchanged. In healthy young male volunteers, acute systemic inflammation induced by infusion of TNF-α is associated with insulin resistance with no change in the incretin effect. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. [Cardiovascular exercise on obese women: effects on adiponectine, leptine, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeros-Olvera, Erick; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Nava-González, Edna J; Gallegos-Cabriales, Esther; Lavalle-González, Fernando; Bastarrachea, Raúl A; Salazar González, Bertha Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    The relationship of hormones adiponectin, leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in adipose tissue on the atherogenic process is one of the most promising models in preventive medicine. The numerous tests performed to identify the effect of exercise on these hormones have not been clear on the type of exercise routine and physical effort calculated to contribute to changing plasma concentrations in obese women. Analyze controlledcardiovascular exercise effect on serum level of adiponectin, leptin, and tumournecrosis factor-alpha in obese young women. A simple blind clinical essay. The intervention covered a 10-week controlled, cardiovascular exercise program by 34 women (cases n=17, controls n=17) with a body mass index>27kg/m(2). Molecular analysis was performed by immune-fluorescence. Following the intervention, cases and controls means were as follows: adiponectin 19.0 vs. 12.2μ/ml (P=.008); leptin 20.0 vs. 28.0μ/L (P=.02); and tumour necrosis factor-alpha 4.7 vs. 5.1pg/ml (P=.05). The established exercise (5 sessions a week of exercise of 40min each for 10 weeks with a heart rate reserve of 40 to 80%) improved plasma concentrations of these hormones in the expected direction. This finding highlights an unpublished amount of exercise, controlled by the reserve cardiac frequency that might contribute the cardiovascular and metabolic protection to obese women. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. Oral clefts, tranforming growth factor alpha gene variants, and maternal smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; Olsen, Jørn; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent

    1999-01-01

    Studies in the United States have indicated that maternal first trimester smoking and infant transforming growth factor alpha (TGFA) locus mutations are associated with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) and that a synergistic effect of these two risk factors occurs. Based on a Danish case-control......, and no synergistic effect with smoking was observed. The "rare" TGFA allele occurred in 25% of both cases and controls compared with an average of 14% in other white control groups. Furthermore, the frequency of CLP in Scandinavia is among the highest in the world. Hence, it is possible that the previously reported...

  2. Effects of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on macrophage enzyme levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierangeli, Silvia S.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1989-01-01

    Murine peritoneal macrophages were treated with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). Measurements of changes in acid phosphatase and beta-glucuronidase levels were made as an indication of activation by cytokine treatment. IFN-gamma or TNF-gamma treatment resulted in a significant increase in the activities of both enzymes measured in the cell lysates. This increase was observable after 6 h of incubation, but reached its maximum level after 24 h of incubation. The effect of the treatment of the cell with both cytokines together was additive. No synergistic effect of addition of both cytokines on the enzyme levels was observed.

  3. Stable Toll-Like Receptor 10 Knockdown in THP-1 Cells Reduces TLR-Ligand-Induced Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Van Le

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor 10 (TLR10 is the only orphan receptor whose natural ligand and function are unknown among the 10 human TLRs. In this study, to test whether TLR10 recognizes some known TLR ligands, we established a stable TLR10 knockdown human monocytic cell line THP-1 using TLR10 short hairpin RNA lentiviral particle and puromycin selection. Among 60 TLR10 knockdown clones that were derived from each single transduced cell, six clones were randomly selected, and then one of those clones, named E7, was chosen for the functional study. E7 exhibited approximately 50% inhibition of TLR10 mRNA and protein expression. Of all the TLRs, only the expression of TLR10 changed significantly in this cell line. Additionally, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced macrophage differentiation of TLR10 knockdown cells was not affected in the knockdown cells. When exposed to TLR ligands, such as synthetic diacylated lipoprotein (FSL-1, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, and flagellin, significant induction of proinflammatory cytokine gene expression including Interleukin-8 (IL-8, Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and Chemokine (C–C Motif Ligand 20 (CCL20 expression, was found in the control THP-1 cells, whereas the TLR10 knockdown cells exhibited a significant reduction in the expression of IL-8, IL-1β, and CCL20. TNF-α was the only cytokine for which the expression did not decrease in the TLR10 knockdown cells from that measured in the control cells. Analysis of putative binding sites for transcription factors using a binding-site-prediction program revealed that the TNF-α promoter does not have putative binding sites for AP-1 or c-Jun, comprising a major transcription factor along with NF-κB for TLR signaling. Our results suggest that TLR10 is involved in the recognition of FSL-1, LPS, and flagellin and TLR-ligand-induced expression of TNF-α does not depend on TLR10.

  4. Stable Toll-Like Receptor 10 Knockdown in THP-1 Cells Reduces TLR-Ligand-Induced Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hai Van; Kim, Jae Young

    2016-06-01

    Toll-like receptor 10 (TLR10) is the only orphan receptor whose natural ligand and function are unknown among the 10 human TLRs. In this study, to test whether TLR10 recognizes some known TLR ligands, we established a stable TLR10 knockdown human monocytic cell line THP-1 using TLR10 short hairpin RNA lentiviral particle and puromycin selection. Among 60 TLR10 knockdown clones that were derived from each single transduced cell, six clones were randomly selected, and then one of those clones, named E7, was chosen for the functional study. E7 exhibited approximately 50% inhibition of TLR10 mRNA and protein expression. Of all the TLRs, only the expression of TLR10 changed significantly in this cell line. Additionally, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced macrophage differentiation of TLR10 knockdown cells was not affected in the knockdown cells. When exposed to TLR ligands, such as synthetic diacylated lipoprotein (FSL-1), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and flagellin, significant induction of proinflammatory cytokine gene expression including Interleukin-8 (IL-8), Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 20 (CCL20) expression, was found in the control THP-1 cells, whereas the TLR10 knockdown cells exhibited a significant reduction in the expression of IL-8, IL-1β, and CCL20. TNF-α was the only cytokine for which the expression did not decrease in the TLR10 knockdown cells from that measured in the control cells. Analysis of putative binding sites for transcription factors using a binding-site-prediction program revealed that the TNF-α promoter does not have putative binding sites for AP-1 or c-Jun, comprising a major transcription factor along with NF-κB for TLR signaling. Our results suggest that TLR10 is involved in the recognition of FSL-1, LPS, and flagellin and TLR-ligand-induced expression of TNF-α does not depend on TLR10.

  5. Inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis induces a transient increase in the expression of proinflammatory, Th1-related, and autoregulatory cytokines in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anziliero, D.; Weiblen, R.; Kreutz, L.C.; Spilki, F.; Flores, E.F.

    2014-01-01

    The immunostimulatory properties of inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO) have long been investigated in different animal species and experimental settings. In this study, we investigated the effects of iPPVO on cytokine expression in mice after intraperitoneal inoculation. Spleen and sera collected from iPPVO-treated mice at intervals after inoculation were submitted to cytokine mRNA determination by real-time PCR (qPCR), serum protein concentration by ELISA, and interferon (IFN)-α/β activity by bioassay. The spleen of iPPVO-treated animals showed a significant increase in mRNA expression of all cytokines assayed, with different kinetics and magnitude. Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and IL-8 mRNA peaked at 24 hours postinoculation (hpi; 5.4-fold increase) and 48 hpi (3- and 10-fold increases), respectively. A 15-fold increase in IFN-γ and 6-fold IL-12 mRNA increase were detected at 48 and 24 hpi, respectively. Increased expression of autoregulatory cytokines (Th2), mainly IL-10 and IL-4, could be detected at later times (72 and 96 hpi) with peaks of 4.7- and 4.9-fold increases, respectively. IFN-I antiviral activity against encephalomyocarditis virus was demonstrated in sera of treated animals between 6 and 12 hpi, with a >90% reduction in the number of plaques. Measurement of serum proteins by ELISA revealed increased levels of IL-1, TNF-α, IL-12, IFN-γ, and IL-10, with kinetics similar to those observed by qPCR, especially for IL-12 and IFN-γ. These data demonstrate that iPPVO induced a transient and complex cytokine response, initially represented by Th1-related cytokines followed by autoregulatory and Th2 cytokines

  6. Inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis induces a transient increase in the expression of proinflammatory, Th1-related, and autoregulatory cytokines in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anziliero, D.; Weiblen, R. [Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Kreutz, L.C. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Bioexperimentação, Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Passo Fundo, Passo Fundo, RS, Brasil, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Bioexperimentação, Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Passo Fundo, Passo Fundo, RS (Brazil); Spilki, F. [Laboratório de Microbiologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Feevale, Novo Hamburgo, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Microbiologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Feevale, Novo Hamburgo, RS (Brazil); Flores, E.F. [Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2014-02-17

    The immunostimulatory properties of inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO) have long been investigated in different animal species and experimental settings. In this study, we investigated the effects of iPPVO on cytokine expression in mice after intraperitoneal inoculation. Spleen and sera collected from iPPVO-treated mice at intervals after inoculation were submitted to cytokine mRNA determination by real-time PCR (qPCR), serum protein concentration by ELISA, and interferon (IFN)-α/β activity by bioassay. The spleen of iPPVO-treated animals showed a significant increase in mRNA expression of all cytokines assayed, with different kinetics and magnitude. Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and IL-8 mRNA peaked at 24 hours postinoculation (hpi; 5.4-fold increase) and 48 hpi (3- and 10-fold increases), respectively. A 15-fold increase in IFN-γ and 6-fold IL-12 mRNA increase were detected at 48 and 24 hpi, respectively. Increased expression of autoregulatory cytokines (Th2), mainly IL-10 and IL-4, could be detected at later times (72 and 96 hpi) with peaks of 4.7- and 4.9-fold increases, respectively. IFN-I antiviral activity against encephalomyocarditis virus was demonstrated in sera of treated animals between 6 and 12 hpi, with a >90% reduction in the number of plaques. Measurement of serum proteins by ELISA revealed increased levels of IL-1, TNF-α, IL-12, IFN-γ, and IL-10, with kinetics similar to those observed by qPCR, especially for IL-12 and IFN-γ. These data demonstrate that iPPVO induced a transient and complex cytokine response, initially represented by Th1-related cytokines followed by autoregulatory and Th2 cytokines.

  7. Neuroinflammation induces glial aromatase expression in the uninjured songbird brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saldanha Colin J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogens from peripheral sources as well as central aromatization are neuroprotective in the vertebrate brain. Under normal conditions, aromatase is only expressed in neurons, however following anoxic/ischemic or mechanical brain injury; aromatase is also found in astroglia. This increased glial aromatization and the consequent estrogen synthesis is neuroprotective and may promote neuronal survival and repair. While the effects of estradiol on neuroprotection are well studied, what induces glial aromatase expression remains unknown. Methods Adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata were given a penetrating injury to the entopallium. At several timepoints later, expression of aromatase, IL-1β-like, and IL-6-like were examined using immunohisotchemistry. A second set of zebra birds were exposed to phytohemagglutinin (PHA, an inflammatory agent, directly on the dorsal surface of the telencephalon without creating a penetrating injury. Expression of aromatase, IL-1β-like, and IL-6-like were examined using both quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to examine mRNA expression and immunohistochemistry to determine cellular expression. Statistical significance was determined using t-test or one-way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey Kramers post hoc test. Results Following injury in the zebra finch brain, cytokine expression occurs prior to aromatase expression. This temporal pattern suggests that cytokines may induce aromatase expression in the damaged zebra finch brain. Furthermore, evoking a neuroinflammatory response characterized by an increase in cytokine expression in the uninjured brain is sufficient to induce glial aromatase expression. Conclusions These studies are among the first to examine a neuroinflammatory response in the songbird brain following mechanical brain injury and to describe a novel neuroimmune signal to initiate aromatase expression in glia.

  8. A synthetic chalcone derivative, 2-hydroxy-3',5,5'-trimethoxychalcone (DK-139), suppresses the TNFα-induced invasive capability of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells by inhibiting NF-κB-mediated GROα expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da Young; Lee, Da Hyun; Jung, Jung You; Koh, Dongsoo; Kim, Geum-Soog; Ahn, Young-Sup; Lee, Young Han; Lim, Yoongho; Shin, Soon Young

    2016-01-01

    2-Hydroxy-3',5,5'-trimenthoxyochalcone (DK-139) is a synthetic chalcone-derived compound. This study evaluated the biological activity of DK-139 on the inhibition of tumor metastasis. Growth-regulated oncogene-alpha (GROα) plays an important role in the progression of tumor development by stimulating angiogenesis and metastasis. In this study, DK-139 inhibited tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-induced GROα gene promoter activity by inhibiting of IκB kinase (IKK) in MDA-MB231 cells. In addition, DK-139 prevented the TNFα-induced cell migration, F-actin formation, and invasive capability of MDA-MB-231 cells. These findings suggest that DK-139 is a potential drug candidate for the inhibition of tumor cell locomotion and invasion via the suppression of NF-κB-mediated GROα expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lithium ions induce prestalk-associated gene expression and inhibit prespore gene expression in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Dorien J.M.; Lookeren Campagne, Michiel M. van; Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Spek, Wouter; Schaap, Pauline

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Li+ on two types of cyclic AMP-regulated gene expression and on basal and cyclic AMP-stimulated inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) levels. Li+ effectively inhibits cyclic AMP-induced prespore gene expression, half-maximal inhibition occurring at about 2mM-LiCl.

  10. Electrical remodeling of cardiac myocytes from mice with heart failure due to the overexpression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova-Kirova, Polina S; Gursoy, Erdal; Mehdi, Haider; McTiernan, Charles F; London, Barry; Salama, Guy

    2006-05-01

    Mice that overexpress the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the heart (TNF mice) develop heart failure characterized by atrial and ventricular dilatation, decreased ejection fraction, atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, and increased mortality (males > females). Abnormalities in Ca2+ handling, prolonged action potential duration (APD), calcium alternans, and reentrant atrial and ventricular arrhythmias were previously observed with the use of optical mapping of perfused hearts from TNF mice. We therefore tested whether altered voltage-gated outward K+ and/or inward Ca2+ currents contribute to the altered action potential characteristics and the increased vulnerability to arrhythmias. Whole cell voltage-clamp recordings of K+ currents from left ventricular myocytes of TNF mice revealed an approximately 50% decrease in the rapidly activating, rapidly inactivating transient outward K+ current Ito and in the rapidly activating, slowly inactivating delayed rectifier current IK,slow1, an approximately 25% decrease in the rapidly activating, slowly inactivating delayed rectifier current IK,slow2, and no significant change in the steady-state current Iss compared with controls. Peak amplitudes and inactivation kinetics of the L-type Ca2+ current ICa,L were not altered. Western blot analyses revealed a reduction in the proteins underlying Kv4.2, Kv4.3, and Kv1.5. Thus decreased K+ channel expression is largely responsible for the prolonged APD in the TNF mice and may, along with abnormalities in Ca2+ handling, contribute to arrhythmias.

  11. Amperometric magnetoimmunoassay for the direct detection of tumor necrosis factor alpha biomarker in human serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eletxigerra, U. [Micro-NanoFabrication Unit, IK4-Tekniker, Eibar (Spain); CIC microGUNE, Arrasate-Mondragón (Spain); Martinez-Perdiguero, J. [CIC microGUNE, Arrasate-Mondragón (Spain); Merino, S. [Micro-NanoFabrication Unit, IK4-Tekniker, Eibar (Spain); CIC microGUNE, Arrasate-Mondragón (Spain); Villalonga, R.; Pingarrón, J.M. [Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de CC. Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Campuzano, S., E-mail: susanacr@quim.ucm.es [Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de CC. Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Electrochemical magnetoimmunosensor for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) biomarker. • Sensitive and selective detection of TNFα in undiluted serum. • LOD achieved lower than the cut-off value established for relevant illnesses. • Useful and affordable alternative to ELISAs for TNFα determination in serum. - Abstract: An amperometric immunoassay for the determination of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) protein biomarker in human serum based on the use of magnetic microbeads (MBs) and disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) has been developed. The specifically modified microbeads were magnetically captured on the working electrode surface and the amperometric responses were measured at −0.20 V (vs. Ag pseudo-reference electrode), upon addition of hydroquinone (HQ) as electron transfer mediator and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as the enzyme substrate. After a thorough optimization of the assay, extremely low limits of detection were achieved: 2.0 pg mL{sup −1} (36 fM) and 5.8 pg mL{sup −1} (105 fM) for standard solutions and spiked human serum, respectively. The simplicity, robustness and this clinically interesting LOD proved the developed TNFα immunoassay as a good contender for real clinical application.

  12. Amperometric magnetoimmunoassay for the direct detection of tumor necrosis factor alpha biomarker in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eletxigerra, U.; Martinez-Perdiguero, J.; Merino, S.; Villalonga, R.; Pingarrón, J.M.; Campuzano, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrochemical magnetoimmunosensor for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) biomarker. • Sensitive and selective detection of TNFα in undiluted serum. • LOD achieved lower than the cut-off value established for relevant illnesses. • Useful and affordable alternative to ELISAs for TNFα determination in serum. - Abstract: An amperometric immunoassay for the determination of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) protein biomarker in human serum based on the use of magnetic microbeads (MBs) and disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) has been developed. The specifically modified microbeads were magnetically captured on the working electrode surface and the amperometric responses were measured at −0.20 V (vs. Ag pseudo-reference electrode), upon addition of hydroquinone (HQ) as electron transfer mediator and H 2 O 2 as the enzyme substrate. After a thorough optimization of the assay, extremely low limits of detection were achieved: 2.0 pg mL −1 (36 fM) and 5.8 pg mL −1 (105 fM) for standard solutions and spiked human serum, respectively. The simplicity, robustness and this clinically interesting LOD proved the developed TNFα immunoassay as a good contender for real clinical application

  13. Induced expression of mRNA for IL-5, IL-6, TNF-alpha, MIP-2 and IFN-gamma in immunologically activated rat peritoneal mast cells: inhibition by dexamethasone and cyclosporin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C M; Coleman, J W

    1995-10-01

    We examined the capacity of purified rat peritoneal connective tissue-type mast cells (PMC) to express mRNA for several cytokines. Stimulation of PMC with anti-IgE for 4 hr induced the expression of mRNA encoding interleukin-5 (IL-5), IL-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Unstimulated PMC expressed detectable mRNA for TNF-alpha but not for the other four cytokines. Incubation of PMC with cyclosporin A (CsA) or dexamethasone (DEX), each at 10(-6) M for 24 hr, significantly inhibited the induced expression of mRNA for each of the five cytokines, and also inhibited release of biologically active TNF-alpha. Throughout these experiments mRNA levels of the housekeeping gene G3PDH were not altered by stimulation with anti-IgE or incubation with CsA or DEX. We conclude that immunological activation of rat PMC induces gene expression of several cytokines and that expression of these genes can be inhibited by immunosuppressive drugs.

  14. Inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-alpha diminishes desmoplasia and inflammation to overcome chemoresistance in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xianda; Fan, Wei; Xu, Zhigao; Chen, Honglei; He, Yuyu; Yang, Gui; Yang, Gang; Hu, Hanning; Tang, Shihui; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Zheng; Xu, Peipei; Yu, Mingxia

    2016-12-06

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most common cancer death reasons. Anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) antibodies have shown promising effects in PDAC pre-clinical models. However, the prognostic values of TNF-α, underlying mechanisms by which anti-TNF-α treatments inhibit PDAC, and potential synergistic effects of anti-TNF-α treatments with chemotherapy are still unclear. To identify the targeting values of TNF-α in PDAC, we measured TNF-α expression in different stages of PDAC initiation and evaluated its prognostic significance in a pancreatic cancer cohort. We found that TNF-α expression elevated in PDAC initiation process, and high expression of TNF-α was an independent prognostic marker of poor survival. We further evaluated anti-tumor effects of anti-TNF-α treatments in PDAC. Anti-TNF-α treatments resulted in decreased cell viability in both PDAC tumor cells and pancreatic satellite cells in similar dose in vitro. In vivo, anti-TNF-α treatments showed effects in reducing desmoplasia and the tumor promoting inflammatory microenvironment in PDAC. Combination of anti-TNF-α treatments with chemotherapy partly overcame chemoresistance of PDAC tumor cells and prolonged the survival of PDAC mouse model. In conclusion, our findings indicated that TNF-α in PDAC can be a prognostic and therapeutic target. Inhibition of TNF-α synergized with chemotherapy in PDAC resulted in better pre-clinical responses via killing tumor cells as well as diminishing desmoplasia and inflammation in PDAC tumor stroma.

  15. Low level tumor necrosis factor-alpha protects cardiomyocytes against high level tumor necrosis factor-alpha: brief insight into a beneficial paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciapaglia, Fabio; Salvatorelli, Emanuela; Minotti, Giorgio; Afeltra, Antonella; Menna, Pierantonio

    2014-12-01

    Whether tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) caused beneficial or detrimental cardiovascular effects remains poorly defined. Anti-TNFα agents improved cardiac end points in chronic rheumatic diseases characterized by progressive deterioration of cardiac function. In contrast, anti-TNFα agents did not always improve but actually worsened cardiac function in non-rheumatic patients with heart failure (HF), in spite of that HF usually accompanies with high circulating levels of TNFα. To shed light on these mixed findings, we characterized the effects of TNFα in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Cells were incubated for 24 h with increasing concentrations of TNFα, hydrogen peroxide, aminotriazole, or etoposide. Posttreatment cell viability was assessed by antimycin A-inhibitable reduction of 3-(4,dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, and the IC50 value of each test compound was defined. H9c2 cells were also preconditioned with a low non-toxic concentration of TNFα and then re-challenged with increasing concentrations of TNFα and other stressor agents. In re-challenge experiments, all of the IC50 values increased significantly, with the IC50 value of TNFα increasing approximately 16-fold. TNFα preconditioning increased cardiomyocytes shedding of the external portion of transmembrane type 1 and type 2 TNFα receptors [(soluble TNFα receptors (sTNFR)]. Levels of survival-oriented soluble TNFR2 (sTNFR2) always exceeded those of death-oriented sTNFR1. When exposed to TNFα at its IC50 value, preconditioned cardiomyocytes showed an increased release of sTNFR2 but not sTNFR1. These results denoted that preconditioning by "low TNFα" helped cardiomyocyte to withstand toxicity from "high TNFα" or other agents. These results also suggested that beneficial or detrimental effects of anti-TNFα agents might well depend on whether these agents spared or intercepted discrete amounts of TNFα that preconditioned cardiomyocytes and made them more resistant to high

  16. Preliminary characterisation of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-10 responses to Chlamydia pecorum infection in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Mathew

    Full Text Available Debilitating infectious diseases caused by Chlamydia are major contributors to the decline of Australia's iconic native marsupial species, the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus. An understanding of koala chlamydial disease pathogenesis and the development of effective strategies to control infections continue to be hindered by an almost complete lack of species-specific immunological reagents. The cell-mediated immune response has been shown to play an influential role in the response to chlamydial infection in other hosts. The objective of this study, hence, was to provide preliminary data on the role of two key cytokines, pro-inflammatory tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα and anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL10, in the koala Chlamydia pecorum response. Utilising sequence homology between the cytokine sequences obtained from several recently sequenced marsupial genomes, this report describes the first mRNA sequences of any koala cytokine and the development of koala specific TNFα and IL10 real-time PCR assays to measure the expression of these genes from koala samples. In preliminary studies comparing wild koalas with overt chlamydial disease, previous evidence of C. pecorum infection or no signs of C. pecorum infection, we revealed strong but variable expression of TNFα and IL10 in wild koalas with current signs of chlamydiosis. The description of these assays and the preliminary data on the cell-mediated immune response of koalas to chlamydial infection paves the way for future studies characterising the koala immune response to a range of its pathogens while providing reagents to assist with measuring the efficacy of ongoing attempts to develop a koala chlamydial vaccine.

  17. Preliminary characterisation of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-10 responses to Chlamydia pecorum infection in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Marina; Beagley, Kenneth W; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Debilitating infectious diseases caused by Chlamydia are major contributors to the decline of Australia's iconic native marsupial species, the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). An understanding of koala chlamydial disease pathogenesis and the development of effective strategies to control infections continue to be hindered by an almost complete lack of species-specific immunological reagents. The cell-mediated immune response has been shown to play an influential role in the response to chlamydial infection in other hosts. The objective of this study, hence, was to provide preliminary data on the role of two key cytokines, pro-inflammatory tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL10), in the koala Chlamydia pecorum response. Utilising sequence homology between the cytokine sequences obtained from several recently sequenced marsupial genomes, this report describes the first mRNA sequences of any koala cytokine and the development of koala specific TNFα and IL10 real-time PCR assays to measure the expression of these genes from koala samples. In preliminary studies comparing wild koalas with overt chlamydial disease, previous evidence of C. pecorum infection or no signs of C. pecorum infection, we revealed strong but variable expression of TNFα and IL10 in wild koalas with current signs of chlamydiosis. The description of these assays and the preliminary data on the cell-mediated immune response of koalas to chlamydial infection paves the way for future studies characterising the koala immune response to a range of its pathogens while providing reagents to assist with measuring the efficacy of ongoing attempts to develop a koala chlamydial vaccine.

  18. Induction of human airway hyperresponsiveness by tumour necrosis factor-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anticevich, S Z; Hughes, J M; Black, J L; Armour, C L

    1995-09-15

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) is implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma; however, little is known of its direct effect on smooth muscle reactivity. We investigated the effect of TNF alpha on the responsiveness of human bronchial tissue to electrical field stimulation in vitro. Incubation of non-sensitized tissue with 1 nM, 3 nM and 10 nM TNF alpha significantly increased responsiveness to electrical field stimulation (113 +/- 8, 110 +/- 4 and 112 +/- 2% respectively) compared to control (99 +/- 2%) (P 0.05) nor were responses to exogenous acetylcholine (93 +/- 4% versus 73 +/- 7%, n = 3, P = 0.38). These results show that TNF alpha causes an increase in responsiveness of human bronchial tissue and that this occurs prejunctionally on the parasympathetic nerve pathway. This is the first report of a cytokine increasing human airway tissue responsiveness.

  19. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha increases myocardial microvascular transport in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P R; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Høyer, S

    1994-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a primary mediator in the pathogenesis of tissue injury, and high circulating levels of TNF-alpha are found in a variety of pathological conditions. In open-chest anesthetized dogs, the effects of intracoronary recombinant human TNF-alpha (rTNF-alpha; 100...... in cardiac output and was associated with the appearance of areas with myocardial necrosis in the regional left ventricular wall. The myocardial plasma flow rate and maximum plasma flow rate in response to a 30-s coronary occlusion were not influenced by rTNF-alpha, although a decrease in the myocardial...... ng/kg for 60 min) on myocardial microvascular transport of a small hydrophilic indicator was examined by the single-injection, residue-detection method. Intracoronary infusion of rTNF-alpha increased myocardial microvascular transport after 120 min. This increase was preceded by a sustained decline...

  20. Tetracycline-inducible gene expression system in Leishmania mexicana

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kraeva, N.; Ishemgulova, A.; Lukeš, Julius; Yurchenko, Vyacheslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 198, č. 1 (2014), s. 11-13 ISSN 0166-6851 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Leishmania mexicana * Gene expression * Tet-inducible system Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.787, year: 2014

  1. Identification of salt-stress induced differentially expressed genes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification of salt-stress induced differentially expressed genes in barley leaves using the annealingcontrol- primer-based GeneFishing technique. S Lee, K Lee, K Kim, GJ Choi, SH Yoon, HC Ji, S Seo, YC Lim, N Ahsan ...

  2. Medicinal flowers. XXVII. New flavanone and chalcone glycosides, arenariumosides I, II, III, and IV, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors from everlasting, flowers of Helichrysum arenarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Toshio; Wang, Li-Bo; Nakamura, Seikou; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Yokoyama, Eri; Matsuda, Hisashi; Muraoka, Osamu; Wu, Li-Jun; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2009-04-01

    The methanolic extract from the flowers of Helichrysum arenarium L. MOENCH was found to show inhibitory effect on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, 1 ng/ml)-induced cytotoxicity in L929 cells. From the methanolic extract, 50 constituents including four new flavanone and chalcone glycosides named arenariumosides I (1), II (2), III (3), and IV (4) were isolated. The stereostructures of 1-4 were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. Among the constituents, naringenin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7), apigenin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (14), apigenin 7-O-gentiobioside (16), and apigenin 7,4'-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (17) significantly inhibited TNF-alpha-induced cytotoxicity in L929 cells at 30 microM.

  3. Inflammatory Cytokines Induce Podoplanin Expression at the Tumor Invasive Front.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunita, Akiko; Baeriswyl, Vanessa; Meda, Claudia; Cabuy, Erik; Takeshita, Kimiko; Giraudo, Enrico; Wicki, Andreas; Fukayama, Masashi; Christofori, Gerhard

    2018-05-01

    Tumor invasion is a critical first step in the organismic dissemination of cancer cells and the formation of metastasis in distant organs, the most important prognostic factor and the actual cause of death in most of the cancer patients. We report herein that the cell surface protein podoplanin (PDPN), a potent inducer of cancer cell invasion, is conspicuously expressed by the invasive front of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the cervix in patients and in the transgenic human papillomavirus/estrogen mouse model of cervical cancer. Laser capture microscopy combined with gene expression profiling reveals that the expression of interferon-responsive genes is up-regulated in PDPN-expressing cells at the tumor invasive front, which are exposed to CD45-positive inflammatory cells. Indeed, PDPN expression can be induced in cultured SCC cell lines by single or combined treatments with interferon-γ, transforming growth factor-β, and/or tumor necrosis factor-α. Notably, shRNA-mediated ablation of either PDPN or STAT1 in A431 SCC cells repressed cancer cell invasion on s.c. transplantation into immunodeficient mice. The results highlight the induction of tumor cell invasion by the inflammatory cytokine-stimulated expression of PDPN in the outermost cell layers of cervical SCC. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Interleukin-10 to tumor necrosis factor-alpha ratio is a predictive biomarker in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: interleukin-10 to tumor necrosis factor-alpha ratio in steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Reem M; Mahmoud, Mona F; El-Moselhy, Mohamed A; Soliman, Hala M

    2008-10-01

    Fatty liver disease is commonly associated with diabetes mellitus (DM). Insulin resistance (IR) as an investigative biomarker is only concerned with fatty liver that results from DM type 2 associated with metabolic syndrome. Irrespective of IR, DM is generally characterized by overproduction of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), whereas action of the latter is modulated by the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10). The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of using TNF-alpha alone or IL-10/TNF-alpha ratio compared to IR, as a promising biomarker for fatty liver assessment in DM. Furthermore, we hypothesized that using garlic as an immunomodulator may decrease TNF-alpha and increase IL-10 production to improve steatohepatitis. DM was induced metabolically by a high-fat diet to bring about IR, or chemically by alloxan, producing insulin deficiency, in male albino rats. Garlic powder was supplemented (15 mg/kg per day) for 3 weeks. Fatty liver was depicted histologically and biochemically (aspartic aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, HOMA-IR, TNF-alpha, IL-10, IL-10/TNF-alpha ratio). We found that, in contrast to obese rats, garlic decreased IL-10/TNF-alpha ratio, despite decreasing TNF-alpha in alloxan diabetic rats in agreement with the histology, which revealed more prominent improvement in the obese group. Moreover, the effect of garlic was not linked to improvement of IR in obese rats. We conclude that IL-10/TNF-alpha ratio may be considered as a convenient biomarker for investigation of fatty liver of different grades, apart from being associated with IR, and immunomodulation of this ratio in favor of increasing it may exert significant improvement.

  5. Development of inducer-free expression plasmids based on IPTG-inducible promoters for Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dinh Thi Minh; Phan, Trang Thi Phuong; Huynh, Thanh Kieu; Dang, Ngan Thi Kim; Huynh, Phuong Thi Kim; Nguyen, Tri Minh; Truong, Tuom Thi Tinh; Tran, Thuoc Linh; Schumann, Wolfgang; Nguyen, Hoang Duc

    2017-07-25

    Besides Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis is an important bacterial species for the production of recombinant proteins. Recombinant genes are inserted into shuttle expression vectors which replicate in both E. coli and in B. subtilis. The ligation products are first transformed into E. coli cells, analyzed for correct insertions, and the correct recombinant plasmids are then transformed into B. subtilis. A major problem using E. coli cells can be the strong basal level of expression of the recombinant protein which may interfere with the stability of the cells. To minimize this problem, we developed strong expression vectors being repressed in E. coli and inducer-free in B. subtilis. In general, induction of IPTG-inducible expression vectors is determined by the regulatory lacI gene encoding the LacI repressor in combination with the lacO operator on the promoter. To investigate the inducer-free properties of the vectors, we constructed inducer-free expression plasmids by removing the lacI gene and characterized their properties. First, we examined the ability to repress a reporter gene in E. coli, which is a prominent property facilitating the construction of the expression vectors carrying a target gene. The β-galactosidase (bgaB gene) basal levels expressed from Pgrac01-bgaB could be repressed at least twice in the E. coli cloning strain. Second, the inducer-free production of BgaB from four different plasmids with the Pgrac01 promoter in B. subtilis was investigated. As expected, BgaB expression levels of inducer-free constructs are at least 37 times higher than that of the inducible constructs in the absence of IPTG, and comparable to those in the presence of the inducer. Third, using efficient IPTG-inducible expression vectors containing the strong promoter Pgrac100, we could convert them into inducer-free expression plasmids. The BgaB production levels from the inducer-free plasmid in the absence of the inducer were at least 4.5 times higher than that of

  6. Epidermal growth factor regulation of glutathione S-transferase gene expression in the rat is mediated by class Pi glutathione S-transferase enhancer I.

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, M; Imagawa, M; Aoki, Y

    2000-01-01

    Using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assays we showed that epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha), and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PenCB) induce class Pi glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1) in primary cultured rat liver parenchymal cells. GSTP1 enhancer I (GPEI), which is required for the stimulation of GSTP1 expression by PenCB, also mediates EGF and TGF alpha stimulation of GSTP1 gene expression. However, hepatocyte growth factor and insulin did no...

  7. Plasticity-Related Gene Expression During Eszopiclone-Induced Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerashchenko, Dmitry; Pasumarthi, Ravi K; Kilduff, Thomas S

    2017-07-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that restorative processes depend on synaptic plasticity changes in the brain during sleep. We used the expression of plasticity-related genes to assess synaptic plasticity changes during drug-induced sleep. We first characterized sleep induced by eszopiclone in mice during baseline conditions and during the recovery from sleep deprivation. We then compared the expression of 18 genes and two miRNAs critically involved in synaptic plasticity in these mice. Gene expression was assessed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus by the TaqMan reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and correlated with sleep parameters. Eszopiclone reduced the latency to nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and increased NREM sleep amounts. Eszopiclone had no effect on slow wave activity (SWA) during baseline conditions but reduced the SWA increase during recovery sleep (RS) after sleep deprivation. Gene expression analyses revealed three distinct patterns: (1) four genes had higher expression either in the cortex or hippocampus in the group of mice with increased amounts of wakefulness; (2) a large proportion of plasticity-related genes (7 out of 18 genes) had higher expression during RS in the cortex but not in the hippocampus; and (3) six genes and the two miRNAs showed no significant changes across conditions. Even at a relatively high dose (20 mg/kg), eszopiclone did not reduce the expression of plasticity-related genes during RS period in the cortex. These results indicate that gene expression associated with synaptic plasticity occurs in the cortex in the presence of a hypnotic medication. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Reduction in high blood tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels after manipulative therapy in 2 cervicogenic headache patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormos, Gábor; Mehrishi, J N; Bakács, Tibor

    2009-09-01

    This case report discusses the treatment of 2 patients with cervicogenic headache (CHA) attending the Outpatient Clinic of the Hungarian National Institute for Rheumatology and Physiotherapy (Budapest, Hungary) and reviews the pathophysiology, therapeutic strategy, and problems associated with the treatment of CHA. Patient 1 was a 27-year-old female who sustained a whiplash injury. A sharp, shooting headache developed, readily induced, and aggravated by just bending the neck backward or by turning her head. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a disk protrusion at C4-C5 pressing the anterior cerebrospinal space. Patient 2 was a 62-year-old female who sustained a whiplash injury; her cervical movements became restricted, which precipitated headaches. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a paramedian disk hernia between the C4 and C5 vertebrae that intruded into the right ventral cerebrospinal space. After 4 weeks of manipulative therapy for patient 1, both active and passive range of motion returned to normal, and the high tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) level (63 pg/mL) was substantially reduced (28 pg/mL). Patient 2 was started on manipulative therapy twice a week for 4 weeks; after 2 months, the patient became symptom-free, and high TNF-alpha level (72 pg/mL) was reduced greatly (35 pg/mL). Two patients with whiplash injury and disk herniation developed CHA associated with very high TNF-alpha levels. After manipulative therapy, these patients became symptom-free, and their TNF-alpha levels decreased substantially.

  9. Expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer in odontogenic cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad Abdulhadi Abbas

    2008-08-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) is known to induce matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) production. The expression of EMMPRIN in odontogenic cysts has not been previously studied. This study was done to determine the presence and the variability of EMMPRIN expression in various types of odontogenic cysts. An immunohistochemical study using a polyclonal anti-EMMPRIN antibody was done using 48 odontogenic cyst cases: 13 odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs), 18 dentigerous cysts (DCs), and 17 periapical cysts (PAs). Twelve cases of normal dental follicles (DFs) were also included in this study for comparison. EMMPRIN immunoreactivity was detected in all of the cysts and DFs studied. In odontogenic cysts, EMMPRIN immunoreactivity was generally higher in basal cells than in suprabasal cells. The overall EMMPRIN expression in the epithelial lining of the 3 different types of odontogenic cyst was significantly higher than in the DFs. Overall EMMPRIN expression was also found to be significantly higher in the epithelial lining of OKCs than in the other types of cysts. This study confirmed that EMMPRIN is present in odontogenic cysts and DFs. The higher EMMPRIN expression in OKCs suggests that it may be involved in the aggressive behavior of this type of cyst.

  10. Thymidine phosphorylase and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α expression in clinical stage II/III rectal cancer: association with response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shuhan; Lai, Hao; Qin, Yuzhou; Chen, Jiansi; Lin, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether pretreatment status of thymidine phosphorylase (TP), and hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF-1α) could predict pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy with oxaliplatin and capecitabine (XELOXART) and outcomes for clinical stage II/III rectal cancer patients. A total of 180 patients diagnosed with clinical stage II/III rectal cancer received XELOXART. The status of TP, and HIF-1α were determined in pretreatment biopsies by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Tumor response was assessed in resected regimens using the tumor regression grade system and TNM staging system. 5-year disease free survival (DFS) and 5-year overall survival (OS) were evaluated with the Kaplan-Meier method and were compared by the log-rank test. Over expression of TP and low expression of HIF-1α were associated with pathologic response to XELOXART and better outcomes (DFS and OS) in clinical stage II/III rectal cancer patients (P rectal cancer received XELOXART. Additional well-designed, large sample, multicenter, prospective studies are needed to confirm the result of this study.

  11. Expression of interleukin-15 and inflammatory cytokines in skeletal muscles of STZ-induced diabetic rats: effect of resistance exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molanouri Shamsi, M; Hassan, Z H; Gharakhanlou, R; Quinn, L S; Azadmanesh, K; Baghersad, L; Isanejad, A; Mahdavi, M

    2014-05-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is associated with type-1 diabetes. Skeletal muscle is the source of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines that can mediate muscle hypertrophy and atrophy, while resistance exercise can modulate both muscle mass and muscle cytokine expression. This study determined the effects of a 5-week resistance exercise training regimen on the expression of muscle cytokines in healthy and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, with special emphasis on interleukin-15 (IL-15), a muscle-derived cytokine proposed to be involved in muscle hypertrophy or responses to stress. Induction of diabetes reduced muscle weight in both the fast flexor hallucis longus (FHL) and slow soleus muscles, while resistance training preserved FHL muscle weight in diabetic rats. IL-15 protein content was increased by training in both FHL and soleus muscles, as well as serum, in normal and diabetic rats. With regard to proinflammatory cytokines, muscle IL-6 levels were increased in diabetic rats, while training decreased muscle IL-6 levels in diabetic rats; training had no effect on FHL muscle IL-6 levels in healthy rats. Also, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and IL-1β levels were increased by diabetes, but not changed by training. In conclusion, we found that in diabetic rats, resistance training increased muscle and serum IL-15 levels, decreased muscle IL-6 levels, and preserved FHL muscle mass.

  12. The Leptospira outer membrane protein LipL32 induces tubulointerstitial nephritis-mediated gene expression in mouse proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Wei; Wu, Mai-Szu; Pan, Ming-Jeng; Hsieh, Wang-Ju; Vandewalle, Alain; Huang, Chiu-Ching

    2002-08-01

    Tubulointerstitial nephritis is a main renal manifestation caused by pathogenic leptospira that accumulate mostly in the proximal tubules, thereby inducing tubular injury and tubulointerstitial nephritis. To elucidate the role of leptospira outer membrane proteins in tubulointerstitial nephritis, outer membrane proteins from pathogenic Leptospira shermani and nonpathogenic Leptospira patoc extracted by Triton X-114 were administered to cultured mouse proximal tubule cells. A dose-dependent increase of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), RANTES, nitrite, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in the culture supernatant was observed 48 h after incubating Leptospira shermani outer membrane proteins with mouse proximal tubule cells. RT competitive-PCR experiments showed that Leptospira shermani outer membrane proteins (0.2 microg/ml) increased the expression of MCP-1, nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), RANTES, and TNF-alpha mRNA by 3.0-, 9.4-, 2.5-, and 2.5-fold, respectively, when compared with untreated cells. Outer membrane proteins extract from avirulent Leptospira patoc did not induce significant effects. The pathogenic outer membrane proteins extract contain a major component of a 32-kD lipoprotein (LipL32), which is absent in the nonpathogenic leptospira outer membrane. An antibody raised against LipL32 prevented the stimulatory effect of Leptospira shermani outer membrane proteins extract on MCP-1 and iNOS mRNA expression in cultured proximal tubule cells, whereas recombinant LipL32 significantly stimulated the expression of MCP-1 and iNOS mRNAs and augmented nuclear binding of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and AP-1 transcription factors in proximal tubule cells. An antibody raised against LipL32 also blunted the effects induced by the recombinant LipL32. This study demonstrates that LipL32 is a major component of pathogenic leptospira outer membrane proteins involved in the pathogenesis of tubulointerstitial nephritis.

  13. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits differentiation of myogenic cells in human urethral rhabdosphincter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Mayuka; Sumino, Yasuhiro; Sato, Fuminori; Kiyono, Tohru; Hashimoto, Naohiro; Mimata, Hiromitsu

    2017-06-01

    To examine the inhibitory effects of tumor necrosis factor-α on myogenic differentiation of human urethral rhabdosphincter cells. A rhabdosphincter sample was obtained from a patient who underwent total cystectomy. To expand the lifespan of the primary cultured cells, rhabdosphincter myogenic cells were immortalized with mutated cyclin-dependent kinase 4, cyclin D1 and telomerase. The differential potential of the cells was investigated. The transfected human rhabdosphincter cells were induced for myogenic differentiation with recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-α and/or the tumor necrosis factor-α antagonist etanercept at different concentrations, and activation of signaling pathways was monitored. Human rhabdosphincter cells were selectively cultured for at least 40 passages. Molecular analysis confirmed the expression of myosin heavy chain, which is a specific marker of differentiated muscle cells, significantly increased after differentiation induction. Although tumor necrosis factor-α treatment reduced the myosin heavy chain expression in a concentration-dependent manner, etanercept inhibited this suppression. Tumor necrosis factor-α suppressed phosphorylation of protein kinase B and p38, whereas etanercept pretreatment promoted phosphorylation and myosin heavy chain expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Tumor necrosis factor-α inhibits differentiation of urethral rhabdosphincter cells in part through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathways. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α might be a useful strategy to treat stress urinary incontinence. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  14. Exercise-induced metallothionein expression in human skeletal muscle fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Keller, Pernille; Keller, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    in both type I and II muscle fibres. This is the first report demonstrating that MT-I + II are significantly induced in human skeletal muscle fibres following exercise. As MT-I + II are antioxidant factors that protect various tissues during pathological conditions, the MT-I + II increases post exercise......Exercise induces free oxygen radicals that cause oxidative stress, and metallothioneins (MTs) are increased in states of oxidative stress and possess anti-apoptotic effects. We therefore studied expression of the antioxidant factors metallothionein I and II (MT-I + II) in muscle biopsies obtained...... in response to 3 h of bicycle exercise performed by healthy men and in resting controls. Both MT-I + II proteins and MT-II mRNA expression increased significantly in both type I and II muscle fibres after exercise. Moreover, 24 h after exercise the levels of MT-II mRNA and MT-I + II proteins were still highly...

  15. The repeatability of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and C-reactive protein in COPD patients over one year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolsum, Umme; Roy, Kay; Starkey, Cerys

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many of the systemic manifestations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are mediated through increased systemic levels of inflammatory proteins. We assessed the long term repeatability of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and C-reactive protein......(i)) and the Bland-Altman method. Pearson correlations were used to determine the relationships between the systemic markers at both visits. RESULTS: There was moderate repeatability with a very high degree of statistical significance (p...... (CRP) over one year and examined the relationships between these systemic markers in COPD. METHODS: Fifty-eight stable COPD patients completed a baseline and one-year visit. Serum IL-6, plasma CRP, and plasma TNF-alpha were measured. Repeatability was expressed by intraclass correlation coefficient (R...

  16. The repeatability of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and C-reactive protein in COPD patients over one year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolsum, Umme; Roy, Kay; Starkey, Cerys

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many of the systemic manifestations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are mediated through increased systemic levels of inflammatory proteins. We assessed the long term repeatability of Interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and C-reactive protein......(i)) and the Bland-Altman method. Pearson correlations were used to determine the relationships between the systemic markers at both visits. RESULTS: There was moderate repeatability with a very high degree of statistical significance (p...... (CRP) over one year and examined the relationships between these systemic markers in COPD. METHODS: Fifty-eight stable COPD patients completed a baseline and one-year visit. Serum IL-6, plasma CRP, and plasma TNF-alpha were measured. Repeatability was expressed by intraclass correlation coefficient (R...

  17. Development of a sensitive ELISA for the quantification of human tumour necrosis factor-alpha using 4 polyclonal antibodies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grebenchtchikov, N.J.; Ven-Jongekrijg, J. van der; Pesman, G.J.; Geurts-Moespot, A.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Sweep, C.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the availability of many assays to measure concentrations of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in body fluids, these assays often lack specificity or sensitivity and are often of questionable reliability, resulting in inconsistent results. Therefore, we have developed an ELISA that is

  18. Rheumatoid arthritis risk allele PTPRC is also associated with response to anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, Jing; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Thomson, Brian; Padyukov, Leonid; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H. M.; Nititham, Joanne; Hughes, Laura B.; de Vries, Niek; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Alfredsson, Lars; Askling, Johan; Wedrén, Sara; Ding, Bo; Guiducci, Candace; Wolbink, Gert Jan; Crusius, J. Bart A.; van der Horst-Bruinsma, Irene E.; Herenius, Marieke; Weinblatt, Michael E.; Shadick, Nancy A.; Worthington, Jane; Batliwalla, Franak; Kern, Marlena; Morgan, Ann W.; Wilson, Anthony G.; Isaacs, John D.; Hyrich, Kimme; Seldin, Michael F.; Moreland, Larry W.; Behrens, Timothy W.; Allaart, Cornelia F.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Huizinga, Tom W. J.; Tak, Paul P.; Bridges, S. Louis; Toes, Rene E. M.; Barton, Anne; Klareskog, Lars; Gregersen, Peter K.; Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Plenge, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF) therapy is a mainstay of treatment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of the present study was to test established RA genetic risk factors to determine whether the same alleles also influence the response to anti-TNF therapy. METHODS: A total

  19. Association of tumor necrosis factor alpha gene polymorphism G-308A with pseudoexfoliative glaucoma in the Pakistani population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.I.; Micheal, S.; Rana, N.; Akhtar, F.; Hollander, A.I. den; Ahmed, A.; Qamar, R.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene polymorphism G-308A and total serum immunoglobulin E (TsIgE) levels in the onset of pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEXG) in Pakistani patients. METHODS: The TNF-alpha polymorphism

  20. Src Induces Podoplanin Expression to Promote Cell Migration*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yongquan; Chen, Chen-Shan; Ichikawa, Hitoshi; Goldberg, Gary S.

    2010-01-01

    Nontransformed cells can force tumor cells to assume a normal morphology and phenotype by the process of contact normalization. Transformed cells must escape this process to become invasive and malignant. However, mechanisms underlying contact normalization have not been elucidated. Here, we have identified genes that are affected by contact normalization of Src-transformed cells. Tumor cells must migrate to become invasive and malignant. Src must phosphorylate the adaptor protein Cas (Crk-associated substrate) to promote tumor cell motility. We report here that Src utilizes Cas to induce podoplanin (Pdpn) expression to promote tumor cell migration. Pdpn is a membrane-bound extracellular glycoprotein that associates with endogenous ligands to promote tumor cell migration leading to cancer invasion and metastasis. In fact, Pdpn expression accounted for a major part of the increased migration seen in Src-transformed cells. Moreover, nontransformed cells suppressed Pdpn expression in adjacent Src-transformed cells. Of >39,000 genes, Pdpn was one of only 23 genes found to be induced by transforming Src activity and suppressed by contact normalization of Src-transformed cells. In addition, we found 16 genes suppressed by Src and induced by contact normalization. These genes encode growth factor receptors, adaptor proteins, and products that have not yet been annotated and may play important roles in tumor cell growth and migration. PMID:20123990

  1. Hypoxic-induced stress protein expression in rat cardiac myocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, G.; Geoghegan, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    Mammalian stress proteins can be induced in cells and tissues exposed to a variety of conditions including hyperthermia and diminished O 2 supply. The authors have previously shown that the expression of three stress proteins (71, 85, and 95 kDa) was induced in cardiac tissue from mice exposed to hypoxic conditions. The expression of mRNAs coding for the 85 and 95 kDa proteins increase with time of exposure to hypoxia, while the mRNA coding for the 71 kDa protein is transiently induced. The authors extended these studies to investigate the expression of stress proteins in isolated rat cardiac myocytes. Freshly prepared myocytes were exposed to control, hypoxic, anoxic, or heat-shock environments for up to 16 h. The proteins were then labeled for 6 hours with [ 35 S]methionine. Analysis of the solubilized proteins by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography showed that there was a 6-fold increase in synthesis of the 85 kDa protein upon exposure to hypoxia but not heat-shock conditions. The 71 kDa protein was present at high levels in both control and treated myocyte protein preparations, and presumably had been induced during the isolation procedure. Total RNA isolated from intact rat heart and isolated myocytes was compared by cell-free translation analysis and showed induction of RNAs coding for several stress proteins in the myocyte preparation. The induced proteins at 85 and 95 kDa have molecular weights similar to reported cell stress and/or glucose-regulated proteins

  2. Doxorubicin plus tumor necrosis factor alpha combination treatments in EL4-lymphoma-bearing C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrke, M J; Verstovsek, S; Ujházy, P; Meer, J M; Eppolito, C; Maccubbin, D L; Mihich, E

    1998-02-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of a total of 42 single-agent or combination protocols involving doxorubicin (Adriamycin, ADM) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) were evaluated in the syngeneic murine lymphoma model, C57BL/6-EL4. Combination treatments were the most effective and the therapeutic effects were schedule-dependent; e.g. it was generally advantageous for ADM to precede TNFalpha administration. Two protocols selected for further study were 4 mg/kg ADM i.v. on days 1 and 8 plus TNFalpha, i.v., at either 16000 U (7 microg)/injection, on days 1 and 8 or 4000 U (1.7 microg)/injection, on days 11-15. Survival of mice bearing one of four EL4 sublines having different in vitro drug sensitivities was assessed. These sublines were E10 (ADM-sensitive/TNFalpha-resistant), E16 (sensitive/sensitive), ER2 (ADM-resistant/TNFalpha-sensitive) and ER13 (resistant/resistant). Between 80% and 100% long-term survivors (i.e. tumor free on day 60) were obtained with the two treatments in mice bearing ADM-sensitive sublines, even though one of these sublines, E10, was resistant to TNFalpha in vitro. Induction of long-term survival appeared, therefore, to correlate with in vitro defined sensitivity/resistance to ADM, but not to TNFalpha Treatment-induced modulations of tumoricidal immune effector functions were also examined. Taken together, the results indicated that induction of long-term survival involved complex interactions of: (1) ADM-induced tumor modifications, including, but not limited to, tumor debulking, (2) combination-treatment-induced modifications of splenic cytolytic T cell and macrophage activities, and (3) the restoration of thymus cellularity. Finally, when long-term survivors resulting from treatment of E10- or E16-bearing mice were implanted with ER2 on day 120, the majority survived, indicating that long-term immune memory, capable of recognizing drug resistant variants, had been established.

  3. Fetuin-A induces cytokine expression and suppresses adiponectin production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita M Hennige

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The secreted liver protein fetuin-A (AHSG is up-regulated in hepatic steatosis and the metabolic syndrome. These states are strongly associated with low-grade inflammation and hypoadiponectinemia. We, therefore, hypothesized that fetuin-A may play a role in the regulation of cytokine expression, the modulation of adipose tissue expression and plasma concentration of the insulin-sensitizing and atheroprotective adipokine adiponectin. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human monocytic THP1 cells and human in vitro differenttiated adipocytes as well as C57BL/6 mice were treated with fetuin-A. mRNA expression of the genes encoding inflammatory cytokines and the adipokine adiponectin (ADIPOQ was assessed by real-time RT-PCR. In 122 subjects, plasma levels of fetuin-A, adiponectin and, in a subgroup, the multimeric forms of adiponectin were determined. Fetuin-A treatment induced TNF and IL1B mRNA expression in THP1 cells (p<0.05. Treatment of mice with fetuin-A, analogously, resulted in a marked increase in adipose tissue Tnf mRNA as well as Il6 expression (27- and 174-fold, respectively. These effects were accompanied by a decrease in adipose tissue Adipoq mRNA expression and lower circulating adiponectin levels (p<0.05, both. Furthermore, fetuin-A repressed ADIPOQ mRNA expression of human in vitro differentiated adipocytes (p<0.02 and induced inflammatory cytokine expression. In humans in plasma, fetuin-A correlated positively with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, a marker of subclinical inflammation (r = 0.26, p = 0.01, and negatively with total- (r = -0.28, p = 0.02 and, particularly, high molecular weight adiponectin (r = -0.36, p = 0.01. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: We provide novel evidence that the secreted liver protein fetuin-A induces low-grade inflammation and represses adiponectin production in animals and in humans. These data suggest an important role of fatty liver in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and

  4. Inducible expression of trehalose synthase in Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Youran; Gu, Zhenghua; Zhang, Liang; Ding, Zhongyang; Shi, Guiyang

    2017-02-01

    Trehalose synthase (TreS) could transform maltose into trehalose via isomerization. It is a crucial enzyme in the process of trehalose enzymatical transformation. In this study, plasmid-based inducible expression systems were constructed to produce Thermomonospora curvata TreS in B. licheniformis. Xylose operons from B. subtilis, B. licheniformis and B. megaterium were introduced to regulate the expression of the gene encoding TreS. It was functionally expressed, and the BlsTs construct yielded the highest enzyme activity (12.1 U/mL). Furthermore, the effect of different cultural conditions on the inducible expression of BlsTs was investigated, and the optimal condition was as follows: 4% maltodextrin, 0.4% soybean powder, 1% xylose added after 10 h of growth and an induction time of 12 h at 37 °C. As a result, the maximal yield reached 24.7 U/mL. This study contributes to the industrial application of B. licheniformis, a GRAS workhorse for enzyme production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Chimeric monoclonal antibody to tumor necrosis factor alpha (infliximab in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insights into the pathogenesis of psoriasis have provided opportunities to target key steps in the disease process. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a being crucial to the pathogenesis of psoriasis, monoclonal antibodies against this cytokine have proved useful in its treatment. Aim: To study the efficacy of chimeric monoclonal antibody to TNF-a (infliximab in Indian patients with recalcitrant psoriasis vulgaris. Materials and Methods: Three patients with recalcitrant psoriasis vulgaris were studied. Baseline haemogram, biochemical parameters, chest radiograph and Mantoux skin test were performed. A loading dose regimen of 5 mg/kg infliximab was administered at weeks 0, 2 and 6. PASI assessment, adverse drug event monitoring and laboratory assessments were carried out at 2-week intervals until week 10. Patients were followed up until week 22 for relapse. Results: Infliximab was well tolerated. The mean PASI was 25.4 at presentation and declined to 5.5 at 10 weeks. PASI 75 was attained at a mean of 9.6 weeks. Relapse occurred at a mean of 18.6 weeks after the first infusion. Conclusions: This study on Indian patients brings out the importance of cytokine-based therapies in psoriasis. Indigenous production could make these therapies a viable therapeutic option for psoriasis patients in the near future.

  6. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-4 gene polymorphisms in Chinese patients with gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M-L; Tsai, F-J; Tsai, C-H; Huang, C-M

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether polymorphisms of interleukin-4 (IL-4) (promoter-590 and intron 3) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) promoter-308 genes are markers of susceptibility to or clinical manifestations of gout in Taiwanese patients. The study included 196 Taiwanese patients with gout and 103 unrelated healthy control subjects living in central Taiwan. Polymorphisms of the IL-4 (promoter-590 and intron 3) and TNF-alpha (promoter-308) genes were typed from genomic DNA. Allelic frequencies and carriage rates were then compared between gout patients and control subjects. The correlation between allelic frequencies, carriage rates and clinical manifestations of gout were evaluated. No significant differences were observed in the allelic frequencies and carriage rates of the IL-4 (promoter-590 and intron 3) and TNF-alpha gene polymorphisms between patients with gout and healthy control subjects. Furthermore, the IL-4 (promoter-590 and intron 3) and TNF-alpha genotypes were not found to be associated with the clinical and laboratory profiles in gout patients. However, there was a significant difference in the TNF-alphapolymorphism genotype between patients with and without hypertriglyceridemia (P=0.001, xi2=11.47, OR=10.3, 95%CI=3.57-29.7). The results of our study suggest that polymorphisms of the IL-4 (promoter-590 and intron 3) and TNF-alpha promoter-308 genes are not related to gout in Chinese patients in Taiwan.

  7. Tumor necrosis factor alpha of teleosts: in silico characterization and homology modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Ngoc Tuan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- is known to be crucial in many biological activities of organisms. In this study, physicochemical properties and modeling of TNF- protein of fish was analyzed using in silico approach. TNF- proteins selected from fish species, including grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, zebra fish (Danio rerio, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, goldfish (Carassius auratus, and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss were used in this study. Physicochemical characteristics with molecular weight, theoretical isoelectric point, extinction coefficient, aliphatic index, instability index, total number of negatively charged residues and positively charged residues, and grand average of hydropathicity were computed. All proteins were classified as transmembrane proteins. The “transmembrane region” and “TNF” domain were identified from protein sequences. The function prediction of proteins was also performed. Alpha helices and random coils were dominating in the secondary structure of the proteins. Three-dimensional structures were predicted and verified as good structures for the investigation of TNF- of fish by online server validation.

  8. Using different drift gases to change separation factors (alpha) in ion mobility spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbury; Hill

    2000-02-01

    The use of different drift gases to alter separation factors (alpha) in ion mobility spectrometry has been demonstrated. The mobility of a series of low molecular weight compounds and three small peptides was determined in four different drift gases. The drift gases chosen were helium, argon, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. These drift gases provide a range of polarizabilities and molecular weights. In all instances, the compounds showed the greatest mobility in helium and the lowest mobility in carbon dioxide; however the percentage change of mobility for each compound was different, effectively changing the alpha value. The alpha value changes were primarily due to differences in drift gas polarizability but were also influenced by the mass of the drift gas. In addition, gas-phase ion radii were calculated in each of the different drift gases. These radii were then plotted against drift gas polarizability producing linear plots with r2 values greater than 0.99. The intercept of these plots provides the gas-phase radius of an ion in a nonpolarizing environment, whereas the slope is indicative of the magnitude of the ion's mobility change related to polarizability. It therefore, should be possible to separate any two compounds that have different slopes with the appropriate drift gas.

  9. The Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor- alpha and Resistin in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkady, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents one of the most common liver diseases. It is strongly associated with obesity and insulin resistance and is thought to be a part of the metabolic syndrome. It can progress from simple fatty liver to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and liver failure. Adipocytokines, synthesized in adipose tissue, are involved in the pathophysiology of many acute and chronic liver diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and resistin in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and their correlation to the severity of the disease. Serum concentration of TNF-alpha and resistin were measured in 20 patients with NAFLD and 20 healthy controls with ELISA method. The results of this study revealed that serum levels of both adipokines were significantly elevated in NAFLD patients than controls (P<0.01). Moreover, they were significantly higher in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis than in patients with simple fatty liver. There was a significant positive correlation between TNF-alpha, resistin and each of AST, ALT and HOMA. Similarly, the results showed a significant positive correlation between the two studied adipokines, TNF-alpha and resistin (P<0.001). We conclude that TNF-alpha and resistin have a role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and they may be promising markers for the progressin to steatohepatitis and inhibition of their activities by drugs may be a new approach for the treatment of NAFLD

  10. Interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha values in elk neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, S. M.; Johnson, C.R.; Murtaugh, M.P.; Mech, L.D.; White, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Serological indicators of general condition would be helpful for monitoring or assessing ungulate wildlife. Toward that end, we report the 1st reference values for 2 cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-??), in neonatal elk (Cervus elaphus). We obtained blood samples from 140 calves ??? 6 days old in Yellowstone National Park during summer 2003-2005. TL-6 values ranged from 0 to 1.21 pg/ml with a median of 0.03 pg/ml. TNF-?? values ranged from 0 to 225.43 pg/ml with a median of 1.85 pg/ml. IL-6 and TNF-?? concentrations were not significant predictors of elk calf survival through 21 days. Development of ungulate-based IL-6 and TNF-?? assays that provide greater sensitivity than cross-reacting human-based assays could be helpful in monitoring ungulate condition and health status comparisons among herds. Such information could provide indirect assessments of range quality or environmental influences among herds. 

  11. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in Peripical Tissue Exudates of Teeth with Apical Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Pezelj-Ribaric

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to determine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α levels in periapical exudates and to evaluate their relationship with radiological findings. Methodology. Periapical exudates were collected from root canals of 60 single-rooted teeth using absorbent paper points. TNF-α levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The samples were divided into three groups according to the periapical radiolucent area. Results. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant differences between TNF-α concentrations in control group (40, 57±28, 15 pg/mL and group with larger radiolucent areas (2365, 79±582, 95 pg/mL, as well as between control and canals with small radiolucent areas (507, 66±278, 97 (P<.05. Conclusions. The levels of TNF-α increase significantly in teeth with periapical pathosis, from smaller to bigger lesions. This research and its results have shown that objective analysis of the TNF-α levels enables establishment of a relationship between different concentrations of TNF-α and different radiological changes.

  12. Plasma Levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha and Interleukin-6 in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Konuk

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Recent research implicated place of an immune mechanism in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Despite increasing evidence involvement of cytokine release in OCD, results of the studies are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the plasma levels of the cytokines; tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 in OCD patients. Methods. Plasma concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 were measured in 31 drug-free outpatients with OCD, and 31-year age and sex-matched healthy controls. TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations in blood were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results. Both TNF-α and IL-6 levels showed statistically significant increases in OCD patients compared to controls (P<.000, P<.001, resp.. In addition, the age of onset was negatively correlated with TNF-α level (r=−.402, P=.025 and duration of illness was weakly correlated with IL-6 levels (r:.357; P:.048 in patients group. Conclusion. OCD patients showed increases in TNF-α and IL-6 levels compared to the healthy controls. This study provides evidence for alterations in the proinflamatory cytokines which suggest the involvement of the immune system in the pathophysiology of OCD.

  13. Differentially expressed genes in iron-induced prion protein conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minsun; Kim, Eun-hee; Choi, Bo-Ran; Woo, Hee-Jong

    2016-01-01

    The conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrP C ) to the protease-resistant isoform is the key event in chronic neurodegenerative diseases, including transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Increased iron in prion-related disease has been observed due to the prion protein-ferritin complex. Additionally, the accumulation and conversion of recombinant PrP (rPrP) is specifically derived from Fe(III) but not Fe(II). Fe(III)-mediated PK-resistant PrP (PrP res ) conversion occurs within a complex cellular environment rather than via direct contact between rPrP and Fe(III). In this study, differentially expressed genes correlated with prion degeneration by Fe(III) were identified using Affymetrix microarrays. Following Fe(III) treatment, 97 genes were differentially expressed, including 85 upregulated genes and 12 downregulated genes (≥1.5-fold change in expression). However, Fe(II) treatment produced moderate alterations in gene expression without inducing dramatic alterations in gene expression profiles. Moreover, functional grouping of identified genes indicated that the differentially regulated genes were highly associated with cell growth, cell maintenance, and intra- and extracellular transport. These findings showed that Fe(III) may influence the expression of genes involved in PrP folding by redox mechanisms. The identification of genes with altered expression patterns in neural cells may provide insights into PrP conversion mechanisms during the development and progression of prion-related diseases. - Highlights: • Differential genes correlated with prion degeneration by Fe(III) were identified. • Genes were identified in cell proliferation and intra- and extracellular transport. • In PrP degeneration, redox related genes were suggested. • Cbr2, Rsad2, Slc40a1, Amph and Mvd were expressed significantly.

  14. Gene expression profiling reveals multiple toxicity endpoints induced by hepatotoxicants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Qihong; Jin Xidong; Gaillard, Elias T.; Knight, Brian L.; Pack, Franklin D.; Stoltz, James H.; Jayadev, Supriya; Blanchard, Kerry T

    2004-05-18

    Microarray technology continues to gain increased acceptance in the drug development process, particularly at the stage of toxicology and safety assessment. In the current study, microarrays were used to investigate gene expression changes associated with hepatotoxicity, the most commonly reported clinical liability with pharmaceutical agents. Acetaminophen, methotrexate, methapyrilene, furan and phenytoin were used as benchmark compounds capable of inducing specific but different types of hepatotoxicity. The goal of the work was to define gene expression profiles capable of distinguishing the different subtypes of hepatotoxicity. Sprague-Dawley rats were orally dosed with acetaminophen (single dose, 4500 mg/kg for 6, 24 and 72 h), methotrexate (1 mg/kg per day for 1, 7 and 14 days), methapyrilene (100 mg/kg per day for 3 and 7 days), furan (40 mg/kg per day for 1, 3, 7 and 14 days) or phenytoin (300 mg/kg per day for 14 days). Hepatic gene expression was assessed using toxicology-specific gene arrays containing 684 target genes or expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Principal component analysis (PCA) of gene expression data was able to provide a clear distinction of each compound, suggesting that gene expression data can be used to discern different hepatotoxic agents and toxicity endpoints. Gene expression data were applied to the multiplicity-adjusted permutation test and significantly changed genes were categorized and correlated to hepatotoxic endpoints. Repression of enzymes involved in lipid oxidation (acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, medium chain, enoyl CoA hydratase, very long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase) were associated with microvesicular lipidosis. Likewise, subsets of genes associated with hepatotocellular necrosis, inflammation, hepatitis, bile duct hyperplasia and fibrosis have been identified. The current study illustrates that expression profiling can be used to: (1) distinguish different hepatotoxic endpoints; (2) predict the development of toxic endpoints; and

  15. Gemcitabine-induced CXCL8 expression counteracts its actions by inducing tumor neovascularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yao; Baba, Tomohisa; Li, Ying-Yi; Furukawa, Kaoru; Tanabe, Yamato; Matsugo, Seiichi; Sasaki, Soichiro; Mukaida, Naofumi

    2015-01-01

    Patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are frequently complicated with metastatic disease or locally advanced tumors, and consequently need chemotherapy. Gemcitabine is commonly used for PDAC treatment, but with limited efficacy. The capacity of gemcitabine to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human pancreatic cancer cells, prompted us to examine its effects on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We observed that gemcitabine enhanced selectively the expression of CXCL8 in human pancreatic cancer cells through ROS generation and NF-κB activation. In vitro blocking of CXCL8 failed to modulate gemcitabine-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation in human pancreatic cancer cells. Gemcitabine also enhanced CXCL8 expression in pancreatic cancer cells in xenografted tumor tissues. Moreover, anti-CXCL8 antibody treatment in vivo attenuated tumor formation as well as intra-tumoral vascularity in nude mice, which were transplanted with Miapaca-2 cells and treated with gemcitabine. Thus, gemcitabine-induced CXCL8 may counteract the drug through inducing neovascularization. - Highlights: • Gemcitabine induced CXCL8 expression in human pancreatic cancer cells. • CXCL8 expression required ROS generation and NF-κB activation. • CXCL8 did not affect in vitro proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cells. • CXCL8 in vivo counteracted gemcitabine by inducing neovascularization

  16. Gemcitabine-induced CXCL8 expression counteracts its actions by inducing tumor neovascularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yao; Baba, Tomohisa [Division of Molecular Bioregulation, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Li, Ying-Yi [Cancer Research Institute, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Furukawa, Kaoru; Tanabe, Yamato [Division of Molecular Bioregulation, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); School of Natural System Bioengineering Course, College of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Matsugo, Seiichi [School of Natural System Bioengineering Course, College of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Sasaki, Soichiro [Division of Molecular Bioregulation, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Mukaida, Naofumi, E-mail: mukaida@staff.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Division of Molecular Bioregulation, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan)

    2015-03-06

    Patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are frequently complicated with metastatic disease or locally advanced tumors, and consequently need chemotherapy. Gemcitabine is commonly used for PDAC treatment, but with limited efficacy. The capacity of gemcitabine to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human pancreatic cancer cells, prompted us to examine its effects on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We observed that gemcitabine enhanced selectively the expression of CXCL8 in human pancreatic cancer cells through ROS generation and NF-κB activation. In vitro blocking of CXCL8 failed to modulate gemcitabine-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation in human pancreatic cancer cells. Gemcitabine also enhanced CXCL8 expression in pancreatic cancer cells in xenografted tumor tissues. Moreover, anti-CXCL8 antibody treatment in vivo attenuated tumor formation as well as intra-tumoral vascularity in nude mice, which were transplanted with Miapaca-2 cells and treated with gemcitabine. Thus, gemcitabine-induced CXCL8 may counteract the drug through inducing neovascularization. - Highlights: • Gemcitabine induced CXCL8 expression in human pancreatic cancer cells. • CXCL8 expression required ROS generation and NF-κB activation. • CXCL8 did not affect in vitro proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cells. • CXCL8 in vivo counteracted gemcitabine by inducing neovascularization.

  17. A possible mechanism of maxillofacial abscess formation: involvement of Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide via the expression of inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Y; Hanazawa, S; Tanaka, S; Iwahashi, H; Yamamoto, Y; Fujisawa, S

    2001-12-01

    In a previous study, we developed a specific monoclonal antibody against Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide, and demonstrated that this lipopolysaccharide was detected in bacterially infected root canal fluid. We suggest here that P. endodontalis lipopolysaccharide in the infectious materials plays a stimulatory role in maxillofacial abscess formation via the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Our epidemiological study showed that this lipopolysaccharide was detected in significant levels the infectious material of patients with periapical periodontitis and odontogenic abscesses. Interestingly, infectious material-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, or neutrophil chemoattractant KC genes in mouse macrophages, was significantly neutralized by monoclonal antibody against the lipopolysaccharide. In addition, we also detected a significant amount of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the infectious material. These results suggest that P. endodontalis lipopolysaccharide plays an important role in the pathogenic mechanism of maxillofacial abscess formation via the expression of inflammatory cytokines.

  18. Low doses of neutrons induce changes in gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Chang-Liu, C.M.; Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    Studies were designed to identify genes induced following low-dose neutron but not following γ-ray exposure in fibroblasts. Our past work had shown differences in the expression of β-protein kinase C and c-fos genes, both being induced following γ-ray but not neutron exposure. We have identified two genes that are induced following neutron, but not γ-ray, exposure: Rp-8 (a gene induced by apoptosis) and the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the human immunodeficiency (HIV). Rp-8 mRNA induction was demonstrated in Syrian hamster embryo fibroblasts and was found to be induced in cells exposed to neutrons administered at low (0.5 cGy/min) and at high dose rate (12 cGy/min). The induction of transcription from the LTR of HIV was demonstrated in HeLa cells bearing a transfected construct of the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene driven by the HIV-LTR promoter. Measures of CAT activity and CAT transcripts following irradiation demonstrated an unresponsiveness to γ rays over a broad range of doses. Twofold induction of the HIV-LTR was detected following neutron exposure (48 cGy) administered at low (0.5 cGy/min) but not high (12 cGy/min) dose rates. Ultraviolet-mediated HIV-LTR induction was inhibited by low-dose-rate neutron exposure

  19. HIV-1 induces DCIR expression in CD4+ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra A Lambert

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The C-type lectin receptor DCIR, which has been shown very recently to act as an attachment factor for HIV-1 in dendritic cells, is expressed predominantly on antigen-presenting cells. However, this concept was recently challenged by the discovery that DCIR can also be detected in CD4(+ T cells found in the synovial tissue from rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients. Given that RA and HIV-1 infections share common features such as a chronic inflammatory condition and polyclonal immune hyperactivation status, we hypothesized that HIV-1 could promote DCIR expression in CD4(+ T cells. We report here that HIV-1 drives DCIR expression in human primary CD4(+ T cells isolated from patients (from both aviremic/treated and viremic/treatment naive persons and cells acutely infected in vitro (seen in both virus-infected and uninfected cells. Soluble factors produced by virus-infected cells are responsible for the noticed DCIR up-regulation on uninfected cells. Infection studies with Vpr- or Nef-deleted viruses revealed that these two viral genes are not contributing to the mechanism of DCIR induction that is seen following acute infection of CD4(+ T cells with HIV-1. Moreover, we report that DCIR is linked to caspase-dependent (induced by a mitochondria-mediated generation of free radicals and -independent intrinsic apoptotic pathways (involving the death effector AIF. Finally, we demonstrate that the higher surface expression of DCIR in CD4(+ T cells is accompanied by an enhancement of virus attachment/entry, replication and transfer. This study shows for the first time that HIV-1 induces DCIR membrane expression in CD4(+ T cells, a process that might promote virus dissemination throughout the infected organism.

  20. Effects of garlic extract on TNF-α expression and oxidative stress status in the kidneys of rats with STZ + nicotinamide-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziamajidi, Nasrin; Nasiri, Abolfazl; Abbasalipourkabir, Roghayeh; Sadeghi Moheb, Somayeh

    2017-12-01

    Allium sativum L. (Liliaceae) (garlic) is a medicinal plant that is widely used in herbal medicine. Nephropathy is a complication of diabetes that is induced by long-term hyperglycaemia. The effects of aqueous extract of garlic (AGE) on the expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and oxidative stress status were studied in the kidneys of rats with streptozotocin (STZ) + nicotinamide-induced diabetes. Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control rats, rats with STZ + nicotinamide-induced diabetes that received a single dose of STZ (65 mg/kg) and nicotinamide (110 mg/kg) intraperitoneally, diabetic rats that were treated with garlic (2 g/kg/d, gavage), and normal rats that received garlic (2 g/kg/d, gavage). The glucose level was determined in the start of study, 7 d after induction of diabetes and 33 d after treatment with garlic. At the end of the treatment period, urea, uric acid and creatinine levels were estimated in sera. Malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS), nitric oxide (NO) levels and TNF-α gene and protein expression were measured in the renal tissues of the rats. The glucose, uric acid, and urea levels increased in the serum of diabetic rats compared with control rats, and decreased in garlic-treated diabetic rats compared with diabetic rats (p garlic-treated diabetic rats compared with diabetic rats (p garlic, it was close to the normal level (p garlic extract has hypoglycaemic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties; therefore, it can be useful for the alleviation of diabetic complications.

  1. Transforming growth factor alpha is a critical mediator of radiation lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eun Joo; Hudak, Kathryn; Horton, Jason A; White, Ayla; Scroggins, Bradley T; Vaswani, Shiva; Citrin, Deborah

    2014-09-01

    Radiation fibrosis of the lung is a late toxicity of thoracic irradiation. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling has previously been implicated in radiation lung injury. We hypothesized that TGF-α, an EGF receptor ligand, plays a key role in radiation-induced fibrosis in lung. Mice deficient in transforming growth factor (TGF-α(-/-)) and control C57Bl/6J (C57-WT) mice were exposed to thoracic irradiation in 5 daily fractions of 6 Gy. Cohorts of mice were followed for survival (n ≥ 5 per group) and tissue collection (n = 3 per strain and time point). Collagen accumulation in irradiated lungs was assessed by Masson's trichrome staining and analysis of hydroxyproline content. Cytokine levels in lung tissue were assessed with ELISA. The effects of TGF-α on pneumocyte and fibroblast proliferation and collagen production were analyzed in vitro. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) expression and activity were measured in vitro and in vivo. Irradiated C57-WT mice had a median survival of 24.4 weeks compared to 48.2 weeks for irradiated TGF-α(-/-) mice (P = 0.001). At 20 weeks after irradiation, hydroxyproline content was markedly increased in C57-WT mice exposed to radiation compared to TGF-α(-/-) mice exposed to radiation or unirradiated C57-WT mice (63.0, 30.5 and 37.6 μg/lung, respectively, P = 0.01). C57-WT mice exposed to radiation had dense foci of subpleural fibrosis at 20 weeks after exposure, whereas the lungs of irradiated TGF-α (-/-) mice were largely devoid of fibrotic foci. Lung tissue concentrations of IL-1β, IL-4, TNF-α, TGF-β and EGF at multiple time points after irradiation were similar in C57-WT and TGF-α(-/-) mice. TGF-α in lung tissue of C57-WT mice rose rapidly after irradiation and remained elevated through 20 weeks. TGF-α(-/-) mice had lower basal LOX expression than C57-WT mice. Both LOX expression and LOX activity were increased after irradiation in all mice but to a lesser degree in TGF-α(-/-) mice. Treatment of NIH-3T3 fibroblasts with TGF

  2. EGR-1 regulates Ho-1 expression induced by cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Huaqun; Wang, Lijuan; Gong, Tao; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Chunhua; Li, Fen; Wang, Li; Li, Chaojun

    2010-01-01

    As an anti-oxidant molecule, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been implicated in the protection of lung injury by cigarette smoke (CS). The mechanisms regulating its expression have not been defined. In this report, the role of early growth response 1 (EGR-1) in the regulation of Ho-1 expression was investigated. In C57BL/6 mice with CS exposure, HO-1 was greatly increased in bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar inflammatory cells. In primary cultured mouse lung fibroblasts and RAW264.7 cells exposed to cigarette smoke water extract (CSE), an increase in HO-1 protein level was detected. In addition, CSE induced HO-1 expression was decreased in Egr-1 deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (Egr-1 -/- MEFs). Nuclear localization of EGR-1 was examined in mouse lung fibroblasts after exposure to CSE. Luciferase reporter activity assays showed that the enhancer region of the Ho-1 gene containing a proposed EGR-1 binding site was responsible for the induction of HO-1. A higher increase of alveolar mean linear intercept (Lm) was observed in lung tissues, and a larger increase in the number of total cells and monocytes/macrophages from bronchial alveolar lavage fluid was found in CS-exposed mice by loss of function of EGR-1 treatment. In summary, the present data demonstrate that EGR-1 plays a critical role in HO-1 production induced by CS.

  3. Mechanoactive scaffold induces tendon remodeling and expression of fibrocartilage markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalazzi, Jeffrey P; Vyner, Moira C; Jacobs, Matthew T; Moffat, Kristen L; Lu, Helen H

    2008-08-01

    Biological fixation of soft tissue-based grafts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction poses a major clinical challenge. The ACL integrates with subchondral bone through a fibrocartilage enthesis, which serves to minimize stress concentrations and enables load transfer between two distinct tissue types. Functional integration thus requires the reestablishment of this fibrocartilage interface on reconstructed ACL grafts. We designed and characterized a novel mechanoactive scaffold based on a composite of poly-alpha-hydroxyester nanofibers and sintered microspheres; we then used the scaffold to test the hypothesis that scaffold-induced compression of tendon grafts would result in matrix remodeling and the expression of fibrocartilage interface-related markers. Histology coupled with confocal microscopy and biochemical assays were used to evaluate the effects of scaffold-induced compression on tendon matrix collagen distribution, cellularity, proteoglycan content, and gene expression over a 2-week period. Scaffold contraction resulted in over 15% compression of the patellar tendon graft and upregulated the expression of fibrocartilage-related markers such as Type II collagen, aggrecan, and transforming growth factor-beta3 (TGF-beta3). Additionally, proteoglycan content was higher in the compressed tendon group after 1 day. The data suggest the potential of a mechanoactive scaffold to promote the formation of an anatomic fibrocartilage enthesis on tendon-based ACL reconstruction grafts.

  4. Lipopolysaccharide induces autotaxin expression in human monocytic THP-1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Song; Zhang Junjie

    2009-01-01

    Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted enzyme with lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD) activity, which converts lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) into lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive phospholipid involved in numerous biological activities, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. In the present study, we found that bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a well-known initiator of the inflammatory response, induced ATX expression in monocytic THP-1 cells. The activation of PKR, JNK, and p38 MAPK was required for the ATX induction. The LPS-induced ATX in THP-1 cells was characterized as the β isoform. In the presence of LPC, ATX could promote the migrations of THP-1 and Jurkat cells, which was inhibited by pertussis toxin (PTX), an inhibitor of Gi-mediated LPA receptor signaling. In summary, LPS induces ATX expression in THP-1 cells via a PKR, JNK and p38 MAPK-mediated mechanism, and the ATX induction is likely to enhance immune cell migration in proinflammatory response by regulating LPA levels in the microenvironment.

  5. Inhibition of the release of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors in experimental endotoxemia by an anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha antibody

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; van der Poll, T.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; ten Cate, H.; Gallati, H.; ten Cate, J. W.; van Deventer, S. J.

    1995-01-01

    The role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the shedding of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors in endotoxemia was investigated. The appearance of the soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors was assessed in four healthy volunteers following an intravenous injection of tumor necrosis factor-alpha

  6. Orofacial clefts, parental cigarette smoking, and transforming growth factor-alpha gene variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, G.M.; Wasserman, C.R.; O`Malley, C.D. [California Birth Defects Monitoring Program, Emeryville, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Results of studies determine whether women who smoke during early pregnancy are at increased risk of delivering infants with orofacial clefts have been mixed, and recently a gene-environment interaction between maternal smoking, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFa), and clefting has been reported. Using a large population-based case-control study, we investigated whether parental periconceptional cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk for having offspring with orofacial clefts. We also investigated the influence of genetic variation of the TGFa locus on the relation between smoking and clefting. Parental smoking information was obtained from telephone interviews with mothers of 731 (84.7% of eligible) orofacial cleft case infants and with mothers of 734 (78.2%) nonmalformed control infants. DNA was obtained from newborn screening blood spots and genotyped for the allelic variants of TGFa. We found that risks associated with maternal smoking were most elevated for isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate, (odds ratio 2.1 [95% confidence interval 1.3-3.6]) and for isolated cleft palate (odds ratio 2.2 [1.1-4.5]) when mothers smoked {ge} 20 cigarrettes/d. These risks for white infants ranged from 3-fold to 11-fold across phenotypic groups. Paternal smoking was not associated with clefting among the offspring of nonsmoking mothers, and passive smoke exposures were associated with at most slightly increased risks. This study offers evidence that the risk for orofacial clefting in infants may be influenced by maternal smoke exposures alone as well as in combination (gene-environment interaction) with the presence of the uncommon TGFa allele. 56 refs., 5 tabs.

  7. Dissociative symptoms reflect levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha in patients with unipolar depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizik G

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gustav Bizik,1 Petr Bob,1 Jiri Raboch,1 Josef Pavlat,1 Jana Uhrova,2 Hana Benakova,2 Tomas Zima2 1Center for Neuropsychiatric Research of Traumatic Stress, Department of Psychiatry and UHSL, 2Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Diagnostics, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Recent evidence indicates that the nature of interactions between the nervous system and immune system is important in the pathogenesis of depression. Specifically, alterations in pro-inflammatory cytokines have been related to the development of several psychological and neurobiological manifestations of depressive disorder, as well as to stress exposure. A number of findings point to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α as one of the central factors in these processes. Accordingly, in the present study, we test the hypothesis that specific influences of chronic stressors related to traumatic stress and dissociation are related to alterations in TNF-α levels. We performed psychometric measurement of depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]-II, traumatic stress symptoms (Trauma Symptom Checklist [TSC]-40, and psychological and somatoform dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale [DES] and Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire [SDQ]-20, respectively, and immunochemical measure of serum TNF-α in 66 inpatients with unipolar depression (mean age 43.1 ± 7.3 years. The results show that TNF-α is significantly related to DES (Spearman R=−0.42, P<0.01, SDQ-20 (Spearman R=−0.38, P<0.01, and TSC-40 (Spearman R=−0.41, P<0.01, but not to BDI-II. Results of the present study suggest that TNF-α levels are related to dissociative symptoms and stress exposure in depressed patients. Keywords: depression, dissociation, TNF-alpha, traumatic stress

  8. Estimation of salivary tumor necrosis factor-alpha in chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Sheeja S; Thomas, Hima; Jayakumar, N D; Sankari, M; Lakshmanan, Reema

    2015-09-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic bacterial infection characterized by persistent inflammation, connective tissue breakdown and alveolar bone destruction mediated by pro-inflammatory mediators. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is an important pro-inflammatory mediator that produced causes destruction of periodontal tissues. The aim of the study is to estimate the salivary TNF-α in chronic and aggressive periodontitis and control participants and further correlate the levels with clinical parameter such as gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment loss. The study population consisted of 75 subjects age ranging from 25 to 55 years attending the outpatient section of Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital. The study groups included Groups 1, 2, and 3 with participants with healthy periodontium (n = 25), generalized chronic periodontitis (n = 25) and generalized aggressive periodontitis (n = 25), respectively. Salivary samples from the participants were used to assess the TNF-α levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. GI and PI were found to be significantly higher in chronic and aggressive periodontitis compared to the controls. The mean TNF-α value in chronic periodontitis patients (12.92 ± 17.21 pg/ml) was significantly higher than in control subjects (2.15 ± 3.60 pg/ml). Whereas, in aggressive periodontitis patients the mean TNF-α (7.23 ± 7.67) were not significantly different from chronic periodontitis or healthy subjects. Among periodontitis participants, aggressive periodontitis subjects exhibited a significant positive correlation between the salivary TNF-α and PPD. Salivary TNF-α levels are significantly higher in chronic periodontitis than in healthy subjects, but there was no significant correlation with the clinical parameters.

  9. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraiolo, B.L.; Moore, J.A.; Crase, D.; Gribling, P.; Wilking, H.; Baughman, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The serum pharmacokinetics and the major organs of accumulation of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rHuTNF) were determined in BDF1 mice after intravenous and intramuscular administration. Serum concentrations of immunoreactive protein were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and radioactivity was quantitated by beta and gamma scintigraphy. The serum pharmacokinetics of labeled and unlabeled rHuTNF were identical when administered by the intravenous route. After intravenous doses of 165 to 320 micrograms/kg, the clearance was 2.9-3.6 ml/hr, the initial volume of distribution was 1.4-1.6 ml (70-80 ml/kg), and the half-life was 18.5-19.2 min. Intramuscular administration of 320 micrograms/kg resulted in a peak serum concentration of 112 ng/ml. The time of the peak concentration was 1 hr, and the bioavailability of the intramuscular dose was 12%. The data suggest that the disposition of this protein may be biexponential. If this is the case, the terminal phase would appear to account for less than 1% of the total AUC. Since serum concentrations in the terminal phase are at the sensitivity limit of the assay, a single half-life is reported. 125I-Labeled and metabolically labeled 3H-rHuTNF were used to examine tissue distribution. After intravenous 125I-rHuTNF administration, the rank order of accumulation of the 125I-radiolabel in the major organs (per cent dose per organ over 1440 min) was: liver greater than kidney greater than lung greater than heart greater than spleen. This rank order of accumulation was confirmed by intravenous 3H-rHuTNF administration

  10. Free hemoglobin enhances tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in isolated human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Eddy H; Gordon, Laura E; Richardson, J David; Polk, Hiram C

    2002-03-01

    A systemic inflammatory response (SIR) is seen in approximately 75% of patients with complex blunt liver injuries treated nonoperatively. Many feel this response is caused by blood, bile, and necrotic tissue accumulation in the peritoneal cavity. Our current treatment for these patients is a delayed laparoscopic washout of the peritoneal cavity, resulting in a dramatic resolution of the SIR. Spectrophotometric analysis of the intraperitoneal fluid has confirmed the presence of high concentrations of free hemoglobin (Hb). We hypothesize that free Hb enhances the local peritoneal response by increasing tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production by monocytes, contributing to the local inflammatory response and SIR. Monocytes from five healthy volunteers were isolated and cultured in RPMI-1640 for 24 hours. Treatment groups included saline controls, lipopolysaccharide ([LPS], 10 ng/mL, from Escherichia coli), human Hb (25 microg/mL), and Hb + LPS. Supernatants were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Student's t test with Mann-Whitney posttest was used for statistical analysis with p < or = 0.05 considered significant. Free Hb significantly increased TNF-alpha production 915 +/- 223 pg/mL versus saline (p = 0.02). LPS and Hb + LPS further increased TNF-alpha production (2294 pg/mL and 2501 pg/mL, respectively, p < 0.001) compared with saline controls. These data confirm that free Hb is a proinflammatory mediator resulting in the production of significant amounts of TNF-alpha. These in vitro findings support our clinical data in which timely removal of intraperitoneal free hemoglobin helps prevent its deleterious local and systemic inflammatory effects in patients with complex liver injuries managed nonoperatively.

  11. Ecstasy-Induced Caspase Expression Alters Following Ginger Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Soleimani Asl

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure to 3-4, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA leads to cell death. Herein, we studied the protective effects of ginger on MDMA- induced apoptosis. Methods: 15 Sprague dawley male rats were administrated with 0, 10 mg/kg MDMA, or MDMA along with 100mg/kg ginger, IP for 7 days. Brains were removed to study the caspase 3, 8, and 9 expressions in the hippocampus by RT-PCR. Data was analyzed by SPSS 16 software using the one-way ANOVA test. Results: MDMA treatment resulted in a significant increase in caspase 3, 8, and 9 as compared to the sham group (p<0.001. Ginger administration however, appeared to significantly decrease the same (p<0.001. Discussion: Our findings suggest that ginger consumption may lead to the improvement of MDMA-induced neurotoxicity.

  12. Glutamine deprivation induces interleukin-8 expression in ataxia telangiectasia fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Hyun; Kim, Aryung; Yu, Ji Hoon; Lim, Joo Weon; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2014-05-01

    To investigate whether glutamine deprivation induces expression of inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) by determining NF-κB activity and levels of oxidative indices (ROS, reactive oxygen species; hydrogen peroxide; GSH, glutathione) in fibroblasts isolated from patients with ataxia telangiectasia (A-T). We used A-T fibroblasts stably transfected with empty vector (Mock) or with human full-length ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) cDNA (YZ5) and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) transiently transfected with ATM small interfering RNA (siRNA) or with non-specific control siRNA. The cells were cultured with or without glutamine or GSH. ROS levels were determined using a fluorescence reader and confocal microscopy. IL-8 or murine IL-8 homolog, keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), and hydrogen peroxide levels in the medium were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and colorimetric assay. GSH level was assessed by enzymatic assay, while IL-8 (KC) mRNA level was measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and/or quantitative real-time PCR. NF-κB DNA-binding activity was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Catalase activity and ATM protein levels were determined by O2 generation and Western blotting. While glutamine deprivation induced IL-8 expression and increased NF-κB DNA-binding activity in Mock cells, both processes were decreased by treatment of cells with glutamine or GSH or both glutamine and GSH. Glutamine deprivation had no effect on IL-8 expression or NF-κB DNA-binding activity in YZ5 cells. Glutamine-deprived Mock cells had higher oxidative stress indices (increases in ROS and hydrogen peroxide, reduction in GSH) than glutamine-deprived YZ5 cells. In Mock cells, glutamine deprivation-induced oxidative stress indices were suppressed by treatment with glutamine or GSH or both glutamine and GSH. GSH levels and catalase activity were lower in Mock cells than YZ5 cells. MEFs transfected with ATM siRNA and

  13. Decreased inducibility of TNF expression in lipid-loaded macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallin Bengt

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation and immune responses are considered to be very important in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Lipid accumulation in macrophages of the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis which can influence the inflammatory potential of macrophages. We studied the effects of lipid loading on the regulation of TNF expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Results In macrophages incubated with acetylated low density lipoprotein (ac-LDL for 2 days, mRNA expression of TNF in cells stimulated with TNF decreased by 75%. In cell cultures stimulated over night with IL-1β, lipid loading decreased secretion of TNF into culture medium by 48%. These results suggest that lipid accumulation in macrophages makes them less responsive to inflammatory stimuli. Decreased basal activity and inducibility of transcription factor AP-1 was observed in lipid-loaded cells, suggesting a mechanism for the suppression of cytokine expression. NF-κB binding activity and inducibility were only marginally affected by ac-LDL. LDL and ac-LDL did not activate PPARγ. In contrast, oxidized LDL stimulated AP-1 and PPARγ but inhibited NF-κB, indicating that the effects of lipid loading with ac-LDL were not due to oxidation of lipids. Conclusions Accumulation of lipid, mainly cholesterol, results in down-regulation of TNF expression in macrophages. Since monocytes are known to be activated by cell adhesion, these results suggest that foam cells in atherosclerotic plaques may contribute less potently to an inflammatory reaction than newly arrived monocytes/macrophages.

  14. Decreased Progesterone Receptor B/A Ratio in Endometrial Cells by Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha and Peritoneal Fluid from Patients with Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Uisoo; Min, Jin Young; Kim, Sung Hoon; Ihm, Hyo Jin; Oh, Young Sang; Park, So Yun; Chae, Hee Dong; Kim, Chung Hoon; Kang, Byung Moon

    2016-11-01

    Progesterone resistance is thought to be a major factor that contributes to progression of endometriosis. However, it is not clear what causes progesterone resistance in endometriosis. This study aimed to assess whether cytokines or peritoneal fluid can affect progesterone receptor (PR) expression in endometrial cells and to verify whether PR expression is reduced in endometriosis. The PR-B/A ratio was measured via real-time polymerase chain reaction after in vitro culture, in which endometrial cells were treated with either tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta, or peritoneal fluid obtained from women with advanced-stage endometriosis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to compare PR-B expression between eutopic and ectopic endometrial tissues from women with and without advanced-stage endometriosis. The PR-B/A ratio was significantly decreased by treatment with either TNF-α (p=0.011) or peritoneal fluid from women with advanced-stage endometriosis (p=0.027). Immunoreactivity of PR-B expression was significantly lower during the secretory phase than during the proliferative phase in endometrial tissues from control subjects (pendometriosis compared with eutopic endometrium tissues from control subjects. Progesterone resistance in endometriosis may be caused by proinflammatory conditions in the pelvic peritoneal microenvironment.

  15. Radiation-induced gene expression in human subcutaneous fibroblasts is predictive of radiation-induced fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødningen, Olaug Kristin; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Alsner, Jan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Breast cancer patients show a large variation in normal tissue reactions after ionizing radiation (IR) therapy. One of the most common long-term adverse effects of ionizing radiotherapy is radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF), and several attempts have been made over the last...... years to develop predictive assays for RIF. Our aim was to identify basal and radiation-induced transcriptional profiles in fibroblasts from breast cancer patients that might be related to the individual risk of RIF in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fibroblast cell lines from 31 individuals......-treated fibroblasts. Transcriptional differences in basal and radiation-induced gene expression profiles were investigated using 15K cDNA microarrays, and results analyzed by both SAM and PAM. RESULTS: Sixty differentially expressed genes were identified by applying SAM on 10 patients with the highest risk of RIF...

  16. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha potentiates the cytotoxicity of amiodarone in Hepa1c1c7 cells: roles of caspase activation and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jingtao; Miyakawa, Kazuhisa; Roth, Robert A; Ganey, Patricia E

    2013-01-01

    Amiodarone (AMD), a class III antiarrhythmic drug, causes idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity in human patients. We demonstrated previously that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) plays an important role in a rat model of AMD-induced hepatotoxicity under inflammatory stress. In this study, we developed a model in vitro to study the roles of caspase activation and oxidative stress in TNF potentiation of AMD cytotoxicity. AMD caused cell death in Hepa1c1c7 cells, and TNF cotreatment potentiated its toxicity. Activation of caspases 9 and 3/7 was observed in AMD/TNF-cotreated cells, and caspase inhibitors provided minor protection from cytotoxicity. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid peroxidation were observed after treatment with AMD and were further elevated by TNF cotreatment. Adding water-soluble antioxidants (trolox, N-acetylcysteine, glutathione, or ascorbate) produced only minor attenuation of AMD/TNF-induced cytotoxicity and did not influence the effect of AMD alone. On the other hand, α-tocopherol (TOCO), which reduced lipid peroxidation and ROS generation, prevented AMD toxicity and caused pronounced reduction in cytotoxicity from AMD/TNF cotreatment. α-TOCO plus a pancaspase inhibitor completely abolished AMD/TNF-induced cytotoxicity. In summary, activation of caspases and oxidative stress were observed after AMD/TNF cotreatment, and caspase inhibitors and a lipid-soluble free-radical scavenger attenuated AMD/TNF-induced cytotoxicity.

  17. One week's holiday sun exposure induces expression of photoaging biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiak, Aleksandra; Rogowski-Tylman, Michal; Danilewicz, Marian; Wozniacka, Anna; Narbutt, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Skin aging is accompanied by the upregulation of the expression of various matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). It was shown that exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) may induce skin expression of MMPs and dysregulation of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)/Smad pathway. The aim of our study was to compare the effects of short holiday UVR exposure and lifetime UVR exposure, on the expression of MMP-8, TGF-β1, and Smad2 in human skin biopsies. Skin biopsies were taken from the outer upper arm of 15 elderly people with significant photoaging (mean age 64.1 years) (Group 1) and from 15 healthy young adult volunteers (mean age 24.1 y) who participated in a six-day sun holiday. Biopsies were taken twice: 24 hours before leaving for holiday (Group 2a) and 24 hours after returning (Group 2b). The expression of TGF-β1, Smad2, and MMP-8 was examined by immunochemistry and measured semiquantitatively by two independent pathologists. The mean expression of TGF-β1 in dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes in Group 1 and Group 2b was significantly lower than in Group 2a (0.54% ± 0.44% and 0.48% ± 0.51% vs. 1.48% ± 0.72%, respectively). The percentage of Smad2 (+) cells in Group 1 and Group 2b was lower than in Group 2a (2.13% ± 1.39% and 1.81% ± 1.16% vs. 4.13% ± 1.58%, respectively). The MMP-8 expression in Group 2b was 1.36% ± 0.68% and was significantly higher than in Group 1 (0.34% ± 0.42%) and Group 2a in which the protein was not detected (p < 0.001). We conclude that the decrease in the expression of TGF-β1 and Smad2 is a persistent biomarker of skin photoaging, while the increased expression of MMP-8 in keratinocytes can be regarded as a marker of acute sun exposure.

  18. Characterization of a Canine Tetranucleotide Microsatellite Marker Located in the First Intron of the Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Gene

    OpenAIRE

    WATANABE, Masashi; TANAKA, Kazuaki; TAKIZAWA, Tatsuya; SEGAWA, Kazuhito; NEO, Sakurako; TSUCHIYA, Ryo; MURATA, Michiko; MURAKAMI, Masaru; HISASUE, Masaharu

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT A polymorphic tetranucleotide (GAAT)n microsatellite in the first intron of the canine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA) gene was characterized in this study; 139 dogs were analyzed: 22 Beagles, 26 Chihuahuas, 20 Miniature Dachshunds, 24 Miniature Poodles, 22 Pembroke Welsh Corgis and 25 Shiba Inus. We detected the presence of the 4 alleles (GAAT)5, (GAAT)6, (GAAT)7 and (GAAT)8, including 9 of the 10 expected genotypes. The expected heterozygosity (He) and the polymorphic informatio...

  19. Alpha particles induce expression of immunogenic markers on tumour cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorin, J.B.; Gouard, S.; Cherel, M.; Davodeau, F.; Gaschet, J.; Morgenstern, A.; Bruchertseifer, F.

    2013-01-01

    The full text of the publication follows. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is an approach aiming at targeting the radioelements to tumours, usually through the use of antibodies specific for tumour antigens. The radiations emitted by the radioelements then induce direct killing of the targeted cells as well as indirect killing through bystander effect. Interestingly, it has been shown that ionizing radiations, in some settings of external radiotherapy, can foster an immune response directed against tumour cells. Our research team is dedicated to the development of alpha RIT, i.e RIT using alpha particle emitters, we therefore decided to study the effects of such particles on tumour cells in regards to their immunogenicity. First, we studied the effects of bismuth 213, an alpha emitter, on cellular death and autophagy in six different tumour cell lines. Then, we measured the expression of 'danger' signals and MHC molecules at the cell surface to determine whether irradiation with 213 Bi could cause the tumour cells to be recognized by the immune system. Finally a co-culture of dendritic cells with irradiated tumour cells was performed to test whether it would induce dendritic cells to mature. No apoptosis was detected within 48 hours after irradiation in any cell line, however half of them exhibited signs of autophagy. No increase in membrane expression of 'danger' signals was observed after treatment with 213 Bi, but we showed an increase in expression of MHC class I and II for some cell lines. Moreover, the co-culture experiment indicated that the immunogenicity of a human adenocarcinoma cell line (LS 174T) was enhanced in vitro after irradiation with alpha rays. These preliminary data suggest that alpha particles could be of interest in raising an immune response associated to RIT. (authors)

  20. Alveolar macrophage release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in chronic alcoholics without liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvari, K; Casey, R; Nelson, S; Olariu, R; Shellito, J E

    1998-05-01

    Alcohol is an immunosuppressive drug, and chronic abuse has been associated with increased susceptibility to a variety of infections, including bacterial pneumonia and tuberculosis. Alveolar macrophages are the resident phagocytes of the lung and play a central role in lung host defenses against infection ranging from direct antibacterial activity to the release of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha). TNFalpha, in particular, plays a key role in the development of the early inflammatory response. In this study, we investigated the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on alveolar macrophage release of TNFalpha in vitro. We prospectively studied lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated release of TNFalpha from alveolar macrophages obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in 22 alcoholic (18 smokers, 4 nonsmokers) and 7 nondrinking healthy volunteers (3 smokers, 4 nonsmokers). The total number of cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and their differential distribution were not significantly different in alcoholics versus controls (43 +/- 8 x 10(6) and 39 +/- 13 x 10(6), respectively). However, the total number of cells recovered from BALF was significantly higher in smokers (51 +/- 8 x 10(6)) than in nonsmokers (19 +/- 5 x 10(6)). Spontaneous (basal) release of TNFalpha by alveolar macrophages was the same in alcoholics and controls. In contrast, LPS-stimulated release of TNFalpha was significantly suppressed in alcoholics compared with that of controls (1343 +/- 271 vs. 3806 +/- 926 U TNF/ml/10(6) cells, respectively, p < 0.015). When controlled for smoking, LPS-stimulated TNFalpha production was suppressed in alcoholic nonsmokers (563 +/- 413 U TNF/ml/10(6)) compared with control nonsmokers (5113 +/- 1264 U TNF/ml/10(6)). LPS-stimulated TNFalpha production was also less in control smokers (2063 +/- 386 U TNF/ml/10(6) cells) than in control nonsmokers (5113 +/- 1264 U TNF/ml/10(6) cells). There was no difference

  1. Characterization of receptors for recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha from human placental membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiyer, R.A.; Aggarwal, B.B.

    1990-01-01

    High affinity receptors for recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rhTNF-alpha) were identified on membranes prepared from full term human placenta. Highly purified rhTNF-alpha iodinated by the iodogen method was found to bind placental membranes in a displaceable manner with an approximate dissociation constant (KD) of 1.9 nM. The membrane bound TNF-alpha receptor could be solubilized by several detergents with optimum extraction being obtained with 1% Triton X-100. The binding of 125I-rhTNF-alpha to the solubilized receptor was found to be time and temperature dependent, yielding maximum binding within 1 h, 24 h and 48 h at 37 degrees C, 24 degrees C and 4 degrees C, respectively. However, the maximum binding obtainable at 4 degrees C was only 40% of that at 37 degrees C. The binding 125I-rhTNF-alpha to solubilized placental membrane extracts was displaceable by unlabeled rhTNF-alpha, but not by a related protein recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-beta (rhTNF-beta; previously called lymphotoxin). This is similar to the behavior of TNF-alpha receptors derived from detergent-solubilized cell extracts, although on intact cells, both rhTNF-alpha and rhTNF-beta bind with equal affinity to TNF receptors. The Scatchard analysis of the binding data of the solubilized receptor revealed high affinity binding sites with a KD of approximately 0.5 nM and a receptor concentration of about 1 pmole/mg protein. Gel filtration of the solubilized receptor-ligand complexes on Sephacryl S-300 revealed two different peaks of radioactivity at approximate molecular masses of 50,000 Da and 400,000 Da. The 400,000 dalton peak corresponded to the receptor-ligand complex. Overall, our results suggest that high affinity receptors for TNF-alpha are present on human placental membranes and provide evidence that these receptors may be different from that of rhTNF-beta

  2. Genistein-induced alterations of radiation-responsive gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, M.B. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)], E-mail: grace@afrri.usuhs.mil; Blakely, W.F.; Landauer, M.R. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    In order to clarify the molecular mechanism of radioprotection and understand biological dosimetry in the presence of medical countermeasure-radioprotectants, their effects on ionizing radiation (IR)-responsive molecular biomarkers must be examined. We used genistein in a radiation model system and measured gene expression by multiplex QRT-PCR assay in drug-treated healthy human blood cultures. Genistein has been demonstrated to be a radiosensitizer of malignant cells and a radioprotector against IR-induced lethality in a mouse model. Whole-blood cultures were supplemented with 50, 100, and 200{mu}M concentrations of genistein, 16 h prior to receiving a 2-Gy ({sup 60}Co-{gamma} rays, 10 cGy/min) dose of IR. Total RNA was isolated from whole blood 24 h postirradiation for assessments. Combination treatments of genistein and IR resulted in no significant genistein effects on ddb2 and bax downstream transcripts to p53, or proliferating cell-nuclear antigen, pcna, necessary for DNA synthesis and cell-cycle progression. Use of these radiation-responsive targets would be recommended for dose-assessment applications. We also observed decreased expression of pro-survival transcript, bcl-2. Genistein and IR-increased expression of cdkn1a and gadd45a, showing that genistein also stimulates p53 transcriptional activity. These results confirm published molecular signatures for genistein in numerous in vitro models. Evaluation of gene biomarkers may be further exploited for devising novel radiation countermeasure and/or therapeutic strategies.

  3. Early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) regulates pro-inflammatory gene expression in response to palmitate and TNF alpha in human placenta cells and is induced in obese placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal obesity has been hypothesized to induce a pro-inflammatory response in the placenta. However, the specific factors contributing to this pro-infalmmatory response are yet to be determined. Our objective was to examine the effects of palmitic acid (PA), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alph...

  4. Variation in Protein Intake Induces Variation in Spider Silk Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamires, Sean J.; Wu, Chun-Lin; Tso, I-Min

    2012-01-01

    Background It is energetically expensive to synthesize certain amino acids. The proteins (spidroins) of spider major ampullate (MA) silk, MaSp1 and MaSp2, differ in amino acid composition. Glutamine and proline are prevalent in MaSp2 and are expensive to synthesize. Since most orb web spiders express high proline silk they might preferentially attain the amino acids needed for silk from food and shift toward expressing more MaSp1 in their MA silk when starved. Methodology/Principal Findings We fed three spiders; Argiope aetherea, Cyrtophora moluccensis and Leucauge blanda, high protein, low protein or no protein solutions. A. aetherea and L. blanda MA silks are high in proline, while C. moluccesnsis MA silks are low in proline. After 10 days of feeding we determined the amino acid compositions and mechanical properties of each species' MA silk and compared them between species and treatments with pre-treatment samples, accounting for ancestry. We found that the proline and glutamine of A. aetherea and L. blanda silks were affected by protein intake; significantly decreasing under the low and no protein intake treatments. Glutmaine composition in C. moluccensis silk was likewise affected by protein intake. However, the composition of proline in their MA silk was not significantly affected by protein intake. Conclusions Our results suggest that protein limitation induces a shift toward different silk proteins with lower glutamine and/or proline content. Contradictions to the MaSp model lie in the findings that C. moluccensis MA silks did not experience a significant reduction in proline and A. aetherea did not experience a significant reduction in serine on low/no protein. The mechanical properties of the silks could not be explained by a MaSp1 expressional shift. Factors other than MaSp expression, such as the expression of spidroin-like orthologues, may impact on silk amino acid composition and spinning and glandular processes may impact mechanics. PMID:22363691

  5. Biomimetic sulfated polyethylene glycol hydrogel inhibits proteoglycan loss and tumor necrosis factor-α-induced expression pattern in an osteoarthritis in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati-Sadeghi, Shabnam; Dey, Pradip; Ringe, Jochen; Haag, Rainer; Sittinger, Michael; Dehne, Tilo

    2018-04-16

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential of an anti-inflammatory polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel for osteoarthritis (OA) management in an OA in vitro model. Freshly isolated porcine chondrocytes were maintained in high-density cultures to form cartilage-like three-dimensional micromasses. Recombinant porcine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was used to induce OA-like changes. Normal and OA-like micromasses were treated with dendritic polyglycerol sulfate-based PEG hydrogel. Live/dead staining showed that all micromasses remained vital and presented similar morphological characteristics. Safranin-O staining demonstrated a typical depletion of glycosaminoglycans in TNF-α-treated micromasses but not in the presence of the hydrogel. There was no distinct difference in immunohistochemical detection of type II collagen. Microarray data showed that rheumatoid arthritis and TNF signaling pathways were down regulated in hydrogel-treated OA-like micromasses compared to nontreated OA-like micromasses. The hydrogel alone did not affect genes related to OA such as ANPEP, COMP, CXCL12, PTGS2, and TNFSF10, but it prevented their regulation caused by TNF-α. This study provides valuable insights toward a fully synthetic hydrogel for the intra-articular treatment of OA. The findings proved the potential of this hydrogel to prevent the development of TNF-α-induced OA with regard to proteoglycan loss and TNF-α-induced expression pattern without additional signs of differentiation and inflammation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Regulation of LPS-induced mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines via alteration of NF-κB activity in mouse peritoneal macrophages exposed to fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuhu; Huo, Meijun; Li, Guangsheng; Li, Yanyan; Wang, Jundong

    2016-10-01

    F toxicity to immune system, especially to macrophage, has been studied a lot recently. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), as a transcription factor, plays a central role in immune and inflammatory responses via the regulation of downstream gene expression. Recent studies indicated that fluoride effect on inflammatory cytokine secretion, however, the molecular mechanism was less understood. In our study, peritoneal macrophages (PMs) were divided several groups and were administrated sodium fluoride (NaF, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 μM) and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 30 ng/mg). The mRNA expression of p65, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) in macrophages exposed to fluoride was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR respectively. The translocation of NF-κB from cytoplasm to nucleus, which in a way reflects NF-κB activity, was demonstrated by Immunofluorescence and ELISA. Our results showed that fluoride had a dose-dependent effect on NF-κB activity, which coincided with LPS-induced mRNA expression of its downstream genes, iNOS and IL-1β. Fluoride alone causes no effect on gene expression. However, the mRNA expression of TNF-α showed non-NF-κB-dependent manner. Therefore, we come to the conclusion that fluoride can regulate LPS-induced mRNA expression of iNOS and IL-1β via NF-κB pathway in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical memory reactions induced bursting dynamics in gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tianhai

    2013-01-01

    Memory is a ubiquitous phenomenon in biological systems in which the present system state is not entirely determined by the current conditions but also depends on the time evolutionary path of the system. Specifically, many memorial phenomena are characterized by chemical memory reactions that may fire under particular system conditions. These conditional chemical reactions contradict to the extant stochastic approaches for modeling chemical kinetics and have increasingly posed significant challenges to mathematical modeling and computer simulation. To tackle the challenge, I proposed a novel theory consisting of the memory chemical master equations and memory stochastic simulation algorithm. A stochastic model for single-gene expression was proposed to illustrate the key function of memory reactions in inducing bursting dynamics of gene expression that has been observed in experiments recently. The importance of memory reactions has been further validated by the stochastic model of the p53-MDM2 core module. Simulations showed that memory reactions is a major mechanism for realizing both sustained oscillations of p53 protein numbers in single cells and damped oscillations over a population of cells. These successful applications of the memory modeling framework suggested that this innovative theory is an effective and powerful tool to study memory process and conditional chemical reactions in a wide range of complex biological systems.

  8. Epithelial Cell Gene Expression Induced by Intracellular Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglu Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available HEp-2 cell monolayers were cocultured with intracellular Staphylococcus aureus, and changes in gene expression were profiled using DNA microarrays. Intracellular S. aureus affected genes involved in cellular stress responses, signal transduction, inflammation, apoptosis, fibrosis, and cholesterol biosynthesis. Transcription of stress response and signal transduction-related genes including atf3, sgk, map2k1, map2k3, arhb, and arhe was increased. In addition, elevated transcription of proinflammatory genes was observed for tnfa, il1b, il6, il8, cxcl1, ccl20, cox2, and pai1. Genes involved in proapoptosis and fibrosis were also affected at transcriptional level by intracellular S. aureus. Notably, intracellular S. aureus induced strong transcriptional down-regulation of several cholesterol biosynthesis genes. These results suggest that epithelial cells respond to intracellular S. aureus by inducing genes affecting immunity and in repairing damage caused by the organism, and are consistent with the possibility that the organism exploits an intracellular environment to subvert host immunity and promote colonization.

  9. Follicular thyroglobulin induces cathepsin H expression and activity in thyrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Kenzaburo; Luo, Yuqian; Yoshihara, Aya; Ishido, Yuko; Sekihata, Kengo

    2017-01-01

    Thyroglobulin (Tg) stored in thyroid follicles exerts a potent negative-feedback effect on each step of pre-hormone biosynthesis, including Tg gene transcription and iodine uptake and organification, by suppressing the expression of specific transcription factors that regulate these steps. Pre-hormones are stored in the follicular colloid before being reabsorbed. Following lysosomal proteolysis of its precursor, thyroid hormone (TH) is released from thyroid follicles. Although the suppressive effects of follicular Tg on each step of pre-hormone biosynthesis have been extensively characterized, whether follicular Tg accumulation also affects hormone reabsorption, proteolysis, and secretion is unclear. In this study we explored whether follicular Tg can regulate the expression and function of the lysosomal endopeptidases cathepsins. We found that in the rat thyroid cell line FRTL-5 follicular Tg induced cathepsin H mRNA and protein expression, as well as cathepsin H enzyme activity. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that Tg endocytosis promoted cathepsin H translocalization into lysosomes where it co-localized with internalized Tg. These results suggest that cathepsin H is an active participant in lysosome-mediated pre-hormone degradation, and that follicular Tg stimulates mobilization of pre-hormones by activating cathepsin H-associated proteolysis pathways. - Highlights: • Follicular Tg increases cathepsin H mRNA and protein levels in rat thyroid cells. • Follicular Tg increases cathepsin H enzyme activity in rat thyroid cells. • After Tg stimulation cathepsin H co-localizes to lysosomes with follicular Tg. • Cathepsin H promotes hormone secretion by lysosome-mediated mechanisms.

  10. High Frequency Electromagnetic Field Induces Lipocalin 2 Expression in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaneh Mohammadi Roushandeh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sNeutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL/Lcn2, comprise a group of small extracellular proteins with a common β-sheet-dominated 3-dimensional structure. In the past, it was assumed that the predominant role of lipocalin was acting as transport proteins. Recently it has been found that oxidative stress induces Lcn2 expression. It has been also proved that electromagnetic field (EMF produces reactive oxygen species (ROS in different tissues. Expression of Lcn2 following exposure to electromagnetic field has been investigated in this study. Materials and MethodsBalb/c mice (8 weeks old were exposed to 3 mT, 50 HZ EMF for 2 months, 4 hr/day. Afterwards, the mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and livers were removed. The liver specimens were stained with Haematoxylin- Eosin (H&E and analyzed under an optical microscope. Total RNA was extracted from liver and reverse transcription was performed by SuperScript III reverse transcriptase with 1 µg of total RNA. Assessment of Lcn2 expression was performed by semiquantitative and real time- PCR.ResultsThe light microscopic studies revealed that the number of lymphocyte cells was increased compared to control and dilation of sinosoids was observed in the liver. Lcn2 was up-regulated in the mice exposed to EMF both in mRNA and protein levels.ConclusionTo the extent of our knowledge, this is the first report dealing with up-regulation of Lcn2 in liver after exposure to EMF. The up-regulation might be a compensatory response that involves cell defense pathways and protective effects against ROS. However, further and complementary studies are required in this regards.

  11. Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} enhanced fusions between oral squamous cell carcinoma cells and endothelial cells via VCAM-1/VLA-4 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kai; Zhu, Fei; Zhang, Han-zhong [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST), Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Shang, Zheng-jun, E-mail: shangzhengjun@hotmail.com [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST), Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); First Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China)

    2012-08-15

    Fusion between cancer cells and host cells, including endothelial cells, may strongly modulate the biological behavior of tumors. However, no one is sure about the driving factors and underlying mechanism involved in such fusion. We hypothesized in this study that inflammation, one of the main characteristics in tumor microenvironment, serves as a prominent catalyst for fusion events. Our results showed that oral cancer cells can fuse spontaneously with endothelial cells in co-culture and inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) increased fusion of human umbilical vein endothelium cells and oral cancer cells by up to 3-fold in vitro. Additionally, human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and 35 out of 50 (70%) oral squamous carcinoma specimens express VLA-4, an integrin, previously implicated in fusions between human peripheral blood CD34-positive cells and murine cardiomyocytes. Expression of VCAM-1, a ligand for VLA-4, was evident on vascular endothelium of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Moreover, immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry analysis revealed that expression of VCAM-1 increased obviously in TNF-{alpha}-stimulated endothelial cells. Anti-VLA-4 or anti-VCAM-1 treatment can decrease significantly cancer-endothelial adhesion and block such fusion. Collectively, our results suggested that TNF-{alpha} could enhance cancer-endothelial cell adhesion and fusion through VCAM-1/VLA-4 pathway. This study provides insights into regulatory mechanism of cancer-endothelial cell fusion, and has important implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for prevention of metastasis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spontaneous oral cancer-endothelial cell fusion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} enhanced cell fusions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VCAM-1/VLA-4 expressed in oral cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} increased expression of VCAM-1 on endothelial cells. Black

  12. Thrombin-induced, TNFR-dependent miR-181c downregulation promotes MLL1 and NF-κB target gene expression in human microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Min; Chen, Zhiying; Ouyang, Yetong; Zhang, Huiyan; Wan, Zhigang; Wang, Han; Wu, Wei; Yin, Xiaoping

    2017-06-29

    Controlling thrombin-driven microglial activation may serve as a therapeutic target for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Here, we investigated microRNA (miRNA)-based regulation of thrombin-driven microglial activation using an in vitro thrombin toxicity model applied to primary human microglia. A miRNA array identified 22 differential miRNA candidates. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) identified miR-181c as the most significantly downregulated miRNA. TargetScan analysis identified mixed lineage leukemia-1 (MLL1) as a putative gene target for miR-181c. qRT-PCR was applied to assess tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), miR-181c, and MLL1 levels following thrombin or proteinase-activated receptor-4-specific activating peptide (PAR4AP) exposure. Anti-TNF-α antibodies and tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) silencing were employed to test TNF-α/TNFR dependence. A dual-luciferase reporter system and miR-181c mimic transfection assessed whether mir-181c directly binds to and negatively regulates MLL1. Nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB)-dependent luciferase reporter assays and NF-κB target gene expression were assessed in wild-type (MLL1+) and MLL1-silenced cells. Thrombin or PAR4AP-induced miR-181c downregulation (p < 0.05) and MLL1 upregulation (p < 0.05) that were dependent upon TNF-α/TNFR. miR-181c decreased wild-type MLL1 3'-UTR luciferase reporter activity (p < 0.05), and a miR-181c mimic suppressed MLL1 expression (p < 0.05). Thrombin treatment increased, while miR-181c reduced, NF-κB activity and NF-κB target gene expression in both wild-type (MLL1+) and MLL1-silenced cells (p < 0.05). Thrombin-induced, TNF-α/TNFR-dependent miR-181c downregulation promotes MLL1 expression, increases NF-κB activity, and upregulates NF-κB target gene expression. As miR-181c opposes thrombin's stimulation of pro-inflammatory NF-κB activity, miR-181c mimic therapy may show promise in controlling thrombin

  13. Resveratrol reverses morphine-induced neuroinflammation in morphine-tolerant rats by reversal HDAC1 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-Yin Tsai

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Resveratrol restores the antinociceptive effect of morphine by reversing morphine infusion-induced spinal cord neuroinflammation and increase in TNFR1 expression. The reversal of the morphine-induced increase in TNFR1 expression by resveratrol is partially due to reversal of the morphine infusion-induced increase in HDAC1 expression. Resveratrol pretreatment can be used as an adjuvant in clinical pain management for patients who need long-term morphine treatment or with neuropathic pain.

  14. Risk of Lymphoma in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease Treated With Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Agents: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Huang, Junlin; Huang, Xiaowen; Huang, Shaozhuo; Cheng, Jiaxin; Liao, Weixin; Chen, Xuewen; Wang, Xueyi; Dai, Shixue

    2018-05-12

    The association between anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents and the risk of lymphoma in patients with inflammatory bowel disease has already been sufficiently reported. However, the results of these studies are inconsistent. Hence, this analysis was conducted to investigate whether anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents can increase the risk of lymphoma in inflammatory bowel disease patients. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify relevant studies which evaluated the risk of lymphoma in inflammatory bowel disease patients treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed to calculate the pooled incidence rate ratios as well as risk ratios. Twelve studies comprising 285811 participants were included. The result showed that there was no significantly increased risk of lymphoma between anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents exposed and anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents unexposed groups (random effects: incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.43 95%CI, 0.91-2.25, p= 0.116; random effects: risk ratio [RR], 0.83 95%CI, 0.47-1.48, p=0.534). However, monotherapy of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents (random effects: IRR=1.65, 95%CI, 1.16-2.35; p=0.006; random effects: RR=1.00, 95%CI, 0.39-2.59; p=0.996) or combination therapy (random effects: IRR=3.36, 95%CI, 2.23-5.05; ptumor necrosis factor alpha agents in patients with inflammatory bowel disease is not associated with a higher risk of lymphoma. Combination therapy and anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents monotherapy can significantly increase the risk of lymphoma in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

  15. Dynamic observation of transforming growth factor-alpha content in plasma of pediatric patients with peptic ulcer disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Mingxiong; Zhang Xinlu

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To elicit the relationship between transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α) and the pathogenesis as well as healing process of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) in pediatric patients. Methods: The levels of TGF-α in plasma were measured by radioimmunoassay in 57 Children with PUD. Results: TGF-α levels of plasma at active stage of peptic ulcer were significantly lower than those at healing stage as well as in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: There is an abnormal secretion of TGF-α in PUD patients. Changes of TGF-α release might play a role in the pathogenesis of PUD

  16. Evaluation of tumor necrosis factor alpha serum level in obese and lean women with clomiphene citrate resistant polycystic ovary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Seyam, Emaduldin; Hasan, Momen; Khalifa, Eissa M.; Ramadan, Ahmad; Hefzy, Enas

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this work was to investigate the level of the serum level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as an inflammatory biomarker in lean and obese women with polycystic ovary disease (PCOD), who are resistant to clomiphene citrate (CCR-PCOD). Patients and design: It is a case controlled study, where one hundred and fifty (n = 150) PCOD women (study group), who are resistant to clomiphene citrate (CCR-PCOD) had been recruited, in addition to one hundred (n = 100) women wi...

  17. Metabolic and vascular effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha blockade with etanercept in obese patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez, Helena; Storgaard, Heidi; Rask-Madsen, Christian

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) impairs insulin action in insulin-sensitive tissues, such as fat, muscle and endothelium, and causes endothelial dysfunction. We hypothesized that TNF-alpha blockade with etanercept could reverse vascular and metabolic...... glucose uptake remained unchanged as well. Beta-cell function tended to improve. CONCLUSION: Although short-term etanercept treatment had a significant beneficial effect on systemic inflammatory markers, no improvement of vascular or metabolic insulin sensitivity was observed....

  18. Oncogenic tyrosine kinase NPM-ALK induces expression of the growth-promoting receptor ICOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, HongYi; Kantekure, Kanchan

    2011-01-01

    Here we report that T-cell lymphoma cells carrying the NPM-ALK fusion protein (ALK(+) TCL) frequently express the cell-stimulatory receptor ICOS. ICOS expression in ALK(+) TCL is moderate and strictly dependent on the expression and enzymatic activity of NPM-ALK. NPM-ALK induces ICOS expression v...

  19. FORMALDEHYDE-INDUCED GENE EXPRESSION IN F344 RAT NASAL RESPIRATORY EPITHELIUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formaldehyde-induced gene expression in F344 rat nasal respiratory epithelium ABSTRACTFormaldehyde, an occupational and environmental toxicant used extensively in the manufacturing of many household and personal use products, is known to induce squamous cell carci...

  20. Proliferative and antiproliferative effects of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on cell lines derived from cervical and ovarian malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutch, D.G.; Massad, L.S.; Kao, M.S.; Collins, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Four human cell lines derived from cervical carcinomas (ME-180, SiHa, HT-3, and MS751) and three human cell lines derived from ovarian carcinomas (SK-OV-3, Caov-3, and NIH:OVCAR-3) were analyzed in vitro to determine the effect of recombinant interferon-gamma and recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha on cell growth and survival. The effects of interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and both interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on cell growth were measured after 24 and 72 hours of incubation by the incorporation of chromium 51. The results of this analysis showed that all seven cell lines were resistant to the antiproliferative action of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, that the growth of most cell lines was inhibited by interferon-gamma by 72 hours of incubation, and that after 72 hours of incubation all cell lines demonstrated a synergistic antiproliferative response to the combination of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. However, the effects of these cytokines on cell growth were found to differ among cell lines and varied with the concentration and the duration of incubation. The growth of one cell line (Caov-3) was stimulated by both tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma. These results suggest that the clinical effects of these cytokines on the growth of gynecologic cancers may be more complex than previously supposed

  1. An inducible expression system for high-level expression of recombinant proteins in slow growing mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leotta, Lisa; Spratt, Joanne M; Kong, Carlyn U; Triccas, James A

    2015-09-01

    A novel protein expression vector utilising the inducible hspX promoter of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was constructed and evaluated in this study. High-level induction of three mycobacterial antigens, comprising up to 9% of bacterial sonicate, was demonstrated in recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG when grown under low-oxygen tension, which serves to enhance hspX promoter activity. Recombinant proteins were efficiently purified from bacterial lysates in a soluble form by virtue of a C-terminal 6-histidine tag. Purification of the immunodominant M. tuberculosis Ag85B antigen using this system resulted in a recombinant protein that stimulated significant IFN-γ release from Ag85B-reactive T cells generated after vaccination of mice with an Ag85B-expressing vaccine. Further, the M. tuberculosis L-alanine dehydrogenase (Ald) protein purified from recombinant BCG displayed strong enzymatic activity in recombinant form. This study demonstrated that high levels of native-like recombinant mycobacterial proteins can be produced in mycobacterial hosts, and this may aid the analysis of mycobacterial protein function and the development of new treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Bacterial lipoprotein-induced self-tolerance and cross-tolerance to LPS are associated with reduced IRAK-1 expression and MyD88-IRAK complex formation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Li, Chong Hui

    2012-02-03

    Tolerance to bacterial cell-wall components may represent an essential regulatory mechanism during bacterial infection. We have demonstrated previously that the inhibition of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation was present in bacterial lipoprotein (BLP) self-tolerance and its cross-tolerance to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In this study, the effect of BLP-induced tolerance on the myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)-dependent upstream signaling pathway for NF-kappaB activation in vitro was examined further. When compared with nontolerant human monocytic THP-1 cells, BLP-tolerant cells had a significant reduction in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production in response to a high-dose BLP (86+\\/-12 vs. 6042+\\/-245 ng\\/ml, P < 0.01) or LPS (341+\\/-36 vs. 7882+\\/-318 ng\\/ml, P < 0.01) stimulation. The expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) protein was down-regulated in BLP-tolerant cells, whereas no significant differences in TLR4, MyD88, interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK-4), and TNF receptor-associated factor 6 expression were observed between nontolerant and BLP-tolerant cells, as confirmed by Western blot analysis. The IRAK-1 protein was reduced markedly in BLP-tolerant cells, although IRAK-1 mRNA expression remained unchanged as revealed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Furthermore, decreased MyD88-IRAK immunocomplex formation, as demonstrated by immunoprecipitation, was observed in BLP-tolerant cells following a second BLP or LPS stimulation. BLP pretreatment also resulted in a marked inhibition in total and phosphorylated inhibitor of kappaB-alpha (IkappaB-alpha) expression, which was not up-regulated by subsequent BLP or LPS stimulation. These results demonstrate that in addition to the down-regulation of TLR2 expression, BLP tolerance is associated with a reduction in IRAK-1 expression, MyD88-IRAK association, and IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation. These

  3. Dietary blue pigments derived from genipin, attenuate inflammation by inhibiting LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression via the NF-κB inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang-Song; Xiang, Yaozu; Cui, Yuan-Lu; Lin, Ke-Ming; Zhang, Xin-Fang

    2012-01-01

    The edible blue pigments produced by gardenia fruits have been used as value-added colorants for foods in East Asia for 20 years. However, the biological activity of the blue pigments derived from genipin has not been reported. The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments was studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage in vitro. The secretions of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) were inhibited in concentration-dependent manner by blue pigments. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (Real-time RT-PCR) analyses demonstrated that the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was inhibited, moreover, ELISA results showed that the productions of IL-6 and TNF-α were inhibited. Cell-based ELISA revealed the COX-2 protein expression was inhibited. The proteome profiler array showed that 12 cytokines and chemokines involved in the inflammatory process were down-regulated by blue pigments. Blue pigments inhibited the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation induced by LPS, and this was associated with decreasing the DNA-binding activity of p65 and p50. Furthermore, blue pigments suppressed the degradation of inhibitor of κB (IκB) α, Inhibitor of NF-κB Kinase (IKK) α, IKK-β, and phosphorylation of IκB-α. The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments in vivo was studied in carrageenan-induced paw edema and LPS-injecting ICR mice. Finally, blue pigments significantly inhibited paw swelling and reduced plasma TNF-α and IL-6 production in vivo. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of blue pigments might be the results from the inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α expression through the down-regulation of NF-κB activation, which will provide strong scientific evidence for the edible blue pigments to be developed as a new health-enhancing nutritional food

  4. Dietary blue pigments derived from genipin, attenuate inflammation by inhibiting LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression via the NF-κB inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang-Song Wang

    Full Text Available The edible blue pigments produced by gardenia fruits have been used as value-added colorants for foods in East Asia for 20 years. However, the biological activity of the blue pigments derived from genipin has not been reported.The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments was studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage in vitro. The secretions of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E(2 (PGE(2 were inhibited in concentration-dependent manner by blue pigments. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (Real-time RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, interleukin (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α was inhibited, moreover, ELISA results showed that the productions of IL-6 and TNF-α were inhibited. Cell-based ELISA revealed the COX-2 protein expression was inhibited. The proteome profiler array showed that 12 cytokines and chemokines involved in the inflammatory process were down-regulated by blue pigments. Blue pigments inhibited the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB activation induced by LPS, and this was associated with decreasing the DNA-binding activity of p65 and p50. Furthermore, blue pigments suppressed the degradation of inhibitor of κB (IκB α, Inhibitor of NF-κB Kinase (IKK α, IKK-β, and phosphorylation of IκB-α. The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments in vivo was studied in carrageenan-induced paw edema and LPS-injecting ICR mice. Finally, blue pigments significantly inhibited paw swelling and reduced plasma TNF-α and IL-6 production in vivo.These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of blue pigments might be the results from the inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α expression through the down-regulation of NF-κB activation, which will provide strong scientific evidence for the edible blue pigments to be developed as a new health-enhancing nutritional

  5. Analysis and Quantitation of NF-[kappa]B Nuclear Translocation in Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-[alpha]) Activated Vascular Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuseler, John W.; Merrill, Dana M.; Rogers, Jennifer A.; Grisham, Matthew B.; Wolf, Robert E.

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-[kappa]B) is a heterodimeric transcription factor typically composed of p50 and p65 subunits and is a pleiotropic regulator of various inflammatory and immune responses. In quiescent cells, p50/p65 dimers are sequestered in the cytoplasm bound to its inhibitors, the I-[kappa]Bs, which prevent entry into the nucleus. Following cellular stimulation, the I-[kappa]Bs are rapidly degraded, activating NF-[kappa]B. The active form of NF-[kappa]B rapidly translocates into the nucleus, binding to consensus sequences in the promoter/enhancer region of various genes, promoting their transcription. In human vascular endothelial cells activated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha, the activation and translocation of NF-[kappa]B is rapid, reaching maximal nuclear localization by 30 min. In this study, the appearance of NF-[kappa]B (p65 subunit, p65-NF-[kappa]B) in the nucleus visualized by immunofluorescence and quantified by morphometric image analysis (integrated optical density, IOD) is compared to the appearance of activated p65-NF-[kappa]B protein in the nucleus determined biochemically. The appearance of p65-NF-[kappa]B in the nucleus measured by fluorescence image analysis and biochemically express a linear correlation (R2 = 0.9477). These data suggest that localization and relative protein concentrations of NF-[kappa]B can be reliably determined from IOD measurements of the immunofluorescent labeled protein.

  6. In vitro cytotoxicity of human recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha in association with radiotherapy in a human ovarian carcinoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manetta, A.; Lucci, J.; Soopikian, J.; Granger, G.; Berman, M.L.; DiSaia, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    It has been speculated that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) may decrease the cytotoxicity of radiotherapy by increasing the scavenging of toxic superoxide radicals. Because of the possible clinical implications, the cytotoxicity of TNF-alpha in combination with radiotherapy (RT) was compared with that of RT alone in a human ovarian cancer cell line. NIH:OVCAR-3 cells were incubated with TNF-alpha at 10.0, 1.0, 0.1, and 0.01 microgram/ml. Plates were divided into two groups; one received 150 cGy of radiotherapy and the other received no further therapy. Seventy-two hours later, supernatants were aspirated and viable cells were stained with a 1% solution of crystal violet. Survival of cells treated with RT plus TNF-alpha was expressed as a percentage of surviving irradiated controls. Analysis of results revealed minimal additive cell killing effect between TNF-alpha and radiotherapy at all concentrations of tumor necrosis factor, with the greatest difference noted in the group treated with 10 micrograms/ml TNF-alpha. A continued radiotherapy dose-response study with TNF-alpha showed a similar additive, not radioprotective, effect. This may have implication as a potentiator of RT in some human tumors

  7. Molecular cloning of rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) tumor necrosis factor-alpha and its effect on the respiratory burst activity of phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Sun; Hwang, Yoon Jung; Yoon, Ki Joon; Zenke, Kosuke; Nam, Yoon Kwon; Kim, Sung Koo; Kim, Ki Hong

    2009-11-01

    Rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rbTNF-alpha) gene was cloned, recombinantly produced, and the effect of the recombinant rbTNF-alpha on the respiratory burst activity of rock bream phagocytes was analyzed. Structurally, genomic DNA of rbTNF-alpha was comprised with four exons and three introns, and deduced amino acid sequence of its cDNA possessed the TNF family signature, a transmembrane domain, a protease cleavage site, and two cysteine residues, which are the typical characteristics of TNF-alpha gene in mammals and fish. The chemiluminescent (CL) response of rock bream phagocytes was significantly enhanced by pre-incubation with recombinant rbTNF-alpha, when opsonized zymosan was used as a stimulant of the respiratory burst. However, CL enhancing effect of the recombinant rbTNF-alpha was very weak when the respiratory burst activity of phagocytes was triggered with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) instead of zymosan. These results suggest that rock bream TNF-alpha might have an ability to prime the respiratory burst activity of phagocytes against receptor-mediated phagocytosis inducing stimulants, such as zymosan, but have little ability against stimulants not accompanying receptor-mediated phagocytosis.

  8. Effects of anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha and anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 antibodies on ischemia/reperfusion lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chi-Huei

    2006-10-31

    Inhibition of neutrophil activation and adherence to endothelium by antibodies to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1), respectively, might attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R). I/R was conducted in an isolated rat lung model. Anti-TNF-alpha antibody and/or anti-ICAM-1 antibody were added before ischemia or after reperfusion. Hemodynamic changes, lung weight gain (LWG), capillary filtration coefficients (Kfc), and pathologic changes were assessed to evaluate the severity of I/R. The LWG, Kfc, pathological changes and lung injury score of treatment groups with anti-TNF-alpha antibody treatment, either pre-ischemia or during reperfusion, were less than those observed in control groups. Similar findings were found in group treated with anti-ICAM-1 antibody or combination therapy during reperfusion. In contrast, pre-I/R treatment with anti-ICAM-1 antibody induced severe lung edema and failure to complete the experimental procedure. No additional therapeutic effect was found in combination therapy. We conclude that TNF-alpha and ICAM-1 play important roles in I/R. Anti-TNF-alpha antibody has therapeutic and preventive effects on I/R. However, combined therapy with anti-TNF-alpha antibody and anti-ICAM-1 antibody may have no additive effect and need further investigation.

  9. Sulforaphane Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation, Cytotoxicity, Oxidative Stress, and miR-155 Expression and Switches to Mox Phenotype through Activating Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2-Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2/Antioxidant Response Element Pathway in Murine Microglial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Erden; Tufekci, Kemal Ugur; Isci, Kamer Burak; Tastan, Bora; Genc, Kursad; Genc, Sermin

    2018-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is a natural product with cytoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. In this study, we evaluated the mechanisms of its effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cell death, inflammation, oxidative stress, and polarization in murine microglia. We found that SFN protects N9 microglial cells upon LPS-induced cell death and suppresses LPS-induced levels of secreted pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and interleukin-6. SFN is also a potent inducer of redox sensitive transcription factor, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which is responsible for the transcription of antioxidant, cytoprotective, and anti-inflammatory genes. SFN induced translocation of Nrf2 to the nucleus via extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway activation. siRNA-mediated knockdown study showed that the effects of SFN on LPS-induced reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production and cell death are partly Nrf2 dependent. Mox phenotype is a novel microglial phenotype that has roles in oxidative stress responses. Our results suggested that SFN induced the Mox phenotype in murine microglia through Nrf2 pathway. SFN also alleviated LPS-induced expression of inflammatory microRNA, miR-155. Finally, SFN inhibits microglia-mediated neurotoxicity as demonstrated by conditioned medium and co-culture experiments. In conclusion, SFN exerts protective effects on microglia and modulates the microglial activation state.

  10. Nutrient Induced Type 2 and Chemical Induced Type 1 Experimental Diabetes Differently Modulate Gastric GLP-1 Receptor Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Bloch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available T2DM patients demonstrate reduced GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R expression in their gastric glands. Whether induced T2DM and T1DM differently affect the gastric GLP-1R expression is not known. This study assessed extrapancreatic GLP-1R system in glandular stomach of rodents with different types of experimental diabetes. T2DM and T1DM were induced in Psammomys obesus (PO by high-energy (HE diet and by streptozotocin (STZ in Sprague Dawly (SD rats, respectively. GLP-1R expression was determined in glandular stomach by RT PCR and immunohistomorphological analysis. The mRNA expression and cellular association of the GLP-1R in principal glands were similar in control PO and SD rats. However, nutrient and chemical induced diabetes resulted in opposite alterations of glandular GLP-1R expression. Diabetic PO demonstrated increased GLP-1R mRNA expression, intensity of cellular GLP-1R immunostaining, and frequency of GLP-1R positive cells in the neck area of principal glands compared with controls. In contrast, SD diabetic rats demonstrated decreased GLP-1 mRNA, cellular GLP-1R immunoreactivity, and frequency of GLP-1R immunoreactive cells in the neck area compared with controls. In conclusion, nutrient and chemical induced experimental diabetes result in distinct opposite alterations of GLP-1R expression in glandular stomach. These results suggest that induced T1DM and T2DM may differently modulate GLP-1R system in enteropancreatic axis.

  11. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and its receptors in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Nikliński

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to characterize the expression pattern of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha and its receptors (TNF-Rs in the epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC and compare these results with the outcome of 126 patients. Presence of TNF-alpha, TNFR-1 and TNFR-2 were studied by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The proportion of samples positive for TNF-alpha and TNF-R2 was higher in epithelial ovarian cancer patients than in benign ovarian diseases (p<0.001 and p=0.016, respectively. Immunostaining intensity of TNF-R2 were correlated with tumor stage (p<0.001 and with reduced mean survival time (MST (p=0.002. The results of the present study suggested that tissue expression of TNF-R2 in epithelial ovarian cancer was correlated with the highest risk of cancer progression. Thus, the clinical value of activated TNF system in epithelial ovarian cancer needs to be further investigated.

  12. Characterization of a canine tetranucleotide microsatellite marker located in the first intron of the tumor necrosis factor alpha gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masashi; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Takizawa, Tatsuya; Segawa, Kazuhito; Neo, Sakurako; Tsuchiya, Ryo; Murata, Michiko; Murakami, Masaru; Hisasue, Masaharu

    2014-01-01

    A polymorphic tetranucleotide (GAAT)n microsatellite in the first intron of the canine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA) gene was characterized in this study; 139 dogs were analyzed: 22 Beagles, 26 Chihuahuas, 20 Miniature Dachshunds, 24 Miniature Poodles, 22 Pembroke Welsh Corgis and 25 Shiba Inus. We detected the presence of the 4 alleles (GAAT)5, (GAAT)6, (GAAT)7 and (GAAT)8, including 9 of the 10 expected genotypes. The expected heterozygosity (He) and the polymorphic information content (PIC) value of this microsatellite locus varied from 0.389 to 0.749 and from 0.333 to 0.682, respectively, among the 6 breeds. The allelic frequency differed greatly among breeds, but this microsatellite marker was highly polymorphic and could be a useful marker for the canine TNFA gene.

  13. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha during neonatal brain development affects anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babri, Shirin; Doosti, Mohammad-Hossein; Salari, Ali-Akbar

    2014-03-15

    A nascent literature suggests that neonatal infection is a risk factor for the development of brain, behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which can affect anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in later life. It has been documented that neonatal infection raises the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in neonate rodents and such infections may result in neonatal brain injury, at least in part, through pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, previous studies have shown that TNF-α is involved in cellular differentiation, neurogenesis and programmed cell death during the development of the central nervous system. We investigated for the first time whether neonatal exposure to TNF-α can affect body weight, stress-induced corticosterone (COR), anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult mice. In the present study, neonatal mice were treated to recombinant mouse TNF-α (0.2, 0.4, 0.7 and 1 μg/kg) or saline on postnatal days 3 and 5, then adult male and female mice were exposed to different behavioral tests. The results indicated that neonatal TNF-α treatment reduced body weight in neonatal period in both sexes. In addition, this study presents findings indicating that high doses of TNF- increase stress-induced COR levels, anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult males, but increase levels of anxiety without significantly influencing depression in adult female mice [corrected]. Our findings suggest that TNF-α exposure during neonatal period can alter brain and behavior development in a dose and sex-dependent manner in mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol supplementations on serum leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and serum amyloid A levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Jamalan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetes mellitus Type 2 is one of the most widespread chronic metabolic diseases. In most cases, this type of diabetes is associated with alterations in levels of some inflammatory cytokines and hormones. Considering anti-inflammatory properties of plant extracts rich in ascorbic acid (vitamin C and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E, anti-diabetic properties of these two well-known antioxidant vitamins were investigated through measurement of serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, insulin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and serum amyloid A (SAA in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Methods: Male patients (n=80 were randomly divided into two groups each consisted of 40 subjects. Test groups were supplemented with ascorbic acid (1000 mg/day or alpha-tocopherol (300 mg/day orally during four weeks. Before and after treatment, serum biochemical factors of subjects were measured and compared. Results: Our results showed that both ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol could induce significant anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing the level of inflammatory factors such as TNF-α, SAA, and hs-CRP in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients. Effects of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid in decreasing serum leptin level were similar. Ascorbic acid in contrast to alpha-tocopherol diminished fasting insulin and HOMA index but had no effect on LDL serum level. Conclusion: Concerning the obtained results, it is concluded that consumption of supplementary vitamins C and E could decrease induced inflammatory response in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.  It is also possible that vitamin C and vitamin E supplementation can attenuate incidence of some proposed pathological effects of diabetes mellitus.

  15. A role for tumor necrosis factor-alpha in ischemia and ischemic preconditioning

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Watters, Orla

    2011-08-02

    Abstract During cerebral ischemia, elevation of TNF-α and glutamate to pathophysiological levels may induce dysregulation of normal synaptic processes, leading ultimately to cell death. Previous studies have shown that patients subjected to a mild transient ischemic attack within a critical time window prior to a more severe ischemic episode may show attenuation in the clinical severity of the stroke and result in a more positive functional outcome. Studies with organotypic hippocampal cultures and mixed primary hippocampal cultures have shown that prior incubation with low concentrations of glutamate and TNF-α increase the resistance of neurones to a subsequent insult from glutamate, AMPA and NMDA, while co-exposure of TNF-α and for example AMPA may have neuroprotective effects compared to cultures exposed to excitotoxic agents alone. In addition our work has shown that although glutamate and TNF-α pretreatment induces analogous levels of desensitisation of the intracellular calcium dynamics of neurons under resting conditions and in response to acute glutamate stimulation, their downstream signalling pathways involved in this response do not converge. Glutamate and TNF-α would appear to have opposing effects on resting Ca2+ levels which supports the proposal that they have distinct modes of preconditioning.

  16. Development of a mouse-feline chimeric antibody against feline tumor necrosis factor-alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    DOKI, Tomoyoshi; TAKANO, Tomomi; HOHDATSU, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal inflammatory disease caused by FIP virus infection. Feline tumor necrosis factor (fTNF)-alpha is closely involved in the aggravation of FIP pathology. We previously described the preparation of neutralizing mouse anti-fTNF-alpha monoclonal antibody (mAb 2–4) and clarified its role in the clinical condition of cats with FIP using in vitro systems. However, administration of mouse mAb 2–4 to cat may lead to a production of feline anti-mouse antibodies. In the present study, we prepared a mouse-feline chimeric mAb (chimeric mAb 2–4) by fusing the variable region of mouse mAb 2–4 to the constant region of feline antibody. The chimeric mAb 2–4 was confirmed to have fTNF-alpha neutralization activity. Purified mouse mAb 2–4 and chimeric mAb 2–4 were repeatedly administered to cats, and the changes in the ability to induce feline anti-mouse antibody response were investigated. In the serum of cats treated with mouse mAb 2–4, feline anti-mouse antibody production was induced, and the fTNF-alpha neutralization effect of mouse mAb 2–4 was reduced. In contrast, in cats treated with chimeric mAb 2–4, the feline anti-mouse antibody response was decreased compared to that of mouse mAb 2–4-treated cats. PMID:27264736

  17. Thymoquinone inhibits phorbol ester-induced activation of NF-κB and expression of COX-2, and induces expression of cytoprotective enzymes in mouse skin in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, Joydeb Kumar; Liu, Lijia; Shin, Jun-Wan; Surh, Young-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Thymoquinone inhibits phorbol ester-induced COX-2 expression in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone attenuates phosphorylation of IκBα and DNA binding of NF-κB in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone inhibits phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, JNK and Akt in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone induces the expression of cytoprotective proteins in mouse skin. -- Abstract: Thymoquinone (TQ), the active ingredient of Nigella sativa, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties. The present study was aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities of thymoquinone in mouse skin. Pretreatment of female HR-1 hairless mouse skin with TQ attenuated 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). TQ diminished nuclear translocation and the DNA binding of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) via the blockade of phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of IκBα in TPA-treated mouse skin. Pretreatment with TQ attenuated the phosphorylation of Akt, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, but not that of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2. Moreover, topical application of TQ induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H-quinoneoxidoreductase-1, glutathione-S-transferase and glutamate cysteine ligase in mouse skin. Taken together, the inhibitory effects of TQ on TPA-induced COX-2 expression and NF-κB activation, and its ability to induce the expression of cytoprotective proteins provide a mechanistic basis of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of TQ in hairless mouse skin

  18. Co-administration of plasmid expressing IL-12 with 14-kDa Schistosoma mansoni fatty acid-binding protein cDNA alters immune response profiles and fails to enhance protection induced by Sm14 DNA vaccine alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Cristina T; Pacífico, Lucila G G; Barsante, Michele M; Rassi, Tatiana; Cassali, Geovanni D; Oliveira, Sérgio C

    2006-08-01

    Schistosomiasis is an endemic disease that affects 200 million people worldwide. DNA-based vaccine is a promising strategy to induce protective immunity against schistosomiasis, since both humoral and cellular immune responses are involved in parasite elimination. In this study, we evaluated the ability of Sm14 cDNA alone or in association with a plasmid expressing murine interleukin (IL)-12 to induce protection against challenge infection. Mice were immunized with four doses of the DNA vaccine and the levels of protection were determined by worm burden recovery after challenge infection. Specific antibody production to rSm14 was determined by ELISA, and cytokine production was measured in splenocyte culture supernatants stimulated with rSm14 and in bronchoalveolar lavage of vaccinated mice after challenge infection. DNA immunization with pCI/Sm14 alone induced 40.5% of worm reduction. However, the use of pCI/IL-12 as adjuvant to pCI/Sm14 immunization failed to enhance protection against challenge infection. Protection induced by pCI/Sm14 immunization correlates with specific IgG antibody production against Sm14, Th1 type of immune response with high levels of interferon (IFN)-gamma and low levels of IL-4 in splenocyte culture supernatants and in bronchoalveolar lavage after challenge infection. IL-12 co-administration with pCI/Sm14 induced a significant production of nitric oxide in splenocyte culture supernatants and also lymphocyte suppression, with reduced percentage of T cells producing IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

  19. Synthesis of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Induced Protein 6 in Porcine Preovulatory Follicles; A Study with A38 Antibody

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nagyová, Eva; Camaioni, A.; Procházka, Radek; Day, A. J.; Salustri, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 78, - (2008), s. 903-909 ISSN 0006-3363 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/05/0960 Grant - others:Program of Scientific and Technological Cooperation between Czech Republic and Italy(CZ) 52/ZV2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : cumulus cells * extracellular matrix * hyaluronan Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.469, year: 2008

  20. Evaluation of novel inducible promoter/repressor systems for recombinant protein expression in Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Silvia; Hörmann, Angelika; Tauer, Christopher; Sonnleitner, Margot; Egger, Esther; Grabherr, Reingard; Heinl, Stefan

    2016-03-10

    Engineering lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is of growing importance for food and feed industry as well as for in vivo vaccination or the production of recombinant proteins in food grade organisms. Often, expression of a transgene is only desired at a certain time point or period, e.g. to minimize the metabolic burden for the host cell or to control the expression time span. For this purpose, inducible expression systems are preferred, though cost and availability of the inducing agent must be feasible. We selected the plasmid free strain Lactobacillus plantarum 3NSH for testing and characterization of novel inducible promoters/repressor systems. Their feasibility in recombinant protein production was evaluated. Expression of the reporter protein mCherry was monitored with the BioLector(®) micro-fermentation system. Reporter gene mCherry expression was compared under the control of different promoter/repressor systems: PlacA (an endogenous promoter/repressor system derived from L. plantarum 3NSH), PxylA (a promoter/repressor system derived from Bacillus megaterium DSMZ 319) and PlacSynth (synthetic promoter and codon-optimized repressor gene based on the Escherichia coli lac operon). We observed that PlacA was inducible solely by lactose, but not by non-metabolizable allolactose analoga. PxylA was inducible by xylose, yet showed basal expression under non-induced conditions. Growth on galactose (as compared to exponential growth phase on glucose) reduced basal mCherry expression at non-induced conditions. PlacSynth was inducible with TMG (methyl β-D-thiogalactopyranoside) and IPTG (isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside), but also showed basal expression without inducer. The promoter PlacSynth was used for establishment of a dual plasmid expression system, based on T7 RNA polymerase driven expression in L. plantarum. Comparative Western blot supported BioLector(®) micro-fermentation measurements. Conclusively, overall expression levels were moderate (compared to a

  1. Gene expression profiling distinguishes between spontaneous and radiation-induced rat mammary carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaoka, Tatsuhiko; Nishimura, Mayumi; Kakinuma, Shizuko; Shimada, Yoshiya; Yamashita, Satoshi; Ushijima, Toshikazu

    2008-01-01

    The ability to distinguish between spontaneous and radiation-induced cancers in humans is expected to improve the resolution of estimated risk from low dose radiation. Mammary carcinomas were obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats that were either untreated (n=45) or acutely γ-irradiated (1 Gy; n=20) at seven weeks of age. Gene expression profiles of three spontaneous and four radiation-induced carcinomas, as well as those of normal mammary glands, were analyzed by microarrays. Differential expression of identified genes of interest was then verified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Cluster analysis of global gene expression suggested that spontaneous carcinomas were distinguished from a heterogeneous population of radiation-induced carcinomas, though most gene expressions were common. We identified 50 genes that had different expression levels between spontaneous and radiogenic carcinomas. We then selected 18 genes for confirmation of the microarray data by qPCR analysis and obtained the following results: high expression of Plg, Pgr and Wnt4 was characteristic to all spontaneous carcinomas; Tnfsf11, Fgf10, Agtr1a, S100A9 and Pou3f3 showed high expression in a subset of radiation-induced carcinomas; and increased Gp2, Areg and Igf2 expression, as well as decreased expression of Ca3 and noncoding RNA Mg1, were common to all carcinomas. Thus, gene expression analysis distinguished between spontaneous and radiogenic carcinomas, suggesting possible differences in their carcinogenic mechanism. (author)

  2. Behavioral experience induces zif268 expression in mature granule cells but suppresses its expression in immature granule cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckleberry, Kylie A.; Kane, Gary A.; Mathis, Rita J.; Cook, Sarah G.; Clutton, Jonathan E.; Drew, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of neurons are born each day in the dentate gyrus (DG), but many of these cells die before reaching maturity. Both death and survival of adult-born neurons are regulated by neuronal activity in the DG. The immediate-early gene (IEG) zif268 appears to be an important mediator of these effects, as its expression can be induced by neural activity and knockout of zif268 impairs survival of adult-born neurons (Richardson et al., 1992; Veyrac et al., 2013). Despite the apparent importance of zif268 for adult neurogenesis, its behavior-induced expression has not been fully characterized in adult-born neurons. Here we characterize behavior-evoked expression of zif268 in mature and newborn dentate granule cells (DGCs). We first quantified zif268 expression in doublecortin-positive (DCX+) immature neurons and in the general granule cell population after brief exposure to a novel environment (NE). In the general granule cell population, zif268 expression peaked 1 h after NE exposure and returned to baseline by 8 h post-exposure. However, in the DCX+ cells, zif268 expression was suppressed relative to home cage for at least 8 h post-exposure. We next asked whether suppression of zif268 in DCX+ immature cells occurs in other behavioral paradigms that recruit the hippocampus. Exposure to Morris water maze (MWM) training, an enriched environment, or a NE caused approximately equal suppression of zif268 expression in DCX+ cells and approximately equal activation of zif268 expression among the general granule cell population. The same behavioral procedures activated zif268 expression in 6-week-old BrdU-labeled adult-born neurons, indicating that zif268 suppression is specific to immature neurons. Finally, we asked whether zif268 suppression varied as a function of age within the DCX+ population, which ranges in age from 0 to approximately 4 weeks. NE exposure had no significant effect on zif268 expression in 2- or 4-week-old BrdU-labeled neurons, but it significantly

  3. New Onset Autoimmune Hepatitis during Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Treatment in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciuto, Amanda; Kamath, Binita M; Walters, Thomas D; Frost, Karen; Carman, Nicholas; Church, Peter C; Ling, Simon C; Griffiths, Anne M

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate a large anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-treated pediatric inflammatory bowel disease cohort for drug-induced liver injury (DILI) following presentation of an index case with suspected DILI with autoimmune features after infliximab exposure. To characterize the incidence, natural history, and risk factors for liver enzyme elevation with anti-TNF use. We reviewed the index case and performed a retrospective cohort study of 659 children receiving anti-TNF therapy between 2000 and 2015 at a tertiary pediatric inflammatory bowel disease center. Patients with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ≥×2 the upper limit of normal were included. The incidence, evolution, and risk factors for liver injury were examined with univariate and multivariable proportional hazards regression. Causality was assessed using the Roussel-Uclaf Causality Assessment Method. The index case, a teenage girl with Crohn's disease, developed elevated liver enzymes and features of autoimmune hepatitis on liver biopsy 23 weeks after starting infliximab. The injury resolved entirely within 4 months of withdrawing infliximab without additional therapy. Overall, 7.7% of our cohort developed new ALT elevations while on anti-TNF. Most ALT elevations were mild and transient and attributable to alternate etiologies. No additional clear cases of autoimmune hepatitis were identified. Transient liver enzyme abnormalities are relatively common among anti-TNF-treated children. Anti-TNF-related DILI with autoimmune features is rare but must be recognized so that therapy can be stopped. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mucosal Progranulin expression is induced by H. pylori, but independent of Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor (SLPI expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treiber Gerhard

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucosal levels of Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor (SLPI are specifically reduced in relation to H. pylori-induced gastritis. Progranulin is an epithelial growth factor that is proteolytically degraded into fragments by elastase (the main target of SLPI. Considering the role of SLPI for regulating the activity of elastase, we studied whether the H. pylori-induced reduction of SLPI and the resulting increase of elastase-derived activity would reduce the Progranulin protein levels both ex vivo and in vitro. Methods The expression of Progranulin was studied in biopsies of H. pylori-positive, -negative and -eradicated subjects as well as in the gastric tumor cell line AGS by ELISA, immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR. Results H. pylori-infected subjects had about 2-fold increased antral Progranulin expression compared to H. pylori-negative and -eradicated subjects (P H. pylori infection; both epithelial and infiltrating immune cells contributed to the higher Progranulin expression levels. The H. pylori-induced upregulation of Progranulin was verified in AGS cells infected by H. pylori. The down-regulation of endogenous SLPI expression in AGS cells by siRNA methodology did not affect the Progranulin expression independent of the infection by H. pylori. Conclusions Taken together, Progranulin was identified as novel molecule that is upregulated in context to H. pylori infection. In contrast to other diseases, SLPI seems not to have a regulatory role for Progranulin in H. pylori-mediated gastritis.

  5. Induced resistance and gene expression in wheat against leaf rust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uvp

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... 2Department of Soil, Crop and Climate Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O Box ... Key words: Wheat leaf rust, induced resistance, priming, gene ..... transformation: susceptibility of transgenic Nicotiana sylvestris plants.

  6. Ligand Binding Domain Protein in Tetracycline-Inducible Expression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    binding domain proteins in E. coli using a tetracycline inducible system. To allow for ... development of molecular ligands with improved therapeutic windows. Keywords: Nuclear receptor ..... functional recombinant cannabinoid receptor CB2 in ...

  7. Bupivacaine-induced apoptosis independently of WDR35 expression in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2a cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity has been shown to occur through apoptosis. Recently, bupivacaine was shown to elicit reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and induce apoptosis accompanied by activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in a human neuroblastoma cell line. We have reported that WDR35, a WD40-repeat protein, may mediate apoptosis through caspase-3 activation. The present study was undertaken to test whether bupivacaine induces apoptosis in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2a cells and to determine whether ROS, p38 MAPK, and WDR35 are involved. Results Our results showed that bupivacaine induced ROS generation and p38 MAPK activation in Neuro2a cells, resulting in apoptosis. Bupivacaine also increased WDR35 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) also increased WDR35 expression in Neuro2a cells. Antioxidant (EUK-8) and p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB202190) treatment attenuated the increase in caspase-3 activity, cell death and WDR35 expression induced by bupivacaine or H2O2. Although transfection of Neuro2a cells with WDR35 siRNA attenuated the bupivacaine- or H2O2-induced increase in expression of WDR35 mRNA and protein, in contrast to our previous studies, it did not inhibit the increase in caspase-3 activity in bupivacaine- or H2O2-treated cells. Conclusions In summary, our results indicated that bupivacaine induced apoptosis in Neuro2a cells. Bupivacaine induced ROS generation and p38 MAPK activation, resulting in an increase in WDR35 expression, in these cells. However, the increase in WDR35 expression may not be essential for the bupivacaine-induced apoptosis in Neuro2a cells. These results may suggest the existence of another mechanism of bupivacaine-induced apoptosis independent from WDR35 expression in Neuro2a cells. PMID:23227925

  8. Interaction with extracellular matrix proteins influences Lsh/Ity/Bcg (candidate Nramp) gene regulation of macrophage priming/activation for tumour necrosis factor-alpha and nitrite release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formica, S; Roach, T I; Blackwell, J M

    1994-05-01

    The murine resistance gene Lsh/Ity/Bcg regulates activation of macrophages for tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-dependent production of nitric oxide mediating antimicrobial activity against Leishmania, Salmonella and Mycobacterium. As Lsh is differentially expressed in macrophages from different tissue sites, experiments were performed to determine whether interaction with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins would influence the macrophage TNF-alpha response. Plating of bone marrow-derived macrophages onto purified fibrinogen or fibronectin-rich L929 cell-derived matrices, but not onto mannan, was itself sufficient to stimulate TNF-alpha release, with significantly higher levels released from congenic B10.L-Lshr compared to C57BL/10ScSn (Lshs) macrophages. Only macrophages plated onto fibrinogen also released measurable levels of nitrites, again higher in Lshr compared to Lshs macrophages. Addition of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), but not bacterial lipopolysaccharide or mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan, as a second signal enhanced the TNF-alpha and nitrite responses of macrophages plated onto fibrinogen, particularly in the Lshr macrophages. Interaction with fibrinogen and fibronectin also primed macrophages for an enhanced TNF-alpha response to leishmanial parasites, but this was only translated into enhanced nitrite responses in the presence of IFN-gamma. In these experiments, Lshr macrophages remained superior in their TNF-alpha responses throughout, but to a degree which reflected the magnitude of the difference observed on ECM alone. Hence, the specificity for the enhanced TNF-alpha responses of Lshr macrophages lay in their interaction with fibrinogen and fibronectin ECM, while a differential nitrite response was only observed with fibrinogen and/or IFN-gamma. The results are discussed in relation to the possible function of the recently cloned candidate gene Nramp, which has structural identity to eukaryote transporters and an N-terminal cytoplasmic

  9. Inhibition of sup 125 I organification and thyroid hormone release by interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma in human thyrocytes in suspension culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.; Satoh, T.; Shizume, K.; Ozawa, M.; Han, D.C.; Imamura, H.; Tsushima, T.; Demura, H.; Kanaji, Y.; Ito, Y. (Institute of Clinical Endocrinology, Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-06-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of decreased 131I uptake by the thyroid gland in patients with subacute thyroiditis and painless thyroiditis, human thyroid follicles were cultured with interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), and/or interferon-gamma (IFN gamma), and the effects of these cytokines on thyroid function were studied in vitro. When human thyrocytes were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium containing 0.5% fetal calf serum and TSH for 5-8 days, the cells incorporated 125I, synthesized de novo (125I)iodotyrosines and (125I)iodothyronines, and secreted (125I)T4 and (125I)T3 into the medium. IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta inhibited 125I incorporation and (125I)iodothyronine release in a concentration-dependent manner. The minimal inhibitory effect was detected at 10 pg/ml. Electron microscopic examination revealed a marked decrease in lysosome formation in IL-1-treated thyrocytes. TNF alpha and IFN gamma also inhibited thyroid function in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, when thyrocytes were cultured with IL-1, TNF alpha and IFN gamma, these cytokines more than additively inhibited thyroid function. Although the main mechanism of 131I uptake suppression in the thyroid gland in subacute thyroiditis is due to cellular damage and suppression of TSH release, our present findings suggest that IL-1, TNF alpha, and IFN gamma produced in the inflammatory process within the thyroid gland further inhibit iodine incorporation and at least partly account for the decreased 131I uptake by the thyroid gland in destruction-induced hyperthyroidism.

  10. Inhibition of 125I organification and thyroid hormone release by interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma in human thyrocytes in suspension culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.; Satoh, T.; Shizume, K.; Ozawa, M.; Han, D.C.; Imamura, H.; Tsushima, T.; Demura, H.; Kanaji, Y.; Ito, Y.

    1990-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of decreased 131I uptake by the thyroid gland in patients with subacute thyroiditis and painless thyroiditis, human thyroid follicles were cultured with interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), and/or interferon-gamma (IFN gamma), and the effects of these cytokines on thyroid function were studied in vitro. When human thyrocytes were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium containing 0.5% fetal calf serum and TSH for 5-8 days, the cells incorporated 125I, synthesized de novo [125I]iodotyrosines and [125I]iodothyronines, and secreted [125I]T4 and [125I]T3 into the medium. IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta inhibited 125I incorporation and [125I]iodothyronine release in a concentration-dependent manner. The minimal inhibitory effect was detected at 10 pg/ml. Electron microscopic examination revealed a marked decrease in lysosome formation in IL-1-treated thyrocytes. TNF alpha and IFN gamma also inhibited thyroid function in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, when thyrocytes were cultured with IL-1, TNF alpha and IFN gamma, these cytokines more than additively inhibited thyroid function. Although the main mechanism of 131I uptake suppression in the thyroid gland in subacute thyroiditis is due to cellular damage and suppression of TSH release, our present findings suggest that IL-1, TNF alpha, and IFN gamma produced in the inflammatory process within the thyroid gland further inhibit iodine incorporation and at least partly account for the decreased 131I uptake by the thyroid gland in destruction-induced hyperthyroidism

  11. Human recombinant interleukin-1 beta- and tumor necrosis factor alpha-mediated suppression of heparin-like compounds on cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Shimada, K.; Ozawa, T.

    1990-01-01

    Cytokines are known to tip the balance of the coagulant-anticoagulant molecules on the endothelial cell surface toward intravascular coagulation. Their effects on endothelial cell surface-associated heparin-like compounds have not been examined yet. Incorporation of [35S]sulfate into heparan sulfate on cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells was suppressed by human recombinant interleukin-1 beta (rIL-1 beta) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (rTNF alpha) in a dose- and time-dependent manner with little effect on cell number, protein content, and [3H]leucine incorporation of cells. Maximal inhibition was achieved by incubation of cells with 100 ng/ml of rIL-1 beta or 5 ng/ml of rTNF alpha for 12-24 hours, resulting in a reduction of the synthesis of heparan sulfate on the cell surface by approximately 50%. The dose dependency was consistent with that seen in the stimulation of endothelial cell procoagulant activity by each cytokine. The suppression of heparan sulfate synthesis was sustained for at least 48 hours after pretreatment of cells with cytokines and was unchanged after the addition of indomethacin or polymyxin B. The rate of degradation of prelabeled 35S-heparan sulfate on the cell surface was not altered by cytokine treatments. Neither the size, the net negative charge, nor the proportion of the molecule with high affinity for antithrombin III of endothelial cell heparan sulfate was changed by cytokines. Furthermore, specific binding of 125I-labeled antithrombin III to the endothelial cell surface was reduced to 40-60% of control by cytokines. In parallel with reduction in binding, antithrombin III cofactor activity was partially diminished in cytokine-treated endothelial cells. Thus, cytokine-mediated suppression of heparin-like substance on endothelial cells appears to be another cytokine-inducible endothelial effects affecting coagulation

  12. The effect of combining recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha with local radiation on tumor control probability of a human glioblastoma multiforme xenograft in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Peigen; Allam, Ayman; Perez, Luis A.; Taghian, Alphonse; Freeman, Jill; Suit, Herman D.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the antitumor activity of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rHuTNF-α) on a human glioblastoma multiforme (U87) xenograft in nude mice, and to study the effect of combining rHuTNF-α with local radiation on the tumor control probability of this tumor model. Methods and Materials: U87 xenograft was transplanted SC into the right hindleg of NCr/Sed nude mice (7-8 weeks old, male). When tumors reached a volume of about 110 mm 3 , mice were randomly assigned to treatment: rHuTNF-α alone compared with normal saline control; or local radiation plus rHuTNF-α vs. local radiation plus normal saline. Parameters of growth delay, volume doubling time, percentage of necrosis, and cell loss factor were used to assess the antitumor effects of rHuTNF-α on this tumor. The TCD 50 (tumor control dose 50%) was used as an endpoint to determine the effect of combining rHuTNF-α with local radiation. Results: Tumor growth in mice treated with a dose of 150 μg/kg body weight rHuTNF-α, IP injection daily for 7 consecutive days, was delayed about 8 days compared to that in controls. Tumors in the treatment group had a significantly longer volume doubling time, and were smaller in volume and more necrotic than matched tumors in control group. rHuTNF-α also induced a 2.3 times increase of cell loss factor. The administration of the above-mentioned dose of rHuTNF-α starting 24 h after single doses of localized irradiation under hypoxic condition, resulted in a significant reduction in TCD 50 from the control value of 60.9 Gy to 50.5 Gy (p 50 value in the treatment vs. the control groups

  13. Ebola virus infection induces irregular dendritic cell gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Vanessa R; Kalina, Warren V; Williams, Priscilla

    2015-02-01

    Filoviruses subvert the human immune system in part by infecting and replicating in dendritic cells (DCs). Using gene arrays, a phenotypic profile of filovirus infection in human monocyte-derived DCs was assessed. Monocytes from human donors were cultured in GM-CSF and IL-4 and were infected with Ebola virus Kikwit variant for up to 48 h. Extracted DC RNA was analyzed on SuperArray's Dendritic and Antigen Presenting Cell Oligo GEArray and compared to uninfected controls. Infected DCs exhibited increased expression of cytokine, chemokine, antiviral, and anti-apoptotic genes not seen in uninfected controls. Significant increases of intracellular antiviral and MHC I and II genes were also noted in EBOV-infected DCs. However, infected DCs failed to show any significant difference in co-stimulatory T-cell gene expression from uninfected DCs. Moreover, several chemokine genes were activated, but there was sparse expression of chemokine receptors that enabled activated DCs to home to lymph nodes. Overall, statistically significant expression of several intracellular antiviral genes was noted, which may limit viral load but fails to stop replication. EBOV gene expression profiling is of vital importance in understanding pathogenesis and devising novel therapeutic treatments such as small-molecule inhibitors.

  14. Mast cells infiltration and decreased E-cadherin expression in ketamine-induced cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengqiang Li

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Increased mast cells in bladder wall and downregulated expression of E-cadherin junction protein in epithelial cells were probably associated with interstitial inflammation and fissures in mucosa. It implied that ketamine induced an interstitial cystitis.

  15. Insulin decreases atherosclerosis by inducing endothelin receptor B expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Kyoungmin; Mima, Akira; Li, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) insulin resistance and dysfunction, caused by diabetes, accelerates atherosclerosis. It is unknown whether specifically enhancing EC-targeted insulin action can decrease atherosclerosis in diabetes. Accordingly, overexpressing insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1...... induction of NO action, which increases endothelin receptor B (EDNRB) expression and intracellular [Ca(2+)]. Using the mice with knockin mutation of eNOS, which had Ser1176 mutated to alanine (AKI), deleting the only known mechanism for insulin to activate eNOS/NO pathway, we observed that IRS1...... overexpression in the endothelia of Aki/ApoE(-/-) mice significantly decreased atherosclerosis. Interestingly, endothelial EDNRB expression was selectively reduced in intima of arteries from diabetic patients and rodents. However, endothelial EDNRB expression was upregulated by insulin via P13K/Akt pathway...

  16. A new maltose-inducible high-performance heterologous expression system in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Jie; Fu, Gang; Zhang, Dawei; Wen, Jianping

    2017-08-01

    To improve heterologous proteins production, we constructed a maltose-inducible expression system in Bacillus subtilis. An expression system based on the promoter for maltose utilization constructed in B. subtilis. Successively, to improve the performance of the P malA -derived system, mutagenesis was employed by gradually shortening the length of P malA promoter and altering the spacing between the predicted MalR binding site and the -35 region. Furthermore, deletion of the maltose utilization genes (malL and yvdK) improved the P malA promoter activity. Finally, using this efficient maltose-inducible expression system, we enhanced the production of luciferase and D-aminoacylase, compared with the P hpaII system. A maltose-inducible expression system was constructed and evaluated. It could be used for high level expression of heterologous proteins production.

  17. Inhibition of interleukin-6 decreases atrogene expression and ameliorates tail suspension-induced skeletal muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakabe, Mitsutaka; Ota, Hidetaka; Iijima, Katsuya; Eto, Masato; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Akishita, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    Background Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an inflammatory cytokine. Whether systemic IL-6 affects atrogene expression and disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy is unclear. Methods Tail-suspended mice were used as a disuse-induced muscle atrophy model. We administered anti-mouse IL-6 receptor antibody, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and vitamin D to the mice and examined the effects on atrogene expression and muscle atrophy. Results Serum IL-6 levels were elevated in the mice. Inhibition of IL-6 receptor suppressed muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1) expression and prevented muscle atrophy. HMB and vitamin D inhibited the serum IL-6 surge, downregulated the expression of MuRF1 and atrogin-1 in the soleus muscle, and ameliorated atrophy in the mice. Conclusion Systemic IL-6 affects MuRF1 expression and disuse-induced muscle atrophy. PMID:29351340

  18. Inhibition of interleukin-6 decreases atrogene expression and ameliorates tail suspension-induced skeletal muscle atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsutaka Yakabe

    Full Text Available Interleukin-6 (IL-6 is an inflammatory cytokine. Whether systemic IL-6 affects atrogene expression and disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy is unclear.Tail-suspended mice were used as a disuse-induced muscle atrophy model. We administered anti-mouse IL-6 receptor antibody, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB and vitamin D to the mice and examined the effects on atrogene expression and muscle atrophy.Serum IL-6 levels were elevated in the mice. Inhibition of IL-6 receptor suppressed muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1 expression and prevented muscle atrophy. HMB and vitamin D inhibited the serum IL-6 surge, downregulated the expression of MuRF1 and atrogin-1 in the soleus muscle, and ameliorated atrophy in the mice.Systemic IL-6 affects MuRF1 expression and disuse-induced muscle atrophy.

  19. Estradiol-induced gene expression in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, C.J.; Kroll, K.J.; Gross, T.G.; Denslow, N.D.

    2002-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vtg) and estrogen receptor (ER) gene expression levels were measured in largemouth bass to evaluate the activation of the ER-mediated pathway by estradiol (E2). Single injections of E2 ranging from 0.0005 to 5 mg/kg up-regulated plasma Vtg in a dose-dependent manner. Vtg and ER mRNAs were measured using partial cDNA sequences corresponding to the C-terminal domain for Vtg and the ligand-binding domain of ER?? sequences. After acute E2-exposures (2 mg/kg), Vtg and ER mRNAs and plasma Vtg levels peaked after 2 days. The rate of ER mRNA accumulation peaked 36-42 h earlier than Vtg mRNA. The expression window for ER defines the primary response to E2 in largemouth bass and that for Vtg a delayed primary response. The specific effect of E2 on other estrogen-regulated genes was tested during these same time windows using differential display RT-PCR. Specific up-regulated genes that are expressed in the same time window as Vtg were ERp72 (a membrane-bound disulfide isomerase) and a gene with homology to an expressed gene identified in zebrafish. Genes that were expressed in a pattern that mimics the ER include the gene for zona radiata protein ZP2, and a gene with homology to an expressed gene found in winter flounder. One gene for fibrinogen ?? was down-regulated and an unidentified gene was transiently up-regulated after 12 h of exposure and returned to basal levels by 48 h. Taken together these studies indicate that the acute molecular response to E2 involves a complex network of responses over time. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Connexin43 gene and its irradiation-induced expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Xianhui; Zhou Pingkun

    2005-01-01

    Gap junctions, composed of connexin protein subunits, provide the important channel for the intercellular communication. Connexin43, the most popular component of the connexin protein family, is widely expressed in multiple tissues and cell lines and plays an important role in cell proliferation, differention and tissue homeostasis. Recently it was reported that the expression of connexin43 gene is remarkedly up-regulated by low dose ionizing radiation, the available data suggest connexin43 gene to be a poten-tial sensitive bio-marker in radiation damage. (authors)

  1. GPBAR1/TGR5 mediates bile acid-induced cytokine expression in murine Kupffer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiyu Lou

    Full Text Available GPBAR1/TGR5 is a novel plasma membrane-bound G protein-coupled bile acid (BA receptor. BAs are known to induce the expression of inflammatory cytokines in the liver with unknown mechanism. Here we show that without other external stimuli, TGR5 activation alone induced the expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α in murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 or murine Kupffer cells. The TGR5-mediated increase of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression was suppressed by JNK inhibition. Moreover, the induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in mouse liver by 1% cholic acid (CA diet was blunted in JNK-/- mice. TGR5 activation by its ligands enhanced the phosphorylation levels, DNA-binding and trans-activities of c-Jun and ATF2 transcription factors. Finally, the induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in Kupffer cells by TGR5 activation correlated with the suppression of Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1 expression in murine hepatocytes. These results suggest that TGR5 mediates the BA-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in murine Kupffer cells through JNK-dependent pathway. This novel role of TGR5 may correlate to the suppression of Cyp7a1 expression in hepatocytes and contribute to the delicate BA feedback regulation.

  2. Function and regulation of ATF 3 expression induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Feiyue; Wang, Yong; Du, Liqin; Zhan, Qimin

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Ionizing radiation results in a series of damages of mammalian cells as a genotoxic stress. There are some genes expressed after cells damaged, in which ATF 3, a member of ATF/CREB family of transcription factors, is one of them. In this report, we demonstrate that ATF 3 can be induced by ionizing radiation. The induction of ATF 3 protein requires normal status of p53 function in cells. There are some quantitative relationships between ATF 3 induction and dosages of radiation or time post-irradiation. In another word, ATF 3 expression induced by ionizing radiation present dose- and time-dependent. The regulation of ATF 3 expression refers to program of promoter and transcription. Radiation induces ATF 3 expression by activating the promoter and RNA transcription. In method of tetracycline-inducible system (tet-off), we have found that over-expression of ATF 3 protein brings caspase/PARP proteins into cleavage, which induces cell programmed death, and suppresses cell growth. Meanwhile, it was found that ATF 3 expression could slow down progression of cell from G 1 to S phase. It indicates ATF 3 protein might play a negative role in the control of cell cycle progression. It is very excited that expression of ATF 3 protein did not only suppress cell growth, but also demonstrated protecting effect of cell growth suppression resulting from ionizing radiation. It is suggested that ATF 3 protein might take part in the damage repair process of cells. (author)

  3. Regulatable Transgene Expression for Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

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    Daisuke Kawata

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN is a debilitating complication associated with drug treatment of cancer for which there are no effective strategies of prevention or treatment. In this study, we examined the effect of intermittent expression of neurotophin-3 (NT-3 or interleukin-10 (IL-10 from replication-defective herpes simplex virus (HSV-based regulatable vectors delivered by subcutaneous inoculation to the dorsal root ganglion (DRG on the development of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy. We constructed two different tetracycline (tet-on-based regulatable HSV vectors, one expressing NT-3 and the other expressing IL-10, in which the transactivator expression in the tet-on system was under the control of HSV latency-associated promoter 2 (LAP-2, and expression of the transgene was controlled by doxycycline (DOX. We examined the therapeutic effect of intermittent expression of the transgene in animals with paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy modeled by intraperitoneal injection of paclitaxel (16 mg/kg once a week for 5 weeks. Intermittent expression of either NT-3 or IL-10 3 days before and 1 day after paclitaxel administration protected animals against paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy over the course of 5 weeks. These results suggest the potential of regulatable vectors for prevention of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

  4. Regulatable Transgene Expression for Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, Daisuke; Wu, Zetang

    2017-09-15

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a debilitating complication associated with drug treatment of cancer for which there are no effective strategies of prevention or treatment. In this study, we examined the effect of intermittent expression of neurotophin-3 (NT-3) or interleukin-10 (IL-10) from replication-defective herpes simplex virus (HSV)-based regulatable vectors delivered by subcutaneous inoculation to the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) on the development of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy. We constructed two different tetracycline (tet)-on-based regulatable HSV vectors, one expressing NT-3 and the other expressing IL-10, in which the transactivator expression in the tet-on system was under the control of HSV latency-associated promoter 2 (LAP-2), and expression of the transgene was controlled by doxycycline (DOX). We examined the therapeutic effect of intermittent expression of the transgene in animals with paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy modeled by intraperitoneal injection of paclitaxel (16 mg/kg) once a week for 5 weeks. Intermittent expression of either NT-3 or IL-10 3 days before and 1 day after paclitaxel administration protected animals against paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy over the course of 5 weeks. These results suggest the potential of regulatable vectors for prevention of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

  5. Decitabine induces delayed reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in leukemia cells and induces the expression of ROS generating enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandy, Tamer E; Jiemjit, Anchalee; Thakar, Manjusha; Rhoden, Paulette; Suarez, Lauren; Gore, Steven D

    2014-03-01

    Azanucleoside DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors are currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome. The relative contributions of DNMT inhibition and other off-target effects to their clinical efficacy remain unclear. Data correlating DNA methylation reversal and clinical response have been conflicting. Consequently, it is necessary to investigate so-called off-target effects and their impact on cell survival and differentiation. Flow cytometry was used for cell cycle, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation analysis. Gene expression analysis was performed using real-time PCR. DNA methylation was detected by methylation-specific PCR. Mitochondrial membrane potential was analyzed using JC-1 dye staining. Western blotting was used for quantitative protein expression analysis. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) induced cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in leukemia cells. p53 expression was dispensable for DAC-induced apoptosis. DAC induced delayed ROS accumulation in leukemia cells but not in solid tumor cells and p53 expression was dispensable for ROS increase. ROS increase was deoxycytidine kinase dependent, indicating that incorporation of DAC into nuclear DNA is required for ROS generation. ROS accumulation by DAC was caspase-independent and mediated the dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Concordantly, ROS scavengers diminished DAC-induced apoptosis. DAC induced the expression of different NADPH oxidase isoforms and upregulated Nox4 protein expression in an ATM-dependent manner, indicating the involvement of DNA damage signaling in Nox4 upregulation. These data highlight the importance of mechanisms other than DNA cytosine demethylation in modulating gene expression and suggest investigating the relevance of ROS accumulation to the clinical activity of DAC. ©2014 AACR

  6. RNA interference prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced preprotachykinin gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Y.-L.; Yu, S.C.; Chen, M.-J.

    2003-01-01

    We showed previously that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces noncholinergic airway hyperreactivity to capsaicin via an upregulation of tachykinin synthesis. This study was designed to test whether double-stranded preprotachykinin (ds PPT) RNA, RNA interference (RNAi), prevents the LPS-induced alterations. First, cultured primary nodose ganglial cells of newborn Brown-Norway rats were divided into four groups: control; LPS; LPS+RNAi; and LPS+RNAi+liposome. Second, young Brown-Norway rats for the in vivo study were divided into three groups (control; LPS; and LPS+RNAi), and ds PPT RNA was microinjected bilaterally into the nodose ganglia in the LPS+RNAi group. Then, ganglial cells were collected from the culture whereas the nodose ganglia and lungs were sampled from the animals, and PPT mRNA and substance P (SP) levels were analyzed. Also, airway reactivity to capsaicin was performed in vivo. LPS induced significant increases in PPT mRNA and SP levels in vitro and in vivo and an increase in airway reactivity to capsaicin in vivo. However, ds PPT RNA, but not scrambled RNA, prevented all LPS-induced alterations. The effect of ds PPT RNA was not enhanced by liposome in vitro. Therefore, we demonstrated that the local application of RNAi prevents effectively the activation of the noncholinergic system modulating the lungs/airways

  7. STAT5 induces miR-21 expression in cutaneous T cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl, Lise M; Fredholm, Simon; Joseph, Claudine

    2016-01-01

    was inhibited by Tofacitinib (CP-690550), a clinical-grade JAK3 inhibitor. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis showed direct binding of STAT5 to the miR-21 promoter. Cytokine starvation ex vivo triggered a decrease in miR-21 expression, whereas IL-2 induced an increased miR-21 expression in primary SS...

  8. Nitric oxide is involved in the down-regulation of sost expression induced by mechanical loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delgado-Calle, J.; Riancho, J.A.; Klein-Nulend, J.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical stimulation reduces sclerostin expression in rodents. However, few data are available about the effect of physical stimuli in human systems. Recently we observed that the demethylating agent AzadC induces SOST expression in bone cells. This allowed us in this study to explore the effect

  9. Behavioral experience induces zif268 expression in mature granule cells but suppresses its expression in immature granule cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie A. Huckleberry

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of neurons are born each day in the dentate gyrus (DG, but many of these cells die before reaching maturity. Both death and survival of adult-born neurons are regulated by neuronal activity in DG. The immediate-early gene (IEG zif268 is an important mediator of these effects, as its expression is induced by neural activity and knockout of zif268 impairs survival of adult-born neurons (Veyrac et al., 2013. Despite the apparent importance of zif268 for adult neurogenesis, its behavior-induced expression has not been fully characterized in adult-born neurons. Here we characterize behavior-evoked expression of zif268 in mature and newborn dentate granule cells (DGCs. In the general granule cell population, zif268 expression peaked 1 hour after novel environment exposure and returned to baseline by 8 hours post-exposure. However, in the doublecortin-positive (DCX+ immature neurons, zif268 expression was suppressed relative to home cage for at least 8 hours post-exposure. We next determined that exposure to water maze training, an enriched environment, or a novel environment caused approximately equal suppression of zif268 expression in DCX+ cells and approximately equal activation of zif268 in the general DGC population and in 6-week-old adult-born neurons. Finally, we asked whether zif268 suppression varied as a function of age within the DCX+ population, which ranges in age from 0 to approximately 4 weeks. Novel environment exposure had no significant effect on zif268 expression in 2- or 4-week-old BrdU-labeled neurons, but it significantly suppressed zif268 expression in 3-week-old neurons. In summary, behavioral experience transiently activated expression of zif268 in mature DGCs but caused a more long-lasting suppression of zif268 expression in immature, adult-born DGCs. We hypothesize that zif268 suppression inhibits memory-related synaptic plasticity in immature DGCs or mediates learning-induced apoptosis of immature adult

  10. Combined cytotoxic effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha with various cytotoxic agents in tumor cell lines that are drug resistant due to mutated p53

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleijfer, S; Le, T. K. P.; de Jong, S.; Timmer-Bosscha, H; Withoff, S; Mulder, NH

    Several studies suggest that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) is able to overcome drug resistance in tumors. Whether TNF is able to do so in tumor cell lines that are drug resistant due to a mutation in the tumor suppressor gene p53 is unclear. Therefore, we studied the in vitro cytotoxic effects

  11. A study of serum levels of leptin, ghrelin and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in child patients with cyanotic and acyanotic, congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahramian, I.; Noori, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the serum levels of leptin, ghrelin and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in children with cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart disease. Methods: The prospective cohort study, was conducted at imam Ali Hospital, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2009-10 and comprised 64 subjects, including patients and controls. Using enzyme-linked immunosorpent assay kits, serum levels of ghrelin, leptin and tumour necrosis factor-alpha were measured and compared among patients (both cyanotic and acyanotic) and the controls, SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 64 subjects, 24 (37.5%) were cyanotic, 21(32.8%) were acynotic and 19(29.68%) were healthy controls. The three groups were homogenous in terms of age and gender characteristics. There was no significant difference among the groups leptin, ghrelin and tumour necrosis factor-alpha serum levels (p>0.05). There were also no significant differences in terms of weight, height and body mass index (P>0.05). Conclusion: Serum levels of ghrelin, leptin and tumour necrosis factor-alpha did not change in acyanotic and cyanotic patients with congenital heart disease, suggesting that other crucial factors may regulate individuals' nutrient intake, growth, weight and energy intake and output. (author)

  12. Reactivation of pulmonary tuberculosis (TBC) with the use of antagonist of the tumor necrosis factor alpha (FNTα) in rheumatoid arthritis: On purpose of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez V, Jose B; Medina V, Yimy F; Parga, Roberto; Restrepo, Jose Felix; Iglesias G, Antonio; Rondon, Federico

    2005-01-01

    Woman 56 years old, with history of rheumatoid arthritis who develops reactivation of pulmonary tuberculosis (TBC) after 1 year of treatment with biological therapy (antagonist of the tumor necrosis factor alpha). It is discussed pathophysiologic mechanisms, diagnostic approach, treatment of TBC and some recommendations for the use of biological therapy in patients with rheumatic disease

  13. Isolated limb perfusion with tumor necrosis factor alpha and melphalan for locally advanced soft tissue sarcoma : Three time periods at risk for amputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ginkel, Robert J.; Thijssens, Katja M. J.; Pras, Elisabeth; van der Graaf, Winette T. A.; Suurmeijer, Albert J. H.; Hoekstra, Harald J.

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term limb salvage rate and overall survival after isolated limb perfusion (ILP) with tumor necrosis factor alpha and melphalan for locally advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Methods: From 1991 to 2003, 73 patients (36 men, 37 women,

  14. Isolated limb perfusion with tumor necrosis factor alpha and melphalan for locally advanced soft tissue sarcoma : The value of adjuvant radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssens, KMJ; van Ginkel, RJ; Pras, E; Suurmeijer, AJH; Hoekstra, HJ

    Background: The aim was to investigate the value of adjuvant radiotherapy for locally advanced soft tissue sarcoma after hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion (ILP) with tumor necrosis factor alpha and melphalan followed by limb-saving surgery. Methods: From 1991 to 2003, 73 patients (median age, 54

  15. Plasma endothelin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations in pregnant and cyclic rats after low-dose endotoxin infusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Bakker, WW; Valkhof, N; Baller, JFW; Schuiling, GA

    Plasma endothelin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were determined in pregnant and cyclic rats after infusion of either endotoxin (1.0 mu g/kg of body weight) or saline solution. After endotoxin, but not after saline solution, administration there was a transient endothelin-1 response in pregnant

  16. Implementation of the agmatine-controlled expression system for inducible gene expression in Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Daniel M; Alvarez-Sieiro, Patricia; del Rio, Beatriz; Ladero, Victor; Redruello, Begoña; Martin, Ma Cruz; Fernandez, Maria; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2015-12-30

    Lactococcus lactis has been safely consumed in fermented foods for millennia. This Gram-positive bacterium has now become of industrial importance as an expression host for the overproduction of lipopolysaccharide-free recombinant proteins used as food ingredients, therapeutic proteins and biotechnological enzymes. This paper reports an agmatine-controlled expression (ACE) system for L. lactis, comprising the lactococcal agmatine-sensor/transcriptional activator AguR and its target promoter P(aguB). The usefulness and efficiency of this system was checked via the reporter gene gfp and by producing PEP (Myxococcus xanthus prolyl-endopeptidase), an enzyme of biomedical interest able to degrade the immunotoxic peptides produced during the gastrointestinal breakdown of gluten. The ACE system developed in this work was suitable for the efficient expression of the functional recombinant proteins GFP and PEP. The expression system was tightly regulated by the agmatine concentration and allowed high protein production without leakiness.

  17. ADAMTS13 expression in human chondrosarcoma cells induced by insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıdvan Fırat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A Disintegrin-like Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin Motifs (ADAMTS proteins is a proteinase enzyme group that primarily located in the extracellular matrix (ECM. Insulin has been known to stimulate proteoglycan biosynthesis in chondrosarcoma chondrocytes and thereby the levels of ADAMTS proteins. The aim of this study is to evaluate the time-dependent effects of insulin on the ADAMTS13 expression in OUMS-27 human chondrosarcoma cell line to test the hypothesis that insulin diminishes ADAMTS13 expression because of its anabolic effects. Methods: To test this hypothesis OUMS-27 cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’ medium (DMEM containing 10μg/mL insulin. The medium containing insulin was changed every other day up to 11th day. Cells were harvested at 1, 3, 7, and 11th days and protein and RNA isolations were performed at the proper times. The levels of RNA expression of ADAMTS13 was quantified by qRT-PCR using appropriate primers while protein levels was detected by Western blot technique using anti-ADAMTS13 antibody. Results: Although there was a decrease in both RNA and protein levels in insulin-applied groups compared to the control cells, it was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Under the light of our findings, it is suggested that insulin does not participate in regulation of ADAMTS13 in OUMS-27 chondrosarcoma cells. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 226-232

  18. Effect of antitumour necrosis factor-alpha therapy on bone turnover in patients with active Crohn's disease: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, B M; Russel, M G V M; Schurgers, L; Wichers, M; Sijbrandij, J; Stockbrugger, R W; Schoon, E

    2004-10-15

    Patients with Crohn's disease are at increased risk of osteoporosis. Disease activity and circulating proinflammatory cytokines are thought to play a role in this process. Infliximab, a chimaeric antitumour necrosis factor-alpha antibody is effective in the treatment of Crohn's disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of treatment with infliximab on bone turnover in Crohn's disease patients. This was a prospective trial. Twenty-four patients with active Crohn's disease were treated with infliximab (5 mg/kg). Bone markers were assayed pre- and post-treatment. Bone formation was measured using serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and total osteocalcin and bone resorption using serum N-telopeptide cross-linked type 1 collagen. Infliximab therapy caused a significant increase in both markers of bone formation in patients with active Crohn's disease. No significant change in the bone resorption marker serum N-telopeptide cross-linked type 1 was found. Infliximab therapy had a significant beneficial effect on bone metabolism in patients with active Crohn's disease. These findings further support the theory that active ongoing inflammation and high levels of circulating cytokines play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of bone loss in patients with Crohn's disease.

  19. Evaluation of salivary tumor necrosis factor-alpha in patients with the chronic periodontitis: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefimanesh, Hojatollah; Maryam, Robati; Mahmoud, Jahangirnezhad; Mehri, Ghafourian Boroujerdnia; Mohsen, Taghipour

    2013-11-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic infectious disease that leads to inflammation of the tissues supporting the teeth, bone loss, attachment loss progressively. In chronic periodontitis for starting the host response and inflammatory reaction, the presence of the infectious agent is necessary. One of inflammatory factors is tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) that appear to be important in the destruction of periodontal tissues that were examined in this study. This study was performed in the laboratory and case-control study. The samples of study collected from 30 individuals with chronic periodontitis and 30 healthy controls that matched for age and sex, together. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from patients and then TNF-α level were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and were compared with the control group. In this study for statistical analysis, Mann-Whitney was used. There were differences in mean salivary concentrations of TNF-α in controls and patients. The average concentration in the case group was 9.1 (pg/ml) and the control group was 8.7 (pg/ml), but there was no significant difference between case and control groups (P > 0.05). The results of this analysis showed no significant relationship between two groups TNF-α concentration. This biomarker can not seem to be a good index to evaluate or predict periodontal disease.

  20. Evaluation of salivary tumor necrosis factor-alpha in patients with the chronic periodontitis: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojatollah Yousefimanesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Periodontitis is a chronic infectious disease that leads to inflammation of the tissues supporting the teeth, bone loss, attachment loss progressively. In chronic periodontitis for starting the host response and inflammatory reaction, the presence of the infectious agent is necessary. Aims: One of inflammatory factors is tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α that appear to be important in the destruction of periodontal tissues that were examined in this study. Materials and Methods: This study was performed in the laboratory and case-control study. The samples of study collected from 30 individuals with chronic periodontitis and 30 healthy controls that matched for age and sex, together. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from patients and then TNF-α level were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and were compared with the control group. Statistical Analysis Used: In this study for statistical analysis, Mann-Whitney was used. Results: There were differences in mean salivary concentrations of TNF-α in controls and patients. The average concentration in the case group was 9.1 (pg/ml and the control group was 8.7 (pg/ml, but there was no significant difference between case and control groups (P > 0.05. Conclusions: The results of this analysis showed no significant relationship between two groups TNF-α concentration.This biomarker can not seem to be a good index to evaluate or predict periodontal disease.

  1. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha is a potential diagnostic biomarker for chronic neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; E, Xiaoqiang; Liu, Huiyong; Li, Feng; Cao, Yanhui; Tian, Jun; Yan, Jinglong

    2015-05-19

    Neuropathic pain (NP) is one of the most common complications after spinal cord injury (SCI), but no protein biomarkers has ever been introduced into clinical diagnosis. Previous studies implicated that toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 played a critical role in the development of NP in animal SCI models. Here, a total of 140 participants were recruited, 70 of them were SCI-NP subject and the rest 70 controls did not show neuropathic symptoms. TLR4 was upregulated significantly in SCI-NP patients compared with SCI-noNP subjects. Furthermore, we measured the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), two TLR4 downstream pro-inflammatory cytokines, to assess their diagnostic values. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis revealed that TNF-α had great potential advantages to predict the progression of neuropathy, the risks of NP were strongly increased in SCI subjects with higher levels of TNF-α (odds ratio: 4.92; 95% confidence interval: 1.89-12.32). These results suggested neuro-immune activation contributed to the development of neuropathic disorder after SCI, and TNF-α could be a potential sensitive diagnostic biomarker for chronic neuropathic pain in SCI patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Peri-implant parameters, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-1 beta levels in vaping individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aali, Khulud A; Alrabiah, Mohammed; ArRejaie, Aws S; Abduljabbar, Tariq; Vohra, Fahim; Akram, Zohaib

    2018-03-25

    To the author's knowledge, there has been no study that has assessed clinical, radiographic, and immunological peri-implant parameters among individuals vaping e-cigarette (e-cig). This pilot study aimed to compare clinical and radiographic peri-implant parameters and levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-1β levels among individuals vaping e-cigs and never smoker (NS). Forty-seven individuals vaping e-cigs (group-1) and 45 NS (group-2) were included. Demographic and implant-related data were collected using a structured baseline questionnaire. Peri-implant plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), and probing depth (PD) were recorded and peri-implant bone loss (PIBL) were assessed using standardized digital radiographs. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to assess the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in peri-implant sulcular fluid. Bleeding on probing showed statistically significantly higher values in group-2 patients as compared to group-1 patients (P vaping individuals. Increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in peri-implant sulcular fluid may suggest greater local inflammatory response in vaping individuals for peri-implant inflammation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The polymorphism -863C/A in tumour necrosis factor-alpha gene contributes an independent association to gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S-J; Tsai, P-C; Chen, C-J; Lai, H-M; Ko, Y-C

    2007-11-01

    To investigate the associations between polymorphisms in the promoter of the tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene and gout. The polymorphisms -308G/A and -863C/A in the TNF-alpha gene were determined in 106 gout patients and 159 healthy controls among male Taiwanese using the Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. The biochemical markers, including Glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), Glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), uric acid, creatinine, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), body mass index (BMI) and hypertension, as well as alcohol consumption were measured. The gout patients had 9.43% (10/106) with genotype AA at polymorphism -863C/A showing a significantly higher fraction than controls (0.63%; 1/159, P gout patients had significantly higher portions of abnormal GOT, GPT, creatinine, TC, TG, alcohol consumption, hypertension and hyperuricaemia than controls (P 0.05). After adjustment by a stepwise logistic regression method, the hyperuricaemia, creatinine, GPT, TG and alcohol consumption as well as genotype AA at polymorphism -863C/A were found to be significantly associated with gout. The genotype AA at polymorphism -863C/A in a recessive model showed a significant association with developing gout independent of hyperuricaemia, abnormal creatinine, higher TG, GPT and alcohol consumption.

  4. The effect of salvianolate on serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in ApoE-/- mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yuqi; Wu Zonggui; Liang Chun; Luo Nanping; Zhang Hongming; Xu Jun; Li Xiaoyan; Xu Lin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the possible antiatherosclerotic mechanism of salvianolate, through examination of the effect of salvianolate on serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in C57BL/6J ApoE -/- mice. Methods: Fifty C57BL/6J ApoE -/- mice of 8 week-old were fed high cholesterol diet for 12 weeks. After sacrificing 2 mice to examine formation of atheromatous plaques at root of aorta, the remaining 48 C57BL/6J ApoE -/- mice were divided randomly into 4 groups: (1) model group (without salvianolate treatment) (2) low dosage of salvianolate (60mg/kg) group (3) medium dosage of salvianolate (120mg/kg) group and (4) high dosage of salvianolate(240mg/kg) group. Ten C57BL/6 wild-type mice served as controls. At the end of 32nd week, serum levels of TNF-α were measured with specific radioimmunoassay. Results: The serum levels of TNF-α were decreased in ApoE -/- mice with the increase of salvianolate dosage (P 0.05). Conclusion: Salvianolate treatment can decrease the serum levels of TNF-α in C57BL/6 ApoE -/- mice and inhibit inflammation process. This may be one of the possible mechanism of antiatherosclerosis of salvianolate. (authors)

  5. Increased pulmonary secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in calves experimentally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rontved, C. M.; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Viuff, B.

    2000-01-01

    , of which 23 were experimentally infected with BRSV and five were given a mock inoculum. The presence of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the BAL fluids was detected and quantified by a capture ELISA. TNF-alpha was detected in 21 of the infected animals. The amount of TNF-alpha...... in the BAL fluid of calves killed post inoculation day (PID) 2 and 4 was at the same very low level as in the uninfected control animals. Large amounts of TNF-alpha were detected on PID 6, maximum levels of TNF-alpha were reached on PID 7, and smaller amounts of TNF-alpha were seen on PID 8. The high levels...... of TNF-alpha appeared on the days where severe lung lesions and clinical signs were obvious and the amounts of BRSV-antigen were at their greatest. Although Pasteurellaceae were isolated from some of the BRSV-infected calves, calves treated with antibiotics before and through the whole period...

  6. CAR expression and inducibility of CYP2B genes in liver of rats treated with PB-like inducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustylnyak, Vladimir O.; Gulyaeva, Lyudmila F.; Lyakhovich, Vyacheslav V.

    2005-01-01

    The expression of the CAR gene and inducibility of CYP2B protein in the liver of male Wistar rats treated with phenobarbital (PB) and triphenyldioxane (TPD) were investigated. To clarify the role of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation in these processes, rats were treated with inhibitors of Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent kinase II (W 7 ) or protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A (OA) before induction. Constitutive expression of the CAR gene in livers of untreated rats was detected by multiplex RT-PCR. Treatment with W 7 resulted in a 2.8-fold induction of CAR gene expression, whereas OA led to a 2.4-fold decrease of the mRNA level. The same results were obtained for CYP2B genes expression, which were increased by W 7 treatment (two-fold) and decreased by OA (2.3-fold). PB-induction did not lead to significant alteration in the level of CAR gene expression, although CYP2B genes expression was enhanced two-fold over control values. TPD caused a two-fold increase of both CAR and CYP2B mRNA levels. Both inducers reduced the effects of inhibitors on CAR gene expression. Results of EMSA showed that PB, TPD or W 7 alone induced formation of complexes of NR1 with nuclear proteins. Appearance of the complexes correlated with an increase in CYP2B expression, and their intensities were modulated by the protein kinase inhibitors. Thus, our results demonstrate that constitutive expressions of CAR as well as CYP2B during induction are regulated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation processes

  7. UV-induced changes in cell cycle and gene expression within rabbit lens epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidjanin, D. [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Grdina, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Woloschak, G.E. [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1994-11-01

    Damage to lens epithelial cells is a probable initiation process in cataract formation induced by ultraviolet radiation. These experiments investigated the ability of 254 nm radiation on cell cycle progression and gene expression in rabbit lens epithelial cell line N/N1003A. No changes in expression of c-fos, c-jun, alpha- tubulin, or vimentin was observed following UV exposure. Using flow cytometry, an accumulation of cells in G1/S phase of the cell cycle 1 hr following exposure. The observed changes in gene expression, especially the decreased histone transcripts reported here may play a role in UV induced inhibition of cell cycle progression.

  8. Light-dependent expression of flg22-induced defense genes in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi eSano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chloroplasts have been reported to generate retrograde immune signals that activate defense gene expression in the nucleus. However, the roles of light and photosynthesis in plant immunity remain largely elusive. In this study, we evaluated the effects of light on the expression of defense genes induced by flg22, a peptide derived from bacterial flagellins which acts as a potent elicitor in plants. Whole-transcriptome analysis of flg22-treated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings under light and dark conditions for 30 min revealed that a number of (30% genes strongly induced by flg22 (>4.0 require light for their rapid expression, whereas flg22-repressed genes include a significant number of genes that are down-regulated by light. Furthermore, light is responsible for the flg22-induced accumulation of salicylic acid, indicating that light is indispensable for basal defense responses in plants. To elucidate the role of photosynthesis in defense, we further examined flg22-induced defense gene expression in the presence of specific inhibitors of photosynthetic electron transport: 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU and 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-benzoquinone (DBMIB. Light-dependent expression of defense genes was largely suppressed by DBMIB, but only partially suppressed by DCMU. These findings suggest that photosynthetic electron flow plays a role in controling the light-dependent expression of flg22-inducible defense genes.

  9. HIF1 Contributes to Hypoxia-Induced Pancreatic Cancer Cells Invasion via Promoting QSOX1 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Ye Shi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase 1 (QSOX1, which oxidizes sulfhydryl groups to form disulfide bonds in proteins, is found to be over-expressed in various pancreatic cancer cell lines and patients. QSOX1 promotes invasion of pancreatic cancer cells by activating MMP-2 and MMP-9. However, its regulatory mechanism remains largely undefined. Methods: Real-time PCR and Western blot were employed to detect the expression of QSOX1 in human pancreatic cancer cell lines under hypoxic condition. Luciferase reporter and ChIP assays were used to assess the regulation of QSOX1 by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1. Small interfering RNA (siRNA was applied to knock down endogenous expression of QSOX1. Matrigel-coated invasion chamber essays were conducted to detect the invasion capacity of QSOX1-depleted cells. Results: Both hypoxia and hypoxia mimicking reagent up-regulated the expression of QSOX1 in human pancreatic cancer cell lines. Knockdown of HIF-1α eliminated hypoxia induced QSOX1 expression. HIF-1α was found directly bound to two hypoxia-response elements (HRE of QSOX1 gene, both of which were required for HIF-1 induced QSOX1 expression. Moreover, QSOX1 silencing blocked hypoxia-induced pancreatic cancer cells invasion. Conclusion: QSOX1 is a direct target of HIF-1 and may contribute to hypoxia-induced pancreatic cancer cells invasion.

  10. Construction and Development of a Cardiac Tissue-Specific and Hypoxia-Inducible Expression Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrooz Ghaderi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Cardiovascular gene therapy is a sophisticated approach, thanks to the safety of vectors, stable transgene expression, delivery method, and different layers of the heart. To date, numerous expression vectors have been introduced in biotechnology and biopharmacy industries in relation to genetic manipulation. Despite the rapid growth of these modalities, they must be intelligently designed, addressing the cardiac-specific transgene expression and less side effects. Herein, we conducted a pilot project aiming to design a cardiac-specific hypoxia-inducible expression cassette. Methods: We explored a new approach to design an expression cassette containing cardiac specific enhancer, hypoxia response elements (HRE, cardiac specific promoter, internal ribosome entry site (IRES, and beta globin poly A sequence to elicit specific and inducible expression of the gene of interest. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP was sub-cloned by BglII and NotI into the cassette. The specificity and inducible expression of the cassette was determined in both mouse myoblast C2C12 and mammary glandular tumor 4T1 as ‘twin’ cells. eGFP expression was evaluated by immunofluorescence microscope and flow cytometry at 520 nm emission peak. Results: Our data revealed that the designed expression cassette provided tissue specific and hypoxia inducible (O2<1% transgene expression. Conclusion: It is suggested that cardiac-specific enhancer combined with cardiac-specific promoter are efficient for myoblast specific gene expression. As well, this is for the first time that HRE are derived from three well known hypoxia-regulated promoters. Therefore, there is no longer need to overlap PCR process for one repeated sequence just in one promoter.

  11. Ectopic ERK Expression Induces Phenotypic Conversion of C10 Cells and Alters DNA Methyltransferase Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sontag, Ryan L.; Weber, Thomas J.

    2012-05-04

    In some model systems constitutive extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) activation is sufficient to promote an oncogenic phenotype. Here we investigate whether constitutive ERK expression influences phenotypic conversion in murine C10 type II alveolar epithelial cells. C10 cells were stably transduced with an ERK1-green fluorescent protein (ERK1-GFP) chimera or empty vector and ectopic ERK expression was associated with the acquisition of soft agar focus-forming potential in late passage, but not early passage cells. Late passage ERK1-GFP cells exhibited a significant increase in the expression of DNA methyl transferases (DNMT1 and 3b) and a marked increase in sensitivity to 5-azacytidine (5-azaC)-mediated toxicity, relative to early passage ERK1-GFP cells and vector controls. The expression of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XPA) and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) were significantly increased in late passage cells, suggesting enhanced DNA damage recognition and repair activity which we interpret as a reflection of genomic instability. Phospho-ERK levels were dramatically decreased in late passage ERK1-GFP cells, relative to early passage and vector controls, and phospho-ERK levels were restored by treatment with sodium orthovanadate, indicating a role for phosphatase activity in this response. Collectively these observations suggest that ectopic ERK expression promotes phenotypic conversion of C10 cells that is associated with latent effects on epigenetic programming and phosphatase activities.

  12. Glucose-induced serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase activation in oncofetal fibronectin expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Zia A.; Barbin, Yousef P.; Farhangkhoee, Hana; Beier, Norbert; Scholz, Wolfgang; Chakrabarti, Subrata

    2005-01-01

    Preferential expression of oncofetal extra domain-B fibronectin (EDB + FN), a proposed angiogenic marker, has been shown in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. High levels of glucose also increase EDB + FN expression in endothelial cells (ECs) via transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and endothelin-1 (ET-1). The present study was aimed at elucidating the role of serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK-1) in glucose-induced EDB + FN expression. Using human macro- and microvascular ECs, we show that high levels of glucose, TGF-β1, and ET-1 increase the EDB + FN expression via SGK-1 alteration at the mRNA, protein, and activity levels. Inhibition of TGF-β1 and ET-1 prevented glucose-induced SGK-1 activation and the EDB + FN expression. Furthermore, using siRNA-mediated SGK-1 gene silencing, we show that glucose-induced EDB + FN expression can be completely prevented. These findings provide first evidence of glucose-induced SGK-1 activation in altered EDB + FN expression and provide novel avenues for therapeutic modalities

  13. Prevotella intermedia induces severe bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia in mice with upregulated platelet-activating factor receptor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Kentaro; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Nakamura, Shigeki; Harada, Tatsuhiko; Hasegawa, Hiroo; Izumikawa, Koichi; Ishimatsu, Yuji; Kakeya, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Masaharu; Kohno, Shigeru

    2014-02-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of respiratory infection worldwide. Although oral hygiene has been considered a risk factor for developing pneumonia, the relationship between oral bacteria and pneumococcal infection is unknown. In this study, we examined the synergic effects of Prevotella intermedia, a major periodontopathic bacterium, on pneumococcal pneumonia. The synergic effects of the supernatant of P. intermedia (PiSup) on pneumococcal pneumonia were investigated in mice, and the stimulation of pneumococcal adhesion to human alveolar (A549) cells by PiSup was assessed. The effects of PiSup on platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) transcript levels in vitro and in vivo were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR, and the differences between the effects of pneumococcal infection induced by various periodontopathic bacterial species were verified in mice. Mice inoculated with S. pneumoniae plus PiSup exhibited a significantly lower survival rate, higher bacterial loads in the lungs, spleen, and blood, and higher inflammatory cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (macrophage inflammatory protein 2 and tumor necrosis factor alpha) than those infected without PiSup. In A549 cells, PiSup increased pneumococcal adhesion and PAFR transcript levels. PiSup also increased lung PAFR transcript levels in mice. Similar effects were not observed in the supernatants of Porphyromonas gingivalis or Fusobacterium nucleatum. Thus, P. intermedia has the potential to induce severe bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia with enhanced pneumococcal adhesion to lower airway cells.

  14. Low dose radiation induced protein and its effect on expression of CD25 molecule in lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Duicai; Su Liaoyuan

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To find the substantial basis for effects of low dose radiation, on development, extraction, and the biogical activity of the low-dose radiation-induced proteins, and the effects of LDR induced proteins on CD25 molecule expression of human lymphocytes. Methods: 1. Healthy Kumning male mice exposed to radiation of 226 Ra γ-rays at 5, 10 and 15 cGy respectively. The mice were killed 2 hours after exposure, the spleen cells were broken with ultrasonic energy and then ultra-centrifugalized at low temperature (4 degree C). The LDR-induced proteins were obtained in the supernatant solution. Then the changes of CD25 molecule was measured by flow cytometry (FCM) with immunofluorescence technique, which was used to reflect the effect of LDR induced proteins on CD25 molecule expression of human lymphocytes. Results: LDR induced proteins were obtained from spleen cells in mice exposed to 5-15 cGy whole body radiation. Conclusion: The expression of CD25 molecule of lymphocytes was increased significantly after use of LDR induced proteins. LDR induced proteins can enhance expression of CD25 molecule of lymphocytes slightly

  15. Mucosal Progranulin expression is induced by H. pylori, but independent of Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor (SLPI) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wex, Thomas; Kuester, Doerthe; Schönberg, Cornelius; Schindele, Daniel; Treiber, Gerhard; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2011-05-26

    Mucosal levels of Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor (SLPI) are specifically reduced in relation to H. pylori-induced gastritis. Progranulin is an epithelial growth factor that is proteolytically degraded into fragments by elastase (the main target of SLPI). Considering the role of SLPI for regulating the activity of elastase, we studied whether the H. pylori-induced reduction of SLPI and the resulting increase of elastase-derived activity would reduce the Progranulin protein levels both ex vivo and in vitro. The expression of Progranulin was studied in biopsies of H. pylori-positive, -negative and -eradicated subjects as well as in the gastric tumor cell line AGS by ELISA, immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR. H. pylori-infected subjects had about 2-fold increased antral Progranulin expression compared to H. pylori-negative and -eradicated subjects (P Progranulin and SLPI levels were identified. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the upregulation of Progranulin in relation to H. pylori infection; both epithelial and infiltrating immune cells contributed to the higher Progranulin expression levels. The H. pylori-induced upregulation of Progranulin was verified in AGS cells infected by H. pylori. The down-regulation of endogenous SLPI expression in AGS cells by siRNA methodology did not affect the Progranulin expression independent of the infection by H. pylori. Taken together, Progranulin was identified as novel molecule that is upregulated in context to H. pylori infection. In contrast to other diseases, SLPI seems not to have a regulatory role for Progranulin in H. pylori-mediated gastritis.

  16. Exercise-induced liver chemokine CXCL-1 expression is linked to muscle-derived interleukin-6 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line; Pilegaard, Henriette; Hansen, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    interleukin-6 (IL-6) and muscle IL-6 mRNA. In contrast, exercise-induced regulation of liver CXCL-1 mRNA expression was completely blunted in IL-6 knockout mice. Based on these findings, we examined the possible existence of a muscle-to-liver axis by overexpressing IL-6 in muscles. This resulted in increases...... in serum CXCL-1 (5-fold) and liver CXCL-1 mRNA expression (24-fold) compared with control. Because IL-6 expression and release are known to be augmented during exercise in glycogen-depleted animals, CXCL-1 and IL-6 expression were examined after exercise in overnight-fasted mice.We found that fasting...... significantly augmented serum CXCL-1, and CXCL-1 expression in liver and muscle. Taken together, these data indicate that liver is the main source of serum CXCL-1 during exercise in mice, and that the CXCL-1 expression in the liver is regulated by muscle-derived IL-6....

  17. Transcriptome analysis of trichothecene-induced gene expression in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddu, Jayanand; Cho, Seungho; Muehlbauer, Gary J

    2007-11-01

    Fusarium head blight, caused primarily by Fusarium graminearum, is a major disease problem on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Trichothecene mycotoxins produced by the fungus during infection increase the aggressiveness of the fungus and promote infection in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Loss-of-function mutations in the TRI5 gene in F. graminearum result in the inability to synthesize trichothecenes and in reduced virulence on wheat. We examined the impact of pathogen-derived trichothecenes on virulence and the transcriptional differences in barley spikes infected with a trichothecene-producing wild-type strain and a loss-of-function tri5 trichothecene nonproducing mutant. Disease severity, fungal biomass, and floret necrosis and bleaching were reduced in spikes inoculated with the tri5 mutant strain compared with the wild-type strain, indicating that the inability to synthesize trichothecenes results in reduced virulence in barley. We detected 63 transcripts that were induced during trichothecene accumulation, including genes encoding putative trichothecene detoxification and transport proteins, ubiquitination-related proteins, programmed cell death-related proteins, transcription factors, and cytochrome P450s. We also detected 414 gene transcripts that were designated as basal defense response genes largely independent of trichothecene accumulation. Our results show that barley exhibits a specific response to trichothecene accumulation that can be separated from the basal defense response. We propose that barley responds to trichothecene accumulation by inducing at least two general responses. One response is the induction of genes encoding trichothecene detoxification and transport activities that may reduce the impact of trichothecenes. The other response is to induce genes encoding proteins associated with ubiquitination and cell death which may promote successful establishment of the disease.

  18. Genetic expression of induced rice sterility under alien-cytoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Naiyuan; Cai Zhijun; Liang Kangjing; Li Yu

    2005-01-01

    Rice restorer lines were treated with 60 Co γ-ray and 4 male sterile mutants obtained with the fertility of controlled by 4 non-allelic recessive genes, respectively. Sixty combinations were made by using male sterile plants/fertile plants as male parents, and 15 different cytoplasmic substitution lines of the same cell nucleus as female parents. The result showed that F 1 spikelets were normal and fertile, and different numbers of male sterile plants were segregated in F 2 . Complete fertility genotype was not found among interactions between induced male sterile genes and alien-cytoplasms. (authors)

  19. Regulation of human lung fibroblast C1q-receptors by transforming growth factor-beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurton, J; Soto, H; Narayanan, A S; Raghu, G

    1999-03-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are two polypeptide mediators which are believed to play a role in the evolution of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We have evaluated the effect of these two substances on the expression of receptors for collagen (cC1q-R) and globular (gC1q-R) domains of C1q and on type I collagen in human lung fibroblasts. Two fibroblast subpopulations differing in C1q receptor expression were obtained by culturing human lung explants in medium containing fresh human serum and heated plasma-derived serum and separating them based on C1q binding [Narayanan, Lurton and Raghu: Am J Resp Cell Mol Biol. 1998; 17:84]. The cells, referred to as HH and NL cells, respectively, were exposed to TGF-beta and TNF-alpha in serum-free conditions. The levels of mRNA were assessed by in situ hybridization and Northern analysis, and protein levels compared after SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. NL cells exposed to TGF-beta and TNF-alpha contained 1.4 and 1.6 times as much cC1q-R mRNA, respectively, whereas in HH cells cC1q-R mRNA increased 2.0- and 2.4-fold. The gC1q-R mRNA levels increased to a lesser extent in both cells. These increases were not reflected in protein levels of CC1q-R and gC1q-R, which were similar to or less than controls. Both TGF-beta and TNF-alpha also increased procollagen [I] mRNA levels in both cells. Overall, TNF-alpha caused a greater increase and the degree of response by HH fibroblasts to both TGF-beta and TNF-alpha was higher than NL cells. These results indicated that TGF-beta and TNF-alpha upregulate the mRNA levels for cC1q-R and collagen and that they do not affect gC1q-R mRNA levels significantly. They also indicated different subsets of human lung fibroblasts respond differently to inflammatory mediators.

  20. Bacterial feeding, Leishmania infection and distinct infection routes induce differential defensin expression in Lutzomyia longipalpis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telleria, Erich L; Sant'Anna, Maurício R Viana; Alkurbi, Mohammad O; Pitaluga, André N; Dillon, Rod J; Traub-Csekö, Yara M

    2013-01-11

    Phlebotomine insects harbor bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens that can cause diseases of public health importance. Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the New World. Insects can mount a powerful innate immune response to pathogens. Defensin peptides take part in this response and are known to be active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and some parasites. We studied the expression of a defensin gene from Lutzomyia longipalpis to understand its role in sand fly immune response. We identified, sequenced and evaluated the expression of a L. longipalpis defensin gene by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The gene sequence was compared to other vectors defensins and expression was determined along developmental stages and after exposure of adult female L. longipalpis to bacteria and Leishmania. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the L. longipalpis defensin is closely related to a defensin from the Old World sand fly Phlebotomus duboscqi. Expression was high in late L4 larvae and pupae in comparison to early larval stages and newly emerged flies. Defensin expression was modulated by oral infection with bacteria. The Gram-positive Micrococcus luteus induced early high defensin expression, whilst the Gram-negative entomopathogenic Serratia marcescens induced a later response. Bacterial injection also induced defensin expression in adult insects. Female sand flies infected orally with Leishmania mexicana showed no significant difference in defensin expression compared to blood fed insects apart from a lower defensin expression 5 days post Leishmania infection. When Leishmania was introduced into the hemolymph by injection there was no induction of defensin expression until 72 h later. Our results suggest that L. longipalpis modulates defensin expression upon bacterial and Leishmania infection, with patterns of expression that are distinct among bacterial species and routes of infection.

  1. Radiation-induced gene expression in the nematode caenorhabditis elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, G.A.; Jones, T.A.; Chesnut, A.; Smith, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    We used the nematode C. elegans to characterize the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation in a simple animal model emphasizing the unique effects of charged particle radiation. Here we demonstrate by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) differential display and whole genome microarray hybridization experiments that gamma rays, accelerated protons and iron ions at the same physical dose lead to unique transcription profiles. 599 of 17871 genes analyzed (3.4%) showed differential expression 3 hrs after exposure to 3 Gy of radiation. 193 were up-regulated, 406 were down-regulated and 90% were affected only by a single species of radiation. A novel statistical clustering technique identified the regulatory relationships between the radiation-modulated genes and showed that genes affected by each radiation species were associated with unique regulatory clusters. This suggests that independent homeostatic mechanisms are activated in response to radiation exposure as a function of track structure or ionization density. (author)

  2. Protective effects of L-selenomethionine on space radiation induced changes in gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J; Ko, Y-H; Kennedy, A R

    2007-06-01

    Ionizing radiation can produce adverse biological effects in astronauts during space travel. Of particular concern are the types of radiation from highly energetic, heavy, charged particles known as HZE particles. The aims of our studies are to characterize HZE particle radiation induced biological effects and evaluate the effects of L-selenomethionine (SeM) on these adverse biological effects. In this study, microarray technology was used to measure HZE radiation induced changes in gene expression, as well as to evaluate modulation of these changes by SeM. Human thyroid epithelial cells (HTori-3) were irradiated (1 GeV/n iron ions) in the presence or in the absence of 5 microM SeM. At 6 h post-irradiation, all cells were harvested for RNA isolation. Gene Chip U133Av2 from Affymetrix was used for the analysis of gene expression, and ANOVA and EASE were used for a determination of the genes and biological processes whose differential expression is statistically significant. Results of this microarray study indicate that exposure to small doses of radiation from HZE particles, 10 and 20 cGy from iron ions, induces statistically significant differential expression of 196 and 610 genes, respectively. In the presence of SeM, differential expression of 77 out of 196 genes (exposure to 10 cGy) and 336 out of 610 genes (exposure to 20 cGy) is abolished. In the presence or in the absence of SeM, radiation from HZE particles induces differential expression of genes whose products have roles in the induction of G1/S arrest during the mitotic cell cycle, as well as heat shock proteins. Some of the genes, whose expressions were affected by radiation from HZE particles and were unchanged in irradiated cells treated with SeM, have been shown to have altered expression levels in cancer cells. The conclusions of this report are that radiation from HZE particles can induce differential expression of many genes, some of which are known to play roles in the same processes that have

  3. In Vivo Imaging of Local Gene Expression Induced by Magnetic Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Sandre

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to demonstrate that colloidal dispersions of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized with dextran macromolecules placed in an alternating magnetic field can not only produce heat, but also that these particles could be used in vivo for local and noninvasive deposition of a thermal dose sufficient to trigger thermo-induced gene expression. Iron oxide nanoparticles were first characterized in vitro on a bio-inspired setup, and then they were assayed in vivo using a transgenic mouse strain expressing the luciferase reporter gene under transcriptional control of a thermosensitive promoter. Iron oxide nanoparticles dispersions were applied topically on the mouse skin or injected subcutaneously with Matrigel™ to generate so-called pseudotumors. Temperature was monitored continuously with a feedback loop to control the power of the magnetic field generator and to avoid overheating. Thermo-induced luciferase expression was followed by bioluminescence imaging 6 h after heating. We showed that dextran-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle dispersions were able to induce in vivo mild hyperthermia compatible with thermo-induced gene expression in surrounding tissues and without impairing cell viability. These data open new therapeutic perspectives for using mild magnetic hyperthermia as noninvasive modulation of tumor microenvironment by local thermo-induced gene expression or drug release.

  4. Coffee induces breast cancer resistance protein expression in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isshiki, Marina; Umezawa, Kazuo; Tamura, Hiroomi

    2011-01-01

    Coffee is a beverage that is consumed world-wide on a daily basis and is known to induce a series of metabolic and pharmacological effects, especially in the digestive tract. However, little is known concerning the effects of coffee on transporters in the gastrointestinal tract. To elucidate the effect of coffee on intestinal transporters, we investigated its effect on expression of the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) in a human colorectal cancer cell line, Caco-2. Coffee induced BCRP gene expression in Caco-2 cells in a coffee-dose dependent manner. Coffee treatment of Caco-2 cells also increased the level of BCRP protein, which corresponded to induction of gene expression, and also increased cellular efflux activity, as judged by Hoechst33342 accumulation. None of the major constituents of coffee tested could induce BCRP gene expression. The constituent of coffee that mediated this induction was extractable with ethyl acetate and was produced during the roasting process. Dehydromethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ), an inhibitor of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, inhibited coffee-mediated induction of BCRP gene expression, suggesting involvement of NF-κB in this induction. Our data suggest that daily consumption of coffee might induce BCRP expression in the gastrointestinal tract and may affect the bioavailability of BCRP substrates.

  5. Differences in gene expression profiles and signaling pathways in rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiaodong; Wang, Yuanda; Hong, Quan; Yang, Jurong; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Gang; Cai, Guangyan; Chen, Xiangmei; Wu, Di

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a threatening syndrome because it causes the breakdown of skeletal muscle. Muscle destruction leads to the release of myoglobin, intracellular proteins, and electrolytes into the circulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in gene expression profiles and signaling pathways upon rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). In this study, we used glycerol-induced renal injury as a model of rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI. We analyzed data and relevant information from the Gene Expression Omnibus database (No: GSE44925). The gene expression data for three untreated mice were compared to data for five mice with rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI. The expression profiling of the three untreated mice and the five rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI mice was performed using microarray analysis. We examined the levels of Cyp3a13, Rela, Aldh7a1, Jun, CD14. And Cdkn1a using RT-PCR to determine the accuracy of the microarray results. The microarray analysis showed that there were 1050 downregulated and 659 upregulated genes in the rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI mice compared to the control group. The interactions of all differentially expressed genes in the Signal-Net were analyzed. Cyp3a13 and Rela had the most interactions with other genes. The data showed that Rela and Aldh7a1 were the key nodes and had important positions in the Signal-Net. The genes Jun, CD14, and Cdkn1a were also significantly upregulated. The pathway analysis classified the differentially expressed genes into 71 downregulated and 48 upregulated pathways including the PI3K/Akt, MAPK, and NF-κB signaling pathways. The results of this study indicate that the NF-κB, MAPK, PI3K/Akt, and apoptotic pathways are regulated in rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI.

  6. RAE-1 expression is induced during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and is correlated with microglia cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djelloul, Mehdi; Popa, Natalia; Pelletier, Florence; Raguénez, Gilda; Boucraut, José

    2016-11-01

    Retinoic acid early induced transcript-1 (RAE-1) glycoproteins are ligands of the activating immune receptor NKG2D. They are known as stress molecules induced in pathological conditions. We previously reported that progenitor cells express RAE-1 in physiological conditions and we described a correlation between RAE-1 expression and cell proliferation. In addition, we showed that Raet1 transcripts are induced in the spinal cord of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice. EAE is a model for multiple sclerosis which is accompanied by microglia proliferation and activation, recruitment of immune cells and neurogenesis. We herein studied the time course expression of the two members of the Raet1 gene family present in C57BL/6 mice, namely Raet1d and Raet1e, in the spinal cord during EAE. We report that Raet1d and Raet1e genes are induced early upon EAE onset and reach a maximal expression at the peak of the pathology. We show that myeloid cells, i.e. macrophages as well as microglia, are cellular sources of Raet1 transcripts. We also demonstrate that only Raet1d expression is induced in microglia, whereas macrophages expressed both Raet1d and Raet1e. Furthermore, we investigated the dynamics of RAE-1 expression in microglia cultures. RAE-1 induction correlated with cell proliferation but not with M1/M2 phenotypic orientation. We finally demonstrate that macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a major factor controlling RAE-1 expression in microglia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cleft lip with or without cleft palate: Associations with transforming growth factor alpha and retinoic acid receptor loci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenevix-Trench, G.; Jones, K. (Queensland Inst. of Medical Research (Australia) Univ. of Queensland (Australia)); Green, A.C.; Duffy, D.L.; Martin, N.G. (Queensland Inst. of Medical Research (Australia))

    1992-12-01

    The first association study of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P), with candidate genes, found an association with the transforming growth-factor alpha (TGFA) locus. This finding has since been replicated, in whole or in part, in three independent studies. Here the authors extend their original analysis of the TGFA TaqI RFLP to two other TGFA RFLPs and seven other RFLPs at five candidate genes in 117 nonsyndromic cases of CL/P and 113 controls. The other candidate genes were the retinoic acid receptor (RARA), the bcl-2 oncogene, and the homeobox genes 2F, 2G, and EN2. Significant associations with the TGFA TaqI and BamHI RFLPs were confirmed, although associations of clefting with previously reported haplotypes did not reach significance. Of particular interest, in view of the known teratogenic role of retinoic acid, was a significant association with the RARA PstI RFLP (P = .016; not corrected for multiple testing). The effect on risk of the A2 allele appears to be additive, and although the A2A2 homozygote only has an odds ratio of about 2 and recurrence risk to first-degree relatives ([lambda][sub 1]) of 1.06, because it is so common it may account for as much as a third of the attributable risk of clefting. There is no evidence of interaction between the TGFA and RARA polymorphisms on risk, and jointly they appear to account for almost half the attributable risk of clefting. 43 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  8. The effect of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents on the outcome in pediatric uveitis of diverse etiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitch, Iris; Amer, Radgonde; Tomkins-Netzer, Oren; Habot-Wilner, Zohar; Friling, Ronit; Neumann, Ron; Kramer, Michal

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to report the clinical outcome of children with uveitis treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) agents. This included a retrospective cohort study. Children with uveitis treated with infliximab or adalimumab in 2008-2014 at five dedicated uveitis clinics were identified by database search. Their medical records were reviewed for demographic data, clinical presentation, ocular complications, and visual outcome. Systemic side effects and the steroid-sparing effect of treatment were documented. The cohort included 24 patients (43 eyes) of whom 14 received infliximab and 10 received adalimumab after failing conventional immunosuppression therapy. Mean age was 9.3 ± 4.0 years. The most common diagnosis was juvenile idiopathic arthritis-related uveitis (n = 10), followed by Behçet's disease (n = 4), sarcoidosis (n = 1), and ankylosing spondylitis (n = 1); eight had idiopathic uveitis. Ocular manifestations included panuveitis in 20 eyes (46.5%), chronic anterior uveitis in 19 (44.2%), and intermediate uveitis in 4 (9.3%). The duration of biologic treatment ranged from 6 to 72 months. During the 12 months prior to biologic treatment, while on conventional immunosuppressive therapy, mean visual acuity deteriorated from 0.22 to 0.45 logMAR, with a trend of recovery to 0.25 at 3 months after initiation of biologic treatment, remaining stable thereafter. A full corticosteroid-sparing effect was demonstrated in 16 of the 19 patients (84.2%) for whom data were available. Treatment was well tolerated. Treatment of pediatric uveitis with anti-TNF-α agents may improve outcome while providing steroid-sparing effect, when conventional immunosuppression fails. The role of anti-TNF-α agents as first-line treatment should be further investigated in controlled prospective clinical trials.

  9. Serum Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha associates with Myocardial Oxygen Demand and Exercise Tolerance in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stephen J; Bryan, David R; Neumeier, William H; Glasser, Stephen P; Hunter, Gary R

    2018-01-01

    The functional implications of serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), a marker of oxidative stress, on hemodynamic parameters at rest and during physical exertion are unclear. The aims of this investigation were to examine the independent associations of TNF-α on myocardial oxygen demand at rest and during submaximal exercise, while also evaluating the association of TNF-α on exercise tolerance. Forty, postmenopausal women, provided blood samples and completed a modified-Balke protocol to measure maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max ). Large artery compliance was measured by pulse contour analyses while rate-pressure product (RPP), an index of myocardial oxygen demand, was measured at rest and during two submaximal workloads (i.e., ≈55% and ≈75% VO 2max ). RPP was calculated by dividing the product of heart rate and systolic blood pressure (via auscultation) by 100. Exercise tolerance corresponded with the cessation of the graded exercise test. During higher-intensity exertion, ≈75% VO 2max , multiple linear regression revealed a positive association ( r = 0.43; p = 0.015) between TNF-α and RPP while adjusting for maximal heart rate, VO 2max , large artery compliance, and percent body fat. Path analyses revealed a significant indirect effect of large artery compliance on exercise tolerance through TNF-α, β = 0.13, CI [0.03, 0.35], indicating greater levels of TNF-α associated with poorer exercise tolerance. These data suggest TNF-α independently associates with myocardial oxygen demand during physical exertion, thus highlighting the utility of higher-intensity efforts to expose important phenomena not apparent at rest. TNF-α also appears to be indirectly associated with the link between large artery compliance and exercise tolerance.

  10. Anti tumor necrosis factor - alpha adalimumab for complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-I): a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Elon; Sandler, Ifat; Treister, Roi; Suzan, Erica; Haddad, May

    2013-11-01

    Evidence suggests tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) mediates, at least in part, symptoms and signs in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Here, we present a case series of patients with CRPS type 1, in whom the response to the anti-TNF-α adalimumab was assessed. Ten patients with CRPS type 1 were recruited. Assessments were performed before treatment, at 1 week, and 1, 3, and 6 months following 3 biweekly subcutaneous injections (40 mg/0.8 mL) adalimumab (Humira(®) ) and included the followings: Pain intensity using a 0-10 cm visual analog scale; the Short Form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire; the Beck Depression Inventory; the SF-36 questionnaire and mechanical and thermal thresholds (Von frey hair and Thermal Sensory Analyzer, respectively). In addition to the description of individual patient responses, both intention to treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses were performed for the entire group. Three subgroups of patients were identified (3 patients in each): "nonresponders", "partial responders", and "robust responders" in whom improvement in almost all parameters was noted. Both the ITT and PP analyses demonstrated only a trend toward improvement in mechanical pain thresholds following treatment (ITT χ² = 13.83, P = 0.008; PP χ² = 10.29, P = 0.036). These results suggest adalimumab, and possibly other anti-TNF-α, can be potentially useful in some (although not in all) patients with CRPS type 1. These preliminary results along with the growing body of evidence which points to the involvement of TNF-α in the pathogenesis of CRPS justify further studies in this area. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  11. Generation of tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha-specific affibody molecules capable of blocking receptor binding in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Andreas; Wållberg, Helena; Herne, Nina; Ståhl, Stefan; Frejd, Fredrik Y

    2009-08-17

    Affibody molecules specific for human TNF-alpha (tumour necrosis factor-alpha) were selected by phage-display technology from a library based on the 58-residue Protein A-derived Z domain. TNF-alpha is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in several inflammatory diseases and, to this day, four TNF-alpha-blocking protein pharmaceuticals have been approved for clinical use. The phage selection generated 18 unique cysteine-free affibody sequences of which 12 were chosen, after sequence cluster analysis, for characterization as proteins. Biosensor binding studies of the 12 Escherichia coli-produced and IMAC (immobilized-metal-ion affinity chromatography)-purified affibody molecules revealed three variants that demonstrated the strongest binding to human TNF-alpha. These three affibody molecules were subjected to kinetic binding analysis and also tested for their binding to mouse, rat and pig TNF-alpha. For ZTNF-alpha:185, subnanomolar affinity (KD=0.1-0.5 nM) for human TNF-alpha was demonstrated, as well as significant binding to TNF-alpha from the other species. Furthermore, the binding site was found to overlap with the binding site for the TNF-alpha receptor, since this interaction could be efficiently blocked by the ZTNF-alpha:185 affibody. When investigating six dimeric affibody constructs with different linker lengths, and one trimeric construct, it was found that the inhibition of the TNF-alpha binding to its receptor could be further improved by using dimers with extended linkers and/or a trimeric affibody construct. The potential implication of the results for the future design of affibody-based reagents for the diagnosis of inflammation is discussed.

  12. Quantitative assessment of the influence of tumor necrosis factor alpha polymorphism with gastritis and gastric cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Wang, Yinping; Gu, Yahong

    2014-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA) is an important molecule in inflammatory, infectious, and tumoral processes. Inflammation is one of the early phases in the development of gastric cancer (GC). Therefore, several studies have examined the association of polymorphism in TNFA with gastritis and GC risk. A functional polymorphism, -308G>A (rs1800629), which is located in the promoter of TNFA gene, has been suggested to alter the production of TNF-α and influence cancer risk. To date, a number of studies have been carried out to investigate the relationship between the polymorphism and gastritis or GC susceptibility, but the results were conflicting. To investigate this inconsistency, we performed a meta-analysis of 36 studies for TNFA -308G>A polymorphism to evaluate the effect of TNFA on genetic susceptibility for gastritis and GC. An overall random-effects per-allele odds ratio of 1.16 (95 % confidence interval 1.04-1.29, P = 0.008) was found for the polymorphism. Significant results were also observed using dominant or recessive genetic models. In the subgroup analyses by ethnicity, significant results were found in Caucasians, whereas no significant associations were found among East Asians and other ethnic populations. No associations between the polymorphism and gastritis were observed. In addition, our data indicate that TNFA is involved in GC susceptibility and confers its effect primarily in diffuse type of tumors. Besides, -308G>A polymorphism was found to be significantly associated with both cardiac and noncardiac tumors. This meta-analysis demonstrated that the TNFA -308G>A polymorphism is a risk factor for developing GC, but the associations vary in different ethnic populations.

  13. Alteration of serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha level in gestational diabetes mellitus and correlation with insulin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Gang; Li Cuiyin; Shao Hao; Lu Zeyuan; Lai Liping; Liu Lan; Hu Xiaorong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the dynamic of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)and its correlation with insulin resistance (IR)during different stages of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods: Thirty-two subjects with GDM and 31 cases of normal pregnant women nonnal glucose tolerance, NGT were enrolled in the study, serum TNF-α and insulin were determined by radioimmunoassay. The plasma glucose was measured by using glucose oxidase. Tests repeated for each group according different stages of prenatal 25-28 weeks, 29-32 weeks, 37-38 weeks and postpartum 6-8 weeks. IR was assessed by the homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). Results: (1)Serum TNF-α levels in CDM and NGT group rose with gestational age, and both significantly decreased at postpartum. (2) Serum TNF-α levels in GDM of above-mentioned four stages respectively were (7.05±0.67) ng/L, (7.11± 0.75) ng/L, (7.36±0.79) ng/L, (5.46±0.37) ng/L respectively. All significantly increased than those in the same stage group (t=7.81, 7.05, 7.15, P<0.01). (3) Maternal serum TNF-α levels were in positive correlation with HOMA-IR in GDM (r=0.571, P<0.05). Conclusions: Serum TNF-α levels in GDM rose with gestational age, but significantly decreased at postpartum. The dynamic changes of serum TNF-α contribute to occurrence of insulin resistance. (authors)

  14. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha release from rat pulmonary leukocytes exposed to ultrafine cobalt: in vivo and in vitro studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qunwei; Kusaka, Yukinori; Sato, Kazuhiro; Wang Deweng; Donaldson, Kenneth

    1999-01-01

    Ultrafine cobalt (Uf-Co), one of the new category of ultrafine particles, is generated in some industrial situations and it also exists in environmental particles. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of rat pulmonary leukocytes to release tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) after exposure to Uf-Co in vivo and in vitro. Rats were intratracheally instilled with 1 mg of Uf-Co, and then wet lung weight and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BASF) profile were analysed 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days later. The effects of Uf-Co on indices that can be presumed to reflect epithelial injury and permeability (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and total protein (TP)) were increased throughout the 30 day post-exposure period. Furthermore, at 3 days after exposure, leukocytes were collected by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). After 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours of incubation, TNF-alpha in supernatants were determined by ELISA method. The results showed that TNF-alpha secretion by activated leukocytes from rats instilled with Uf-Co was significantly higher than that of the controls. BAL leucocytes from the lung of exposed rats revealed time-and dose-related increases in TNF-alpha release. In conclusion, our results reveal, for the first time to our knowledge, that exposure to Uf-Co can stimulate leukocytes to secrete TNF-alpha. These data suggest that the TNF-alpha release from pulmonary leukocytes probably plays a role in the pathogenesis of 'cobalt lung'. (author)

  15. Serum concentrations of interleukin-1 alpha, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in neonatal sepsis and meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fida, Nadia M.; Fadelallah, Mohamed F.; Al-Mughales, Jamil A.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate whether serum levels of interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), C-reactive protein (CRP) are useful in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis and meningitis and differentiate them. Blood samples were collected from 35 full term neonates with suspected infection who admitted to the Neonatology Unit, Pediatric Department, King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia during January 2002 - June 2003. On the basis of laboratory and bacteriological results, newborns were classified into: sepsis (n=28), meningitis (n=7), and healthy controls (n=16). Sepsis groups were further subdivided according to culture results into: group 1 = proven sepsis (n=6), group 2 = clinical sepsis (n=14), and group 3 = possible-infected (n=8). Serum levels of IL-1alpha, IL-6, TNF-alpha were measured using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay while CRP by nephelometer: In sepsis and meningitis patients, serum levels of CRP (p<0.01, p<0.05,) and IL-1alpha (p<0.001, p<0.05) were elevated than controls. C-reactive protein levels elevated in proven sepsis (p<0.001) and IL-1alpha elevated in all subgroups of sepsis (groups 1, 2, 3) compared with (p<0.05, p<0.001, p<0.01) controls. Interleukin-6, TNF-alpha showed no significant differences between studied groups. In sepsis and meningitis, IL-1alpha had a highest sensitivity (89%, 86%), and negative predictive values (89% and 93%). Interleukin-1alpha and CRP increased in neonatal sepsis and meningitis, but cannot differentiate between them. Interleukin-1alpha had a highest sensitivity in prediction of neonatal infection and its assessment may improve accuracy of diagnosis. (author)

  16. Endogenous α-crystallin inhibits expression of caspase-3 induced by hypoxia in retinal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xi; Peng, Yanli; Zhang, Jiaping; Wang, Xingli; Wu, Nan; Zeng, Yuxiao; Wang, Yi

    2014-08-28

    To investigate the expression of endogenous, hypoxic stress-induced α-crystallin and caspase-3 in rat retinal neurons in vitro. Retinal neurons were cultured from Long-Evans rats. The expression of endogenous α-crystallin was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Furthermore, hypoxic exposure was performed in cultured cells, and the expression of endogenous α-crystallin and caspase-3 was assayed by Western blotting. Positive α-crystallin staining was observed in cultured retinal neurons, and expression of endogenous α-crystallin mRNA peaked 3-5d after inoculation (Pendogenous, hypoxic stress-induced α-crystallin expression increased gradually, peaking 6h after hypoxia. The expression was more abundant compared to the control (Pendogenous α-crystallin in retinal neurons, especially over-expression induced by hypoxic stress, results in the down regulation of caspase-3. The data suggest that endogenous α-crystallin may act as an endogenous neuroprotective factor in retinal neurons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of enhanced expression of connexin 43 on sunitinib-induced cytotoxicity in mesothelioma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaki Uzu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Connexin (Cx makes up a type of intercellular channel called gap junction (GJ. GJ plays a regulatory role in cellular physiology. The Cx expression level is often decreased in cancer cells compared to that in healthy ones, and the restoration of its expression has been shown to exert antiproliferative effects. This work aims to evaluate the effect of the restoration of connexin 43 (Cx43 (the most ubiquitous Cx subtype expression on sunitinib (SU-induced cytotoxicity in malignant mesothelioma (MM cells. Increased Cx43 expression in an MM cell line (H28 improved the ability of SU to inhibit receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK signaling. Moreover, higher Cx43 expression promoted SU-induced apoptosis. The cell viability test revealed that Cx43 enhanced the cytotoxic effect of SU in a GJ-independent manner. The effect of Cx43 on a proapoptotic factor, Bax, was then investigated. The interaction between Cx43 and Bax was confirmed by immunoprecipitation. Furthermore, higher Cx43 expression increased the production of a cleaved (active form of Bax during SU-induced apoptosis with no alteration in total Bax expression. These findings indicate that Cx43 most likely increases sensitivity to SU in H28 through direct interaction with Bax. In conclusion, we found that Cx43 overcame the chemoresistance of MM cells.

  18. 2'-Hydroxycinnamaldehyde induces apoptosis through HSF1-mediated BAG3 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hai-Anh; Kim, Soo-A

    2017-01-01

    BAG3, a member of BAG co-chaperone family, is induced by stressful stimuli such as heat shock and heavy metals. Through interaction with various binding partners, BAG3 is thought to play a role in cellular adaptive responses against stressful conditions in normal and neoplastic cells. 2'-Hydroxycinnamaldehyde (HCA) is a natural derivative of cinnamaldehyde and has antitumor activity in various cancer cells. In the present study, for the first time, we identified that HCA induced BAG3 expression and BAG3-mediated apoptosis in cancer cells. The apoptotic cell death induced by HCA was demonstrated by caspase-7, -9 and PARP activation, and confirmed by Annexin V staining in both SW480 and SW620 colon cancer cells. Notably, both the mRNA and protein levels of BAG3 were largely induced by HCA in a dose- and time-dependent manner. By showing transcription factor HSF1 activation, we demonstrated that HCA induces the expression of BAG3 through HSF1 activation. More importantly, knockdown of BAG3 expression using siRNA largely inhibited HCA-induced apoptosis, suggesting that BAG3 is actively involved in HCA-induced cancer cell death. Considering the importance of the stress response mechanism in cancer progression, our results strongly suggest that BAG3 could be a potential target for anticancer therapy.

  19. Pregnancy-induced gene expression changes in vivo among women with rheumatoid arthritis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goin, Dana E; Smed, Mette Kiel; Pachter, Lior; Purdom, Elizabeth; Nelson, J Lee; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Olsen, Jørn; Hetland, Merete Lund; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Ottesen, Bent; Jawaheer, Damini

    2017-05-25

    Little is known about gene expression changes induced by pregnancy in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and healthy women because the few studies previously conducted did not have pre-pregnancy samples available as baseline. We have established a cohort of women with RA and healthy women followed prospectively from a pre-pregnancy baseline. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pregnancy-induced changes in gene expression among women with RA who improve during pregnancy (pregDAS improved ) overlap substantially with changes observed among healthy women and differ from changes observed among women with RA who worsen during pregnancy (pregDAS worse ). Global gene expression profiles were generated by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) from 11 women with RA and 5 healthy women before pregnancy (T0) and at the third trimester (T3). Among the women with RA, eight showed an improvement in disease activity by T3, whereas three worsened. Differential expression analysis was used to identify genes demonstrating significant changes in expression within each of the RA and healthy groups (T3 vs T0), as well as between the groups at each time point. Gene set enrichment was assessed in terms of Gene Ontology processes and protein networks. A total of 1296 genes were differentially expressed between T3 and T0 among the 8 pregDAS improved women, with 161 genes showing at least two-fold change (FC) in expression by T3. The majority (108 of 161 genes) were also differentially expressed among healthy women (qexpression between the pregDAS improved and pregDAS worse groups, all of which were inducible by type I interferon (IFN). These IFN-inducible genes were over-expressed at T3 compared to the T0 baseline among the pregDAS improved women. In our pilot RNA-seq dataset, increased pregnancy-induced expression of type I IFN-inducible genes was observed among women with RA who improved during pregnancy, but not among women who worsened. These findings warrant further investigation into

  20. Cimetidine attenuates vinorelbine-induced phlebitis in mice by militating E-selectin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Ma, Lijuan; Wang, Xuebin; Cai, Heping; Huang, Jin; Liu, Jiyong; Hu, Jinhong; Su, Dingfeng

    2014-08-01

    We investigated E-selectin expression in mice and rabbits with vinorelbine-induced phlebitis and the effect of cimetidine. To find the relationship between E-selectin expression and vinorelbine-induced phlebitis. Mouse and rabbit model of vinorelbine-induced phlebitis was established by intravenous infusion of vinorelbine. Pathological observation, molecular-biological determination of E-selectin and protein function of it was evaluated. Grossly, we observed swelling, edema and cord-like vessel changes in mice receiving vinorelbine but only mild edema in mice pretreated with cimetidine. Pathological scoring yielded a total score of 37 for vinorelbine-treated mice and 17 for mice pretreated with cimetidine (P phlebitis in mice probably by suppressing increased expression of E-selectin.

  1. Salicylic acid inhibits UV- and Cis-Pt-induced human immunodeficiency virus expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R.; Schreck, S.; South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposure of HeLa cells stably transfected with a human immunodeficiency virus-long terminal repeat-chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (HIV-LTR-CAT) construct to UV light-induced expression from the HIV LTR. By culturing the cells with salicylic acid we demonstrated dose-dependent repression of this induced HIV expression. Repression was evident if salicylic acid was administered 2 h before, at the same time as, or up to 6 h after exposure to the DNA-damaging agent. The kinetics were similar for UV- and for cis-Pt-induced HIV expression, and induction was dependent on the UV dose or cis-Pt concentration added to the culture. These results suggest a role for the prostaglandins or the cyclooxygenase pathway or both in HIV induction mediated by DNA-damaging agents

  2. Expanding the molecular toolbox for Lactococcus lactis: construction of an inducible thioredoxin gene fusion expression system

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Douillard, Francois P

    2011-08-09

    Abstract Background The development of the Nisin Inducible Controlled Expression (NICE) system in the food-grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris represents a cornerstone in the use of Gram-positive bacterial expression systems for biotechnological purposes. However, proteins that are subjected to such over-expression in L. lactis may suffer from improper folding, inclusion body formation and\\/or protein degradation, thereby significantly reducing the yield of soluble target protein. Although such drawbacks are not specific to L. lactis, no molecular tools have been developed to prevent or circumvent these recurrent problems of protein expression in L. lactis. Results Mimicking thioredoxin gene fusion systems available for E. coli, two nisin-inducible expression vectors were constructed to over-produce various proteins in L. lactis as thioredoxin fusion proteins. In this study, we demonstrate that our novel L. lactis fusion partner expression vectors allow high-level expression of soluble heterologous proteins Tuc2009 ORF40, Bbr_0140 and Tuc2009 BppU\\/BppL that were previously insoluble or not expressed using existing L. lactis expression vectors. Over-expressed proteins were subsequently purified by Ni-TED affinity chromatography. Intact heterologous proteins were detected by immunoblotting analyses. We also show that the thioredoxin moiety of the purified fusion protein was specifically and efficiently cleaved off by enterokinase treatment. Conclusions This study is the first description of a thioredoxin gene fusion expression system, purposely developed to circumvent problems associated with protein over-expression in L. lactis. It was shown to prevent protein insolubility and degradation, allowing sufficient production of soluble proteins for further structural and functional characterization.

  3. Farnesoid-X-receptor expression in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension and right heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Lusi; Jiang, Ying; Zuo, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR) is a metabolic nuclear receptor superfamily member that is highly expressed in enterohepatic tissue and is also expressed in the cardiovascular system. Multiple nuclear receptors, including FXR, play a pivotal role in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an untreatable cardiovascular system disease that leads to right heart failure (RHF). However, the potential physiological/pathological roles of FXR in PAH and RHF are unknown. We therefore compared FXR expression in the cardiovascular system in PAH, RHF and a control. Methods and results: Hemodynamic parameters and morphology were assessed in blank solution-exposed control, monocrotaline (MCT)-exposed PAH (4 weeks) and RHF (7 weeks) Sprague–Dawley rats. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR), Western blot (WB), immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis and immunofluorescence (IF) analysis were performed to assess FXR levels in the lung and heart tissues of MCT-induced PAH and RHF rats. In normal rats, low FXR levels were detected in the heart, and nearly no FXR was expressed in rat lungs. However, FXR expression was significantly elevated in PAH and RHF rat lungs but reduced in PAH and RHF rat right ventricular (RV) tissues. FXR expression was reduced only in RHF rat left ventricular (LV) tissues. Conclusions: The differential expression of FXR in MCT-induced PAH lungs and heart tissues in parallel with PAH pathophysiological processes suggests that FXR contributes to PAH. - Highlights: • FXR was expressed in rat lung and heart tissues. • FXR expression increased sharply in the lung tissues of PAH and RHF rats. • FXR expression was reduced in PAH and RHF rat RV tissue. • FXR expression was unaltered in PAH LV but reduced in RHF rat LV tissue. • FXR expression was prominent in the neovascularization region.

  4. Farnesoid-X-receptor expression in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension and right heart failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Lusi [Department of Rheumatology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 87 Xiangya Road, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Department of Rheumatology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325015 (China); Jiang, Ying [Department of Rheumatology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 87 Xiangya Road, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Zuo, Xiaoxia, E-mail: susanzuo@hotmail.com [Department of Rheumatology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 87 Xiangya Road, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China)

    2015-11-06

    Objective: The farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR) is a metabolic nuclear receptor superfamily member that is highly expressed in enterohepatic tissue and is also expressed in the cardiovascular system. Multiple nuclear receptors, including FXR, play a pivotal role in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an untreatable cardiovascular system disease that leads to right heart failure (RHF). However, the potential physiological/pathological roles of FXR in PAH and RHF are unknown. We therefore compared FXR expression in the cardiovascular system in PAH, RHF and a control. Methods and results: Hemodynamic parameters and morphology were assessed in blank solution-exposed control, monocrotaline (MCT)-exposed PAH (4 weeks) and RHF (7 weeks) Sprague–Dawley rats. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR), Western blot (WB), immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis and immunofluorescence (IF) analysis were performed to assess FXR levels in the lung and heart tissues of MCT-induced PAH and RHF rats. In normal rats, low FXR levels were detected in the heart, and nearly no FXR was expressed in rat lungs. However, FXR expression was significantly elevated in PAH and RHF rat lungs but reduced in PAH and RHF rat right ventricular (RV) tissues. FXR expression was reduced only in RHF rat left ventricular (LV) tissues. Conclusions: The differential expression of FXR in MCT-induced PAH lungs and heart tissues in parallel with PAH pathophysiological processes suggests that FXR contributes to PAH. - Highlights: • FXR was expressed in rat lung and heart tissues. • FXR expression increased sharply in the lung tissues of PAH and RHF rats. • FXR expression was reduced in PAH and RHF rat RV tissue. • FXR expression was unaltered in PAH LV but reduced in RHF rat LV tissue. • FXR expression was prominent in the neovascularization region.

  5. Expression of manganese superoxide dismutase in rat blood, heart and brain during induced systemic hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septelia I. Wanandi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypoxia results in an increased generation of ROS. Until now, little is known about the role of MnSOD - a major endogenous antioxidant enzyme - on the cell adaptation response against hypoxia. The aim of this study was to  determine the MnSOD mRNA expression and levels of specific activity in blood, heart and brain of rats during induced systemic hypoxia.Methods: Twenty-five male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to systemic hypoxia in an hypoxic chamber (at 8-10% O2 for 0, 1, 7, 14 and 21 days, respectively. The mRNA relative expression of MnSOD was analyzed using Real Time RT-PCR. MnSOD specific activity was determined using xanthine oxidase inhibition assay.Results: The MnSOD mRNA relative expression in rat blood and heart was decreased during early induced systemic hypoxia (day 1 and increased as hypoxia continued, whereas the mRNA expression in brain was increased since day 1 and reached its maximum level at day 7. The result of MnSOD specific activity during early systemic hypoxia was similar to the mRNA expression. Under very late hypoxic condition (day 21, MnSOD specific activity in blood, heart and brain was significantly decreased. We demonstrate a positive correlation between MnSOD mRNA expression and specific activity in these 3 tissues during day 0-14 of induced systemic hypoxia. Furthermore, mRNA expression and specific activity levels in heart strongly correlate with those in blood.Conclusion: The MnSOD expression at early and late phases of induced systemic hypoxia is distinctly regulated. The MnSOD expression in brain differs from that in blood and heart revealing that brain tissue can  possibly survive better from induced systemic hypoxia than heart and blood. The determination of MnSOD expression in blood can be used to describe its expression in heart under systemic hypoxic condition. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:27-33Keywords: MnSOD, mRNA expression, ROS, specific activity, systemic hypoxia

  6. SIRT-1 regulates TGF-β-induced dermal fibroblast migration via modulation of Cyr61 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eun-Jeong; Park, Eun-Jung; Yu, Hyeran; Huh, Jung-Sik; Kim, Jinseok; Cho, Moonjae

    2018-05-01

    SIRT1 is a NAD-dependent protein deacetylase that participates in cellular regulation. The increased migration of fibroblasts is an important phenotype in fibroblast activation. The role of SIRT1 in cell migration remains controversial as to whether SIRT1 acts as an activator or suppressor of cell migration. Therefore, we have established the role of SIRT1 in the migration of human dermal fibroblasts and explored targets of SIRT1 during dermal fibroblast migration. SIRT1 and Cyr61 were expressed in human dermal fibroblasts and the stimulation with TGF-β further induced their expression. Treatment with resveratrol (RSV), a SIRT1 agonist, or overexpression of SIRT1 also promoted the expression Cyr61 in human dermal fibroblasts, whereas the inhibition of SIRT1 activity by nicotinamide or knockdown of SIRT1 decreased the level of Cyr61, as well as TGF-β or RSV-induced Cyr61 expression. Blocking of ERK signaling by PD98509 reduced the expression of Cyr61 induced by TGF-β or RSV. TGF-β, RSV, or SIRT1 overexpression enhanced β-catenin as well as Cyr61 expression. This stimulation was reduced by the Wnt inhibitor XAV939. RSV increased migration and nicotinamide attenuated RSV-induced migration of human dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, SIRT1 overexpression promoted cell migration, whereas blocking Cyr61 attenuated SIRT1-stimulated migration of human dermal fibroblasts. SIRT1 increased cell migration by stimulating Cyr61 expression and the ERK and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. SIRT1-induced Cyr61 activity is very important for human dermal fibroblasts migration.

  7. BMP-2 Induced Expression of Alx3 That Is a Positive Regulator of Osteoblast Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs regulate many aspects of skeletal development, including osteoblast and chondrocyte differentiation, cartilage and bone formation, and cranial and limb development. Among them, BMP-2, one of the most potent osteogenic signaling molecules, stimulates osteoblast differentiation, while it inhibits myogenic differentiation in C2C12 cells. To evaluate genes involved in BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation, we performed cDNA microarray analyses to compare BMP-2-treated and -untreated C2C12 cells. We focused on Alx3 (aristaless-like homeobox 3 which was clearly induced during osteoblast differentiation. Alx3, a homeobox gene related to the Drosophilaaristaless gene, has been linked to developmental functions in craniofacial structures and limb development. However, little is known about its direct relationship with bone formation. In the present study, we focused on the mechanisms of Alx3 gene expression and function during osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. In C2C12 cells, BMP-2 induced increase of Alx3 gene expression in both time- and dose-dependent manners through the BMP receptors-mediated SMAD signaling pathway. In addition, silencing of Alx3 by siRNA inhibited osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2, as showed by the expressions of alkaline phosphatase (Alp, Osteocalcin, and Osterix, while over-expression of Alx3 enhanced osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. These results indicate that Alx3 expression is enhanced by BMP-2 via the BMP receptors mediated-Smad signaling and that Alx3 is a positive regulator of osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2.

  8. The effect of combining recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha with local radiation on tumor control probability of a human glioblastoma multiforme xenograft in nude mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Peigen; Allam, Ayman; Perez, Luis A; Taghian, Alphonse; Freeman, Jill; Suit, Herman D

    1995-04-30

    Purpose: To evaluate the antitumor activity of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rHuTNF-{alpha}) on a human glioblastoma multiforme (U87) xenograft in nude mice, and to study the effect of combining rHuTNF-{alpha} with local radiation on the tumor control probability of this tumor model. Methods and Materials: U87 xenograft was transplanted SC into the right hindleg of NCr/Sed nude mice (7-8 weeks old, male). When tumors reached a volume of about 110 mm{sup 3}, mice were randomly assigned to treatment: rHuTNF-{alpha} alone compared with normal saline control; or local radiation plus rHuTNF-{alpha} vs. local radiation plus normal saline. Parameters of growth delay, volume doubling time, percentage of necrosis, and cell loss factor were used to assess the antitumor effects of rHuTNF-{alpha} on this tumor. The TCD{sub 50} (tumor control dose 50%) was used as an endpoint to determine the effect of combining rHuTNF-{alpha} with local radiation. Results: Tumor growth in mice treated with a dose of 150 {mu}g/kg body weight rHuTNF-{alpha}, IP injection daily for 7 consecutive days, was delayed about 8 days compared to that in controls. Tumors in the treatment group had a significantly longer volume doubling time, and were smaller in volume and more necrotic than matched tumors in control group. rHuTNF-{alpha} also induced a 2.3 times increase of cell loss factor. The administration of the above-mentioned dose of rHuTNF-{alpha} starting 24 h after single doses of localized irradiation under hypoxic condition, resulted in a significant reduction in TCD{sub 50} from the control value of 60.9 Gy to 50.5 Gy (p < 0.01). Conclusion: rHuTNF-{alpha} exhibits an antitumor effect against U87 xenograft in nude mice, as evidenced by an increased delay in tumor growth as well as cell loss factor. Also, there was an augmentation of tumor curability when given in combination with radiotherapy, resulting in a significantly lower TCD{sub 50} value in the treatment vs. the

  9. The allelic distribution of -308 Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha gene polymorphism in South African women with cervical cancer and control women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govan, Vandana A; Constant, Debbie; Hoffman, Margaret; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2006-01-01

    Cervical cancer is due to infection with specific high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV). Although the incidence of genital HPV infection in various population groups is high, most of these regress without intervention. Investigating genetic host factors and cellular immune responses, particularly cytokines, could help to understand the association between genital HPV infection and carcinogenesis. The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) cytokine plays an important role in all stages of cervical cancer and has the ability to induce the regression of human tumors. Therefore the aim of the study was to investigate the allelic distribution of -308 TNF-α gene polymorphism in South African women with cervical cancer compared to control women. Included in our study were women with histologically proven cancer of the cervix (n = 244) and hospital-based controls (n = 228). All patients and controls were from mixed race and black population groups in South Africa. The detection of a bi-allelic -308 (A/G) polymorphism in the promoter region of TNF-α was investigated using the amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) technique. The distributions of the allelic frequencies were stratified in both patients and controls into two South African ethnic population groups. In this study we observed no association between the distribution of -308 TNF-α polymorphism and the risk of developing cervical cancer even after combining the data from the two ethnic populations (X 2 = 2.26). In addition, using the chi-squared test we found no significant association between the known risk factors for cervical cancer and the allele distribution of -308 TNF-α. However, the frequency of the rare high-producing allele -308A of TNF-α was significantly lower in the South African population when compared to Caucasians and Chinese population groups. We demonstrated no association between -308 TNF-α polymorphism and the risk of cervical cancer among two

  10. Precise integration of inducible transcriptional elements (PrIITE) enables absolute control of gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Rita; Hansen, Lars; Hintze, John

    2017-01-01

    to be a limitation. Here, we report that the combined use of genome editing tools and last generation Tet-On systems can resolve these issues. Our principle is based on precise integration of inducible transcriptional elements (coined PrIITE) targeted to: (i) exons of an endogenous gene of interest (GOI) and (ii......Tetracycline-based inducible systems provide powerful methods for functional studies where gene expression can be controlled. However, the lack of tight control of the inducible system, leading to leakiness and adverse effects caused by undesirable tetracycline dosage requirements, has proven......) a safe harbor locus. Using PrIITE cells harboring a GFP reporter or CDX2 transcription factor, we demonstrate discrete inducibility of gene expression with complete abrogation of leakiness. CDX2 PrIITE cells generated by this approach uncovered novel CDX2 downstream effector genes. Our results provide...

  11. Growth hormone-releasing factor induces c-fos expression in cultured primary pituitary cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, Nils; Mitchell, R L; Vale, W

    1987-01-01

    GH-releasing factor (GRF) and somatostatin regulates the secretion and biosynthesis of GH as well as the proliferation of GH-producing cells. In order to further characterize the mitogenic effect of GRF, we studied the expression of the proto-oncogene c-fos in primary pituitary cells. Maximal...... induction of c-fos mRNA was observed 20-60 min after stimulation with 5 nM GRF, returning to basal levels after 2 h. Somatostatin-14 (5 nM) partially inhibited the GRF induced c-fos expression. Forskolin and phorbol 12, 13 dibutyrate induced c-fos gene in cultured primary pituitary cells with similar...

  12. Apoptosis induced by radionuclide 153Sm and expression of relevant genes in three different cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Baomin; Duan Xiaoyi; Chen Wei; Hu Guoying

    2003-01-01

    To study apoptosis of PC-3, ER-75-30 and A549 cells induced by radionuclide 153 Sm and the expression of bcl-2, bax in apoptosis cells, MTT assay was used to detect the anti-tumor effect, light microscope, transmission electron microscope, flow cytometer were used to detect apoptosis, while image analysis was used to detect the expression of bcl-2 and bax. 153 Sm showed anti-tumor effect and could induce tumor cell apoptosis. Both bcl-2 and bax played an important role in apoptosis. Different kind of cells had different sensitivity to 153 Sm

  13. Estimation of Ship Long-term Wave-induced Bending Moment using Closed-Form Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Mansour, A. E.

    2002-01-01

    A semi-analytical approach is used to derive frequency response functions and standard deviations for the wave-induced bending moment amidships for mono-hull ships. The results are given as closed-form expressions and the required input information for the procedure is restricted to the main......-empirical closed-form expression for the skewness. The effect of whipping is included by assuming that whipping and wave-induced responses are conditionally independent given Hs. The procedure is simple and can be used to make quick estimates of the design wave bending moment at the conceptual design phase...

  14. The effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on phenylalanine hydroxylase expression in rat liver.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, D S; Dahl, H H; Mercer, J F; Green, A K; Fisher, M J

    1989-01-01

    The impact of experimentally induced diabetes on the expression of rat liver phenylalanine hydroxylase has been investigated. A significant elevation in maximal enzymic activity was observed in diabetes. This was associated with significant increases in the amount of enzyme, the phenylalanine hydroxylase-specific translational activity of hepatic RNA and the abundance of phenylalanine hydroxylase-specific mRNA. These changes in phenylalanine hydroxylase expression were not observed when diabe...

  15. Cigarette smoke modulates expression of human rhinovirus-induced airway epithelial host defense genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Proud

    Full Text Available Human rhinovirus (HRV infections trigger acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and asthma. The human airway epithelial cell is the primary site of HRV infection and responds to infection with altered expression of multiple genes, the products of which could regulate the outcome to infection. Cigarette smoking aggravates asthma symptoms, and is also the predominant risk factor for the development and progression of COPD. We, therefore, examined whether cigarette smoke extract (CSE modulates viral responses by altering HRV-induced epithelial gene expression. Primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to medium alone, CSE alone, purified HRV-16 alone or to HRV-16+ CSE. After 24 h, supernatants were collected and total cellular RNA was isolated. Gene array analysis was performed to examine mRNA expression. Additional experiments, using real-time RT-PCR, ELISA and/or western blotting, validated altered expression of selected gene products. CSE and HRV-16 each induced groups of genes that were largely independent of each other. When compared to gene expression in response to CSE alone, cells treated with HRV+CSE showed no obvious differences in CSE-induced gene expression. By contrast, compared to gene induction in response to HRV-16 alone, cells exposed to HRV+CSE showed marked suppression of expression of a number of HRV-induced genes associated with various functions, including antiviral defenses, inflammation, viral signaling and airway remodeling. These changes were not associated with altered expression of type I or type III interferons. Thus, CSE alters epithelial responses to HRV infection in a manner that may negatively impact antiviral and host defense outcomes.

  16. 2-Chlorohexadecanal and 2-chlorohexadecanoic acid induce COX-2 expression in human coronary artery endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Messner, Maria C.; Albert, Carolyn J.; Ford, David A.

    2008-01-01

    2-Chlorohexadecanal (2-ClHDA), a 16-carbon chain chlorinated fatty aldehyde that is produced by reactive chlorinating species attack of plasmalogens, is elevated in atherosclerotic plaques, infarcted myocardium, and activated leukocytes. We tested the hypothesis that 2-ClHDA and its metabolites, 2-chlorohexadecanoic acid (2-ClHA) and 2-chlorohexadecanol (2-ClHOH), induce COX-2 expression in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC). COX-2 protein expression increased in response to 2-Cl...

  17. Uterine and placental expression of canine oxytocin receptor during pregnancy and normal and induced parturition.

    OpenAIRE

    Gram A Boos A Kowalewski MP.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Oxytocin (OT) plays an important role as an inducer of uterine contractility acting together with its receptor (OTR) to increase synthesis of prostaglandins. Although OT is commonly used in the treatment for dystocia and uterine inertia in the bitch little attention has been paid to the role of OT in mechanisms regulating parturition in the dog so that knowledge about the expression of OTR in the canine uterus and placenta is sparse. Consequently the expression and cellular localizat...

  18. Fisetin inhibits TNF-α/NF-κB-induced IL-8 expression by targeting PKCδ in human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seoghyun; Ro, Hyunju; In, Hyun Ju; Choi, Ji-Hee; Kim, Mun-Ock; Lee, Jinhyuk; Hong, Sung-Tae; Lee, Su Ui

    2018-08-01

    Fisetin (3,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone), a natural flavonoid, is a therapeutic agent for respiratory inflammatory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, detailed molecular mechanisms regarding the target protein of fisetin remain unknown. Fisetin significantly reduces tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced interleukin (IL)-8 levels by inhibiting both nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcriptional activity and the phosphorylation of its upstream effectors. We show that fisetin prevents interactions between protein kinase C (PKC)δ and TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), thereby inhibiting the inhibitor of kappa B kinase (IKK)/NF-κB downstream signalling cascade. Furthermore, we found that fisetin directly binds to PKCδ in vitro. Our findings provide evidence that fisetin inhibits the TNF-α-activated IKK/NF-κB cascade by targeting PKCδ, thereby mediating inflammatory diseases such as COPD. These data suggest that fisetin is a good therapeutic drug for the treatment of inflammatory lung diseases, such as COPD, by inhibiting the TNF-α/NF-κB signalling pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dux4 induces cell cycle arrest at G1 phase through upregulation of p21 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Zhaoxia; Jin, Suqin; Hao, Hongjun; Zheng, Lemin; Zhou, Boda; Zhang, Wei; Lv, He; Yuan, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dux4 induced TE671 cell proliferation defect and G1 phase arrest. • Dux4 upregulated p21 expression without activating p53. • Silencing p21 rescued Dux4 mediated proliferation defect and cell cycle arrest. • Sp1 binding site was required for Dux4-induced p21 promoter activation. - Abstract: It has been implicated that Dux4 plays crucial roles in development of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy. But the underlying myopathic mechanisms and related down-stream events of this retrogene were far from clear. Here, we reported that overexpression of Dux4 in a cell model TE671 reduced cell proliferation rate, and increased G1 phase accumulation. We also determined the impact of Dux4 on p53/p21 signal pathway, which controls the checkpoint in cell cycle progression. Overexpression of Dux4 increased p21 mRNA and protein level, while expression of p53, phospho-p53 remained unchanged. Silencing p21 rescued Dux4 mediated proliferation defect and cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we demonstrated that enhanced Dux4 expression increased p21 promoter activity and elevated expression of Sp1 transcription factor. Mutation of Sp1 binding site decreased dux4 induced p21 promoter activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed the Dux4-induced binding of Sp1 to p21 promoter in vivo. These results suggest that Dux4 might induce proliferation inhibition and G1 phase arrest through upregulation of p21

  20. Dux4 induces cell cycle arrest at G1 phase through upregulation of p21 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Zhaoxia; Jin, Suqin; Hao, Hongjun [Department of Neurology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034 (China); Zheng, Lemin [The Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences of Education Ministry, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Molecular Biology and Regulatory Peptides of Health Ministry, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhou, Boda [The Department of Cardiology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Wei; Lv, He [Department of Neurology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034 (China); Yuan, Yun, E-mail: yuanyun2002@sohu.com [Department of Neurology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034 (China)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Dux4 induced TE671 cell proliferation defect and G1 phase arrest. • Dux4 upregulated p21 expression without activating p53. • Silencing p21 rescued Dux4 mediated proliferation defect and cell cycle arrest. • Sp1 binding site was required for Dux4-induced p21 promoter activation. - Abstract: It has been implicated that Dux4 plays crucial roles in development of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy. But the underlying myopathic mechanisms and related down-stream events of this retrogene were far from clear. Here, we reported that overexpression of Dux4 in a cell model TE671 reduced cell proliferation rate, and increased G1 phase accumulation. We also determined the impact of Dux4 on p53/p21 signal pathway, which controls the checkpoint in cell cycle progression. Overexpression of Dux4 increased p21 mRNA and protein level, while expression of p53, phospho-p53 remained unchanged. Silencing p21 rescued Dux4 mediated proliferation defect and cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we demonstrated that enhanced Dux4 expression increased p21 promoter activity and elevated expression of Sp1 transcription factor. Mutation of Sp1 binding site decreased dux4 induced p21 promoter activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed the Dux4-induced binding of Sp1 to p21 promoter in vivo. These results suggest that Dux4 might induce proliferation inhibition and G1 phase arrest through upregulation of p21.

  1. A correlation study between high resolution CT appearances and expression of transforming growth factor-β, tumor necrosis factor-α in radiation-induced lung injury of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Lili; Cheng Guangjun; Li Shaodong; Xu Kai

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between high resolution computed tomography manifestations and expression of transforming growth factor beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha in radiation- induced lung injury of rats, and to investigate the values of cytokine detection and HRCT scanning for the prediction and early diagnosis of radiation-induced lung injury. Methods: Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into eight groups, group A was normal control group, and group B- H were irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy to the lungs. HRCT scanning was performed before and 1 week, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 24 weeks after radiation in group A-H respectively. The expression of TGF-beta and TNF-alpha were detected with ELISA. All the rats were killed to observe pathological changes of their lungs. HRCT signs, levels of cytokine were simultaneously compared and analyzed. The t-test and Spearman rank correlation were used for the statistics. Results: Four HRCT signs were observed during the 24 weeks after radiation, including ground-glass opacity (1 case), patchy consolidation (8 cases), massive consolidation (7 cases) and fibrosis (3 cases). The average levels of TGF-beta in group B-H [(3.33± 0.47), (3.20±0.65), (3.12±0.45), (3.54±0.80), (3.30±1.13), (2.49±0.67), (4.19± 0.22) μg/L, respectively] were higher than the control group [(0.45±0.14) μg/L, P 0.05). There were no rank correlations between HRCT manifestations and expression of TGF-beta and TNF-alpha (r s = 0.5570 and 0.1013,P>0.05). HRCT signs were correlated with pathological changes. Conclusions: The monitoring of TGF-beta and TNF-alpha in the serum after irradiation can predict the development of radiation-induced lung injury. There are no rank correlations between HRCT manifestations and expression of TGF-beta and TNF-alpha. (authors)

  2. Ketamine induces brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression via phosphorylation of histone deacetylase 5 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Miyeon; Lee, Seung Hoon; Park, Min Hyeop; Kim, Yong-Seok; Son, Hyeon

    2017-08-05

    Ketamine shows promise as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of depression. The increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been associated with the antidepressant-like effects of ketamine, but the mechanism of BDNF induction is not well understood. In the current study, we demonstrate that the treatment of rats with ketamine results in the dose-dependent rapid upregulation of Bdnf promoter IV activity and expression of Bdnf exon IV mRNAs in rat hippocampal neurons. Transfection of histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) into rat hippocampal neurons similarly induces Bdnf mRNA expression in response to ketamine, whereas transfection of a HDAC5 phosphorylation-defective mutant (Ser259 and Ser498 replaced by Ala259 and Ala498), results in the suppression of ketamine-mediated BDNF promoter IV transcriptional activity. Viral-mediated hippocampal knockdown of HDAC5 induces Bdnf mRNA and protein expression, and blocks the enhancing effects of ketamine on BDNF expression in both unstressed and stressed rats, and thereby providing evidence for the role of HDAC5 in the regulation of Bdnf expression. Taken together, our findings implicate HDAC5 in the ketamine-induced transcriptional regulation of Bdnf, and suggest that the phosphorylation of HDAC5 regulates the therapeutic actions of ketamine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Construction of Egr1-mediated human truncated apoptosis inducing factor expression vector and its expression regularity induced by radiation in breast cancer MCF-7 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianfeng; Gong Shouliang; Wang Zhicheng; Fang Fang; Liu Yang; Wu Jiahui

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To clone human truncated apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) cDNA sequence, and to construct early growth response 1 (Egr1)-mediated recombinant expression vector pcDNA 3.1-Egr1-AIF Δ1-480 (pEgr1-AIFΔ 1-480 ), and to observe its regularity induced by radiation in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Methods: The total mRNA extracted from human leukemia Jurkat cells used as template, and the human AIFΔ 1-480 was acquired by RT-PCR, and it was linked to pMD18T vector for sequencing. Egr1 fragment was digested from pMD19T-Egr1 by restrictive enzyme, and the Egr1-mediated expression plasmid pEgr1-AIFΔ 1-480 was constructed by gene recombination. There were control group, pcDNA3.1 group, pAIFΔ 1-480 group and pEgr1-AIFΔ 1-480 group in the experiment. After the plasmids in various groups were transfected into human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, the AIF and AIFΔ 1-480 protein expression time-effect (0, 2, 4, 12, 24 and 48 h after 2.0 Gy irradiation) and dose-effect (24 h after 0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0 Gy irradiation) regularity were measured by Western blotting method. Results: The sequencing results showed that the AIFΔ 1-480 acquired by RT-PCR was consistent with the sequence expected, the pEgr-AIFΔ 1-480 was confirmed by PCR and restrictive enzyme digestion. After 0-48 h the MCF-7 cells were irradiated by 2.0 Gy, and the AIF protein expressed in the cells in each group, and it increased significantly from 4 h and the AIF expressions in 4, 12, 24 and 48 h groups were higher than that in 0 h group (P<0.05), and it reached to maximum value at 48 h. But the AIFΔ 1-480 protein expressed in the cells in pAIFΔ 1-480 and pEgr1-AIFΔ 1-480 groups from 2 h (P<0.05), and it reached to peak value at 24 h. The AIFΔ 1-480 expressions in pEgr1-AIFΔ 1-480 group were higher than those in pAIFΔ 1-480 group at and 48 h (P<0.05). After the MCF-7 cells were irradiated by 0-5 Gy for 24 h, the AIF protein expressed in the cells in each group, but the AIFΔ 1-480 protein

  4. Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility is associated with decreased Hira expression in male Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wolbachia are obligate endosymbiotic bacteria that infect numerous species of arthropods and nematodes. Wolbachia can induce several reproductive phenotypes in their insect hosts including feminization, male-killing, parthenogenesis and cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI. CI is the most common phenotype and occurs when Wolbachia-infected males mate with uninfected females resulting in no or very low numbers of viable offspring. However, matings between males and females infected with the same strain of Wolbachia result in viable progeny. Despite substantial scientific effort, the molecular mechanisms underlying CI are currently unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gene expression studies were undertaken in Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans which display differential levels of CI using quantitative RT-PCR. We show that Hira expression is correlated with the induction of CI and occurs in a sex-specific manner. Hira expression is significantly lower in males which induce strong CI when compared to males inducing no CI or Wolbachia-uninfected males. A reduction in Hira expression is also observed in 1-day-old males that induce stronger CI compared to 5-day-old males that induce weak or no CI. In addition, Hira mutated D. melanogaster males mated to uninfected females result in significantly decreased hatch rates comparing with uninfected crosses. Interestingly, wMel-infected females may rescue the hatch rates. An obvious CI phenotype with chromatin bridges are observed in the early embryo resulting from Hira mutant fertilization, which strongly mimics the defects associated with CI. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest Wolbachia-induced CI in Drosophila occurs due to a reduction in Hira expression in Wolbachia-infected males leading to detrimental effects on sperm fertility resulting in embryo lethality. These results may help determine the underlying mechanism of CI and provide further insight in to the important role

  5. Equine colostral carbohydrates reduce lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrig, J C; Coffeng, L E; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2012-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that reactions to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), particularly in the gut, can be partly or completely mitigated by colostrum- and milk-derived oligosaccharides. Confirmation of this hypothesis could lead to the development of new therapeutic concepts. To demonstrate the influence of equine colostral carbohydrates on the inflammatory response in an in vitro model with equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Carbohydrates were extracted from mare colostrum, and then evaluated for their influence on LPS-induced inflammatory responses in PBMCs isolated from the same mares, mRNA expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 was measured as well as the protein levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Equine colostral carbohydrates significantly reduced LPS-induced TNF-alpha protein at both times measured and significantly reduced LPS-induced TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 mRNA expression by PBMCs. Moreover, cell viability significantly increased in the presence of high concentrations of colostral carbohydrates. Carbohydrates derived from equine colostrum reduce LPS-induced inflammatory responses of equine PBMCs. Colostrum and milk-derived carbohydrates are promising candidates for new concepts in preventive and regenerative medicine.

  6. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression by xanthanolides isolated from Xanthium strumarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jeong Hoon; Lim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Hwa Jin; Kim, Hee-Doo; Jeon, Raok; Ryu, Jae-Ha

    2008-03-15

    Three sesquiterpenoids, xanthatin (1), xanthinosin (2), and 4-oxo-bedfordia acid (3) were isolated from Xanthium strumarium as inhibitors of nitric oxide synthesis in activated microglia (IC(50) values: 0.47, 11.2, 136.5 microM, respectively). Compounds 1 and 2 suppressed the expression of iNOS and COX-2 and the activity of NF-kappaB through the inhibition of LPS-induced I-kappaB-alpha degradation in microglia.

  7. Inhibitory PAS domain protein is a negative regulator of hypoxia-inducible gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Yuichi; Cao, Renhai; Svensson, Kristian; Bertilsson, Göran; Asman, Mikael; Tanaka, Hirotoshi; Cao, Yihai; Berkenstam, Anders; Poellinger, Lorenz

    2001-11-01

    Alteration of gene expression is a crucial component of adaptive responses to hypoxia. These responses are mediated by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs). Here we describe an inhibitory PAS (Per/Arnt/Sim) domain protein, IPAS, which is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)/PAS protein structurally related to HIFs. IPAS contains no endogenous transactivation function but demonstrates dominant negative regulation of HIF-mediated control of gene expression. Ectopic expression of IPAS in hepatoma cells selectively impairs induction of genes involved in adaptation to a hypoxic environment, notably the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene, and results in retarded tumour growth and tumour vascular density in vivo. In mice, IPAS was predominantly expressed in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum and in corneal epithelium of the eye. Expression of IPAS in the cornea correlates with low levels of expression of the VEGF gene under hypoxic conditions. Application of an IPAS antisense oligonucleotide to the mouse cornea induced angiogenesis under normal oxygen conditions, and demonstrated hypoxia-dependent induction of VEGF gene expression in hypoxic corneal cells. These results indicate a previously unknown mechanism for negative regulation of angiogenesis and maintenance of an avascular phenotype.

  8. Bifidobacterium bifidum Actively Changes the Gene Expression Profile Induced by Lactobacillus acidophilus in Murine Dendritic Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Gudrun Margarethe; Rasmussen, Simon; Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen

    2010-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) play a pivotal regulatory role in activation of both the innate as well as the adaptive immune system by responding to environmental microorganisms. We have previously shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus induces a strong production of the pro-inflammatory and Th1 polarizing...... cytokine IL-12 in DC, whereas bifidobacteria do not induce IL-12 but inhibit the IL-12 production induced by lactobacilli. In the present study, genome-wide microarrays were used to investigate the gene expression pattern of murine DC stimulated with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium...

  9. Hypoglycemia induced changes in cholinergic receptor expression in the cerebellum of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju TR

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glucose homeostasis in humans is an important factor for the functioning of nervous system. Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia is found to be associated with central and peripheral nerve system dysfunction. Changes in acetylcholine receptors have been implicated in the pathophysiology of many major diseases of the central nervous system (CNS. In the present study we showed the effects of insulin induced hypoglycemia and streptozotocin induced diabetes on the cerebellar cholinergic receptors, GLUT3 and muscle cholinergic activity. Results showed enhanced binding parameters and gene expression of Muscarinic M1, M3 receptor subtypes in cerebellum of diabetic (D and hypoglycemic group (D + IIH and C + IIH. α7nAchR gene expression showed a significant upregulation in diabetic group and showed further upregulated expression in both D + IIH and C + IIH group. AchE expression significantly upregulated in hypoglycemic and diabetic group. ChAT showed downregulation and GLUT3 expression showed a significant upregulation in D + IIH and C + IIH and diabetic group. AchE activity enhanced in the muscle of hypoglycemic and diabetic rats. Our studies demonstrated a functional disturbance in the neuronal glucose transporter GLUT3 in the cerebellum during insulin induced hypoglycemia in diabetic rats. Altered expression of muscarinic M1, M3 and α7nAchR and increased muscle AchE activity in hypoglycemic rats in cerebellum is suggested to cause cognitive and motor dysfunction. Hypoglycemia induced changes in ChAT and AchE gene expression is suggested to cause impaired acetycholine metabolism in the cerebellum. Cerebellar dysfunction is associated with seizure generation, motor deficits and memory impairment. The results shows that cerebellar cholinergic neurotransmission is impaired during hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia and the hypoglycemia is causing more prominent imbalance in cholinergic neurotransmission which is suggested to be a cause of cerebellar

  10. Microarray-based screening of differentially expressed genes in glucocorticoid-induced avascular necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gangyong; Wei, Yibing; Zhao, Guanglei; Xia, Jun; Wang, Siqun; Wu, Jianguo; Chen, Feiyan; Chen, Jie; Shi, Jingshen

    2017-01-01

    The underlying mechanisms of glucocorticoid (GC)-induced avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) have yet to be fully understood, in particular the mechanisms associated with the change of gene expression pattern. The present study aimed to identify key genes with a differential expression pattern in GC-induced ANFH. E-MEXP-2751 microarray data were downloaded from the ArrayExpress database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in 5 femoral head samples of steroid-induced ANFH rats compared with 5 placebo-treated rat samples. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses were performed upon these DEGs. A total 93 DEGs (46 upregulated and 47 downregulated genes) were identified in GC-induced ANFH samples. These DEGs were enriched in different GO terms and pathways, including chondrocyte differentiation and detection of chemical stimuli. The enrichment map revealed that skeletal system development was interconnected with several other GO terms by gene overlap. The literature mined network analysis revealed that 5 upregulated genes were associated with femoral necrosis, including parathyroid hormone receptor 1 (PTHR1), vitamin D (1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3) receptor (VDR), collagen, type II, α1, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 6 and zinc finger protein 354C (ZFP354C). In addition, ZFP354C and VDR were identified to transcription factors. Furthermore, PTHR1 was revealed to interact with VDR, and α-2-macroglobulin (A2M) interacted with fibronectin 1 (FN1) in the PPI network. PTHR1 may be involved in GC-induced ANFH via interacting with VDR. A2M may also be involved in the development of GC-induced ANFH through interacting with FN1. An improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying GC-induced ANFH may provide novel targets for diagnostics and therapeutic treatment. PMID:28393228

  11. Microarray‑based screening of differentially expressed genes in glucocorticoid‑induced avascular necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gangyong; Wei, Yibing; Zhao, Guanglei; Xia, Jun; Wang, Siqun; Wu, Jianguo; Chen, Feiyan; Chen, Jie; Shi, Jingshen

    2017-06-01

    The underlying mechanisms of glucocorticoid (GC)‑induced avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) have yet to be fully understood, in particular the mechanisms associated with the change of gene expression pattern. The present study aimed to identify key genes with a differential expression pattern in GC‑induced ANFH. E‑MEXP‑2751 microarray data were downloaded from the ArrayExpress database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in 5 femoral head samples of steroid‑induced ANFH rats compared with 5 placebo‑treated rat samples. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses were performed upon these DEGs. A total 93 DEGs (46 upregulated and 47 downregulated genes) were identified in GC‑induced ANFH samples. These DEGs were enriched in different GO terms and pathways, including chondrocyte differentiation and detection of chemical stimuli. The enrichment map revealed that skeletal system development was interconnected with several other GO terms by gene overlap. The literature mined network analysis revealed that 5 upregulated genes were associated with femoral necrosis, including parathyroid hormone receptor 1 (PTHR1), vitamin D (1,25‑Dihydroxyvitamin D3) receptor (VDR), collagen, type II, α1, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 6 and zinc finger protein 354C (ZFP354C). In addition, ZFP354C and VDR were identified to transcription factors. Furthermore, PTHR1 was revealed to interact with VDR, and α‑2‑macroglobulin (A2M) interacted with fibronectin 1 (FN1) in the PPI network. PTHR1 may be involved in GC‑induced ANFH via interacting with VDR. A2M may also be involved in the development of GC‑induced ANFH through interacting with FN1. An improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying GC‑induced ANFH may provide novel targets for diagnostics and therapeutic treatment.

  12. Wnt/β-catenin signaling changes C2C12 myoblast proliferation and differentiation by inducing Id3 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Long; Shi, Songting; Zhang, Juan; Zhou, Fangfang; Dijke, Peter ten

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Expression of Id3 but not Id1 is induced by Wnt3a stimulation in C2C12 cells. ► Wnt3a induces Id3 expression via canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway. ► Wnt3a-induced Id3 expression does not depend on BMP signaling activation. ► Induction of Id3 expression is critical determinant in Wnt3a-induced cell proliferation and differentiation. -- Abstract: Canonical Wnt signaling plays important roles in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we report that inhibitor of differentiation (Id)3 is a Wnt-inducible gene in mouse C2C12 myoblasts. Wnt3a induced Id3 expression in a β-catenin-dependent manner. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) also potently induced Id3 expression. However, Wnt-induced Id3 expression occurred independent of the BMP/Smad pathway. Functional studies showed that Id3 depletion in C2C12 cells impaired Wnt3a-induced cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity, an early marker of osteoblast cells. Id3 depletion elevated myogenin induction during myogenic differentiation and partially impaired Wnt3a suppressed myogenin expression in C2C12 cells. These results suggest that Id3 is an important Wnt/β-catenin induced gene in myoblast cell fate determination.

  13. Expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer in retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hong Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2(MMP-2and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer(EMMPRINin retinoblastoma(Rband the relationships between MMP-2, EMMPRIN and tumor development.METHODS:Immunohistochemical technique was used to detect expressions of MMP-2 and EMMPRIN in 39 cases of paraffin embedded Rb samples. Quantitative analysis of expressions of MMP-2 and EMMPRIN were assessed by measuring the mean gray scale of Rb tissue with LEICA IM50 Color Pathologic Analysis System. The differences of expressions of MMP-2 and EMMPRIN in each clinical and pathological stage were statistically analyzed, and the same step was also undertaken to study the relationship between Rb with MMP-2 positive expression and that with EMMPRIN positive expression.RESULTS: The positive expression rate of MMP-2 was 90%(Gray value: 109.64±14.52; 35/39, and that of EMMPRIN was 85%(Gray value: 108.01±13.60; 33/39. The expressions of MMP-2 and EMMPRIN were significantly higher in tumors of glaucomatous stage(Gray value: 108.21±11.47 and 107.56±14.32than those in intraocular stage(Gray value: 121.13±11.32 and 119.34±12.66; PPPPPPCONCLUSION: The positive expression levels of MMP-2 and EMMPRIN may correlate with tumor infiltration and metastasis.

  14. Ozone-induced gene expression occurs via ethylene-dependent and -independent signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmig, Bernhard; Gonzalez-Perez, Maria N; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard; Vögeli-Lange, Regina; Meins, Fred; Hain, Rüdiger; Penuelas, Josep; Heidenreich, Bernd; Langebartels, Christian; Ernst, Dieter; Sandermann, Heinrich

    2003-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that ethylene is involved in signalling ozone-induced gene expression. We show here that application of ozone increased glucuronidase (GUS) expression of chimeric reporter genes regulated by the promoters of the tobacco class I beta-1,3-glucanases (GLB and Gln2) and the grapevine resveratrol synthase (Vst1) genes in transgenic tobacco leaves. 5'-deletion analysis of the class I beta-1,3-glucanase promoter revealed that ozone-induced gene regulation is mainly mediated by the distal enhancer region containing the positively acting ethylene-responsive element (ERE). In addition, application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an inhibitor of ethylene action, blocked ozone-induced class I beta-1,3-glucanase promoter activity. Enhancer activity and ethylene-responsiveness depended on the integrity of the GCC boxes, cis-acting elements present in the ERE of the class I beta-1,3-glucanase and the basic-type pathogenesis-related PR-1 protein (PRB-1b) gene promoters. The minimal PRB-1b promoter containing only the ERE with intact GCC boxes, was sufficient to confer 10-fold ozone inducibility to a GUS-reporter gene, while a substitution mutation in the GCC box abolished ozone responsiveness. The ERE region of the class I beta-1,3-glucanase promoter containing two intact GCC boxes confered strong ozone inducibility to a minimal cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S RNA promoter, whereas two single-base substitution in the GCC boxes resulted in a complete loss of ozone inducibility. Taken together, these datastrongly suggest that ethylene is signalling ozone-induced expression of class I beta-l,3-glucanase and PRB-1b genes. Promoter analysis of the stilbene synthase Vst1 gene unravelled different regions for ozone and ethylene-responsiveness. Application of 1-MCP blocked ethylene-induced Vst1 induction, but ozone induction was not affected. This shows that ozone-induced gene expression occurs via at least two different signalling mechanisms and suggests an

  15. Severe hypoxia induces chemo-resistance in clinical cervical tumors through MVP over-expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Pedro C; Lloret, Marta; Clavo, Bernardino; Apolinario, Rosa M; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Bordón, Elisa; Fontes, Fausto; Rey, Agustín

    2009-08-06

    Oxygen molecule modulates tumour response to radiotherapy. Higher radiation doses are required under hypoxic conditions to induce cell death. Hypoxia may inhibit the non-homologous end-joining DNA repair through down regulating Ku70/80 expression. Hypoxia induces drug resistance in clinical tumours, although the mechanism is not clearly elucidated. Vaults are ribonucleoprotein particles with a hollow barrel-like structure composed of three proteins: major vault protein (MVP), vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and telomerase associated protein-1 and small untranslated RNA. Over-expression of MVP has been associated with chemotherapy resistance. Also, it has been related to poor outcome in patients treated with radiotherapy alone. The aim of the present study was to assess the relation of Major Vault Protein expression and tumor hypoxia in clinical cervical tumors. MVP, p53 and angiogenesis, together with tumor oxygenation, were determined in forty-three consecutive patients suffering from localized cervix carcinoma. High MVP expression was related to severe hypoxia compared to low MVP expressing tumors (p = 0.022). Tumors over-expressing MVP also showed increased angiogenesis (p = 0.003). Besides it, in this study we show for the first time that severe tumor hypoxia is associated with high MVP expression in clinical cervical tumors. Up-regulation of MVP by hypoxia is of critical relevance as chemotherapy is currently a standard treatment for those patients. From our results it could be suggested that hypoxia not only induces increased genetic instability, oncogenic properties and metastatization, but through the correlation observed with MVP expression, another pathway of chemo and radiation resistance could be developed.

  16. Severe hypoxia induces chemo-resistance in clinical cervical tumors through MVP over-expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, Pedro C; Lloret, Marta; Clavo, Bernardino; Apolinario, Rosa M; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Bordón, Elisa; Fontes, Fausto; Rey, Agustín

    2009-01-01

    Oxygen molecule modulates tumour response to radiotherapy. Higher radiation doses are required under hypoxic conditions to induce cell death. Hypoxia may inhibit the non-homologous end-joining DNA repair through down regulating Ku70/80 expression. Hypoxia induces drug resistance in clinical tumours, although the mechanism is not clearly elucidated. Vaults are ribonucleoprotein particles with a hollow barrel-like structure composed of three proteins: major vault protein (MVP), vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and telomerase associated protein-1 and small untranslated RNA. Over-expression of MVP has been associated with chemotherapy resistance. Also, it has been related to poor outcome in patients treated with radiotherapy alone. The aim of the present study was to assess the relation of Major Vault Protein expression and tumor hypoxia in clinical cervical tumors. MVP, p53 and angiogenesis, together with tumor oxygenation, were determined in forty-three consecutive patients suffering from localized cervix carcinoma. High MVP expression was related to severe hypoxia compared to low MVP expressing tumors (p = 0.022). Tumors over-expressing MVP also showed increased angiogenesis (p = 0.003). Besides it, in this study we show for the first time that severe tumor hypoxia is associated with high MVP expression in clinical cervical tumors. Up-regulation of MVP by hypoxia is of critical relevance as chemotherapy is currently a standard treatment for those patients. From our results it could be suggested that hypoxia not only induces increased genetic instability, oncogenic properties and metastatization, but through the correlation observed with MVP expression, another pathway of chemo and radiation resistance could be developed

  17. Heme-Oxygenase-1 Expression Contributes to the Immunoregulation Induced by Fasciola hepatica and Promotes Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Carasi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica, also known as the liver fluke, is a trematode that infects livestock and humans causing fasciolosis, a zoonotic disease of increasing importance due to its worldwide distribution and high economic losses. This parasite immunoregulates the host immune system by inducing a strong Th2 and regulatory T immune response by immunomodulating dendritic cell (DC maturation and alternative activation of macrophages. In this paper, we show that F. hepatica infection in mice induces the upregulation of heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1, the rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of free heme that regulates the host inflammatory response. We show and characterize two different populations of antigen presenting cells that express HO-1 during infection in the peritoneum of infected animals. Cells that expressed high levels of HO-1 expressed intermediate levels of F4/80 but high expression of CD11c, CD38, TGFβ, and IL-10 suggesting that they correspond to regulatory DCs. On the other hand, cells expressing intermediate levels of HO-1 expressed high levels of F4/80, CD68, Ly6C, and FIZZ-1, indicating that they might correspond to alternatively activated macrophages. Furthermore, the pharmacological induction of HO-1 with the synthetic metalloporphyrin CoPP promoted F. hepatica infection increasing the clinical signs associated with the disease. In contrast, treatment with the HO-1 inhibitor SnPP protected mice from parasite infection, indicating that HO-1 plays an essential role during F. hepatica infection. Finally, HO-1 expression during F. hepatica infection was associated with TGFβ and IL-10 levels in liver and peritoneum, suggesting that HO-1 controls the expression of these immunoregulatory cytokines during infection favoring parasite survival in the host. These results contribute to the elucidation of the immunoregulatory mechanisms induced by F. hepatica in the host and provide alternative checkpoints to control fasciolosis.

  18. HEAT INDUCIBLE EXPRESSION OF ANTIFREEZE PROTEIN GENES FROM THE BEETLES Tenebrio molitor AND Microdera punctipennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jieqiong; Ma, Wenjing; Ma, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) play important roles in protecting poikilothermic organisms from cold damage. The expression of AFP genes (afps) is induced by low temperature. However, it is reported that heat can influence the expression of afps in the desert beetle Microdera punctipennis. To further detect whether heat also induce the expression of afps in other insects, and to determine the expression profiling of insect afps at different temperatures. The expression of antifreeze protein genes in the two beetles, Microdera punctipennis and Tenebrio molitor that have quite different living environment, under different temperatures were studied by using real-time quantitative PCR. Mild low temperatures (5~15 degree C), high temperature (38~47 degree C for M. punctipennis, or 37~42 degree C for T. molitor) and temperature difference (10~30 degree C) all stimulated strongly to the expression of AFP genes (Mpafps) in M. punctipennis which lives in the wild filed in desert. The mRNA level of Mpafps after M. punctipennis were exposed to these temperatures for 1h~5h was at least 30-fold of the control at 25 degree C. For T. molitor which is breeding in door with wheat bran all these temperatures stimulated significantly to the expression of Tmafps, while the extent and degree of the temperature stimulation on Tmafps expression were much lower than on Mpafps. After T. molitor were exposed to 5 degree C and 15 degree C for 1h~5h, the mRNA level of Tmafps was over 6-fold and 45-fold of the control at 25 degree C. High temperature (37~42 degree C) for 1h~3h treatments increased Tmafps mRNA level 4.8-fold of the control. Temperature difference of 10 degree C was effective in stimulating Tmafps expression. The expression of insect antifreeze protein genes both in M. punctipennis and T. molitor was induced by heat, suggesting that this phenomenon may be common in insects; the extent and degree of the influence differ in species that have different living conditions. The heat

  19. Low density lipoprotein induces upregulation of vasoconstrictive endothelin type B receptor expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Cang-Bao; Zheng, Jian-Pu; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Vasoconstrictive endothelin type B (ET(B)) receptors promote vasospasm and ischemic cerebro- and cardiovascular diseases. The present study was designed to examine if low density lipoprotein (LDL) induces upregulation of vasoconstrictive ET(B) receptor expression and if extracellular signal...

  20. Pregnancy-induced gene expression changes in vivo among women with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goin, Dana E; Smed, Mette Kiel; Pachter, Lior

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about gene expression changes induced by pregnancy in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and healthy women because the few studies previously conducted did not have pre-pregnancy samples available as baseline. We have established a cohort of women with RA and healthy...

  1. Elicitor and fusarium-induced expression of NPR-1 like genes in banana

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Endah, R

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available NPR1 is an essential positive regulator of salicylic acid-induced PR gene expression and systemic acquired resistance. Two novel full-length NPR1-like genes; MNPR1A and MNPR1B, were isolated by application of the PCR and RACE techniques. The two...

  2. Heme oxygenase-1 expression protects melanocytes from stress-induced cell death: implications for vitiligo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elassiuty, Yasser E.; Klarquist, Jared; Speiser, Jodi; Yousef, Randa M.; El Refaee, Abdelaziz A.; Hunter, Nahla S.; Shaker, Olfat G.; Gundeti, Mohan; Nieuweboer-Krobotova, Ludmila; Caroline Le Poole, I.

    2011-01-01

    To study protection of melanocytes from stress-induced cell death by heme oxygenases during depigmentation and repigmentation in vitiligo, expression of isoforms 1 and 2 was studied in cultured control and patient melanocytes and normal skin explants exposed to UV or bleaching agent 4-TBP.

  3. Increased hepatic CD36 expression contributes to dyslipidemia associated with diet-induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The etiology of type 2 diabetes often involves diet-induced obesity (DIO), which is associated with elevated plasma fatty acids and lipoprotein associated triglycerides. Since aberrant hepatic fatty acid uptake may contribute to this, we investigated whether increased expression of a fatty acid tran...

  4. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in radiation-induced dog lung tumors by immunocytochemical localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, F.L.; Park, J.F.; Dagle, G.E.

    1993-06-01

    In studies to determine the role of growth factors in radiation-induced lung cancer, epidermal growth factor (EGFR) expression was examined by immunocytochemistry in 51 lung tumors from beagle dogs exposed to inhaled plutonium; 21 of 51 (41%) tumors were positive for EGFR. The traction of tumors positive for EGFR and the histological type of EGFR-positive tumors in the plutonium-exposed dogs were not different from spontaneous dog lung tumors, In which 36% were positive for EGFR. EGFR involvement in Pu-induced lung tumors appeared to be similar to that in spontaneous lung tumors. However, EGFR-positive staining was observed in only 1 of 16 tumors at the three lowest Pu exposure levels, compared to 20 of 35 tumors staining positive at the two highest Pu exposure levels. The results in dogs were in good agreement with the expression of EGFR reported in human non-small cell carcinoma of the lung, suggesting that Pu-induced lung tumors in the dog may be a suitable animal model to investigate the role of EGFR expression in lung carcinogenesis. In humans, EGFR expression in lung tumors has been primarily related to histological tumor types. In individual dogs with multiple primary lung tumors, the tumors were either all EGFR positive or EGFR negative, suggesting that EGFR expression may be related to the response of the individual dog as well as to the histological type of tumor.

  5. Transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα regulates granulosa cell tumor (GCT cell proliferation and migration through activation of multiple pathways.

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    Cheng Wang

    Full Text Available Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs are the most common ovarian estrogen producing tumors, leading to symptoms of excessive estrogen such as endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial adenocarcinoma. These tumors have malignant potential and often recur. The etiology of GCT is unknown. TGFα is a potent mitogen for many different cells. However, its function in GCT initiation, progression and metastasis has not been determined. The present study aims to determine whether TGFα plays a role in the growth of GCT cells. KGN cells, which are derived from an invasive GCT and have many features of normal granulosa cells, were used as the cellular model. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot and RT-PCR results showed that the ErbB family of receptors is expressed in human GCT tissues and GCT cell lines. RT-PCR results also indicated that TGFα and EGF are expressed in the human granulosa cells and the GCT cell lines, suggesting that TGFα might regulate GCT cell function in an autocrine/paracrine manner. TGFα stimulated KGN cell DNA synthesis, cell proliferation, cell viability, cell cycle progression, and cell migration. TGFα rapidly activated EGFR/PI3K/Akt and mTOR pathways, as indicated by rapid phosphorylation of Akt, TSC2, Rictor, mTOR, P70S6K and S6 proteins following TGFα treatment. TGFα also rapidly activated the EGFR/MEK/ERK pathway, and P38 MAPK pathways, as indicated by the rapid phosphorylation of EGFR, MEK, ERK1/2, P38, and CREB after TGFα treatment. Whereas TGFα triggered a transient activation of Akt, it induced a sustained activation of ERK1/2 in KGN cells. Long-term treatment of KGN cells with TGFα resulted in a significant increase in cyclin D2 and a decrease in p27/Kip1, two critical regulators of granulosa cell proliferation and granulosa cell tumorigenesis. In conclusion, TGFα, via multiple signaling pathways, regulates KGN cell proliferation and migration and may play an important role in the growth and metastasis of GCTs.

  6. Drug-loaded nanoparticles induce gene expression in human pluripotent stem cell derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajbhiye, Virendra; Escalante, Leah; Chen, Guojun; Laperle, Alex; Zheng, Qifeng; Steyer, Benjamin; Gong, Shaoqin; Saha, Krishanu

    2013-12-01

    Tissue engineering and advanced manufacturing of human stem cells requires a suite of tools to control gene expression spatiotemporally in culture. Inducible gene expression systems offer cell-extrinsic control, typically through addition of small molecules, but small molecule inducers typically contain few functional groups for further chemical modification. Doxycycline (DXC), a potent small molecule inducer of tetracycline (Tet) transgene systems, was conjugated to a hyperbranched dendritic polymer (Boltorn H40) and subsequently reacted with polyethylene glycol (PEG). The resulting PEG-H40-DXC nanoparticle exhibited pH-sensitive drug release behavior and successfully controlled gene expression in stem-cell-derived fibroblasts with a Tet-On system. While free DXC inhibited fibroblast proliferation and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, PEG-H40-DXC nanoparticles maintained higher fibroblast proliferation levels and MMP activity. The results demonstrate that the PEG-H40-DXC nanoparticle system provides an effective tool to controlling gene expression in human stem cell derivatives.Tissue engineering and advanced manufacturing of human stem cells requires a suite of tools to control gene expression spatiotemporally in culture. Inducible gene expression systems offer cell-extrinsic control, typically through addition of small molecules, but small molecule inducers typically contain few functional groups for further chemical modification. Doxycycline (DXC), a potent small molecule inducer of tetracycline (Tet) transgene systems, was conjugated to a hyperbranched dendritic polymer (Boltorn H40) and subsequently reacted with polyethylene glycol (PEG). The resulting PEG-H40-DXC nanoparticle exhibited pH-sensitive drug release behavior and successfully controlled gene expression in stem-cell-derived fibroblasts with a Tet-On system. While free DXC inhibited fibroblast proliferation and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, PEG-H40-DXC nanoparticles maintained

  7. Arsenite enhances tumor necrosis factor-α-induced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsou, T.-C.; Yeh, Szu Ching; Tsai, E.-M.; Tsai, F.-Y.; Chao, H.-R.; Chang, Louis W.

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrated a high association of vascular diseases with arsenite exposure. We hypothesize that arsenite potentiates the effect of proinflammatory cytokines on vascular endothelial cells, and hence contributes to atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of arsenite and its induction of glutathione (GSH) on vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) protein expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in response to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a typical proinflammatory cytokine. Our study demonstrated that arsenite pretreatment potentiated the TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression with up-regulations of both activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). To elucidate the role of GSH in regulation of AP-1, NF-κB, and VCAM-1 expression, we employed L-buthionine (S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO), a specific γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS) inhibitor, to block intracellular GSH synthesis. Our investigation revealed that, by depleting GSH, arsenite attenuated the TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression as well as a potentiation of AP-1 and an attenuation of NF-κB activations by TNF-α. Moreover, we found that depletion of GSH would also attenuate the TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression with a down-regulation of the TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation and without significant effect on AP-1. On the other hand, the TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression could be completely abolished by inhibition of AP-1 or NF-κB activity, suggesting that activation of both AP-1 and NF-κB was necessary for VCAM-1 expression. In summary, we demonstrate that arsenite enhances the TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression in HUVECs via regulation of AP-1 and NF-κB activities in a GSH-sensitive manner. Our present study suggested a potential mechanism for arsenite in the induction of vascular inflammation and vascular diseases via modulating the actions of proinflammatory cytokines

  8. GATA-dependent regulation of TPO-induced c-mpl gene expression during megakaryopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunohara, Masataka; Morikawa, Shigeru; Fuse, Akira; Sato, Iwao

    2014-01-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) and its receptor, c-Mpl, play the crucial role during megakaryocytopoiesis. Previously, we have shown that the promoter activity of c-mpl induced by TPO is modulated by transcription through a PKC-dependent pathway and that GATA(-77) is involved as a positive regulatory element in TPO-induced c-mpl gene expression in the megakaryoblastic CMK cells. In this research, to examine participating possibility of GATA promoter element in TPO- induced c-mpl gene expression through a PKC-independent pathway, the promoter activity of site-directed mutagenesis and the effect of potein kinase C modulator were measured by a transient transfection assay system. Together with our previous results on the TPO-induced c-mpl promoter, this study indicates destruction of -77GATA in c-mpl promoter decreased the activity by 47.3% under existence of GF109203. These results suggest that GATA promoter element plays significant role in TPO-induced c-mpl gene expression through a PKC-independent pathway.

  9. [Expression of various matrix metalloproteinases in mice with hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang-feng; Ding, Shao-fang; Gao, Yuan-ming; Liang, Ying; Foda, Hussein D

    2006-08-01

    To investigate the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury induced by hyperoxia. Fifty four mice were exposed in sealed cages to >98% oxygen (for 24-72 hours), and another 18 mice to room air. The severity of lung injury was assessed, and the expression of mRNA and protein of MMP-2, MMP-9 and EMMPRIN in lung tissue, after exposure for 24, 48 and 72 hours of hyperoxia were studied by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Hyperoxia caused acute lung injury; this was accompanied by increased expression of an upregulation of MMP-2, MMP-9 and EMMPRIN mRNA and protein in lung tissues. Hyperoxia causes acute lung injury in mice; increases in MMP-2, MMP-9 and EMMPRIN may play an important role in the development of hyperoxia induced lung injury in mice.

  10. The molecular mechanism of leptin secretion and expression induced by aristolochic acid in kidney fibroblast.

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    Tsung-Chieh Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptin is a peptide hormone playing pivotal role in regulating food intake and energy expenditure. Growing evidence has suggested the pro-inflammatory and fibrogenic properties of leptin. In addition, patients with renal fibrosis have higher level of plasma leptin, which was due to the increased leptin production. Aristolochic acid (AA is a botanical toxin characterized to associate with the development of renal fibrosis including tubulointerstitial fibrosis. However, whether leptin is upregulated to participate in AA-induced kidney fibrosis remain completely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, leptin expression was increased by sublethal dose of AA in kidney fibroblast NRK49f determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot. Data from real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed that leptin was upregulated by AA at transcriptional level. DNA binding activity of CCAAT enhancer binding protein α (C/EBP α, one of the transcription factors for leptin gene, was enhanced in DNA affinity precipitation assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments. Knockdown of C/EBP α expression by small interfering RNA markedly reduced AA-induced leptin expression. Moreover, AA promoted Akt interaction with p-PDK1, and increased phosphorylated activation of Akt. Akt knockdown, and inhibition of Akt signaling by LY294002 and mTOR inhibitor rapamycin reduced leptin expression. Furthermore, treatment of LY294002 or rapamycin significantly suppressed AA-induced C/EBP α DNA-binding activity. These results suggest that Akt and C/EBP α activation were involved in AA-regulated leptin expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings demonstrate the first that AA could induce secretion and expression of fibrogenic leptin in kidney fibroblasts, which reveal potential involvement of leptin in the progression of kidney fibrosis in aristolochic acid nephropathy.

  11. Cannabidivarin (CBDV suppresses pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced increases in epilepsy-related gene expression

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    Naoki Amada

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To date, anticonvulsant effects of the plant cannabinoid, cannabidivarin (CBDV, have been reported in several animal models of seizure. However, these behaviourally observed anticonvulsant effects have not been confirmed at the molecular level. To examine changes to epilepsy-related gene expression following chemical convulsant treatment and their subsequent control by phytocannabinoid administration, we behaviourally evaluated effects of CBDV (400 mg/kg, p.o. on acute, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ: 95 mg/kg, i.p.-induced seizures, quantified expression levels of several epilepsy-related genes (Fos, Casp 3, Ccl3, Ccl4, Npy, Arc, Penk, Camk2a, Bdnf and Egr1 by qPCR using hippocampal, neocortical and prefrontal cortical tissue samples before examining correlations between expression changes and seizure severity. PTZ treatment alone produced generalised seizures (median: 5.00 and significantly increased expression of Fos, Egr1, Arc, Ccl4 and Bdnf. Consistent with previous findings, CBDV significantly decreased PTZ-induced seizure severity (median: 3.25 and increased latency to the first sign of seizure. Furthermore, there were correlations between reductions of seizure severity and mRNA expression of Fos, Egr1, Arc, Ccl4 and Bdnf in the majority of brain regions in the CBDV+PTZ treated group. When CBDV treated animals were grouped into CBDV responders (criterion: seizure severity ≤3.25 and non-responders (criterion: seizure severity >3.25, PTZ-induced increases of Fos, Egr1, Arc, Ccl4 and Bdnf expression were suppressed in CBDV responders. These results provide the first molecular confirmation of behaviourally observed effects of the non-psychoactive, anticonvulsant cannabinoid, CBDV, upon chemically-induced seizures and serve to underscore its suitability for clinical development.

  12. RpoS induces expression of the Vibrio anguillarum quorum-sensing regulator VanT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Barbara; Croxatto, Antony; Chen, Chang; Milton, Debra L

    2008-03-01

    In vibrios, regulation of the Vibrio harveyi-like LuxR transcriptional activators occurs post-transcriptionally via small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) that destabilize the luxR mRNA at a low cell population, eliminating expression of LuxR. Expression of the sRNAs is modulated by the vibrio quorum-sensing phosphorelay systems. However, vanT mRNA, which encodes a LuxR homologue in Vibrio anguillarum, is abundant at low and high cell density, indicating that VanT expression may be regulated via additional mechanisms. In this study, Western analyses showed that VanT was expressed throughout growth with a peak of expression during late exponential growth. VanO induced partial destabilization of vanT mRNA via activation of at least one Qrr sRNA. Interestingly, the sigma factor RpoS significantly stabilized vanT mRNA and induced VanT expression during late exponential growth. This induction was in part due to RpoS repressing expression of Hfq, an RNA chaperone. RpoS is not part of the quorum-sensing regulatory cascade since RpoS did not regulate expression or activity of VanO, and RpoS was not regulated by VanO or VanT. VanT and RpoS were needed for survival following UV irradiation and for pigment and metalloprotease production, suggesting that RpoS works with the quorum-sensing systems to modulate expression of VanT, which regulates survival and stress responses.

  13. Hypoxia induced expression of endogenous markers in vitro is highly influenced by pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, Brita Singers; Alsner, Jan; Overgaard, Jens; Horsman, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Genes such as carbonic anhydrase IX (Ca9), glucose transporter 1 (Glut1), lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A), osteopontin (OPN) and lysyl oxidase (LOX) have been suggested as hypoxic markers, but inconsistent results suggest that factors other than oxygen influence their expression. The current study is a detailed investigation using a range of pH values from 6.3 to 7.5 in two human cell lines to establish the pH dependency of hypoxia induced gene expression. Methods: Human tumour cell lines (uterine cervix squamous cell carcinoma (SiHa) and pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma [FaDu DD ]) were used. Hypoxia was induced by gassing cells in airtight chambers with various oxygen concentrations (21%, 1%, 0.1%, 0.01% and 0%) for up to 24 h. The media were titrated to a range of pH values (7.5, 7.0, 6.7, 6.5 and 6.3). Gene expression was determined by real-time PCR. Results: In both SiHa and FaDu DD cells Ca9 and LOX reached the highest level of expression at 1% oxygen. In FaDu DD cells, a pH of 6.5 had a medium suppression effect on the hypoxia induced expression of Ca9. pH 6.3 resulted in severe suppression of expression for Ca9 and LOX in both SiHa and FaDu DD . Glut1 and LDH-A had a similar expression pattern to each other, with a maximum expression at 0.01% oxygen, in both cell lines. For these genes pH 6.5 and 6.3 changed the expression pattern in SiHa cells. OPN was up regulated at low oxygen in SiHa cells, but was not induced by hypoxia in FaDu DD cells. Conclusion: As tumour hypoxia occurs in a deprived microenvironment, other environmental factors, for example low pH, might interact with the effect of low oxygen concentration on gene expression. This study shows that pH in two cell lines has a profound influence on the oxygen dependent induction of certain endogenous hypoxic markers

  14. Intermedilysin induces EGR-1 expression through calcineurin/NFAT pathway in human cholangiocellular carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susilowati, Heni; Okamura, Hirohiko; Hirota, Katsuhiko; Shono, Masayuki; Yoshida, Kaya; Murakami, Keiji; Tabata, Atsushi; Nagamune, Hideaki; Haneji, Tatsuji; Miyake, Yoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → ILY leads to the accumulation of [Ca 2+ ]i in the nucleus in HuCCT1 cells. → ILY induced activation of NFAT1 through a calcineurin-dependent pathway. → Calcineuri/NFAT pathway is involved in EGR-1 expression in response to ILY treatment. -- Abstract: Intermedilysin (ILY) is a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin produced by Streptococcus intermedius, which is associated with human brain and liver abscesses. Although intrahepatic bile duct cells play a valuable role in the pathogenesis of liver abscess, the molecular mechanism of ILY-treated intrahepatic bile duct cells remains unknown. In this study, we report that ILY induced a nuclear accumulation of intracellular calcium ([Ca 2+ ]i) in human cholangiocellular cells HuCCT1. We also demonstrate that 10 ng/ml ILY induced NFAT1 dephosphorylation and its nuclear translocation in HuCCT1 cells. In contrast to the result that ILY induced NF-κB translocation in human hepatic HepG2 cells, ILY did not affect NF-κB localization in HuCCT1 cells. Dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NFAT1 caused by ILY were prevented by [Ca 2+ ]i calcium chelator, BAPTA/AM, and calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporine A and tacrolimus. ILY induced early growth response-1 (EGR-1) expression and it was inhibited by the pre-treatment with cyclosporine A, indicating that the calcineurin/NFAT pathway was involved in EGR-1 expression in response to ILY. ILY-induced calcineurin/NFAT1 activation and sequential EGR-1 expression might be related to the pathogenesis of S. intermedius in human bile duct cells.

  15. Intermedilysin induces EGR-1 expression through calcineurin/NFAT pathway in human cholangiocellular carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susilowati, Heni [Department of Oral Microbiology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan); Okamura, Hirohiko [Department of Histology and Oral Histology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan); Hirota, Katsuhiko, E-mail: hirota@dent.tokushima-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral Microbiology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan); Shono, Masayuki [Support Center for Advanced Medical Sciences, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan); Yoshida, Kaya [Department of Fundamental Oral Health Science, School of Oral Health and Welfare, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan); Murakami, Keiji [Department of Oral Microbiology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan); Tabata, Atsushi; Nagamune, Hideaki [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Life System, Institute of Technology and Science, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan); Haneji, Tatsuji [Department of Histology and Oral Histology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan); Miyake, Yoichiro [Department of Oral Microbiology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} ILY leads to the accumulation of [Ca{sup 2+}]i in the nucleus in HuCCT1 cells. {yields} ILY induced activation of NFAT1 through a calcineurin-dependent pathway. {yields} Calcineuri/NFAT pathway is involved in EGR-1 expression in response to ILY treatment. -- Abstract: Intermedilysin (ILY) is a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin produced by Streptococcus intermedius, which is associated with human brain and liver abscesses. Although intrahepatic bile duct cells play a valuable role in the pathogenesis of liver abscess, the molecular mechanism of ILY-treated intrahepatic bile duct cells remains unknown. In this study, we report that ILY induced a nuclear accumulation of intracellular calcium ([Ca{sup 2+}]i) in human cholangiocellular cells HuCCT1. We also demonstrate that 10 ng/ml ILY induced NFAT1 dephosphorylation and its nuclear translocation in HuCCT1 cells. In contrast to the result that ILY induced NF-{kappa}B translocation in human hepatic HepG2 cells, ILY did not affect NF-{kappa}B localization in HuCCT1 cells. Dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NFAT1 caused by ILY were prevented by [Ca{sup 2+}]i calcium chelator, BAPTA/AM, and calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporine A and tacrolimus. ILY induced early growth response-1 (EGR-1) expression and it was inhibited by the pre-treatment with cyclosporine A, indicating that the calcineurin/NFAT pathway was involved in EGR-1 expression in response to ILY. ILY-induced calcineurin/NFAT1 activation and sequential EGR-1 expression might be related to the pathogenesis of S. intermedius in human bile duct cells.

  16. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 expression during LPS-induced inflammation and bone loss in rats

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    João Antonio Chaves de SOUZA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to characterize the dynamics of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS1 expression in a rat model of lipopolysaccharide-induced periodontitis. Wistar rats in the experimental groups were injected three times/week with LPS from Escherichia coli on the palatal aspect of the first molars, and control animals were injected with vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline. Animals were sacrificed 7, 15, and 30 days after the first injection to analyze inflammation (stereometric analysis, bone loss (macroscopic analysis, gene expression (qRT-PCR, and protein expression/activation (Western blotting. The severity of inflammation and bone loss associated with LPS-induced periodontitis increased from day 7 to day 15, and it was sustained through day 30. Significant (p < 0.05 increases in SOCS1, RANKL, OPG, and IFN-γ gene expression were observed in the experimental group versus the control group at day 15. SOCS1 protein expression and STAT1 and NF-κB activation were increased throughout the 30-day experimental period. Gingival tissues affected by experimental periodontitis express SOCS1, indicating that this protein may potentially downregulate signaling events involved in inflammatory reactions and bone loss and thus may play a relevant role in the development and progression of periodontal disease.

  17. Alpha-lipoic acid induces sodium iodide symporter expression in TPC-1 thyroid cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyun-Jeung; Kim, Tae Yong; Ruiz-Llorente, Sergio; Jeon, Min Ji; Han, Ji Min; Kim, Won Gu; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Patients with metastatic thyroid cancers that do not uptake iodine need effective therapeutic option. Differentiation-inducing agents have been tried to restore functional expression of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) without success. Our objective was to assess the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), known as potential antioxidant, on expression of sodium iodide symporter in thyroid cancer cells. Methods: Human thyroid cancer-derived cell lines, TPC-1, were treated with ALA, and changes in NIS mRNA and protein expression were measured. ALA's effect on NIS gene promoter was evaluated, and functional NIS expression was assessed by iodide uptake assay. Results: Treatment with ALA increased NIS mRNA expression up to ten folds of control dose-dependently after 24 h of exposure. ALA increased NIS promoter activity, and increased iodide uptake by 1.6 fold. ALA induced expression of NIS protein, but had no significant effect on the plasma membrane trafficking. ALA increased phosphorylation of CREB and nuclear translocation of pCREB, and co-treatment of ALA and trichostatin A increased iodide uptake by three folds in TPC-1 cells. Conclusions: ALA is a potential agent to increase NIS transcription in TPC-1. It could be used as an adjunctive agent to increase efficacy of radioiodine therapy if combined with a strategy to increase NIS protein trafficking to cell membrane.

  18. Halobenzoquinone-Induced Alteration of Gene Expression Associated with Oxidative Stress Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Moe, Birget; Liu, Yanming; Li, Xing-Fang

    2018-06-05

    Halobenzoquinones (HBQs) are emerging disinfection byproducts (DBPs) that effectively induce reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage in vitro. However, the impacts of HBQs on oxidative-stress-related gene expression have not been investigated. In this study, we examined alterations in the expression of 44 genes related to oxidative-stress-induced signaling pathways in human uroepithelial cells (SV-HUC-1) upon exposure to six HBQs. The results show the structure-dependent effects of HBQs on the studied gene expression. After 2 h of exposure, the expression levels of 9 to 28 genes were altered, while after 8 h of exposure, the expression levels of 29 to 31 genes were altered. Four genes ( HMOX1, NQO1, PTGS2, and TXNRD1) were significantly upregulated by all six HBQs at both exposure time points. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed that the Nrf2 pathway was significantly responsive to HBQ exposure. Other canonical pathways responsive to HBQ exposure included GSH redox reductions, superoxide radical degradation, and xenobiotic metabolism signaling. This study has demonstrated that HBQs significantly alter the gene expression of oxidative-stress-related signaling pathways and contributes to the understanding of HBQ-DBP-associated toxicity.

  19. Matrix rigidity induces osteolytic gene expression of metastatic breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin S Ruppender

    Full Text Available Nearly 70% of breast cancer patients with advanced disease will develop bone metastases. Once established in bone, tumor cells produce factors that cause changes in normal bone remodeling, such as parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP. While enhanced expression of PTHrP is known to stimulate osteoclasts to resorb bone, the environmental factors driving tumor cells to express PTHrP in the early stages of development of metastatic bone disease are unknown. In this study, we have shown that tumor cells known to metastasize to bone respond to 2D substrates with rigidities comparable to that of the bone microenvironment by increasing expression and production of PTHrP. The cellular response is regulated by Rho-dependent actomyosin contractility mediated by TGF-ß signaling. Inhibition of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK using both pharmacological and genetic approaches decreased PTHrP expression. Furthermore, cells expressing a dominant negative form of the TGF-ß receptor did not respond to substrate rigidity, and inhibition of ROCK decreased PTHrP expression induced by exogenous TGF-ß. These observations suggest a role for the differential rigidity of the mineralized bone microenvironment in early stages of tumor-induced osteolysis, which is especially important in metastatic cancer since many cancers (such as those of the breast and lung preferentially metastasize to bone.

  20. Selective Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor Reversed Zinc Chloride-Induced Spatial Memory Impairment via Increasing Cholinergic Marker Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizian, Kaveh; Azami, Kian; Belaran, Maryam; Soodi, Maliheh; Abdi, Khosrou; Fanoudi, Sahar; Sanati, Mehdi; Mottaghi Dastjerdi, Negar; Soltany Rezaee-Rad, Mohammad; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    Zinc, an essential micronutrient and biochemical element of the human body, plays structural, catalytic, and regulatory roles in numerous physiological functions. In the current study, the effects of a pretraining oral administration of zinc chloride (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days and post-training bilateral intra-hippocampal infusion of 1400W as a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor (10, 50, and 100 μM/side), alone and in combination, on the spatial memory retention in Morris water maze (MWM) were investigated. Animals were trained for 4 days and tested 48 h after completion of training. Also, the molecular effects of these compounds on the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), as a cholinergic marker in the CA1 region of the hippocampus and medial septal area (MSA), were evaluated. Behavioral and molecular findings of this study showed that a 2-week oral administration of zinc chloride (50 mg/kg) impaired spatial memory retention in MWM and decreased ChAT expression. Immunohistochemical analysis of post-training bilateral intra-hippocampal infusion of 1400W revealed a significant increase in ChAT immunoreactivity. Furthermore, post-training bilateral intra-hippocampal infusion of 1400W into the CA1 region of the hippocampus reversed zinc chloride-induced spatial memory impairment in MWM and significantly increased ChAT expression in comparison with zinc chloride-treated animals. Taken together, these results emphasize the role of selective iNOS inhibitors in reversing zinc chloride-induced spatial memory deficits via modulation of cholinergic marker expression.

  1. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin-D3 Induces Avian β-Defensin Gene Expression in Chickens.

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    Long Zhang

    Full Text Available Host defense peptides (HDPs play a critical role in innate immunity. Specific modulation of endogenous HDP synthesis by dietary compounds has been regarded as a novel approach to boost immunity and disease resistance in animal production. 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 (1,25D3 is well known as a powerful HDP inducer in humans, but limited information about the effect of 1,25D3 on HDPs in poultry is available. Here, we sought to examine whether 1,25D3 could stimulate avian β-defensin (AvBD expression in chickens. We used chicken embryo intestinal epithelial cells (CEIEPCs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs to study the effect of 1,25D3 on the expression of AvBDs. We observed that 1,25D3 is able to up-regulate the expression of several AvBDs in CEIEPCs and PBMCs, whereas it increased the amounts of AvBD4 mRNA in CEIEPCs only in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. On the other hand, LPS treatment not only inhibited the expression of CYP24A1 but also altered the expression pattern of VDR in CEIEPCs. Furthermore, AvBDs were not directly regulated by 1,25D3, as cycloheximide completely blocked 1,25D3-induced expression of AvBDs. Our observations suggest that 1,25D3 is capable of inducing AvBD gene expression and is a potential antibiotic alternative through augmentation of host innate immunity as well as disease control in chickens.

  2. 14-3-3σ induces heat shock protein 70 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chia-Chia; Wang, John; Shyue, Song-Kun; Sung, Li-Ying; Liou, Jun-Yang; Jan, Yee-Jee; Ko, Bor-Sheng; Wu, Yao-Ming; Liang, Shu-Man; Chen, Shyh-Chang; Lee, Yen-Ming; Liu, Tzu-An; Chang, Tzu-Ching

    2014-01-01

    14-3-3σ is implicated in promoting tumor development of various malignancies. However, the clinical relevance of 14-3-3σ in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor progression and modulation and pathway elucidation remain unclear. We investigated 14-3-3σ expression in 109 HCC tissues by immunohistochemistry. Overexpression and knockdown experiments were performed by transfection with cDNA or siRNA. Protein expression and cell migration were determined by Western blot and Boyden chamber assay. In this study, we found that 14-3-3σ is abundantly expressed in HCC tumors. Stable or transient overexpression of 14-3-3σ induces the expression of heat shock factor-1α (HSF-1α) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in HCC cells. Moreover, expression of 14-3-3σ significantly correlates with HSF-1α/HSP70 in HCC tumors and both 14-3-3σ and HSP70 overexpression are associated with micro-vascular thrombi in HCC patients, suggesting that 14-3-3σ/HSP70 expression is potentially involved in cell migration/invasion. Results of an in vitro migration assay indicate that 14-3-3σ promotes cell migration and that 14-3-3σ-induced cell migration is impaired by siRNA knockdown of HSP70. Finally, 14-3-3σ-induced HSF-1α/HSP70 expression is abolished by the knockdown of β-catenin or activation of GSK-3β. Our findings indicate that 14-3-3σ participates in promoting HCC cell migration and tumor development via β-catenin/HSF-1α/HSP70 pathway regulation. Thus, 14-3-3σ alone or combined with HSP70 are potential prognostic biomarkers for HCC

  3. Clinicopathologic significance of fascin, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, and ezrin expressions in colorectal adenocarcinoma

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    Eun-Joo Jung

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The over expression of fascin, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN, and ezrin proteins has been associated with poor prognosis in various carcinomas and sarcomas. However, very few studies have reported the relationship between the expression of fascin, EMMPRIN, and ezrin proteins and the clinico-pathologic parameters of colorectal carcinomas. Aims: The aim was to investigate the relationship between fascin, EMMPRIN, and ezrin proteins in colorectal adenocarcinomas and their correlation with clinico-pathologic parameters. Settings and Design: The expression of fascin, EMMPRIN, and ezrin proteins was studied in 210 colorectal adenocarcinoma patients through immunohistochemical staining. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical staining by the avidin-biotin peroxidase method was done. The scoring of each protein expression was done and divided into three groups (negative, low-, and high-expression groups. Statistical Analysis: A chi-square test, and Kendall′s tau-b correlation test were used for comparing. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank tests and the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: The percentages of the high-expression group of fascin, EMMPRIN, and ezrin proteins in colorectal adenocarcinomas were 24%, 73%, and 62%, respectively. Weak positive correlations were observed among these protein expressions. An increased expression of the fascin protein was significantly associated with advanced tumor depth and shorter survival times, and a high expression of fascin protein was an independent prognostic factor in univariate and multivariate survival analyses. EMMPRIN and ezrin protein expressions were not associated with the clinico-pathologic parameters. Conclusions: The high expression of fascin protein may be an unfavorable prognostic marker for individual colorectal cancer patients.

  4. Characterization of human septic sera induced gene expression modulation in human myocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Shaimaa; Michael, Paul; Brabant, Danielle; Omri, Abdelwahab; Narain, Ravin; Passi, Kalpdrum; Ramana, Chilakamarti V.; Parrillo, Joseph E.; Kumar, Anand; Parissenti, Amadeo; Kumar, Aseem

    2009-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the gene expression changes that occurs during sepsis, we have performed a cDNA microarray study utilizing a tissue culture model that mimics human sepsis. This study utilized an in vitro model of cultured human fetal cardiac myocytes treated with 10% sera from septic patients or 10% sera from healthy volunteers. A 1700 cDNA expression microarray was used to compare the transcription profile from human cardiac myocytes treated with septic sera vs normal sera. Septic sera treatment of myocytes resulted in the down-regulation of 178 genes and the up-regulation of 4 genes. Our data indicate that septic sera induced cell cycle, metabolic, transcription factor and apoptotic gene expression changes in human myocytes. Identification and characterization of gene expression changes that occur during sepsis may lead to the development of novel therapeutics and diagnostics. PMID:19684886

  5. Expression of hepatitis C virus envelope protein 2 induces apoptosis in cultured mammalian cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Xin Zhu; Jing Liu; You-Hua Xie; Yu-Ying Kong; Ye Ye; Chun-Lin Wang; Guang-Di Li; Yuan Wang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope protein 2 (E2) in the induction of apoptosis.METHODS: A carboxyterminal truncated E2 (E2-661) was transiently expressed in several cultured mammalian cell lines or stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)cell line. Cell proliferation was assessed by 3H thymidine uptake. Apoptosis was examined by Hoechst 33258staining, flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation analysis.RESULTS: Reduced proliferation was readily observed in the E2-661 expressing cells. These cells manifested the typical features of apoptosis, including cell shrinkage,chromatin condensation and hypodiploid genomic DNA content. Similar apoptotic cell death was observed in an E2-661 stably expressing cell line.CONCLUSION: HCV E2 can induce apoptosis in cultured mammalian cells.

  6. Direct evidence that radiation induced micronuclei of early embryos require a mitosis for expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.U.; Schlusen, I.; Streffer, C.

    1991-01-01

    The naturally synchronous development of early mouse embryos was exploited to address the question, whether micronuclei require a mitosis for expression or whether they can be expressed in the same cell cycle, in which exposure to X-rays or caffeine took place. Experiments with 2-cell and with 4-cell embryos showed that micronulcei are expressed only if a mitosis is completed. There was no indication, even after doses up to 20 Gy, that micronuclei can be expressed before the mitosis was reached, which followed exposure. Furthermore, no nuclear fragmentation pointing to apoptosis could be detected in the cycle, in which cells were exposed. The same results were obtained when caffeine (5 mM) was used as micronucleus inducing agent. (orig.)

  7. Administration of Protein kinase D1 induce an immunomodulatory effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal inflammation in a co-culture model of intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ditte Søvsø Gundelund; Fredborg, Marlene; Andersen, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    the effects of human PKD1 in relation to intestinal inflammation, using a co-culture model of intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and RAW264.7 macrophages. An inflammatory response was induced in the macrophages by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), upregulating the expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF......-α), interleukin- (IL-) 1β, and IL-6 besides increasing the secretion of TNF-α protein. The effect of administering PKD1 to Caco-2 was evaluated in relation to both amelioration of inflammation and the ability to suppress inflammation initiation. Administration of PKD1 (10–100 ng/ml) following induction...

  8. Expression Profile of Cationic Amino Acid Transporters in Rats with Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis

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    Yung-Ray Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The transcellular arginine transportation via cationic amino acid transporter (CAT is the rate-limiting step in nitric oxide (NO synthesis, which is crucial in intraocular inflammation. In this study, CAT isoforms and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression was investigated in endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU. Methods. EIU was induced in Lewis rats by lipopolysaccharide (LPS injection. In the treatment group, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib before EIU induction. After 24 hours, leukocyte quantification, NO measurement of the aqueous humor, and histopathological examination were evaluated. The expression of CAT isoforms and iNOS was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB binding activity was evaluated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 was used to validate the in vivo findings. Results. LPS significantly stimulated iNOS, CAT-2A, and CAT-2B mRNA and protein expression but did not affect CAT-1 in EIU rats and RAW 264.7 cells. Bortezomib attenuated inflammation and inhibited iNOS, CAT-2A, and CAT-2B expression through NF-κB inhibition. Conclusions. CAT-2 and iNOS, but not CAT-1, are specifically involved in EIU. NF-κB is essential in the induction of CAT-2 and iNOS in EIU.

  9. Transcript-specific effects of adrenalectomy on seizure-induced BDNF expression in rat hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauterborn, J C; Poulsen, F R; Stinis, C T

    1998-01-01

    Activity-induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression is negatively modulated by circulating adrenal steroids. The rat BDNF gene gives rise to four major transcript forms that each contain a unique 5' exon (I-IV) and a common 3' exon (V) that codes for BDNF protein. Exon-specific i......Activity-induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression is negatively modulated by circulating adrenal steroids. The rat BDNF gene gives rise to four major transcript forms that each contain a unique 5' exon (I-IV) and a common 3' exon (V) that codes for BDNF protein. Exon...... and in exon II-containing mRNA with 30-days survival. In the dentate gyrus granule cells, adrenalectomy markedly potentiated increases in exon I and II cRNA labeling, but not increases in exon III and IV cRNA labeling, elicited by one hippocampal afterdischarge. Similarly, for the granule cells and CA1...... no effect on exon IV-containing mRNA content. These results demonstrate that the negative effects of adrenal hormones on activity-induced BDNF expression are by far the greatest for transcripts containing exons I and II. Together with evidence for region-specific transcript expression, these results suggest...

  10. Xenotropic type C virus expression in murine thymomas induced by radiation or 3-methylcholanthrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, A.; Duran-Reynals, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    Thymic lymphoma incidence and thymic expression of MuLV with xenotropic infectivity was monitored in AKR, RF, and reciprocal F 1 mice of the AKR X RF cross after treatment with either γ radiation or the chemical carcinogen 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA). These two inbred strains and the F 1 hybrids developed similary high incidences of thymoma, and lymphomatous cells from AKR mice and (ARK] X RF∫)F 1 mice were observed to be expressing MuLV with xenotropic host range. However, lymphoma cells from RF mice and (RF] X AKR∫)F 1 mice did not shed xenotropic MuLV. Thymic xenotropic virus expression was therefore not correlated with a high incidence of radiation or chemically induced thymoma, but rather appeared to be a phenotype genetically transmitted by AKR mice to F 1 mice of the AKR X RF cross as a dominant trait in induced thymomas. In addition, a maternal effect on thymic xenotropic virus expression in induced thymomas was observed by the comparison of reciprocal F 1 hybrids in this cross

  11. VCC-1 over-expression inhibits cisplatin-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Zhitao; Lu, Xiao; Zhu, Ping; Zhu, Wei; Mu, Xia; Qu, Rongmei; Li, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► VCC-1 is hypothesized to be associated with carcinogenesis. ► Levels of VCC-1 are increased significantly in HCC. ► Over-expression of VCC-1 could promotes cellular proliferation rate. ► Over-expression of VCC-1 inhibit the cisplatin-provoked apoptosis in HepG2 cells. ► VCC-1 plays an important role in control the tumor growth and apoptosis. -- Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor-correlated chemokine 1 (VCC-1), a recently described chemokine, is hypothesized to be associated with carcinogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms by which aberrant VCC-1 expression determines poor outcomes of cancers are unknown. In this study, we found that VCC-1 was highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue. It was also associated with proliferation of HepG2 cells, and inhibition of cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Conversely, down-regulation of VCC-1 in HepG2 cells increased cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells. In summary, these results suggest that VCC-1 is involved in cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells, and also provides some evidence for VCC-1 as a potential cellular target for chemotherapy.

  12. Hepatocyte growth factor limits autoimmune neuroinflammation via glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper expression in dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkhoucha, Mahdia; Molnarfi, Nicolas; Dunand-Sauthier, Isabelle; Merkler, Doron; Schneiter, Gregory; Bruscoli, Stefano; Riccardi, Carlo; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Funakoshi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshikazu; Reith, Walter; Santiago-Raber, Marie-Laure; Lalive, Patrice H

    2014-09-15

    Autoimmune neuroinflammation, including multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a prototype for T cell-mediated autoimmunity, is believed to result from immune tolerance dysfunction leading to demyelination and substantial neurodegeneration. We previously showed that CNS-restricted expression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a potent neuroprotective factor, reduced CNS inflammation and clinical deficits associated with EAE. In this study, we demonstrate that systemic HGF treatment ameliorates EAE through the development of tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) with high expression levels of glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ), a transcriptional repressor of gene expression and a key endogenous regulator of the inflammatory response. RNA interference-directed neutralization of GILZ expression by DCs suppressed the induction of tolerance caused by HGF. Finally, adoptive transfer of HGF-treated DCs from wild-type but not GILZ gene-deficient mice potently mediated functional recovery in recipient mice with established EAE through effective modulation of autoaggressive T cell responses. Altogether, these results show that by inducing GILZ in DCs, HGF reproduces the mechanism of immune regulation induced by potent immunomodulatory factors such as IL-10, TGF-β1, and glucocorticoids and therefore that HGF therapy may have potential in the treatment of autoimmune dysfunctions. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  13. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester inhibits 3-MC-induced CYP1A1 expression through induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Gyun [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Eun Hee [Division of Life Science, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Im, Ji Hye; Lee, Eun Ji; Jin, Sun Woo [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hye Gwang, E-mail: hgjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-25

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a natural component of propolis, is reported to have anticarcinogenic properties, although its precise chemopreventive mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of CAPE on 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC)-induced CYP1A1 expression and activities. CAPE reduced the formation of the benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct. Moreover, CAPE inhibited 3-MC-induced CYP1A1 activity, mRNA expression, protein level, and promoter activity. CAPE treatment also decreased 3-MC-inducible xenobiotic-response element (XRE)-linked luciferase, aryl hydrocarbons receptor (AhR) transactivation and nuclear localization. CAPE induced hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein level and HIF-1α responsible element (HRE) transcriptional activity. CAPE-mediated HIF-1α reduced 3-MC-inducible CYP1A1 protein expression. Taken together, CAPE decreases 3-MC-mediated CYP1A1 expression, and this inhibitory response is associated with inhibition of AhR and HIF-1α induction. - Highlights: • CAPE reduced the formation of the benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct. • CAPE inhibited 3-MC-induced CYP1A1 expression. • CAPE induced HIF-1α induction. • CAPE-mediated HIF-1α reduced 3-MC-inducible CYP1A1 expression.

  14. Expression of MDM2 in an acute lymphocytic leukemia mice model induced by γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yuecheng; Cai Jianming; Han Ling; Gao Fu; Cui Jianguo; Gao Jianguo

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of the MDM 2 in the process of carcinogenesis induced by γ-rays and its molecular mechanisms. Methods: Animal model of radiation-induced leukemia was established by γ-irradiation. According to the histological and morphological results, mice tissues were divided into three groups: cancerization group, incancerization group and control group. Expression of MDM 2 protein and mRNA in thymus/bone marrow was detected with Western blot and in situ hybridization (ISH), respectively. The authors also examined the protein phosphorylation level of MDM 2 protein by immunoprecipitation (IP). PCR-SSCP was performed to detect gene mutation. Results: A mice leukemia model was successfully established as verified by pathological findings and confirmed by transplantation test in nude mice. The protein expression in thymus/bone marrow in irradiation groups was significantly higher than that in controls (P 2 was found to be hyper-phosphorylated in the cancerization group as compared with other groups. No gene mutation was detected by SSCP/silver-staining assay in the tumor samples. Conclusion: MDM 2 may be involved in the development and progression of leukemia induced by γ-irradiation. The over-expression but not gene mutation may be responsible for malignant transformation induced by radiation. Phosphorylation is at least partly attributed to activation of MDM 2

  15. Baclofen blocks the acquisition and expression of mitragynine-induced conditioned place preference in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Nurul H M; Mansor, Sharif M; Müller, Christian P; Hassan, Zurina

    2018-06-01

    Mitragynine is the major alkaloid found in the leaves of M. speciosa Korth (Rubiaceae), a plant that is native to Southeast Asia. This compound has been used, either traditionally or recreationally, due to its psychostimulant and opioid-like effects. Recently, mitragynine has been shown to exert conditioned place preference (CPP), indicating the rewarding and motivational properties of M. speciosa. Here, the involvement of GABA B receptors in mediating mitragynine reward is studied using a CPP paradigm in rats. First, we examined the effects of GABA B receptor agonist baclofen (1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg) on the acquisition of mitragynine (10 mg/kg)-induced CPP. Second, the involvement of GABA B receptors in the expression of mitragynine-induced CPP was tested. We found that the acquisition of mitragynine-induced CPP could be blocked by higher doses (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) of baclofen. Baclofen at a high dose inhibited locomotor activity and caused a CPP. Furthermore, we found that baclofen (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) also blocked the expression of mitragynine-induced CPP. These findings suggest that both, the acquisition and expression of mitragynine's reinforcing properties is controlled by the GABA B receptor. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute Vhl gene inactivation induces cardiac HIF-dependent erythropoietin gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Miró-Murillo

    Full Text Available Von Hippel Lindau (Vhl gene inactivation results in embryonic lethality. The consequences of its inactivation in adult mice, and of the ensuing activation of the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs, have been explored mainly in a tissue-specific manner. This mid-gestation lethality can be also circumvented by using a floxed Vhl allele in combination with an ubiquitous tamoxifen-inducible recombinase Cre-ER(T2. Here, we characterize a widespread reduction in Vhl gene expression in Vhl(floxed-UBC-Cre-ER(T2 adult mice after dietary tamoxifen administration, a convenient route of administration that has yet to be fully characterized for global gene inactivation. Vhl gene inactivation rapidly resulted in a marked splenomegaly and skin erythema, accompanied by renal and hepatic induction of the erythropoietin (Epo gene, indicative of the in vivo activation of the oxygen sensing HIF pathway. We show that acute Vhl gene inactivation also induced Epo gene expression in the heart, revealing cardiac tissue to be an extra-renal source of EPO. Indeed, primary cardiomyocytes and HL-1 cardiac cells both induce Epo gene expression when exposed to low O(2 tension in a HIF-dependent manner. Thus, as well as demonstrating the potential of dietary tamoxifen administration for gene inactivation studies in UBC-Cre-ER(T2 mouse lines, this data provides evidence of a cardiac oxygen-sensing VHL/HIF/EPO pathway in adult mice.

  17. PTEN gene and phosphorylation of Akt protein expression in the LPS-induced lung fibroblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-lin HUANG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate PTEN gene expression and the Akt phosphorylation of protein expression in the LPS-induced lung fibroblast, to initially reveal the relation between PTEN gene and the Akt phosphorylated proteins to LPS-induced lung fibroblast proliferation mechanism. Methods: BrdU experiments was performed to evaluate the LPS-induced lung fibroblast proliferation,  RT-PCR and Western Blot analysis were used to analyze the PTEN gene expression and Western blot was performed to analyze Akt phosphorylated protein expression. Results: PTEN mRNA level of the experimental group were significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05 with LPS simulation for 24h and 72h , and there were no significant difference between the experimental group and control group the experimental group and control group (P>0.05 . PTEN protein expression levels of the experimental group were significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05 , at 72h, and PTEN mRNA levels had no significant differences between these of the experimental and control group at 6h,12h and 24h(p>0.05. Phosphorylation Akt protein level (relative to total Akt protein was significantly higer than the control group (P<0.05 at 24h and 72h, and phosphorylation Akt protein levels had no significant differences between these of the experimental and control group at 6h and 12h (P>0.05 .Conclusion: PTEN gene and phosphorylation Akt protein involve in LPS-induced lung fibroblast proliferation signal transduction pathway.

  18. Changes in gene expression linked to methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tao; Tong, Liqiong; Barrett, Tanya; Yuan, Jie; Hatzidimitriou, George; McCann, Una D; Becker, Kevin G; Donovan, David M; Ricaurte, George A

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to examine the role of gene expression in methamphetamine (METH)-induced dopamine (DA) neurotoxicity. First, the effects of the mRNA synthesis inhibitor, actinomycin-D, and the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, were examined. Both agents afforded complete protection against METH-induced DA neurotoxicity and did so independently of effects on core temperature, DA transporter function, or METH brain levels, suggesting that gene transcription and mRNA translation play a role in METH neurotoxicity. Next, microarray technology, in combination with an experimental approach designed to facilitate recognition of relevant gene expression patterns, was used to identify gene products linked to METH-induced DA neurotoxicity. This led to the identification of several genes in the ventral midbrain associated with the neurotoxic process, including genes for energy metabolism [cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1), reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 2, and phosphoglycerate mutase B], ion regulation (members of sodium/hydrogen exchanger and sodium/bile acid cotransporter family), signal transduction (adenylyl cyclase III), and cell differentiation and degeneration (N-myc downstream-regulated gene 3 and tau protein). Of these differentially expressed genes, we elected to further examine the increase in COX1 expression, because of data implicating energy utilization in METH neurotoxicity and the known role of COX1 in energy metabolism. On the basis of time course studies, Northern blot analyses, in situ hybridization results, and temperature studies, we now report that increased COX1 expression in the ventral midbrain is linked to METH-induced DA neuronal injury. The precise role of COX1 and other genes in METH neurotoxicity remains to be elucidated.

  19. TNFα-Induced Mucin 4 Expression Elicits Trastuzumab Resistance in HER2-Positive Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercogliano, María F; De Martino, Mara; Venturutti, Leandro; Rivas, Martín A; Proietti, Cecilia J; Inurrigarro, Gloria; Frahm, Isabel; Allemand, Daniel H; Deza, Ernesto Gil; Ares, Sandra; Gercovich, Felipe G; Guzmán, Pablo; Roa, Juan C; Elizalde, Patricia V; Schillaci, Roxana

    2017-02-01

    Although trastuzumab administration improved the outcome of HER2-positive breast cancer patients, resistance events hamper its clinical benefits. We demonstrated that TNFα stimulation in vitro induces trastuzumab resistance in HER2-positive breast cancer cell lines. Here, we explored the mechanism of TNFα-induced trastuzumab resistance and the therapeutic strategies to overcome it. Trastuzumab-sensitive breast cancer cells, genetically engineered to stably overexpress TNFα, and de novo trastuzumab-resistant tumors, were used to evaluate trastuzumab response and TNFα-blocking antibodies effectiveness respectively. Immunohistochemistry and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC), together with siRNA strategy, were used to explore TNFα influence on the expression and function of its downstream target, mucin 4 (MUC4). The clinical relevance of MUC4 expression was studied in a cohort of 78 HER2-positive breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant trastuzumab. TNFα overexpression turned trastuzumab-sensitive cells and tumors into resistant ones. Histopathologic findings revealed mucin foci in TNFα-producing tumors. TNFα induced upregulation of MUC4 that reduced trastuzumab binding to its epitope and impaired ADCC. Silencing MUC4 enhanced trastuzumab binding, increased ADCC, and overcame trastuzumab and trastuzumab-emtansine antiproliferative effects in TNFα-overexpressing cells. Accordingly, administration of TNFα-blocking antibodies downregulated MUC4 and sensitized de novo trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer cells and tumors to trastuzumab. In HER2-positive breast cancer samples, MUC4 expression was found to be an independent predictor of poor disease-free survival (P = 0.008). We identified TNFα-induced MUC4 expression as a novel trastuzumab resistance mechanism. We propose MUC4 expression as a predictive biomarker of trastuzumab efficacy and a guide to combination therapy of TNFα-blocking antibodies with trastuzumab. Clin Cancer Res; 23(3); 636-48.

  20. Slow food: insect prey and chitin induce phytohormone accumulation and gene expression in carnivorous Nepenthes plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilamujiang, Ayufu; Reichelt, Michael; Mithöfer, Axel

    2016-08-01

    Carnivorous Nepenthes plants use modified leaves forming pitfall traps to capture and digest prey, mainly insects, for additional nutrient supply. These traps, so called pitchers, contain a plant-derived fluid composed of many hydrolytic enzymes and defence-related proteins. In this study, the prey-induced induction of corresponding genes of those proteins and a role for phytohormones in this process was analysed. Tissue from insect prey-fed, chitin- and phytohormone-challenged pitchers was harvested and analysed for selected gene expressions by a quantitative PCR technique. Phytohormone levels were determined by LC-MS/MS. Nepenthesin proteolytic activities were measured in the digestive fluid using a fluorescence substrate. Insect prey in the pitchers induced the accumulation of phytohormones such as jasmonates as well as the transcription of studied genes encoding a chitinase 3 and a protease (nepenthesin I), whereas a defence-related protein (PR-1) gene was not induced. Treatment with chitin as a component of the insects' exoskeleton triggered the accumulation of jasmonates, the expression of nepenthesin I and chitinase 3 genes similar to jasmonic acid treatment, and induced protease activity in the fluid. All detectable responses were slowly induced. The results suggest that upon insect prey catch a sequence of signals is initiated: (1) insect-derived chitin, (2) jasmonate as endogenous phytohormone signal, (3) the induction of digestive gene expression and (4) protein expression. This resembles a similar hierarchy of events as described from plant pathogen/herbivore interactions, supporting the idea that carnivory evolved from plant defences. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The level of CD147 expression correlates with cyclophilin-induced signalling and chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constant Stephanie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies identified CD147 as the chemotactic receptor on inflammatory leukocytes for extracellular cyclophilins (eCyp. However, CD147 is not known to associate with signal transducing molecules, so other transmembrane proteins, such as proteoglycans, integrins, and CD98, were suggested as receptor or co-receptor for eCyp. CD147 is ubiquitously expressed on many cell types, but relationship between the level of CD147 expression and cellular responses to eCyp has never been analyzed. Given the role of eCyp in pathogenesis of many diseases, it is important to know whether cellular responses to eCyp are regulated at the level of CD147 expression. Results Here, we manipulated CD147 expression levels on HeLa cells using RNAi and investigated the signalling and chemotactic responses to eCypA. Both Erk activation and chemotaxis correlated with the level of CD147 expression, with cells exhibiting low level expression being practically unresponsive to eCypA. Conclusions Our results provide the first demonstration of a chemotactic response of HeLa cells to eCypA, establish a correlation between the level of CD147 expression and the magnitude of cellular responses to eCypA, and indicate that CD147 may be a limiting factor in the receptor complex determining cyclophilin-induced Erk activation and cell migration.

  2. Expression of intracisternal A-particles in radiation-induced murine osteosarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, E.

    1989-01-01

    The expression of intracisternal A-type particles (IAPs) and the distribution of the corresponding type I and type II genes was investigated in radiation induced osteosarcomas of Balb/c, NMRI and CBA mice. The results can be summarized as follows: 1. Slot blot analysis showed that 9 out of 23 (i.e. 39%) of the examined tumours had enhanced IAP expression as compared to normal tissues. None of the CBA tumours were enhanced in IAP expression - only tumours of the strains Balb/c and NMRI expressed higher levels of IAP RNA. 2. Northern blot analysis of RNA from osteosarcomas revealed that the two IAP transcrips (7.2 kb and 5.4 kb) had the same mobility in these tissues as in normal tissue. Some tumours showed a higher level of expression of the 7.2 kb transcript as compared to normal tissues. This 7.2 kb transcript encodes the major structural protein p 73 of IAPs. 3. Hybridization of Southern blots of mouse DNA using the IAP type I specific probe revealed a unique fragment in three of the investigated Balb/c osteosarcomas. 4. Although it could not directly be shown that IAPs were involved in the genesis of osteosarcomas, the changes in IAP expression and the unique fragments suggest a possible correlation with tumour progression. In this light the level of IAP expression may serve as a marker for the degree of the malignancy of the tumour. (orig.) [de

  3. Dynamic, mating-induced gene expression changes in female head and brain tissues of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stirling Emma J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drosophila melanogaster females show changes in behavior and physiology after mating that are thought to maximize the number of progeny resulting from the most recent copulation. Sperm and seminal fluid proteins induce post-mating changes in females, however, very little is known about the resulting gene expression changes in female head and central nervous system tissues that contribute to the post-mating response. Results We determined the temporal gene expression changes in female head tissues 0-2, 24, 48 and 72 hours after mating. Females from each time point had a unique post-mating gene expression response, with 72 hours post-mating having the largest number of genes with significant changes in expression. At most time points, genes expressed in the head fat body that encode products involved in metabolism showed a marked change in expression. Additional analysis of gene expression changes in dissected brain tissues 24 hours post-mating revealed changes in transcript abundance of many genes, notably, the reduced transcript abundance of genes that encode ion channels. Conclusions Substantial changes occur in the regulation of many genes in female head tissues after mating, which might underlie aspects of the female post-mating response. These results provide new insights into the physiological and metabolic changes that accompany changes in female behaviors.

  4. Phaleria macrocarpa reduces glomerular growth factor expression in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evy Sulistyoningrum

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetic nephropathy (DN is the most serious complication of diabetes, causing end-stage renal disease throughout the world. Recent studies have reported a direct role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and transforming growth factor-â (TGF-â in DN pathogenesis. VEGF and TGF-â are expressed early in glomeruli in response to hyperglycemia. Active substances of Phaleria macrocarpa (PM pericarp are known to have nephroprotective effects. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff. Boerl pericarp extract on VEGF and TGF-â expression in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods An experimental study was conducted on twenty five male albino (Sprague Dawley rats divided into five groups (of five each: normal control; diabetic; diabetic + metformin 100 mg/kgBW; diabetic + methanolic PM extract 250 mg/kgBW; and diabetic + aqueous PM extract 250 mg/kgBW. Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate 150 mg/BW intraperitoneally. Treatment was given for 3 weeks. VEGF and TGF-â expression analysis was performed by means of immunohistochemical technique. Differences between groups were assessed by one-way ANOVA. Results VEGF expression in the PM extract group was significantly lower than that in the diabetic group and even metformin group (p<0.01. TGF-â expression in methanolic PM extract group was significantly lower than in diabetic and metformin group (p<0.01, but aqueous PM extract group only showed significancy when compared with diabetic group (p< 0.01. Conclusions Phaleria macrocarpa pericarp extract reduces glomerular expression of TGF-â and VEGF in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  5. Podoplanin expression in primary brain tumors induces platelet aggregation and increases risk of venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Julia; Preusser, Matthias; Nazari, Pegah Mir Seyed; Posch, Florian; Panzer, Simon; Marosi, Christine; Birner, Peter; Thaler, Johannes; Brostjan, Christine; Lötsch, Daniela; Berger, Walter; Hainfellner, Johannes A; Pabinger, Ingrid; Ay, Cihan

    2017-03-30

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common in patients with brain tumors, and underlying mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that podoplanin, a sialomucin-like glycoprotein, increases the risk of VTE in primary brain tumors via its ability to induce platelet aggregation. Immunohistochemical staining against podoplanin and intratumoral platelet aggregates was performed in brain tumor specimens of 213 patients (mostly high-grade gliomas [89%]) included in the Vienna Cancer and Thrombosis Study, a prospective observational cohort study of patients with newly diagnosed cancer or progressive disease aimed at identifying patients at risk of VTE. Platelet aggregation in response to primary human glioblastoma cells was investigated in vitro. During 2-year follow-up, 29 (13.6%) patients developed VTE. One-hundred fifty-one tumor specimens stained positive for podoplanin (33 high expression, 47 medium expression, 71 low expression). Patients with podoplanin-positive tumors had lower peripheral blood platelet counts ( P < .001) and higher D-dimer levels ( P < .001). Podoplanin staining intensity was associated with increasing levels of intravascular platelet aggregates in tumor specimens ( P < .001). High podoplanin expression was associated with an increased risk of VTE (hazard ratio for high vs no podoplanin expression: 5.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.52-21.26; P = 010), independent of age, sex, and tumor type. Podoplanin-positive primary glioblastoma cells induced aggregation of human platelets in vitro, which could be abrogated by an antipodoplanin antibody. In conclusion, high podoplanin expression in primary brain tumors induces platelet aggregation, correlates with hypercoagulability, and is associated with increased risk of VTE. Our data indicate novel insights into the pathogenesis of VTE in primary brain tumors. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  6. Radiation and desiccation response motif mediates radiation induced gene expression in D. radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaganti, Narasimha; Basu, Bhakti; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans is an extremophile that withstands lethal doses of several DNA damaging agents such as gamma irradiation, UV rays, desiccation and chemical mutagens. The organism responds to DNA damage by inducing expression of several DNA repair genes. At least 25 radiation inducible gene promoters harbour a 17 bp palindromic sequence known as radiation and desiccation response motif (RDRM) implicated in gamma radiation inducible gene expression. However, mechanistic details of gamma radiation-responsive up-regulation in gene expression remain enigmatic. The promoters of highly radiation induced genes ddrB (DR0070), gyrB (DR0906), gyrA (DR1913), a hypothetical gene (DR1143) and recA (DR2338) from D. radiodurans were cloned in a green fluorescence protein (GFP)-based promoter probe shuttle vector pKG and their promoter activity was assessed in both E. coli as well as in D. radiodurans. The gyrA, gyrB and DR1143 gene promoters were active in E. coli although ddrB and recA promoters showed very weak activity. In D. radiodurans, all the five promoters were induced several fold following 6 kGy gamma irradiation. Highest induction was observed for ddrB promoter (25 fold), followed by DR1143 promoter (15 fold). The induction in the activity of gyrB, gyrA and recA promoters was 5, 3 and 2 fold, respectively. To assess the role of RDRM, the 17 bp palindromic sequence was deleted from these promoters. The promoters devoid of RDRM sequence displayed increase in the basal expression activity, but the radiation-responsive induction in promoter activity was completely lost. The substitution of two conserved bases of RDRM sequence yielded decreased radiation induction of PDR0070 promoter. Deletion of 5 bases from 5'-end of PDR0070 RDRM increased basal promoter activity, but radiation induction was completely abolished. Replacement of RDRM with non specific sequence of PDR0070 resulted in loss of basal expression and radiation induction. The results demonstrate that

  7. Expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase in radiation-induced chronic human skin ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Po; Li Zhijun; Lu Yali; Zhong Mei; Gu Qingyang; Wang Dewen

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of the catalytic subunit of telomerase, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TRT) and the possible relationship between the TRT and cancer transformation or poor healing in radiation-induced chronic ulcer of human skin. Methods: Rabbit antibody against human TRT and SP immunohistochemical method were used to detect TRT expression in 24 cases of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embed human skin chronic ulcer tissues induced by radiation, 5 cases of normal skin, 2 of burned skin, and 8 of carcinoma. Results: The positive rate for TRT was 58.3%(14/24) in chronic radiation ulcers, of which the strongly positive rate was 41.7%(10/24) and the weakly positive 16.7%(4/24), 0% in normal (0/5) and burned skin (0/2), and 100% in carcinoma (8/8). The strongly positive expression of TRT was observed almost always in the cytoplasm and nucleus of squamous epithelial cells of proliferative epidermis but the negative and partly weakly positive expression in the smooth muscles, endothelia of small blood vessels and capillaries, and fibroblasts. Chronic inflammtory cells, plasmacytes and lymphocytes also showed weakly positive for TRT. Conclusion: TRT expression could be involved in the malignant transformation of chronic radiation ulcer into squamous carcinoma, and in the poor healing caused by sclerosis of small blood vessels and lack of granulation tissue consisting of capillaries and fibroblasts

  8. Anti-inflammatory effect of resveratrol on TNF-α-induced MCP-1 expression in adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jian; Yong Wei; Wu Xiaohong; Yu Ying; Lv Jinghuan; Liu Cuiping; Mao Xiaodong; Zhu Yunxia; Xu Kuanfeng; Han Xiao; Liu Chao

    2008-01-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation characterized by adipose tissue macrophage accumulation and abnormal cytokine production is a key feature of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Adipose-tissue-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, induced by cytokines, has been shown to play an essential role in the early events during macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue. In this study we investigated the effects of resveratrol upon both tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced MCP-1 gene expression and its underlying signaling pathways in 3T3-L1 adipoctyes. Resveratrol was found to inhibit TNF-α-induced MCP-1 secretion and gene transcription, as well as promoter activity, which based on down-regulation of TNF-α-induced MCP-1 transcription. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB was determined to play a major role in the TNF-α-induced MCP-1 expression. Further analysis showed that resveratrol inhibited DNA binding activity of the NF-κB complex and subsequently suppressed NF-κB transcriptional activity in TNF-α-stimulated cells. Finally, the inhibition of MCP-1 may represent a novel mechanism of resveratrol in preventing obesity-related pathologies

  9. Axotomy induces MHC class I antigen expression on rat nerve cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maehlen, J; Schröder, H D; Klareskog, L

    1988-01-01

    Immunomorphological staining demonstrates that class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-coded antigen expression can be selectively induced on otherwise class I-negative rat nerve cells by peripheral axotomy. Induction of class I as well as class II antigen expression was simultaneously seen...... on non-neural cells in the immediate vicinity of the injured nerve cells. As nerve regeneration after axotomy includes growth of new nerve cell processes and formation of new nerve cell contacts, the present findings raise the question of a role for MHC-coded molecules in cell-cell interactions during...... nerve cell growth....

  10. PIDDosome Expression and the Role of Caspase-2 Activation for Chemotherapy-Induced Apoptosis in RCCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Heikaus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The importance of caspase-2 activation for mediating apoptosis in cancer is not clear and seems to differ between different tumour types. Furthermore, only few data have been obtained concerning the expression of caspase-2, which can be alternatively spliced into caspase-2L and caspase-2S, and the other PIDDosome members PIDD and RAIDD in human tumours in vivo. We, therefore, investigated their expression in renal cell carcinomas (RCCs of the clear cell type in vivo and analysed the role of caspase-2 in chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in RCCs in vitro.

  11. The new pLAI (lux regulon based auto-inducible expression system for recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nocadello Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After many years of intensive research, it is generally assumed that no universal expression system can exist for high-level production of a given recombinant protein. Among the different expression systems, the inducible systems are the most popular for their tight regulation. However, induction is in many cases less favorable due to the high cost and/or toxicity of inducers, incompatibilities with industrial scale-up or detrimental growth conditions. Expression systems using autoinduction (or self-induction prove to be extremely versatile allowing growth and induction of recombinant proteins without the need to monitor cell density or add inducer. Unfortunately, almost all the actual auto inducible expression systems need endogenous or induced metabolic changes during the growth to trigger induction, both frequently linked to detrimental condition to cell growth. In this context, we use a simple modular approach for a cell density-based genetic regulation in order to assemble an autoinducible recombinant protein expression system in E. coli. Result The newly designed pLAI expression system places the expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli under control of the regulatory genes of the lux regulon of Vibrio fischeri's Quorum Sensing (QS system. The pLAI system allows a tight regulation of the recombinant gene allowing a negligible basal expression and expression only at high cell density. Sequence optimization of regulative genes of QS of V. fischeri for expression in E. coli upgraded the system to high level expression. Moreover, partition of regulative genes between the plasmid and the host genome and introduction of a molecular safety lock permitted tighter control of gene expression. Conclusion Coupling gene expression to cell density using cell-to-cell communication provides a promising approach for recombinant protein production. The system allows the control of expression of the target recombinant gene

  12. Arsenite induced oxidative damage in mouse liver is associated with increased cytokeratin 18 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonsebatt, M.E. [UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, Dept. Medicina Genomica y Toxicologia Ambiental, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Mexico (Mexico); Razo, L.M. del; Sanchez-Pena, L.C. [Seccion de Toxicologia, CINVESTAV, Mexico (Mexico); Cerbon, M.A. [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, Departamento de Biologia, Mexico (Mexico); Zuniga, O.; Ramirez, P. [Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlan, UNAM, Laboratorio de Toxicologia Celular, Coordinacion General de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Cuautitlan Izcalli, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-09-15

    Cytokeratins (CK) constitute a family of cytoskeletal intermediate filament proteins that are typically expressed in epithelial cells. An abnormal structure and function are effects that are clearly related to liver diseases as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We have previously observed that sodium arsenite (SA) induced the synthesis of CK18 protein and promotes a dose-related disruption of cytoplasmic CK18 filaments in a human hepatic cell line. Both abnormal gene expression and disturbance of structural organization are toxic effects that are likely to cause liver disease by interfering with normal hepatocyte function. To investigate if a disruption in the CK18 expression pattern is associated with arsenite liver damage, we investigated CK18 mRNA and protein levels in liver slices treated with low levels of SA. Organotypic cultures were incubated with 0.01, 1 and 10 {mu}M of SA in the absence and presence of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Cell viability and inorganic arsenic metabolism were determined. Increased expression of CK18 was observed after exposure to SA. The addition of NAC impeded the oxidative effects of SA exposure, decreasing the production of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and significantly diminishing the up regulation of CK18 mRNA and protein. Liver arsenic levels correlated with increased levels of mRNA. Mice treated with intragastric single doses of 2.5 and 5 mg/kg of SA showed an increased expression of CK18. Results suggest that CK18 expression may be a sensible early biomarker of oxidative stress and damage induced by arsenite in vitro and in vivo. Then, during SA exposure, altered CK expression may compromise liver function. (orig.)

  13. UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase Expression in Mouse Liver Is Increased in Obesity- and Fasting-Induced Steatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jialin; Kulkarni, Supriya R.; Li, Liya

    2012-01-01

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (Ugt) catalyze phase II conjugation reactions with glucuronic acid, which enhances chemical polarity and the elimination from the body. Few studies have addressed whether Ugt expression and activity are affected by liver disease, such as steatosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether steatosis induced by obesity or fasting could affect liver Ugt mRNA expression and activity. Male C57BL/6J and Lepob/ob (ob/ob) mice were fed ad libitum or food was withheld for 24 h. In steatotic livers of ob/ob mice, Ugt1a1, -1a6, -1a9, -2a3, -3a1, and -3a2 mRNA expression increased. Fasting, which also induced steatosis, increased hepatic Ugt1a1, -1a6, -1a7, -1a9, -2b1, -2b5, -2a3, -3a1, and -3a2 mRNA expression in mouse liver. Likewise, acetaminophen glucuronidation increased by 47% in hepatic microsomes from ob/ob mice compared with that in C57BL/6J mice, but not after fasting. In both steatosis models, Ugt induction was accompanied by increased aryl hydrocarbon receptor, constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α, pregnane X receptor, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α mRNA expression. In addition, fasting increased CAR, PPAR, and Nrf2 binding activity. The work points to hepatic triglyceride concentrations corresponding with nuclear receptor and Ugt expression. The findings indicate that steatosis significantly alters hepatic Ugt expression and activity, which could have a significant impact on determining circulating hormone levels, drug efficacy, and environmental chemical clearance. PMID:22031624

  14. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase expression in mouse liver is increased in obesity- and fasting-induced steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jialin; Kulkarni, Supriya R; Li, Liya; Slitt, Angela L

    2012-02-01

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (Ugt) catalyze phase II conjugation reactions with glucuronic acid, which enhances chemical polarity and the elimination from the body. Few studies have addressed whether Ugt expression and activity are affected by liver disease, such as steatosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether steatosis induced by obesity or fasting could affect liver Ugt mRNA expression and activity. Male C57BL/6J and Lep(ob/ob) (ob/ob) mice were fed ad libitum or food was withheld for 24 h. In steatotic livers of ob/ob mice, Ugt1a1, -1a6, -1a9, -2a3, -3a1, and -3a2 mRNA expression increased. Fasting, which also induced steatosis, increased hepatic Ugt1a1, -1a6, -1a7, -1a9, -2b1, -2b5, -2a3, -3a1, and -3a2 mRNA expression in mouse liver. Likewise, acetaminophen glucuronidation increased by 47% in hepatic microsomes from ob/ob mice compared with that in C57BL/6J mice, but not after fasting. In both steatosis models, Ugt induction was accompanied by increased aryl hydrocarbon receptor, constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α, pregnane X receptor, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α mRNA expression. In addition, fasting increased CAR, PPAR, and Nrf2 binding activity. The work points to hepatic triglyceride concentrations corresponding with nuclear receptor and Ugt expression. The findings indicate that steatosis significantly alters hepatic Ugt expression and activity, which could have a significant impact on determining circulating hormone levels, drug efficacy, and environmental chemical clearance.

  15. Construction of permanently inducible miRNA-based expression vectors using site-specific recombinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garwick-Coppens Sara E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA interference (RNAi is a conserved gene silencing mechanism mediated by small inhibitory microRNAs (miRNAs. Promoter-driven miRNA expression vectors have emerged as important tools for delivering natural or artificially designed miRNAs to eukaryotic cells and organisms. Such systems can be used to query the normal or pathogenic functions of natural miRNAs or messenger RNAs, or to therapeutically silence disease genes. Results As with any molecular cloning procedure, building miRNA-based expression constructs requires a time investment and some molecular biology skills. To improve efficiency and accelerate the construction process, we developed a method to rapidly generate miRNA expression vectors using recombinases instead of more traditional cut-and-paste molecular cloning techniques. In addition to streamlining the construction process, our cloning strategy provides vectors with added versatility. In our system, miRNAs can be constitutively expressed from the U6 promoter, or inducibly expressed by Cre recombinase. We also engineered a built-in mechanism to destroy the vector with Flp recombinase, if desired. Finally, to further simplify the construction process, we developed a software package that automates the prediction and design of optimal miRNA sequences using our system. Conclusions We designed and tested a modular system to rapidly clone miRNA expression cassettes. Our strategy reduces the hands-on time required to successfully generate effective constructs, and can be implemented in labs with minimal molecular cloning expertise. This versatile system provides options that permit constitutive or inducible miRNA expression, depending upon the needs of the end user. As such, it has utility for basic or translational applications.

  16. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) expression correlates positively with active angiogenesis and negatively with basic fibroblast growth factor expression in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szubert, Sebastian; Szpurek, Dariusz; Moszynski, Rafal; Nowicki, Michal; Frankowski, Andrzej; Sajdak, Stefan; Michalak, Slawomir

    2014-03-01

    The primary aim of this paper was to evaluate the expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) and its relationship with proangiogenic factors and microvessel density (MVD) in ovarian cancer. The study group included 58 epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs), 35 benign ovarian tumors, and 21 normal ovaries. The expression of EMMPRIN, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was assessed by ELISA of tissue homogenates. Antibodies against CD105, CD31, and CD34 were used to immunohistochemically assess MVD. We have found significantly higher EMMPRIN expression in EOC than in benign ovarian tumors and normal ovaries. Similarly, the VEGF expression was higher in EOC than in benign ovarian tumors and normal ovaries. By contrast, bFGF expression was lower in EOC than in benign ovarian tumors and ovary samples. EMMPRIN expression in EOC was directly correlated with VEGF expression and CD105-MVD, but inversely correlated with bFGF expression. Grade 2/3 ovarian cancers had increased expression of EMMPRIN and VEGF, increased CD105-MVD, and lowered expression of bFGF compared to grade 1 ovarian cancers. Moreover, EMMPRIN expression was higher in advanced (FIGO III and IV) ovarian cancer. The upregulation of EMMPRIN and VEGF expression is correlated with increased CD105-MVD and silenced bFGF, which suggests early and/or reactivated angiogenesis in ovarian cancer. Aggressive EOC is characterized by the following: high expression of EMMPRIN and VEGF, high CD105-MVD, and low expression of bFGF.

  17. Mechanism of inhibitory effect of atorvastatin on resistin expression induced by tumor necrosis factor-α in macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua Su-Kiat

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atorvastatin has been shown to reduce resistin expression in macrophages after pro-inflammatory stimulation. However, the mechanism of reducing resistin expression by atorvastatin is not known. Therefore, we sought to investigate the molecular mechanisms of atorvastatin for reducing resistin expression after proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α stimulation in cultured macrophages. Cultured macrophages were obtained from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. TNF-α stimulation increased resistin protein and mRNA expression and atorvastatin inhibited the induction of resistin by TNF-α. Addition of mevalonate induced resistin protein expression similar to TNF-α stimulation. However, atorvastatin did not have effect on resistin protein expression induced by mevalonate. SP600125 and JNK small interfering RNA (siRNA completely attenuated the resistin protein expression induced by TNF-α and mevalonate. TNF-α induced phosphorylation of Rac, while atorvastatin and Rac-1 inhibitor inhibited the phosphorylation of Rac induced by TNF-α. The gel shift and promoter activity assay showed that TNF-α increased AP-1-binding activity and resistin promoter activity, while SP600125 and atorvastatin inhibited the AP-1-binding activity and resistin promoter activity induced by TNF-α. Recombinant resistin and TNF-α significantly reduced glucose uptake in cultured macrophages, while atorvastatin reversed the reduced glucose uptake by TNF-α. In conclusion, JNK and Rac pathway mediates the inhibitory effect of atorvastatin on resistin expression induced by TNF-α.

  18. Changes in Gene Expression during G-CSF-Induced Emergency Granulopoiesis in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Corinna C.; Borup, Rehannah; Fischer-Nielsen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Emergency granulopoiesis refers to the increased production of neutrophils in bone marrow and their release into circulation induced by severe infection. Several studies point to a critical role for G-CSF as the main mediator of emergency granulopoiesis. However, the consequences of G-CSF...... stimulation on the transcriptome of neutrophils and their precursors have not yet been investigated in humans. In this work, we examine the changes in mRNA expression induced by administration of G-CSF in vivo, as a model of emergency granulopoiesis in humans. Blood samples were collected from healthy...... individuals after 5 d of G-CSF administration. Neutrophil precursors were sorted into discrete stages of maturation by flow cytometry, and RNA was subjected to microarray analysis. mRNA levels were compared with previously published expression levels in corresponding populations of neutrophil precursors...

  19. Sarcosine induces increase in HER2/neu expression in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Malin; Bouchelouche, Pierre; Kramer-Marek, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) is involved in progression of prostate cancer. Recently, sarcosine was reported to be highly increased during prostate cancer progression, and exogenous sarcosine induces an invasive phenotype in benign prostate...... epithelial cells. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of sarcosine on HER2/neu expression in prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP (androgen dependent), PC-3 and DU145 (both androgen independent). Relative amounts of HER2/neu and androgen receptor (AR) transcripts were determined using RT...... that sarcosine is involved in the regulation of the oncoprotein HER2/neu. Thus, sarcosine may induce prostate cancer progression by increased HER2/neu expression. However, detailed information on cellular mechanisms remains to be elucidated....

  20. UVB-induced gene expression in the skin of Xiphophorus maculatus Jp 163 B☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kuan; Boswell, Mikki; Walter, Dylan J.; Downs, Kevin P.; Gaston-Pravia, Kimberly; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Shen, Yingjia; Mitchell, David L.; Walter, Ronald B.

    2014-01-01

    Xiphophorus fish and interspecies hybrids represent long-standing models to study the genetics underlying spontaneous and induced tumorigenesis. The recent release of the Xiphophorus maculatus genome sequence will allow global genetic regulation studies of genes involved in the inherited susceptibility to UVB-induced melanoma within select backcross hybrids. As a first step toward this goal, we report results of an RNA-Seq approach to identify genes and pathways showing modulated transcription within the skin of X. maculatus Jp 163 B upon UVB exposure. X. maculatus Jp 163 B were exposed to various doses of UVB followed by RNA-Seq analysis at each dose to investigate overall gene expression in each sample. A total of 357 genes with a minimum expression change of 4-fold (p-adj fish skin to UVB exposure. PMID:24556253

  1. Ethylene-induced senescence-related gene expression requires protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, K.A.; Raghothama, K.G.; Woodson, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of inhibiting protein synthesis on the ethylene-induced expression of 3 carnation senescence-related genes, pSR5, pSR8, and pSR12. Treatment of preclimacteric carnation petal discs with 1μg/ml of cycloheximide, a cytoplasmic protein synthesis inhibitor, for 3h inhibited protein synthesis by >80% as quantitated by the incorporation of [35S]methionine into protein. Pre-treatment of petal discs with cycloheximide prevented ethylene-induced SR transcript accumulation. Cycloheximide treatment of petal discs held in air did not result in increased levels of SR mRNA. These results indicate that ethylene does not interact with pre-formed factors but rather that the activation of SR gene expression by ethylene is mediated by labile protein factor(s) synthesized on cytoplasmic ribosomes. Experiments are currently underway to determine if cycloheximide exerts its effect at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level

  2. Targeting receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) expression induces apoptosis and inhibits prostate tumor growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elangovan, Indira; Thirugnanam, Sivasakthivel; Chen, Aoshuang; Zheng, Guoxing; Bosland, Maarten C.; Kajdacsy-Balla, André; Gnanasekar, Munirathinam

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Targeting RAGE by RNAi induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. ► Silencing RAGE expression abrogates rHMGB1 mediated cell proliferation. ► Down regulation of RAGE by RNAi inhibits PSA secretion of prostate cancer cells. ► Knock down of RAGE abrogates prostate tumor growth in vivo. ► Disruption of RAGE expression in prostate tumor activates death receptors. -- Abstract: Expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) plays a key role in the progression of prostate cancer. However, the therapeutic potential of targeting RAGE expression in prostate cancer is not yet evaluated. Therefore in this study, we have investigated the effects of silencing the expression of RAGE by RNAi approach both in vitro and in vivo. The results of this study showed that down regulation of RAGE expression by RNAi inhibited the cell proliferation of androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and androgen-independent (DU-145) prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, targeting RAGE expression resulted in apoptotic elimination of these prostate cancer cells by activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 death signaling. Of note, the levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA) were also reduced in LNCaP cells transfected with RAGE RNAi constructs. Importantly, the RAGE RNAi constructs when administered in nude mice bearing prostate tumors, inhibited the tumor growth by targeting the expression of RAGE, and its physiological ligand, HMGB1 and by up regulating death receptors DR4 and DR5 expression. Collectively, the results of this study for the first time show that targeting RAGE by RNAi may be a promising alternative therapeutic strategy for treating prostate cancer.

  3. The correlation analysis of tumor necrosis factor-alpha-308G/A polymorphism and venous thromboembolism risk: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Quangen; Zhang, Peijin; Wang, Wei; Ma, He; Tong, Yue; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Zhaojun

    2016-10-01

    Venous thromboembolism is a common complex disorder, being the resultant of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha is a proinflammatory cytokine which has been implicated in venous thromboembolism risk. A promoter 308G/A polymorphism in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene has been suggested to modulate the risk for venous thromboembolism. However, the published findings remain inconsistent. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis of all available data regarding this issue. Eligible studies were identified through search of Pubmed, EBSCO Medline, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, Chinese) databases up to June 2014. Pooled Odd ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals were applied to estimating the strength of the genetic association in the random-effects model or fixed-effects model. A total of 10 studies involving 1999 venous thromboembolism cases and 2166 controls were included in this meta-analysis to evaluate the association between tumor necrosis factor-alpha-308G/A polymorphism and venous thromboembolism risk. Overall, no significantly increased risk venous thromboembolism was observed in all comparison models when all studies were pooled into the meta-analysis. However, in stratified analyses by ethnicity, there was a pronounced association with venous thromboembolism risk among West Asians in three genetic models (A vs. G: OR = 1.82, 95%CI = 1.13-2.94; GA vs. GG: OR = 1.82, 95%CI = 1.08-3.06; AA/GA vs. GG: OR = 1.88, 95%CI = 1.12-3.16). When stratifying by source of controls, no significant result was detected in all genetic models. This meta-analysis demonstrates that tumor necrosis factor-alpha 308G/A polymorphism may contribute to susceptibility to venous thromboembolism among West Asians. Studies are needed to ascertain these findings in larger samples and different racial groups. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Radiation-induced VEGF-C expression and endothelial cell proliferation in lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Hsuan [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, Pharmacological Institute, College of Medicine, Taipei (China); Pan, Shiow-Lin; Wang, Jing-Chi; Teng, Che-Ming [National Taiwan University, Pharmacological Institute, College of Medicine, Taipei (China); Kuo, Sung-Hsin [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei (China); Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China)

    2014-12-15

    The present study was undertaken to investigate whether radiation induces the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) through activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway,subsequently affecting endothelial cells. Radiotherapy-induced tumor micro-lymphatic vessel density (MLVD) was determined in a lung cancer xenograft model established in SCID mice. The protein expression and phosphorylation of members of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and VEGF-C secretion and mRNA expression in irradiated lung cancer cells were assessed by Western blot analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Moreover, specific chemical inhibitors were used to evaluate the role of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Conditioned medium (CM) from irradiated control-siRNA or VEGF-C-siRNA-expressing A549 cells was used to evaluate the proliferation of endothelial cells by the MTT assay. Radiation increased VEGF-C expression in a dose-dependent manner over time at the protein but not at the mRNA level. Radiation also up-regulated the phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, 4EBP, and eIF4E, but not of p70S6K. Radiation-induced VEGF-C expression was down-regulated by LY294002 and rapamycin (both p < 0.05). Furthermore, CM from irradiated A549 cells enhanced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) and lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) proliferation, which was not observed with CM from irradiated VEGF-C-siRNA-expressing A549 cells. Radiation-induced activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway increases VEGF-C expression in lung cancer cells, thereby promoting endothelial cell proliferation. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Studie untersucht, ob die Strahlung die Expression von VEGF-C (vascular endothelial growth factor C) mittels Aktivierung des PI3K/Akt/mTOR-Signalwegs induziert und anschliessend die endothelialen Zellen beeinflusst. Die durch Strahlentherapie induzierte Mikrolymphgefaessdichte (MLVD) im Tumor wurde in

  5. The relationship between radiation-induced apoptosis and the expression of cytokines in the rat's liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Eun Joo; Lee, Kyung Ja; Rhee, Chung Sik

    2000-01-01

    To determine the role of cytokines in the apoptosis of rat's liver following irradiation. Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated to entire body with a single dose of 8 Gy. The rats were divided into 5 groups according to the sacrifice day after irradiation. The liver and blood after 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 days irradiation were sampled for evaluation of mechanism of apoptosis and role of cytokine in relation to radiation-induced tissue damage. The study was composed of microscopic evaluation of liver tissue, in situ detection method for apoptosis, immunohistochemical stain of IL-1, IL-4, IL-6 and TNF, bioassay and radioimmunoassay of IL-6 in liver tissue and blood. Radiation-induced liver damage was noted from first day of radiation, and most severe parenchymal damage associated with infiltration of chronic inflammatory cells was seen in the groups of 5 days after radiation. A number of apoptosis were observed 1 day after radiation on both light microscope and in situ method. Afterwards, the number of apoptosis was gradually diminished. On immunohistochemical study, IL-1 and TNF were expressed 1, 3 days after radiation, but not expressed after that. IL-4 was not expressed in the entire groups. IL-6 was expressed with strong positivity in 1, 3 days after radiation. Bioassay and RIA of IL-6 in liver tissue and blood showed the highest value in 1 day after radiation, and the value is diminished after then. Apoptosis seemed to be the important mechanism of radiation-induced liver damage, and is possibly induced by the release of cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-6, TNF in view the simultaneously increased appearance of apoptosis and cytokines

  6. Expressions of Uroplakins in the Mouse Urinary Bladder with Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Seong Hoo; Byun, Youngmin; Lee, Gilho

    2009-01-01

    Even though uroplakins (UPs) are believed to serve a strong protective barrier against toxic materials, cyclophosphamide (CP) causes extensive cystitis. We investigated the expression of UPs in the urothelium in CP induced mouse cystitis. A total of 27 ICR female mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg CP/kg. Nine CP-treated mice and 6 controls were sequentially killed at 12, 24, and 72 hr post injection. Extensive cystitis and an increased vesical weight were seen. These a...

  7. Smad, but not MAPK, pathway mediates the expression of type I collagen in radiation induced fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Hiroyuki; Hamanaka, Ryoji; Nakamura, Miki; Sumiyoshi, Hideaki; Matsuo, Noritaka; Yoshioka, Hidekatsu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examine how radiation affects the expression level and signal pathway of collagen. ► TGF-β1 mRNA is elevated earlier than those of collagen genes after irradiation. ► Smad pathway mediates the expression of collagen in radiation induced fibrosis. ► MAPK pathways are not affected in the expression of collagen after irradiation. -- Abstract: Radiation induced fibrosis occurs following a therapeutic or accidental radiation exposure in normal tissues. Tissue fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of collagen and other extracellular matrix components. This study investigated how ionizing radiation affects the expression level and signal pathway of type I collagen. Real time RT-RCR showed that both α1and α2 chain of type I collagen mRNA were elevated from 48 h after irradiation with 10 Gy in NIH3T3 cells. The relative luciferase activities of both genes and type I collagen marker were elevated at 72 h. TGF-β1 mRNA was elevated earlier than those of type I collagen genes. A Western blot analysis showed the elevation of Smad phosphorylation at 72 h. Conversely, treatment with TGF-β receptor inhibitor inhibited the mRNA and relative luciferase activity of type I collagen. The phosphorylation of Smad was repressed with the inhibitor, and the luciferase activity was cancelled using a mutant construct of Smad binding site of α2(I) collagen gene. However, the MAPK pathways, p38, ERK1/2 and JNK, were not affected with specific inhibitors or siRNA. The data showed that the Smad pathway mediated the expression of type I collagen in radiation induced fibrosis.

  8. Oleocanthal Modulates Estradiol-Induced Gene Expression Involving Estrogen Receptor α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiler, Annekathrin Martina; Djiogue, Sefirin; Ehrhardt, Tino; Zierau, Oliver; Skaltsounis, Leandros; Halabalaki, Maria; Vollmer, Günter

    2015-09-01

    Oleocanthal is a bioactive compound from olive oil. It has attracted considerable attention as it is anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and has been shown to possess neuroprotective properties in vitro and in vivo. Delineated from its polyphenolic structure, the aim of this study was to characterize oleocanthal towards estrogenic properties. This might contribute to partly explain the beneficial effects described for the Mediterranean diet. Estrogenic properties of oleocanthal were assessed by different methods: a) stimulation of reporter gene activity in MVLN or RNDA cells either expressing estrogen receptor α or β, b) stimulation of luciferase reporter gene activity in U2OS osteosarcoma cells expressing estrogen receptor α or β, and c) elucidation of the impact on estradiol-induced gene expression in U2OS cells transduced with both estrogen receptors. Depending on the cell line origin, oleocanthal inhibited luciferase activity (MVLN, U2OS-estrogen receptor β) or weakly induced reporter gene activity at 10 µM in U2OS-estrogen receptor α cells. However, oleocanthal inhibited stimulation of luciferase activity by estradiol from both estrogen receptors. Oleocanthal, if given alone, did not stimulate gene expression in U2OS cells, but it significantly modulated the response of estradiol. Oleocanthal enhanced the effect of estradiol on the regulation of those genes, which are believed to be regulated through heterodimeric estrogen receptors. As the estrogenic response pattern of oleocanthal is rather unique, we compared the results obtained with oleacein. Oleocanthal binds to both estrogen receptors inducing estradiol-agonistic or antiagonistic effects depending on the cell line. Regarding regulation of gene expression in U2OS-estrogen receptor α/β cells, oleocanthal and oleacein enhanced estradiol-mediated regulation of heterodimer-regulated genes. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Smad, but not MAPK, pathway mediates the expression of type I collagen in radiation induced fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Hiroyuki [Department of Matrix Medicine, Oita University, 1-1 Idaigaoka Hasama-machi, Yufu, Oita 879-5593 (Japan); Division of Radioisotope Research, Department of Research Support, Research Promotion Project, Oita University, 1-1 Idaigaoka Hasama-machi, Yufu, Oita 879-5593 (Japan); Hamanaka, Ryoji; Nakamura, Miki [Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, 1-1 Idaigaoka Hasama-machi, Yufu, Oita 879-5593 (Japan); Sumiyoshi, Hideaki; Matsuo, Noritaka [Department of Matrix Medicine, Oita University, 1-1 Idaigaoka Hasama-machi, Yufu, Oita 879-5593 (Japan); Yoshioka, Hidekatsu, E-mail: hidey@oita-u.ac.jp [Department of Matrix Medicine, Oita University, 1-1 Idaigaoka Hasama-machi, Yufu, Oita 879-5593 (Japan)

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine how radiation affects the expression level and signal pathway of collagen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta}1 mRNA is elevated earlier than those of collagen genes after irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smad pathway mediates the expression of collagen in radiation induced fibrosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAPK pathways are not affected in the expression of collagen after irradiation. -- Abstract: Radiation induced fibrosis occurs following a therapeutic or accidental radiation exposure in normal tissues. Tissue fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of collagen and other extracellular matrix components. This study investigated how ionizing radiation affects the expression level and signal pathway of type I collagen. Real time RT-RCR showed that both {alpha}1and {alpha}2 chain of type I collagen mRNA were elevated from 48 h after irradiation with 10 Gy in NIH3T3 cells. The relative luciferase activities of both genes and type I collagen marker were elevated at 72 h. TGF-{beta}1 mRNA was elevated earlier than those of type I collagen genes. A Western blot analysis showed the elevation of Smad phosphorylation at 72 h. Conversely, treatment with TGF-{beta} receptor inhibitor inhibited the mRNA and relative luciferase activity of type I collagen. The phosphorylation of Smad was repressed with the inhibitor, and the luciferase activity was cancelled using a mutant construct of Smad binding site of {alpha}2(I) collagen gene. However, the MAPK pathways, p38, ERK1/2 and JNK, were not affected with specific inhibitors or siRNA. The data showed that the Smad pathway mediated the expression of type I collagen in radiation induced fibrosis.

  10. Lung inflammation induces IL-1β expression in hypoglossal neurons in rat brainstem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, Anjum; Belkadi, Abdelmadjid; Zaidi, Syed I. A.; Getsy, Paulina; Wilson, Christopher G.; Martin, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Perinatal inflammation is associated with respiratory morbidity. Immune modulation of brainstem respiratory control centers may provide a link for this pathobiology. We exposed 11-day old rats to intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.5 µg/g) to test the hypothesis that intrapulmonary inflammation increases expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β within respiratory-related brainstem regions. Intratracheal LPS resulted in a 32% increase in IL-1β protein expression in the medulla oblongata. In situ hybridization showed increased intensity of IL-1β mRNA but no change in neuronal numbers. Co-localization experiments showed that hypoglossal neurons express IL-1β mRNA and immunostaining sh