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Sample records for factor treatment preserves

  1. What factors hinder the decision-making process for women with cancer and contemplating fertility preservation treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Georgina; Hughes, Jane; Mahmoodi, Neda; Smith, Emily; Skull, Jonathan; Ledger, William

    2017-07-01

    Although fertility preservation (FP) treatment options have increased, the existing evidence suggests that many women with cancer do not feel well supported in making these decisions, but find them stressful and complex and fail to take up fertility care at this crucial time. Whilst existing reviews have all made important contributions to our understanding of the FP decision-making process, none of them examine solely and specifically these processes for women of reproductive age with a diagnosis of any cancer, leaving a gap in the knowledge base. Given the expectation that care is patient-centred, our review aims to address this gap which may be of help to those managing patients struggling to make difficult decisions in the often brief period before potentially sterilizing cancer treatment is started. Underpinning this narrative review was the question 'What factors hinder the decision-making process for women with any cancer and contemplating FP treatment?' Our objectives were to (i) assess and summarize this existing literature, (ii) identify the factors that hinder this decision-making process, (iii) explore to what extent these factors may differ for women choosing different methods of FP and (iv) make recommendations for service delivery and future research. A systematic search of the medical and social science literature from the 1 January 2005 up to the end of January 2016 was carried out using three electronic databases (Web of Science (PubMed), Ovid SP Medline and CINAHL via Ebsco). Included in the review were quantitative, qualitative and mixed-method studies. Reference lists of relevant papers were also hand searched. From the 983 papers identified, 46 papers were included. Quality assessment was undertaken using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool and thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. From the analysis, 6 key themes with 15 sub-themes emerged: (i) fertility information provision (lack of information, timing of the information, patient

  2. Study on Bamboo Treatment Technology with CuAz Preservative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to research the effect of preservative penetrability, CuAz (copper azole) was used for the preservative, and pieces of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) were used for the experimental materials in this study. The vacuum pressure process was used to treat bamboo pieces. The results showed as follows: 1) Main treatment factors were preservative concentration and applied pressure; 2) In the same technology, both the retention and the weight proportion gain of the samples without node were less tha...

  3. Treatment of Preserved Wastewater with UASB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yongli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The preserved wastewater was treated by the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor, the effects of the anaerobic time on COD, turbidity, pH, conductivity, SS, absorbance, and decolorization rate of the preserved wastewater were investigated. The results showed that with the increase of the anaerobic time, the treatment effect of the UASB reactor on the preserved wastewater was improved. Under the optimum anaerobic time condition, the COD removal rate, turbidity removal rate, pH, conductivity, SS removal rate, absorbance, and decoloration rate of the wastewater were 49.6%, 38.5%, 5.68, 0.518×104, 24%, 0.598, and 32.4%, respectively. Therefore, the UASB reactor can be used as a pretreatment for the preserved wastewater, in order to reduce the difficulty of subsequent aerobic treatment.

  4. Tertiary Treatment Process of Preserved Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qingyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the composite coagulants on coagulation sedimentation for the preserved wastewater was investigated by changing the composite coagulant dosages, and the coagulant was composed of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS, polyaluminium chloride (PAC, and polyaluminum ferric silicate (PAFSC, while the effect of the tertiary treatment process on the preserved wastewater was tested, which was exceeded the standard seriously. The results showed that 400 mg/L was the optimum composite coagulant dosage. The removal rates of salt and sugar were as high as 99.1% and 99.5% respectively, and the removal rates of CODCr and SS were 99.3% and 96.0%, respectively after the preserved wastewater was treated by the tertiary treatment technology, which both reached the primary standard of “The Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard” (GB8978-1996.

  5. Treatment helps young women preserve fertility during breast cancer chemo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have found that young women with breast cancer were able to better preserve their fertility during cancer treatments by using hormone-blocking drug injections that put them into temporary menopause. The results announced today at the annual me

  6. Treatment of timber products with gaseous borate esters, Part 1: factors influencing the treatment process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Turner, P

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Several factors which influence the treatment of timber products with vapour phase preservatives such as borate esters are considered. Gas flow rate through the substrate was found to be a significant factor limiting both preservative penetration...

  7. Sensitivity of Escherichia albertii to food preservation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia albertii is a potential foodborne pathogen because of its documented ability to cause diarrheal disease by producing attachment and effacement lesions. Its tolerance to food preservation treatments has not been investigated. Heat, acid, and pressure tolerance were determined for stationa...

  8. Preservatives as important etiologic factors of allergic contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kręcisz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preservatives present in cosmetics and other industrial products can cause allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of allergy to selected preservatives in consecutive patients examined due to contact dermatitis in the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, and to establish whether individuals sensitized to formaldehyde react simultaneously to formaldehyde releasers. Material and Methods: A group of 405 patients (308 females and 97 males was examined in 2011–2013. In all participants patch tests with a series of 13 preservatives (paraben mix, formaldehyde, Quaternium 15, chloromethylisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone mix, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, diazolidinyl urea, imidazolidinyl urea, DMDM hydantoin, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, benzalkonium chloride, sodium metabisulfite, produced by Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden were performed. Results: Of the 405 patients 74 (including 52 females showed positive results of patch tests. Contact allergy to at least 1 preservative was noted in 47 (11.6% patients, including 34 (11% females and 13 (13.4% males. Methylisothiazolinone proved to be the most frequent sensitizer – 4.7% (5.2% females, 3.1% males while parabens, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol and imidazolidinyl urea (0.2% were found to be the least frequent. Fourteen (3.4% participants, 10 women and 4 men, were allergic to formaldehyde and/or formaldehyde releasers. In 11 (78.6% of them monovalent hypersensitivity was observed. In 13 (3.2% of the examined group patients allergy to preservatives might have been of occupational origin. Conclusions: Preservatives, particularly isothiazolinones, are significant causal factors of allergic contact dermatitis, including occupational cases. Individuals sensitized to formaldehyde may react simultaneously to formaldehyde releasers, however, such reactions are relatively rare. Med Pr 2015;66(3:327–332

  9. Ovarian failure due to cancer treatment and fertility preservation options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Aminimoghaddam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI, commonly referred to premature ovarian failure, is defined as ovarian failure before the age of 40 years. It is the loss of ovarian function caused by a process directly affecting ovaries. Cancer therapy which includes surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy influence ovarian function, leading to premature menopause and loss of fertility. POI is idiopathic in most cases (74-90%. The known causes, in addition to anticancer treatment, are other processes like chromosomal abnormalities, autoimmunity, and natural aging can result in secondary ovarian failure, which is detected by an increase in serum gonadotropin levels (FSH and LH. There are evident risks of POI in women treated for cancer. Those who receive anticancer treatments have an increased risk of developing POI. There by, anticancer drugs and radiation therapy are considered as the most common toxins of ovaries. Although cancer incidence rates in women less than 50 years old continue to increase during recent years, mortality rates are dramatically decreasing due to modern advances in treatment. Increasing numbers of survivors are now confronted with the long-term consequences of exposure to these treatments. The pool of primordial follicles in the ovary is fixed and any injury to the ovary can potentially reduce this ovarian reserve, effectively advancing the patient’s reproductive age, thus narrowing the window of reproductive opportunity. Ovarian failure occurs in a significant percentage of childhood cancer survivors and many of them will seek care for reproductive dysfunction. Nevertheless, Embryo cryopreservation, oocyte cryopreservation, ovary tissue cryopreservation, ovarian suppression and oophoro-pexy are some options to preserve fertility in these groups. As a result, having foreknowledge of potential treatment related ovarian failure will allow the physician to give a better counsel to patients and their family regarding the importance and

  10. Factor Structure of Social Cognition in Schizophrenia: Is Empathy Preserved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Corbera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Social cognitive impairments are core features of schizophrenia and are closely associated with poor functional outcome. This study sought to identify specific aspects of social cognition and their relationships to measures of social function, quality of life, and neurocognition. Principal component analysis was performed using social cognitive measures in patients with schizophrenia and healthy matched controls and revealed three factors: Interpersonal Discomfort, Basic Social Cognition, and Empathy. Patients had higher scores on Interpersonal Discomfort and lower scores on Basic Social Cognition than controls, but the two groups were the same on Empathy. Lower social performance was significantly correlated with poor Basic Social Cognition in patients and with high Interpersonal Discomfort in controls. While neurocognition was significantly associated with Basic Social Cognition in both groups, it was not associated with Empathy. Social cognitive interventions should emphasize improving basic social cognitive processing deficits, managing Interpersonal Discomfort, and utilizing preserved capacity for empathy as a potential strength in social interactions.

  11. Hearing preservation in cochlear implantation and drug treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriat, Sebastien; Poirrier, Annelise; Malgrange, Brigitte; Lefebvre, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Insertion of an electrode array into the cochlea produces immediate damage to the inner ear, which is responsible for a hearing loss. In addition, a delayed hearing loss can be observed. In order to maximize hearing preservation after insertion of an electrode and to enhance the performance of the cochlear implant, it has been proposed to deliver pharmacological agents to the inner ear. Molecules can be administered locally to the inner ear through a direct perilymphatic perfusion or through the round window membrane. These modalities of treatment have already been successfully applied to some patients with inner ear diseases. In this paper, we will review some basic aspects of drug delivery to the inner ear to prevent the degeneration of the neurosensory hair cells and auditory neurons, and the actual applicability to humans in order to maintain hearing function after the insertion of electrodes of a cochlear implant.

  12. Factors Influencing Hearing Preservation in Acoustic Tumor Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Rastogi, Pawan; Cacace, Anthony T.; Lovely, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    In patients who underwent neurosurgery for excision of acoustic tumors, we used correlation and multivariate logistic regression analysis to study relationships among nine variables thought to have value in predicting hearing preservation. These variables included auditory perceptual, auditory neurophysiologic, and imaging-related characteristics of acoustic tumor dimensions. The univariate correlations showed two general trends. The first trend demonstrated relationships among imaging-relate...

  13. Resuscitation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from dormancy requires hibernation promoting factor (PA4463) for ribosome preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Tatsuya; Williamson, Kerry S; Schaefer, Robert; Pratt, Shawna; Chang, Connie B; Franklin, Michael J

    2017-03-21

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections are difficult to treat with antibiotic therapy in part because the biofilms contain subpopulations of dormant antibiotic-tolerant cells. The dormant cells can repopulate the biofilms following alleviation of antibiotic treatments. While dormant, the bacteria must maintain cellular integrity, including ribosome abundance, to reinitiate the de novo protein synthesis required for resuscitation. Here, we demonstrate that the P. aeruginosa gene PA4463 [hibernation promoting factor (HPF)], but not the ribosome modulation factor (PA3049), is required for ribosomal RNA preservation during prolonged nutrient starvation conditions. Single-cell-level studies using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and growth in microfluidic drops demonstrate that, in the absence of hpf, the rRNA abundances of starved cells decrease to levels that cause them to lose their ability to resuscitate from starvation, leaving intact nondividing cells. P. aeruginosa defective in the stringent response also had reduced ability to resuscitate from dormancy. However, FISH analysis of the starved stringent response mutant showed a bimodal response where the individual cells contained either abundant or low ribosome content, compared with the wild-type strain. The results indicate that ribosome maintenance is key for maintaining the ability of P. aeruginosa to resuscitate from starvation-induced dormancy and that HPF is the major factor associated with P. aeruginosa ribosome preservation.

  14. [Treatment of complications of pylorus preserving stomach resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubianskiĭ, V G; Leont'ev, S V; Kuznetsov, G L

    2002-01-01

    Causes of unsatisfactory outcomes of pylorus preserving stomach resection are analyzed, method of prophylaxis and surgical correction is proposed. Pylorus preserving stomach resection was performed in 207 patients with chronic gastric ulcer. 2 groups of patients were compared: 166 patients who have undergone pylorus preserving stomach resection by Maky--Gorobashko (group 1); 41 patients operated according to an original method of suprapyloric stomach resection with preserving of distal Latarget nerves on serous-muscular flap formed from lesser curvature of the stomach (group 2). Of 122 examined patients of group 1 excellent and good long-term results according to Visick's criteria were achieved in 101 (82.79%), satisfactory--in 12 (9.84%), unsatisfactory--in 9 (7.37%). Bad stump evacuation due to a stable spasm of the denervated pylorus and hypokinesia of the stump were the main causes of unsatisfactory results. In group 2-39 of 41 patients were examined in long-term period. Excellent and good results were achieved in 38 patients, satisfactory--in 1. There were no unsatisfactory results.

  15. TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR REMEDIATION OF WOOD PRESERVING SITES: OVERVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first in a series of five articles describing the applicability, performance and cost of technologies for the remediation of contaminated soil and water at wood preserving sites. Site-specific treatability studies conducted under the supervision of the USEPA NRMRL fro...

  16. Review on Preservative Treatment and Decay Resistance of Wood-based Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi; CAO Jinzhen

    2006-01-01

    To extend the service life and explore the use of wood-based composites, it is quite necessary to improve the decay resistance of wood-based composites through preservative treatments. Researchers have studied the methods of preservative treatment and the decay resistance of treated wood-based composites. In this paper, the categories of wood-based composites are briefly summarized and the previous and present investigations on the preservative treatment and decay resistance of different categories of wood-based composites are introduced. Some problems are also put forward and suggestions are given for future studies.

  17. PRESERVATION OF AVOCADO OIL WITH ELECTRIC FIELD TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    J.A. Ariza-Ortega; E. Ramírez-Moreno; M.E. Ramos-Cassellis; J. Díaz-Reyes

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of different conditions of electric field (voltage 3 kV cm-1, 60 Hz, 10 and 180 s; 720 Hz, 10 and 180 s) as method on preservation up to 365 days on oil extracted of the avocado pulp. Unsaturated fatty acid oxidation in crude avocado oil was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique in the mid infrared region and by quality parameters (acidity, peroxide and iodine). The electric field caused minimal changes on unsaturated fat...

  18. ALTERNATIVES FOR PRESERVATION OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN BLUEBERRY PULP: HEAT TREATMENT ASSOCIATED WITH THE ADDITION OF XANTHAN PRUNI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÚLIA BORIN FIORAVANTE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study, to increase the preservation of phenolic bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in blueberry pulp, heat treatment associated with addition of xanthan gum was used. A commercial mixture of blueberries (Powerblue, Climax and Bluegen cultivars was added with 0.08% (w/w citric acid and subjected to heat treatment by direct heating until 90 °C in conventional open pan (OP and by direct application of steam (AS; both with and without the addition of xanthan pruni (OPX and ASX, followed by pulping. Samples of only frozed fruits were considered as control. The five treatments remained under freezing and were evaluated until 90 days of storage for antioxidant activity, phenols, flavonoids and total monomeric anthocyanins. The results show that, with the exception of phenolics, heat treatment with direct steam application and xanthan addition favored bioactive compounds preservation during storage. These factors influenced positively on the anthocyanins stability during frozen storage for 90 days. The xanthan addition favored antioxidant activity preservation; preservation for antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH, in all heat treatments, was observed.

  19. [Uterus preserving surgery versus vaginal hysterectomy in treatment of uterine descent: a systematic review].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detollenaere, R.J.; Boon, J. den; Vierhout, M.E.; Eijndhoven, H.W. van

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcomes of uterus preserving procedures and vaginal hysterectomy in treatment of uterine prolapse. DESIGN: Systematic review. METHOD: We searched in Pubmed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and the reference lists of relevant publications for articles comparing uterus

  20. Investigations on the change of texture of plant cells due to preservative treatments by digital holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Priyanka; Anand, Arun

    2014-10-01

    Texture change is observed in preserved fruits and vegetables. Responsible factors for texture change during preservative treatments are cell morphology, cell wall structure, cell turger, water content and some biochemical components, and also the environmental conditions. Digital Holographic microscopy (DHM) is a quantitative phase contrast imaging technique, which provides three dimensional optical thickness profiles of transparent specimen. Using DHM the morphology of plant cells preserved by refrigeration or stored in vinegar or in sodium chloride can be obtained. This information about the spatio-temporal evolution of optical volume and thickness can be an important tool in area of food processing. Also from the three dimensional images, the texture of the cell can be retrieved and can be investigated under varying conditions.

  1. Prognostic factors for hearing preservation following observation-only versus stereotactic irradiation (STI) in patients with acoustic neuroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Tooru [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-10-01

    Prognostic factors for hearing preservation following observation-only versus STI were compared in patients with acoustic neuroma. There were 48 patients with acoustic neuroma treated by fractionated STI. Between 1991 and 1997, patients were given 36 Gy in 20 fractions over 5 weeks (36 Gy/20 Fr/5 wks) to 44 Gy/22 Fr/6 wks followed by a 4 Gy boost. A linear accelerator was used for irradiation. Twenty-three patients with acoustic neuroma who were followed without any treatment (observation-only group) were selected as matched controls. The largest hearing loss was observed at the frequency of 2 kHz in the observation-only group and at 1-2 kHz in the STI group. Hearing loss at lkHz was more frequent in the STI group (p<0.01). There were no significant prognostic factors which predicted hearing preservation in the observation-only group. Stereotactic irradiation has been suggested to damage to cochlear nerve function in patients whose cochlear nerve had been impaired already. Tumor control rate of STI appeared to be as good as single fraction radiosurgery rates in the literature and better than in the observation-only group. Hearing preservation rate in the STI group was as good as in the observation-only group and appeared to be better than single fraction radiosurgery. In conclusion, because there were no factors predictive of hearing preservation in the observation-only group, it is difficult to select patients for observation only. Fractionated STI is potentially the treatment of choice, resulting in the same hearing preservation rate as achieved with observation only, although longer follow-up periods are needed. (author)

  2. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  3. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto,; Budiyono [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Jl. Prof. H. Soedarto, SH, Kampus Baru Tembalang, Semarang (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  4. Preservative treatment of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. juvenile wood by sap displacement method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Marcel de Arruda Torres

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The research analyzed the quality of the preservative treatment of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh juvenile wood and verified the influence of the inversion of the pieces, in preservative solution, in the distribution, penetration and retention of CCB in treated pieces. Trees of Eucalyptus camaldulensis were collected in the rural area of the municipality of Rio Tinto, Paraíba, Brazil, in a stand aged four years. In the stand were randomly chosen five trees, being three of them with the larger diameter. For the wood treatment it was used the sap displacement method by radial transpiration using a 2% solution of ingredients copper chrome borate (CCB and compared the effect of the inversion of pieces on the preservative solution. The distribution, penetration and retention were better in reversed pieces when compared with the ones non-reversed in the preservative solution.

  5. Insulin-like growth factor I preserves renal function postoperatively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, S C; Moulton, M; Sicard, G A; Hammerman, M R; Miller, S B

    1997-02-01

    Deterioration of renal function, which can lead to postoperative renal failure, is a complication of surgery involving the suprarenal aorta and surgery involving the renal arteries. Fifty-four patients who were at risk for developing this complication were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) as a therapeutic agent to prevent the decline in renal function. The primary end point was the incidence of renal dysfunction, defined as a reduction of the glomerular filtration rate (creatinine clearance) at each of three measurements over 72 h. IGF-I (100 microg/kg subcutaneously every 12 h for 6 doses) or placebo was administered on admission to the intensive care unit immediately postoperatively. IGF-I- and placebo-treated groups were well matched for sex, age, type of surgery, renal ischemic time during surgery (ischemic index), baseline creatinine clearance, and baseline serum creatinine. No patient in the study developed acute renal failure postoperatively. IGF-I was well tolerated. A smaller proportion of patients in the IGF-I group had a postoperative decline in renal function (22%) than in the placebo-treated group (33%). There were no significant differences in levels of serum creatinine at time of discharge, length of hospital stay, length of intensive care unit stay, length of intubation, or incidence of dialysis or death. Our findings establish the feasibility and potential utility for the use of IGF-I to reduce the incidence of postoperative renal dysfunction in high-risk patients.

  6. Radiation treatment of food. A new technology for preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, K.; Huebner, G.

    1985-09-01

    The brief survey reports on irradiation of food, especially onions, potatoes, chicken meat, spices, additives, and enzyme solutions used in food industries, demonstrating examples from several countries. Advantages, microbiological aspects of irradiation treatment and chemical radiation effects are described. Technological fundamentals of radiopreservation including irradiation plants and devices are outlined.

  7. Cartilage repair and joint preservation: medical and surgical treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madry, Henning; Grün, Ulrich Wolfgang; Knutsen, Gunnar

    2011-10-01

    Articular cartilage defects are most often caused by trauma and osteoarthritis and less commonly by metabolic disorders of the subchondral bone, such as osteonecrosis and osteochondritis dissecans. Such defects do not heal spontaneously in adults and can lead to secondary osteoarthritis. Medications are indicated for symptomatic relief. Slow-acting drugs in osteoarthritis (SADOA), such as glucosamine and chondroitin, are thought to prevent cartilage degeneration. Reconstructive surgical treatment strategies aim to form a repair tissue or to unload compartments of the joint with articular cartilage damage. In this article, we selectively review the pertinent literature, focusing on original publications of the past 5 years and older standard texts. Particular attention is paid to guidelines and clinical studies with a high level of evidence, along with review articles, clinical trials, and book chapters. There have been only a few randomized trials of medical versus surgical treatments. Pharmacological therapies are now available that are intended to treat the cartilage defect per se, rather than the associated symptoms, yet none of them has yet been shown to slow or reverse the progression of cartilage destruction. Surgical débridement of cartilage does not prevent the progression of osteoarthritis and is thus not recommended as the sole treatment. Marrow-stimulating procedures and osteochondral grafts are indicated for small focal articular cartilage defects, while autologous chondrocyte implantationis mainly indicated for larger cartilage defects. These surgical reconstructive techniques play a lesser role in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Osteotomy near the knee joint is indicated for axial realignment when unilateral osteoarthritis of the knee causes axis deviation. Surgical reconstructive techniques can improve joint function and thereby postpone the need for replacement of the articular surface with an artificial joint.

  8. Judicious Use of Journal Impact Factors and the Preservation of Our Fields of Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    This article comments on the judicious use of journal impact factors. It aims to preserve our fields of study within the context of increased scholarly scrutiny and the hierarchical structures inherent in academia. It concludes by recommending actions for "JOPERD," other journals in the field, and the producers and evaluators of…

  9. Hypoxia inducible factor-1αaccumulation in steatotic liver preservation:Role of nitric oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed; Amine; Zaouali; Ismail; Ben; Mosbah; Eleonora; Boncompagni; Hassen; Ben; Abdennebi; Maria; Teresa; Mitjavila; Ramon; Bartrons; Isabel; Freitas; Antoni; Rimola; Joan; Roselló-Catafau

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To examine the relevance of hypoxia inducible factor(HIF-1)and nitric oxide(NO)on the preservation of fatty liver against cold ischemia-reperfusion injury(IRI). METHODS:We used an isolated perfused rat liver model and we evaluated HIF-1αin steatotic and non-steatotic livers preserved for 24 h at 4℃in University of Wisconsin and IGL-1 solutions,and then subjected to 2 h of normothermic reperfusion.After normoxic reperfusion,liver enzymes,bile production,bromosulfophthalein clearance,as well as HIF-1αand ...

  10. Classical conditioning for preserving the effects of short melatonin treatment in children with delayed sleep: a pilot study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    van Maanen A; Meijer AM; Smits MG; Oort FJ

    2017-01-01

    .... In this pilot study, we investigated whether classical conditioning might help in preserving treatment effects of melatonin in children with sleep onset problems, with and without comorbid attention...

  11. Fertility-preserving treatment and pregnancy outcomes in the early stage of endometrial carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Xiao-mei; LIN Xiao-na; JIANG Hong-fei; JIANG Ling-ying; ZHANG Song-ying; LIANG Feng-bing

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to review the available literature on fertility-preserving treatment and pregnancy outcomes in patients with early-stage endometrial carcinoma who desired to preserve their fertility.Data sources The PubMed database (1992-2012) was searched for the words "conservative "OR" fertility sparing "OR"fertility preserving" AND "endometrial neoplasms" (MeSH).All relevant articles in English and the relevant references were collected.Study selection Data from published articles about fertility-preserving treatment of endometrial cancer,including the response and recurrence rate of conservative treatment,strategies of infertility treatment,pregnancy,and obstetric outcomes,were selected.Data were mainly extracted from 41 studies,which are listed in the reference section of this review.Results Hormone therapy was the most common method used for early-stage endometrial carcinoma in patients who wished to preserve fertility.Sixty percent of the patients became pregnant after remission of the carcinoma.The percentage of patients who conceived in the assisted reproductive technology group was higher than that of the natural pregnancy group (80.0% vs.43.2%,P<0.01).A higher rate of preterm labor and multiple pregnancies was observed in the assisted reproductive technology group than that in the natural pregnancy group.The majority of pregnancies (71.4%) in the assisted reproductive technology group were achieved by in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer.The clinical pregnancy rate of transfer cycles in patients with endometrial carcinoma was 34.1%.Conclusions Assisted reproductive technology is a good option in well-selected patients with early-stage endometrial carcinoma who have completed conservative treatment.In vitro fertilization-embryo transfer offers an opportunity to achieve an immediate pregnancy.

  12. Treatment of cervical pregnancy with preserving fertility: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Kadkhodayan

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Conservative method may be considered for the treatment of cervical pregnancy in patients who desire to preserve their fertility. The treatment is associated with high success rates. Methotrexate (MTX is the most common medicine for resolving ectopic cervical pregnancy, other medications such as KCl, hyperosmolar glucose, RU486 and prostaglandins have also been used with different success rate. Methotrexate may be administered systemic (intramuscular or intravenous or local (intra-amniotic transfusion or intrauterine.

  13. Physical Problems, Sonic Implications. A discussion of the ethics of preservation treatments and audio recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Bradley

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Conservators have traditionally operated under a particular set of ethical constraints. The AIC code of ethics, for example, states “The conservation professional should only recommend or undertake treatment that is judged suitable to the preservation of the aesthetic, conceptual, and physical characteristics of the cultural property”. However, when treating sound recordings the situation may well arise where a physical treatment will alter the physical characteristics of the audio carrier, though simultaneously restore or improve the ability of the carrier to reproduce the sound it carries. Where does the responsibility of the sound archivist lie? This paper considers some of the ethical issues surrounding treatments of audio recordings and considers just what it is that we are trying to preserve.

  14. Decision-making in female fertility preservation is balancing the expected burden of fertility preservation treatment and the wish to conceive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Ö; Bastings, L; Beerendonk, C C M; Postma, S A E; IntHout, J; Verhaak, C M; Braat, D D M; Nelen, W L D M

    2015-07-01

    What are the decisive factors in fertility preservation (FP) decision-making in young women scheduled for gonadotoxic therapy? FP decision-making in young women scheduled for gonadotoxic therapy is mainly based on weighing two issues: the intensity of the wish to conceive a child in the future and the expected burden of undergoing FP treatment. Future fertility is of importance for young cancer patients whose reproductive function is being threatened by oncological therapy. To prevent or reduce severe psychological effects of infertility as well as feelings of regret about their FP decision after cancer treatment, the quality of fertility preservation counselling (FPC) should be improved. To improve care, those issues forming a decisive factor in FP decision-making for patients should be clarified, as these issues deserve extensive discussion during FPC. Until now, decisive factors have not been isolated from the complex interplay of all aspects of FP that women contemplate during FP decision-making. By using a mixed methods methodology, a questionnaire developed after qualitative research involving a selected group of five women who previously received FPC was retrospectively sent to eligible patients (n = 143) who had received FPC (1999 - July 2013) and to whom at least one FP option was offered. Patients had received FPC at a university hospital in the Netherlands, in a setting where financial factors do not play a role in FP. They were aged ≥16 years and were scheduled for gonadotoxic treatment. The relationship between patients' baseline characteristics, their attributed importance to 28 relevant importance items and their FP choices was investigated. After five interviews, 28 importance items for FP decision-making were identified and included in our questionnaire. Of these 28 importance items, 24 items could be clustered into seven importance themes. A total of 87 patients (61%) responded to our questionnaire. After performing a multivariable logistic

  15. Decision-making in female fertility preservation is balancing the expected burden of fertility preservation treatment and the wish to conceive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baysal, O.; Bastings, L.; Beerendonk, C.C.M.; Postma, S.A.; Hout, J. in't; Verhaak, C.M.; Braat, D.D.M.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What are the decisive factors in fertility preservation (FP) decision-making in young women scheduled for gonadotoxic therapy? SUMMARY ANSWER: FP decision-making in young women scheduled for gonadotoxic therapy is mainly based on weighing two issues: the intensity of the wish to conc

  16. Clear cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: clinical characteristics and feasibility of fertility-preserving treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang X

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Xiang Jiang, Ying Jin, Yan Li, Hui-Fang Huang, Ming Wu, Keng Shen, Ling-Ya Pan Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People's Republic of China Abstract: The objective of this retrospective study was to analyze the clinical characteristics and prognosis of clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA in the post-diethylstilbestrol (DES era and to evaluate the feasibility of fertility-preserving treatment. The records of 32 patients with CCAs who were treated at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from August 1986 to June 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Three of the patients had undergone fertility-preserving treatment. The incidence of CCA among cervical adenocarcinomas was 15.2%. The median age was 38 years: 11 patients (34.4% were diagnosed before 30 years of age and two (6.3% after 70 years of age. Ten patients (31.2% were nulliparous. No patient had been exposed to DES. Twenty-nine patients (90.6% presented with obvious symptoms, and the cervix appeared abnormal in 26 patients (81.3%. Cervical Papanicolaou (Pap tests were abnormal in all four patients in whom they were performed (three had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and one had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. The distribution by stage was 56.3% stage I, 34.4% stage II, 6.3% stage III, and 3.1% stage IV. Treatments mainly included surgery for patients with stage I to IIA CCA and radiochemotherapy for patients with advanced CCA. The overall 5-year progression-free survival was 72.2%. Patients with stage I to IIA CCA had better 5-year progression-free survival than did patients with stage IIB to IV CCA (81.5% versus 40.0%, P=0.003. The three patients who had undergone fertility-preserving treatment had no recurrences. CCA may also affect adolescents and children without prior DES exposure, who are often misdiagnosed as having functional uterine

  17. Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction – Concept, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Challenges for Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Veterovska Miljkovik

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF with preserved left ventricular (LV ejection fraction (HFpEF occurs in 40 to 60% of the patients with HF, with a prognosis which is similar to HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF. HFpEF pathophysiology is different from that of HFrEF, and has been characterized with diastolic dysfunction. Diastolic dysfunction has been defined with elevated left ventricular stiffness, prolonged iso-volumetric LV relaxation, slow LV filing and elevated LV end-diastolic pressure. Arterial hypertension occurs in majority cases with HFpEF worldwide. Patients are mostly older and obese. Diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation appear proportionally in a high frequency of patients with HFpEF. The HFpEF diagnosis is based on existence of symptoms and signs of heart failure, normal or approximately normal ejection and diagnosing of LV diastolic dysfunction by means of heart catheterization or Doppler echocardiography and/or elevated concentration of plasma natriuretic peptide. The present recommendations for HFpEF treatment include blood pressure control, heart chamber frequency control when atrial fibrillation exists, in some situations even coronary revascularization and an attempt for sinus rhythm reestablishment. Up to now, it is considered that no medication or a group of medications improve the survival of HFpEF patients. Due to these causes and the bad prognosis of the disorder, rigorous control is recommended of the previously mentioned precipitating factors for this disorder. This paper presents a universal review of the most important parameters which determine this disorder.

  18. COMBINATION OF TWO NON-INDUSTRIAL METHODS ON THE PRESERVATIVE TREATMENT OF Eucalyptus grandis FENCE POSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Soares Modes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluated the effect of the combination of two non-industrial methods to treat fence posts of Eucalyptus grandis, on the penetration and retention of water borne preservative. Thus, four fences with 2.20 m in length were treated by replacement of sap and simple diffusion alone and other four ones have combined the two techniques, with water-borne CCB 50% preservative at a concentration of 3.5%. After each treatment condition, the pieces were seasoned in the shade for 30 days. Disks were taken at 0.60 and 1.60 m from the base of the pieces which had one side sanded for analysis of the penetration of the preservative using a solution of chrome azurol S. From the same parts, test specimens were also manufactured in diametrically opposed positions with dimensions of approximately 3.0 x 2.0 x 2.5 cm (radial x tangential x longitudinal to analyze the retention of the element copper by atomic absorption spectrophotometry method and boron by visible spectrophotometry with azomethine-H, also known as colorimetry. The retention values obtained were compared with the minimum recommended by the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards – ABNT for water borne preservatives which is 6.5 kg of active ingredients per m³ of wood. The penetration achieved by the combined method was considered sufficient for non-industrial treatment, while the retention values were higher than the retention of at least 6.5 kg of active ingredients / m³ of treated wood in all positions and portions evaluated.

  19. Glandectomy with preservation of corpora cavernosa in the treatment of penile carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Aluizio G. da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The objective of this work is to describe a conservative surgical technique as an alternative to classic penile amputations, aiming the local control of the disease, in addition to trying to preserve the patient's sexual function. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: After a circular incision of the skin around the penis, the subfascial plane is developed until the base of the organ. The dorsal neurovascular bundle and the urethra are isolated in their distal extremities. The neurovascular bundle is sectioned distally. A retrocoronal dissection plane is developed between the glans and the corpora cavernosa. When this stage is complete, the glans is fixed only to the urethra, which is distally sectioned as well. The neurovascular bundle is fixed to the dorsal albuginea. Following the spatulation of the urethra, a neomeatus is created using the overlay skin of the penis. Between January 2001 and July 2002, we employed this technique in 6 patients who had epidermoid carcinoma of the penis, which were limited to the glans, superficial, well or moderately differentiated and measuring up to 3 cm. COMMENTS: Several conservative surgical methods for treatment of carcinoma of the penis aim the organ's preservation, in an attempt of improving the quality of life of patients, however the indexes of local recurrence and failure in disease control are significant. The described technique showed to be safe and effective for disease control, in addition to preserving sexual function in all patients who were treated, representing, thus, a quite appealing conservative surgical alternative in selected cases.

  20. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  1. Tensor Factorization for Precision Medicine in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Ahmad, Faraz S; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2017-01-23

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome that may benefit from improved subtyping in order to better characterize its pathophysiology and to develop novel targeted therapies. The United States Precision Medicine Initiative comes amid the rapid growth in quantity and modality of clinical data for HFpEF patients ranging from deep phenotypic to trans-omic data. Tensor factorization, a form of machine learning, allows for the integration of multiple data modalities to derive clinically relevant HFpEF subtypes that may have significant differences in underlying pathophysiology and differential response to therapies. Tensor factorization also allows for better interpretability by supporting dimensionality reduction and identifying latent groups of data for meaningful summarization of both features and disease outcomes. In this narrative review, we analyze the modest literature on the application of tensor factorization to related biomedical fields including genotyping and phenotyping. Based on the cited work including work of our own, we suggest multiple tensor factorization formulations capable of integrating the deep phenotypic and trans-omic modalities of data for HFpEF, or accounting for interactions between genetic variants at different omic hierarchies. We encourage extensive experimental studies to tackle challenges in applying tensor factorization for precision medicine in HFpEF, including effectively incorporating existing medical knowledge, properly accounting for uncertainty, and efficiently enforcing sparsity for better interpretability.

  2. Factors That Influence a Mother's Willingness to Preserve Umbilical Cord Blood: A Survey of 5120 Chinese Mothers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Lu

    Full Text Available Umbilical Cord blood (UCB, which contains a substantive number of stem cells, could be widely used in transplants to treat a variety of oncologic, genetic, hematologic, and immunodeficiency disorders. However, only a small portion of mothers preserve or donate their UCB in China. The limited availability of UCB has hampered stem cell research and therapy nowadays. To date, no systemic investigations regarding factors that influence a mother's willingness to preserve UCB have been performed in China. In the current study, we are trying to determine those factors which will provide useful information for national health policy development and will raise awareness of the importance of UCB preservation.During 2011 to 2013, 5120 mothers with the average age of 26.1±8.4 years were included in this study. Those mothers participated in a standardized survey. The information gathered consisted of delivery time, occupation, level of education, knowledge of preservation of UCB, willingness to store UCB, and related concerns. The results have been analyzed with SPSS 16.0.The results showed that first-time mothers showed a greater willingness to preserve their UCB (73.3% compared to those having their second (48.9% or third child (40.3%. Mothers who were employed at Government Agencies and Organizations were more willing to preserve their UCB (87.3% than those employed at factories (62.0%, and those who were unemployed (27.3%. Mothers holding master's or college degrees were more willing to preserve their UCB (72.5% and 71.1%, respectively than mothers with high school diplomas (48.7% or those who only went to preliminary school or middle school (40.7%. The two strongest factors that influenced an unwillingness to preserve UCB were the high cost and concerns regarding the safety of the preservation.The results showed that mothers with higher education or those having better occupations are more likely to preserve their UCB in China. These mothers have

  3. Nutritional Factors and Preservation of C-Peptide in Youth With Recently Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Dabelea, Dana; Crandell, Jamie L.; Crume, Tessa; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Dolan, Lawrence; King, Irena B.; Lawrence, Jean M.; Norris, Jill M.; Pihoker, Catherine; The, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test the novel hypothesis that nutritional factors previously associated with type 1 diabetes etiology or with insulin secretion are prospectively associated with fasting C-peptide (FCP) concentration among youth recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Included were 1,316 youth with autoantibody-positive type 1 diabetes who participated in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study (baseline disease duration, 9.9 months; SD, 6.3). Nutritional exposures included breastfeeding and age at introduction of complementary foods, baseline plasma long-chain omega-3 fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), vitamin D, vitamin E, and, from a baseline food frequency questionnaire, estimated intake of the branched-chain amino acid leucine and total carbohydrate. Multiple linear regression models were conducted to relate each nutritional factor to baseline FCP adjusted for demographics, disease-related factors, and other confounders. Prospective analyses included the subset of participants with preserved β-cell function at baseline (baseline FCP ≥0.23 ng/mL) with additional adjustment for baseline FCP and time (mean follow-up, 24.3 months; SD, 8.2; n = 656). FCP concentration was analyzed as log(FCP). RESULTS In adjusted prospective analyses, baseline EPA (P = 0.02), EPA plus DHA (P = 0.03), and leucine (P = 0.03) were each associated positively and significantly with FCP at follow-up. Vitamin D was unexpectedly inversely associated with FCP (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS Increased intake of branched-chain amino acids and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids may support preservation of β-cell function. This represents a new direction for research to improve prognosis for type 1 diabetes. PMID:23801797

  4. Improved applicability of nisin in novel combinations with other food preservation factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, I.E.

    2001-01-01

    General discussion

    Modern consumers nowadays, have a preference for more natural, mildly preserved food products with a fresh appearance over traditionally preserved products. Mild preservation techniques applied singly are usually not sufficient to control microbial

  5. Improved applicability of nisin in novel combinations with other food preservation factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, I.E.

    2001-01-01

    General discussion

    Modern consumers nowadays, have a preference for more natural, mildly preserved food products with a fresh appearance over traditionally preserved products. Mild preservation techniques applied singly are usually not sufficient to control microbial outgrowth and combinatio

  6. Novel Slope Source Term Treatment for Preservation of Quiescent Steady States in Shallow Water Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khawar Rehman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a robust method for modeling shallow-water flows and near shore tsunami propagation, applicable for both simple and complex geometries with uneven beds. The novel aspect of the model includes the introduction of a new method for slope source terms treatment to preserve quiescent equilibrium over uneven topographies, applicable to both structured and unstructured mesh systems with equal accuracy. Our model is based on the Godunov-type finite volume numerical approximation. Second-order spatial and temporal accuracy is achieved through high resolution gradient reconstruction and the predictor-corrector method, respectively. The approximate Riemann solver of Harten, Lax, and van Leer with contact wave restoration (HLLC is used to compute fluxes. Comparisons of the model’s results with analytical, experimental, and published numerical solutions show that the proposed method is capable of accurately predicting experimental and real-time tsunami propagation/inundation, and dam-break flows over varying topographies.

  7. Amendment of arsenic and chromium polluted soil from wood preservation by iron residues from water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sanne Skov; Petersen, L. R.; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    An iron-rich water treatment residue (WTR) consisting mainly of ferrihydrite was used for immobilization of arsenic and chromium in a soil contaminated by wood preservatives. A leaching batch experiment was conducted using two soils, a highly contaminated soil (1033mgkg−1 As and 371mgkg−1 Cr......) and slightly contaminated soil (225mgkg−1 As and 27mgkg−1 Cr). Compared to an untreated reference soil, amendment with 5% WTR reduced leaching in the highly contaminated soil by 91% for Cr and 98% for As. No aging effect was observed after 103d. In a small field experiment, soil was mixed with 2.5% WTR in situ....... Pore water was extracted during 3years from the amended soil and a control site. Pore water arsenic concentrations in the amended soil were more than two orders of magnitude lower than in the control for the upper samplers. An increased release of arsenic was observed during winter in both fields...

  8. A novel edge-preserving nonnegative matrix factorization method for spectral unmixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Wenxing; Ma, Ruishi

    2015-12-01

    Spectral unmixing technique is one of the key techniques to identify and classify the material in the hyperspectral image processing. A novel robust spectral unmixing method based on nonnegative matrix factorization(NMF) is presented in this paper. This paper used an edge-preserving function as hypersurface cost function to minimize the nonnegative matrix factorization. To minimize the hypersurface cost function, we constructed the updating functions for signature matrix of end-members and abundance fraction respectively. The two functions are updated alternatively. For evaluation purpose, synthetic data and real data have been used in this paper. Synthetic data is used based on end-members from USGS digital spectral library. AVIRIS Cuprite dataset have been used as real data. The spectral angle distance (SAD) and abundance angle distance(AAD) have been used in this research for assessment the performance of proposed method. The experimental results show that this method can obtain more ideal results and good accuracy for spectral unmixing than present methods.

  9. Improved applicability of nisin in novel combinations with other food preservation factors

    OpenAIRE

    Pol, I.E.

    2001-01-01

    General discussionModern consumers nowadays, have a preference for more natural, mildly preserved food products with a fresh appearance over traditionally preserved products. Mild preservation techniques applied singly are usually not sufficient to control microbial outgrowth and combinations of measures are needed to ensure complete safe products (16). Bacteriocins, produced by lactic acid bacteria have been successfully used as biopreservatives in a number of food products to inhibit the gr...

  10. Preservation of NO production by statins in the treatment of heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trochu, Jean-Noel; Mital, Seema; Zhang, Xiao-ping; Xu, Xiaobin; Ochoa, Manuel; Liao, James K.; Recchia, Fabio A.; Hintze, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Because statins promote endogenous nitric oxide (NO) production in vessels by increasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), we evaluated the clinical benefit and efficiency of simvastatin in preventing the decrease in NO control of coronary blood flow (CBF), NO regulation of myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) and decreased nitrite production in coronary microvessels, associated with pacing-induced heart failure (HF). Methods Dogs (n = 17) were instrumented for measurement of coronary blood flow and left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP). HF was induced by pacing. Ten dogs were given simvastatin 20 mg/kg/day orally (HF + SIMVA) from the 10th day of pacing. Results HF + SIMVA had a lower LVEDP at 4 weeks of pacing (18 ± 1 vs. 25 ± 1 mm Hg, p < 0.05), and the NO-dependent coronary vasodilation to veratrine was preserved compared to HF (p < 0.05). In coronary microvessels, SIMVA potentiated nitrite production compared to HF (p < 0.05) and enhanced the NO-dependent decrease in MVO2 in cardiac tissue in response to 10 −4 mol/l bradykinin, which was markedly blunted in HF (p < 0.05). Using Western blotting, there was a reduction in eNOS protein during HF that was preserved at 4–5 weeks of pacing during treatment with SIMVA. Conclusions Simvastatin maintained NO production by coronary vessels and NO bioactivity during pacing-induced dilated cardiomyopathy. Targeting the endothelium, which participates in the control of myocardial metabolism by NO, may be an important mechanism of action of statins in the treatment of heart failure. PMID:14613854

  11. Effects of Combined Heat and Preservative Treatment on Storability of Ponkan Fruit (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan during Postharvest Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment and preservative application have been widely used during postharvest storage of many fresh products, but the effect of their combination on citrus storage has rarely been investigated. In this study, the optimal heat treatment (HT conditions and HT combined with preservative treatment were investigated for Ponkan fruit (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan storage. Results indicated that HT at 55°C for 20 s can significantly reduce the decay rate of Ponkan fruit, and a combination of HT and 25% of the preservative dosage used in production of iminoctadine tris (albesilate, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and imazalil significantly reduced the decay rate without affecting fruit quality. In addition, the increased fiber contents in fruit receiving the HT combined with preservative treatments may be a response preventing fungus infection and enhancing fruit storability and resistance. The above results suggested that the combination of HT and 25% of the preservative production dosage was optimal for controlling Ponkan fruit decay during storage.

  12. Challenging aspects of treatment strategies in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: “Why did recent clinical trials fail?”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter; Moritz; Becher; Nina; Fluschnik; Stefan; Blankenberg; Dirk; Westermann

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure(HF) is the leading cause of hospitalization among older adults and the prevalence is growing with the aging populations in the Western countries. Epidemiologic reports suggest that approximately 50% of patients who have signs or symptoms of HF have preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. This HF type predominantly affects women and the elderly with other co-morbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, and overt volume status. Most of the current treatment strategies are based on morbidity benefits such as quality of life and reduction of clinical HF symptoms. Treatment of patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction displayed disappointing results from several large randomized controlled trials. The heterogeneity of HF with preserved ejection fraction, understood as complex syndrome, seems to be one of the primary reasons. Here, we present an overview of the current management strategies with available evidence and new therapeutic approach from drugs currently in clinical trials, which target diastolic dysfunction, chronotropic incompetence, and risk factor management. We provide an outline and interpretation of recent clinical trials that failed to improve outcome and survival in patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction.

  13. Biomonitoring for chromium and arsenic in timber treatment plant workers exposed to CCA wood Preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocker, J; Morton, J; Warren, N; Wheeler, J P; Garrod, A N I

    2006-07-01

    This study reports a survey of occupational exposure to copper chrome arsenic (CCA) based wood preservatives during vacuum pressure timber impregnation. The survey involved biological monitoring based on analysis of chromium and arsenic in urine samples collected from UK workers. The aim of the study was to determine the extent of occupational exposure to arsenic and chromium in the UK timber treatment industry. The objectives were to collect and analyse urine samples from as many workers as possible, where CCA wood preservatives might be used, at 6 monthly intervals for 2 years. In addition, to investigate day-to-day variations in urinary excretion of chrome and arsenic by collecting and analysing three samples a week for 3 weeks in subsets of workers and controls (people not occupationally exposed). All urine samples were analysed for chromium and inorganic arsenic. To investigate any residual interference every sample was accompanied by a short questionnaire about recent consumption of seafood and smoking. The analytical methods for arsenic used a hydride generation technique to reduce interference from dietary sources of arsenic and also a technique that would measure total arsenic concentration in urine. The main findings show that workers exposed to CCA wood preservatives have concentrations of inorganic arsenic and chromium in urine that are significantly higher than those from non-occupationally exposed people but below biological monitoring guidance values that would indicate inhalation exposure at UK occupational exposure limits for chromium and arsenic. The effects of consumption of seafood on urinary arsenic were not significant using the hydride generation method for inorganic arsenic but were significant if 'total' arsenic was measured. The 'total' arsenic method could not distinguish CCA workers from controls and is clearly unsuitable for assessment of occupational exposure to arsenic. There was a significant increase in the urinary concentration of

  14. Treatment-refractory anxiety; definition, risk factors, and treatment challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Byrne, Peter

    2015-06-01

    A sizable proportion of psychiatric patients will seek clinical evaluation and treatment for anxiety symptoms reportedly refractory to treatment. This apparent lack of response is either due to "pseudo-resistance" (a failure to have received and adhered to a recognized and effective treatment or treatments for their condition) or to true "treatment resistance." Pseudo-resistance can be due to clinician errors in selecting and delivering an appropriate treatment effectively, or to patient nonadherence to a course of treatment. True treatment resistance can be due to unrecognized exogenous anxiogenic factors (eg, caffeine overuse, sleep deprivation, use of alcohol or marijuana) or an incorrect diagnosis (eg, atypical bipolar illness, occult substance abuse, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder). Once the above factors are eliminated, treatment should focus on combining effective medications and cognitive behavioral therapy, combining several medications (augmentation), or employing novel medications or psychotherapies not typically indicated as first-line evidence-based anxiety treatments.

  15. Entire papilla preservation technique in the regenerative treatment of deep intrabony defects: 1-Year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Serhat; Buduneli, Nurcan; Cortellini, Pierpaolo

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluates the clinical outcomes of a novel tunnel-like surgical technique in the treatment of isolated deep intrabony defects. Twelve patients presenting with at least one isolated deep intrabony defect received regenerative periodontal treatment with "entire papilla preservation (EPP)" technique. Access to the intrabony defect for debridement was provided by a bevelled vertical releasing incision positioned in the buccal gingiva of the neighbouring inter-dental space. Following the elevation of a buccal flap, an inter-dental tunnel was prepared undermining the defect-associated papilla. Granulation tissue was removed, root surfaces were carefully debrided and bone substitutes and enamel matrix derivative were applied. Microsurgical suturing technique was used for optimal wound closure. Early healing was uneventful in all cases, and 100% wound closure was maintained during the entire healing period. At 1-year, there was significant attachment gain of 6.83±2.51 mm (p<0.001). The 7±2.8 mm reduction in probing depth was also significant (p<0.001), which was associated with minimal increase in gingival recession (0.16±0.38 mm, p=0.166). Tunnel-like "EPP" technique may limit the risk of wound failure particularly in the early healing phase, thereby preventing exposure of regenerative biomaterials, possibly enhancing stabilization of blood clot in deep intrabony defects and leading to optimal clinical outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Treatment with alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone preserves calcium regulatory proteins in rat heart allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Gualtiero; Sordi, Andrea; Lonati, Caterina; Carlin, Andrea; Turcatti, Flavia; Leonardi, Patrizia; Gatti, Stefano; Catania, Anna

    2008-08-01

    Prevention of graft dysfunction is a major objective in transplantation medicine. Previous research on experimental heart transplantation indicated that treatment with the immunomodulatory peptide alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) improves histopathology, prolongs allograft survival, and reduces expression of the main tissue injury mediators. Because calcium-handling is critical in heart graft function, we determined the effects of transplantation injury and influences of alpha-MSH treatment on representative calcium regulatory proteins in rat heart allografts. Hearts from Brown Norway rats were transplanted heterotopically into MHC incompatible Lewis rats. Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), protein kinase C epsilon (PKC epsilon), sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase 2 (SERCA2a), arrestin-beta1 (Arrb1), cholinergic receptor M2 (Chrm2), and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor 1 (InsP(3)R1) were examined in: (1) non-transplanted donor hearts; (2) allografts from saline-treated rats; and (3) allografts from rats treated with the synthetic alpha-MSH analog Nle4-DPhe7-alpha-MSH (NDP-alpha-MSH) (100 microg i.p. every 12h). Transplantation injury was associated with severe reduction in calcium regulatory protein transcription and expression level. NDP-alpha-MSH administration partly reversed inhibition of protein transcription and almost completely prevented protein loss. Finally, because certain effects of cyclic 3'-5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling on calcium handling in cardiac myocytes depend on activation of exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1 (Epac1), we determined Epac1 mRNA and protein expression in heart allografts. Transplantation injury markedly reduced Epac1. NDP-alpha-MSH treatment significantly preserved both Epac1 protein and mRNA in the allografts. Administration of alpha-MSH or related melanocortins could reduce transplantation-induced dysfunction through protection of heart calcium

  17. The metrological approach: a major key factor for the accreditation and continuous improvement of the wood preservation laboratory of Cirad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin L.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2006, the wood preservation laboratory of Cirad is accredited by COFRAC (French accreditation committee – accreditation No. 1-1686 for tests on the durability of wood and wood-based products and on protective efficacy of wood preservatives and termite control products. The metrological approach adopted by the wood preservation laboratory is a key factor on the continuous improvement of practices. Tests to determine the resistance against wood-destroying biological agents are the most difficult of all wood analysis tests. They are aimed at assessing and quantifying the impact of living organism, such as fungi and termites, on a lignocellulosic material. The extent of variability of this impact, which in turn is linked with the diversity of these organisms and of the material, can be readily determined. The validity and reliability of the findings therefore depend directly on the quality of the metrological process, including the choice of measurement devices, their management and compliance with international standards.

  18. Constraint-preserving boundary treatment for a harmonic formulation of the Einstein equations

    CERN Document Server

    Seiler, Jennifer; Pollney, Denis; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2008-01-01

    We present a set of well-posed constraint-preserving boundary conditions for a first-order in time, second-order in space, harmonic formulation of the Einstein equations. The boundary conditions are tested using robust stability, linear and nonlinear waves, and are found to be both less reflective and constraint preserving than standard Sommerfeld-type boundary conditions.

  19. Preservation of biological activity of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) after microencapsulation and sterilization by gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa-Casalengua, P; Jiang, C; Bravo-Osuna, I; Tucker, B A; Molina-Martínez, I T; Young, M J; Herrero-Vanrell, R

    2012-10-15

    A main issue in controlled delivery of biotechnological products from injectable biodegradable microspheres is to preserve their integrity and functional activity after the microencapsulation process and final sterilization. The present experimental work tested different technological approaches to maintain the biological activity of an encapsulated biotechnological product within PLGA [poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)] microspheres (MS) after their sterilization by gamma irradiation. GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor), useful in the treatment of several neurodegenerative diseases, was chosen as a labile model protein. In the particular case of optic nerve degeneration, GDNF has been demonstrated to improve the damaged retinal ganglion cells (RGC) survival. GDNF was encapsulated in its molecular state by the water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) technique or as solid according to the solid-in-oil-in-water (S/O/W) method. Based on the S/O/W technique, GDNF was included in the PLGA microspheres alone (S/O/W 1) or in combination with an antioxidant (vitamin E, Vit E) (S/O/W 2). Microspheres were sterilized by gamma-irradiation (dose of 25 kGy) at room and low (-78 °C) temperatures. Functional activity of GDNF released from the different microspheres was evaluated both before and after sterilization in their potential target cells (retinal cells). Although none of the systems proposed achieved with the goal of totally retain the structural stability of the GDNF-dimer, the protein released from the S/O/W 2 microspheres was clearly the most biologically active, showing significantly less retinal cell death than that released from either W/O/W or S/O/W 1 particles, even in low amounts of the neurotrophic factor. According to the results presented in this work, the biological activity of biotechnological products after microencapsulation and sterilization can be further preserved by the inclusion of the active molecule in its solid state in combination with

  20. Preservation of avocados (var. Fuerte) by heat and irradiation combined treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmelic, J. (Instituto de Investigaciones Tecnologicas, Santiago (Chile)); Rubio, T.; Urbina, Y.M.C. (Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago. Dept. de Aplicaciones Nucleares)

    1983-11-01

    The high national production of avocados expected for the next years asks for the opening of new markets to be reached by ship. For this reason, it is necessary to increase the shelf-life of avocados for a period of 40 days at least. Therefore, the effect of combined treatment: mild heat (46/sup 0/C, 20 min) and low radiation doses (25, 50, 100 Gy), in avocados is studied. Additional parameters considered in this study are: wrapping with PVC film, storage temperature (7/sup 0/C and room temperature), two different degrees of ripening. Best results are obtained with the lowest dose (25 Gy) and low degree of ripening of wrapped avocados, stored at 7/sup 0/C. After 40 days, 98,6% of the avocados were well preserved and 85,5% after 50 days. When compared with non irradiated samples, avocados irradiated with 25 Gy show 25% and 34% higher undamaged percentage after 40 and 50 days of storage; respectively. A negative effect is obtained when irradiation is applied to avocados with a high degree of ripening. Room temperature is not suitable for a long storage period of avocados.

  1. Preserved costal cartilage homograft application for the treatment of temporomandibular joint ankylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Z; Velidedeoğlu, H; Sahin, U; Kurtay, A; Coşkunfirat, O K

    2001-07-01

    Ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint has been a daunting problem in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Condylectomy with gap arthroplasty is the basic technique for treatment of the fully grown patient. In the past, reconstruction has primarily been accomplished with alloplastic materials or with autogenous tissue harvested from the patient. Joints reconstructed with alloplastic materials have been subject to complications such as acute infection and chronic inflammatory problems as a result of foreign-body reaction with the immune system. Biologic reconstruction with autogenous materials does expose the patient to the risk of complications at the donor site. In the last 4 years, we have treated seven patients between the ages of 20 and 42 years who had complete temporomandibular joint ankylosis. In each patient, the affected joint was exposed through an extended preauricular incision. The ankylosed mandibular condyle with the surrounding abnormal bone, together with the coronoid process, was resected and removed. The ankylosed area was resected until an improvement of at least 15 mm in the interincisal opening distance was obtained. A solvent-preserved homologous cartilage graft was sculpted according to the size and shape of the gap and was then placed in it as interpositional material. Physical therapy, including active and passive mouth-opening exercises, began on the second postoperative day and continued for 6 months. Patients were observed for 6 months to 4 years. During this period, no major complications were noted, and satisfactory results were obtained. The initial mean interincisal opening distance was 15.2 mm after surgery, and the final mean interincisal opening distance was 32 mm after completion of physiotherapy. No recurrence was seen during the 4 years of follow-up. This technique seems to be an effective, time-saving, and simple alternative to other methods of joint reconstruction in adults who have fairly extensive ankylosis of the

  2. Effect of different preservative treatments on the shelf-life of sorghum malt based fermented milk beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shaik Abdul; Garg, Faqir Chand; Pal, Dharam

    2014-08-01

    Studies were conducted to extend the shelf life of sorghum based fermented milk beverage (referred to SSL) developed at our Institute. In the first approach preservatives namely nisin (N) @ 400RU/ml, MicroGARD (M) @ (1%), potassium sorbate (PS) @ (0.15%) were added to the beverage before packaging and in the second approach thermization (65 °C/5 min) of the packaged samples containing above mentioned preservatives was adopted. The shelf life was assessed on the basis of sensory, physico-chemical and microbiological parameters. Total plate count and lactic acid bacterial count increased till 7th day of storage and afterwards decreased significantly (p thermization treatment helped in improving the microbiological and chemical quality of the beverage, the sensory and physical quality was adversely affected. Addition of PS without thermization was found to be the best preservation technique for enhancing the shelf life of SSL at refrigeration conditions.

  3. Choice of treatment with antidepressants: influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmerich, Hubertus; Wranik, Dominika W

    2012-01-01

    Depressive disorders place a large burden on patients and on society. Although efficacious treatment options for unipolar depressive disorders exist, substantial gaps in care remain. In part, the challenge lies in the matching of individual patients with appropriate care. This is complicated by the steady increases in the variety of antidepressants available in the market. The goal of this study is to highlight the decision processes in the selection of antidepressants by clinicians, given that most treatments have similar clinical effectiveness profiles. We conducted a systematic literature review of studies that referred to the decisions surrounding treatment with antidepressants for the treatment of non-psychotic unipolar depression. Our analysis of the literature reveals that the choice of treatment is based on a variety of factors, of which clinical evidence is only one. These factors can be categorized into clinical factors such as illness and treatment characteristics, individual factors such as patient and physician characteristics, and contextual factors such as setting characteristics, decision supports and pharmacoeconomic aspects. Illness characteristics are defined by the type and severity of depression. Treatment characteristics include drug properties, efficacy, effectiveness and favorable as well as unintended adverse effects of the drug. Examples for patient characteristics are co-morbidities and individual preferences, and physician characteristics include knowledge, experience, values and beliefs, and the relationship with the patient. Treatment guidelines, algorithms, and most recently, computational supports and biological markers serve as decision supports.

  4. Induction chemotherapy-based larynx preservation program for locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer: oncologic and functional outcomes and prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozec, Alexandre; Benezery, Karen; Ettaiche, Marc; Chamorey, Emmanuel; Vandersteen, Clair; Dassonville, Olivier; Poissonnet, Gilles; Riss, Jean-Christophe; Hannoun-Lévi, Jean-Michel; Chand, Marie-Eve; Leysalle, Axel; Saada, Esma; Guigay, Joël; Sudaka, Anne; Demard, François; Santini, José; Peyrade, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate oncologic and functional outcomes and prognostic factors in patients with locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer included in an induction chemotherapy (ICT)-based larynx preservation program in daily clinical practice. All patients with locally advanced (T3/4, N0-3, M0) hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, technically suitable for total pharyngo-laryngectomy, treated by docetaxel (75 mg/m(2), day 1), cisplatin (75 mg/m(2), day 1) and 5-fluorouracil (750 mg/m(2)/day, day 1-5) (TPF)-ICT (2-3 cycles) for larynx preservation at our institution between 2004 and 2013, were included in this retrospective study. Prognostic factors of oncologic (overall, cause-specific and recurrence-free survival: OS, SS and RFS) and functional (dysphagia outcome and severity scale, permanent enteral nutrition, larynx preservation) outcomes were assessed in univariate and multivariate analyses. A total of 53 patients (42 men and 11 women, mean age 58.6 ± 8.2 years) were included in this study. Grade 3-4 toxicities were experienced by 17 (32 %) patients during ICT. The rate of poor response (response larynx remobilization) to ICT was 10 %. At 5 years, OS, SS and RFS rates were 56, 60 and 54 %, respectively. Four patients required definitive enteral nutrition (permanent enteral tube feeding). The rate of patients alive, disease-free and with a functional larynx at 2 years was 58 %. T4 tumor stage (p = 0.005) and response to ICT larynx preservation (p = 0.01). In daily clinical practice, a TPF-ICT-based larynx preservation protocol can be used in patients with locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer with satisfactory results in terms of tolerance, efficacy and oncologic and functional outcomes.

  5. Phenotype-Specific Treatment of Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction: A Multiorgan Roadmap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sanjiv J; Kitzman, Dalane W; Borlaug, Barry A; van Heerebeek, Loek; Zile, Michael R; Kass, David A; Paulus, Walter J

    2016-07-05

    Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (EF; HFpEF) accounts for 50% of HF cases, and its prevalence relative to HF with reduced EF continues to rise. In contrast to HF with reduced EF, large trials testing neurohumoral inhibition in HFpEF failed to reach a positive outcome. This failure was recently attributed to distinct systemic and myocardial signaling in HFpEF and to diversity of HFpEF phenotypes. In this review, an HFpEF treatment strategy is proposed that addresses HFpEF-specific signaling and phenotypic diversity. In HFpEF, extracardiac comorbidities such as metabolic risk, arterial hypertension, and renal insufficiency drive left ventricular remodeling and dysfunction through systemic inflammation and coronary microvascular endothelial dysfunction. The latter affects left ventricular diastolic dysfunction through macrophage infiltration, resulting in interstitial fibrosis, and through altered paracrine signaling to cardiomyocytes, which become hypertrophied and stiff because of low nitric oxide and cyclic guanosine monophosphate. Systemic inflammation also affects other organs such as lungs, skeletal muscle, and kidneys, leading, respectively, to pulmonary hypertension, muscle weakness, and sodium retention. Individual steps of these signaling cascades can be targeted by specific interventions: metabolic risk by caloric restriction, systemic inflammation by statins, pulmonary hypertension by phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, muscle weakness by exercise training, sodium retention by diuretics and monitoring devices, myocardial nitric oxide bioavailability by inorganic nitrate-nitrite, myocardial cyclic guanosine monophosphate content by neprilysin or phosphodiesterase 9 inhibition, and myocardial fibrosis by spironolactone. Because of phenotypic diversity in HFpEF, personalized therapeutic strategies are proposed, which are configured in a matrix with HFpEF presentations in the abscissa and HFpEF predispositions in the ordinate.

  6. Early combined treatment with sildenafil and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells preserves heart function in rat dilated cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Morgan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated whether early combined autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC and sildenafil therapy offers an additive benefit in preserving heart function in rat dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM. Methods Adult Lewis rats (n = 8 per group were divided into group 1 (normal control, group 2 (saline-treated DCM rats, group 3 [2.0 × 106 ADMSC implanted into left ventricular (LV myocardium of DCM rats], group 4 (DCM rats with sildenafil 30 mg/kg/day, orally, and group 5 (DCM rats with combined ADMSC-sildenafil. Treatment was started 1 week after DCM induction and the rats were sacrificed on day 90. Results The results showed that mitochondrial protein expressions of connexin43 and cytochrome-C were lowest in group 2, and lower in groups 3 and 4 than in group 5 (p Conclusion Early combined ADMSC/sildenafil is superior to either treatment alone in preserving LV function.

  7. ECONOMICAL VIABILITY OF PRESERVATIVE TREATMENT OF Prosopis juliflora (SW D.C. WOOD SUBMITTED TO SAP DISPLACEMENT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmoulis Wanderley de Farias Sobrinho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the economical viability of preservative treatment of Prosopis juliflora (Sw D.C. roundpieces treated with Osmose CCB commercial preservative applied by sap displacement method in rural property and to comparetheir costs with Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, Mimosa tenuiflora and Prosopis juliflora non-treated pieces costs. The treatment of Prosopisjuliflora wood demonstrated to be economically viable when compared to alternatives using the Equivalent Annual Costs (EACs, fordiscount rates of 12; 15; and 18% and expected useful life varying from 16 to 30 years, in these situations treated Prosopis juliflorawood presented smaller EAC than Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, Mimosa tenuiflora and Prosopis juliflora non-treated woods for theanalyzed situations, that justifies the employment of the Prosopis juliflora treated logs as fence posts and other similar uses.

  8. Factores culturales, económicos y sociales de la preservación documental digital Cultural, economic and social factors of documentary digital preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Voutssas M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la problemática actual de la enorme producción y acumulación mundial de información en forma de documentos electrónicos o digitales, y el problema derivado de la pérdida de esa información, así como su posible preservación. Se estudian y establecen con detalle los factores que inciden en la preservación de documentos digitales a largo plazo; en particular los factores culturales, económicos y sociales.The current problem of the huge global production and accumulation of information in the form of electronic or digital documents, and the problem caused by the loss of that information and the possible preservation are analyzed. Factors that affect the preservation of long-term digital documents are established and studied in detail, in particular the cultural, economic and social ones.

  9. Classical conditioning for preserving the effects of short melatonin treatment in children with delayed sleep: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Maanen, Annette; Meijer, Anne Marie; Smits, Marcel G; Oort, Frans J

    2017-01-01

    Melatonin treatment is effective in treating sleep onset problems in children with delayed melatonin onset, but effects usually disappear when treatment is discontinued. In this pilot study, we investigated whether classical conditioning might help in preserving treatment effects of melatonin in children with sleep onset problems, with and without comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism. After a baseline week, 16 children (mean age: 9.92 years, 31% ADHD/autism) received melatonin treatment for 3 weeks and then gradually discontinued the treatment. Classical conditioning was applied by having children drink organic lemonade while taking melatonin and by using a dim red light lamp that was turned on when children went to bed. Results were compared with a group of 41 children (mean age: 9.43 years, 34% ADHD/autism) who received melatonin without classical conditioning. Melatonin treatment was effective in advancing dim light melatonin onset and reducing sleep onset problems, and positive effects were found on health and behavior problems. After stopping melatonin, sleep returned to baseline levels. We found that for children without comorbidity in the experimental group, sleep latency and sleep start delayed less in the stop week, which suggests an effect of classical conditioning. However, classical conditioning seems counterproductive in children with ADHD or autism. Further research is needed to establish these results and to examine other ways to preserve melatonin treatment effects, for example, by applying morning light.

  10. Cordyceps militaris Treatment Preserves Renal Function in Type 2 Diabetic Nephropathy Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sung-Hsun; Dubey, Navneet Kumar; Li, Wei-Shan; Liu, Ming-Che; Chiang, Han-Sun; Leu, Sy-Jye; Shieh, Ying-Hua; Tsai, Feng-Chou; Deng, Win-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is derived from long-term effects of high blood glucose on kidney function in type 2 diabetic patients. Several antidiabetic drugs and herbal medications have failed to prevent episodes of DN. Hence, this study aimed to further investigate the renal injury-reducing effect of antidiabetic CmNo1, a novel combination of powders of fruiting bodies and mycelia of Cordyceps militaris. After being administered with streptozotocin-nicotinamide and high-fat-diet, the diabetic nephropathy mouse model displayed elevated blood glucose and renal dysfunction markers including serum creatinine and kidney-to-body weight ratio. These elevated markers were significantly mitigated following 8 weeks CmNo1 treatment. Moreover, the chronic hyperglycemia-induced pathological alteration in renal tissue were also ameliorated. Besides, immunohistochemical study demonstrated a substantial reduction in elevated levels of carboxymethyl lysine, an advanced glycation end product. Elevated collagenous deposition in DN group was also attenuated through CmNo1 administration. Moreover, the enhanced levels of transforming growth factor-β1, a fibrosis-inducing protein in glomerulus were also markedly dampened. Furthermore, auxiliary risk factors in DN like serum triglycerides and cholesterol were found to be increased but were decreased by CmNo1 treatment. Conclusively, the results suggests that CmNo1 exhibit potent and efficacious renoprotective action against hyperglycemia-induced DN.

  11. Cordyceps militaris Treatment Preserves Renal Function in Type 2 Diabetic Nephropathy Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sung-Hsun; Dubey, Navneet Kumar; Li, Wei-Shan; Liu, Ming-Che; Chiang, Han-Sun; Leu, Sy-Jye; Shieh, Ying-Hua; Tsai, Feng-Chou; Deng, Win-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is derived from long-term effects of high blood glucose on kidney function in type 2 diabetic patients. Several antidiabetic drugs and herbal medications have failed to prevent episodes of DN. Hence, this study aimed to further investigate the renal injury-reducing effect of antidiabetic CmNo1, a novel combination of powders of fruiting bodies and mycelia of Cordyceps militaris. After being administered with streptozotocin-nicotinamide and high-fat-diet, the diabetic nephropathy mouse model displayed elevated blood glucose and renal dysfunction markers including serum creatinine and kidney-to-body weight ratio. These elevated markers were significantly mitigated following 8 weeks CmNo1 treatment. Moreover, the chronic hyperglycemia-induced pathological alteration in renal tissue were also ameliorated. Besides, immunohistochemical study demonstrated a substantial reduction in elevated levels of carboxymethyl lysine, an advanced glycation end product. Elevated collagenous deposition in DN group was also attenuated through CmNo1 administration. Moreover, the enhanced levels of transforming growth factor-β1, a fibrosis-inducing protein in glomerulus were also markedly dampened. Furthermore, auxiliary risk factors in DN like serum triglycerides and cholesterol were found to be increased but were decreased by CmNo1 treatment. Conclusively, the results suggests that CmNo1 exhibit potent and efficacious renoprotective action against hyperglycemia-induced DN. PMID:27832180

  12. Effect of Preservative Treatment on Fungal Colonization of Teak, Redwood, and Western Red Cedar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabrera Orozco, Yohanna; Freitag, F.; Morrell, Jeffrey J.

    Fungal flora present in preservative treated samples or non-treated samples from sapwood and heartwood of teak, western red cedar, redwood, and southern yellow pine was assessed after 6 to 18 months of exposure near Hilo, Hawaii. The objectives were to compare fungal composition and diversity...

  13. Preserved frontal lobe oxygenation following calcium chloride for treatment of anesthesia-induced hypotension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitchen, Carl-Christian; Nissen, Peter; Secher, Niels H

    2014-01-01

    Vasopressor agents may affect cerebral oxygenation (rScO2) as determined by near-infrared spectroscopy on the forehead. This case series evaluated the effect of calcium chloride vs. α and β-adrenergic receptor agonists on rScO2 in patients (n = 47) undergoing surgery during i.v. anesthesia. Mean ...... to treat anesthesia-induced hypotension tissue oxygenation is reduced while the use of β-adrenergic agonists and calcium chloride preserve tissue oxygenation......./min), noradrenaline (3.8 ± 1.2 vs. 3.7 ± 0.7 l/min), or calcium chloride (4.0 ± 1.4 vs. 4.1 ± 1.5 l/min). Following administration of β-adrenergic agents and calcium chloride rScO2 was preserved while after administration of α-adrenergic drugs rScO2 was reduced by app. 2% (P

  14. Preservation of facial, cochlear, and other nerve functions in acoustic neuroma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterkers, J M; Morrison, G A; Sterkers, O; El-Dine, M M

    1994-02-01

    Between March 1966 and September 1992, 1400 acoustic neuromas were treated in Paris, France, by surgical excision. The findings over the last 7 years are presented. The translabyrinthine approach has been used in more than 85% of cases. Where hearing preservation is attempted, the middle fossa approach has been adapted for intracanilicular tumors and the retrosigmoid approach for small tumors extending into the cerebellopontine angle, in which the fundus of the internal meatus is free of tumor. The main goal is to achieve a grade I or II result in facial function within 1 month of surgery. Results improved during 1991 after the introduction of continuous facial nerve monitoring and the use of the Beaver mini-blade for dissection of tumor from nerve. With these techniques, facial function of grade I or II at 1 month improved from 20% to 52% for large tumors (larger than 3 cm), from 42% to 81% for medium tumors (2 to 3 cm). and from 70% to 92% for small tumors (up to and including 2 cm extracanalicular). The facial nerve was at greater risk using the retrosigmoid or middle fossa approaches than by the translabyrinthine route. Since 1985, success in hearing preservation has changed little, with useful hearing being preserved in 38.2% of cases operated on by means of the retrosigmoid route and a 36.4% of cases after the middle fossa approach. In older patients with good hearing and small tumors, observation with periodic MRI scanning is recommended. Despite earlier diagnosis, the number of patients suitable for hearing preservation surgery remains very limited and careful selection is required. Trigeminal nerve signs were present in 20% of cases preoperatively, in 10% postoperatively, and recovered spontaneously. Palsies of the other cranial nerves after surgery were much rarer and were as follows: sixth nerve (abducens), 0.5%; ninth nerve (glossopharyngeal), 1.4%; and tenth nerve (vagus), 0.7%. The importance of preservation of function of the nervus intermedius of

  15. Fertility preservation in the male pediatric population: factors influencing the decision of parents and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyns, C; Collienne, C; Shenfield, F; Robert, A; Laurent, P; Roegiers, L; Brichard, B

    2015-09-01

    How can the decision process for fertility preservation (FP) in adolescents and prepubertal boys be improved based on patient and parent feelings about FP counseling? The content of information given to patients and parents and hope for future parenthood appeared to positively impact on the decision to preserve fertility in the pediatric population and, therefore, deserves special attention to improve FP care. A vast body of literature on adult cancer patients shows that reproductive capacity is a major quality-of-life issue. Patients also have a strong desire to be informed of available FP options with a view to future parenthood of their own genetic child, considering that parents were able to make an informed and voluntary decision for their prepubertal sons despite the heavy emotional burden at the time of diagnosis, there is so far very limited information on patient expectations regarding FP. A lack of awareness often equates to suboptimal care by oncologists and FP specialists, and poor access to FP, therefore improving knowledge and identifying the expectations of pediatric patients and their parents are crucial for optimizing multidisciplinary collaborative care pathways (MCCPs), including counseling and access to FP methods, in the youngest population. A questionnaire survey was posted to an eligible population between May 2005 and May 2013. A total of 348 prepubertal boys and adolescents aged 0-18 years, diagnosed with cancer in a university hospital setting, were eligible. Three different questionnaires for two age groups of children (parents were established based on information from focus groups. Questions were subsequently reviewed by the institutional ethics board before being sent. Of the 348 eligible patients, 44 died and 14 were lost to follow-up. Thus, 290 patients (77 aged 12-18 years and 213 aged children. FP acceptance rates were, respectively, 74 and 78.6% for boys aged parents appeared to positively impact on the decision to preserve

  16. Facts and numbers on epidemiology and pharmacological treatment of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Frank

    2015-06-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a major and growing public health problem. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated that heart failure (HF) can be clinically diagnosed in patients with normal or preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. These patients are therefore termed as having HFpEF. In the past, this was often called diastolic HF. Because of the permanent increase of the prevalence of HFpEF during the past decades, HFpEF now accounts for more than 50% of the total HF population. There are uncertainties and debates regarding the definition, diagnosis, and pathophysiology with the consequence that all outcome trials performed so far used criteria for inclusion and exclusion that were not consistent. These trials also failed to document improved prognosis. Recent smaller proof-of-concept or Phase II clinical trials investigating different pathophysiological approaches with substances such as the neprilysin inhibitor-angiotensin receptor blocker- combination (LCZ 696), ranolazine, or ivabradine were successful to improve biomarkers, haemodynamics, or functional capacity. Future trials will need to document whether also prognosis can be improved.

  17. Catfish Preservation using Porphyra Yezoensis Composites Preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Gang Qian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to preserve fresh catfish meat by using Porphyra Yezoensis extract, chitosan and lactic acid Nisin. The composite preservative obtained by sensory evaluation can effectively maintain the color, odor and texture of fresh catfish meat, as well as inhibit bacterial growth. Results show that treatment using a preservative solution (Porphyra Yezoensis extract 10%, Nisin 0.2% and chitosan 15% extended the shelf life of the fresh catfish meat from 12 h to 24 h when stored at room temperature and from 6 d to 9 d when stored at 4°C. These results provide a practical method of preserving fresh catfish meat.

  18. Predictive factors of antiretroviral treatment French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elenga, Narcisse; Hanf, Matthieu; Nacher, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    French Guiana is the French territory where the HIV epidemic is most preoccupying. In Cayenne, the mother to child HIV transmission rate was 6% in 2006-2008. Despite free testing and treatment, HIV pregnant women often have delayed or insufficient access to care. The aim of this study was to identify predictive factors of antiretroviral treatmentFrench Guiana) and then to describe their attitudes, practices, and beliefs regarding HIV/AIDS. A case control study was conducted including all deliveries in Cayenne from 2003 to 2010. For each case, a standardized questionnaire including epidemiological, clinical, and biological data was administered. The analysis first described the summary statistics and then bivariate analysis studied the relation of each variable with the outcome. Multivariate analysis adjusted for the confounding factors. Thirty-three women in the first group and 96 in the control group were included in the study. Women born in French Guiana (OR = 5, IC95% = 1.22-20.86, p=0.027) had a high risk of treatment<4 weeks. The other factors associated with treatment<4 weeks in our study were benefiting from food parcels (OR = 12.72, IC95% = 2.07-78.14, p=0.006), consulting a traditional healer when sick (OR = 9.86, IC95% = 2.57-37.88, p= < 0.001), and drug use (OR = 6.27, IC95% = 1.26-31.13, p=0.025). These predictive factors should be considered in prevention programs against mother to child transmission of HIV.

  19. Preservation of general intelligence following traumatic brain injury: contributions of the Met66 brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aron K Barbey

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF promotes survival and synaptic plasticity in the human brain. The Val66Met polymorphism of the BDNF gene interferes with intracellular trafficking, packaging, and regulated secretion of this neurotrophin. The human prefrontal cortex (PFC shows lifelong neuroplastic adaption implicating the Val66Met BDNF polymorphism in the recovery of higher-order executive functions after traumatic brain injury (TBI. In this study, we examined the effect of this BDNF polymorphism on the preservation of general intelligence following TBI. We genotyped a sample of male Vietnam combat veterans (n = 156 consisting of a frontal lobe lesion group with focal penetrating head injuries for the Val66Met BDNF polymorphism. Val/Met did not differ from Val/Val genotypes in general cognitive ability before TBI. However, we found substantial average differences between these groups in general intelligence (≈ half a standard deviation or 8 IQ points, verbal comprehension (6 IQ points, perceptual organization (6 IQ points, working memory (8 IQ points, and processing speed (8 IQ points after TBI. These results support the conclusion that Val/Met genotypes preserve general cognitive functioning, whereas Val/Val genotypes are largely susceptible to TBI.

  20. Pancreas-Preserving Approach to “Paraduodenal Pancreatitis” Treatment: Why, When, and How? Experience of Treatment of 62 Patients with Duodenal Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Egorov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The term “paraduodenal pancreatitis” (PP was proposed as a synonym for duodenal dystrophy (DD and groove pancreatitis, but it is still unclear what organ PP originates from and how to treat it properly. Objective. To assess the results of different types of treatment for PP. Method. Prospective analysis of 62 cases of PP (2004–2013 with histopathology of 40 specimens was performed; clinical presentation was assessed and the results of treatment were recorded.  Results. Preoperative diagnosis was correct in all the cases except one (1.9%. Patients presented with abdominal pain (100%, weight loss (76%, vomiting (30%, and jaundice (18%. CT, MRI, and endoUS were the most useful diagnostic modalities. Ten patients were treated conservatively, 24 underwent pancreaticoduodenectomies (PD, pancreatico- and cystoenterostomies (8, Nakao procedures (5, duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resections (5, and 10 pancreas-preserving duodenal resections (PPDR without mortality. Full pain control was achieved after PPRDs in 83%, after PDs in 85%, and after PPPH resections and draining procedures in 18% of cases. Diabetes mellitus developed thrice after PD. Conclusions. PD is the main surgical option for PP treatment at present; early diagnosis makes PPDR the treatment of choice for PP; efficacy of PPDR for DD treatment provides proof that so-called PP is an entity of duodenal, but not “paraduodenal,” origin.

  1. Growth Factors for the Treatment of Ischemic Brain Injury (Growth Factor Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amara Larpthaveesarp

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, growth factor therapy has emerged as a potential treatment for ischemic brain injury. The efficacy of therapies that either directly introduce or stimulate local production of growth factors and their receptors in damaged brain tissue has been tested in a multitude of models for different Central Nervous System (CNS diseases. These growth factors include erythropoietin (EPO, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1, among others. Despite the promise shown in animal models, the particular growth factors that should be used to maximize both brain protection and repair, and the therapeutic critical period, are not well defined. We will review current pre-clinical and clinical evidence for growth factor therapies in treating different causes of brain injury, as well as issues to be addressed prior to application in humans.

  2. Growth factors for the treatment of ischemic brain injury (growth factor treatment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larpthaveesarp, Amara; Ferriero, Donna M; Gonzalez, Fernando F

    2015-04-30

    In recent years, growth factor therapy has emerged as a potential treatment for ischemic brain injury. The efficacy of therapies that either directly introduce or stimulate local production of growth factors and their receptors in damaged brain tissue has been tested in a multitude of models for different Central Nervous System (CNS) diseases. These growth factors include erythropoietin (EPO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), among others. Despite the promise shown in animal models, the particular growth factors that should be used to maximize both brain protection and repair, and the therapeutic critical period, are not well defined. We will review current pre-clinical and clinical evidence for growth factor therapies in treating different causes of brain injury, as well as issues to be addressed prior to application in humans.

  3. Factores tecnológicos, legales y documentales de la preservación documental digital Technological, legal and documentary factors about digital documental preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Voutssas M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la problemática actual de la enorme producción y acumulación mundial de información en forma de documentos electrónicos o digitales, así como los problemas derivados del riesgo y pérdida de esa información y las diversas estrategias para su posible preservación. Se estudian y establecen con detalle los factores que inciden a favor y en contra de la preservación de documentos digitales a largo plazo; en particular los factores tecnológicos, legales y documentales.Today's problematic about the huge world production and accumulation of information conformed as digital or electronic documents is analyzed, as well as the problems related to the risk or possible loss of such information and the different strategies for insuring its preservation. Factors which work in favor or against long term preservation of digital documents are studied and established, particularly those of technological, legal or documentary nature.

  4. The preservation of M-injectivity in the forming of factor modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Döman

    1982-03-01

    Full Text Available For a given module M the factor modules of M-injective modules are not necessarily M-injective. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived under which it is the case if M is projective. The result is used to characterize hereditary rings.

  5. MAPS PRESERVING STRONG SKEW LIE PRODUCT ON FACTOR VON NEUMANN ALGEBRAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Jianlian; Choonkil Park

    2012-01-01

    Let A be a factor von Neumann algebra and Φ be a nonlinear surjective map from A onto itself.We prove that,if Φ satisfies that Φ(A)Φ(B) - Φ(B)Φ(A)* =AB - BA* for all A,B ∈ A,then there exist a linear bijective map Ψ:A - A satisfying Ψ(A)Ψ(B) - Ψ(B)Ψ(A)* =AB - BA* for A,B ∈ A and a real functional h on A with h(0) =0 such that Φ(A) =Ψ(A) + h(A)I for every A ∈ A.In particular,if A is a type Ⅰ factor,then,Φ(A) =cA + h(A)I for every A ∈ A,where c =±-1.

  6. Biophysical and biological factors determining the ability to achieve long-term cryobiological preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur, P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Life Sciences Div.

    1997-12-01

    The BESTCapsule will maintain appropriate biological specimens for decades or centuries at cryogenic temperatures in the living state. Maintenance at temperatures below {approximately} {minus}140 C is not a problem. No ordinary chemical reactions in aqueous solutions can occur. The only source of damage will be the slow accumulation of physical damage to DNA from background ionizing radiation. But this source of damage should not become serious in less than a millennium. Rather, the main problem in cryopreservation is to devise procedures for cooling the biological specimens to {minus}196 C and returning them to normal temperatures without inflicting lethal injury. Regardless of the cell type, there are certain encompassing biophysical factors and constraints that determine whether they will survive or die during freezing and thawing. Superimposed on these may be special biological factors that apply to specific cell types. This paper will emphasize the former and give illustrative examples of the latter.

  7. Preservation of bilayer structure in human erythrocytes and erythrocyte ghosts after phospholipase treatment. A 31P-NMR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meer, G; de Kruijff, B; op den Kamp, J A; van Deenen, L L

    1980-02-15

    1. Fresh human erythrocytes were treated with lytic and non-lytic combinations of phospholipases A2, C and sphingomyelinase. The 31P-NMR spectra of ghosts derived from such erythrocytes show that, in all cases, the residual phospholipids and lysophospholipids remain organized in a bilayer configuration. 2. A bilayer configuration of the (lyso)phospholipids was also observed after treatment of erythrocyte ghosts with various phospholipases even in the case that 98% of the phospholipid was converted into lysophospholipid (72%) and ceramides (26%). 3. A slightly decreased order of the phosphate group of phospholipid molecules, seen as reduced effective chemical shift anisotropy in the 31P-NMR spectra, was found following the formation of diacyglycerols and ceramides in the membrane of intact erythrocytes. Treatment of ghosts always resulted in an extensive decrease in the order of the phosphate groups. 4. The results allow the following conclusions to made: a. Hydrolysis of phospholipids in intact red cells and ghosts does not result in the formation of non-bilayer configuration of residual phospholipids and lysophospholipids. b. Haemolysis, which is obtained by subsequent treatment of intact cells with sphingomyelinase and phospholipase A2, or with phospholipase C, cannot be ascribed to the formation of non-bilayer configuration of phosphate-containing lipids. c. Preservation of bilayer structure, even after hydrolysis of all phospholipid, shows that other membrane constitutents, e.g. cholesterol and/or membrane proteins play an important role in stabilizing the structure of the erythrocyte membrane. d. A major prerequisite for the application of phospholipases in lipid localization studies, the preservation of a bilayer configuration during phospholipid hydrolysis, is met for the erythrocyte membrane.

  8. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: A Population-Based Study in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Guo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF has attracted increasing attention worldwide. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of HFpEF and analyze its correlates in a sample of residents of northeast China; Methods: A population-based study of 2230 participants ≥35 years old was conducted in rural areas of Liaoning Province from January 2012 through August 2013. Information about lifestyle and other potential risk factors was obtained. HFpEF was diagnosed according to the recommendations of European Society of Cardiology; Results: The overall prevalence of HFpEF was 3.5% (1.8% in men and 4.9% in women. The prevalence of HFpEF increased with age in both genders and was greater in women than in men for every age group. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found that female gender (OR, 3.575; 95% CI, 1.761–7.256, hypertension (OR, 3.711; 95% CI, 2.064–6.674, and history of heart disease (2.086; 95% CI, 1.243–3.498 were associated factors for prevalent HFpEF; Conclusions: In a general population from rural northeast China, we found that female gender, hypertension, and history of heart disease were risk factors for prevalent HFpEF.

  9. Genital melanoma: prognosis factors and treatment modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraioli, Domenico; Lamblin, Gery; Mathevet, Patrice; Hetu, Jessika; Berakdar, Isabelle; Beurrier, Frederic; Chopin, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    Genital melanoma is a rare pathology. We present the experience of two comprehensive cancer centers in Lyon (France) in the management of genital melanoma in order to identify prognostic factors and optimal treatments. Between April 1992 and Mars 2014, 16 patients with a primary genital melanoma were referred to our department. Nine patients presented a vaginal melanoma, six vulvar melanomas and only one cervical melanoma. The median dimension of the lesion was 33.7 mm (5-100 mm). The AJCC stage ranged from IB to IIIC. 12 cases were the classic dark-blue flat melanoma and the other 4 cases were an atypical amelanotic tumor. Wide local surgery was performed in nine patients. A radical surgery was performed in six patients. In the large cervical melanoma, radiotherapy was performed as first-line treatment. In all the patients regional lymph node staging was performed. Adjuvant treatment was realized in nine patients. Two patients are alive without recurrence. Only one patient was lost to the first follow-up. The other 13 patients experienced a rapid recurrence. The median disease-free survival and the median overall survival were 11.8 months (2-49 m) and of 30.4 m (11-144 m), respectively. The disease-free survival and overall survival could be linked to a clinical presentation (Breslow thickness and morphology of lesion) associated to the early diagnosis. In our small series, the most important prognosis factor remains the tumor thickness. These rare lesions should be treated in experienced centers in order to improve their prognostic.

  10. Minimal sufficient balance-a new strategy to balance baseline covariates and preserve randomness of treatment allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenle; Hill, Michael D; Palesch, Yuko

    2015-12-01

    In many clinical trials, baseline covariates could affect the primary outcome. Commonly used strategies to balance baseline covariates include stratified constrained randomization and minimization. Stratification is limited to few categorical covariates. Minimization lacks the randomness of treatment allocation. Both apply only to categorical covariates. As a result, serious imbalances could occur in important baseline covariates not included in the randomization algorithm. Furthermore, randomness of treatment allocation could be significantly compromised because of the high proportion of deterministic assignments associated with stratified block randomization and minimization, potentially resulting in selection bias. Serious baseline covariate imbalances and selection biases often contribute to controversial interpretation of the trial results. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke recombinant tissue plasminogen activator Stroke Trial and the Captopril Prevention Project are two examples. In this article, we propose a new randomization strategy, termed the minimal sufficient balance randomization, which will dually prevent serious imbalances in all important baseline covariates, including both categorical and continuous types, and preserve the randomness of treatment allocation. Computer simulations are conducted using the data from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke recombinant tissue plasminogen activator Stroke Trial. Serious imbalances in four continuous and one categorical covariate are prevented with a small cost in treatment allocation randomness. A scenario of simultaneously balancing 11 baseline covariates is explored with similar promising results. The proposed minimal sufficient balance randomization algorithm can be easily implemented in computerized central randomization systems for large multicenter trials.

  11. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide: An essential factor in preserving hearing in cisplatin-induced ototoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Jin; Oh, Gi-Su; Shen, AiHua; Lee, Su-Bin; Khadka, Dipendra; Pandit, Arpana; Shim, Hyeok; Yang, Sei-Hoon; Cho, Eun-Young; Song, Jeho; Kwak, Tae Hwan; Choe, Seong-Kyu; Park, Raekil; So, Hong-Seob

    2015-08-01

    Ototoxicity is an important issue in patients receiving cisplatin chemotherapy. Numerous studies have demonstrated that several mechanisms, including oxidative stress, DNA damage, and inflammatory responses, are closely associated with cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. Although much attention has been directed at identifying ways to protect the inner ear from cisplatin-induced damage, the precise underlying mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. The cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) has emerged as an important regulator of cellular energy metabolism and homeostasis. NAD(+) acts as a cofactor for various enzymes including sirtuins (SIRTs) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs), and therefore, maintaining adequate NAD(+) levels has therapeutic benefits because of its effect on NAD(+)-dependent enzymes. Recent studies demonstrated that disturbance in intracellular NAD(+) levels is critically involved in cisplatin-induced cochlear damage associated with oxidative stress, DNA damage, and inflammatory responses. In this review, we describe the importance of NAD(+) in cisplatin-induced ototoxicity and discuss potential strategies for the prevention or treatment of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity with a particular focus on NAD(+)-dependent cellular pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Browning inhibition and quality preservation of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) by essential oils fumigation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mengsha; Feng, Lifang; Jiang, Tianjia

    2014-04-15

    The effect of essential oil fumigation treatment on browning and postharvest quality of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) was evaluated upon 16 days cold storage. Button mushrooms were fumigated with essential oils, including clove, cinnamaldehyde, and thyme. Changes in the browning index (BI), weight loss, firmness, percentage of open caps, total phenolics, ascorbic acid, microbial activity and activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and peroxidase (POD) were measured. The results indicated that all essential oils could inhibit the senescence of mushrooms, and the most effective compound was cinnamaldehyde. Fumigation treatment with 5 μl l⁻¹ cinnamaldehyde decreased BI, delayed cap opening, reduced microorganism counts, promoted the accumulation of phenolics and ascorbic acid. In addition, 5 μl l⁻¹ cinnamaldehyde fumigation treatment inhibited the activities of PPO and POD, and increased PAL activity during the storage period. Thus, postharvest essential oil fumigation treatment has positive effects on improving the quality of button mushrooms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Stability and preservation of a new formulation of epoprostenol sodium for treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambert O

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Olivier Lambert, Dirk BandillaActelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Allschwil, SwitzerlandBackground: The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability and microbiological properties of a formulation of epoprostenol sodium with L-arginine and sucrose excipients (epoprostenol AS.Methods: The stability of the reconstituted solutions after storage at 5°C and 25°C, diluted solutions (3000–60,000 ng/mL at controlled room temperature, and diluted solutions (3000–60,000 ng/mL stored at 5°C and then at room temperature were evaluated. Solutions were prepared using sterile water for injection or sterile saline (sodium chloride 0.9% for injection. Shelf-life was assessed by determining potency over time relative to initial potency. In this context, potency is synonymous with content. The antimicrobial activity of reconstituted (100,000 ng/mL for 0.5 mg vial, 300,000 ng/mL for 1.5 mg vial and diluted (3000 ng/mL epoprostenol AS was measured using an antimicrobial effectiveness test after inoculation with six species of bacteria, yeast, and mold.Results: Reconstituted epoprostenol AS was stable for up to one day’s storage at 25°C or 7 days’ storage at 5°C. Epoprostenol AS was stable for up to 72 hours when diluted, depending on temperature and concentration. The maximum shelf-life of the diluted solution if the reconstituted solution had been stored for up to one day at room temperature or up to 7 days at 5°C, was between 24 and 72 hours, depending on concentration. Following storage of diluted solutions at 5°C for up to 8 days, maximum shelf-life was between one and 2 days, depending on temperature and concentration. Potency was not dependent on diluents. Preservative testing confirmed no microbial growth for any of six organisms tested for at least 14 days at 5°C or 25°C for the reconstituted solution and for at least 16 days at 5°C followed by one day at 25°C for the diluted solutions.Conclusion: Epoprostenol AS has favorable thermal

  14. Socket preservation using demineralized freezed dried bone allograft with and without plasma rich in growth factor: A canine study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mogharehabed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The accelerating effect of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGFs in the healing of extraction sockets has been demonstrated by some studies. The aim of the present study was to histologically and histomorphometrically evaluate whether bone formation would increase by the combined use of PRGF and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA. Materials and Methods: In four female dogs, the distal root of the second, third and fourth lower premolars were extracted bilaterally and the mesial roots were preserved. The extraction sockets were randomly divided into DFDBA + PRGF, DFDBA + saline or control groups. Two dogs were sacrificed after 2 weeks and two dogs were sacrificed after 6 weeks. The extraction sockets were evaluated from both histological and histomorphometrical aspects. The data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney followed by Kruskal-Wallis tests using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. Significant levels were set at 0.05. Results: The least decrease in socket height was observed in the DFDBA + PRGF group (0.73 ± 0.42 mm. The least decrease in the coronal portion was observed in the DFDBA + PRGF group (1.38 ± 1.35 mm². The least decrease in the middle surface was observed in the DFDBA group (0.61 ± 0.80 mm². The least decrease in the apical portion was observed in the DFDBA group (0.34 ± 0.39 mm². Conclusion: The present study showed better socket preservation subsequent to the application of DFDBA and PRGF combination in comparison with the two other groups. However, the difference was not statistically significant.

  15. Preserved learning and memory following 5-fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide treatment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jeffrey M; Lee, Garrick D; Kelley-Bell, Bennett; Spangler, Edward L; Perez, Evelyn J; Longo, Dan L; de Cabo, Rafael; Zou, Sige; Rapp, Peter R

    2011-11-01

    Some patients experience enduring cognitive impairment after cancer treatment, a condition termed "chemofog". Animal models allow assessment of chemotherapy effects on learning and memory per se, independent of changes due to cancer itself or associated health consequences such as depression. The present study examined the long-term learning and memory effects of a chemotherapy cocktail used widely in the treatment of breast cancer, consisting of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and cyclophosphamide (CYP). Eighty 5-month old male F344 rats received contextual and cued fear conditioning before treatment with saline, or a low or high dose drug cocktail (50mg/kg CYP and 75 mg/kg 5FU, or 75 mg/kg CYP and 120 mg/kg 5FU, i.p., respectively) every 30 days for 2 months. After a 2-month, no-drug recovery, both long-term retention and new task acquisition in the water maze and 14-unit T-maze were assessed. Neither dose of the CYP/5FU cocktail impaired retrograde fear memory despite marked toxicity documented by enduring weight loss and 50% mortality at the higher dose. Acquisition in the water maze and Stone maze was also normal relative to controls in rats treated with CYP/5FU. The results contribute to a growing literature suggesting that learning and memory mediated by the hippocampus can be relatively resistant to chemotherapy. Future investigation may need to focus on assessments of processing speed, executive function and attention, and the possible interactive contribution of cancer itself and aging to the post-treatment development of cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hyperspectral Surface Analysis for Ripeness Estimation and Quick UV-C Surface Treatments for Preservation of Bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W.; Yang, Zh.; Chen, Zh.; Liu, J.; Wang, W. Ch.; Zheng, W. Yu.

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the ripeness of bananas using hyperspectral surface analysis and how a rapid UV-C (ultraviolet-C light) surface treatment could reduce decay. The surface of the banana fruit and its stages of maturity were studied using a hyperspectral imaging technique in the visible and near infrared (370-1000 nm) regions. The vselected color ratios from these spectral images were used for classifying the whole banana into immature, ripe, half-ripe and overripe stages. By using a BP neural network, models based on the wavelengths were developed to predict quality attributes. The mean discrimination rate was 98.17%. The surface of the fresh bananas was treated with UV-C at dosages from 15-55 μW/cm2. The visual qualities with or without UV-C treatment were compared using the image, the chromatic aberration test, the firmness test and the area of black spot on the banana skin. The results showed that high dosages of UV-C damaged the banana skin, while low dosages were more efficient at delaying changes in the relative brightness of the skin. The maximum UV-C treatment dose for satisfactory banana preservation was between 21 and 24 μW/cm2. These results could help to improve the visual quality of bananas and to classify their ripeness more easily.

  17. Resveratrol treatment controls microbial flora, prolongs shelf life, and preserves nutritional quality of fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Jorge Bernardo; Orea, José María; Montero, Carlos; Ureña, Angel González; Navas, Elena; Slowing, Karla; Gómez-Serranillos, María Pilar; Carretero, Emilia; De Martinis, Domenico

    2005-03-09

    Resveratrol is known as a grapevine secondary metabolite with fungicide activity. Its exogenous application on harvested grapes resulted in the reduction of microbial flora growth, and consequently, prolonged shelf life, without affecting the nutritional quality of the fruit. Resveratrol treatment also resulted in being effective on fruit that normally does not accumulate such metabolites as, for example, tomatoes, apples, avocado pears, and peppers. As a result, all treated fruits maintained their post-harvest quality and health longer than the untreated ones. This study demonstrates the potential use of resveratrol as a natural pesticide to reduce post-harvest fungi development on a broad spectrum of fruit types.

  18. Antimicrobial Treatments to Preserve Packaged Ready-to-Eat Table Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Costa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ready-to-eat table grapes are a product with severe shelf life problems. Mass loss, colour changes, accelerated softening and mould proliferation can greatly influence quality decay of berries. Hence, the effects of different dipping treatments on the quality of packaged ready-to-eat table grapes have been successfully assessed. Various antimicrobial compounds (trans-2-hexenal, potassium sorbate, eugenol, cinnamon bark oil and ethanol were used at different concentrations for dipping grape berries prior to packaging. All the samples were packaged in biaxially oriented polypropylene and stored at (4±1 °C. During the storage period, headspace gas composition, spoilage microorganisms, appearance of visible moulds and sensory quality were monitored. The composition of the headspace gas was typical of a non-climacteric fruit, thus demonstrating that the antimicrobial compounds did not affect product respiration rate. For the entire storage period, the bacterial counts did not grow significantly. On the contrary, mould proliferation on the product surface affected sensory properties until provoking product unacceptability. Relevant differences were found between the dipped and undipped samples. In particular, 50 % ethanol or 20 % ethanol combined with potassium sorbate (3 % seemed to be very effective in preventing mould proliferation, thus promoting an increase in shelf life by about 100 %.

  19. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of mango after formalin treatment during preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Masud Parvez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals are producing continuously inside the living cell as a part of normal metabolic process and responsible for the generation of various types of disease such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurological disease, pulmonary disease, rheumatoid arthritis, nephropathy, ocular disease etc. Antioxidants are continuously counterbalancing the oxidative radical by breakdown or neutralizing the free radical. Various fruits and plant parts possesses antioxidant activity for example our studied sample mango has antioxidant property but when it treated with formalin it markedly reduces antioxidant potential of it. In phosphomolybdate assay it is found that normal mango peel contains more antioxidant activity than mango flesh, but treatment with formalin, antioxidant potential decreases in both peels and fleshes. Similar result was found in iron reducing power assay and DPPH radical scavenging assay where it is found that normal mango peel has almost similar scavenging property as compared to standard BHT. Normal mango peel (NP exhibits very high radical scavenging activity (IC50 is 4.2. At 100 μg/ml radical scavenging activity of normal mango peel (NP is 93.79%, but formalin treated mango peel (FP at same concentration possess scavenging property 76.36%, where as standard antioxidant scavenges about 93.95%. Scavenging power of normal mango flesh (NF is 39.57% and in formalin treated mango flesh (FF scavenging potential is only 7.12% at 100 μg/ml.

  20. Giant and complex aneurysms treatment with preservation of flow via bypass technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thines, L; Proust, F; Marinho, P; Durand, A; van der Zwan, A; Regli, L; Lejeune, J-P

    2016-02-01

    Due to their anatomical characteristics and the complexity of the procedures required to obtain their complete occlusion, the treatment of giant intracranial aneurysms is a real challenge. Direct reconstructive strategies, whether by interventional neuroradiology (coils, stents) or microsurgical (clipping) means, are not always applicable and, in patients that would not tolerate parent or collateral artery sacrifice, the adjunction of a revascularization procedure using a bypass technique might be necessary. Cerebral arterial bypasses can be classified according to their function (3 types: flow replacement, flow reversal or protective), the branching mode of the graft used (3 types: pedicled, interpositional or in situ), the sites of anastomosis (2 types: extracranial-intracranial or intracranial-intracranial) and the class of flow they are supposed to provide (3 types: low-, intermediate- or high-flow). In this article, the authors review the different aspects in the management of patients with a giant intracranial aneurysm using a bypass: preoperative work-up, types of bypass and indications, surgical techniques and results.

  1. Balancing the Fair Treatment of Others While Preserving Group Identity and Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Melanie; Elenbaas, Laura; Rutland, Adam

    2016-04-01

    Social exclusion and inclusion from groups, as well as the distribution of resources, are fundamental aspects of social life, and serve as sources of conflicts that bear on issues of fairness and equality, beginning in childhood. For the most part, research on social exclusion and allocation of resources has not focused on the issue of group membership. Yet, social exclusion from groups and the denial of resources reflect societal issues pertaining to social inequality and its counterpoint, fair treatment of others. Social inequality occurs when opportunities and resources are distributed unevenly in society, often through group norms about allocation that reflect socially defined categories of persons. This occurs at multiple levels of societal organization, from experiences of exclusion in childhood such as being left out of a play activity, to being denied access to resources as a member of a group. These situations extend to larger level experiences in the adult world concerning social exclusion from voting, for example, or participation in educational institutions. Thus, most decisions regarding social exclusion and the denial of resources involve considerations of group identity and group membership, implicitly or explicitly, which contribute to prejudice and bias, even though this has rarely been investigated in developmental science. Current research illustrating the role of group identity and autonomy regarding decision-making about social exclusion and the denial of resources is reviewed from the Social Reasoning Developmental model, one that integrates social domain theory and developmental social identity theories to investigate how children use moral, conventional, and psychological judgments to evaluate contexts reflecting group identity, group norms, and intergroup dynamics.

  2. Fibroblast growth factor-1 and-2 preserve long-term repopulating ability of hematopoietic stem cells in serum-free cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeoh, Joyce S. G.; van Os, Ronald; Weersing, Ellen; Ausema, Albertina; Dontje, Bert; Vellenga, Edo; de Haan, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that extended culture of unfractionated mouse bone marrow (BM) cells, in serum-free medium, supplemented only with fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-1, FGF-2, or FGF-1 + 2 preserves long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Using competitive repopulation assa

  3. A secure user anonymity-preserving three-factor remote user authentication scheme for the telecare medicine information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ashok Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Recent advanced technology enables the telecare medicine information system (TMIS) for the patients to gain the health monitoring facility at home and also to access medical services over the Internet of mobile networks. Several remote user authentication schemes have been proposed in the literature for TMIS. However, most of them are either insecure against various known attacks or they are inefficient. Recently, Tan proposed an efficient user anonymity preserving three-factor authentication scheme for TMIS. In this paper, we show that though Tan's scheme is efficient, it has several security drawbacks such as (1) it fails to provide proper authentication during the login phase, (2) it fails to provide correct updation of password and biometric of a user during the password and biometric update phase, and (3) it fails to protect against replay attack. In addition, Tan's scheme lacks the formal security analysis and verification. Later, Arshad and Nikooghadam also pointed out some security flaws in Tan's scheme and then presented an improvement on Tan's s scheme. However, we show that Arshad and Nikooghadam's scheme is still insecure against the privileged-insider attack through the stolen smart-card attack, and it also lacks the formal security analysis and verification. In order to withstand those security loopholes found in both Tan's scheme, and Arshad and Nikooghadam's scheme, we aim to propose an effective and more secure three-factor remote user authentication scheme for TMIS. Our scheme provides the user anonymity property. Through the rigorous informal and formal security analysis using random oracle models and the widely-accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool, we show that our scheme is secure against various known attacks, including the replay and man-in-the-middle attacks. Furthermore, our scheme is also efficient as compared to other related schemes.

  4. Drug treatment effects on outcomes in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sean Lee; Chan, Fiona T; Nabeebaccus, Adam A; Shah, Ajay M; McDonagh, Theresa; Okonko, Darlington O; Ayis, Salma

    2017-08-05

    Clinical drug trials in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction have failed to demonstrate improvements in mortality. We systematically searched Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomised controlled trials (RCT) assessing pharmacological treatments in patients with heart failure with left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction≥40% from January 1996 to May 2016. The primary efficacy outcome was all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were cardiovascular mortality, heart failure hospitalisation, exercise capacity (6-min walk distance, exercise duration, VO2 max), quality of life and biomarkers (B-type natriuretic peptide, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide). Random-effects models were used to estimate pooled relative risks (RR) for the binary outcomes, and weighted mean differences for continuous outcomes, with 95% CI. We included data from 25 RCTs comprising data for 18101 patients. All-cause mortality was reduced with beta-blocker therapy compared with placebo (RR: 0.78, 95%CI 0.65 to 0.94, p=0.008). There was no effect seen with ACE inhibitors, aldosterone receptor blockers, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and other drug classes, compared with placebo. Similar results were observed for cardiovascular mortality. No single drug class reduced heart failure hospitalisation compared with placebo. The efficacy of treatments in patients with heart failure and an LV ejection fraction≥40% differ depending on the type of therapy, with beta-blockers demonstrating reductions in all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Further trials are warranted to confirm treatment effects of beta-blockers in this patient group. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Hypofractionated Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Combined Modality Treatment for Bladder Preservation in Elderly Patients With Invasive Bladder Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgeon, Guy-Anne [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Souhami, Luis, E-mail: luis.souhami@muhc.mcgill.ca [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Cury, Fabio L.; Faria, Sergio L.; Duclos, Marie [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Sturgeon, Jeremy [Department of Medical Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Kassouf, Wassim [Department of Urology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To review our experience with bladder-preserving trimodality treatment (TMT) using hypofractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of elderly patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: Retrospective study of elderly patients treated with TMT using hypofractionated IMRT (50 Gy in 20 fractions) with concomitant weekly radiosensitizing chemotherapy. Eligibility criteria were as follows: age ≥70 years, a proven diagnosis of muscle-invasive transitional cell bladder carcinoma, stage T2-T3N0M0 disease, and receipt of TMT with curative intent. Response rate was assessed by cystoscopic evaluation and bladder biopsy. Results: 24 patients with a median age of 79 years were eligible. A complete response was confirmed in 83% of the patients. Of the remaining patients, 1 of them underwent salvage cystectomy, and no disease was found in the bladder on histopathologic assessment. After a median follow-up time of 28 months, of the patients with a complete response, 2 patients had muscle-invasive recurrence, 1 experienced locoregional failure, and 3 experienced distant metastasis. The overall and cancer-specific survival rates at 3 years were 61% and 71%, respectively. Of the surviving patients, 75% have a disease-free and functioning bladder. All patients completed hypofractionated IMRT, and 19 patients tolerated all 4 cycles of chemotherapy. Acute grade 3 gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicities occurred in only 4% of the patients, and acute grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicities, liver toxicities, or both were experienced by 17% of the cohort. No patient experienced grade 4 gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicity. Conclusions: Hypofractionated IMRT with concurrent radiosensitizing chemotherapy appears to be an effective and well-tolerated curative treatment strategy in the elderly population and should be considered for patients who are not candidates for cystectomy or who wish to avoid

  6. Application of organic acid salts and high-pressure treatments to improve the preservation of blood sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Ana M; Santos, Eva M; Jaime, Isabel; Rovira, Jordi

    2008-02-01

    Blood sausages are traditional products in many parts of the world. In most cases, a very short shelf-life limits their consumption to the areas in which they are produced. In this work, different mild preservation methods were applied to Morcilla de Burgos, a Spanish blood sausage, consisting of a range of organic acid salts (OAS) and high-pressure processing (HPP), with the aim of increasing its shelf-life. In the first experiment, three batches of morcillas were produced using three different commercial OAS-PL (3% potassium lactate), PL+SL (3% potassium and sodium lactate) and PL+SD (2.5% potassium lactate and sodium diacetate)-together with a control batch and were stored under chill conditions (4 degrees C) for 35 days. In a further experiment, vacuum-packaged morcillas were treated at three different pressure levels-300, 500 and 600MPa-for 10min, and stored under chill conditions for 28 days. In both batches, a sensory difference test was performed on day 1 after treatment and the morcilla samples were subjected to microbiological and sensory analysis after each week in storage. The results suggest that, in both cases, an addition of PL+SL and the application of 600MPa for 10min increases the shelf-life of the morcillas by 15 days. Once again, it is evident that the initial opportunities for contamination play a very important role in improving the shelf-life of food products.

  7. Hydrogen gas treatment prolongs replicative lifespan of bone marrow multipotential stromal cells in vitro while preserving differentiation and paracrine potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Haruhisa; Guan, Jianjun; Tamama, Kenichi

    2010-07-02

    Cell therapy with bone marrow multipotential stromal cells/mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represents a promising approach in the field of regenerative medicine. Low frequency of MSCs in adult bone marrow necessitates ex vivo expansion of MSCs after harvest; however, such a manipulation causes cellular senescence with loss of differentiation, proliferative, and therapeutic potentials of MSCs. Hydrogen molecules have been shown to exert organ protective effects through selective reduction of hydroxyl radicals. As oxidative stress is one of the key insults promoting cell senescence in vivo as well as in vitro, we hypothesized that hydrogen molecules prevent senescent process during MSC expansion. Addition of 3% hydrogen gas enhanced preservation of colony forming early progenitor cells within MSC preparation and prolonged the in vitro replicative lifespan of MSCs without losing differentiation potentials and paracrine capabilities. Interestingly, 3% hydrogen gas treatment did not decrease hydroxyl radical, protein carbonyl, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, suggesting that scavenging hydroxyl radical might not be responsible for these effects of hydrogen gas in this study.

  8. Coordinated chemoradiation therapy with genital preservation for the treatment of primary invasive carcinoma of the male urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael S; Triaca, Veronica; Billmeyer, Brian; Hanley, Robert S; Girshovich, Lyubov; Shuster, Todd; Oberfield, Richard A; Zinman, Leonard

    2008-02-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of a combined chemoradiation therapy protocol for the primary treatment of primary invasive carcinoma of the male urethra. From January 1991 to December 2006, 18 patients with invasive carcinoma of the male urethra referred to our institution were treated with a chemoradiation therapy protocol, consisting of 2 cycles of 5-fluorouracil (1,000 mg/m(2)) on days 1 to 4 and days 29 to 32, and mitomycin-C (10 mg/m(2)) on days 1 and 29 with concurrent external beam radiation therapy (45 to 55 Gy in 25 fractions during 5 weeks) to the genitalia, perineum, and inguinal and external iliac lymph nodes. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed to assess overall, disease specific and disease-free survival. The stage and node distribution was T2N0 in 2 patients (11%), T3N0 in 8 (44%), T4N0 in 2 (11%), TXN1 in 1(6%) and TXN2 in 5 (28%). The most prevalent histology was moderately (7 of 18 patients or 39%) or poorly (10 of 18 or 56%) differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (17 of 18 or 95%). Overall 83% (15 of 18) of the patients had a complete response to the primary chemoradiation therapy protocol, and the 5-year overall and disease specific survival rates were 60% and 83%, respectively. Five-year disease-free survival rates after chemoradiation therapy and after chemoradiation therapy with salvage surgery were 54% and 72%, respectively. The 3 nonresponders died of disease after undergoing salvage surgery and 5 of the 15 complete responders (30%) had recurrence. Complex urethral reconstruction was required in 3 of 10 patients (30%) who had prolonged disease-free survival. The chemoradiation therapy protocol is an alternative primary treatment modality for invasive urethral carcinoma. It enables an unprecedented potential for organ preservation.

  9. Software preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Vodopivec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comtrade Ltd. covers a wide range of activities related to information and communication technologies; its deliverables include web applications, locally installed programs,system software, drivers, embedded software (used e.g. in medical devices, auto parts,communication switchboards. Also the extensive knowledge and practical experience about digital long-term preservation technologies have been acquired. This wide spectrum of activities puts us in the position to discuss the often overlooked aspect of the digital preservation - preservation of software programs. There are many resources dedicated to digital preservation of digital data, documents and multimedia records,but not so many about how to preserve the functionalities and features of computer programs. Exactly these functionalities - dynamic response to inputs - render the computer programs rich compared to documents or linear multimedia. The article opens the questions on the beginning of the way to the permanent digital preservation. The purpose is to find a way in the right direction, where all relevant aspects will be covered in proper balance. The following questions are asked: why at all to preserve computer programs permanently, who should do this and for whom, when we should think about permanent program preservation, what should be persevered (such as source code, screenshots, documentation, and social context of the program - e.g. media response to it ..., where and how? To illustrate the theoretic concepts given the idea of virtual national museum of electronic banking is also presented.

  10. Pentosan polysulfate treatment preserves renal autoregulation in ANG II-infused hypertensive rats via normalization of P2X1 receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhengrong; Fuller, Barry S; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Cook, Anthony K; Pollock, Jennifer S; Inscho, Edward W

    2010-05-01

    Inflammatory factors are elevated in animal and human subjects with hypertension and renal injury. We hypothesized that inflammation contributes to hypertension-induced renal injury by impairing autoregulation and microvascular reactivity to P2X(1) receptor activation. Studies were conducted in vitro using the blood-perfused juxtamedullary nephron preparation. Rats receiving ANG II (60 ng/min) infusion were treated with the anti-inflammatory agent pentosan polysulfate (PPS) for 14 days. The magnitude and progression of hypertension were similar in ANG II and ANG II+PPS-treated rats (169 ± 5 vs. 172 ± 2 mmHg). Afferent arterioles from control rats exhibited normal autoregulatory behavior with diameter decreasing from 18.4 ± 1.6 to 11.4 ± 1.7 μm when perfusion pressure was increased from 70 to 160 mmHg. In contrast, pressure-mediated vasoconstriction was markedly attenuated in ANG II-treated rats, and diameter remained essentially unchanged over the range of perfusion pressures. However, ANG II-treated rats receiving PPS exhibited normal autoregulatory behavior compared with ANG II alone rats. Arteriolar reactivity to ATP and β,γ-methylene ATP was significantly reduced in ANG II hypertensive rats compared with controls. Interestingly, PPS treatment preserved normal reactivity to P2 and P2X(1) receptor agonists despite the persistent hypertension. The maximal vasoconstriction was 79 ± 3 and 81 ± 2% of the control diameter for ATP and β,γ-methylene ATP, respectively, similar to responses in control rats. PPS treatment significantly reduced α-smooth muscle actin staining in afferent arterioles and plasma transforming growth factor-β1 concentration in ANG II-treated rats. In conclusion, PPS normalizes autoregulation without altering ANG II-induced hypertension, suggesting that inflammatory processes reduce P2X(1) receptor reactivity and thereby impair autoregulatory behavior in ANG II hypertensive rats.

  11. Digital preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Deegan, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Digital preservation is an issue of huge importance to the library and information profession right now. With the widescale adoption of the internet and the rise of the world wide web, the world has been overwhelmed by digital information. Digital data is being produced on a massive scale by individuals and institutions: some of it is born, lives and dies only in digital form, and it is the potential death of this data, with its impact on the preservation of culture, that is the concern of this book. So how can information professionals try to remedy this? Digital preservation is a complex iss

  12. Preservation of natural aquatic ecosystems by application of bottom coal ash based bioreactor for in situ treatment of anthropogenic effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, Y.; Nisnevitch, M.; Tal, M.; Cahan, R.; Michael, E.

    2012-12-01

    One consequence of global climate change is recharge decrease at sub tropical and Mediterranean regions to both the surface and the ground fresh water resources. As a general rule, when water source quantity is reduced, the level of salination, as well as chemical and biological pollutants, tends to increase. The situation is more severe whenever the drainage basin is (a) heavily populated from urban, industrial and agricultural areas, (b) has wide areas of thin or non soil cover and (c) has a karstic structure and morphology. These latter conditions are typical to many regions around the Middle East; whereas pollution hazard to Mid Eastern streams is greater than to those in more humid regions owing to their relative small size and poor dilution capacity. The consequence of this ongoing and increasing anthropogenic pollution is endangerment of natural aquatic habitats and due to decrease in fresh water supply availability also to human sustainability. The ecological impact may involve transition of ephemeral (Wadi) streams into intermittent ones with the accompanied biodiversity change or extinction once the pollution is extreme. The impact on indigenous human communities might be as severe owing to drinking water quality decrease and the consequent decrease id quantity as well as damage to dryland farming. In setting of operations applied to the Yarkon Taninim watershed (central Israel) management, a pilot biofilter facility for sustainable preservation and rehabilitation of natural fluvial ecosystems was tested. This biofilter is planned to operate through low impact concept assimilating natural treatment processes occurring during runoff recharge through a porous flow media. The facility is constructed out of several grain sizes of bottom coal ash aggregate, which was found to be a better microbial mats growing stratum, compared to common natural aggregates such as tuff and lime pebbles (and also has an EPA directive for wastewater treatment). The biofilter is

  13. [Results of total laryngectomy as treatment for locally advanced laryngeal cancer in the organ-preservation era].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Juan P; López, Fernando; Llorente, José L; Álvarez-Marcos, César; Suárez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Total laryngectomy (TL) and postoperative radiotherapy (RT), when indicated, have proven to be effective in treating cases of locally advanced laryngeal cancer. The aim of this study was to analyse the oncological outcomes of this procedure in patients with laryngeal cancer classified T3 and T4a. We studied 80 patients (51 T3 and 29 T4a) with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx who underwent TL between 1998 and 2006. Bilateral neck dissection was performed in 54 patients, unilateral in 11, and central in 4. Twenty patients (25%) received postoperative radiotherapy. Mean age was 64 years with a male predominance (97%). As for habits, 96% were smokers and 89% consumed alcohol. Lymph node metastases occurred in 44% of patients and extracapsular invasion in 37% of them. All cases had tumour-free margins. In all, 25% of patients had loco-regional recurrence and 5% developed distant metastases. The 5-year disease-specific survival was 72% and 5-year overall survival was 55%. Variables associated with decreased disease-specific survival were T4 classification (P=.068), N2-N3 classifications (P=.005), extracapsular invasion (P=.018) and stage iv disease (P=.009). On multivariate analysis, the only variable associated with decreased disease-specific survival was the presence of N2-N3 nodal metastases (P=.008). TL is an effective treatment for the management of patients with locally advanced laryngeal cancer. Organ preservation protocols should achieve similar oncological results to those obtained with TL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of the wood CCA preservative treatment process of Eucalyptus (Eucaliptus ssp) by X-ray fluorescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Junior, Sergio Matias, E-mail: matias@ipt.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Salvador, Vera Lucia Ribeiro; Sato, Ivone Mulako, E-mail: imsato@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Brazil produces around 1,2 mi m{sup 3} of treated wood to meet the annual demand of railway, electric, rural and construction sectors. The treated woods used for poles, sleepers, fence posts and plywoods should be according to Brazilian norms requirements. The most used wood species are eucalyptus (Eucaliptus ssp)and pine (Pinus ssp). The most wood preservative products used in Brazil are CCA (Chromated Copper Arsenate) and CCB (Copper Chromium and Boron Salt). The analytical methods, such as Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) and Plasma Inductively Coupled Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICPOES) have been used for the evaluation of those treatment processes. In this work, the sapwood sample was obtained from eucalyptus trees (Eucaliptus ssp) obtained from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, cut plantation areas. Sawdust sapwood sample was grounded and submitted to different additions of CCA solutions (0.2, 0.7, 1.3, 2.3, 3.6, 6.3, 11.7and17.9 kg m{sup -3}). Power and pressed pellets sapwood samples, analyzed by EDXRFS, showed a good linear relation (r{sup 2}>0.99) between the characteristic intensity fluorescent lines (CuΚα, CrΚαand AsΚΒ) and their concentration, also, showed adequate sensitivity (LQ < 5mgkg{sup -1}) for Cu, Cr and As determination in treated woods. Cu, Cr and As were determined in powdered sawdust samples by FAA spectrometry, using the AWPA A11-93 standard method; the relation between the CCA retention and their concentration showed a lower linear relation than EDXRFS; the FAAS spreading result could be attributed to laboratorial CCA addition process. (author)

  15. A standardized model of brain death, donor treatment, and lung transplantation for studies on organ preservation and reconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Franco; Coppola, Silvia; Froio, Sara; Ruggeri, Giulia Maria; Fumagalli, Jacopo; Villa, Alessandro Maria; Rosso, Lorenzo; Mendogni, Paolo; Conte, Grazia; Lonati, Caterina; Carlin, Andrea; Leonardi, Patrizia; Gatti, Stefano; Stocchetti, Nino; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2014-12-01

    We set a model of brain death, donor management, and lung transplantation for studies on lung preservation and reconditioning before transplantation. Ten pigs (39.7 ± 5.9 Kg) were investigated. Five animals underwent brain death and were treated as organ donors; the lungs were then procured and cold stored (Ischemia). Five recipients underwent left lung transplantation and post-reperfusion follow-up (Graft). Cardiorespiratory and metabolic parameters were collected. Lung gene expression of cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon gamma (IFNγ), high mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1)), chemokines (chemokine CC motif ligand-2 (CCL2-MCP-1), chemokine CXC motif ligand-10 (CXCL-10), interleukin-8 (IL-8)), and endothelial activation markers (endothelin-1 (EDN-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), selectin-E (SELE)) was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Tachycardia and hypertension occurred during brain death induction; cardiac output rose, systemic vascular resistance dropped (P Six hours after controlled reperfusion, PaO2 was 192 ± 23 mmHg (PEEP 8.7 ± 1.5 cmH2O, FiO2 40%), W/D was 5.6 ± 0.4, and EVLW was 366 ± 117 mL. Levels of IL-8 rose at the end of donor management (BD, P model resembling the entire process of organ donation that may be used as a platform to test in vivo and ex vivo strategies of donor lung optimization before transplantation.

  16. Self-preserving cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvaresou, A; Papageorgiou, S; Tsirivas, E; Protopapa, E; Kintziou, H; Kefala, V; Demetzos, C

    2009-06-01

    Preservatives are added to products for two reasons: first, to prevent microbial spoilage and therefore to prolong the shelf life of the product; second, to protect the consumer from a potential infection. Although chemical preservatives prevent microbial growth, their safety is questioned by a growing segment of consumers. Therefore, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. In these formulations traditional/chemical preservatives have been replaced by other cosmetic ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to the Annex VI of the Commission Directive 76/768/EEC and the amending directives (2003/15/EC, 2007/17/EC and 2007/22/EC). 'Hurdle Technology', a technology that has been used for the control of product safety in the food industry since 1970s, has also been applied for the production of self-preserving cosmetics. 'Hurdle Technology' is a term used to describe the intelligent combination of different preservation factors or hurdles to deteriorate the growth of microorganisms. Adherence to current good manufacturing practice, appropriate packaging, careful choice of the form of the emulsion, low water activity and low or high pH values are significant variables for the control of microbial growth in cosmetic formulations. This paper describes the application of the basic principles of 'Hurdle Technology' in the production of self-preserving cosmetics. Multifunctional antimicrobial ingredients and plant-derived essential oils and extracts that are used as alternative or natural preservatives and are not listed in Annex VI of the Cosmetic Directive are also reported.

  17. Anorexia Nervosa: Sociocultural Factors and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jennifer

    This paper examines how the epidemiological findings of anorexia nervosa lead theorists to speculate a correlation between sociocultural factors and the development of anorexia nervosa. A section on the essential features of anorexia nervosa identifies five primary characteristics of anorexia: (1) severe weight loss; (2) a disturbance of body…

  18. Neonatal Risk Factors for Treatment-Demanding Retinopathy of Prematurity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slidsborg, Carina; Jensen, Aksel; Forman, Julie Lyng;

    2016-01-01

    ventilation were the only new statistically independent risk factors to predict the development of treatment-demanding ROP. Modification in the neonatal treatment with mechanical ventilation or blood transfusion did not cause the observed increase in the incidence of preterm infants with treatment...

  19. Manus track preservation bias as a key factor for assessing trackmaker identity and quadrupedalism in basal ornithopods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Castanera

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Las Cerradicas site (Tithonian-Berriasian, Teruel, Spain, preserves at least seventeen dinosaur trackways, some of them formerly attributed to quadrupedal ornithopods, sauropods and theropods. The exposure of new track evidence allows a more detailed interpretation of the controversial tridactyl trackways as well as the modes of locomotion and taxonomic affinities of the trackmakers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Detailed stratigraphic analysis reveals four different levels where footprints have been preserved in different modes. Within the tridactyl trackways, manus tracks are mainly present in a specific horizon relative to surface tracks. The presence of manus tracks is interpreted as evidence of an ornithopod trackmaker. Cross-sections produced from photogrammetric digital models show different depths of the pes and manus, suggesting covariance in loading between the forelimbs and the hindlimbs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Several features (digital pads, length/width ratio, claw marks of some ornithopod pes tracks from Las Cerradicas are reminiscent of theropod pedal morphology. This morphological convergence, combined with the shallow nature of the manus tracks, which reduces preservation potential, opens a new window into the interpretation of these tridactyl tracks. Thus, trackmaker assignations during the Jurassic-Cretaceous interval of purported theropod trackways may potentially represent ornithopods. Moreover, the Las Cerradicas trackways are further evidence for quadrupedalism among some basal small- to medium-sized ornithopods from this time interval.

  20. Treatment Factors That Influence Mortality in Acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, John; Ayuk, John; Sherlock, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Acromegaly is a rare condition characterized by excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH), which is almost always due to a pituitary adenoma. Acromegaly is associated with significant morbidity such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cardiomyopathy, obstructive sleep apnoea, malignancy and musculoskeletal abnormalities. Acromegaly has also been associated with increased mortality in several retrospective studies. This review will focus on the epidemiological data relating to mortality rates in acromegaly, the relationship between acromegaly and malignancy, the role of GH and insulin-like growth factor-I in assessing the risk of future mortality, and the impact of radiotherapy and hypopituitarism on mortality.

  1. Preservation of condyle and disc in the surgical treatment of type III temporomandibular joint ankylosis: a long-term follow-up clinical study of 111 joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakhar, S K; Agarwal, M; Gupta, D K; Tiwari, A D

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the role of retaining the condyle and disc in the treatment of type III ankylosis, by clinical and computed tomography (CT) evaluation. A total of 90 patients with type III ankylosis met the inclusion criteria; 42 patients had left temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis, 27 patients had right TMJ ankylosis, and 21 had bilateral TMJ ankylosis, thus a total 111 joints were treated. Considerable improvements in mandibular movement and maximum mouth opening were noted in all patients. At the end of a minimum follow-up of 2 years, the mean inter-incisal mouth opening was 30.7 mm. Postoperative occlusion was normal in all patients, and open bite did not occur in any case because the ramus height was maintained through preservation of the pseudo-joint. Only three patients had recurrence of ankylosis, which was due to a lack of postoperative physiotherapy. The advantages of condyle and disc preservation in type III ankylosis are: (1) surgery is relatively safe; (2) the disc helps to prevent recurrence of ankylosis; (3) the existing ramus height is maintained; (4) the growth site is preserved; and (5) there is no need to reconstruct the joint with autogenous or alloplastic material. It is recommended that the disc and condyle are preserved in type III TMJ ankylosis. Copyright © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Current Treatment of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: Should We Add Life to the Remaining Years or Add Years to the Remaining Life?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the ejection fraction, patients with heart failure may be divided into two different groups: heart failure with preserved or reduced ejection fraction. In recent years, accumulating studies showed that increased mortality and morbidity rates of these two groups are nearly equal. More importantly, despite decline in mortality after treatment in regard to current guideline in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, there are still no trials resulting in improved outcome in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction so far. Thus, novel pathophysiological mechanisms are under development, and other new viewpoints, such as multiple comorbidities resulting in increased non-cardiac deaths in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction, were presented recently. In this review, we will focus on the tested as well as the promising therapeutic options that are currently studied in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, along with a brief discussion of pathophysiological mechanisms and diagnostic options that are helpful to increase our understanding of novel therapeutic strategies.

  3. Surgical treatment of multifocal giant cell tumor of carpal bones with preservation of wrist function: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarng, Yih-Wen; Yang, Shan-Wei; Hsu, Chien-Jen

    2009-02-01

    We report a rare case of multifocal giant cell tumor of bone involving the trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and scaphoid with soft tissue extension. Following intralesional resection, an autogenous corticocancellous iliac crest bone graft was used to fill the resultant defect and preserve carpal height and radiocarpal motion. Successful union with no recurrence was noted at 1-year follow-up.

  4. The novel bladder preservation therapy BOAI-CDDP-radiation (OMC-regimen): a new treatment option for invasive bladder cancer patients with lymph node metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Haruhito; Inamoto, Teruo; Takahara, Kiyoshi; Nomi, Hayahito; Hirano, Hajime; Ibuki, Naokazu; Uehara, Hiroshi; Komura, Kazumasa; Minami, Koichiro; Uchimoto, Taizo; Saito, Kenkichi; Takai, Tomoaki; Tanda, Naoki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Narumi, Yoshihumi; Kiyama, Satoshi

    2014-06-01

    We have developed a novel bladder preservation therapy for patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer and lymph node metastasis: balloon-occluded arterial infusion (BOAI) of cisplatin/gemcitabine, with concomitant hemodialysis and irradiation [the so-called 'OMC (Osaka Medical College) regimen']. The OMC regimen delivers an extremely high concentration of anticancer agent to the site of the tumor, as well as the pelvic area, without causing any adverse systemic effects. In this study, we investigated the efficiency of the OMC regimen in 34 patients who underwent BOAI with cisplatin (100, 200 or 300 mg) along with 60 Gy of irradiation; patients who failed to achieve CR underwent secondary BOAI with gemcitabine (1,600 mg). The overall clinical response was 73.5% (CR: 35.3%; PR: 17.6%; SD: 20.6%). The 5-year overall and progression-free survival rates were 54.4% and 52.5%, respectively. For treatment failure, N2 stage was selected as a significant risk factor by simple and multiple logistic regression analyses. Cox proportional hazards analyses showed that N2 stage, T4 stage and the presence of hydronephrosis were significant risk factors for overall survival. Indeed, 55.6% of patients with N1 stage achieved a complete response (CR) (vs. 12.5% for N2 patients, p=0.0151), and 90% (9/10) of the CR patients survived without recurrence with an intact bladder after a mean follow-up of 85 (range 7-193) weeks. The 3-year progrssion-free survival rate with an intact bladder was 65.8% (vs. 37.5% for N2, p=0.034), and the 5-year overall survival rate was 71.8% (vs. 30.6% for N2, p=0.004). No patients suffered severe toxicities of Grade II or more; the oldest patient, aged 85 years, successfully completed this therapy. In conclusion, the OMC regimen can be regarded as a new option for patients with macroscopic lymph node involvement, especially those at stage N1. Therapy will improve the feasibility of radical cure even without the need for cystectomy in patients for whom

  5. Digital Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakel, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research on digital preservation issues, including born-digital and digitally recreated documents. Discusses electronic records research; metadata and other standards; electronic mail; Web-based documents; moving images media; selection of materials for digitization, including primary sources; administrative issues; media stability…

  6. Factors associated with failure of nonoperative treatment in lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Elisa J; Calfee, Ryan P; Chen, Raymond E; Goldfarb, Charles A; Park, Kevin W; Osei, Daniel A

    2015-09-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common cause of elbow pain that is treated with a variety of nonoperative measures and often improves with time. Minimal research is available on patients in whom these nonoperative treatments fail. To identify baseline patient and disease factors associated with the failure of nonoperative treatment of lateral epicondylitis, defined as surgery after a period of nonoperative treatment. Case control study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 580 patients treated for lateral epicondylitis at a tertiary center between 2007 and 2012 were analyzed. Disease-specific and patient demographic characteristics were compared between patient groups (nonoperative vs surgical treatment). A multivariable logistic regression model was created based on preliminary univariate testing to determine which characteristics were associated with failure of nonoperative treatment. Of the 580 patients, 92 (16%) underwent surgical treatment at a mean of 6 months (range, 0-31 months) from their initial visit. Univariate analysis demonstrated a potential association (P 12 months (OR, 2.5) remained significant independent predictors of surgical treatment. This study identifies risk factors for surgical treatment for lateral epicondylitis. While these findings do not provide information regarding causal factors associated with surgery, these patient and disease-specific considerations may be helpful when counseling patients regarding treatment options and the likelihood of the success of continued nonoperative treatment. © 2015 The Author(s).

  7. Influence of BAK-Preserved Prostaglandin Analog Treatment on the Ocular Surface Health in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Tomić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, a chronic, degenerative optic neuropathy, requires persistent decrease of intraocular pressure so as to prevent visual impairment and blindness. However, long-term use of topical ocular medications may affect ocular surface health. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of BAK-preserved prostaglandin analog treatment on the ocular surface health in patients with newly diagnosed POAG. Methods. 40 newly diagnosed POAG patients were included in this prospective study. Intraocular pressure (IOP, tear break-up time (TBUT, and ocular surface disease index (OSDI were assessed at baseline and 3-month after starting treatment with BAK-preserved travoprost 0.004%. Results. IOP decreased in all patients from baseline to 3-month final visit (23.80 ± 1.73 mmHg versus 16.78 ± 1.27 mmHg; P<0.001. Mean TBUT decreased from 11.70±1.86 seconds at baseline to 8.30 ± 1.29 seconds at 3-month final visit (<0.001. Mean OSDI score increased from 31.63 ± 18.48 to 44.41 ± 16.48 (P<0.001. Conclusions. This study showed that BAK-preserved travoprost 0.004% is an effective medication in newly diagnosed POAG patients, but its long-term use may negatively influence ocular surface health by disrupting the tear film stability. Further studies are needed to better understand the clinical effects of different preservative types and concentrations on the ocular surface.

  8. Influence of BAK-Preserved Prostaglandin Analog Treatment on the Ocular Surface Health in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Martina; Kaštelan, Snježana; Metež Soldo, Kata; Salopek-Rabatić, Jasminka

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), a chronic, degenerative optic neuropathy, requires persistent decrease of intraocular pressure so as to prevent visual impairment and blindness. However, long-term use of topical ocular medications may affect ocular surface health. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of BAK-preserved prostaglandin analog treatment on the ocular surface health in patients with newly diagnosed POAG. Methods. 40 newly diagnosed POAG patients were included in this prospective study. Intraocular pressure (IOP), tear break-up time (TBUT), and ocular surface disease index (OSDI) were assessed at baseline and 3-month after starting treatment with BAK-preserved travoprost 0.004%. Results. IOP decreased in all patients from baseline to 3-month final visit (23.80 ± 1.73 mmHg versus 16.78 ± 1.27 mmHg; P < 0.001). Mean TBUT decreased from 11.70 ± 1.86 seconds at baseline to 8.30 ± 1.29 seconds at 3-month final visit (<0.001). Mean OSDI score increased from 31.63 ± 18.48 to 44.41 ± 16.48 (P < 0.001). Conclusions. This study showed that BAK-preserved travoprost 0.004% is an effective medication in newly diagnosed POAG patients, but its long-term use may negatively influence ocular surface health by disrupting the tear film stability. Further studies are needed to better understand the clinical effects of different preservative types and concentrations on the ocular surface. PMID:23971041

  9. Therapeutic Factors in Spouse-Abuse Group Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jonathan P.; Waldo, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Examines men's experiences in educational groups for batterers. Two factors, imparting of information and development of socializing techniques, were found to be predominant. Other factors thought to be important for abuse treatment (i.e. hope, family reenactment, and modeling) were found to be minimally present. Analysis demonstrates relationship…

  10. Adherence treatment factors in hypertensive African American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie N Fongwa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Marie N Fongwa1, Lorraines S Evangelista1, Ron D Hays2, David S Martins3, David Elashoff4, Marie J Cowan1, Donald E Morisky51University of California Los Angeles School of Nursing, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2University of California Los Angeles School of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3To Help Everyone Clinic Inc. Los Angeles, CA, USA; 4University of California Los Angeles Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 5University of California Los Angeles School of Public Health, CA, USABackground: Hypertension among African American women is of epidemic proportions. Nonadherence to treatment contributes to uncontrolled blood pressure in this population. Factors associated with adherence to treatment in African American women are unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with adherence to hypertension treatment in African American women.Methods: Five audio-taped focus groups were conducted with hypertensive African American women, 35 years and older receiving treatment for hypertension from an inner-city free clinic. All transcripts from the tapes were analyzed for content describing adherence to treatment factors.Findings: Factors associated with adherence to treatment in hypertensive African American women were in three main categories including: beliefs about hypertension, facilitators of adherence to treatment, and barriers to adherence to treatment.Implications: The study supports the need for education on managing hypertension and medication side effects, early screening for depression in hypertensive African Americans, development of culturally sensitive hypertension educational material, and formation of support groups for promoting adherence to treatment among African American women with hypertension.Keywords: adherence, African American, hypertension treatment factors

  11. Preserving Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Brennand, Charlotte P.

    2010-01-01

    The best way to preserve chile depends on how you plan to use it and your available storage space. Frozen or canned chile is best for chile rellenos and salsas. Stews can use frozen, canned or dried chile. Dried chile has minimal storage requirements and is light-weight for taking on camping trips. Pickled chiles can be used on a relish plate or as an ingredient in other dishes.

  12. Liquid growth hormone: preservatives and buffers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappelgaard, Anne-Marie; Anders, Bojesen; Skydsgaard, Karen

    2004-01-01

    and patients receive daily subcutaneous injections of GH for many years. Patient compliance is therefore of critical importance to ensure treatment benefit. One of the major factors influencing compliance is injection pain. Besides the injection device used, pain perception and local tissue reaction following...... injection are dependent on the preservative used in the formulation and the concentration of GH. Injection pain may also be related to the buffer substance and injection volume. A liquid formulation of GH, Norditropi SimpleXx, has been developed that dispenses with the need for reconstitution before...... administration. The formulation uses phenol (3 mg/ml) as a preservative (to protect product from microbial degradation or contamination) and histidine as a buffer. Alternative preservatives used in other GH formulations include m-cresol (9 mg/ml) and benzyl alcohol (3-9 mg/ml). Buffering agents include citrate...

  13. Phenomenon of the inner psychological migration as the factor of the national identity preservation in a period of social crises, anomia and repressions in case of the Polish settlement Marchlewsk (Dovbysh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staniszewska Żanna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a review of the population history of the Polish National Region named after Julian Marchlewski (settlement of Dovbysh, Zhitomir province, Ukraine. The author explores the psychological factors affecting the preservation of culture, religion and identity of the Polish community in the period of the repressions 1920-30 years. The article researches and analyses the phenomenon of internal psychological migration as a factor in preservation of national and personal self-identity.

  14. A systematic review of individual motivational factors in orthodontic treatment: facial attractiveness as the main motivational factor in orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonyanová, Lusine; Broukal, Zdenek

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Physical, mental, and social consequences of malocclusion may impact the quality of life. The aim of this review is to describe main factors motivating parents for orthodontic treatment for their children. Methods. A systematic review study design was used to identify articles analyzing different motivational factors in orthodontic treatment appearing in Medline database, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. The search terms used were teasing, motivating factors, orthodontics, malocclusion, quality of life, smile attractiveness, and perception of malocclusion. Papers selected up to May 2013 included retrospective and prospective longitudinal studies, randomized control trials, cross-sectional studies, reviews, and meta-analyses. Results. 13 articles included in this review identified aesthetics as the main motivational factor in orthodontic treatment. Children mention teeth crowding, large overbite, missing teeth, and largest maxillary anterior irregularities also as motivational factors. Parents want their children to look nice and worry of being accused of neglecting parental duties. Conclusions. Dissatisfaction with one's appearance, dentist recommendation, interest and worries of parents, and the impact of peers who wear braces rank among the main motivation factors of seeking orthodontic treatment. Understanding these factors allows better planning of resources and better assessment of the requirements and priorities of treatment.

  15. A Systematic Review of Individual Motivational Factors in Orthodontic Treatment: Facial Attractiveness as the Main Motivational Factor in Orthodontic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusine Samsonyanová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Physical, mental, and social consequences of malocclusion may impact the quality of life. The aim of this review is to describe main factors motivating parents for orthodontic treatment for their children. Methods. A systematic review study design was used to identify articles analyzing different motivational factors in orthodontic treatment appearing in Medline database, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. The search terms used were teasing, motivating factors, orthodontics, malocclusion, quality of life, smile attractiveness, and perception of malocclusion. Papers selected up to May 2013 included retrospective and prospective longitudinal studies, randomized control trials, cross-sectional studies, reviews, and meta-analyses. Results. 13 articles included in this review identified aesthetics as the main motivational factor in orthodontic treatment. Children mention teeth crowding, large overbite, missing teeth, and largest maxillary anterior irregularities also as motivational factors. Parents want their children to look nice and worry of being accused of neglecting parental duties. Conclusions. Dissatisfaction with one’s appearance, dentist recommendation, interest and worries of parents, and the impact of peers who wear braces rank among the main motivation factors of seeking orthodontic treatment. Understanding these factors allows better planning of resources and better assessment of the requirements and priorities of treatment.

  16. Water Relations of Flowering Stem, Microbial Activity of Preservative Solution and Postharvest Quality of Alstroemeria Cut Flower under Peppermint’s Essential Oil and Sucrose Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jahanifar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Postharvest improvement of water relations and water uptake of cut flowers and control of microbial contamination of preservative solutions is one of the most important strategies in maintaining postharvest quality and prolonging of cut flowers vase life; especially for leafy flowering stems such as alstroemeria. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different peppermint’s essential oil concentrations (0, 300, 600 and 900 ppm along with sucrose levels (0, 3 and 6% in a factorial experiment based on the completely randomized design with three replications. Water relations, cell membrane integrity, leaf yellowing disorder and bacterial contaminations of preservative solution of alstroemeria cut flower were evaluated under different treatments. Based on the results, application of essential oil (600 ppm and sucrose (6% significantly increased water uptake, cell membrane integrity and photosynthetic pigments, and decreased leaf yellowing disorder and bacterial pollutions, leading, consequently, to higher vase life (14 days relative to the control cut flowers. It appears that application of peppermint’s essential oil (due to anti bacterial compounds such as menthone and menthol and sucrose (due to food supply and cell membrane maintenance could be recommended for addition to the preservative solutions of alstroemeria cut flowers.

  17. Lymph node transfer and perinodal lymphatic growth factor treatment for lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkonen, Krista M; Visuri, Mikko T; Tervala, Tomi V; Halonen, Paavo J; Koivisto, Mari; Lähteenvuo, Markku T; Alitalo, Kari K; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Saaristo, Anne M

    2013-05-01

    Our objective was to define the optimal growth factor treatment to be used in combination with lymph node transfer to normalize lymphatic vascular anatomy. In the lymph node transfer method, lymphatic anastomoses are expected to form spontaneously. However, lymphangiogenic growth factor therapies have shown promising results in preclinical models of lymphedema. The inguinal lymphatic vasculature of pigs was surgically destroyed around the inguinal lymph node. To enhance the regrowth of the lymphatic network in the defected area, adenoviral vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) was administered intranodally or perinodally. Control animals received injections of saline or control vector. The lymphangiogenic effect of the growth factor therapy and any potential adverse effects associated with the 2 alternative delivery routes were examined 2 months postoperatively. Both routes of growth factor administration induced robust growth of lymphatic vessels and helped to preserve the structure of the transferred lymph nodes in comparison with the controls. The lymph nodes of the control treated animals regressed in size and their nodal structure was partly replaced by fibro-fatty scar tissue. Intranodally injected adenoviral VEGF-C and adenoviral vector encoding control gene LacZ induced macrophage accumulation inside the node, whereas perinodal administration of VEGF-C did not have this adverse effect. Lymphangiogenic growth factors improve lymphatic vessel regeneration and lymph node function after lymph node transfer. The perinodal route of delivery provides a basis for future clinical trials in lymphedema patients.

  18. Preservation of micro-architecture and angiogenic potential in a pulmonary acellular matrix obtained using intermittent intra-tracheal flow of detergent enzymatic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudlou, Panagiotis; Georgiades, Fanourios; Tyraskis, Athanasios; Totonelli, Giorgia; Loukogeorgakis, Stavros P.; Orlando, Giuseppe; Shangaris, Panicos; Lange, Peggy; Delalande, Jean-Marie; Burns, Alan J.; Cenedese, Angelo; Sebire, Neil J.; Turmaine, Mark; Guest, Brogan N.; Alcorn, John F.; Atala, Anthony; Birchall, Martin A.; Elliott, Martin J.; Eaton, Simon; Pierro, Agostino; Gilbert, Thomas W.; De Coppi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering of autologous lung tissue aims to become a therapeutic alternative to transplantation. Efforts published so far in creating scaffolds have used harsh decellularization techniques that damage the extracellular matrix (ECM), deplete its components and take up to 5 weeks to perform. The aim of this study was to create a lung natural acellular scaffold using a method that will reduce the time of production and better preserve scaffold architecture and ECM components. Decellularization of rat lungs via the intratracheal route removed most of the nuclear material when compared to the other entry points. An intermittent inflation approach that mimics lung respiration yielded an acellular scaffold in a shorter time with an improved preservation of pulmonary micro-architecture. Electron microscopy demonstrated the maintenance of an intact alveolar network, with no evidence of collapse or tearing. Pulsatile dye injection via the vasculature indicated an intact capillary network in the scaffold. Morphometry analysis demonstrated a significant increase in alveolar fractional volume, with alveolar size analysis confirming that alveolar dimensions were maintained. Biomechanical testing of the scaffolds indicated an increase in resistance and elastance when compared to fresh lungs. Staining and quantification for ECM components showed a presence of collagen, elastin, GAG and laminin. The intratracheal intermittent decellularization methodology could be translated to sheep lungs, demonstrating a preservation of ECM components, alveolar and vascular architecture. Decellularization treatment and methodology preserves lung architecture and ECM whilst reducing the production time to 3 h. Cell seeding and in vivo experiments are necessary to proceed towards clinical translation. PMID:23727263

  19. The versatility of a glycerol-preserved skin allograft as an adjunctive treatment to free flap reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mat Saad A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin allografts have been used in medical practice for over a century owing to their unique composition as a biological dressing. Skin allografts can be obtained in several preparations such as cryopreserved, glycerol-preserved, and fresh allograft. A glycerol-preserved allograft (GPA was introduced in the early 1980s. It has several advantages compared with other dressings such as ease of processing, storage and transport, lower cost, less antigenicity, antimicrobial properties, and neo-vascularisation promoting properties. Skin allografts are mainly used in the management of severe burn injuries, chronic ulcers, and complex, traumatic wounds. Published reports of the use of skin allografts in association with free flap surgery are few or non existent. We would like to share our experience of several cases of free tissue transfer that utilised GPA as a temporary wound dressing in multiple scenarios. On the basis of this case series, we would like to recommend that a GPA be used as a temporary dressing in conjunction with free flap surgery when required to protect the flap pedicle, allowing time for the edema to subside and the wound can then be closed for a better aesthetic outcome.

  20. Entire Papilla Preservation Technique: A Novel Surgical Approach for Regenerative Treatment of Deep and Wide Intrabony Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Serhat; Buduneli, Nurcan; Cortellini, Pierpaolo

    Primary wound closure and uneventful early wound stability over the biomaterials are the most critical elements of successful periodontal regeneration. Yet the surgical elevation of the interdental papilla to access deep and wide intrabony defects entails an impairment of the papillary blood supply that can result in difficult healing due to a lack of primary closure in the early healing period. This negative event might complicate the healing process, favoring bacterial contamination. A novel modified tunnel surgical technique designed to maintain the integrity of the interdental papilla is presented in this article, with the aim of providing an optimal environment for wound healing in regenerative procedures. Entire papilla preservation is described and applied in three different cases, in association with the use of a combination of bone substitutes and enamel matrix derivative for periodontal regeneration. The entire papilla preservation technique was successfully applied to the three selected cases, resulting in an uneventful postsurgical period and a substantial defect fill over the 8-month follow-up. This tunnel-like technique can be recommended for further research to support the success identified in this case series.

  1. A process to preserve valuable compounds and acquire essential oils from pomelo flavedo using a microwave irradiation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zaizhi; Zu, Yuangang; Yang, Lei

    2017-06-01

    A microwave pretreatment method was developed to preserve pectin, naringin, and limonin contents in pomelo flavedo to allow for longer storage times and subsequent extraction of pomelo essential oil. In terms of the essential oil, microwave pretreatment performed better than hydrodistillation with respect to extraction efficiency (1.88±0.06% in 24min versus 1.91±0.08% in 240min), oxygenation fraction (48.59±1.32% versus 29.63±1.02%), energy consumption (0.15kWh versus 1.54kWh), and environmental impact (123.20g CO2 versus 1232g CO2). Microwave-pretreated samples retained higher amounts of pectin, naringin, and limonin compared with non-pretreated samples. No obvious change in the degree of pectin esterification was observed. This study shows that the proposed process is a promising methodology for both preserving valuable compounds in pomelo flavedo during storage and acquiring essential oils.

  2. Nonselective matrix metalloproteinase but not tumor necrosis factor-a inhibition effectively preserves the early critical colon anastomotic integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ågren, Magnus S.; Andersen, Thomas L.; Andersen, Line;

    2011-01-01

    Increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of colorectal anastomotic leakage. Tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) induces MMPs and may influence anastomosis repair.......Increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of colorectal anastomotic leakage. Tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) induces MMPs and may influence anastomosis repair....

  3. Efficacy of a preservative-free formulation of fixed-combination bimatoprost and timolol (Ganfort PF) in treatment-naïve patients vs previously treated patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, M Francesca; Goldberg, Ivan; Schiffman, Rhett; Bernstein, Paula; Bejanian, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate, using subgroup analysis, the effect of treatment status on the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy of a preservative-free formulation of fixed-combination bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% (FCBT PF). Methods A primary, multicenter, randomized, double-masked, 12-week study compared the efficacy and safety of FCBT PF with preserved FCBT (Ganfort®) in 561 patients diagnosed with glaucoma or ocular hypertension. For this analysis, eligible patients were treatment-naïve or had inadequate IOP lowering and underwent a washout of previous treatment. IOP (8 am, 10 am, and 4 pm) was measured at baseline and weeks 2, 6, and 12. Subgroup analysis of the FCBT PF arm assessed changes in average eye IOP from baseline in treatment-naïve vs previously treated patients. To evaluate the effect of treatment status at baseline (treatment-naïve vs previously treated) on IOP reduction in the FCBT PF treatment group, an analysis of covariance model was used with treatment status and investigator as fixed effects, and baseline average eye IOP, age, glaucoma diagnosis, and baseline average eye corneal thickness as covariates. P-values and the 95% confidence intervals were determined using the model. Results In the FCBT PF arm, IOP mean changes from baseline ranged from −8.7 mmHg to −9.8 mmHg in treatment-naïve patients (N=50), compared with −7.3 mmHg to −8.5 mmHg in previously treated patients (N=228). Baseline IOP, age, glaucoma diagnosis, and corneal thickness significantly affected IOP reduction in the FCBT PF group. Adjusting for these covariates, FCBT PF had a greater IOP-lowering effect (0.8–1.7 mmHg) in treatment-naïve patients than previously treated patients, which was statistically significant (P≤0.05) at seven of nine time points. Conclusion In this subgroup analysis, FCBT PF reduced IOP more effectively in treatment-naïve than in previously treated patients possibly due, in part, to altered responsiveness or tachyphylaxis that has

  4. Preservation Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China ratified the UNESCO Convention Concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage in 1985. This set the tone for a course of action aimed at protecting the common heritage of mankind in tandem with the international community. Recently, Chao Huashan, a renowned expert on world heritage studies in China, spoke to Beijing Review reporter Zan Jifang, sharing his understanding about the value of the World Heritage Convention and his suggestions for China’s future work on preserving its heritage. Excerpts follow:

  5. Cancer and fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertini, Matteo; Del Mastro, Lucia; Pescio, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    cryopreservation and embryo/oocyte cryopreservation are standard strategies for fertility preservations in male and female patients, respectively; other strategies (e.g. pharmacological protection of the gonads and gonadal tissue cryopreservation) are considered experimental techniques. However, since then, new......In the last years, thanks to the improvement in the prognosis of cancer patients, a growing attention has been given to the fertility issues. International guidelines on fertility preservation in cancer patients recommend that physicians discuss, as early as possible, with all patients...... of reproductive age their risk of infertility from the disease and/or treatment and their interest in having children after cancer, and help with informed fertility preservation decisions. As recommended by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society for Medical Oncology, sperm...

  6. Factors influencing response to treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiyama J

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed 150 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis from 1990 to 1996 (i to evaluate the frequency of drug resistance, (ii to elucidate factors influencing the response to chemotherapy, and (iii to attempt to improve the therapeutic approach. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis strains were not found. By univariate analysis, there were 8 factors associated with an increased sputum conversion time: male gender, prior treatment, complications, progressive chest radiographic findings, a high Ziehl-Neelsen stain score, lymphocytopenia, a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, and hypoproteinemia. Complications, prior treatment, a high Ziehl-Neelsen stain score, and a high ESR were independent predictive factors in a Cox proportional hazard model. Recursive partitioning and amalgamation (RPA defined 3 subgroups that responded to treatment. In order to reduce the time to sputum conversion, poor responders according to the RPA should be treated with a 4-drug regimen containing pyrazinamide.

  7. Value of gallbladder-preserving partial cholecystectomy in treatment of abnormal gallbladder morphology complicated by sand-like calculous cholecystitis: a reports of 18 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANG Fasheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the value of laparoscopic gallbladder-preserving partial cholecystectomy in the treatment of abnormal gallbladder morphology complicated by sand-like calculous cholecystitis. Methods A total of 18 patients with abnormal gallbladder morphology complicated by sand-like calculous cholecystitis who underwent laparoscopic and choledochoscopic partial cholecystectomy in Dalian Friendship Hospital from July 2010 to January 2014 were enrolled. All the patients had abnormal gallbladder morphology manifested as folded gallbladder or adenomyosis, and the lesions were located in the distal end of the gallbladder. Before the surgery, gallbladder contraction test was performed for the diseased part and the normal part of the gallbladder to be preserved. During the surgery, choledochoscopy showed an unobstructed cystic duct and good elasticity in the gallbladder wall, and there was no marked chronic inflammation. After the diseased part of the gallbladder was removed, 4-0 absorbable suture was used for two-layer consecutive suture of the gallbladder. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups. Results All the patients underwent the surgery successfully. The mean time of operation was 98.0±9.0 minutes, and the mean time to first flatus was 22.8±2.5 hours. The patients were able to get out of the bed and drink water at 6 hours after surgery and to have meals at 24 hours after surgery. They fully recovered and were discharged at 5-7 days after surgery, and no patient experienced the complications such as bile leakage. The patients were followed up for 6-80 months; the patients′ preoperative clinical symptoms disappeared, and there was no recurrence of calculi. At 6-12 months after surgery, the patients experienced compensated cholecystectasis, and there was a significant increase in the mean volume of the gallbladder after surgery (30.29±4.23 cm3 vs 21.72±4.34 cm3, t=-13.00, P<0.001. There was a

  8. Factors related to adherence to treatment for systemic hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Maria Coelho Leite Fava

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to seek the evidence available in the literature regarding the factors related to adherence to treatment for systemic hypertension. It used the method of integrative review in the databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, and LILACS, using the keywords: hypertension, compliance, non-compliance, adherence, non-adherence, patient compliance, in the period 2004 – 2008, and articles in Portuguese, English and Spanish, with the use of a validated instrument and content analysis. 28 studies were selected, 64.3% of which had level of evidence VI. The following were identified as factors related to adherence to treatment: treatment costs, educational activities, sex, physician-patient relationship, physiological and behavioral aspects, drug therapy, attending checkups and lifestyle. The use of combined strategies is suggested in order to increase the individuals’ adherence to the treatment. Gaps point to the valorization of dialogic relationships for integrated and more efficacious health practices.

  9. Is orthodontic treatment a risk factor for temporomandibular disorders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Magnusson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The possibility that orthodontic treatment in childhood might be a risk factor for the development of temporomandibular disorders (TMD later in life has been an issue of great controversy in dental literature. OBJECTIVE: To determine a possible negative or positive correlation between orthodontic treatment and TMD by presenting the results and conclusions from a number of key-papers dealing with this subject. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: According to current knowledge, there is no scientific evidence to support that orthodontic treatment is a risk factor for the development of TMD. On the other hand, there is some evidence to support that a proper orthodontic treatment performed in childhood might have a positive effect upon the functional status of the masticatory system later in life.

  10. Treatment of metabolic acidosis in patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease with fruits and vegetables or oral bicarbonate reduces urine angiotensinogen and preserves glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraya, Nimrit; Simoni, Jan; Jo, Chan-Hee; Wesson, Donald E

    2014-11-01

    Alkali therapy of metabolic acidosis in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) with plasma total CO2 (TCO2) below 22 mmol/l per KDOQI guidelines appears to preserve estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Since angiotensin II mediates GFR decline in partial nephrectomy models of CKD and even mild metabolic acidosis increases kidney angiotensin II in animals, alkali treatment of CKD-related metabolic acidosis in patients with plasma TCO2 over 22 mmol/l might preserve GFR through reduced kidney angiotensin II. To test this, we randomized 108 patients with stage 3 CKD and plasma TCO2 22-24 mmol/l to Usual Care or interventions designed to reduce dietary acid by 50% using sodium bicarbonate or base-producing fruits and vegetables. All were treated to achieve a systolic blood pressure below 130 mm Hg with regimens including angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and followed for 3 years. Plasma TCO2 decreased in Usual Care but increased with bicarbonate or fruits and vegetables. By contrast, urine excretion of angiotensinogen, an index of kidney angiotensin II, increased in Usual Care but decreased with bicarbonate or fruits and vegetables. Creatinine-calculated and cystatin C-calculated eGFR decreased in all groups, but loss was less at 3 years with bicarbonate or fruits and vegetables than Usual Care. Thus, dietary alkali treatment of metabolic acidosis in CKD that is less severe than that for which KDOQI recommends therapy reduces kidney angiotensin II activity and preserves eGFR.

  11. Assessment of vocal quality following treatment of advanced pharyngo-laryngeal carcinoma with a protocol of organ preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morato-Galán, Marta; Caminero Cueva, María Jesús; Rodrigo, Juan Pablo; Suárez Nieto, Carlos; Núñez-Batalla, Faustino

    2014-01-01

    Advanced laryngeal and pharyngeal cancer, as well as methods to treat them, have a direct impact on voice function, speech communication and deglutition. Such alterations in function can influence employability and general quality of life. To characterise the vocal status of the patients treated with an organ-preservation protocol, we report the voice outcomes of 17 patients who were alive and disease free at the time of the survey, with a minimum follow-up of 6 months, after a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy to treat advanced cancer. Objective voice assessment by means of spectrographic analysis, the GRBAS perceptual analysis system and the Voice Handicap Index was the methodology followed, which we suggest could be used in future large-scale investigations. Normal or slightly dysphonic voices were observed in 5 patients (29.4%) and moderate/severe in 12 (70.6%). Spectrographically, the 17 samples were classified as normal in 4 cases (23.4%), Grade I in 3 cases (17.6%), Grade II in 3 (17.6%), Grade III in 4 (23.5%) and Grade IV in 2 (11.7%). The Voice Handicap Index questionnaire, which was completed by the patients themselves, gave normal results in all the patients except for 4 (23.5%). The voice acoustic analysis of this series shows that the damage related to the organ-preservation protocol displays a relatively wide range of voice function outcomes. To characterise the vocal status of these patients reliably, we propose using homogeneous instruments (spectrography, GRBAS scale, Maximum Phonation Time and Voice Handicap Index) in future meta-analyses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk factors for treatment failure and recurrence of anisometropic amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirandi, Ece Uzun; Akar, Serpil; Gokyigit, Birsen; Onmez, Funda Ebru Aksoy; Oto, Sibel

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with failed vision improvement and recurrence following occlusion therapy for anisometropic amblyopia in children aged 7-9 years. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 64 children aged 7-9 years who had been diagnosed as having anisometropic amblyopia and were treated with patching. Functional treatment failure was defined as final visual acuity in the amblyopic eye of worse than 20/32. Improvement of fewer than two logMAR lines was considered relative treatment failure. Recurrence was defined as the reduction of at least two logMAR levels of visual acuity after decreased or discontinued patching. Functional and relative success rates were 51.6 and 62.5 %, respectively. The most important factor for functional treatment failure [adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95 % confidence interval, CI) 11.57 (1.4-95.74)] and the only risk factor for recurrence [adjusted OR (95 % CI) 3.04 (1.13-8.12)] were the same: high spherical equivalent (SE) of the amblyopic eye. A large interocular difference in the best-corrected visual acuity was found to be a risk factor for both functional and relative failure. High SE of the amblyopic eye was the most influential risk factor for treatment failure and recurrence in compliant children aged 7-9 years.

  13. What's Wrong with Plastic Trees?: Rationales for preserving rare natural environments involve economic, societal, and political factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, M H

    1973-02-02

    With some ingenuity, a transformation of our attitudes toward preservation of the environment will take place fairly soon. We will recognize the symbolic and social meanings of environments, not just their economic utility; we will emphasize their historical significance as well as the future generations that will use them. At the same time, we must realize that there are things we may not want to trade at all, except in the sense of letting someone else have his share of the environment also. As environments become more differentiated, smaller areas will probably be given greater significance, and it may be possible for more groups to have a share. It is likely that we shall want to apply our technology to the creation of artificial environments. It may be possible to create environments that are evocative of other environments in other times and places. It is possible that, by manipulating memory through the rewriting of history, environments will come to have new meaning. Finally, we may want to create proxy environments by means of substitution and simulation. In order to create substitutes, we must endow new objects with significance by means of advertising and by social practice. Sophistication about differentiation will become very important for appreciating the substitute environments. We may simulate the environment by means of photographs, recordings, models, and perhaps even manipulations in the brain (48). What we experience in natural environments may actually be more controllable than we imagine (49). Artificial prairies and wildernesses have been created, and there is no reason to believe that these artificial environments need be unsatisfactory for those who experience them. Rare environments are relative, can be created, are dependent on our knowledge, and are a function of policy, not only tradition. It seems likely that economic arguments will not be sufficient to preserve environments or to suggest how we can create new ones. Rather, conscious

  14. Genetic ablation of soluble tumor necrosis factor with preservation of membrane tumor necrosis factor is associated with neuroprotection after focal cerebral ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Pernille M; Clausen, Bettina H; Degn, Matilda;

    2016-01-01

    Microglia respond to focal cerebral ischemia by increasing their production of the neuromodulatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor, which exists both as membrane-anchored tumor necrosis factor and as cleaved soluble tumor necrosis factor forms. We previously demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor...

  15. Orthodontic Treatment, Genetic Factors and Risk of Temporomandibular Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Slade, Gary D.; Diatchenko, Luda; Ohrbach, Richard; Maixner, William

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, four groups of factors have been identified in the etiology of temporomandibular disorder (TMD): anatomical variation in the masticatory system; psychosocial characteristics; pain in other body regions; and demographics. Orthodontic treatment has been variously cited both as a protective and harmful factor in TMD etiology. Recently, a search has begun for a genetic influence on TMD etiology. Genetic markers can be of additional value in identifying gene-environment interactions...

  16. Factors related to orthodontic treatment time in adult patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Camila Esteves de Oliveira Melo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The length of time that it takes an orthodontist to treat adult patients varies widely. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate how different variables influence treatment time. METHODS: Seventy clinical case reports of successfully treated adult patients were examined. The patients were selected from 4,723 records held by three experienced orthodontists. The influence exerted by the following variables on treatment time was assessed: age, sex, facial pattern, severity of malocclusion (measured by the PAR index, sagittal relationship of canines, type of brackets (ceramic or metal, tooth extractions, missed appointments and orthodontic appliance issues/breakages, the latter being the dependent variable. Assessment was performed by multiple linear regression analysis, followed by the stepwise method with P < 0.05. RESULTS: The number of times a patient missed their appointment (no-show (R² = 14.4%, p < 0.0001 and the number of appliance issues/breakages (R² = 29.71%, p = 0.0037 significantly affected variability in treatment time, and these two variables together can predict 43.75% (R² total of the overall variability in treatment time. Other factors, such as canine relationship at the beginning of treatment, bracket type (metal or ceramic, tooth extractions, age at start of treatment, severity of the initial malocclusion, sex and facial pattern had no significant bearing on treatment time. CONCLUSIONS: The duration of orthodontic treatment in adults, when performed by experienced orthodontists, is mainly influenced by factors related to patient compliance. However, several factors which were not included in this study may contribute to variability in orthodontic treatment time.

  17. Single-tooth replacement: factors affecting different prosthetic treatment modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Quran Firas A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice between several treatment options for replacing a single missing tooth is influenced by clinical, dentist- and patient-immanent factors. This study aimed to determine the patient factors that would affect the treatment decision to replace a single missing tooth and to assess the satisfaction with several options. Method 200 volunteers involved (121 females and 79 males divided into four groups, Group A: consisted of patients with conventional fixed partial dentures or patients with resin bonded fixed partial dentures. Group B: consisted of patients who received removable partial dentures while Group C: consisted of patients who received a single implant supported crown, and a control group D: consisted of patients who received no treatment. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Results The highest percentage of males within groups (58% was within the removable prostheses category. The majority of the subjects in the study reported that the main reason for replacing a missing tooth was for esthetic and function. Most important factor affecting the choice between treatment modalities was damaging the neighboring teeth. Pain, post operative sensitivity and dental phobia were important factors in choosing the prosthesis type and affected the control group patients not to have any treatment. The highest satisfaction percentage among groups studied was recorded for dental implants then FPD groups, while the least percentage were in both the control and RPD groups, for all aspects of function, esthetic and speech efficiency. Conclusions The final choice between FPD, RPD and implant depended on several factors which affected the decision making; among these is cost and patients' awareness of the different treatment options.

  18. Data Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Meghini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Digital information is a vital resource in our knowledge economy, valuable for research and education, science and the humanities, creative and cultural activities, and public policy (The Blue Ribbon Task Force on Sustainable Digital Preservation and Access, 2010. New high-throughput instruments, telescopes, satellites, accelerators, supercomputers, sensor networks, and running simulations are generating massive amounts of data (Thanos, 2011. These data are used by decision makers for improving the quality of life of citizens. Moreover, researchers are employing sophisticated technologies to analyse these data to address questions that were unapproachable just a few years ago (Helbing & Balietti, 2011. Digital technologies have fostered a new world of research characterized by immense datasets, unprecedented levels of openness among researchers, and new connections among researchers, policy makers, and the public (The National Academy of Sciences, 2009.

  19. Power Preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galster, Kjeld

    Power Preservation (Abstract) In the 17th century, just as today, coalitions needed ‘lead nations’. This was assumed to be a power with great military and economic potentials, and Denmark endeavoured to act as such a leader in the Thirty Years War from 1626 to 28. The results were not encouraging...... in the military field and they were disastrous as far as fiscal matters were concerned. Sweden took over the leadership of the protestant side and she took over Denmark’s place amongst the great powers of the Baltic Region. From that time onwards, Danish influence and options on the international stage gradually...... declined. Thus, Denmark of the 17th century is not to be counted amongst the great powers, but since Christian V’s accession to the throne in 1670 Denmark-Norway has developed into one of Europe’s most highly militarised states. Apart from a permanently combat ready navy, the country maintains a standing...

  20. Synergy Between Gαz Deficiency and GLP-1 Analog Treatment in Preserving Functional β-Cell Mass in Experimental Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Allison L; Wisinski, Jaclyn A; Cadena, Mark T; Thompson, Mary F; Fenske, Rachel J; Brar, Harpreet K; Schaid, Michael D; Pasker, Renee L; Kimple, Michelle E

    2016-05-01

    A defining characteristic of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) pathophysiology is pancreatic β-cell death and dysfunction, resulting in insufficient insulin secretion to properly control blood glucose levels. Treatments that promote β-cell replication and survival, thus reversing the loss of β-cell mass, while also preserving β-cell function, could lead to a real cure for T1DM. The α-subunit of the heterotrimeric Gz protein, Gαz, is a tonic negative regulator of adenylate cyclase and downstream cAMP production. cAMP is one of a few identified signaling molecules that can simultaneously have a positive impact on pancreatic islet β-cell proliferation, survival, and function. The purpose of our study was to determine whether mice lacking Gαz might be protected, at least partially, from β-cell loss and dysfunction after streptozotocin treatment. We also aimed to determine whether Gαz might act in concert with an activator of the cAMP-stimulatory glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor, exendin-4 (Ex4). Without Ex4 treatment, Gαz-null mice still developed hyperglycemia, albeit delayed. The same finding held true for wild-type mice treated with Ex4. With Ex4 treatment, Gαz-null mice were protected from developing severe hyperglycemia. Immunohistological studies performed on pancreas sections and in vitro apoptosis, cytotoxicity, and survival assays demonstrated a clear effect of Gαz signaling on pancreatic β-cell replication and death; β-cell function was also improved in Gαz-null islets. These data support our hypothesis that a combination of therapies targeting both stimulatory and inhibitory pathways will be more effective than either alone at protecting, preserving, and possibly regenerating β-cell mass and function in T1DM.

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF AN IMPROVED PRESERVATION SOLUTION ON PROGNOSTIC FACTORS FOR GRAFT-SURVIVAL IN PEDIATRIC LIVER-TRANSPLANTATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PEETERS, PMJG; TENVERGERT, EM; PISARSKI, S; BIJLEVELD, CMA; BLEICHRODT, RP; SLOOFF, MJH

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the influence of Eurocollins (EC) and University of Wisconson solution (UW) on prognostic factors for graft survival after pediatric liver transplantation. The 1-year graft survival was studied for 30 patients in which 38 transplantations were performed between 1982 and 1988. We pres

  2. Factors determining esthetic outcome after breast cancer conservative treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, Maria J; Cardoso, Jaime; Santos, Ana C

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors that determine esthetic outcome after breast cancer conservative treatment, based on a consensual classification obtained with an international consensus panel. Photographs were taken from 120 women submitted to conservative unilateral breast canc...

  3. Fighting Gum Disease: Risk Factors, Treatment and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat periodontal disease. Read More "Fighting Gum Disease" Articles Keep Gum Disease Away! / Take Care of Your Teeth / Risk Factors, Treatment and Research Fall 2010 Issue: Volume 5 Number 3 Page 11 ... | Viewers & Players Friends of the National Library of Medicine (FNLM)

  4. Associations of Psychosocial Factors with the Stress of Infertility Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Myra G.; Forthofer, Melinda S.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial factors thought to be associated with perceived stress over the course of infertility treatment. The research was based on secondary analysis of data from the Study of Marriage, Family, and Life Quality with a sample of 128 people who completed an infertility-related stress instrument at all three measurement…

  5. Factors influencing the treatment of posterior cruciate ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittivej, Kittimasak; Prompaet, Sureeporn; Rojanasthien, Sattaya

    2005-10-01

    The primary objective was to determine the factors which influence the requirement of surgical treatment of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury. Ninety one PCL injured patients diagnosed in the "Sports Medicine Clinic", Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital from January 1998 to December 2000 were included in the present study. There were 63 males and 28 females with an average age of 29 years. All of the PCL-insufficient knees were initially treated by non-operative method including 3 phases of rehabilitation. They were followed through to the end of December 2003. Analysis showed that the degree of posterior laxity was the only factor that had a statistical significant correlation to failure of conservative treatment. In addition, the need for surgical treatment was not associated with gender age, cause of injury, and concomitant of injury. The authors concluded that PCL injured patients with posterior laxity greater than 10 millimeters should be treated by PCL reconstruction.

  6. Factors affecting the duration of orthodontic treatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavreas, Dimitrios; Athanasiou, Athanasios E

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the literature for articles referring exclusively to the duration of orthodontic therapy and to explore the various factors that could affect this. A Medline search from 1990 to the first week of March 2005 was conducted, the Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews was utilized, five orthodontic journals were hand searched, the abstracts of related articles were reviewed to search for any relevant studies that might have been missed, and the reference lists of the retrieved articles were hand assessed. Eligibility was determined by reading the reports identified by the search. The end result of this search provided 41 articles. Although there is a need for more conclusive research, the present review revealed several conclusions concerning the duration of orthodontic treatment: (1) there are indications that extraction treatment lasts longer than the non-extraction therapy; (2) age does not seem to play a role provided the patients are in the permanent dentition; (3) when Class II division 1 malocclusions are considered, there is evidence that the earlier the orthodontic treatment begins the longer its duration; (4) there is conflicting information regarding treatment duration within public health systems; (5) combined orthodontic-surgical treatment duration is variable and appears to be operator sensitive; (6) various factors, such as the technique employed, the skill and number of operators involved, the compliance of the patients, and the severity of the initial malocclusion, all seem to play a role; and (7) impacted maxillary canines appear to prolong treatment.

  7. Ultralow-dose dexamethasone to preserve endogenous cortisol stress response in nonclassical congenital adrenal hyperplasia: A new promising treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C.M. van der Kaay (Danielle); E.L.T. van den Akker (Erica)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Nonclassical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is characterized by sufficient cortisol and aldosterone production at the cost of androgen overproduction. Hydrocortisone or dexamethasone in supraphysiological doses are current treatment; however, their downside is suppres

  8. Cryotherapy in treatment of keloids: Evaluation of factors affecting treatment outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Barara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Keloids are cosmetically disfiguring benign fibrous outgrowths, which present as a major therapeutic dilemma due to their frequent recurrence. Despite a wide therapeutic armamentarium available for these scars, none has been found to be completely effective and satisfactory. Cryosurgery has offered some promise in the treatment of keloids.We conducted this study to evaluate the effect of cryotherapy in treatment of keloids and to relate the treatment outcome with the clinico-etiological factors. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based interventional study was conducted in 30 patients of keloids. Patients received two freeze thaw cycles of 15 seconds each at four weekly intervals for six sessions or flattening greater than 75%; whichever occurred earlier. Patients were assessed after three treatment sessions and at treatment completion regarding thickness and firmness of lesions. Patient satisfaction scale was used to evaluate the treatment outcome at completion of six treatment sessions. Paired Students t-test and Analysis of variance (ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. Results: Average flattening noted after 3 and 6 sessions of cryotherapy was 30.76% and 58.13%, respectively. The duration of lesions and thickness of keloids correlated significantly with the result of treatment. The site and aetiology did not influence the outcome of cryosurgical treatment. Conclusion: Cryotherapy seems to be an effective treatment modality for keloids of recent onset, particularly smaller lesions. Duration and thickness of the keloids were found to be the most important factors in determining treatment outcome with cryotherapy in our study. Larger studies are, however, required to confirm the efficacy of this treatment modality and to validate our findings of the factors affecting treatment outcome.

  9. Increase in tendon protein synthesis in response to insulin-like growth factor-I is preserved in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rie Harboe; Holm, Lars; Malmgaard-Clausen, Nikolaj Mølkjær

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is known to be an anabolic factor in tendon, and the systemic levels are reduced with aging. However, it is uncertain how tendon fibroblasts are involved in tendon aging and how aging cells respond to IGF-I. The purpose of this study was to investigate...... the in vivo IGF-I stimulation of tendon protein synthesis in elderly compared with young men. We injected IGF-I in the patellar tendons of young (n = 11, 20-30 yr of age) and old (n = 11, 66-75 yr of age) men, and the acute fractional synthesis rate (FSR) of tendon protein was measured with the stable isotope.......01). This increase in protein synthesis was seen in both young and old men, with no differences between age groups. The old group had markedly lower serum IGF-I levels compared with young (165 ± 17 vs. 281 ± 27 ng/ml, P men...

  10. Individual Patient Factors Associated with Effective Tinnitus Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoroff, Sarah M.; Schuette, Andrew; Griest, Susan; Henry, James A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Little is known about patient factors that might influence outcomes of tinnitus interventions. Determining such factors would offer insights into why some individuals benefit from tinnitus intervention whereas others do not. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate selected patient factors that may be associated with outcomes of tinnitus intervention. Factors studied include demographics, tinnitus characteristics, psychoacoustic tinnitus measures, audiometric data, and overall physical/emotional health status. Research Design A retrospective analysis was performed on data obtained from a controlled clinical study that compared factors associated with tinnitus relief after tinnitus masking and tinnitus retraining therapy. Study Sample A total of 126 military veterans participated in this controlled clinical study. Of these, 89 completed outcome measures at both baseline and 12 mo and were included in the present analysis. Data Collection and Analysis A “responder” to intervention was identified as having a decrease (improvement) of 20 or more points on the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory between baseline and 12 mo. A “nonresponder” did not achieve a 20-point improvement on the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory. Individual patient factors were examined using independent t-tests or χ2 analysis. A logistic regression model was used to determine how well each factor predicted treatment outcome (responder or nonresponder) while controlling for each of the other factors. Results Five patient factors were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) between responders and nonresponders. Responders tended to (1) be younger in age; (2) have better low-frequency hearing sensitivity; (3) have greater problems with overall hearing; (4) be more likely to have tinnitus for shorter durations; and (5) perceive their tinnitus to be located “in the head” versus “in the ears.” A logistic regression was then performed to determine how well each factor predicted the

  11. Preservation in New Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kitching

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In the United Kingdom (as in many other countries increasing attention is being paid to the importance of each library and archive having a written preservation strategy endorsed by its governing body. So increasingly we are asking: where does „preservation“ begin and what are its top priorities? Some would say preservation begins with the definition of collecting policies to ensure that only relevant items are acquired in the first place, and therefore that no unnecessary costs are incurred on the long-term care of unwanted and unconsulted items. Others might argue that the first priority must be the careful appraisal of existing holdings to determine their preservation and conservation requirements and to prioritise their treatment. Or should preservation begin with damage-limitation: restricting the physical handling of books and documents, on the one hand by providing whenever possible surrogate copies in digital formats or microform, and on the other hand by offering at least basic protection through appropriate boxing and packaging? This, surely, goes hand-in-hand with the education of staff and readers about the importance of treating rare or unique materials with proper respect.

  12. Low prevalence of hypertension with pharmacological treatments and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Gama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the determinants of the lack of pharmacological treatment for hypertension. METHODS: In 2005, 3,323 Mozambicans aged 25-64 years old were evaluated. Blood pressure, weight, height and smoking status were assessed following the Stepwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance. Hypertensives (systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg and/or antihypertensive drug therapy were evaluated for awareness of their condition, pharmacological and non-pharmacological management, as well as use of herbal or traditional remedies. Prevalence ratios (PR were calculated, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors and non-pharmacological treatment. RESULTS: Most of the hypertensive subjects (92.3%, and nearly half of those aware of their condition were not treated pharmacologically. Among the aware, the prevalence of untreated hypertension was higher in men {PR = 1.61; 95% confidence interval (95%CI 1.10;2.36} and was lower in subjects under non-pharmacological treatment (PR = 0.58; 95%CI 0.42;0.79; there was no significant association with traditional treatments (PR = 0.75; 95%CI 0.44;1.26. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of pharmacological treatment for hypertension was more frequent in men, and was not influenced by the presence of other cardiovascular risk factors; it could not be explained by the use of alternative treatments as herbal/traditional medicines or non-pharmacological management. It is important to understand the reasons behind the lack of management of diagnosed hypertension and to implement appropriate corrective actions to reduce the gap in the access to healthcare between developed and developing countries.

  13. Treatment of Skin Avulsion Injuries with Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Matsumine, MD, PhD

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: This report describes favorable outcomes in 9 patients with skin avulsion injuries of the extremities who underwent full-thickness skin grafting and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF application. Following removal of contaminated subcutaneous fat tissue on the inside of skin, the avulsed skin was processed into a full-thickness skin graft, with as much of the skin used as possible irrespective of damage. Several drainage holes (5–10 mm in diameter were made on the graft for drainage from the graft bed and to prevent seroma and hematoma formation. Genetically recombinant human bFGF was sprayed at a dose of 1 μg/cm2 onto the graft bed, which was then covered with the graft and sutured. Pressure immobilization with ointment gauzes and elastic bandages was administered for 1 week postoperatively, and the surface of the skin grafts that did not take was scraped away, preserving the revascularized dermal component on the debrided raw surface as much as possible. bFGF was sprayed again onto the debrided surface to promote epithelialization. Wound closure was achieved in all cases with conservative therapy. The surgical procedure was effective in preventing postoperative ulcer formation and scar contracture and resulted in wound healing with the formation of good-quality, flexible scars.

  14. Factors Associated with Operative Treatment of De Quervain Tendinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Kachooei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Geographic and doctor-to-doctor variations in care are a focus of quality and safety efforts in medicine. This study addresses factors associated with variation in the rate of operative treatment of de Quervain tendinopathy.   Methods: We used a database including all patient encounters at 2 large medical centers, to study the experience of 10 hand surgeons and 1 physiatrist working in a hand surgery office in the treatment of 2,513 patients with de Quervain tendinopathy over a 12-year period. Survival analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare surgery rates and time to surgery. Cox multivariable regression analysis was applied to identify factors associated with operative treatment. Results:  One hundred ninety nine (7.9% patients had surgery. The odds of operative treatment were 1.7 times greater after corticosteroid injection and varied more than 10-fold among providers. There was substantial variation in the overall rate of surgery by provider. Corticosteroid injection delayed surgery slightly, but was associated with a higher rate of surgery.  Conclusion:  Providers have substantial influence on treatment of de Quervain tendinopathy. The use of decision aids and other methods that help involve the patient in decision-making merit investigation as interventions to help reduce doctor-to-doctor variation.

  15. Preserved fertility in a non-mosaic Klinefelter patient with a mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Aksglaede, L; Lund, A M;

    2007-01-01

    receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene, which is a gain-of-function mutation resulting in achondroplasia. The patient had phenotypic characteristics of achondroplasia (e.g. short limbed dwarfism and frontal bossing). Testicular volume was 8 ml at 27 years of age and repeated semen samples showed sperm concentrations of 0...... a child from a spontaneous pregnancy. The observed testicular size and function in our patient contrast the typical findings in classical Klinefelter syndrome. We speculate that the alteration of FGFR3 protein function in our Klinefelter patient alleviated the destruction of the seminiferous tubules...... and may suggest that the fibroblast growth factor family has a pleiotrophic function in human spermatogonia, which physiologically express FGFR3....

  16. Preserved fertility in a non-mosaic Klinefelter patient with a mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Aksglaede, L; Lund, A M;

    2007-01-01

    Patients with Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY) are characterized by eunuchoid body proportions, gynaecomastia, small firm testes and azoospermia. We describe a Klinefelter patient (non-mosaic 47,XXY karyotype) who was heterozygous for the classical 1138G>A mutation in the fibroblast growth factor.......175 million/ml. Serum FSH levels were elevated (21.7 IU/l) compared to normal age-matched healthy male controls and patients with non-mosaic Klinefelter syndrome, and inhibin B levels were low-normal, in contrast to the usually undetectable inhibin B levels in adult Klinefelter patients. The patient fathered...... a child from a spontaneous pregnancy. The observed testicular size and function in our patient contrast the typical findings in classical Klinefelter syndrome. We speculate that the alteration of FGFR3 protein function in our Klinefelter patient alleviated the destruction of the seminiferous tubules...

  17. Combination of N-(3'4'-dimethoxycinnamoyl) anthranilic acid with cyclosporin A treatment preserves immunosuppressive effect and reduces the side effect of cyclosporin A in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong-Gang, Xu; Ming-Zhe, Weng; Jin-Yan, Zhang; Zhi-Hai, Peng; Jun-Ming, Xu

    2014-04-05

    Cyclosporin A (CsA), one of the most fundamental immunosuppressive drugs, is routinely used in clinics for the treatment of liver and other organ rejections. However, one of the major challenges of the application of CsA is the occurrence of the serious adverse effects, namely, acute and chronic nephrotoxicity, severe hypertension and neurotoxicity. Although N-(3'4'-dimethoxycinnamoyl) anthranilic acid (3,4-DAA) plays an important role in apoptosis of activated T cells, and is therapeutically used as an orally active anti-allergic drug for the treatment of allergy, it has not been tested for use in the treatment of organ rejection. In this study, we used the dark agouti (DA)-Lewis rat orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) model to investigate whether the combination of 3,4-DAA with CsA is a promising and useful strategy to lower CsA dosage for reducing CsA side effect and preserve therapeutic effect of CsA. Here, we document that the combination treatment effectively inhibits acute liver rejection in OLT model with only half the normally suggested dosage of CsA that has much less side effect in rats than that of the full dosage. These results indicate that 3,4-DAA may serve as an effective adjunct for a CsA-based immunosuppressive regimen to treat transplant recipients for reducing CsA side effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychosocial factors and treatment adherence in paediatric HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naar-King, S; Arfken, C; Frey, M; Harris, M; Secord, E; Ellis, D

    2006-08-01

    A social ecological model provides a promising framework for understanding the individual, family, and societal factors contributing to non-adherence to treatment of paediatric HIV. This study explored which factors relevant to this model are associated with caregivers' adherence and child health outcomes. A cross-sectional design was utilized to assess relationships among current individual, familial, extra-familial factors, caregiver adherence, and viral load. Data were collected from 43 caregivers, and viral load data were obtained from the medical records of their HIV+ children. Caregiver drug and alcohol use and HIV+ status were associated with non-adherence and elevated viral load. Negative outcome expectancy was associated with lower adherence but was not significant in the multivariate analyses. Family factors were not significant, but these measures had low reliability in this sample. Extra-familial factors such as dissatisfaction with medical specialty care and more stressful life events were not directly associated with adherence but were related to increased caregiver substance use. Results of this first study to explore multiple predictors of adherence and health outcomes in paediatric HIV require replication with larger samples, but findings suggest caregiver characteristics that place children at risk for disease progression due to poor adherence to treatment.

  19. Risk Factors for Prolonged Treatment of Whiplash-Associated Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Oka

    Full Text Available Whiplash-associated disorders (WAD are the most common injuries that are associated with car collisions in Japan and many Western countries. However, there is no clear evidence regarding the potential risk factors for poor recovery from WAD. Therefore, we used an online survey of the Japanese population to examine the association between potential risk factors and the persistence of symptoms in individuals with WAD.An online survey was completed by 127,956 participants, including 4,164 participants who had been involved in a traffic collision. A random sample of the collision participants (n = 1,698 were provided with a secondary questionnaire. From among the 974 (57.4% respondents to the secondary questionnaire, we selected 183 cases (intractable neck pain that was treated over a period of 6 months and 333 controls (minor neck pain that was treated within 3 months. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the potential risk factors for prolonged treatment of WAD.Female sex, the severity of the collision, poor expectations of recovery, victim mentality, dizziness, numbness or pain in the arms, and lower back pain were associated with a poor recovery from WAD.In the present study, the baseline symptoms (dizziness, numbness or pain in the arms, and lower back pain had the strongest associations with prolonged treatment for WAD, although the psychological and behavioral factors were also important. These risk factors should be considered when evaluating patients who may have the potential for poor outcomes.

  20. The efficacy and safety of add-on 0.1% brimonidine tartrate preserved with sodium chlorite in on-treatment Japanese normal-tension glaucoma patients [Corrigendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsumura T

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy and safety of add-on 0.1% brimonidine tartrate preserved with sodium chlorite in on-treatment Japanese normal-tension glaucoma patients [Corrigendum] Tsumura T, Yoshikawa K, Kimura T, et al. Clin Ophthalmol. 2014;8:1681–1687. The authors wish to advise of the following errors: on page 1684, right column, line 18, “10.72” should be replaced with “–10.72”; on page 1685, right column, line 2, “<–6D” should be replaced with “<–6dB”. Read the original article Previous corrigendum has been published

  1. Preservation of vaccine-induced long-term B cell memory and the effects of immunosuppressive treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Ingelman-Sundberg, Hanna M.

    2015-01-01

    Immune memory after vaccination is largely dependent on the combination of antibody production from long-lived plasma cells, and a supporting pool of antigen-primed memory B cells. It has been observed that individuals with certain immunosuppressive conditions or treatments have a weakened B cell memory, but the mechanisms behind remain elusive. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate B cell immunity in healthy children, and how HIV-1 infection, antineoplastic therapy, and rheum...

  2. Medical treatment of idiopathic oligozoospermia and male factor subfertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DimitriosA.Adamopoulos

    2000-01-01

    Pharmaceutical treatment for the so-called idiopathic oligozoospermia ( I. O. ) is possible and effective in a fair proportion of patients with the syndrome provided that appropriate investigative procedures may identify the major disorder or its level of disruption, this abnormality is reversible and appropriate prognostic indices for the treatment's success are devised and validated. According to the evidence available, minimal evaluation and prognostic indices for treatment eligibility in normogonadotropic men with I.O. include a routine work-up but, mainly, microscopical assessment of spermatogenesis and appraisal of Sertoli cell's functional capacity. Published data indicate that men with hypospermatogenesis without maturational arrest, respond favorably to agents stimulating Sertoli cells and germinal epithelium with increased sperm production. Furthermore, Sertoli cell activity as judged by cell-specific indices such as inhibin B secretion, may provide additional discriminating power to the microscopical picture of the testis. In this context, precise identification of the causative factor(s), together with the establishment of prognostic indices are the most important criteria on which the decision, for or against medical treatment in I. 0., should be based. Obviously, further basic research and clinical trials are urgently needed in this particular field, and this should be a major task for clinical andrologists. (Asian J Androl 2000; 2: 25-32)

  3. E-space preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonis, Andrew; Ackerman, Marc

    2011-11-01

    To determine the relationship of E-space preservation with lingual holding arches to mandibular permanent second molar impaction. Two hundred consecutively treated patients undergoing nonextraction treatment for incisor crowding were entered into the study. Lower incisor crowding was assessed by the Little Irregularity Index. Treatment involved E-space preservation via a passive lingual arch placed prior to exfoliation of the second primary molar. Panoramic and cephalometric radiographs were analyzed for any significant relationship of mandibular permanent second molar impaction relative to molar angulation, spacing, growth pattern, and skeletal relationships. Twenty-nine patients had at least one impacted second molar (14.5%). Of a possible 400 mandibular second molars, 34 were determined to be impacted (8.5%). Only the mandibular first molar-second molar angulation was found to be significant (P < .001). Pretreatment intermolar angulation of 24 degrees had a positive predictive value of 1. Impaction of permanent second mandibular molars in patients undergoing nonextraction via E-space preservation with a passive lingual arch is 10 to 20 times more prevalent than that observed in the general population. Risk of impaction is best predicted by the pretreatment intermolar angulation between first and second permanent mandibular molars.

  4. Factors that mediate treatment outcome of sexually abused preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J A; Mannarino, A P

    1996-10-01

    The role of demographic, developmental, and familial mediating factors on treatment outcome of sexually abused preschool children was evaluated. Sixty-seven sexually abused preschool children and their parents were evaluated shortly after disclosure of sexual abuse and then were provided with one of two treatment interventions. At the completion of treatment, the parents and their children were reevaluated. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist, the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory, and the Weekly Behavior Report to measure a variety of emotional and behavioral symptoms in children. Parents also completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale-III, the Parent Emotional Reaction Questionnaire, the Parental Support Questionnaire, and the Maternal Social Support Index. Children completed the Preschool Symptom Self-Report to assess self-reported affective symptoms and the Battelle Developmental Inventory and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test to assess developmental level. Correlational analyses were conducted to analyze the relationships between the hypothesized mediating variables and the outcome measures at posttreatment across the two treatment groups. Multiple regression analyses were also performed. Both parental depression and parental emotional distress correlated significantly with several of the child outcome measures. Battelle scores were significantly negatively correlated with several outcome measures. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the Parent Emotional Reaction Questionnaire remained a highly significant predictor of treatment outcome. The findings indicate a strong correlation between parental emotional distress related to the abuse and treatment outcome in sexually abused preschool children, independent of the type of treatment provided. The findings indicate the importance of addressing parental distress related to the abuse in providing effective treatment to sexually abused

  5. NOTE: Initial evaluation of acoustic reflectors for the preservation of sensitive abdominal skin areas during MRgFUS treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorny, Krzysztof R.; Chen, Shigao; Hangiandreou, Nicholas J.; Hesley, Gina K.; Woodrum, David A.; Brown, Douglas L.; Felmlee, Joel P.

    2009-04-01

    During MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) treatments of uterine fibroids using ExAblate®2000 (InSightec, Haifa, Israel), individual tissue ablations are performed extracorporeally through the patient's abdomen using an annular array FUS transducer embedded within the MR table. Ultrasound intensities in the near field are below therapeutic levels and, under normal conditions, heating of the patient skin is minimal. However, increased absorption of ultrasound energy within sensitive skin areas or areas with differing acoustic properties, such as scars, may lead to skin burns and therefore these areas must be kept outside the near field of the FUS beam. Depending on their location and size the sensitive areas may either obstruct parts of the fibroid from being treated or prevent the entire MRgFUS treatment altogether. The purpose of this work is to evaluate acoustic reflector materials that can be applied to protect skin and the underlying sensitive areas. Reflection coefficients of cork (0.88) and foam (0.91) based materials were evaluated with a hydrophone. An ExAblate 2000 MRgFUS system was used to simulate clinical treatment with discs of reflector materials placed in a near field underneath a gel phantom. MR thermometry was used to monitor temperature elevations as well as the integrity of the focal spot. The phantom measurements showed acoustic shadow zones behind the reflectors with zone depths changing between 7 and 27 mm, for reflector disc diameters increasing from 10 to 30 mm (40 mm diameter discs completely blocked the FUS beam at the depth evaluated). The effects on thermal lesions due to the presence of the reflectors in the FUS beam were found to diminish with decreasing disc diameter and increasing sonication depth. For a 20 mm diameter disc and beyond 50 mm sonication depth, thermal lesions were minimally affected by the presence of the disc. No heating was observed on the skin side of the foam reflectors, as confirmed by measurements performed

  6. Risk factors for treatment default among re-treatment tuberculosis patients in India, 2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugra Mohan Jha

    Full Text Available SETTING: Under India's Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP, >15% of previously-treated patients in the reported 2006 patient cohort defaulted from anti-tuberculosis treatment. OBJECTIVE: To assess the timing, characteristics, and risk factors for default amongst re-treatment TB patients. METHODOLOGY: For this case-control study, in 90 randomly-selected programme units treatment records were abstracted from all 2006 defaulters from the RNTCP re-treatment regimen (cases, with one consecutively-selected non-defaulter per case. Patients who interrupted anti-tuberculosis treatment for >2 months were classified as defaulters. RESULTS: 1,141 defaulters and 1,189 non-defaulters were included. The median duration of treatment prior to default was 81 days (25%-75% interquartile range 44-117 days and documented retrieval efforts after treatment interruption were inadequate. Defaulters were more likely to have been male (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-1.7, have previously defaulted anti-tuberculosis treatment (aOR 1.3 95%CI 1.1-1.6], have previous treatment from non-RNTCP providers (AOR 1.3, 95%CI 1.0-1.6], or have public health facility-based treatment observation (aOR 1.3, 95%CI 1.1-1.6. CONCLUSIONS: Amongst the large number of re-treatment patients in India, default occurs early and often. Improved pre-treatment counseling and community-based treatment provision may reduce default rates. Efforts to retrieve treatment interrupters prior to default require strengthening.

  7. Analysis of the use of waterproofing treatments on copings and cornices in preservation of the brickwork heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Camino Olea

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the historic buildings built with face brick tile it is very common to have copings and cornices of soldier or header course, made with the same brick as the facade and these bricks are usually more deteriorated than the rest of the facade. The cause of the deterioration is the action of the water combined with dirt, vegetation, and other moisture-related causes. One of the possible systems to conserve and protect these elements is by projecting a water repellent. This article will present the results of tests conducted on laboratory specimens formed by low brick walls with and without the application of a waterproofing treatment, finished off at the top part by a sloping course also of brick.

  8. Preserving plantar flexion strength after surgical treatment for contracture of the triceps surae: a computer simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, S L; Statler, K; Carroll, N C

    1995-01-01

    Contractures of the triceps surae commonly are treated by surgical lengthening of the gastrocnemius aponeurosis or the Achilles tendon. Although these procedures generally relieve contractures, patients sometimes are left with dramatically decreased plantar flexion strength (i.e., decreased capacity to generate plantar flexion moment). The purpose of this study was to examine the trade-off between restoring range of motion and maintaining plantar flexion strength after surgical treatment for contracture of the triceps surae. A computer model representing the normal moment-generating characteristics of the triceps surae was altered to represent two conditions: isolated contracture of the gastrocnemius and contracture of both the gastrocnemius and the soleus. The effects of lengthening the gastrocnemius aponeurosis and the Achilles tendon were simulated for each condition. The simulations showed that nearly normal moment-generating characteristics could be restored when isolated gastrocnemius contracture was treated with lengthening of the gastrocnemius aponeurosis. However, when isolated gastrocnemius contracture was treated with lengthening of the Achilles tendon, the moment-generating capacity of the plantar flexors decreased greatly. This suggests that lengthening of the Achilles tendon should be avoided in persons with isolated gastrocnemius contracture. Our simulations also suggest that neither lengthening of the gastrocnemius aponeurosis nor lengthening of the Achilles tendon by itself is an effective treatment for combined contracture of the gastrocnemius and soleus. Lengthening the gastrocnemius aponeurosis did not decrease the excessive passive moment developed by the contracted soleus. Lengthening the Achilles tendon restored the normal passive range of motion but substantially decreased the active force-generating capacity of the muscles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. [Preservative substances - the daily dose of benzalkonium chloride in glaucoma treatment from the patients point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Výborný, P; Sičáková, S; Veselá Flórová, Z

    2014-06-01

    The author calculated the daily dose of Benzalkonium Chloride (BAC) in eye drops used in glaucoma treatment from the patients point of view, which means the real amount of BAC applied in the conjunctival sac. The information about BAC concentration in 1 milliliter (mL) do not offer sufficient picture about real circumstances, because the size of the drop, especially after the introducing of the use of generic products in clinical practice in specific anti-glaucomatic drugs, differs significantly. The daily dose of BAC may have substantial significance in the patients treatment tolerance. The overview of BAC daily dose in single therapeutic groups and drugs follows: betablockers: Timo-COMOD 0, Arutimol 2.6, Vistagan 2.8, Timolol-POS 3.0, Arteoptic 3.7, Betoptic S 4.8, Timoptol MSD 6.3, Betoptic 10.0; alpha-mimetics: Alphagan 3.5, Luxfen 3.5, Aruclonin 7.1; derivates of prostaglandine, prostamides: Taflotan 0, Monopost 0, Lumigan 1.4, Unilat 3.1, Travatan 3.9, Latanoprost Apotex 4.3, Rescula 5.8, Latanoprost POS 5.9, Xalatan 6.0, Latanoprost Ratiopharm 6.0, Latanoprost Actavis 6.0, Latanoprost Arrow 6.0, Arulatan 5.4, Latalux 6.0, Glaucotens 6.0, Xaloptic 6.0, Solusin 6.1; carboanhydrase inhibitors: Batidor 3.8, Azopt 4.8, Trusopt 5.4, Oftidor 8.1; fixed combinations: Ganfort 1.4, Dorzolamid/timolol TEVA 2.8, Combigan 3.2, Duotrav 4.3, Cosopt 5.6, Xalacom 6.0, Glaucotima 6.0, Latanoprost/timolol Apotex 6.3, Azarga 6.4, Dorzogen Combi 6.5, and Dozotima 8.8 µl.

  10. Pulsed xenon flash treatment inactivates bacteria in apheresis platelet concentrates while preserving in vitro quality and functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Hideki; Shiba, Masayuki; Niibe, Yoshiyuki; Tadokoro, Kenji; Satake, Masahiro

    2017-04-01

    Pulsed xenon (Xe) flash without any photoreactive compounds has been shown to inactivate a type of bacteria spiked into platelet (PLT) suspension in plasma, but enhanced the PLT storage lesion (PSL). Predicting reduction of PSL with increasing bactericidal ability, pulsed Xe flash was filtered through a band-stop filter, which excluded ultraviolet (UV)A, UVB, and visible light. Apheresis PLT concentrates (PCs) inoculated with bacteria were irradiated with filtered Xe flash (fXe treatment). For in vitro functional quality assessment, PLT aggregation and thrombin generation together with other assays that monitor the PSL were investigated. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus dysgalactiae could be inactivated without regrowth during 6 days of storage. PC variables, such as PLT count, concentrations of soluble CD40 ligand, and ratio of aggregated PLTs, were not significantly different between fXe-treated and untreated PCs after 6 days of storage, while PAC-1 binding increased in the fXe-treated PLTs. Responsiveness of fXe-treated PLTs to ADP was maintained over a 6-day storage period as shown by the up regulation of P-selectin expression and induction of both integrin αIIbβ3 conformational change and PLT aggregation. The fXe-treated PLTs showed a sustained aggregation curve in response to ADP, whereas untreated PLTs transiently aggregated and then subsequently dissociated. Thrombin-generating kinetics of fXe-treated PLTs via PLT membrane surface were equivalent to those of untreated PLTs. The fXe treatment inactivated bacteria in apheresis PCs in plasma without additional chemical compounds. The fXe-treated PCs retained acceptable in vitro properties of PC quality and PLT functionality. © 2016 AABB.

  11. Taurine treatment preserves brain and liver mitochondrial function in a rat model of fulminant hepatic failure and hyperammonemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Heidari, Reza; Abasvali, Mozhgan; Zarei, Mehdi; Ommati, Mohammad Mehdi; Abdoli, Narges; Khodaei, Forouzan; Yeganeh, Yasaman; Jafari, Faezeh; Zarei, Azita; Latifpour, Zahra; Mardani, Elnaz; Azarpira, Negar; Asadi, Behnam; Najibi, Asma

    2017-02-01

    Ammonia-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and energy crisis is known as a critical consequence of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Hence, mitochondria are potential targets of therapy in HE. The current investigation was designed to evaluate the role of taurine treatment on the brain and liver mitochondrial function in a rat model of hepatic encephalopathy and hyperammonemia. The animals received thioacetamide (400mg/kg, i.p, for three consecutive days at 24-h intervals) as a model of acute liver failure and hyperammonemia. Several biochemical parameters were investigated in the serum, while the animals' cognitive function and locomotor activity were monitored. Mitochondria was isolated from the rats' brain and liver and several indices were assessed in isolated mitochondria. Liver failure led to cognitive dysfunction and impairment in locomotor activity in the rats. Plasma and brain ammonia was high and serum markers of liver injury were drastically elevated in the thioacetamide-treated group. An assessment of brain and liver mitochondrial function in the thioacetamide-treated animals revealed an inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase activity (SDA), collapsed mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial swelling, and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, a significant decrease in mitochondrial ATP was detected in the brain and liver mitochondria isolated from thioacetamide-treated animals. Taurine treatment (250, 500, and 1000mg/kg) decreased mitochondrial swelling, ROS, and LPO. Moreover, the administration of this amino acid restored brain and liver mitochondrial ATP. These data suggest taurine to be a potential protective agent with therapeutic capability against hepatic encephalopathy and hyperammonemia-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and energy crisis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Diagnosis and treatment strategies of thrombophilic risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Albayrak

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Thrombophilia is defined as the general name for a group of genetic and acquired situations, arising from defects of hemostasis mechanism and generating tendency to thrombosis. Examples of the acquired risk factors that increase the tendency to thrombosis are venous catheters, sepsis, surgery, hyperlipidemia, congestive heart disease, increased lipoprotein a, old age, antiphospholipid syndrome, nephrotic syndrome, hyperviscosity, chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, heparin induced thrombocytopenia, vasculitis, immobility, obesity, major surgery, trauma, burns, malignancy, pregnancy and oral contraceptive usage. Genetic tendency to venous thromboembolism in early ages, even without any known cause, is named as thrombophilia. Factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene mutations, factor VIII elevation, protein C, protein S and antithrombin deficiency parameters are suggested for evaluation, in patient groups suspected of inherited thrombophilia. Detection of inherited thrombophilic factors in selected patient groups is a guide in developing treatment strategies and in establishing prognosis. Due to the genetic heterogeneities, each society should determine their thrombophilic risk pool. Thus, with the determination of the risk factors, unnecessary assessments will be prevented and a cost-effective approach can be developed.

  13. Factors Impacting Treatment Choice in the First-Line Treatment of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Lourens T; De Abreu Lourenço, Richard; Chin, Melvin; Ly, Brett; Haas, Marion

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the factors that affect the choice of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or its oral alternative, capecitabine, as first-line treatment in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Patients treated with 5-FU or capecitabine for CRC between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2013 in a teaching hospital in the Sydney metropolitan area, Australia were identified using the hospital's database MOSAIQ(®). The electronic medical record of each patient was manually reviewed to extract factors potentially affecting treatment choice. Logistic regression was used to assess which patient and/or treatment factors could explain the choice between 5-FU or capecitabine. Where it was available in the medical correspondence, the explicit reason for the choice made was extracted. 170 CRC patients were included; 119 on 5-FU, and 51 on capecitabine. The odds of receiving capecitabine as a first-line treatment were positively associated with giving patients a choice in the decision (OR = 17.51, 95% CI: 5.37-57.08). Qualitative data suggest treatment choices were motivated by convenience (oral administration) and tolerability. Time from diagnosis to treatment commencement (OR = 1.02 per month, 95% CI 1.00-1.04) was also found to be positively associated with the choice of capecitabine. The odds of being treated with capecitabine were lower for patients who lived further from the treating hospital (OR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.05-0.94). This study suggests that patient choice, favoring oral capecitabine over i.v. 5-FU, was a key factor influencing first-line treatment for CRC in this cohort. To respect their autonomy, patients should be involved in the clinical decision making process.

  14. LEACHING MECHANISM OF CHROMATED COPPER ARSENATE (CCA WOOD PRESERVATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Derya Gezer

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increase demand on wooden raw materials and destroyed forest area (i.e clear cutting led to pressure on forest resources. Thus, Wood used in outdoor applications should be treated with preservatives to extent service life. in our country, although there is no regulations or any standards to be obeyed to preserve wood materials, averagely, 400.000 m3 /per year utility poles manufactured from softwood species and 30.000 m3/per year rail road slippers produced from either hardwood species or softwood species have been impregnated with wood preservatives. Chromated copper arsenic (CCA is commonly used wood preservatives to preserve utility poles in our country. According to data taken from Turkish Electricity Transmission Company (TEDAS 208.000 utility poles are used in Trabzon city area, 180.000 utility poles are in Rize city area, 121.000 utility poles are used in Artvin. Roughly 17.000 utility poles are replaced every year in three cities. Determining leaching factors of treated wood is important for explaining the short service life of utility poles treated with CCA used in Black Sea area. Factors such as preservative formulation, fixation temperature, post-treatment handling, wood dimensions, leaching media, pH, salinity and temperature have been shown to effect leaching of CCA treated wood.

  15. Candidiasis: predisposing factors, prevention, diagnosis and alternative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Natália; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Barros, Lillian; Silva, Sónia; Henriques, Mariana

    2014-06-01

    Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic yeast infection. Candida species and other microorganisms are involved in this complicated fungal infection, but Candida albicans continues to be the most prevalent. In the past two decades, it has been observed an abnormal overgrowth in the gastrointestinal, urinary and respiratory tracts, not only in immunocompromised patients, but also related to nosocomial infections and even in healthy individuals. There is a widely variety of causal factors that contribute to yeast infection which means that candidiasis is a good example of a multifactorial syndrome. Due to rapid increase in the incidence in these infections, this is the subject of numerous studies. Recently, the focus of attention is the treatment and, above all, the prevention of those complications. The diagnosis of candidiasis could become quite complicated. Prevention is the most effective "treatment," much more than eradication of the yeast with antifungal agents. There are several aspects to consider in the daily routine that can provide a strength protection. However, a therapeutic approach is necessary when the infection is established, and therefore, other alternatives should be explored. This review provides an overview on predisposition factors, prevention and diagnosis of candidiasis, highlighting alternative approaches for candidiasis treatment.

  16. Male breast cancer: risk factors, biology, diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddy, K J; Winer, E P

    2013-06-01

    The causes, optimal treatments, and medical/psychosocial sequelae of breast cancer in men are poorly understood. A systematic review of the English language literature was conducted to identify studies relevant to male breast cancer between 1987 and 2012 and including at least 20 patients. Searches were carried out on PubMed using the title terms 'male breast cancer' or 'male breast carcinoma'. Relevant published data regarding risk factors, biological characteristics, presentation and prognosis, appropriate evaluation and treatment, and survivorship issues in male breast cancer patients are presented. BRCA2 mutations, age, conditions that alter the estrogen/androgen ratio, and radiation are proven risk factors. Disease biology is distinct in men, but diagnostic approaches and treatments for men are generally extrapolated from those in women due to inadequate research in men. Survivorship issues in men may include sexual and hormonal side-effects of endocrine therapies as well as unique psychosocial impacts of the disease. Further research is needed to address gaps in knowledge pertaining to care of male breast cancer patients and survivors.

  17. Factors impacting treatment choice in the first-line treatment of colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, L.T.; De Abreu Lourenco, Richard; Chin, Melvin; Ly, Brett; Haas, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To investigate the factors that affect the choice of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or its oral alternative, capecitabine, as first-line treatment in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods Patients treated with 5-FU or capecitabine for CRC between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2013 in

  18. Renal carcinoma with brain metastases. Prognostic factors and treatment outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Golanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Surgical excision followed by whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT is a traditional treatment option for solitary brain metastases (SBM of renal carcinoma. In the presence of multiple brain metastases of renal carcinoma WBRT remains to be the most common treatment option in this group of patients. However, the effectiveness of WBRT is insufficient due to radioresistance of renal carcinoma. After introduction of the standards in the radiosurgical practice, treatment options of renal carcinoma have been changed, since radiosurgery may overcome WBRT limitations in the treatment of brain metastases of radioresistant tumorsObjective: to study the effectiveness of stereotactic radiosurgery by using “Gamma Knife” device in the treatment of brain metastases of renal carcinoma.Materials and methods. We have analyzed results of the treatment of 112 patients with brain metastases of renal carcinoma who underwent radiosurgical treatment in Moscow Center “Gamma Knife”. Age median of the patients was 58 (33 –77 years. Total number of irradiated metastatic foci – 444, an average number of brain metastases in 1 patient was 4 (1–30. Twenty eight (25.0 % patients had a single brain metastasis. A median of cumulative volume of brain metastases for each patient was 5.9 (0.1–29.1 cm3. An average value of the marginal dose for metastatic lesion was 22 (12–26 Gy, mean value of isodose used for treatment planning was 64 (39-99 %.Results. An overall survival (OS rate after radiosurgical treatment was 37.7; 16.4 and 9.3 % for 12, 24 and 36 months, respectively. A median OS was 9.1 months (95% confidence interval (CI 7.1–11.8. New brain metastases (distant recurrences following radiosurgical treatment occurred in 44 (54.3 % patients, with a median of 10.1 months (95 % CI:7-18. Local recurrences after radiosurgical treatment were detected in 19 (17 % patients with a median time of 6.6 months (95 % CI 4.0–9.6. Factors associated with the best

  19. Risk of ovarian failure and fertility preserving methods in girls and adolescents with a malignant disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, K T; Larsen, E C; Andersen, C Y

    2010-01-01

    . This article reviews the effect of chemo- and radiotherapy on gonadal function, and thus fertility, and offers different fertility preserving methods based on the literature. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is a possible way of preserving fertility in this group of patients in the future.......Girls and young women suffering from a malignant disease that requires treatment with chemo- and/or radiotherapy are at risk of losing fertility. The most significant risk factors are age and type of treatment given. Preserving fertility is of high priority to both the young patient and her parents...

  20. Systemic treatment with a 5HT1a agonist induces anti-oxidant protection and preserves the retina from mitochondrial oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Manas R; Ahmed, Chulbul M; Ildefonso, Cristhian J; Han, Pingyang; Li, Hong; Jivanji, Hiral; Mao, Haoyu; Lewin, Alfred S

    2015-11-01

    Chronic oxidative stress contributes to age related diseases including age related macular degeneration (AMD). Earlier work showed that the 5-hydroxy-tryptamine 1a (5HT1a) receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) protects retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells from hydrogen peroxide treatment and mouse retinas from oxidative insults including light injury. In our current experiments, RPE derived cells subjected to mitochondrial oxidative stress were protected from cell death by the up-regulation of anti-oxidant enzymes and of the metal ion chaperone metallothionein. Differentiated RPE cells were resistant to oxidative stress, and the expression of genes for protective proteins was highly increased by oxidative stress plus drug treatment. In mice treated with 8-OH-DPAT, the same genes (MT1, HO1, NqO1, Cat, Sod1) were induced in the neural retina, but the drug did not affect the expression of Sod2, the gene for manganese superoxide dismutase. We used a mouse strain deleted for Sod2 in the RPE to accelerate age-related oxidative stress in the retina and to test the impact of 8-OH-DPAT on the photoreceptor and RPE degeneration developed in these mice. Treatment of mice with daily injections of the drug led to increased electroretinogram (ERG) amplitudes in dark-adapted mice and to a slight improvement in visual acuity. Most strikingly, in mice treated with a high dose of the drug (5 mg/kg) the structure of the RPE and Bruch's membrane and the normal architecture of photoreceptor outer segments were preserved. These results suggest that systemic treatment with this class of drugs may be useful in preventing geographic atrophy, the advanced form of dry AMD, which is characterized by RPE degeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An Alternative to Annealing TiO2 Nanotubes for Morphology Preservation: Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sang-Hee; Uhm, Soo-Hyuk; Kwon, Jae-Sung; Choi, Eun Ha; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2015-03-01

    Titanium oxide nanotube layer formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is known to be excellent in biomaterial applications. However, the annealing process which is commonly performed on the TiO2 nanotubes cause defects in the nanotubular structure. The purpose of this work was to apply a non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet on diameter-controlled TiO2 nanotubes to mimic the effects of annealing while maintaining the tubular structure for use as biomaterial. Diameter-controlled nanotube samples fabricated by plasma electrolytic oxidation were dried and prepared under three different conditions: untreated, annealed at 450 °C for 1 h in air with a heating rate of 10 °C/min, and treated with an air-based non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet for 5 minutes. The contact angle measurement was investigated to confirm the enhanced hydrophilicity of the TiO2 nanotubes. The chemical composition of the surface was studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the morphology of TiO2 nanotubes was examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy. For the viability of the cell, the attachment of the osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 was determined using the water-soluble tetrazolium salt assay. We found that there are no morphological changes in the TiO2 nanotubular structure after the plasma treatment. Also, we investigated a change in the chemical composition and enhanced hydrophilicity which result in improved cell behavior. The results of this study indicated that the non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet results in osteoblast functionality that is comparable to annealed samples while maintaining the tubular structure of the TiO2 nanotubes. Therefore, this study concluded that the use of a non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet on nanotube surfaces may replace the annealing process following plasma electrolytic oxidation.

  2. Factors influencing decisions about surgical treatment of cervical precancerous lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehnal, Borek; Cibula, David; Slama, Jiri

    2014-04-01

    Cervical precancerous lesions represented by cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia may progress to invasive cancer. The principle treatment of CIN is eradication of the transformation zone. However, all eradication methods are associated with some adverse events, particularly with perinatal consequences. It is therefore necessary to identify which women have CIN that has a low risk of transformation into invasive cancer. The presence of modifying factors can help to stratify CIN lesions according to their malignant potential. The evaluation of HPV genotype in particular holds great promise for defining patients at greater risk. Tailoring treatment to the individual patient is going to become a major consideration in the management of cervical precancerous lesions.

  3. Related factors of comprehensive treatment effect on anisometropic amblyopia children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Xin Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the related factors of comprehensive treatment effect on anisometropic amblyopia children, and to provide a theoretical basis for clinical intervention. METHODS: Totally 100 cases of anisometropic amblyopia children in our hospital from October 2013 to October 2014 were selected and were divided into groups A, B and C according to curative effect after 6~18mo's treatment. Fifty-four cases of group A were judged to be cured, 34 cases of group B were judged to be improved, and 12 cases of group C was invalid. The age, compliance, anisometropia degree, anisometropia type, amblyopia degree and fixation behavior were analyzed. RESULTS: Anisometropia type among the three groups of patients showed no significant difference(P>0.05. While the age, compliance, anisometropia degree, amblyopia degree and fixation behavior among three groups of patients had statistically significant differences(PCONCLUSION: There are closed relationship between comprehensive treatment effect and age, compliance, anisometropia degree, amblyopia degree, fixation behavior, but there is no significant correlation between anisometropia type and comprehensive treatment effect.

  4. Treatment and risk factors of Internet use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hideki; Mihara, Satoko; Higuchi, Susumu

    2016-12-17

    Recently, many young people have developed Internet use disorders (IUD) as a result of the proliferation of Internet-enabled devices, leading to serious health and social problems worldwide. On occasion, medical and educational institutions, governments, and other groups have sought to take preventive action or treat IUD. In many cases, the preferred treatment for IUD is to set recommendations for appropriate Internet use. Reportedly, psychosocial therapies (including cognitive behavioral therapy, family therapy, and compound therapy) for IUD and pharmacotherapies (including antidepressant drugs and psychostimulants) for comorbid psychiatric or development disorders have been effective at reducing the degree and symptoms of IUD. In some countries, treatment camps have been developed for adolescents with IUD, and preventive education (including lectures and group discussions) has been provided for general adolescents. Such efforts have been effective at reducing the average degree of IUD severity. Some future IUD risk factors (e.g. being male, suffering from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and exhibiting deteriorating psychiatric symptoms) have begun to be identified. However, clinical studies, treatment, and preventive actions are insufficient for treating IUD and standard treatments and preventive systems have yet to be established. Educational and medical institutions, government, families, and others must take greater action and cooperate more effectively in order to treat or prevent IUD.

  5. Portal vein thrombosis; risk factors, clinical presentation and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogaard, Kirstine K; Astrup, Lone B; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is increasingly frequently being diagnosed, but systematic descriptions of the natural history and clinical handling of the condition are sparse. The aim of this retrospective study was to describe risk factors, clinical presentation, complications...... and treatment of portal vein thrombosis in a single-centre. METHODS: Sixty-seven patients were identified in the electronic records from 1992 to 2005. All data were obtained from the patient records. RESULTS: One or more risk factors (e.g. prothrombotic disorder or abdominal inflammation) were present in 87......%. Symptoms were abdominalia, splenomegaly, fever, ascites, haematemesis, and weight loss. Abdominalia and fever occurred more frequently in patients with acute PVT. Frequent complications were splenomegaly, oesophageal- and gastric varices with or without bleeding, portal hypertensive gastropathy and ascites...

  6. Implication of the nutritional and nonnutritional factors in the context of preservation of cognitive performance in patients with dementia/depression and Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliev, Gjumrakch; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Kaminsky, Yury G; Sheikh, Ishfaq Ahmed; Sudakov, Sergey K; Yakhno, Nikolay N; Benberin, Valery V; Bachurin, Sergey O

    2013-11-01

    It has been postulated that Alzheimer disease (AD) is a systemic process, which involves multiple pathophysiological factors. A combination of pharmacotherapy and nonpharmacological interventions has been proposed to treat AD and other dementia. The nonpharmacological interventions include but are not limited to increasing sensory input through physical and mental activities, in order to modify cerebral blood flow and implementing nutritional interventions such as diet modification and vitamins and nutraceuticals therapy to vitalize brain functioning. This article highlights the recent research findings regarding novel treatment strategies aimed at modifying natural course of the disease and delaying cognitive decline through simultaneous implementation of pharmacological and nonpharmacological modulators as standardized treatment protocols.

  7. The efficacy and safety of add-on 0.1% brimonidine tartrate preserved with sodium chlorite in on-treatment Japanese normal-tension glaucoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumura, Toyoaki; Yoshikawa, Keiji; Kimura, Tairo; Suzumura, Hirotaka; Kawashima, Miwako; Nanno, Mami; Ishijima, Kiyotaka; Takeda, Ryuji

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of newly formulated brimonidine (0.1% brimonidine tartrate preserved with sodium chlorite: brimonidine) as add-on therapy in on-treatment Japanese normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) patients. Brimonidine was added to on-treatment NTG patients with intraocular pressures (IOP) of between 13 mmHg and 16 mmHg after three consecutive IOP measurements. The time courses of IOP, conjunctival hyperemia, superficial punctate keratitis, and adverse events were examined at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after brimonidine instillation. Though 75 of 83 patients (31 males and 52 females; mean age: 63.4±11.6 years) completed the study, six patients discontinued because of side effects and two patients withdrew. The mean IOP after brimonidine addition at week 4 (12.6±1.8 mmHg, P<0.001), week 8 (12.4±1.7 mmHg, P<0.001), and week 12 (12.6±1.8 mmHg, P<0.001) was significantly decreased compared with that before the addition of brimonidine (13.9±1.2 mmHg). No significant changes in superficial punctate keratitis or conjunctival hyperemia scores were observed throughout the study. Dizziness, sleepiness, eye pain, and itching (mild to moderate) were noted in five, four, three, and three patients, respectively. The addition of newly formulated brimonidine to on-treatment Japanese NTG patients with IOP of 13-16 mmHg further reduced the levels of IOP with minimal side effects and adverse events.

  8. A meta-analysis of the long-term effects of chronic pancreatitis surgical treatments: duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection versus pancreatoduodenectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Wen-ping; SHI Qing; ZHANG Wen-zhi; CAI Shou-wang; JIANG Kai; DONG Jia-hong

    2013-01-01

    Background Surgery is regarded as the most effective treatment to relieve pain and reduce complications in chronic pancreatitis (CP).Two major strategies exist:duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) and pancreatoduodenectomy (PD).Many studies suggest that DPPHR offers advantages during surgery and in the short-term; however,the long-term effects have not been thoroughly investigated.We analyzed the long-term outcomes of DPPHR and PD,over follow-up times of at least 1 year,to determine the optimal surgical treatment for CP.Methods We systemically reviewed all CP surgical treatment reports,and only included randomized controlled trials (RCT) comparing DPPHR and PD,excluding unqualified studies using several pre-specified criteria.When multiple publications of a single trial were found,the most comprehensive current data were selected.Characteristics of the study populations and long-term postoperative outcome parameters were collected.The quality of the studies and data was analyzed using RevMan 4.2 software.Results Five trials were qualified for meta-analysis,with 261 participants in total (114 in the DPPHR group and 147 in the PD group).There were no significant differences in the age,gender,or indications for surgery of each group.At the mean of 5.7-year (1-14 years) follow-up examination,DPPHR and PD resulted in equally effective pain relief,exocrine and endocrine function,and similar mortality rates (P >0.05); however,DPPHR patients had improved global quality of life and weight gain,and reduced diarrhea and fatigue (P <0.05).Conclusion DPPHR and PD result in equal pain relief,mortality,and pancreatic function; however,DPPHR provides superior long-term outcomes.

  9. Effects of Heat Treatment on Preservation and Quality of Fresh Cassava Root%热处理对木薯的保鲜效果研究①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡坤; 李开绵; 陈松笔

    2016-01-01

    The fresh root of the cassava variety South China NO.9 were immersed in hot water of 50, 60 and 70℃ for 5 minutes. Then they were drained and were put in cold storage at 4 ℃ by enclosed with vacuum bags. After 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days, the physiological and biochemical indexes were assayed. The results showed that the appropriate heat treatment could not only inhibit the development and reproduction of microbial that could made the fresh cassava root rotten, and at the same time, could delay the browning of the fresh root and keep the cassava root fresh and had well sensory quality. Among the three treatment, at 60℃ for 5 min worked best, after the treatment, the cassava root could be preserved 10d at 4℃ and still fresh.%为研究热处理对木薯鲜薯储存后品质的影响,本文以华南9号木薯鲜薯为实验材料,将其分别置于50、60和70℃的热水中浸泡5 min后沥干, PE袋真空包装后置于4℃冷库中贮藏,每2 d测定其相关生理生化指标。结果表明,适当的热处理可抑制微生物繁殖、延缓褐变、保持鲜薯的感官品质,对鲜薯有较好的保鲜效果;其中60℃热水浸泡处理5 min对鲜薯的保鲜效果最好,其能在0~4℃冷库中贮藏10 d仍维持鲜薯较好的品质。

  10. Comparison of Tissue Preservation using Formalin and Ethanol as Preservative Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    See Woan Shian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tissue preservation can be performed through embalming, by providing the chemical embalming fluid to the human remains. Formalin’s preservative formula is the foundation for modern methods of embalming. Unfortunately, this preservative formula has several disadvantages. While Ethanol’s preservative formula is a considerable agent to replace formalin’s preservative formula. The aim of this study was to compare the tissue preservation using formalin and ethanol as preservative formula. Methods: This study was carried out from September–October 2014 in the Laboratory of the Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. The study used the laboratory experimental method with consecutive sampling of 16 Wistar Rats. Thirty two soleus muscles and thirty two colons were collected and divided into two groups. Each group consisted of 16 soleus muscles and 16 colons. Group 1 was preserved with formalin’s preservative formula and Group 2 was preserved with ethanol’s preservative formula. The two groups were preserved for six weeks. The tissue’s color, consistency, odor and the growth of bacteria were determined before and after treatment. Results: Tissues preserved with ethanol’s preservative formula had better tissue preservation in the aspect of color and odor, compared with formalin’s preservative formula. Both preservative formulas showed no growth of bacteria in tissues but failed to retain the consistency. All the data were analyzed with Chi-square test. Conclusions: Ethanol’s preservative formula preserves better quality of tissue compared to formalin’s preservative formula.

  11. Ubiquitination profiling identifies sensitivity factors for IAP antagonist treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varfolomeev, Eugene; Izrael-Tomasevic, Anita; Yu, Kebing; Bustos, Daisy; Goncharov, Tatiana; Belmont, Lisa D; Masselot, Alexandre; Bakalarski, Corey E; Kirkpatrick, Donald S; Vucic, Domagoj

    2015-02-15

    Evasion of cell death is one crucial capability acquired by tumour cells to ward-off anti-tumour therapies and represents a fundamental challenge to sustaining clinical efficacy for currently available agents. Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins use their ubiquitin E3 ligase activity to promote cancer cell survival by mediating proliferative signalling and blocking cell death in response to diverse stimuli. Using immunoaffinity enrichment and MS, ubiquitination sites on thousands of proteins were profiled upon initiation of cell death by IAP antagonists in IAP antagonist-sensitive and -resistant breast cancer cell lines. Our analyses identified hundreds of proteins with elevated levels of ubiquitin-remnant [K-GG (Lys-Gly-Gly)] peptides upon activation of cell death by the IAP antagonist BV6. The majority of these were observed in BV6-sensitive, but not-resistant, cells. Among these were known pro-apoptotic regulators, including CYC (cytochrome c), RIP1 (receptor-interacting protein 1) and a selection of proteins known to reside in the mitochondria or regulate NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) signalling. Analysis of early time-points revealed that IAP antagonist treatment stimulated rapid ubiquitination of NF-κB signalling proteins, including TRAF2 [TNF (tumour necrosis factor) receptor-associated factor 2], HOIL-1 (haem-oxidized iron-regulatory protein 2 ubiquitin ligase-1), NEMO (NF-κB essential modifier), as well as c-IAP1 (cellular IAP1) auto-ubiquitination. Knockdown of several NF-κB pathway members reduced BV6-induced cell death and TNF production in sensitive cell lines. Importantly, RIP1 was found to be constitutively ubiquitinated in sensitive breast-cancer cell lines at higher basal level than in resistant cell lines. Together, these data show the diverse and temporally defined roles of protein ubiquitination following IAP-antagonist treatment and provide critical insights into predictive diagnostics that may enhance clinical efficacy.

  12. Infected primary knee arthroplasty: Risk factors for surgical treatment failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Gabriel Duarte Paes Pradella

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present epidemiological data and risk factors associated with surgical out-comes favorable or unfavorable for the treatment of infection in infected total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of 48 patients who underwent treatment of primary total knee arthroplasty for infection between January 1994 and December 2008, in the Orthopedics and Traumatology Department of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo. The variables associated with favorable outcome of surgical treatment (debridement and retention or exchange arthroplasty in two days or unfavorable (arthrodesis or death infection. RESULTS: A total of 39 cases of infection after primary total knee arthroplasty, 22 progressed to 17 for a favorable outcome and unfavorable outcome. Early infections (OR: 14.0, 95% CI 1.5-133.2, p = 0.016 and diabetes (OR: 11.3, 95% CI 1.4-89.3, p = 0.032 were associated with arthrodesis joint and death respectively. CONCLUSION: Patients with early infection had a higher risk of developing surgical procedure with unfavorable outcome (arthrodesis and diabetics had higher odds of death after infection of primary knee arthroplasties.

  13. Mesiodens as a risk factor in treatment of trauma cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaçam, Alev; Bani, Mehmet

    2009-04-01

    The presence of mesiodens often results in complications including retention of primary teeth and delayed eruption of permanent teeth, closure of eruption path, rotations, retention, root resorption, pulp necrosis, and diastema as well as nasal eruption and formation of dentigerous and primordial cysts. Less common complications involving the permanent incisors include dilaceration of the developing roots and loss of tooth vitality. Therefore, early diagnosis of mesiodens has particular importance in terms of preventing such complications. However, with respect to surgical removal of mesiodens, ideal timing of intervention - immediate or delayed intervention - remains to be a highly controversial issue. While predisposing factors of dental trauma such as open bite, increasing overjet with protrusion of upper incisors, and insufficient lip closure have been well documented in the literature, there is limited evidence indicating mesiodens as a risk factor in trauma. In this report of two cases, it is aimed to emphasize mesiodens as a risk factor in the treatment of dental trauma besides its effect on prognosis.

  14. Concise Review: Fertility Preservation: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    González, Clara; Boada, Montserrat; Devesa, Marta; Veiga, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Fertility preservation is an emerging field in medicine that enables men, women, and children to maintain reproductive health when it is threatened by gonadotoxic treatment or nononcologic malignancies that can impair spermatogenesis and ovogenesis. Established methods include sperm cryopreservation or experimental testicular tissue cryopreservation for males, and oocyte cryopreservation or ovarian tissue cryopreservation for females. Fertility preservation treatments must be addressed throug...

  15. Inspiratory Muscle Training and Functional Electrical Stimulation for Treatment of Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction: Rationale and Study Design of a Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palau, Patricia; Domínguez, Eloy; López, Laura; Heredia, Raquel; González, Jessika; Ramón, Jose María; Serra, Pilar; Santas, Enrique; Bodi, Vicente; Sanchis, Juan; Chorro, Francisco J; Núñez, Julio

    2016-08-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has become the most prevalent form of heart failure in developed countries. Regrettably, there is no evidence-based effective therapy for HFpEF. We seek to evaluate whether inspiratory muscle training, functional electrical stimulation, or a combination of both can improve exercise capacity as well as left ventricular diastolic function, biomarker profile, quality of life (QoL), and prognosis in patients with HFpEF. A total of 60 stable symptomatic patients with HFpEF (New York Heart Association class II-III/IV) will be randomized (1:1:1:1) to receive a 12-week program of inspiratory muscle training, functional electrical stimulation, a combination of both, or standard care alone. The primary endpoint of the study is change in peak exercise oxygen uptake; secondary endpoints are changes in QoL, echocardiogram parameters, and prognostic biomarkers. As of March 21, 2016, thirty patients have been enrolled. Searching for novel therapies that improve QoL and autonomy in the elderly with HFpEF has become a health care priority. We believe that this study will add important knowledge about the potential utility of 2 simple and feasible physical interventions for the treatment of advanced HFpEF.

  16. Factors Impacting Treatment Choice in the First-Line Treatment of Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bloem, L.T.; De Abreu Lourenco, Richard; Chin, Melvin; Ly, Brett; Haas, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To investigate the factors that affect the choice of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or its oral alternative, capecitabine, as first-line treatment in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods Patients treated with 5-FU or capecitabine for CRC between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2013 in a teaching hospital in the Sydney metropolitan area, Australia were identified using the hospital?s database MOSAIQ?. The electronic medical record of each patient was manually reviewed to extract...

  17. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex lipid virulence factors preserved in the 17,000-year-old skeleton of an extinct bison, Bison antiquus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oona Y-C Lee

    Full Text Available Tracing the evolution of ancient diseases depends on the availability and accessibility of suitable biomarkers in archaeological specimens. DNA is potentially information-rich but it depends on a favourable environment for preservation. In the case of the major mycobacterial pathogens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, robust lipid biomarkers are established as alternatives or complements to DNA analyses. A DNA report, a decade ago, suggested that a 17,000-year-old skeleton of extinct Bison antiquus, from Natural Trap Cave, Wyoming, was the oldest known case of tuberculosis. In the current study, key mycobacterial lipid virulence factor biomarkers were detected in the same two samples from this bison. Fluorescence high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC indicated the presence of mycolic acids of the mycobacterial type, but they were degraded and could not be precisely correlated with tuberculosis. However, pristine profiles of C(29, C(30 and C(32 mycocerosates and C(27 mycolipenates, typical of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, were recorded by negative ion chemical ionization gas chromatography mass spectrometry of pentafluorobenzyl ester derivatives. These findings were supported by the detection of C(34 and C(36 phthiocerols, which are usually esterified to the mycocerosates. The existence of Pleistocene tuberculosis in the Americas is confirmed and there are many even older animal bones with well-characterised tuberculous lesions similar to those on the analysed sample. In the absence of any evidence of tuberculosis in human skeletons older than 9,000 years BP, the hypothesis that this disease evolved as a zoonosis, before transfer to humans, is given detailed consideration and discussion.

  18. Risk of ovarian failure and fertility preserving methods in girls and adolescents with a malignant disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, K T; Larsen, E C; Andersen, C Y

    2010-01-01

    Girls and young women suffering from a malignant disease that requires treatment with chemo- and/or radiotherapy are at risk of losing fertility. The most significant risk factors are age and type of treatment given. Preserving fertility is of high priority to both the young patient and her parents...

  19. Risk of ovarian failure and fertility preserving methods in girls and adolescents with a malignant disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, K T; Larsen, E C; Andersen, C Y

    2010-01-01

    Girls and young women suffering from a malignant disease that requires treatment with chemo- and/or radiotherapy are at risk of losing fertility. The most significant risk factors are age and type of treatment given. Preserving fertility is of high priority to both the young patient and her paren...

  20. Strength training and testosterone treatment have opposing effects on migration inhibitor factor levels in ageing men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, D.; Christensen, L. L.; Kvorning, T.;

    2013-01-01

    Strength Training and Testosterone Treatment Have Opposing Effects on Migration Inhibitor Factor Levels in Ageing Men......Strength Training and Testosterone Treatment Have Opposing Effects on Migration Inhibitor Factor Levels in Ageing Men...

  1. Intranasal epidermal growth factor treatment rescues neonatal brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafidi, Joseph; Hammond, Timothy R.; Scafidi, Susanna; Ritter, Jonathan; Jablonska, Beata; Roncal, Maria; Szigeti-Buck, Klara; Coman, Daniel; Huang, Yuegao; McCarter, Robert J.; Hyder, Fahmeed; Horvath, Tamas L.; Gallo, Vittorio

    2014-02-01

    There are no clinically relevant treatments available that improve function in the growing population of very preterm infants (less than 32 weeks' gestation) with neonatal brain injury. Diffuse white matter injury (DWMI) is a common finding in these children and results in chronic neurodevelopmental impairments. As shown recently, failure in oligodendrocyte progenitor cell maturation contributes to DWMI. We demonstrated previously that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has an important role in oligodendrocyte development. Here we examine whether enhanced EGFR signalling stimulates the endogenous response of EGFR-expressing progenitor cells during a critical period after brain injury, and promotes cellular and behavioural recovery in the developing brain. Using an established mouse model of very preterm brain injury, we demonstrate that selective overexpression of human EGFR in oligodendrocyte lineage cells or the administration of intranasal heparin-binding EGF immediately after injury decreases oligodendroglia death, enhances generation of new oligodendrocytes from progenitor cells and promotes functional recovery. Furthermore, these interventions diminish ultrastructural abnormalities and alleviate behavioural deficits on white-matter-specific paradigms. Inhibition of EGFR signalling with a molecularly targeted agent used for cancer therapy demonstrates that EGFR activation is an important contributor to oligodendrocyte regeneration and functional recovery after DWMI. Thus, our study provides direct evidence that targeting EGFR in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells at a specific time after injury is clinically feasible and potentially applicable to the treatment of premature children with white matter injury.

  2. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor treatment for sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Callejas-Rubio

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available José Luis Callejas-Rubio, Lourdes López-Pérez, Norberto Ortego-CentenoUnit of Autoimmune Systemic Diseases, Hospital Clinico San Cecilio, Granada, SpainAbstract: Sarcoidosis is a chronic multisystem disease of unknown etiology, characterized by noncaseating granulomatous infiltration of virtually any organ system. Treatment is often undertaken in an attempt to resolve symptoms or prevent progression to organ failure. Previous studies have suggested a prominent role for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α in the inflammatory process seen in sarcoidosis. TNF-α and interleukin-1 are released by alveolar macrophages in patients with active lung disease. Corticosteroids have proved to be efficacious in the treatment of sarcoidosis, possibly by suppressing the production of TNF-α and other cytokines. Three agents are currently available as specific TNF antagonists: etanercept, infliximab, and adalimumab. Although data from noncomparative trials suggest that all three have comparable therapeutic effects in rheumatoid arthritis, their effects in a granulomatous disease such as sarcoidosis are less consistent. In this review, current data on the effectiveness are summarized.Keywords: sarcoidosis, infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, anti-TNA alpha

  3. Pain in Breast Cancer Treatment: Aggravating Factors and Coping Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fatima Guerreiro Godoy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate pain in women with breast cancer-related lymphedema and the characteristics of aggravating factors and coping mechanisms. The study was conducted in the Clinica Godoy, São Jose do Rio Preto, with a group of 46 women who had undergone surgery for the treatment of breast cancer. The following variables were evaluated: type and length of surgery; number of radiotherapy and chemotherapy sessions; continued feeling of the removed breast (phantom limb, infection, intensity of pain, and factors that improve and worsen the pain. The percentage of events was used for statistical analysis. About half the participants (52.1% performed modified radical surgery, with 91.3% removing only one breast; 82.6% of the participants did not perform breast reconstruction surgery. Insignificant pain was reported by 32.60% of the women and 67.3% said they suffered pain; it was mild in 28.8% of the cases (scale 1–5, moderate in 34.8% (scale 6–9, and severe in 4.3%. The main mechanisms used to cope with pain were painkillers in 41.30% of participants, rest in 21.73%, religious ceremonies in 17.39%, and chatting with friends in 8.69%. In conclusion, many mastectomized patients with lymphedema complain of pain, but pain is often underrecognized and undertreated.

  4. Nisin as a Food Preservative: Part 1: Physicochemical Properties, Antimicrobial Activity, and Main Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharsallaoui, Adem; Oulahal, Nadia; Joly, Catherine; Degraeve, Pascal

    2016-06-10

    Nisin is a natural preservative for many food products. This bacteriocin is mainly used in dairy and meat products. Nisin inhibits pathogenic food borne bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and many other Gram-positive food spoilage microorganisms. Nisin can be used alone or in combination with other preservatives or also with several physical treatments. This paper reviews physicochemical and biological properties of nisin, the main factors affecting its antimicrobial effectiveness, and its food applications as an additive directly incorporated into food matrices.

  5. The efficacy and safety of add-on 0.1% brimonidine tartrate preserved with sodium chlorite in on-treatment Japanese normal-tension glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsumura T

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Toyoaki Tsumura,1 Keiji Yoshikawa,2 Tairo Kimura,3 Hirotaka Suzumura,4 Miwako Kawashima,5 Mami Nanno,6 Kiyotaka Ishijima,7 Ryuji Takeda8 1Fussa Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 2Yoshikawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 3Ueno Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 4Suzumura Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 5Nakano General Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 6Kagurazaka Minamino Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 7Irumagawa Hospital, Saitama, Japan; 8Department of Biological Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara, Japan Background: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of newly formulated brimonidine (0.1% brimonidine tartrate preserved with sodium chlorite: brimonidine as add-on therapy in on-treatment Japanese normal-tension glaucoma (NTG patients.Methods: Brimonidine was added to on-treatment NTG patients with intraocular pressures (IOP of between 13 mmHg and 16 mmHg after three consecutive IOP measurements. The time courses of IOP, conjunctival hyperemia, superficial punctate keratitis, and adverse events were examined at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after brimonidine instillation.Results: Though 75 of 83 patients (31 males and 52 females; mean age: 63.4±11.6 years completed the study, six patients discontinued because of side effects and two patients withdrew. The mean IOP after brimonidine addition at week 4 (12.6±1.8 mmHg, P<0.001, week 8 (12.4±1.7 mmHg, P<0.001, and week 12 (12.6±1.8 mmHg, P<0.001 was significantly decreased compared with that before the addition of brimonidine (13.9±1.2 mmHg. No significant changes in superficial punctate keratitis or conjunctival hyperemia scores were observed throughout the study. Dizziness, sleepiness, eye pain, and itching (mild to moderate were noted in five, four, three, and three patients, respectively.Conclusions: The addition of newly formulated brimonidine to on-treatment Japanese NTG patients with IOP of 13–16 mmHg further reduced the levels of IOP with minimal side effects and adverse events. Keywords: normal-tension glaucoma, 0

  6. Insufficient pain relief after surgical neuroma treatment : Prognostic factors and central sensitisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokvis, Annemieke; Coert, J. Henk; van Neck, Johan W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Treatment of patients with neuromatous pain is difficult. Numerous treatment methods have been described, but none has been completely effective in providing sufficient pain relief. Patient-specific prognostic factors, predicting pain after surgical neuroma treatment, can help clinicians

  7. Treatment of angular cheilitis. The significance of microbial analysis, antimicrobial treatment, and interfering factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, S C; Jontell, M

    1988-10-01

    This prospective study evaluated the significance of microbial analysis and antimicrobial treatment for the cure of angular cheilitis. Furthermore, various etiologic factors were investigated for their relative effect on the healing process. The study included 1) an open trial with 50 patients infected by Candida albicans and/or Staphylococcus aureus, and 2) an intraindividual comparison of eight patients with bilateral lesions infected by Candida albicans as the only detected pathogen. After a base-line examination the patients received ointments containing nystatin and/or fusidic acid, on the basis of the outcome of an initial microbial analysis. The patients were evaluated clinically, photographed, and examined for microorganisms at different time intervals. Ninety-six per cent of the patients who participated in the open trial had no sign of infection after 42 days of treatment. Lesions in the double-blind study, treated with nystatin, were healed after 28 days, whereas lesions that received placebo persisted throughout the treatment period. Increasing age, dry skin, and extended skinfolds at the corner of the mouth were factors closely related to the length of the healing process.

  8. Maintenance Treatment with Opium Tincture: A Preliminary Qualitative Study of the Factors Related to Treatment entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Daneshmand

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The current preliminary study aimed to explore the reasons that a group of opiate-dependent patients reported for entry into opium tincture treatment (OTT.Through examinations of 52 qualitative focus group interviews with patients from six OTT centers and 10 health providers (in key informant interviews in Tehran, this study highlights the factors that participants reported as the reasons associated with entry into OTT. Quantitative data including demographic data and details of drug use were analyzed by using SPSS.v.18.0. Qualitative data was analyzed by using Atlas-ti software.86.5% of patients were male and 13.5% were female. The median age of patients was 39 yr. The most frequently reasons associated with entry into OTT included methadone misconceptions including dissatisfaction with taking methadone as a chemical medication, methadone dependence, and long duration of MMT. The other reasons included the recommendation of other people in treatment and OT-related characteristics and expectations including the herbal compound of OT, treating opiate craving and withdrawal symptoms, and improving general health.The study findings preliminarily showed the reasons associated with entry into OTT in a sample of treatment seekers. Longitudinal studies with more representative samples and follow-up stages are required to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of OTT as a maintenance treatment in comparison with methadone and buprenorphine. Patient-centered program and policy implications are discussed.

  9. Retinopathies in premature infants, incidence, risk factors, prevention and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernenkov Yu.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Objective: Analysis of incidence and accompanying states, detection of risk factors of retinopathies in premature infants (RN, dynamic monitoring and improvement of medical actions. Material and Methods: 134 children have been surveyed in the group of risk on development of RN for the last 2 years. Results: From 134 surveyed infants with gestation from 22 to 37 weeks and body weight at birth from 750 to 2500 kg. At 56 children (41,8% the retinopathy of various degree of expressiveness has been revealed. 38 children with RN of 1-2 stages (67,8% from which at 22 (39,3% —the disease ended with the induced regress after a course of «retinalamin», at 16 (28,6% of RN — spontaneous regress. 4 children (7,1% had RN 2-3 of the Art., 3-4 Art. at 12 (21,4%, and 5 Art. a cicatricial phase with retinal detachment — 2 (3,5%. In 12 cases the laser photocoagulation in the eye centers is carried out. Conclusion: The revealed relationship of cause and effect of risk factors of formation of RN with features of a current ofthe neonatal period at patients with RN, promoted development of the system of monitoring, implementation of the program of treatment and rehabilitation of prematurely born children suffering RN. Ophthalmologic screening of premature infants with the use of the ophthalmologic digital pediatric camera "Ret Cam 3" allows to diagnose a retinopathy at early stages, in due time to hold preventive an3 medical measures that allows to lower the invalidization of this group of children.

  10. Effectiveness of entecavir treatment and predictive factors for virologic response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Monica Preda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Entecavir (ETV is a potent inhibitor of hepatitis B virus (HBV replication. In patients adherent to treatment, virologic remission rates of > 95 % can be maintained with entecavir at 3-5 years Aim and methods: A cohort study was performed, including all subjects who received ETV for chronic hepatitis B, in the South-Eastern Romania. We assessed viral response, HBeAg loss and seroconversion, HBsAg loss and seroconversion, biochemical response. Comparison of categorical data was performed by χ2-test or Fisher's exact where applicable. Results: Data from 533 patients were available: predominantly males (64 %, 82.6 % nucleotide naive, 23.1 % HBe-Ag positive, 78.2 % with elevated ALT, 8 % with cirrhosis. The median follow-up was 24 months (range 12-48 months. Rate of undetectable HBV DNA increased constantly from year 1 to 3, reaching 91.2 %. Positive predictive factors for virologic response were low score of fibrosis (p-0.006, low level of HBV DNA (p-0.003, while negative predictive factors were: HBe antigen positive status (p-value < 0.001, prior IFN therapy (p 0.015. Virologic rebound was found in 7.8 % (breakthrough in 0.8 %. Rate of HBe Ag loss increases with the therapy duration, reaching 47.83 % in year 3,with two positive predictive factors: Male sex (p = 0.007, and undetectable HBV DNA at 24 weeks (p = 0.002. The percentage of HBs Ag loss was 1.31 %. Conclusions: ETV maintained and even increased the high initial response rate (from 78 % to 91.2 %. Low score of fibrosis, low level of HBV DNA, HBe antigen negative status, absence of prior interferon therapy predict a good virologic response. Virologic rebound was found in a higher rate in our population, due probably to a poor drug compliance. Lamivudine-resistant patients usually respond well to ETV, but 15.62 % are non-responders, suspect of Entecavir resistance.

  11. Factors that lessen the burden of treatment in complex patients with chronic conditions: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridgeway JL

    2014-03-01

    maintaining a positive attitude, focusing on other life priorities, and spirituality/faith; 3 questioning the notion of treatment burden as a function of adapting to self-care and comparing oneself to others; 4 social support (informational, tangible, and emotional assistance; and 5 positive aspects of health care, like coordination of care and beneficial relationships with providers. Additional subthemes arising from focus groups included preserving autonomy/independence and being proactive with providers. Conclusion: Patients attempt to lessen the experience of treatment burden using a variety of personal, social, and health care resources. Assessing these factors in tandem with patient perceptions of treatment burden can provide a more complete picture of how patients fit complex self-care into their daily lives. Keywords: adherence, patient-centered, minimally disruptive medicine, patient preferences

  12. Factors influencing biological treatment of MTBE contaminated ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringfellow, William T.; Hines Jr., Robert D.; Cockrum, Dirk K.; Kilkenny, Scott T.

    2001-09-14

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) contamination has complicated the remediation of gasoline contaminated sites. Many sites are using biological processes for ground water treatment and would like to apply the same technology to MTBE. However, the efficiency and reliability of MTBE biological treatment is not well documented. The objective of this study was to examine the operational and environmental variables influencing MTBE biotreatment. A fluidized bed reactor was installed at a fuel transfer station and used to treat ground water contaminated with MTBE and gasoline hydrocarbons. A complete set of chemical and operational data was collected during this study and a statistical approach was used to determine what variables were influencing MTBE treatment efficiency. It was found that MTBE treatment was more sensitive to up-set than gasoline hydrocarbon treatment. Events, such as excess iron accumulation, inhibited MTBE treatment, but not hydrocarbon treatment. Multiple regression analysis identified biomass accumulation and temperature as the most important variables controlling the efficiency of MTBE treatment. The influent concentration and loading of hydrocarbons, but not MTBE, also impacted MTBE treatment efficiency. The results of this study suggest guidelines for improving MTBE treatment. Long cell retention times in the reactor are necessary for maintaining MTBE treatment. The onset of nitrification only occurs when long cell retention times have been reached and can be used as an indicator in fixed film reactors that conditions favorable to MTBE treatment exist. Conversely, if the reactor can not nitrify, it is unlikely to have stable MTBE treatment.

  13. Biliary strictures after liver transplantation: risk factors and prevention by donor treatment with epoprostenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirenne, J; Monbaliu, D; Aerts, R; Desschans, B; Liu, Q; Cassiman, D; Laleman, W; Verslype, C; Magdy, M; Van Steenbergen, W; Nevens, F

    2009-10-01

    Biliary strictures (BS), a major complication after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), cause morbidity, mortality, graft loss, and increased costs. The virtually unchanged incidence of BS (approximately 10%-25%) suggests that they are not simply "technical" in origin, but probably represent a mucosa ischemic injury inherent in the transplantation procedure. To study risk factors for BS, we analyzed 403 OLTs performed between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2006, at a single center, excluding cases of regraft or death within 1 month. The average time to the diagnosis of the BS was 253 days (range, 7-1002 days). Upon univariate analysis, the absence of flushing of donor bile ducts, an imported versus a locally procured liver, and rejection were risk factors for BS. In contrast, the following factors were protective: donor cardiac arrest followed by resuscitation (suggesting an ischemic preconditioning effect) as well as addition of epoprostenol to and pressurization of the preservation solution. Patients with higher postoperative peak values of transaminases, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase were at greater risk for later development of BS. Donor hypotension, donor age, donor intensive care unit (ICU) stay, type of preservation, positive cross-match, cold and warm ischemia times, sequential versus simultaneous portal/arterial reperfusion, as well as cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection were not risk factors for BS. Upon multivariate analysis, only epoprostenol and pressurization offered protection from BS. In conclusion, this study 2 novel points: (1) patients with high(er) transaminase values and cholestasis early postoperatively are at greater risk to develop later BS and require close monitoring and (2) donor maneuvers for better flushing and preserving peribiliary vascular plexus and biliary mucosa (epoprostenol and pressurization of preservation solution) offer protection from BS.

  14. Delayed onset muscle soreness : treatment strategies and performance factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Karoline; Hume, Patria; Maxwell, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a familiar experience for the elite or novice athlete. Symptoms can range from muscle tenderness to severe debilitating pain. The mechanisms, treatment strategies, and impact on athletic performance remain uncertain, despite the high incidence of DOMS. DOMS is most prevalent at the beginning of the sporting season when athletes are returning to training following a period of reduced activity. DOMS is also common when athletes are first introduced to certain types of activities regardless of the time of year. Eccentric activities induce micro-injury at a greater frequency and severity than other types of muscle actions. The intensity and duration of exercise are also important factors in DOMS onset. Up to six hypothesised theories have been proposed for the mechanism of DOMS, namely: lactic acid, muscle spasm, connective tissue damage, muscle damage, inflammation and the enzyme efflux theories. However, an integration of two or more theories is likely to explain muscle soreness. DOMS can affect athletic performance by causing a reduction in joint range of motion, shock attenuation and peak torque. Alterations in muscle sequencing and recruitment patterns may also occur, causing unaccustomed stress to be placed on muscle ligaments and tendons. These compensatory mechanisms may increase the risk of further injury if a premature return to sport is attempted.A number of treatment strategies have been introduced to help alleviate the severity of DOMS and to restore the maximal function of the muscles as rapidly as possible. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have demonstrated dosage-dependent effects that may also be influenced by the time of administration. Similarly, massage has shown varying results that may be attributed to the time of massage application and the type of massage technique used. Cryotherapy, stretching, homeopathy, ultrasound and electrical current modalities have demonstrated no effect on the alleviation of

  15. Factors related to treatment intensity in Swiss primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Künzi Beat

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Questions about the existence of supplier-induced demand emerge repeatedly in discussions about governing Swiss health care. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the interrelationship between structural factors of supply and the volume of services that are provided by primary care physicians in Switzerland. Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional investigation, based on the complete claims data from all Swiss health care insurers for the year 2004, which covered information from 6087 primary care physicians and 4.7 million patients. Utilization-based health service areas were constructed and used as spatial units to analyze effects of density of supply. Hierarchical linear models were applied to analyze the data. Results The data showed that, within a service area, a higher density of primary care physicians was associated with higher mortality rates and specialist density but not with treatment intensity in primary care. Higher specialist density was weakly associated with higher mortality rates and with higher treatment intensity density of primary care physicians. Annual physician-level data indicate a disproportionate increase of supplied services irrespective of the size of the number of patients treated during the same year and, even in high volume practices, no rationing but a paradoxical inducement of consultations occurred. The results provide empirical evidence that higher densities of primary care physicians, specialists and the availability of out-patient hospital clinics in a given area are associated with higher volume of supplied services per patient in primary care practices. Analyses stratified by language regions showed differences that emphasize the effect of the cantonal based (fragmented governance of Swiss health care. Conclusion The study shows high volumes in Swiss primary care and provides evidence that the volume of supply is not driven by medical needs alone. Effects related to the

  16. Prevalence, etiological factors and the treatment of infant exogenous obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edio Luiz Petroski

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, there has been considerable interest in the effects of excessive weight gain during childhood, due to the fact that the development of fat tissue in this period is a determinant of adult body composition. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of infant obesity, to identify possible etiological factors, and to highlight treatments that have been used to reduce and/or prevent child obesity. Results have shown that obesity has increased more than any other nutritional problem in both developed and developing countries over the last decade. Etiological factors linked to childhood obesity were early weaning, introduction of inadequate nutrition, and physical inactivity. The treatment of childhood obesity requires a multidisciplinary team consisting of a doctor, nutritionist, psychologist, and physical educator. There are also some general recommendations to be followed: a balanced diet for adequate growth and weight control, and controlled physical exercise together with individual and family emotional support. Parental cooperation is important for the best results. Schools also have a fundamental role in teaching children positive attitudes and behavior towards physical activity and nutrition. RESUMO Nos últimos anos, o interesse sobre os efeitos do ganho de peso excessivo na infância tem aumentado consideravelmente, devido ao fato que o desenvolvimento da celularidade adiposa neste período ser determinante nos padrões de composição corporal de um indivíduo adulto. Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar a prevalência da obesidade infantil, identificar os possíveis fatores etiológicos além de verifi car quais as intervenções que se destacaram nesta última década como forma de diminuir e/ou prevenir a obesidade em crianças. Os resultados encontrados foram que a obesidade é uma das enfermidades nutricionais que mais têm apresentado aumento de sua prevalência, tanto nos pa

  17. Control factors of partial nitritation for landfill leachate treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Zhu; LIU Jun-xin

    2007-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) technology has potential technical superiority and economical efficiency for the nitrogen removal from landfill leachate, which contains high-strength ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) and refractory organics. To complete the ANAMMOX process, a preceding partial nitritation step to produce the appropriate ratio of nitrite/ammonium is a key stage. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal conditions to acquire constant partial nitritation for landfill leachate treatment, and a bench scale fixed bed bio-film reactor was used in this study to investigate the effects of the running factors on the partial nitritation. The results showed that both the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and the ammonium volumetric loading rate (Nv) had effects on the partial nitritation. In the controlling conditions with a temperature of 30±1℃, Nv of 0.2-1.0 kg NH4+-N/(m3·d), and DO concentration of 0.8-2.3 mg/L, the steady partial nitritation was achieved as follows: more than 94% partial nitritation efficiency (nitrite as the main product), 60%-74% NH4+-N removal efficiency, and NO2--N/NH4+-N ratio (concentration ratio) of 1.0-1.4 in the effluent.The impact of temperature was related to Nv at certain DO concentration, and the temperature range of 25-30℃ was suitable for treating high strength ammonium leachate. Ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) could be acclimated to higher FA (free ammonium) in the range of 122-224 mg/L. According to the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis result of the bio-film in the reactor, there were 25 kinds of 16S rRNA gene fragments, which indicated that abundant microbial communities existed in the bio-film, although high concentrations of ammonium and FA may inhibit the growth of the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and other microorganisms in the reactor.

  18. Corneal allograft rejection: Risk factors, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dua Harminder

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in corneal graft technology, including donor tissue retrieval, storage and surgical techniques, have greatly improved the clinical outcome of corneal grafts. Despite these advances, immune mediated corneal graft rejection remains the single most important cause of corneal graft failure. Several host factors have been identified as conferring a "high risk" status to the host. These include: more than two quadrant vascularisation, with associated lymphatics, which augment the afferent and efferent arc of the immune response; herpes simplex keratitis; uveitis; silicone oil keratopathy; previous failed (rejected grafts; "hot eyes"; young recipient age; and multiple surgical procedures at the time of grafting. Large grafts, by virtue of being closer to the host limbus, with its complement of vessels and antigen-presenting Langerhans cells, also are more susceptible to rejection. The diagnosis of graft rejection is entirely clinical and in its early stages the clinical signs could be subtle. Graft rejection is largely mediated by the major histocompatibility antigens, minor antigens and perhaps blood group ABO antigens and some cornea-specific antigens. Just as rejection is mediated by active immune mediated events, the lack of rejection (tolerance is also sustained by active immune regulatory mechanisms. The anterior chamber associated immune deviation (ACAID and probably, conjunctiva associated lymphoid tissue (CALT induced mucosal tolerance, besides others, play an important role. Although graft rejection can lead to graft failure, most rejections can be readily controlled if appropriate management is commenced at the proper time. Topical steroids are the mainstay of graft rejection management. In the high-risk situations however, systemic steroids, and other immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporin and tacrolimus (FK506 are of proven benefit, both for treatment and prevention of rejection.

  19. Soft Tissue Preservation in Terrestrial Mesozoic Vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Mary Higby

    2011-05-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossils -- i.e., those that retain, in some manner, labile components of organisms that are normally degraded far too quickly to enter the fossil record -- hold the greatest potential for understanding aspects of the biology of long-extinct animals and are the best targets for the search for endogenous biomolecules. Yet the modes of preservation of these labile components, and exactly what remains of the original composition, are not well understood. Here, I review a selection of cases of soft tissue preservation in Mesozoic vertebrates, examine chemical and environmental factors that may influence such preservation, explore the potential of these fossils for high-resolution analytical studies, and suggest clarification of terminologies and criteria for determining the endogeneity of source and the degree of preservation of these well-preserved tissues.

  20. Application of Bacillus sp. as a biopreservative for food preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nath,

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Food preservation is enhancing shelf-life and food quality to eliminate food-related illness and product spoilage, especially by the use of food additives.The growing consumer demand for effective preservation of food without altering its nutritional quality and free of potential health risks andto find an attractive and alternative approach to chemical preservatives, have stimulated research in the field of biopreservation by the use of natural or controlled microbiota and/or their antimicrobial compounds including very recent innovation: Bacillus sp., the ubiquitous, Gram positive bacteria, producing inhibitory substances like cyclic peptides and bacteriocins, with a broad antimicrobial spectrum and a history of safe use in food. Bacillus spores are also being used extensively as probiotic food supplements where they are used in human as dietary supplements and in feed for livestock and aquaculture as growth promoters.A novel concept multi-target food preservation has emerged in relation to hurdle technology stating the microbial safety, stability, sensorial and nutritional qualities of foods are based on the application of combined preservative factors (called hurdles including Bacillus sp. that microorganisms present in the food are unable to overcome, thus leading to inhibition of microbial growth by disturbing their homeostasis and metabolic exhaustion and avoiding tress reaction by bacteria. Future exploration of the natural preservatives and/or their metabolites, in combination with advanced technologies could result in replacement of chemical preservatives, or could allow less severe processing (e.g. heat treatments, while still maintaining adequate microbiological safety and quality in foods.

  1. 非功能损伤手术治疗下咽癌的疗效研究%The effect of function-preserving surgery in the treatment of hypopharyngeal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾巍#; 梁冀望; 樊欣龙

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of function-preserving surgery in the treatment of hypopharyngeal cancer. Method 100 cases of hypopharyngeal carcinoma were enrolled in the study and stratified as function-preserving group (n=35) or non-function-preserving group (n=65) as per respective surgery given. The postoperative recovery of the two groups were observed, and the survival rate, incidence of postoperative complications and the quality of life of the two groups were compared. Result The operative time of the patients in function-preserving group was longer than that in non-function-preserving group (P0.05);Higher recovery rates of swallowing, language and respiratory func-tions were observed in function-preserving group, with significant difference observed (P0.05);The 1-and 3-year survival rate was significantly high-er in function-preserving group than that of non-function-preserving group, the difference was statistically significant;Af-ter surgery, the quality of life of all patients’was lower than before, and more significant decrease was observed in the non-function-preserving group (P<0.05). Conclusion Function-preserving surgery is therapeutically effective in the treatment of hypopharyngeal carcinoma, promoting the recovery of swallowing, language and respiratory function, and improving the quality of life of patients after surgery.%目的:探讨非功能损伤手术对下咽癌的治疗效果。方法选取100例下咽癌患者为观察对象,根据其手术方式不同分为保留喉功能组35例和未保留喉功能组65例。观察两组患者术后恢复情况、生存率、并发症发生率和生活质量的差异。结果保留喉功能组患者的手术时间较未保留喉功能组长(P﹤0.01),而两组患者术中出血量和住院时间差异无统计学意义(P﹥0.05);保留喉功能组患者吞咽、语言和呼吸恢复率高于未保留喉功能组(P﹤0.05);保留喉功能组咽瘘、皮瓣坏死发生率

  2. Association between tobacco smoking and response to tumour necrosis factor α inhibitor treatment in psoriatic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Pil; Glintborg, Bente; Hetland, Merete Lund

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between tobacco smoking and disease activity, treatment adherence and treatment responses among patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) initiating the first tumour necrosis factor α inhibitor therapy (TNFi) in routine care. METHODS: Observational cohort...

  3. [Preservatives in ophthalmology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messmer, E M

    2012-11-01

    Preservatives are a legal requirement for eye drops in multidose containers. Moreover, they are necessary for stabilization and intraocular penetration for a number of ophthalmic preparations. Most preservatives act in a relatively unspecific manner as detergents or by oxidative mechanisms and thereby cause side effects at the ocular surface. They may also affect the lens, trabecular meshwork and the retina. Benzalkonium chloride is the most commonly used preservative in ophthalmology and is more toxic than other or newer preservatives, such as polyquaternium-1 (Polyquad), sodium perborate, oxychloro-complex (Purite®) and SofZia. Preservative-free topical medication is highly recommended for patients with ocular surface disease, frequent eye drop administration, proven allergy to preservatives and contact lens wear.

  4. Recommendations for fertility preservation in patients with lymphoma, leukemia, and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, S Samuel; Donnez, Jacques; Barri, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Fertility issues should be addressed to all patients in reproductive age before cancer treatment. In men, cryopreservation of sperm should be offered to all cancer patients in reproductive age regardless of the risk of gonadal failure. In women, the recommendation of fertility preservation should...... be individualized based on multiple factors such as the urgency of treatment, the age of the patient, the marital status, the regimen and dosage of cancer treatment....

  5. Drop-out from addiction treatment: a systematic review of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brorson, Hanne H; Ajo Arnevik, Espen; Rand-Hendriksen, Kim; Duckert, Fanny

    2013-12-01

    Completion of addiction treatment is one of the most consistent factors associated with a favorable treatment outcome. Unfortunately, it is more common for a patient to drop-out of addiction treatment than to complete the treatment. To prevent drop-out, risk factors must be identified. This box-score review focuses on studies investigating the risk factors associated with drop-out from addiction treatment published in peer-reviewed journals from 1992 to 2013. A total of 122 studies involving 199,331 participants met the inclusion criteria. Contrary to recommendations from previous reviews, 91% of the included studies focused primarily on enduring patient factors, mainly demographics. The most consistent risk factors across the different study designs, samples, and measurement methods were cognitive deficits, low treatment alliance, personality disorder, and younger age. With the exception of younger age, none of the demographic factors emerged as consistent risk factors. Further research on the relationship between simple demographic factors and drop-out risk is of limited value. However, little is known about the potential risk factors related to treatment programs and to the treatment processes. Based on the review, clinical recommendations include assessing cognitive functioning and personality disorders at baseline and continuous monitoring of treatment alliance.

  6. Polypeptide growth factors in the course of surgical periodontal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietruska, M D; Pietruski, J K; Stokowska, W

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the behaviour of certain polypeptide growth factors in patients with rapidly progressive periodontitis (RPP) during periodontal therapy using alloplastic grafts. Concentrations of epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblastic growth factor (FGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) were assayed in blood serum and saliva. Significant differences in the behaviour of growth factors in blood referred to EGF and PDGF. Their mean concentrations in serum of RPP patients were higher both in the preliminary examination and in the final investigation after 3 months compared with control group. However, mean FGF concentrations in serum were significantly higher only in the distant examination. In saliva, the concentrations of EGF, PDGF and FGF were not significantly different compared with control group. Salivary TGF beta in patients with RPP was significantly higher than in controls and increased in the final examination. The differences observed in the concentrations of growth factors in the serum and saliva of patients with RPP indicate that these factors can be involved in inflammation, destruction and regeneration of periodontal tissues.

  7. Preserving Digital Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Ross

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a single-volume introduction to the principles, strategies and practices currently applied by librarians and recordkeeping professionals to the critical issue of preservation of digital information. It incorporates practice from both the recordkeeping and the library communities, taking stock of current knowledge about digital preservation and describing recent and current research, to provide a framework for reflecting on the issues that digital preservation raises in professional practice.

  8. Advances in clotting factor treatment for congenital hemorrhagic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, Michael D; Aledort, Louis M

    2004-06-01

    During the last 50 years, clotting factor replacement has evolved from the use of frozen plasma in the 1950s, through the serendipitous discovery of cryoprecipitate in the 1960s and the development of purified clotting factors in the 1970s and 1980s, to the era of recombinant clotting factors beginning in the 1990s. The dawn of the new millennium has seen the refinement of recombinant factor (rF) VIII with enhanced safety via the elimination of plasma-derived culture media or product stabilizers. During the last decade of the 20th century, a cure for hemophilia through gene therapy became a possibility. This was, in part, facilitated by availability of large (dogs) and small (mice) animal models for hemophilia A and B. Although this review will focus primarily on clotting factor replacement, the reader may refer to recent discourse on gene therapy for hemophilia.

  9. Development of the knowledge of fertility and fertility preservation scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNees P

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Angela Jukkala1, Karen Meneses1, Andres Azuero1, June Cho1, Patrick McNees1,21School of Nursing, 2School of Health Professions, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAObjective: Infertility is a severe and often underestimated consequence of successful treatment for breast cancer. Ensuring young breast cancer survivors receive patient-centered health information on the impact of treatment on fertility and fertility preservation options in a timely manner is a critical component of high quality nursing care. The objective of this manuscript is to report the process used to develop and examine the reliability and validity of an instrument to measure a breast cancer survivor’s self-assessed knowledge of fertility and fertility preservation.Design: A scale development and descriptive study.Setting: Online and global.Participants: Ninety-two young breast cancer survivors (ages 25–45 years.Methods: Participants completed the Knowledge of Fertility and Fertility Preservation (KF Scale as part of their participation in a larger study, the Fertility Cancer Project (FCP.Results: An exploratory factor analysis revealed five domains: normal reproductive function; general information about fertility; cancer treatment factors affecting fertility; infertility information; and alternative parenting options. A confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the validity of the construct with a demonstrated good fit between the factor structure of the new scale and the observed data. Many participants self-assessed their overall knowledge of fertility and fertility preservation as “a little” and the majority rated their knowledge of infertility information as “a little”.Conclusion: The KF Scale can be used to provide useful information to support health care professionals in the development of patient-centered education that is responsive to the unique needs of each young breast cancer survivor. The initial testing of the KF Scale indicates

  10. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections: Mitigating factors and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... systems worldwide. The prevalence of H. pylori ... test, histology, fluorescent in situ hybridization, culture ..... spread use of CLR in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections. ..... than one bird with the same stone. Ther.

  11. Hospital-acquired pneumonia: risk factors, microbiology, and treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lynch, 3rd, J P

    2001-01-01

    .... Risk factors for hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) include mechanical ventilation for > 48 h, residence in an ICU, duration of ICU or hospital stay, severity of underlying illness, and presence of comorbiditi...

  12. Chapter 14: Evaluating the Leaching of Biocides from Preservative-Treated Wood Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan T. Lebow

    2014-01-01

    Leaching of biocides is an important consideration in the long term durability and any potential for environmental impact of treated wood products. This chapter discusses factors affecting biocide leaching, as well as methods of evaluating rate and quantity of biocide released. The extent of leaching is a function of preservative formulation, treatment methods, wood...

  13. Retention in substance dependence treatment: the relevance of in-treatment factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weert-van Oene, G.H. de; Schippers, G.M.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Schrijvers, A.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    In addition to “fixed” patient demographic and background variables, treatment process constructs play an important role in the prediction of treatment retention in substance dependence treatment. The objective of this paper is to analyze the predictive role of repeated measures of treatment readine

  14. Retention in substance dependence treatment: the relevance of in-treatment factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weert-van Oene, G.H. de; Schippers, G.M.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Schrijvers, A.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    In addition to “fixed” patient demographic and background variables, treatment process constructs play an important role in the prediction of treatment retention in substance dependence treatment. The objective of this paper is to analyze the predictive role of repeated measures of treatment readine

  15. 供水井酸处理井壁管防腐效果实验及分析%Experiment and Analysis on Preservative Treatment of Casing Pipes in Water-Supply Well Acidizing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩超亚

    2011-01-01

    供水井酸处理井壁管防腐处理好坏,直接影响供水井寿命及实际效益.然而,该问题一直没有得到很好的解决.通过进行大量实验,肯定了过去供水井酸处理中井壁管防腐方法,并得到一些新的实验结论.分析认为,在盐酸中加入甲醛是目前供水井酸处理最经济有效的防腐方法,且尽可能使用稀盐酸进行供水井酸处理,浓度32%和10%盐酸在原酸中分别加入原酸重量的2%和1%甲醛溶液,能发挥最佳防腐效果.%Water-supply benefit and effect are directly affected by preservative treatment effect of casing pipes in water-supply well acidizing. However,this issue has not been well solved Through many experiments, the previous preservative treatment method was verified and some new experimental conclusions were proposed: for casing pipes in water-supply well acidizing,adding formaldehyde in hydrochloric acid is the most economical and effective preservative treatment method. In order to achieve the greatest anticorro-sion effect, well acid treatment should use dilute hydrochloric acid. Moreover, the optimum amount of formaldehyde added to hydrochloric acid with concentration of 32% and 10%,are 2% and 1% of the original acid weight,respectively.

  16. Mass preserving image registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Sporring, Jon; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results the mass preserving image registration method in the Evaluation of Methods for Pulmonary Image Registration 2010 (EMPIRE10) Challenge. The mass preserving image registration algorithm was applied to the 20 image pairs. Registration was evaluated using four different...

  17. Modes of fossil preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  18. Genetic factors affecting patient responses to pancreatic cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulos, George; Syrigos, Konstantinos; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the exocrine pancreas is a malignancy with a high lethal rate. Surgical resection is the only possible curative mode of treatment. Metastatic pancreatic cancer is incurable with modest results from the current treatment options. New genomic information could prove treatment efficacy. An independent review of PubMed and ScienceDirect databases was performed up to March 2016, using combinations of terms such pancreatic exocrine cancer, chemotherapy, genomic profile, pancreatic cancer pharmacogenomics, genomics, molecular pancreatic pathogenesis, and targeted therapy. Recent genetic studies have identified new markers and therapeutic targets. Our current knowledge of pancreatic cancer genetics must be further advanced to elucidate the molecular basis and pathogenesis of the disease, improve the accuracy of diagnosis, and guide tailor-made therapies. PMID:27708512

  19. Common Factors in Speech-Language Treatment: An Exploratory Study of Effective Clinicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Research in related fields that employ behavioral interventions indicates that factors common to treatment programs may be more important to successful outcomes than specific components of a treatment. Applying this concept to speech-language pathology, we investigated one hypothesized "common factor," namely, the clinician who implements…

  20. Fertility Preservation for Female

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jack Huang; Seang Lin Tan; Ri-Cheng Chian

    2006-01-01

    Preservation of female fertility is an important issue today. However, there are few effective clinical options for preserving female fertility. Firstly, conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) followed by embryo cryopreservation is an accepted procedure but is not applicable to all women. Embryo freezing is suitable only for women with a male partner and may not be acceptable to some patients due to moral and religious reasons. Ovarian tissue freezing is another option of female fertility preservation but is an invasive procedure and the efficacy of this technique remains to be determined.Oocyte cryopreservation is also method for fertility preservation. Egg freezing is minimally invasive and can avoid the ethical and moral concerns related to cryopreservation of embryos. However, conventional slow freezing/rapid thawing methods are associated with low survival of oocytes. Recent development in vitrification of oocytes appears promising. Therefore, vitrification of unfertilized eggs may be a novel method to preserve female fertility.

  1. Cervical Cancer: A Review of the Psychosocial Factors Following Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Kevin Clark

    Cervical cancer is a diagnosis that has a profound psychosocial impact, constituting a physical and emotional crisis for patients as well as family. In general, research indicates that the choice of treatment and the stage of the disease are instrumental in determining the psychosocial adjustment. Disruptions are likely to occur in self-esteem,…

  2. Cervical Cancer: A Review of the Psychosocial Factors Following Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Kevin Clark

    Cervical cancer is a diagnosis that has a profound psychosocial impact, constituting a physical and emotional crisis for patients as well as family. In general, research indicates that the choice of treatment and the stage of the disease are instrumental in determining the psychosocial adjustment. Disruptions are likely to occur in self-esteem,…

  3. Crucial factors influencing public acceptance of fuels treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah. McCaffrey

    2009-01-01

    An important component of the wildland fire problem in the United States is the growing number of people living in high fire hazard areas. How people in these areas contribute to fire risk--or potentially decrease it--will be shaped by their attitudes and beliefs toward different fuel treatment approaches. Understanding the issues and concerns that influence public...

  4. Treatment with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors in axial spondyloarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciurea, A.; Weber, U.; Stekhoven, D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the initiation of and response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors for axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) in private rheumatology practices versus academic centers. The Journal of Rheumatology, Methods.We compared newly initiated TNF inhibition for axSpA in 363 patients...

  5. Factors associated with treatment gap in children and adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2013-08-18

    Aug 18, 2013 ... Methods: Subjects were identified through a community house to ... The World Health Organization Mental Health Gap Ac- tion Programme ... naire to the subjects, controls and their parents or care- ... where applicable, was used in determining the relation- ..... Prevalence of and risk factors for anxiety and.

  6. Examining influential factors in providers’ chronic pain treatment decisions: a comparison of physicians and medical students

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic pain treatment guidelines are unclear and conflicting, which contributes to inconsistent pain care. In order to improve pain care, it is important to understand the various factors that providers rely on to make treatment decisions. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that reportedly influence providers’ chronic pain treatment decisions. A secondary aim was to examine differences across participant training level. Methods Eighty-five participants (35 medical st...

  7. Analysis on the factors associated with treatment failure of using anesthetics in refractory status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-ying SU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the related factors associated with immediate treatment failure of using anesthetics in refractory status epilepticus (RSE.  Methods Thirty patients derived from Neurocritical Care Unit of Xuanwu Hospital from January 2004 to December 2013 were divided into 2 groups (acute treatment failure group and acute treatment success group based on the treatment outcome 6 h after intravenous injection of anesthetics. Univariate and multivariate forward Logistic regression analyses were used to analyze and screen the risk factors associated with immediate treatment failure, and calculate the failure rate of final outcome.  Results According to the results of univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analyses, among influencing factors such as sex, age, etiology, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health EvaluationⅡ (APACHEⅡ, type of status epilepticus (SE, type of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, total duration of primary treatment, duration of prehospital primary treatment, duration of posthospital primary treatment, type of RSE and primary choice of anesthetics, only total duration of primary treatment was the independent risk factor for immediate treatment failure (OR = 1.007, 95%CI: 1.000-1.014; P = 0.047. The rate of immediate treatment failure of RSE by using anesthetics was 50% (15/30, and the rate of final treatment failure was 43.33% (13/30. The ratio of final treatment failure was much higher in acute treatment failure group than that in acute treatment success group (10/15 vs 3/15, P = 0.025.  Conclusions The acute treatment result of RSE depends on the total duration of primary treatment, and determinates the final result of treatment. On the basis of treating primary disease, the therapy to terminate SE or RSE should be started as early as possible. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.11.008

  8. Prospective Risk Factors and Treatment Outcomes among Adolescents in DATOS-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaif, Elisha R.; Hser, Yih-Ing; Grella, Christine E.; Joshi, Vandana

    2001-01-01

    Relationships between risk factors and outcomes were examined for Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies for Adolescents participants. For outpatient drug-free participants, drug use severity predicted less treatment retention; family drug involvement predicted more alcohol use after treatment. For residential participants, family drug involvement…

  9. Risk factors to non-compliance with TB treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Flor de María Cáceres

    2004-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB),at present declared as a world emergency, faces a very importantobstacle for their control which is the abandonment of treatment. It´salso called “no compliance”, no adherence, or, simply, the “patientmisses his medication”. This has a serious consequences as forthe sick person,as wells as for the community, because the patientis not treated and the transmission chain continues; in addition,the bacteria may develops resistance to current medications. Thiswill Increases treat...

  10. Factors Associated with Effectiveness of Treatment and Reproductive Outcomes in Patients with Thin Endometrium Undergoing Estrogen Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-Miao Liu; Yuan-Zheng Zhou; Han-Bi Wang; Zheng-Yi Sun; Jing-Ran Zhen; Keng Shen; Cheng-Yan Deng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thin endometrium is associated with poor reproductive outcomes;estrogen treatment can increase endometrial thickness (EMT).The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the factors influencing the effectiveness of estrogen treatment and reproductive outcomes after the treatment in patients with thin endometrium.Methods: Relevant clinical data of 101 patients with thin endometrium who had undergone estrogen treatment were collected.Possible factors influencing the effectiveness of treatment were analyzed retrospectively by logistic regression analysis.Eighty-seven infertile women without thin endometrium who had undergone assisted reproduction served as controls.The cases and controls were matched for age, assisted reproduction method, and number of embryos transferred.Reproductive outcomes of study and control groups were compared using Student's t-test and the Chi-square test.Results: At the end of estrogen treatment, EMT was ≥8 mm in 93/101 patients (92.1%).Effectiveness of treatment was significantly associated with maximal pretreatment EMT (P =0.017) and treatment duration (P =0.004).The outcomes of assisted reproduction were similar in patients whose treatment was successful in increasing EMT to ≥8 mm and the control group.The rate of clinical pregnancy in patients was associated with the number of good-quality embryos transferred in both fresh (P =0.005) and frozen-thawed (P =0.000) embryo transfer cycles.Conclusions: Thinner EMT before estrogen treatment requires longer treatment duration and predicts poorer treatment outcomes.The effectiveness of treatment depends on the duration of estrogen administration.Assisted reproductive outcomes of patients whose treatment is successful (i.e., achieves an EMT ≥8 mm) are similar to those of controls.The quality of embryos transferred is an important predictor of assisted reproductive outcomes in patients treated successfully with exogenous estrogen.

  11. Factors that Determine Child Behavior during Dental Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajrić Elmedin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review paper we wanted to summarize all the aspects which could affect the behavior of the child patients in the dental office. At the beginning, the factors that are related to the child patients are mentioned. Various segments of child psychological, cognitive, physiological and other kinds of development are discussed. Also, the reasons for dental fear and anxiety (DFA and dental behavior problems (DBP were analyzed, and how the child dental patients could cope with them. Finally, types of patients according to their behavior in the dental office were discussed. Furthermore, the influences of child patients’ parents were studied, including parenting styles, as well as factors related to dentist, dental team and the dental office. Finally, critical evaluation of administration of assets to measure the presence of DFA and DBP is provided. Every part of the text was corroborated by the results from our own and other authors’ recent bibliography data.

  12. The forest and the trees: relational and specific factors in addiction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William R; Moyers, Theresa B

    2015-03-01

    Increased expectations for the use of evidence-based methods in addiction treatment have fueled a debate regarding the relative importance of 'specific' versus 'common' factors in treatment outcome. This review explores the influence of these factors on addiction treatment outcome. The authors review and link findings from four decades of research on specific and general factors in addiction treatment outcome research. Although few would argue that what one does in addiction treatment is immaterial, outcome studies tend to find small to no difference when specific treatment methods are compared with each other or with treatment as usual. In contrast, there are usually substantial differences among therapists in client outcomes, and relational factors such as therapist empathy and therapeutic alliance can be significant determinants of addiction treatment outcome. In addiction treatment, relational factors such as empathy, which are often described as common, non-specific factors, should not be dismissed as 'common' because they vary substantially across providers and it is unclear how common they actually are. Similarly they should not be relegated to 'non-specific' status, because such important relational influences can be specified and incorporated into clinical research and training. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezioso, Domenico; Strazzullo, Pasquale; Lotti, Tullio; Bianchi, Giampaolo; Borghi, Loris; Caione, Paolo; Carini, Marco; Caudarella, Renata; Ferraro, Manuel; Gambaro, Giovanni; Gelosa, Marco; Guttilla, Andrea; Illiano, Ester; Martino, Marangella; Meschi, Tiziana; Messa, Piergiorgio; Miano, Roberto; Napodano, Giorgio; Nouvenne, Antonio; Rendina, Domenico; Rocco, Francesco; Rosa, Marco; Sanseverino, Roberto; Salerno, Annamaria; Spatafora, Sebastiano; Tasca, Andrea; Ticinesi, Andrea; Travaglini, Fabrizio; Trinchieri, Alberto; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Zattoni, Filiberto

    2015-07-07

    Diet interventions may reduce the risk of urinary stone formation and its recurrence, but there is no conclusive consensus in the literature regarding the effectiveness of dietary interventions and recommendations about specific diets for patients with urinary calculi. The aim of this study was to review the studies reporting the effects of different dietary interventions for the modification of urinary risk factors in patients with urinary stone disease. A systematic search of the Pubmed database literature up to July 1, 2014 for studies on dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for urinary stone formation was conducted according to a methodology developed a priori. Studies were screened by titles and abstracts for eligibility. Data were extracted using a standardized form and the quality of evidence was assessed. Evidence from the selected studies were used to form evidence-based guideline statements. In the absence of sufficient evidence, additional statements were developed as expert opinions. General measures: Each patient with nephrolithiasis should undertake appropriate evaluation according to the knowledge of the calculus composition. Regardless of the underlying cause of the stone disease, a mainstay of conservative management is the forced increase in fluid intake to achieve a daily urine output of 2 liters. HYPERCALCIURIA: Dietary calcium restriction is not recommended for stone formers with nephrolithiasis. Diets with a calcium content ≥ 1 g/day (and low protein-low sodium) could be protective against the risk of stone formation in hypercalciuric stone forming adults. Moderate dietary salt restriction is useful in limiting urinary calcium excretion and thus may be helpful for primary and secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis. A low-normal protein intake decrease calciuria and could be useful in stone prevention and preservation of bone mass. Omega-3 fatty acids and bran of different origin decreases calciuria, but their impact on the urinary

  14. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Prezioso

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diet interventions may reduce the risk of urinary stone formation and its recurrence, but there is no conclusive consensus in the literature regarding the effectiveness of dietary interventions and recommendations about specific diets for patients with urinary calculi. The aim of this study was to review the studies reporting the effects of different dietary interventions for the modification of urinary risk factors in patients with urinary stone disease. Materials and Methods: A systematic search of the Pubmed database literature up to July 1, 2014 for studies on dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for urinary stone formation was conducted according to a methodology developed a priori. Studies were screened by titles and abstracts for eligibility. Data were extracted using a standardized form and the quality of evidence was assessed. Results: Evidence from the selected studies were used to form evidencebased guideline statements. In the absence of sufficient evidence, additional statements were developed as expert opinions. Conclusions: General measures: Each patient with nephrolithiasis should undertake appropriate evaluation according to the knowledge of the calculus composition. Regardless of the underlying cause of the stone disease, a mainstay of conservative management is the forced increase in fluid intake to achieve a daily urine output of 2 liters. Hypercalciuria: Dietary calcium restriction is not recommended for stone formers with nephrolithiasis. Diets with a calcium content ≥ 1 g/day (and low protein-low sodium could be protective against the risk of stone formation in hypercalciuric stone forming adults. Moderate dietary salt restriction is useful in limiting urinary calcium excretion and thus may be helpful for primary and secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis. A low-normal protein intake decrease calciuria and could be useful in stone prevention and preservation of bone mass. Omega-3 fatty acids and bran of

  15. Chronopolis Digital Preservation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Minor

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chronopolis Digital Preservation Initiative, one of the Library of Congress’ latest efforts to collect and preserve at-risk digital information, has completed its first year of service as a multi-member partnership to meet the archival needs of a wide range of domains.Chronopolis is a digital preservation data grid framework developed by the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC at UC San Diego, the UC San Diego Libraries (UCSDL, and their partners at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR in Colorado and the University of Maryland's Institute for Advanced Computer Studies (UMIACS.Chronopolis addresses a critical problem by providing a comprehensive model for the cyberinfrastructure of collection management, in which preserved intellectual capital is easily accessible, and research results, education material, and new knowledge can be incorporated smoothly over the long term. Integrating digital library, data grid, and persistent archive technologies, Chronopolis has created trusted environments that span academic institutions and research projects, with the goal of long-term digital preservation.A key goal of the Chronopolis project is to provide cross-domain collection sharing for long-term preservation. Using existing high-speed educational and research networks and mass-scale storage infrastructure investments, the partnership is leveraging the data storage capabilities at SDSC, NCAR, and UMIACS to provide a preservation data grid that emphasizes heterogeneous and highly redundant data storage systems.In this paper we will explore the major themes within Chronopolis, including:a The philosophy and theory behind a nationally federated data grid for preservation. b The core tools and technologies used in Chronopolis. c The metadata schema that is being developed within Chronopolis for all of the data elements. d Lessons learned from the first year of the project.e Next steps in digital preservation using Chronopolis: how we

  16. Efficacy of a preservative-free formulation of fixed-combination bimatoprost and timolol (Ganfort PF in treatment-naïve patients vs previously treated patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordeiro MF

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available M Francesca Cordeiro,1 Ivan Goldberg,2 Rhett Schiffman,3 Paula Bernstein,3 Marina Bejanian31Western Eye Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK; 2Discipline of Ophthalmology, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USAPurpose: To evaluate, using subgroup analysis, the effect of treatment status on the intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering efficacy of a preservative-free formulation of fixed-combination bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% (FCBT PF.Methods: A primary, multicenter, randomized, double-masked, 12-week study compared the efficacy and safety of FCBT PF with preserved FCBT (Ganfort® in 561 patients diagnosed with glaucoma or ocular hypertension. For this analysis, eligible patients were treatment-naïve or had inadequate IOP lowering and underwent a washout of previous treatment. IOP (8 am, 10 am, and 4 pm was measured at baseline and weeks 2, 6, and 12. Subgroup analysis of the FCBT PF arm assessed changes in average eye IOP from baseline in treatment-naïve vs previously treated patients. To evaluate the effect of treatment status at baseline (treatment-naïve vs previously treated on IOP reduction in the FCBT PF treatment group, an analysis of covariance model was used with treatment status and investigator as fixed effects, and baseline average eye IOP, age, glaucoma diagnosis, and baseline average eye corneal thickness as covariates. P-values and the 95% confidence intervals were determined using the model.Results: In the FCBT PF arm, IOP mean changes from baseline ranged from -8.7 mmHg to -9.8 mmHg in treatment-naïve patients (N=50, compared with -7.3 mmHg to -8.5 mmHg in previously treated patients (N=228. Baseline IOP, age, glaucoma diagnosis, and corneal thickness significantly affected IOP reduction in the FCBT PF group. Adjusting for these covariates, FCBT PF had a greater IOP-lowering effect (0.8–1.7 mmHg in treatment-naïve patients than previously treated patients

  17. Breast cancer-related lymphoedema: risk factors and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    Lymphoedema is a condition where there is an obstruction of the flow of lymph, partnered with a swelling of the limb. Within the breast cancer arena lymphoedema can occur in the arm where the cancer was/is. The various approaches to treating lymphoedema include skin care, elevation of the affected arm, the use of compression hosiery, multi-layer bandaging, massage (manual lymphatic drainage), or even surgery. This article will discuss the treatments for lymphoedema along with relevant evidence and illustrate current practice.

  18. Complications of orthodontic treatment: are soft drinks a risk factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Hilings H Y; Wong, Ricky W K; Hägg, Urban

    2009-01-01

    Soft drink consumption has steadily increased in recent decades in both western and developing countries. The trend is most apparent among children and adolescents. This rise in soft drink consumption has raised concerns among health care professionals, including dental practitioners. Accordingly, the effects of soft drinks on dental health have been investigated. Several studies have shown that dental problems, such as caries, enamel erosion, and corrosion of dental materials, may be associated with soft drink consumption. Because orthodontic appliances restrict toothbrush access, patients undergoing orthodontic treatment need special oral care and advice. This article reviews the risks and implications of soft drink consumption for orthodontic patients.

  19. 生长因子应用于慢性牙周炎位点保存的临床观察%The clinical observation of applying growth factors to site preservation in chronic periodontitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏斐然; 徐燕

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical effect of site preservation using platelet-rich fibrin or basic fibroblast growth factor in patients who suffer from serious chronic periodontitis. Method:Twenty nine patients were divided into three groups. Teeth of patients were extracted,tooth sockets were did site preservation technique:PRF group was used platelet-rich fibrin which was made from blood of patients. bFGF group was used basic fibroblast growth factor. Control group did not use PRF or bFGF. After six months,the clinical effect of three groups was observed. Result:After six months,patients of PRF group and bFGF group were observed that bone have sufficient bone height and mineral density has increased. Bone density of patients who did not use growth factors is low. Conclusion:Using growth factor such as platelet-rich fibrin or basic fibrob-last growth factor can improve the condition of soft and hard tissue,and can maintain more bone mass in ridge preservation of serious chronic periodontitis.%目的:观察重度慢性牙周炎患者分别使用富血小板纤维蛋白(platelet-rich fibrin,PRF)和碱性成纤维细胞生长因子(basic fibroblast growth factor,bFGF)行拔牙窝位点保存的临床疗效。方法:29例重度慢性牙周炎患者随机分为3组,患牙拔除后,牙槽窝行位点保存术:PRF组牙槽窝行位点保存术使用患者自身血液离心制备的PRF;bFGF组使用bFGF;空白对照组不使用PRF或bFGF。术后6个月后观察临床疗效。结果:使用生长因子PRF或bFGF的患者术后6个月观察,牙龈形态饱满,骨高度保持,骨密度增加。未使用PRF或bFGF生长因子的患者骨密度较低。结论:牙周炎患者位点保存术中使用生长因子PRF和bFGF可以有效改善软硬组织的情况,保存更多的牙槽骨量。

  20. Anorexia of Aging: Risk Factors, Consequences, and Potential Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Francesco; Calvani, Riccardo; Tosato, Matteo; Martone, Anna Maria; Ortolani, Elena; Savera, Giulia; Sisto, Alex; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2016-01-27

    Older people frequently fail to ingest adequate amount of food to meet their essential energy and nutrient requirements. Anorexia of aging, defined by decrease in appetite and/or food intake in old age, is a major contributing factor to under-nutrition and adverse health outcomes in the geriatric population. This disorder is indeed highly prevalent and is recognized as an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in different clinical settings. Even though anorexia is not an unavoidable consequence of aging, advancing age often promotes its development through various mechanisms. Age-related changes in life-style, disease conditions, as well as social and environmental factors have the potential to directly affect dietary behaviors and nutritional status. In spite of their importance, problems related to food intake and, more generally, nutritional status are seldom attended to in clinical practice. While this may be the result of an "ageist" approach, it should be acknowledged that simple interventions, such as oral nutritional supplementation or modified diets, could meaningfully improve the health status and quality of life of older persons.

  1. Antithrombotic effect of antisense factor XI oligonucleotide treatment in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Jeffrey R; Marzec, Ulla; Revenko, Alexey S; Zhao, Chenguang; Gao, Dacao; Matafonov, Anton; Gailani, David; MacLeod, A Robert; Tucker, Erik I; Gruber, Andras; Hanson, Stephen R; Monia, Brett P

    2013-07-01

    During coagulation, factor IX (FIX) is activated by 2 distinct mechanisms mediated by the active proteases of either FVIIa or FXIa. Both coagulation factors may contribute to thrombosis; FXI, however, plays only a limited role in the arrest of bleeding. Therefore, therapeutic targeting of FXI may produce an antithrombotic effect with relatively low hemostatic risk. We have reported that reducing FXI levels with FXI antisense oligonucleotides produces antithrombotic activity in mice, and that administration of FXI antisense oligonucleotides to primates decreases circulating FXI levels and activity in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Here, we evaluated the relationship between FXI plasma levels and thrombogenicity in an established baboon model of thrombosis and hemostasis. In previous studies with this model, antibody-induced inhibition of FXI produced potent antithrombotic effects. In the present article, antisense oligonucleotides-mediated reduction of FXI plasma levels by ≥ 50% resulted in a demonstrable and sustained antithrombotic effect without an increased risk of bleeding. These results indicate that reducing FXI levels using antisense oligonucleotides is a promising alternative to direct FXI inhibition, and that targeting FXI may be potentially safer than conventional antithrombotic therapies that can markedly impair primary hemostasis.

  2. Physical Activity in Adolescents following Treatment for Cancer: Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Marilyn; Bryans, Angie; Gray, Kaylin; Skinner, Leah; Verhoeve, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels and influencing individual and environmental factors in a group of adolescent survivors of cancer and a comparison group. Methods. The study was conducted using a "mixed methods" design. Quantitative data was collected from 48 adolescent survivors of cancer and 48 comparison adolescents using the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, the Fatigue Scale-Adolescents, and the Amherst Health and Activity Study-Student Survey. Qualitative data was collected in individual semistructured interviews. Results. Reported leisure-time physical activity total scores were not significantly different between groups. Physical activity levels were positively correlated with adult social support factors in the group of adolescent survivors of cancer, but not in the comparison group. Time was the primary barrier to physical activity in both groups. Fatigue scores were higher for the comparison but were not associated with physical activity levels in either group. The qualitative data further supported these findings. Conclusions. Barriers to physical activity were common between adolescent survivors of cancer and a comparative group. Increased knowledge of the motivators and barriers to physical activity may help health care providers and families provide more effective health promotion strategies to adolescent survivors of pediatric cancer.

  3. Physical Activity in Adolescents following Treatment for Cancer: Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Wright

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels and influencing individual and environmental factors in a group of adolescent survivors of cancer and a comparison group. Methods. The study was conducted using a “mixed methods” design. Quantitative data was collected from 48 adolescent survivors of cancer and 48 comparison adolescents using the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, the Fatigue Scale—Adolescents, and the Amherst Health and Activity Study—Student Survey. Qualitative data was collected in individual semistructured interviews. Results. Reported leisure-time physical activity total scores were not significantly different between groups. Physical activity levels were positively correlated with adult social support factors in the group of adolescent survivors of cancer, but not in the comparison group. Time was the primary barrier to physical activity in both groups. Fatigue scores were higher for the comparison but were not associated with physical activity levels in either group. The qualitative data further supported these findings. Conclusions. Barriers to physical activity were common between adolescent survivors of cancer and a comparative group. Increased knowledge of the motivators and barriers to physical activity may help health care providers and families provide more effective health promotion strategies to adolescent survivors of pediatric cancer.

  4. INTERACTION OF COPPER BASED PRESERVATIVES WITH WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Temiz

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Copper is highly toxic to fungi and the element is widely used in many preservative formulations over 50 years. The interactions of wood and copper-based preservatives impact both the performance and the environment aspects of treated wood. Copper might be present in treated wood as coppercellulose complex, copper-lignin complex, and crystalline or amorphous inorganic/organic copper compounds. In this review; it was aimed to investigate the interactions of wood and copper-based preservatives, Copper Adsorpsion factors and copper forms in treated wood

  5. Perception of adherence to treatment among patients with cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Zambrano C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the perceptions regarding adherence to treatment among patients with cardiovascular risk undergoing pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatment. Methodology: A transversal study using the instrument “issues influencing adherence to pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatments in patients with cardiovascular risk factors". The study assesses four major factors in 256 adults living in Medellín (Colombia, South America, namely: socio-economic factors, factors related to the healthcare service provider, factors related to the therapy itself, and patient-related factors. Results: In terms of the perception of treatment adherence, socio-economic factors had the lowest score. Additionally, the educational level of patients was found to be the factor with the strongest influence on adherence perception. Discussion: This study approaches the various aspects of the issue of treatment adherence with more extensive knowledge in order to contribute to the development of strategies for improving treatment adherence in patients with cardiovascular risk. The study also suggests communicating medical recommendations in different manners and in a patient-friendly language (i.e. a kind of language with no technical words. Likewise, establishing more effective strategies for diet management is suggested

  6. Reduced Insulin/Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Signaling and Dietary Restriction Inhibit Translation but Preserve Muscle Mass in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depuydt, Geert; Xie, Fang; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Shanmugam, Nilesh; Smolders, Arne; Dhondt, Ineke; Brewer, Heather M.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Braeckman, Bart P.

    2013-09-03

    Reduced signaling through the C. elegans insulin/IGF1 like tyrosine kinase receptor daf2 and dietary restriction via bacterial dilution are two well-characterized lifespan-extending interventions that operate in parallel or through (partially) independent mechanisms. Using accurate mass and time tag LCMS/MS quantitative proteomics we detected that the abundance of a large number of ribosomal subunits is decreased in response to dietary restriction as well as in the daf2(e1370) insulin/IGF1 receptor mutant. In addition, general protein synthesis levels in these long-lived worms are repressed. Surprisingly, ribosomal transcript levels were not correlated to actual protein abundance, suggesting that posttranscriptional regulation determines ribosome content. Proteomics also revealed increased presence of many structural muscle cell components in long-lived worms, which appears to result from prioritized preservation of muscle cell volume in nutrient-poor conditions or low insulin-like signaling. Activation of DAF16, but not diet-restriction, stimulates mRNA expression of muscle-related genes to prevent muscle atrophy. Important daf2 specific proteome changes include overexpression of aerobic metabolism enzymes and a general activation of stress responsive and immune defense systems, while increased abundance of many protein subunits of the proteasome core complex is a DR-specific characteristic.

  7. VT Historic Preservation Grant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The State-funded Historic Preservation Grant Program helps municipalities and non-profit organizations rehabilitate the historic buildings that are a vital part of...

  8. Digital preservation for heritages

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    ""Digital Preservation for Heritages: Technologies and Applications"" provides a comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of digital technologies in the area of cultural heritage preservation, including digitalization, research aiding, conservation aiding, digital exhibition, and digital utilization. Processes, technical frameworks, key technologies, as well as typical systems and applications are discussed in the book. It is intended for researchers and students in the fields of computer science and technology, museology, and archaeology. Dr. Dongming Lu is a professor at College of Computer Sci

  9. Sharks: a potential source of antiangiogenic factors and tumor treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung; Kim, Young

    2002-12-01

    Since angiogenesis is a key feature of tumor growth, inhibiting this process is one way to treat cancer. Cartilage is a natural source of material with strong antiangiogenic activity. This report reviews knowledge of the anticancer properties of shark cartilage and clinical information on drugs such as neovastat and squalamine. Because their entire endoskeleton is composed of cartilage, sharks are thought to be an ideal source of angiogenic and tumor growth inhibitors. Shark cartilage extract has shown antiangiogenic and antitumor activities in animals and humans. The oral administration of cartilage extract was efficacious in reducing angiogenesis. Purified antiangiogenic factors from shark cartilage, such as U-995 and neovastat (AE-941), also showed antiangiogenic and antitumor activity. AE-941 is under phase III clinical investigation. Squalamine, a low molecular weight aminosterol, showed strong antitumor activity when combined with chemotherapeutic materials. The angiogenic tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease 3 (TIMP-3) and tumor suppressor protein (snm23) genes from shark cartilage were cloned and characterized.

  10. Vase-life of Gerbera jamesonii Bolus cut flowers depending upon; media, mineral nutrition, their morphological attributes and treatment with flower preservative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Rudnicki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The correlations among different media, mineral nutrition and morphological features of gerbera flowers in relation to their vase-life period investigated. The bast medium for longevity of cut gerbera flowers was the mixture of composted pine bark and peat moss fertilized with N – 250 mg/1 and Mg – 150 mg/1. It was found that cut gerberas lasted longer when they were the Alkemade type, i.e. with wide petals. Yellow flowers remained fresh longer than red and pink ones. It was also found that the vase-life period of gerberas directly correlated with the length of floral stalk, its ability to grow and the inflorescence diameter. The solution of flower preservative Proflovit-72 was effective 'in extending life at room temperature and improved the quality and longevity of flowers which were previously in coldstorage for 1 to 3 weeks.

  11. The Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Microorganisms in Food Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arici

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available High hydrostatic pressure is a new food preservation technology known for its capacity to inactivate spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. High-pressure treatments are receiving a great deal of attention for the inactivation of microorganisms in food processing, pressure instead of temperature is used as stabilizing factor. High hydrostatic pressure treatment is the most studied alternative process, many works reported successful results in inactivating a wide range of microorganisms under different operative conditions such as temperature, pressure, exposure time.

  12. Treatment of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Prognostic Factors and Clinical Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrooman, Lynda M; Silverman, Lewis B

    2016-10-01

    While the majority of children and adolescents with newly diagnosed childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) will be cured, as many as 20 % of patients will experience relapse. On current treatment regimens, the intensity of upfront treatment is stratified based upon prognostic factors with the aim of improving cure rates (for those at the highest risk of relapse) and minimizing treatment-related morbidity (for lower-risk patients). Here we review advances in the understanding of prognostic factors and their application. We also highlight novel treatment approaches aimed at improving outcomes in childhood ALL.

  13. 保髋治疗股骨头缺血性坏死生存质量的评价标准%Hip-preserving treatment for osteonecrosis of the femoral head Evaluation criteria of quality of life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志辉; 曾意荣

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are many criteria used to evaluate the curative effects of hip-preserving treatment for osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH), and there have been no consistent criteria, so the curative effects of hip-preserving treatment lack comparability to some extent. OBJECTIVE: To review and analyze a variety of criteria for evaluating the curative effects of hip-preserving treatment and to develop a specific quality of life scale of hip-preserving treatment. METHODS: A computer-based retrieval of Pubmed database using key words "osteonecrosis, femoral head, quality of life", or "osteonecrosis, femoral head, curative effect" for manuscripts published from August 2000 to August 2010 and of CNKI database for manuscripts published from January 1994 to December 2009 using key words "femoral head necrosis, curative effect" or "femoral head necrosis, quality of life". Manuscripts that address hip-preserving treatment of ONFH and related quality of life or manuscripts that were recently published or in the high-impact journals were included in this paper. Finally, 31 manuscripts were reviewed.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The current criteria for evaluating the curative effects of hip-preserving treatment focus on pain, function, and range of motion of hip joints, but do not lay emphasis on the local changes of hip joints or lower limbs, which can not sufficiently reflect the overall quality of life of patients. The SF-36 scale lack specificity to some extents and cannot be used to evaluate the curative effects of hip-preserving treatment systemically and specifically. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a specific quality of life scale for evaluating the curative effects of hip-preserving treatment of ONFH.%背景:目前评价保髋治疗的疗效标准较多,没有统一标准,因此保髋治疗的疗效缺乏一定的可比性.目的:通过回顾及分析现有的用于保髋治疗疗效的各种评价标准,试图研制一款特异性的用于评价保髋治

  14. Effect of platelet activating factor antagonist treatment on gentamicin nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rodriguez-Barbero

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess whether PAF could be involved in the gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity, we have studied the effect of PAF antagonist BN-52021 on renal function in rats after gentamicin (GENTA treatment. Experiments were completed in 21 Wistar rats divided into three groups: group GENTA was injected with gentamicin 100 mg kg−1 body wt/day s.c. for 6 days. Group GENTA + BN received gentamicin and BN-52021 i.p. 5 mg kg−1 body wt/day. A third group served as control. Rats were placed in meta-bolic cages and plasma creatinine and creatinine clearance were measured daily. GENTA group showed a progressive increase in plasma creatinine, a drop in creatinine clearance and an increase in urinary excretion of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and alkaline phosphatase. GENTA + BN group showed a lesser change in plasma creatinine and a creatinine clearance, but no difference with GENTA group in urinary excretion of NAG and AP were observed. Histological examination revealed a massive cortical tubular necrosis in rats treated with gentamicin, whereas in BN-52021 injected animals tubular damage was markedly attenuated. The present results suggest a role for PAF in the gentamicininduced nephro-toxicity.

  15. Factors associated with treatment failure in patients with Tuberculosis in Khuzestan province during 2006-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Mousavi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Tuberculosis is one of the oldest human diseases which still causes millions of deaths and impairments in human population. Treatment failure is one of the most important indices in evaluation of tuberculosis control and treatment programs. This study is done to find related factors to tuberculosis treatment failure in Khoozestan province from 2005 to 2012. Methods: This is a historical cohort study on all tuberculosis cases registered from 2005- 2012. Data on demographic and clinical status of the patients was collected, checked and prepared for analysis. Logistic regression was used to analysis the data. Results:Being older (p=0.03, heavier (p=0.01, and being male (p=0.03 came with higher risk of treatment failure. Also misdiagnosis of the disease and delay in starting treatment were significantly associated with treatment failure (p=03. Conclusion: Faster and better diagnosis is the most effective factors to prevent failure in treatment of tuberculosis.

  16. Relevance of Educational Factors in the Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Silviu VERZEA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: radical pancreatic resections are the only chance to cure a pancreatic cancer, if the tumor is in an early stage of development. The results of the surgical teams have constantly improved in time, in terms of survival and a good quality of life. Unfortunately, only a small part of the patients benefit from surgical interventions. The causes of this phenomenon are complex, educational factors playing an important role. Material and Methods: 44 patients with pancreatoduodenectomy, operated between 2005 and 2008 were divided in 2 groups. Several parameters were recorded, including age, sex, level of education and place of origin, associated diabetes mellitus, these being studied in relation with the postoperative morbidity and mortality. Results: the morbidity after operation was 65,90%, and the mortality – 6,81%. The level of education, age, socioeconomic status, the presence of diabetes mellitus did not significantly influence the morbidity and the mortality after pancreatoduodenectomy. Conclusions: the postoperative morbidity and mortality are more incidental in small medical centers, but their values are acceptable, if compared with the data from the literature. Excluding the potential patients candidates for radical surgery because they are old or they have poor economic status is not a justified attitude. Education of the patients, medical stuff and surgeons is very important and it can raise the number of healed cases and could change the perception on pancreatic cancer.

  17. Historic Preservation Information CFM Website

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA Historic Preservation Office keeps information about VA's programs to comply with Federal preservation requirements, and also interesting information about VA...

  18. Food Preservation beyond the Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, Phyllis

    1992-01-01

    Examines how current scientific knowledge of food preservation emerged from traditions handed down through the generations. Discusses various methods of preservation, their history, and current application. (LZ)

  19. The effects of different preservation processes on the total protein and growth factor content in a new biological product developed from human amniotic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Alessandra; Bonci, Paola; Bonci, Paolo

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this work is to quantify the total protein and growth factors content in a tissue-suspension obtained from processed human amniotic membrane (hAM). hAM was collected, frozen, freeze dried, powdered and sterilized by γ-irradiation. At each step of the process, samples were characterized for the total protein amounts by a Bradford protein assay and for the growth factor concentrations by ELISA test of the tissue suspensions. Frozen-hAM samples show higher release of total proteins and specific growth factors in the tissue suspension in comparison with freeze-dried hAM. We observed that even if the protein extraction is hindered once the tissue is dried, the powdering process allows a greater release in the tissue suspension of total proteins and growth factors after tissue re-solubilization in comparison with only the freeze-drying process (+91 ± 13% for EGF, +16 ± 4% for HGF, +11 ± 5% for FGF, +16 ± 9% for TGF-β1), and a greater release of EGF (85 ± 10%) in comparison with only the freezing process, because proteins become much readily solubilized in the solution. According with these results, we describe a protocol to obtain a new sterile biological product from hAM tissue, with well-known effects of thermal, mechanical and physical processes on the total protein and grow factors contents.

  20. Risk factors for death during pulmonary tuberculosis treatment in Korea: a multicenter retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Soo; Kim, Yee Hyung; Song, Jae-Uk; Jeon, Kyeongman; Song, Junwhi; Ryu, Yon Ju; Choi, Jae Chol; Kim, Ho Cheol; Koh, Won-Jung

    2014-09-01

    The data regarding risk factors for death during tuberculosis (TB) treatment are inconsistent, and few studies examined this issue in Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate baseline prognostic factors for death during treatment of adult patients with pulmonary TB in Korea. A multicenter retrospective cohort study of 2,481 patients who received TB treatment at eight hospitals from January 2009 to December 2010 was performed. Successful treatment included cure (1,129, 45.5%) and treatment completion (1,204, 48.5%) in 2,333 patients (94.0%). Unsuccessful treatment included death (85, 3.4%) and treatment failure (63, 2.5%) occurred in 148 patients (6.0%). In multivariate analysis, male sex, anemia, dyspnea, chronic heart disease, malignancy, and intensive care unit (ICU) admission were significant risk factors for death during TB treatment. Therefore, male sex, anemia, dyspnea, chronic heart disease, malignancy, and ICU admission could be baseline prognostic factors for death during treatment of adult patients with pulmonary TB in Korea.

  1. Comparisons of treatment means when factors do not interact in two-factorial studies

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Jiawei

    2011-05-06

    Scientists in the fields of nutrition and other biological sciences often design factorial studies to test the hypotheses of interest and importance. In the case of two-factorial studies, it is widely recognized that the analysis of factor effects is generally based on treatment means when the interaction of the factors is statistically significant, and involves multiple comparisons of treatment means. However, when the two factors do not interact, a common understanding among biologists is that comparisons among treatment means cannot or should not be made. Here, we bring this misconception into the attention of researchers. Additionally, we indicate what kind of comparisons among the treatment means can be performed when there is a nonsignificant interaction among two factors. Such information should be useful in analyzing the experimental data and drawing meaningful conclusions.

  2. Effect of heat-steam treatment on preservation of strawberry fruits in storage%贮前热蒸汽处理对草莓果实保鲜效应的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜正顺; 巩惠芳; 汪良驹; 李百健

    2009-01-01

    以七八成熟丰香草莓果实为材料,贮前用热蒸汽处理10、20、30和40 s,研究其对4℃冷藏下果实的贮藏效果以及贮藏过程中某些生理指标的变化.结果表明,贮前热蒸汽处理10和20s可以明显抑制贮藏期间果实花青素积累,降低果实失重率、腐烂指数和呼吸速率,维持较高的SOD活性,降低LOX活性、纤维素酶活性、O~-_2产生速率和MDA含量,明显延长了果实贮藏时间.而贮前热蒸汽处理30和40s的果实受到热伤害,影响了果实的外观品质,甚至缩短了果实贮藏寿命.%The preservation and physiological indexes of strawberry fruits (Fragaria ananassa Duch cv. 'Toyonoka') stored at 4 癈 were investigated for the effects of heat-steam treatment for 10, 20, 30 and 40 s. The results indicated that heat-steam treatment for 10 s and 20 s significantly inhibited anthocyanin accumulation, weight loss, decay index and respiratory rate of the post-harvested fruits, and maintained higher activities of superoxide dismutase ( SOD) , but decreased the activities of lipoxidase (LOX) , cellulase, the O~-_2 production rate and MDA content. Therefore, heat-steam treatment was helpful for strawberry to prolong the storage life. However, heat-steam treatment for 30 and 40 s injuried fruits, which degraded external qualities and shortened preservation of the strawberry fruits.

  3. Pleiotropic effects of liraglutide treatment on renal risk factors in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zobel, Emilie Hein; von Scholten, Bernt Johan; Lindhardt, Morten

    2017-01-01

    response by determining if high responders (highest reduction) in each risk factor also had high response in other renal risk factors (cross-dependency). METHODS: Open-label study: 31 type 2 diabetics treated with liraglutide for 7weeks. After 3weeks washout 23 re-started treatment and were followed for 1...... possesses pleiotropic effects on renal risk factors. On patient level, effect on the individual risk factor cannot be anticipated based on response in other risk factors. Response when re-starting treatment did not differ, indicating that our primary findings were not random.......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Management of diabetic nephropathy includes reduction of albuminuria, blood pressure and weight. The GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide may possess these pleiotropic effects in addition to the glucose lowering effect. We aimed to elucidate the individual liraglutide treatment...

  4. Factors influencing non-adherence to tuberculosis treatment in Jepara, central Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondags, Angelique; Himawan, Ari Budi; Metsemakers, Job Fm; Kristina, Tri Nur

    2014-07-01

    One of the most serious problems for tuberculosis (TB) control is non-adherence to TB treatment. We studied the factors influencing non-adherence to TB treatment in Indonesia to inform TB treatment adherence strategies. We con- ducted semi-structured interviews with non-adherent patients and key informants in Jepara, Central Java, Indonesia. Three major themes were found in reasons for non-adherence to TB treatment: 1) knowledge about TB, 2) knowledge about TB treatment and 3) choosing and changing a health care treatment facility. Respondents had an inadequate knowledge about TB and its treatment. Feeling healthy and having financial problems were the most common reasons for TB treatment non-adherence. Respondents sought treatment from many different health care providers, and often changed the treatment facility location. TB treatment adherence might improve by providing better education about the disease and its treatment to those undergoing treatment. Providing information about where to receive treatment and that treatment is free could also improve compliance.

  5. Training for Preservation Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam M. Foot

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available In August 1997 the first of a series of summer schools in Preservation Management was held at the Archivschule in Marburg (Germany. The school was organised by the ECPA, the LIBER Division on Preservation, ICA and the Archivschule itself and was aimed at archivists and librarians in management positions from European institutions. It dealt with managerial, organisational and financial aspects of preservation and required active participation by those attending. Apart from introductory sessions by the teaching staff at the Archivschule, a large part of the course took the form of working groups, discussions, assignments and role play, to which participants were expected to take their own experience and problems. The school was conducted in German. Topics, spread over five days, ranged from preservation in the context of the core activities of libraries and archives; planning of preservation projects; general management issues, such as resource management, budgeting, priority setting, communication and effecting change; to more detailed considerations of day-to-day issues, such as storage, disaster control, microfilming and digitising, mass conservation processes, and moulds and fungi.

  6. Pretreatment with high-fat enteral nutrition reduces ondotoxin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and preserves gut barrier function early after hemorrhagic shock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyer, M.D.; Buurman, W.A.; Hadfoune, M.; Jacobs, J.A.; Konstantinov, S.R.; Dejong, C.H.; Greve, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Gram-negative sepsis is a potentially fatal clinical syndrome characterized by a proinflammatory response (tumor necrosis factor-alpha) to bacterial (endo)toxins and gut barrier function loss. Recently, we found that high-fat enteral nutrition protects against late bacterial translocation in a model

  7. Pretreatment with high-fat enteral nutrition reduces ondotoxin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and preserves gut barrier function early after hemorrhagic shock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyer, M.D.; Buurman, W.A.; Hadfoune, M.; Jacobs, J.A.; Konstantinov, S.R.; Dejong, C.H.; Greve, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Gram-negative sepsis is a potentially fatal clinical syndrome characterized by a proinflammatory response (tumor necrosis factor-alpha) to bacterial (endo)toxins and gut barrier function loss. Recently, we found that high-fat enteral nutrition protects against late bacterial translocation in a model

  8. Physician, Patient and Contextual Factors Affecting Treatment Decisions in Older Adults with Cancer: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariman, J. D.; Berry, D. L.; Cochrane, B.; Doorenbos, A.; Schepp, K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To review physician, patient, and contextual factors that affect treatment decision-making in older adults diagnosed with cancer and relate these factors to theoretical models of decision-making. Data Sources PubMed (1966-April 2010), PsycINFO (1967-April 2010) and CINAHL (1982-April 2010) databases were searched to access relevant medical, psychological and nursing literature. Data Synthesis Physician factors in treatment decisions include physician personal beliefs and values, expertise, practice type, perception of lowered life expectancy, medical factors, power, and communication style. Patient factors include personal beliefs and values, ethnicity, decisional control preferences, previous health-related experience, perception of the decision-making process, and personal factors. Contextual factors include availability of caregiver, lack of insurance, poor financial status, and geographical barrier. The interplay of physician, patient, and contextual factors are not well understood. Existing models of decision-making are not sufficient to explicate TDM process in older adults diagnosed with cancer. Conclusions Clinical studies in older adult patient population using a longitudinal and prospective design are needed to examine real-time interplay of patient, physician, and contextual factors and to better understand how these divergent factors influenced actual treatment decisions. Implications for Nursing Oncology nurses can advocate for a patient’s autonomy during TDM by coaching them to seek evidence-based discussion of various treatment options, benefits and risks assessments, and truthful discussion of the probability of success for each treatment option from their physicians. Oncology nurses must promote an informed treatment decisions that are consistent with a patient’s personal preference and values within the limits of the patient’s personal contexts. PMID:22201670

  9. Effect of Nano-packaging Material and Sharp Quenching Treatment on Preservative Quality of Green Tea%纳米包装及急冷处理对绿茶保鲜品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林津; 曹婵月; 杨文建; 方勇; 马宁; 汤晓智; 胡秋辉

    2012-01-01

    研究微波杀青后急冷处理和纳米包装材料对绿茶贮藏品质的影响,探索茶叶加工保鲜新技术。通过使用制备的纳米包装材料和微波杀青后急冷处理茶叶的工艺分别对碧螺春进行80d的高温保鲜研究。结果表明:在35℃条件贮藏80d后纳米包装材料包装的碧螺春的游离氨基酸、茶多酚、叶绿素、VC含量比普通包装分别高6.0%、10.7%、13.7%、41.9%;在35℃条件贮藏80d后急冷处理组的碧螺春的游离氨基酸、茶多酚、叶绿素、VC含量比风冷处理分别高5.1%、10.0%、15.3%、40.1%。表明纳米包装和急冷处理均可有效提高绿茶贮藏品质。%In order to develop a novel preservative strategy,nano-packaging material and sharp quenching treatment after microwave inactivation for green tea were used to explore the preservative technology for green tea.In this study,a modified nano-composite packaging material(NCP) and sharp quenching treatment were used for the preservation of green tea(Biluochun) during 80 days storage at high temperature(35 ℃).Results indicated that the contents of free amino acids,tea polyphenols,chlorophyll and vitamin C in Biluochun with NCP package after 80 days storage at 35 ℃ revealed the improvement by 6%,10.7%,13.7%,and 41.9% when compared with those in Biluochun with normal package.Similarly,the contents of free amino acids,tea polyphenols,chlorophyll and vitamin C in Biluochun subjected to sharp quenching treatment after 80 days storage at 35 ℃ revealed the improvement by 5.1%,10%,15.3% and 40.1%.Therefore,both nano-package and sharp quenching treatment can improve the storage quality of green tea effectively.

  10. The factors influencing the decision making of operative treatment for proximal humeral fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, M.G.; Jayakumar, P.; King, J.D.; Guitton, T.G.; Doornberg, J.N.; Ring, D.; Poelhekke, L.M.S.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The factors influencing the decision making of operative treatment for fractures of the proximal humerus are debated. We hypothesized that there is no difference in treatment recommendations between surgeons shown radiographs alone and those shown radiographs and patient information. Sec

  11. The guardians' perspective on paediatric cancer treatment in Malawi and factors affecting adherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Israels, T.; Chirambo, C.; Caron, H.; de Kraker, J.; Molyneux, E.; Reis, R.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Abandonment of paediatric cancer treatment is a common problem in developing countries. Little is known about the guardians' perspective on cancer treatment in these countries, especially the factors that affect adherence. Methods: Following a pilot study enquiring into the possible caus

  12. The guardians' perspective on paediatric cancer treatment in Malawi and factors affecting adherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Israels, T.; Chirambo, C.; Caron, H.; de Kraker, J.; Molyneux, E.; Reis, R.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Abandonment of paediatric cancer treatment is a common problem in developing countries. Little is known about the guardians' perspective on cancer treatment in these countries, especially the factors that affect adherence. Methods: Following a pilot study enquiring into the possible

  13. Exploring the Relationship between Factors of Implementation, Treatment Integrity and Reading Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, Kira Liese

    2010-01-01

    Treatment integrity has always had a presence in research, but now more than ever must become a priority owing to the changes in Special Education Law. The present study intends to explore the relationship between factors of implementation, treatment integrity of intervention implementation, and reading fluency. Participants included students in…

  14. Systemic treatment with epidermal growth factor in pigs induces ductal proliferations in the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter-Jensen, Lars; Juhl, C O; Teglbjaerg, P S;

    1997-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha), and the EGF receptor are often overexpressed in chronic pancreatitis and in malignant pancreatic growth. Transgenic mice overexpressing TGF-alpha develop tissue changes in the pancrease resembling changes found in chronic...... pancreatitis. The effects of systemic treatment with EGF on the porcine pancrease were investigated in this study....

  15. Clinical risk factors and urodynamic predictors prior to surgical treatment for stress urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bing, Mette Hornum; Gimbel, Helga; Greisen, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Knowledge about clinical risk factors and the value of urodynamic testing is important to optimize treatment strategy and secure true informed consent. METHODS: We reviewed the relevant literature to clarify the evidence regarding clinical risk factors and the predict...

  16. In-treatment midwall and endocardial fractional shortening predict cardiovascular outcome in hypertensive patients with preserved baseline systolic ventricular function: the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, Kristian; Gerdts, Eva; Palmieri, Vittorio;

    2010-01-01

    Endocardial fractional shortening (EFS) and midwall shortening (MWS) are impaired in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. However, it remains unknown whether improvement of left ventricular systolic function during treatment reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive pa...

  17. Factors that affect adherence to recommended treatment among diabetes patients in Kampala

    OpenAIRE

    Fahlén, Elin; Davidsson, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is an increasing global health problem and this puts high demands on the health care system. Patients with diabetes demand continuous treatment and monitoring in order to control the disease and avoid complications. Adherence to recommended treatment was important in order for the treatment to give positive effect. In this context adherence was defined as the extent to which the patients follow medical instructions.Aim: The aim of this study was to identify factors that c...

  18. External root resorption after orthodontic treatment: a study of contributing factors

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the patient- and treatment-related etiologic factors of external root resorption. Materials and Methods This study consisted of 163 patients who had completed orthodontic treatments and taken the pre- and post-treatment panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs. The length of tooth was measured from the tooth apex to the incisal edge or cusp tip on the panoramic radiograph. Overbite and overjet were measured from the pre- and post-treatme...

  19. Advanced Digital Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Giaretta, David

    2011-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the need to address the fragility of digital information, on which our society heavily depends for smooth operation in all aspects of daily life. This has been discussed in many books and articles on digital preservation, so why is there a need for yet one more? Because, for the most part, those other publications focus on documents, images and webpages -- objects that are normally rendered to be simply displayed by software to a human viewer. Yet there are clearly many more types of digital objects that may need to be preserved, such as databases, scientific da

  20. Factors associated with treatment of women with osteoporosis or osteopenia from a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meadows Eric S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health outcomes could be improved if women at high risk for osteoporotic fracture were matched to effective treatment. This study determined the extent to which treatment for osteoporosis/osteopenia corresponded to the presence of specific risk factors for osteoporotic fracture. Methods This retrospective analysis of the United States 2007 National Health and Wellness Survey included women age ≥ 40 years who reported having a diagnosis of osteoporosis (69% of 3276 or osteopenia (31% of 3276. Patients were stratified by whether they were or were not taking prescription treatment for osteoporosis/osteopenia. Using 34 patient characteristics as covariates, logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with treatment. Results Current prescription treatment was reported by 1800 of 3276 (54.9% women with osteoporosis/osteopenia. The following factors were associated with receiving prescription treatment: patient-reported diagnosis of osteoporosis (versus osteopenia; previous bone mineral density test; ≥ 2 fractures since age 50; older age; lower body mass index; better physical functioning; postmenopausal status; family history of osteoporosis; fewer comorbidities; prescription insurance coverage; higher total prescription count; higher ratio of prescription costs to monthly income; higher income; single status; previous visit to a rheumatologist or gynecologist; and 1 or 2 outpatient visits to healthcare provider (vs. none in the prior 6 months. Glucocorticoid, tobacco, and daily alcohol use were risk factors for fracture that were not associated with treatment. Conclusions There is a mismatch between those women who could benefit from treatment for osteoporosis and those who are actually treated. For example, self-reported use of glucocorticoids, tobacco, and alcohol were not associated with prescription treatment of osteoporosis. Other clinical and socioeconomic factors were associated with treatment (e

  1. Moving Image Preservation in Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, Paula

    2003-01-01

    Examines the current practices of film and video preservation in libraries and examines barriers that have hindered the development of full-fledged preservation programs for them. Topics include advances in education and training; preservation paradigms; and mechanics of film production that affect preservation. (Author/LRW)

  2. Treatment Options for Liquid Radioactive Waste. Factors Important for Selecting of Treatment Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziewinski, J.J.

    1998-09-28

    The cleanup of liquid streams contaminated with radionuclides is obtained by the selection or a combination of a number of physical and chemical separations, processes or unit operations. Among those are: Chemical treatment; Evaporation; Ion exchange and sorption; Physical separation; Electrodialysis; Osmosis; Electrocoagulation/electroflotation; Biotechnological processes; and Solvent extraction.

  3. Transcatheter treatment of heart failure with preserved or mildly reduced ejection fraction using a novel interatrial implant to lower left atrial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Lars; Reddy, Vivek; Kaye, David; Malek, Filip; Walton, Antony; Mates, Martin; Franzen, Olaf; Neuzil, Petr; Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Gustafsson, Finn

    2014-07-01

    Heart failure with preserved or mildly reduced ejection fraction (HFpEF) is common and, to date, therapeutic options are limited. Increased left atrial pressure is a key contributor to the symptoms associated with HFpEF, particularly during physical activity. We report the 30-day outcome of patients treated with a novel device intended to lower left atrial pressure by creating an 8 mm permanent shunt in the atrial septum. Eleven patients were enrolled in the pilot trial. Key inclusion criteria were: EF >45%; baseline PCWP ≥15 mmHg (rest), or ≥ 25 mmHg (exercise); and ≥1 hospitalization for heart failure within the past 12 months, or persistent NYHA class III/IV for at least 3 months. Mean age, LVEF, and NYHA class were 70 ± 12 years, 57 ± 9%, and 3.2 ± 0.4, respectively. Most patients had significant co-morbidities. The interatrial septal device (IASD) device was implanted using percutaneous trans-septal access via the femoral vein. The device was successfully implanted in all patients. At 30 days, LV filling pressures were significantly reduced by 5.5 mmHg (19.7 ± 3.4 vs. 14.2 ± 2.7; P = 0.005), and NYHA class was improved by two classes in two patients, one class in five patients, and worsened by one class in one patient. No patient developed pulmonary hypertension. Two serious adverse events occurred; heart failure re-hospitalization, and implant malposition successfully treated with a new device. Contemporary management of HFpEF patients is confounded by the lack of effective therapies. The use of a device-based approach to reduce left atrial pressure provides a novel means to improve haemodynamic and symptomatic status in HFpEF patients and warrants further investigation. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2014 European Society of Cardiology.

  4. Treatment of Amblyopia and Amblyopia Risk Factors Based on Current Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Euna B; Gilbert, Aubrey L; VanderVeen, Deborah K

    2017-01-01

    Amblyopia is a leading cause of low vision and warrants timely management during childhood. We performed a literature review of the management of amblyopia and potential risk factors for amblyopia. Literature review of the management of amblyopia and risk factors for amblyopia. Common amblyopia risk factors include anisometropic or high refractive error, strabismus, cataract, and ptosis. Often a conservative approach with spectacles is enough to prevent amblyopia. However, surgery may be necessary to clear the visual axis or align the eyes. Amblyopia risk factors should be managed early. Though amblyopia treatment is more likely to be successful at a younger age, those who are older but treatment-naïve may still respond to treatment. Promoting binocular or dichoptic experiences may be the future direction of amblyopia management.

  5. Assessing adherence factors in patients under topical treatment: development of the Topical Therapy Adherence Questionnaire (TTAQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschocke, Ina; Mrowietz, Ulrich; Lotzin, Annett; Karakasili, Eleni; Reich, Kristian

    2014-04-01

    Medication adherence rates strongly depend on favorable disease outcomes. It is known that medication adherence rates are lower for topical treatment than for systemic treatment. However, to date no validated instrument for the assessment of adherence factors in topical treatment is available. The aim of this study was to develop a new questionnaire to assess adherence risk factors in topical treatment. The development of the Topical Therapy Adherence Questionnaire (TTAQ) and Patient Preference Questionnaire (PPQ) was based on a systematic literature review, and qualitative patient focus interviews and expert focus groups' input. The psychometric properties and comprehensibility of the TTAQ and PPQ were assessed in a feasibility study with 59 psoriasis patients. Our first preliminary results indicate that the TTAQ and PPQ are psychometrically sound and reliable measures for the assessment of factors influencing topical treatment adherence. The questionnaires are currently being further developed and various parameters (e.g., time point of assessment) are currently being tested in an exploratory pilot study with ca. 2,000 psoriasis patients receiving topical treatment in a European clinical trial. The use of the final versions of TTAQ and PPQ in clinical practice may facilitate the early identification of specific non-adherence factors in patients under topical treatment, which could enable designing and applying adherence-enhancing interventions according to the patient's individual needs.

  6. Influence of packaging and potassium sorbate on the physical, physicochemical and microbiological alterations of guava preserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Carvalho Menezes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The elaboration of preserves through fruit processing is a promising alternative for their conservation. Such processing provides pleasant flavor due to the increase of sweetness and allows good conservation of the product for a prolonged time. Seeking quality and higher durability of fruit preserves, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the interference of potassium sorbate addition, and polypropylene, metallic and cellophane film packaging on the quality of guava (Psidium guajava L. preserves during storage, through the physical, physiochemical and microbiological characteristics. The physical, physiochemical and microbiological analyses showed that the different types of packaging did not interfere in the stability of the guava preserves until the 5th month of storage - time being the factor that most influences the quality of the preserves when stored under temperature and humidity of 19.6 °C and 76.2%, respectively. The potassium sorbate caused an increase of the soluble solid levels and a decrease of the water activity. Regardless of the treatment, the preserves remained microbiologically stable during storage.

  7. External root resorption after orthodontic treatment: a study of contributing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae [School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the patient- and treatment-related etiologic factors of external root resorption. This study consisted of 163 patients who had completed orthodontic treatments and taken the pre- and post-treatment panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs. The length of tooth was measured from the tooth apex to the incisal edge or cusp tip on the panoramic radiograph. Overbite and overjet were measured from the pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs. The root resorption of each tooth and the factors of malocclusion were analyzed with an analysis of variance. A paired t test was performed to compare the mean amount of root resorption between male and female, between extraction and non-extraction cases, and between surgery and non-surgery groups. Correlation coefficients were measured to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and the age in which the orthodontic treatment started, the degree of changes in overbite and overjet, and the duration of treatment. Maxillary central incisor was the most resorbed tooth, followed by the maxillary lateral incisor, the mandibular central incisor, and the mandibular lateral incisor. The history of tooth extraction was significantly associated with the root resorption. The duration of orthodontic treatment was positively correlated with the amount of root resorption. These findings show that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in patients who need the treatment for a long period and with a pre-treatment extraction of teeth.

  8. Severe root resorption resulting from orthodontic treatment: Prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Pelagio Raick Maués

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of severe external root resorption and its potential risk factors resulting from orthodontic treatment. METHODS: A randomly selected sample was used. It comprised conventional periapical radiographs taken in the same radiology center for maxillary and mandibular incisors before and after active orthodontic treatment of 129 patients, males and females, treated by means of the Standard Edgewise technique. Two examiners measured and defined root resorption according to the index proposed by Levander et al. The degree of external apical root resorption was registered defining resorption in four degrees of severity. To assess intra and inter-rater reproducibility, kappa coefficient was used. Chi-square test was used to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and patient's sex, dental arch (maxillary or mandibular, treatment with or without extractions, treatment duration, root apex stage (open or closed, root shape, as well as overjet and overbite at treatment onset. RESULTS: Maxillary central incisors had the highest percentage of severe root resorption, followed by maxillary lateral incisors and mandibular lateral incisors. Out of 959 teeth, 28 (2.9% presented severe root resorption. The following risk factors were observed: anterior maxillary teeth, overjet greater than or equal to 5 mm at treatment onset, treatment with extractions, prolonged therapy, and degree of apex formation at treatment onset. CONCLUSION: This study showed that care must be taken in orthodontic treatment involving extractions, great retraction of maxillary incisors, prolonged therapy, and/or completely formed apex at orthodontic treatment onset.

  9. Severe root resorption resulting from orthodontic treatment: Prevalence and risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maués, Caroline Pelagio Raick; do Nascimento, Rizomar Ramos; Vilella, Oswaldo de Vasconcellos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of severe external root resorption and its potential risk factors resulting from orthodontic treatment. METHODS: A randomly selected sample was used. It comprised conventional periapical radiographs taken in the same radiology center for maxillary and mandibular incisors before and after active orthodontic treatment of 129 patients, males and females, treated by means of the Standard Edgewise technique. Two examiners measured and defined root resorption according to the index proposed by Levander et al. The degree of external apical root resorption was registered defining resorption in four degrees of severity. To assess intra and inter-rater reproducibility, kappa coefficient was used. Chi-square test was used to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and patient's sex, dental arch (maxillary or mandibular), treatment with or without extractions, treatment duration, root apex stage (open or closed), root shape, as well as overjet and overbite at treatment onset. RESULTS: Maxillary central incisors had the highest percentage of severe root resorption, followed by maxillary lateral incisors and mandibular lateral incisors. Out of 959 teeth, 28 (2.9%) presented severe root resorption. The following risk factors were observed: anterior maxillary teeth, overjet greater than or equal to 5 mm at treatment onset, treatment with extractions, prolonged therapy, and degree of apex formation at treatment onset. CONCLUSION: This study showed that care must be taken in orthodontic treatment involving extractions, great retraction of maxillary incisors, prolonged therapy, and/or completely formed apex at orthodontic treatment onset. PMID:25741825

  10. Fertility preservation in young patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virender Suhag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can arise as a consequence of treatment of oncological conditions. The parallel and continued improvement in both the management of oncology and fertility cases in recent times has brought to the forefront the potential for fertility preservation in patients being treated for cancer. Many survivors will maintain their reproductive potential after the successful completion of treatment for cancer. However total body irradiation, radiation to the gonads, and certain high dose chemotherapy regimens can place women at risk for acute ovarian failure or premature menopause and men at risk for temporary or permanent azoospermia. Providing information about risk of infertility and possible interventions to maintain reproductive potential are critical for the adolescent and young adult population at the time of diagnosis. There are established means of preserving fertility before cancer treatment; specifically, sperm cryopreservation for men and in vitro fertilization and embryo cryopreservation for women. Several innovative techniques are being actively investigated, including oocyte and ovarian follicle cryopreservation, ovarian tissue transplantation, and in vitro follicle maturation, which may expand the number of fertility preservation choices for young cancer patients. Fertility preservation may also require some modification of cancer therapy; thus, patients' wishes regarding future fertility and available fertility preservation alternatives should be discussed before initiation of therapy.

  11. Preserving Southwest Virginia's Folklore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgin, Ramond

    1997-01-01

    Describes Southwest Virginia's rich tradition of folklore and culture and the need for its preservation. Summarizes the author's time-consuming process of preparing an inventory and indexing the vast archival collections gathered by students in American Folklore classes at Mountain Empire Community College and by the Southwest Virginia Folklore…

  12. POLARISATION PRESERVING OPTICAL FIBRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    . This cladding structure provides polarisation preserving properties to the optical fibre. Optical fibres using this technology may have claddings with elements placed non-periodically as well as in a two-dimensional periodic lattice - such as cladding providing Photonic Band Gap (PBG) effects....

  13. Paints and Preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Larry E.; Miller, Larry E.

    The publication contains an outline for use by agriculture teachers in developing a teaching plan for a unit on paints and preservatives. The topics included are (1) recognizing, solving, and preventing paint problems and (2) operating and using power spray painting equipment. Items presented for each topic are: the situation, (intended to inform…

  14. Risk factors for treatment failure following cold coagulation cervical treatment for CIN pathology: a cohort-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsis, Dimitrios; Underwood, Martyn; Parry-Smith, William; Panikkar, Jane

    2015-12-01

    To determine any risk factors for cytology recurrence in women after cold coagulation ablative treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). This was a retrospective observational study of a cohort of women having had cold coagulation between 2001 and 2011 in the colposcopy unit of an NHS hospital. We retrospectively collected data from our colposcopy unit database. Women with previous cervical treatment were excluded. 559 eligible women were identified with a mean age of 28.7 ± 6.2 years. Nulliparous women were 66.3 % with smokers involving 35.3 %. Referral cytology, pretreatment cervical punch biopsies and colposcopy were high grade in 51.9, 71.9 and 45.8 % of women. Endocervical crypt involvement (ECI) on pretreatment cervical punch biopsy involved 9.7 % of women. Mean follow-up was 3.1 ± 2.4 years. Overall cytology recurrence (mild/moderate/severe dyskaryosis) at 6 and 12 months follow-up was 7.4 and 5 %. High-grade cytology recurrence (moderate/severe dyskaryosis) involved 2.7 % of women over the entire follow-up period. Multiple regression analysis showed that ECI on pretreatment cervical punch biopsy was a risk factor for high-grade cytology recurrence (HR 3.72; 95 %CI 1.18-11.71; p = 0.024). There were no risk factors identified for overall cytology recurrence. However, when cytology tests with borderline nuclear changes at follow-up were pooled with mild/moderate/severe dyskaryosis cytology tests, then parity ≥2 was a risk factor for abnormal cytology (HR 1.71; 95 %CI 1.08-2.69; p = 0.022). Endocervical crypt involvement on pretreatment cervical punch biopsy and multiparity ≥2 are risk factors that increase the likelihood of abnormal cytology following cold coagulation. These two risk factors should be taken in consideration when performing cold coagulation cervical treatment for CIN pathology.

  15. Factors affecting treatment adherence to atomoxetine in ADHD: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treuer T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tamás Treuer,1 Luis Méndez,2 William Montgomery,3 Shenghu Wu4 1Neuroscience Research, Eli Lilly and Company, Budapest, Hungary; 2Eli Lilly de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Global Patient Outcomes and Real World Evidence, Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, NSW, Australia; 4Neuroscience Research, Eli Lilly Asia, Inc, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the literature related to research about the factors affecting treatment adherence and discontinuation of atomoxetine in pediatric, adolescent, and adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Medline was systematically searched using the following prespecified terms: “ADHD”, “Adherence”, “Compliance”, “Discontinuation”, and “Atomoxetine”. We identified 31 articles that met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. The findings from this review indicate that persistence and adherence to atomoxetine treatment were generally high. Factors found to influence adherence and nonadherence to atomoxetine treatment in ADHD in this review include age, sex, the definition of response used, length of treatment, initial dose of treatment, comorbid conditions, and reimbursement. Tolerability was cited as an important reason for treatment discontinuation. More research is needed to understand those factors that can help to identify patients at risk for poor adherence and interventions that could improve treatment adherence early in the stage of this illness to secure a better long-term prognosis. Keywords: atomoxetine, treatment discontinuation, adherence, compliance, ADHD medication, relapse

  16. Factors associated with delays in treatment initiation after tuberculosis diagnosis in two districts of India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durba Paul

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excessive time between diagnosis and initiation of tuberculosis (TB treatment contributes to ongoing TB transmission and should be minimized. In India, Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP focuses on indicator start of treatment within 7 days of diagnosis for patients with sputum smear-positive PTB for monitoring DOTS implementation. OBJECTIVES: To determine length of time between diagnosis and initiation of treatment and factors associated with delays of more than 7 days in smear-positive pulmonary TB. METHODS: Using existing programme records such as the TB Register, treatment cards, and the laboratory register, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of all patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB registered from July-September 2010 in two districts in India. A random sample of patients with pulmonary TB who experienced treatment delay of more than 7 days was interviewed using structured questionnaire. RESULTS: 2027 of 3411 patients registered with pulmonary TB were smear-positive. 711(35% patients had >7 days between diagnosis and treatment and 262(13% had delays >15 days. Mean duration between TB diagnosis and treatment initiation was 8 days (range = 0-128 days. Odds of treatment delay >7 days was 1.8 times more likely among those who had been previously treated (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-2.3 and 1.6 (95% CI 1.3-1.8 times more likely among those diagnosed in health facilities without microscopy centers. The main factors associated with a delay >7 days were: patient reluctance to start a re-treatment regimen, patients seeking second opinions, delay in transportation of drugs to the DOT centers and delay in initial home visits. To conclude, treatment delay >7 days was associated with a number of factors that included history of previous treatment and absence of TB diagnostic services in the local health facility. Decentralized diagnostic facilities and improved referral procedures may reduce such treatment

  17. Hanging drop cultures of human testis and testis cancer samples: a model used to investigate activin treatment effects in a preserved niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, A; Young, J; Nielsen, J E; Joensen, U N; Toft, B G; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Loveland, K L

    2014-01-01

    Background: Testicular germ cell tumours of young adults, seminoma or non-seminomas, are preceded by a pre-invasive precursor, carcinoma in situ (CIS), understood to arise through differentiation arrest of embryonic germ cells. Knowledge about the malignant transformation of germ cells is currently limited by the lack of experimental models. The aim of this study was to establish an experimental tissue culture model to maintain normal and malignant germ cells within their niche and allow investigation of treatment effects. Methods: Human testis and testis cancer specimens from orchidectomies were cultured in ‘hanging drops' and effects of activin A and follistatin treatment were investigated in seminoma cultures. Results: Testis fragments with normal spermatogenesis or CIS cells were cultured for 14 days with sustained proliferation of germ cells and CIS cells and without increased apoptosis. Seminoma cultures survived 7 days, with proliferating cells detectable during the first 5 days. Activin A treatment significantly reduced KIT transcript and protein levels in seminoma cultures, thereby demonstrating a specific treatment response. Conclusions: Hanging drop cultures of human testis and testis cancer samples can be employed to delineate mechanisms governing growth of normal, CIS and tumorigenic germ cells retained within their niche. PMID:24781282

  18. Suppression of Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling Delays Cellular Senescence and Preserves the Function of Endothelial Cells Derived From Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hao; Gao, Yongxing; Hoyle, Dixie L; Cheng, Tao; Wang, Zack Z

    2016-09-20

    : Transplantation of vascular cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) offers an attractive noninvasive method for repairing the ischemic tissues and for preventing the progression of vascular diseases. Here, we found that in a serum-free condition, the proliferation rate of hPSC-derived endothelial cells is quickly decreased, accompanied with an increased cellular senescence, resulting in impaired gene expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and impaired vessel forming capability in vitro and in vivo. To overcome the limited expansion of hPSC-derived endothelial cells, we screened small molecules for specific signaling pathways and found that inhibition of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling significantly retarded cellular senescence and increased a proliferative index of hPSC-derived endothelial cells. Inhibition of TGF-β signaling extended the life span of hPSC-derived endothelial and improved endothelial functions, including vascular network formation on Matrigel, acetylated low-density lipoprotein uptake, and eNOS expression. Exogenous transforming growth factor-β1 increased the gene expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p15(Ink4b), p16(Ink4a), and p21(CIP1), in endothelial cells. Conversely, inhibition of TGF-β reduced the gene expression of p15(Ink4b), p16(Ink4a), and p21(CIP1). Our findings demonstrate that the senescence of newly generated endothelial cells from hPSCs is mediated by TGF-β signaling, and manipulation of TGF-β signaling offers a potential target to prevent vascular aging.

  19. 切分西红柿微波短时处理常温贮藏保鲜试验研究%Cut-Tomato Preservation at Normal Atmospheric Temperature With Short-Time Microwave Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷涌光; 刘静波; 房新平

    2002-01-01

    Molding, rottening and fresh degree decreasing often happen during the process of fruits and vegetables preservation and transportation. Even worse it is losing its commercial value completely, which will cause huge economic loss. These fruits and vegetables cannot meet the need of consumers. Solving the problem of fruits and vegetables preservation, especially during transporting, can not only satisfy the requirement of market, but also regulate fruits and vegetables supplying, as well as gain economic profits. In this paper, orthogonal tests were conducted to study cut-tomato preservation with short-time microwave treatment. It was found that the vacuum packaged cut-tomato only reached low temperature of pasteurization after short-time microwave treatment, but it could be preserved for a long time under normal atmospheric temperature. The optimal treatment parameters were determined. The parameters are solution contains 0.12% vitamin C and microwave treatment time is 54 s; The image processing of samples were carried out to get color histograms and corresponding color mean, and effects of the method were explained with certain value. Effects of package on tomato were analyzed; it was considered that cut-tomato would be packaged with lightproof package.%目前由于在果蔬的储运中常发生霉变、腐烂,鲜度下降,甚至完全失去商品价值,造成巨大的经济损失,难以满足市场要求.因此,解决果蔬的贮藏特别是运输过程中的保鲜,不仅能满足市场需要,增加果蔬市场供应品种和调节供应,同时还将获得巨大的经济效益.通过正交试验对切分西红柿进行了微波处理常温保鲜的试验研究,得出了真空包装的切分西红柿在微波短时处理后只达到巴氏杀菌的低温杀菌温度,却得到能长期贮存的品质优良的样品的结果;确定了这种方法的最佳处理参数,其最佳参数为0.12%维生素C处理时间为54 s;对样品进行图像处理,得到色彩直方

  20. An ontology for factors affecting tuberculosis treatment adherence behavior in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogundele OA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Olukunle Ayodeji Ogundele,1 Deshendran Moodley,1 Anban W Pillay,1 Christopher J Seebregts1,2 1UKZN/CSIR Meraka Centre for Artificial Intelligence Research and Health Architecture Laboratory, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, 2Jembi Health Systems NPC, Cape Town, South Africa Purpose: Adherence behavior is a complex phenomenon influenced by diverse personal, cultural, and socioeconomic factors that may vary between communities in different regions. Understanding the factors that influence adherence behavior is essential in predicting which individuals and communities are at risk of nonadherence. This is necessary for supporting resource allocation and intervention planning in disease control programs. Currently, there is no known concrete and unambiguous computational representation of factors that influence tuberculosis (TB treatment adherence behavior that is useful for prediction. This study developed a computer-based conceptual model for capturing and structuring knowledge about the factors that influence TB treatment adherence behavior in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA.Methods: An extensive review of existing categorization systems in the literature was used to develop a conceptual model that captured scientific knowledge about TB adherence behavior in SSA. The model was formalized as an ontology using the web ontology language. The ontology was then evaluated for its comprehensiveness and applicability in building predictive models. Conclusion: The outcome of the study is a novel ontology-based approach for curating and structuring scientific knowledge of adherence behavior in patients with TB in SSA. The ontology takes an evidence-based approach by explicitly linking factors to published clinical studies. Factors are structured around five dimensions: factor type, type of effect, regional variation, cross-dependencies between factors, and treatment phase. The ontology is

  1. Influence of patient and treatment factors on adherence to adjuvant endocrine therapy in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Catherine M; Gentry, Amanda L; Brufsky, Adam M; Casillo, Frances E; Cohen, Susan M; Dailey, Meredith M; Donovan, Heidi S; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline; Jankowitz, Rachel C; Rosenzweig, Margaret Q; Sherwood, Paula R; Sereika, Susan M

    2014-05-01

    To comprehensively assess the patient and illness or treatment factors that may predict nonadherence to adjuvant endocrine therapy and to explore whether an interaction occurs between these factors in women with breast cancer. Repeated-measures design. The Outpatient Services of the Women's Cancer Program at the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute and participants' homes. 91 women with early-stage breast cancer who received endocrine therapy. Adherence was assessed continuously for the first 18 months of endocrine therapy. Patient and illness or treatment factors were assessed at four time points (Time 1 to Time 4). Time 1 (baseline) was within two weeks prior to the initiation of endocrine therapy. Times 2-4 occurred at six-month intervals, as many as 18 months after Time 1. Adherence, patient factors, and illness or treatment factors. Adherence to endocrine therapy declined significantly during the first 18 months of treatment in women with breast cancer. The presence of negative mood and symptoms before starting treatment predicted nonadherence to endocrine therapy over time. Perceptions of financial hardship, symptoms, disease stage, and more complex medication regimens intensified the effect of negative mood on adherence over time. Women with breast cancer may be at risk for nonadherence to prescribed endocrine therapy if they experience depression or anxiety and symptoms prior to initiating therapy. Oncology nurses should be alert to women with breast cancer who are depressed or anxious or who are experiencing symptoms. Management of negative mood and symptoms may result in better adherence.

  2. Etiological factors of Alzheimer disease and recent advances of its treatment advance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Xia; Enji Han

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the etiological factors of Alzheimer disease (AD) and the advance in drug treatment.DATA SOURCES: Using the terms "Alzheimer disease, etiology, drug treatment", we searched Medline database for AD treatment-related English literatures which were published between January 1993 and September 2006. Other literatures were obtained by searching concrete magazines and papers by hand.STUDY SELECTION: The data were selected primarily. Epidemiologic study and randomized controlled clinical trials were selected, and those studies with repetitive or similar contents were excluded.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 1 537 AD and its treatment-related literatures were collected, and 32 of them were involved. Altogether 1 505 non-randomized controlled clinical trials, repetitive studies and reviews were excluded.DATA SYNTHESIS: The restriction of curative effect is a progressive neural degenerative disease. Although the etiological hypothesis of this disease has been introduced, the etiological factors of this disease are still unclear. The current treatments mainly involve: preventing against A β formation and clearing Aβ,application of antioxidant and free radical scavengers, application of anti-inflammatory preparation,application of cholinergic preparation, hormonal therapy, application of metabolic enhancer, application of neurotrophic factor and nerve protectant, gene therapy and so on.CONCLUSION: The etiological factors of AD are still unclear, and symptomatic treatment is much taken in clinical therapy. Therefore, the curative effects of AD are still not very ideal.

  3. Factors associated with provision of addiction treatment information by community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemeier, Nicholas E; Alamian, Arsham; Murawski, Matthew M; Pack, Robert P

    2015-05-01

    Community pharmacists in the United States have significant opportunity to engage in community-level prescription substance abuse prevention and treatment efforts, including dissemination of information specific to available addiction treatment options. Our cross-sectional study of Tennessee community pharmacists noted that 26% had previously provided addiction treatment facility information to one or more patients in the past. The purpose of this study was to employ multivariate modeling techniques to investigate associations between community pharmacist and community pharmacy factors and past provision of addiction treatment information to pharmacy patients. Multivariate logistic regression indicated having addiction treatment facility information in a pharmacy setting (aOR=8.19; 95% CI=4.36-15.37), having high confidence in ability to discuss treatment facility options (aOR=4.16; 95% CI=2.65-6.52), having participated in prescription opioid abuse-specific continuing education (aOR=2.90; 95% CI=1.70-4.97), being male (aOR=2.23; 95% CI=1.38-3.59), and increased hours per week in the practice setting (aOR=1.02; 95% CI=1.004-1.05) were all significantly associated with provision of information about addiction treatment. Dissemination of addiction treatment information, improvements in communicative self-efficacy beliefs, and dissemination of prescription opioid abuse-specific continuing education are modifiable factors significantly associated with increased provision of addiction treatment information by community pharmacists.

  4. Fertility preservation options in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasum, Miro; von Wolff, Michael; Franulić, Daniela; Čehić, Ermin; Klepac-Pulanić, Tajana; Orešković, Slavko; Juras, Josip

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to analyse current options for fertility preservation in young women with breast cancer (BC). Considering an increasing number of BC survivors, owing to improvements in cancer treatment and delaying of childbearing, fertility preservation appears to be an important issue. Current fertility preservation options in BC survivors range from well-established standard techniques to experimental or investigational interventions. Among the standard options, random-start ovarian stimulation protocol represents a new technique, which significantly decreases the total time of the in vitro fertilisation cycle. However, in patients with oestrogen-sensitive tumours, stimulation protocols using aromatase inhibitors are currently preferred over tamoxifen regimens. Cryopreservation of embryos and oocytes are nowadays deemed the most successful techniques for fertility preservation in BC patients. GnRH agonists during chemotherapy represent an experimental method for fertility preservation due to conflicting long-term outcome results regarding its safety and efficacy. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue, in vitro maturation of immature oocytes and other strategies are considered experimental and should only be offered within the context of a clinical trial. An early pretreatment referral to reproductive endocrinologists and oncologists should be suggested to young BC women at risk of infertility, concerning the risks and benefits of fertility preservation options.

  5. Monitoring changes in anti-tuberculosis treatment: associated factors determined at the time of diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altet, M N; Vidal, R; Milá, C; Rodrigo, T; Casals, M; Mir, I; Ruiz-Manzano, J; Jiménez-Fuentes, M A; Sánchez, F; Maldonado, J; Blanquer, R; de Souza-Galväo, M L; Solsona, J; Azlor, E; Díaz, D; Calpe, J L; Caylá, J A

    2013-11-01

    To determine predictive factors for changes in standard anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy at the time of diagnosis. A prospective study was performed among tuberculosis (TB) patients treated at specialised centres during 2008-2009. Treatment outcome was monitored per standard guidelines. Treatment was considered successful if the patient was cured or completed treatment. Factors associated with treatment modification were analysed at the bivariate and multivariate levels using logistic regression. A total of 427 patients were included in the study. The initial standard treatment regimen was retained for 249 patients (58.3%), extended to 9 months for 36 (8.4%) and changed for 142 (33.3%). Factors associated with a change of regimen at the multivariate level were female sex, age ≥ 50 years, human immunodeficiency virus infection, comorbidities, alcoholism, hospitalisation and culture-positive sputum. Drug resistance and toxicity were analysed independently. Treatment outcome was successful in 97.2% of cases without a regimen change and in 87.3% of those with a changed regimen (P tuberculosis regimen should be considered for rigorous follow-up. Results obtained through individualised treatment provided by specialists were good despite the complexity of the cases treated.

  6. Ultrathin sP(EO-stat-PO) hydrogel coatings are biocompatible and preserve functionality of surface bound growth factors in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuerburg, Carl; Recknagel, Stefan; Fiedler, Jörg; Groll, Jürgen; Moeller, Martin; Bruellhoff, Kristina; Reichel, Heiko; Ignatius, Anita; Brenner, Rolf E

    2013-10-01

    Hydrogel coatings prepared from reactive star shaped polyethylene oxide based prepolymers (NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO)) minimize unspecific protein adsorption in vitro, while proteins immobilized on NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO) coatings retain their structure and biological function. The aim of the present study was to assess biocompatibility and the effect on early osseointegrative properties of a NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO) coating with additional RGD-peptides and augmentation with bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP) used on a medical grade high-density polyethylene (HDPE) base under in vivo circumstances. For testing of biocompatibility dishes with large amounts of bulk NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO) were implanted subcutaneously into 14 Wistar rats. In a second set-up functionalization of implants with ultrathin surface layers by coating ammonia-plasma treated HDPE with NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO), functionalization with linear RGD-peptides, and augmentation with RGD and BMP-4 was analyzed. Therefore, implants were placed subcutaneously in the paravertebral tissue and transcortically in the distal femur of another 14 Wistar rats. Both tests revealed no signs of enhanced inflammation of the surrounding tissue analyzed by CD68, IL-1ß-/TNF-α-antibody staining, nor systemic toxic reactions according to histological analysis of various organs. The mean thickness of the fibrous tissue surrounding the femoral implants was highest in native HDPE-implants and tended to be lower in all NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO) modified implants. Micro-CT analysis revealed a significant increase of peri-implant bone volume in RGD/BMP-4 coated samples. These results demonstrate that even very low amounts of surface bound growth factors do have significant effects when immobilized in an environment that retains their biological function. Hence, NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO)-coatings could offer an attractive platform to improve integration of orthopedic implants.

  7. In vitro and in vivo protection by melatonin against the decline of elongation factor-2 caused by lipid peroxidation: preservation of protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüelles, Sandro; Muñoz, Mario F; Cano, Mercedes; Machado, Alberto; Ayala, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    As organisms age, a considerable decrease in protein synthesis takes place in all tissues. Among the possible causes of the decline of translation in old animals are the modifications of elongation factor-2 (eEF-2). eEF-2 occupies an essential role in protein synthesis where it catalyzes the ribosomal translocation reaction. eEF-2 is particularly sensitive to increased oxidative stress. However, all oxidants do not affect eEF-2, only compounds that increase lipid peroxidation. As peroxides are unstable compounds, they decompose and generate a series of highly reactive compounds, including aldehydes malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynoenal (HNE). We have previously reported that hepatic eEF-2 forms adducts with low-molecular weight aldehydes, MDA and HNE. Therefore, the protection of eEF-2 must be specifically carried out by a compound with lipoperoxyl radical-scavenging features such as melatonin. In this article, we show the ability of melatonin to protect against the changes that occur in the eEF-2 under conditions of lipid peroxidation induced by cumene hydroperoxide (CH), a compound used experimentally to induce lipid breakdown. As experimental models, we used cultured cells and rats treated with this oxidant compound. eEF-2 levels, adduct formation of this protein with MDA and HNE, and lipid peroxides were determined. In the cultured cells, protein synthesis rate was also measured. Our results show that melatonin prevented the molecular changes in eEF-2 and the decline in protein synthesis rate secondary to lipid peroxidation. The results also show that serum levels of several hormones were affected by CH-induced oxidative stress, which was partially or totally prevented by melatonin.

  8. Treatment-dependent and treatment-independent risk factors associated with the risk of diabetes-related events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilke, Thomas; Mueller, Sabrina; Groth, Antje

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyse which factors predict the real-world macro-/microvascular event, hospitalisation and death risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate whether there exists both an under- and over-treatment risk...... of these patients. METHODS: We used a German claims/clinical data set covering the years 2010-12. Diabetes-related events were defined as (1) macro-, (2) microvascular events leading to inpatient hospitalisation, (3) other hospitalisations with type 2 diabetes mellitus as main diagnosis, (4) all-cause death and (5......) a composite outcome including all event categories 1-4. Factors associated with event risk were analysed by a Kaplan-Meier curve analysis and by multivariable Cox regression models. RESULTS: 229,042 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (mean age 70.2 years; mean CCI 6.03) were included. Among factors...

  9. Curative and organ-preserving treatment with intra-arterial carboplatin induction followed by surgery and/or radiotherapy for advanced head and neck cancer: single-center five-year results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinelli Carmine

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated the feasibility, toxicity, response rate and survival of neoadjuvant superselective intra-arterial infusion of high dose carboplatin in advanced head and neck cancer. Methods Forty-six patients with primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma received 3 cycles of intra-arterial carboplatin (300 to 350 mg/m2 per cycle every 2 weeks, followed by radiotherapy or surgery plus radiotherapy. Results No complications or severe toxicity occurred. Sixteen patients (35% were complete responders, 20 (43% partial responders while 10 (22% did not respond to treatment. After completion of the multimodality treatment, 38/46 patients (83% were complete responders. After a 5-year follow-up period, 18/46 patients (39% are alive and disease-free, 3 (6,5% have died of a second primary tumor and 25 (54,5% have died of the disease. Conclusion Intra-arterial carboplatin induction chemotherapy is a safe, well-tolerated technique that discriminates between responders and non-responders and so may have prognostic significance in planning further integrated treatments aimed to organ preservation for advanced head and neck carcinomas.

  10. [Eating Disorder Treatment in Iceland - Treatment adherence, psychiatric co-morbidities and factors influencing drop-out].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Gudrun Mist; Palsson, Sigurdur Pall; Thorsteinsdottir, Gudlaug

    2015-05-01

    Treatment adherence in patients with eating disorders (ED) in Iceland is unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate treatment drop-out and explore factors that influence premature termination of treatment in a specialized ED treatment unit, at the University Hospital of Iceland, during the period of September 1, 2008 - May 1, 2012. The study is retrospective and naturalistic. Hospital records of referred patients were examined. Those meeting the ICD 10 criteria of anorexia nervosa (AN) (F50.0, F50.1), bulimia nervosa (BN) (F50.2, F50.3) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) (F50.9) were included. The total sample was 260 and 182 patients met inclusion criteria. No-shows were 7%. Drop-out was defined as premature termination of treatment without formal discharge. The sample consisted of 176 women and 6 men, mean age 26.3 years. BN was diagnosed in 52.7% of patients, EDNOS in 36.8% AN in 10.4%. 74.7% had one or more co-morbid psychiatric diagnosis. Anxiety- and/or depression were diagnosed in 72.5%, Attention hyperactivity deficiency disorder in 15.4% and personality disorders in 8.2%. Lifetime prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs) was 30.8%. Drop-out from treatment occurred in 54.4% of cases (with approximately 1/3 returning to treatment), 27.5% finished treatment and 18.1% were still in treatment at the end of the follow up period. Treatment adherence was significantly higher in patients who had a university degree, in those who had themselves taken the initiative to seek ED treatment and in those with higher anxiety scores at assessment. AN patients did better than other ED patients while patients with SUDs showed a tendency for higher drop-out (p=0.079). The drop-out rates were similar to what has been reported from other western countries. Follow-up time was longer and AN patient did better than expected. Higher education, initiative in seeking treatment and higher anxiety scores on questionnaires were protective.

  11. Factors associated with the desire for orthodontic treatment among Brazilian adolescents and their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filogônio Cintia B

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the period of adolescence physical appearance takes on significant importance in the construction of personal identity, including one's relationship with one's own body. A variety of social, cultural, psychological and personal factors influences the self-perception of dental appearance and the decision to undergo orthodontic treatment. Adolescents who seek orthodontic treatment are concerned with improving their appearance and social acceptance. The aim of the present study was to determine factors associated to the desire for orthodontic treatment among Brazilian adolescents and their parents. Methods The sample consisted of 403 subjects aged 14 to 18 years, selected randomly from a population of 182,291 schoolchildren in the same age group. The outcome variable "desire for orthodontic treatment" was assessed through a questionnaire. Self-perception of dental aesthetics was assessed using the Oral Aesthetic Subjective Impact Scale (OASIS and the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI was used for clinical assessment. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test as well as both simple and multiple logistic regression analyses. Results The majority (78% of the Brazilian adolescents desired orthodontic treatment and 69% of the parents reported that their children were not in orthodontic treatment due to the high costs involved. There was significant association (p ≤ 0.05 between the desire for orthodontic treatment and most types of malocclusion. However, there was no significant association between the desire for orthodontic treatment and the variables gender and age. Conclusions The following were considered factors associated to the desire for treatment: upper anterior crowding ≥ 2 mm and parents' perception of their child's need for treatment.

  12. Examining influential factors in providers' chronic pain treatment decisions: a comparison of physicians and medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingshead, Nicole A; Meints, Samantha; Middleton, Stephanie K; Free, Charnelle A; Hirsh, Adam T

    2015-10-01

    Chronic pain treatment guidelines are unclear and conflicting, which contributes to inconsistent pain care. In order to improve pain care, it is important to understand the various factors that providers rely on to make treatment decisions. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that reportedly influence providers' chronic pain treatment decisions. A secondary aim was to examine differences across participant training level. Eighty-five participants (35 medical students, 50 physicians) made treatment decisions for 16 computer-simulated patients with chronic pain. Participants then selected from provided lists the information they used and the information they would have used (had it been available) to make their chronic pain treatment decisions for the patient vignettes. Frequency analyses indicated that most participants reported using patients' pain histories (97.6 %) and pain description (95.3 %) when making treatment decisions, and they would have used information about patients' previous treatments (97.6 %) and average and current pain ratings (96.5 %) had this information been available. Compared to physicians, medical students endorsed more frequently that they would have used patients' employment and/or disability status (p medical students wanted information on patients' use of illicit drugs and alcohol to make treatment decisions; while a greater proportion of physicians reported using personal experience to inform their decisions. This study found providers use patients' information and their own experiences and intuition to make chronic pain treatment decisions. Also, participants of different training levels report using different patient and personal factors to guide their treatment decisions. These results highlight the complexity of chronic pain care and suggest a need for more chronic pain education aimed at medical students and practicing providers.

  13. Risk factors associated with treatment abandonment by overweight or obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Soares Mariz

    Full Text Available Objective.To evaluate the risk factors associated with treatment abandonment by overweight or obese children and adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional study, conducted in 2011, at the Childhood Obesity Center, in Campina Grande, Brazil, with the records of 208 children and adolescents, between three and 18 years of age, divided into two groups: Group I included those who abandoned treatment, and Group II included those who did not abandon treatment. Results. Non-adherence was significantly associated with higher income (OR=5.8, high maternal education (OR=2.4, white skin color (OR=2.9, and obesity (OR=3.6. Conclusion. Despite the new academic-care approach, the non-adherence to treatment rate was high, and was associated with sociodemographic and nutritional factors.

  14. Educating for preserving biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Méndez, I. E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of “culture of diversity” is presented in a new dimension. “That of educating for preserving biodiversity” is advanced together with its main challenges. The need of educating the masses for preserving biodiversity is perhaps the most outstanding to be faced, particularly if pedagogic requirements and the diversity of population is to be met. Likewise, it should help to put individuals in contact with the many elements conforming biodiversity and lead them to recognize its value ethically and esthetically. The research presents the framework for designing educating programs enhancing the genetic level, the ecosystem and the qualitative dimension and including materials and energy flood and its meaning for the homeostasis and autopoiesis of the system, together with its interactions with other components for achieving an equilibrium and stability. The importance of the natural evolution tendency is highlighted.

  15. Cancer and fertility: strategies to preserve fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, K; Fauser, B C J M; Devroey, P

    2011-03-01

    Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented published data and ongoing research on cancer and fertility, with particular focus on strategies to preserve fertility. This report is based on the expert presentations and group discussions, supplemented with publications from literature searches and the authors' knowledge. Fertility preservation should be considered for all young people undergoing potentially gonadotoxic cancer treatment. A variety of options are required to facilitate safe and effective fertility preservation for individual patients. Sperm banking is a simple and low-cost intervention. Embryo cryopreservation is the only established method of female fertility preservation. Oocyte cryopreservation offers a useful option for women without a male partner. Emergency ovarian stimulation and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue (followed by tissue transplantation or in-vitro maturation of oocytes) are experimental techniques for women who require urgent cancer treatment. Further prospective studies are required to validate cryopreservation of oocytes and ovarian tissue, in-vitro maturation of oocytes and new vitrification techniques and to identify any long-term sequelae of slow freezing of embryos.

  16. Factors associated with treatment for latent tuberculosis in persons living with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Silva de Aquino

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim was to identify factors associated with non-initiation of prophylactic treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBi in persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWA, based on a prospective cohort study of PLWA ≥ 18 years of age in two referral services for HIV/AIDS. Of the 232 patients eligible for treatment of LTBi, 69.8% initiated treatment. Following multivariate logistic regression analysis, only treatment in one of the two referral services was associated with non-initiation of treatment for LTBi (p < 0.001. TB incidence in the cohort was 0.6/100 person-years. TB incidence in patients that initiated treatment of LTBi was 0.4/100 person-years, compared to 1.2/100 person-years in those that did not initiate treatment, but the difference was not statistically significant. The study’s most interesting finding was that the main factor associated with the likelihood of treatment for LTBi was the health service where the patient was treated.

  17. Factors Associated With Survival Following Radium-223 Treatment for Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, William W; Anderson, Eric M; Mohammadi, Homan; Daniels, Thomas B; Schild, Steve E; Keole, Sameer R; Choo, C Richard; Tzou, Katherine S; Bryce, Alan H; Ho, Thai H; Quevedo, Fernando J; Vora, Sujay A

    2017-04-26

    Radium-223 ((223)Ra) improves survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). This retrospective analysis was performed to better understand its efficacy in routine clinical practice and identify factors associated with survival. Sixty-four patients with mCRPC who received (223)Ra between 2013 and 2015 were the basis of this retrospective study. Clinical outcomes and patient characteristics were obtained. Potential prognostic factors for survival were evaluated by univariate analysis using the log-rank test and multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazard method. The median survival was 12.9 months. Twenty-one patients (33%) developed a skeletal event, and the median time to the first skeletal event was 4.4 months. In univariate analysis, factors significantly associated with survival included: no prior chemotherapy, ≤ 5 bone metastases, baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≤ 36 ng/mL, baseline alkaline phosphatase (ALP)  12 g/dL, ALP response after (223)Ra treatment, PSA decrease during (223)Ra treatment, and absence of > 25% PSA increase during (223)Ra treatment. In multivariate analysis, 4 factors remained significant: no prior chemotherapy, ≤ 5 bone metastases, baseline ALP < 115 U/L, and ALP response after (223)Ra treatment. When (223)Ra is administered in routine clinical practice, clinical outcomes can be more variable than those reported in the randomized study owing to patient heterogeneity. Four factors were identified to be significantly associated with survival after (223)Ra treatment. These pretreatment factors may be used as stratification factors in future studies to investigate whether (223)Ra would be more effective for patients with newly diagnosed metastatic disease that is sensitive to androgen deprivation therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Patch test with preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Sumit

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the 705 patients patch tested between March 88 to March 91, 317 were tested for sensitivity to preservatives with antigens obtained from Chemo technique AB, Sweden. Paraben was the commonest sensitizer (22.4% followed by Groton B K (8.1% and Triclosan (6.5%. We stress the need to consider these allergens as source of dermatitis and advocate complete labelling of topical preparations marketed.

  19. Endovascular Treatment of Malignant Superior Vena Cava Syndrome: Results and Predictive Factors of Clinical Efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagedet, Dorothee, E-mail: DFagedet@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique universitaire de medecine interne, Pole Pluridisciplinaire de Medecine (France); Thony, Frederic, E-mail: FThony@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique universitaire de radiologie et imagerie medicale, Pole d' Imagerie (France); Timsit, Jean-Francois, E-mail: JFTimsit@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique universitaire de reanimation, Pole Medecine Aiguee Communautaire (France); Rodiere, Mathieu, E-mail: MRodiere@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique universitaire de radiologie et imagerie medicale, Pole d' Imagerie (France); Monnin-Bares, Valerie, E-mail: v-monnin@chu-montpellier.fr [CHRU Arnaud de Villeneuve, Imagerie Medicale Thoracique Cardiovasculaire (France); Ferretti, Gilbert R., E-mail: GFerretti@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique universitaire de radiologie et imagerie medicale, Pole d' Imagerie (France); Vesin, Aurelien; Moro-Sibilot, Denis, E-mail: DMoro.pneumo@chu-grenoble.fr [University Grenoble 1 e Albert Bonniot Institute, Inserm U823 (France)

    2013-02-15

    To demonstrate the effectiveness of endovascular treatment (EVT) with self-expandable bare stents for malignant superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) and to analyze predictive factors of EVT efficacy. Retrospective review of the 164 patients with malignant SVCS treated with EVT in our hospital from August 1992 to December 2007 and followed until February 2009. Endovascular treatment includes angioplasty before and after stent placement. We used self-expandable bare stents. We studied results of this treatment and looked for predictive factors of clinical efficacy, recurrence, and complications by statistical analysis. Endovascular treatment was clinically successful in 95% of cases, with an acceptable rate of early mortality (2.4%). Thrombosis of the superior vena cava was the only independent factor for EVT failure. The use of stents over 16 mm in diameter was a predictive factor for complications (P = 0.008). Twenty-one complications (12.8%) occurred during the follow-up period. Relapse occurred in 36 patients (21.9%), with effective restenting in 75% of cases. Recurrence of SVCS was significantly increased in cases of occlusion (P = 0.01), initial associated thrombosis (P = 0.006), or use of steel stents (P = 0.004). Long-term anticoagulant therapy did not influence the risk of recurrence or complications. In malignancy, EVT with self-expandable bare stents is an effective SVCS therapy. These results prompt us to propose treatment with stents earlier in the clinical course of patients with SVCS and to avoid dilatation greater than 16 mm.

  20. Growth factor receptors and related signalling pathways as targets for novel treatment strategies of hepatocellular cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Hopfner; Detlef Schuppan; Hans Scherübl

    2008-01-01

    Growth factors and their corresponding receptors are commonly overexpressed and/or dysregulated in many cancers including hepatocellular cancer (HCC). Clinical trials indicate that growth factor receptors and their related signalling pathways play important roles in HCC cancer etiology and progression, thus providing rational targets for innovative cancer therapies. A number of strategies including monoclonal antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors ("small molecule inhibitors") and antisense oligonucleotides have already been evaluated for their potency to inhibit the activity and downstream signalling cascades of these receptors in HCC. First clinical trials have also shown that multi-kinase inhibition is an effective novel treatment strategy in HCC. In this respect sorafenib, an inhibitor of Raf-, VEGF- and PDGF-signalling, is the first multi-kinase inhibitor that has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of advanced HCC. Moreover, the serine-threonine kinase of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) upon which the signalling of several growth factor receptors converge plays a central role in cancer cell proliferation, mTOR inhibition of HCC is currently also being studied in preclinical trials. As HCCs represent hypervascularized neoplasms, inhibition of tumour vessel formation via interfering with the VEGF/VEGFR system is another promising approach in HCC treatment. This review will summarize the current status of the various growth factor receptor-based treatment strategies and in view of the multitude of novel targeted approaches, the rationale for combination therapies for advanced HCC treatment will also be taken into account.

  1. Factors associated with the intensification of treatment in rheumatoid arthritis in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Antonio; Cáceres, Laura; Hernández-Beriaín, José Ángel; Francisco, Félix; Ojeda, Soledad; Talaverano, Sigrid; Nóvoa-Medina, Javier; Martín, José Adán; Delgado, Esmeralda; Trujillo, Elisa; Álvarez, Fátima; Magdalena, Laura; Rodríguez-Lozano, Carlos

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the patterns of treatment adjustment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with active disease in routine clinical care. This was a cross-sectional study of consecutive patients with RA conducted in five hospitals. Activity scales (DAS28-ESR) and function (HAQ) were measured, as well as whether ultrasound was performed as part of the assessment. Treatment decision (no changes/reduction/intensification) and time to the next scheduled visit were the outcomes variables. Associated factors were analysed by multilevel regression models. A total of 343 patients were included (77 % women, mean age 57 years, mean RA duration 10 years), of whom 44 % were in remission by DAS28. Treatment was continued in 202 (59 %) patients, reduced in 57 (16 %), and intensified in 83 (24 %). In the 117 patients with active RA (DAS28 ≥ 3.2), treatment was intensified in 61 (52 %). Factors associated with treatment intensification were physician and patient VAS, and DAS28, but not the centre. In the multilevel regression analysis with intensification of treatment as dependent variable, the following factors were significantly associated: DAS28 [OR 3.67 (95 % CI 2.43-5.52)], patient VAS [OR 1.04 (95 % CI 1.01-1.08)], and have performed an ultrasound [OR 3.36 (95 % CI 1.47-7.68)]. Factors associated with time to the next scheduled visit (an average of 4.3 months) were patient and physician VAS, DAS28, and centre. In clinical practice, half of the patients with active RA maintain or reduce the treatment. The decision to intensify treatment in active RA as recommended by a treat-to-target strategy is complex in practice.

  2. Identification of Prognostic Risk Factors for Transient and Persistent Lymphedema after Multimodal Treatment for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myungsoo; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Jung, So-Youn; Lee, Seeyoun; Kang, Han-Sung; Lee, Eun Sook; Chung, Seung Hyun; Kim, Yeon-Joo; Kim, Tae Hyun; Cho, Kwan Ho

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors for transient lymphedema (TLE) and persistent lymphedema (PLE) following treatment for breast cancer. A total of 1,073 patients who underwent curative breast surgery were analyzed. TLE was defined as one episode of arm swelling that had resolved spontaneously by the next follow-up; arm swelling that persisted over two consecutive examinations was considered PLE. At a median follow-up period of 5.1 years, 370 cases of lymphedema were reported, including 120 TLE (11.2%) and 250 PLE (23.3%). Initial grade 1 swelling was observed in 351 patients, of which 120 were limited to TLE (34%), while the other 231 progressed to PLE (66%). All initial swelling observed in TLE patients was classified as grade 1. In multivariate analysis, chemotherapy with taxane and supraclavicular radiation therapy (SCRT) were associated with development of TLE, whereas SCRT, stage III cancer and chemotherapy with taxane were identified as risk factors for PLE (p PLE based on the number of risk factors were 7:1 (no factor), 1:1 (one factor), 1:2 (two factors), and 1:3 (three factors). One-third of initial swelling events were transient, whereas the other two-thirds of patients experienced PLE. Estimation of TLE and PLE based on known treatment factors could facilitate prediction of this life-long complication.

  3. Treatment of hand ischemia following angioaccess surgery using the distal revascularization interval-ligation technique with preservation of vascular access: description of an 18-case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Carmine; Riehl, Gregory; Porcu, Paolo; Pichot, Olivier; Palacin, Pedro; Maghlaoua, Mohamed; Magne, Jean-Luc

    2004-11-01

    Hand ischemia is a rare complication of angioaccess surgery for hemodialysis. Management usually requires ligation of the arteriovenous fistula (AVF). The purpose of this report is to describe our experience with the use of the distal revascularization interval-ligation (DRIL) technique for treatment of ischemia without ligation of the AVF. From January 1999 to September 2002, the DRIL technique was used to treat 18 patients (10 men, 8 women, 10 diabetic patients) with severe paresthesia of the hand (n = 9) and finger necrosis (n = 10). The AVF was located at the elbow in 16 patients and at the wrist in 2 patients. Mean flow distal to the AVF was less than 10 mL in 5 patients, less than 5 mL in 10, and unmeasurable in 3. The conduit used for all DRIL arterial bypasses, including 15 brachiobrachial bypasses, 1 axillobrachial bypass, 1 brachioradial bypass, and 1 radioradial bypass, was the great saphenous vein graft. Trophic manifestations required finger amputation in five patients, pulpar necrosis resection in four, and transmetacarpal amputation of the index finger in one patient. Symptoms disappeared in 13 patients (73%) and improved in 5 (27%). The time required for healing of finger amputations and trophic manifestations ranged from 15 days to 2 months. Mean arterial flow through the DRIL bypass was 50 mL/min (range, 20-90 mL/min). With a mean follow-up interval of 16 months (range, 5-48 months), primary patency of the DRIL artery bypass and AVF was 94% and the limb salvage rate was 100%. The DRIL technique is the most effective procedure for treatment of angioaccess-induced hand ischemia. This technique can be used to achieve persistent relief of symptoms with continued access patency. The DRIL artery bypass improves vacularization of the hand, and ligature of the artery stops the vascular steal without affecting hemodialysis access. The DRIL technique should be proposed as first-line treatment for hand ischemia due to AVF for hemodialysis.

  4. Factors associated with the treatment of osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Young-Jee; Kim, Ji Wan; Park, Joo-Sung

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective study was designed to investigate the treatment rate of osteopenia and osteoporosis after diagnosis and determine factors related to osteoporosis treatment in Korea. This analysis included postmenopausal women who had visited the health promotion center from March 2010 to May 2011 (n = 375) and been diagnosed with osteoporosis (19.5%) or osteopenia (45.9%). Telephone surveys were performed one year after diagnosis. We employed multiple logistic regression to determine factors associated with treatment using clinical risk factors as covariates in a FRAX model. Receipt of osteoporosis treatment (nutrition, exercise, and medications) to prevent osteoporotic fracture was reported by 108 of 172 (63.4%) women with osteopenia and 66 of 73 (90.4%) with osteoporosis. Only consultation with a doctor for osteopenia or osteoporosis was significantly related to receiving osteoporosis treatment for osteopenia (odds ratio [OR], 5.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.01-12.00) and osteoporosis (OR, 4.91; 95% CI, 1.16-20.75). In the osteopenic group, increased age, being a current smoker, having a history of parental fracture or previous fracture, and secondary osteoporosis were related to consultation with a doctor. Of women with osteopenia 36.6% and 64.4% with osteoporosis received consultation with a doctor. Consultation with a doctor for osteopenia or osteoporosis after being diagnosed could be an effective strategy to increase osteoporosis treatment.

  5. [New frontiers in myocardial preservation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juffe Stein, A

    1995-01-01

    The high hospital mortality due to primary graft failure, together with the ever more frequent use of "Suboptimum" donors because of the scarcity of organs has, in the recent years, caused renewed interest in perfectioning techniques of cardiac preservation. The numerous studies supporting the benefits of a period of controlled warm reperfusion after global ischemia, and the growth of the continuous warm blood cardioplegia, led us to the evolution of our own technique for myocardial protection during transplantation. Dr John Wallwork introduced the concept of donor "resuscitation" in the attempt to improve the hemodynamic state of the donor, by preload and afterload manipulation and pharmacological treatment of the unstable or "marginal" donor. The Juan Canalejo Hospital introduced the concept "Resuscitation during the implantation" using continuous warm blood cardioplegia. Maintenance of normothermia during heart transplantation produces what is referred to as "cell repair" or "resuscitation during the implantation" and avoid the reperfusion damage. From january 1992 to april 1995, 91 orthotopic heart transplantation were performed at our institution. By harvesting we have employed the conventional preservation technique. We performed a controlled continuous anterograde/retrograde warm blood cardioplegic reperfusion of the graft, before and during the implantation in 53 patients. Since january 1994 we performed in 38 cases the same controlled continuous warm blood reperfusion, but only anterograde. Continuous warm blood cardioplegia in heart transplantation is a safety myocardial protection method. Trasplant programs require the optimal use of the available donors.

  6. Factors influencing cancer treatment decision-making by indigenous peoples: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranberg, Rona; Alexander, Susan; Hatcher, Deborah; Mackey, Sandra; Shahid, Shaouli; Holden, Lynda; Kwok, Cannas

    2016-02-01

    We aim to systematically review studies that identify factors influencing cancer treatment decision-making among indigenous peoples. Following the outline suggested by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis, a rigorous systematic review and meta-synthesis were conducted of factors that influence cancer treatment decision-making by indigenous peoples. A total of 733 articles were retrieved from eight databases and a manual search. After screening the titles and abstracts, the full text of 26 articles were critically appraised, resulting in five articles that met inclusion criteria for the review. Because the five articles to be reviewed were qualitative studies, the Critical Appraisal Skills Program toolkit was used to evaluate the methodological quality. A thematic synthesis was employed to identify common themes across the studies. Multiple socio-economic and cultural factors were identified that all had the potential to influence cancer treatment decision-making by indigenous people. These factors were distilled into four themes: spiritual beliefs, cultural influences, communication and existing healthcare systems and structures. Although existing research identified multiple factors influencing decision-making, this review identified that quality studies in this domain are scarce. There is scope for further investigation, both into decision-making factors and into the subsequent design of culturally appropriate programmes and services that meet the needs of indigenous peoples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Application of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor on the treatment of neovascular glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Neovascular glaucoma(NVGis a common secondary glaucoma, often occurs secondary to diabetic retinopathy, central retinal vein occlusion and retinal ischemia syndrome. Its pathogenesis is complicated. Though conventional treatmentscan brieflyreduce elevated intraocular pressure, degenerate iris neovascularization, the long-term effect for controlling NVG is not obvious. The treatment of NVG ushers in a new dawn with the in-depth study on the pathogenesis of NVG and the use of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGFinhibitors in ophthalmic diseases. In this paper, the applications of VEGF inhibitors on the treatment of neovascular glaucoma are reviewed to provide new thoughts for the treatment of NVG.

  8. Contamination versus preservation of cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Moesby, Lise; Zachariae, Claus

    2009-01-01

    cosmetics. In order to avoid contamination of cosmetics, the manufacturers add preservatives to their products. In the EU and the USA, cosmetics are under legislation and all preservatives must be safety evaluated by committees. There are several different preservatives available but the cosmetic market...... is dominated by a few preservatives: parabens, formaldehyde, formaldehyde releasers, and methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone. Allergy to preservatives is one of the main reasons for contact eczema caused by cosmetics. Concentration of the same preservative in similar products varies greatly......, and this may indicate that some cosmetic products are over preserved. As development and elicitation of contact allergy is dose dependent, over preservation of cosmetics potentially leads to increased incidences of contact allergy. Very few studies have investigated the antimicrobial efficiency...

  9. Influence of psychosocial factors on treatment of elderly Chinese patients with hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guolong Yu; Tianlun Yang; Cesar V. Borlongan; Christine E. Stahl; Xiumei Xie; Jin He; Biefei Li; Ke Xia

    2007-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of psychosocial factors on the treatment of elderly patients with hypertension. Methods Atotalof 260 elderly Chinese patients with hypertension were treated with benazepril alone or benazepril combined with amlodipine for 8 weeks. The target blood pressure (BP) (both <140 mmHg systolic, SBP, and <90 mmHg diastolic, DBP)was achieved in 180 patients, who were then assigned to the well-controlled BP group; the rest were placed in the modestly controlled BP group. The psychosocial factors present in both groups were assessed by the Hamilton depression scale, Hamilton anxiety scale, life event scale and social support evaluation list before and after anti-hypertensive treatment. Results There were no significant differences in gender, mean age, hist ory of hypertension, education and smoking habit, or in SBP and DBP between the groups before treatment.Significant differences were also not found in all psychosocial factors before and after treatment in the patients. However, significant differences were found between the groups with respect to post-treatment SBP and marital status. The patients with modestly controlled BP had significantly higher scores, as well as incidents, on the depressive, anxiety, and stressful life event scales than those with well-controlled BP. The patients with well-controlled BP had significantly higher scores in tangible support, subjective support,and social support compared to the patients with modestly controlled BP. Logistic regression analysis showed the independent contribution of psychosocial factors in reaching the goal of lowering BP at treatment endpoint in these hypertensive patients. Conclusions The results suggest that psychosocial factors stand as a main barrier to achieving the BP-lowering target in the management of elderly Chinese patients with hypertension.

  10. Differences between Risk Factors Associated with Tuberculosis Treatment Abandonment and Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Mota de Faria Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To identify the risk factors that were associated with abandonment of treatment and mortality in tuberculosis (TB patients. Methods. This study was a retrospective longitudinal cohort study involving tuberculosis patients treated between 2002 and 2008 in a TB reference center. Results. A total of 1,257 patients were evaluated, with 69.1% men, 54.4% under 40 years of age, 18.9% with extrapulmonary disease, and 9.3% coinfected with HIV. The risk factors that were associated with abandonment of treatment included male gender (OR = 2.05; 95% CI = 1.15–3.65 and nonadherence to previous treatment (OR = 3.14; 95% CI = 1.96–5.96. In addition, the presence of extrapulmonary TB was a protective factor (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.14–0.76. The following risk factors were associated with mortality: age over 40 years (OR = 2.61, 95% CI = 1.76–3.85, coinfection with HIV (OR = 6.01, 95% CI = 3.78–9.56, illiteracy (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.27–2.75, the presence of severe extrapulmonary TB (OR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.24–4.38, and retreatment after relapse (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.01–3.75. Conclusions. Male gender and retreatment after abandonment were independent risk factors for nonadherence to TB treatment. Furthermore, age over 40 years, coinfection with HIV, illiteracy, severe extrapulmonary TB, and retreatment after relapse were associated with higher TB mortality. Therefore, we suggest the implementation of direct measures that will control the identified risk factors to reduce the rates of treatment failure and TB-associated mortality.

  11. Changes in fibroblast growth factor 23 during treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism with alfacalcidol or paricalcitol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, D.; Rasmussen, K.; Brandi, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) increases renal phosphate excretion and decreases the formation of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D. In patients with chronic kidney disease, plasma FGF23 levels are markedly elevated by unknown mechanisms. We explored the changes in FGF23 during treatment...... treatment periods. In 57 of the enrolled patients, blood samples were frozen before and after each treatment period and available for measurement of FGF23. Results. Treatment with both analogues increased FGF23 (P ... and paricalcitol (Period 1: 223 versus 314%; P = 0.384 and Period 2: 174 versus 227%; P = 0.510) and the levels returned to pre-treatment levels during the washout period. Independent predictors of rise in FGF23 were baseline levels of FGF23 (P

  12. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Combined With a Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine System or Letrozole for Fertility-Preserving Treatment of Endometrial Carcinoma and Complex Atypical Hyperplasia in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huimei; Cao, Dongyan; Yang, Jiaxin; Shen, Keng; Lang, Jinghe

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) combined with a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system or an aromatase inhibitor (letrozole) in young women with well-differentiated early endometrial carcinoma (EC) and complex atypical hyperplasia (CAH). We performed a retrospective analysis including the clinical characteristics of 29 patients younger than 45 years with early well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus (EC) or CAH who were treated at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, from January 2012 to April 2016. Eighteen patients were treated with the combination of intramuscular injections of GnRHa every 4 weeks with the levonorgestrel intrauterine hormonal system (Mirena® Bayer Health Care Pharmaceutical Inc, Wayne, NY) was inserted. Eleven patients were treated with the combination of intramuscular injections of GnRHa every 4 weeks with oral letrozole 2.5 mg daily. The patients underwent follow-up with endometrial sampling by hysteroscopy and curettage for endometrial response every 3 months. After a median follow-up of 18.7 months (range, 5.6-54.9 months), 15 women (88.2%) in the EC group and 12 women (100%) in the CAH group had complete response (CR) after GnRHa combination treatment. Among the women who achieved CR, 1 woman (8.3%) with CAH and 1 woman (5.9%) with EC had recurrence after CR, and they finally underwent a hysterectomy. Time to CR was similar in the 2 groups (4.5 ± 1.9 months in the CAH group vs 5.0 ± 2.9 months in the EC group). Ten women (34.5%) had CR after the first 3 months, 8 women (27.6%) had CR after 6 months, and 9 women (31.0%) had CR after 9 months. Both GnRHa with the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system and GnRHa with letrozole are alternative treatments for women with CAH and EC who desire fertility preservation. A larger multicenter trial of the fertility-preserving treatment is

  13. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation - Quarantine treatment of agricultural products for export and import by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Joong Ho; Kang, H. J.; Chung, H. W.; Roh, M. J. [Kyungbuk National University, Taegu (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    To pre-establish an alternative technique to the toxic fumigant, methyl bromide which is the current quarantine measure of agricultural products for export, some selected agricultural products, such as apple and pear, were subjected to a preliminary study to confirm the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and MeBr fumigant on their disinfestation and quality, thereby preparing the basic data for the practical approach. Current quarantine activities were examined and the related limitations were investigated. Quarantine-related pests were investigated on their radiosensitivity and disinfestation effects by both treatments. The pests in apple and pear, Tetranychus urticae Koch, Panonychus ulmis Koch revealed a 100% mortality at around 17 days after irradiation of 3 kGy but it was too high dose for apple and pear. Tetranychus urticae Koch, Panonychus ulmi Koch from both apple and pear showed an increased mortality when exposed to 1 {approx} 2 kGy irradiation, resulting in apparent mortality 1 month later. 1 {approx} 2 kGy irradiation could be recommended for apple and pear. Current fumigation was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused the detrimental effects on physical quality of agricultural produce. Whereas, irradiation doses suitable for controlling the pests did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the samples. 40 refs., 64 figs., 160 tabs. (Author)

  14. [Discussion on the influence of factors related organic on Deqi in acupuncture treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Yu-Qi; Li, Chun-Hua; Yuan, Hong-Wen; Zhang, Peng; Lin, Chi; Xin, Si-Yuan; Guo, Zheng-Rong; Ma, Liang-Xiao; Zhu, Jiang

    2013-04-01

    To discuss the influence of factors related organic on deqi in acupuncture treatment and provide scientific evidence for further research on the influencing factors of deqi sensation. China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database, VIP-Chinese scientific and technological journal database, Chinese biological medical (CBM) database and PubMed database were retrieved. There were 30 articles about the organic influencing factors of deqi and they were analyzed. The organic related factors which includes individual constitution, syndrome classification, physical condition, specificity of acupoint function, tolerance and psychological factors play an important part in deqi in acupancture treatment, which should be brought to the forefront for acupuncture practitioners and researchers. The organic factors are influencing the deqi sensation in many ways but most of the present studies are resting on the affirmation of the phenomenon. Further studies about organic related influencing factors on deqi should be carried out and scientific, objective indices of deqi sensation should be explored which may improve the clinical and research level of acupuncture.

  15. Predicting Retrograde Autobiographical Memory Changes Following Electroconvulsive Therapy: Relationships between Individual, Treatment, and Early Clinical Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Donel M; Gálvez, Verònica; Loo, Colleen K

    2015-06-19

    Loss of personal memories experienced prior to receiving electroconvulsive therapy is common and distressing and in some patients can persist for many months following treatment. Improved understanding of the relationships between individual patient factors, electroconvulsive therapy treatment factors, and clinical indicators measured early in the electroconvulsive therapy course may help clinicians minimize these side effects through better management of the electroconvulsive therapy treatment approach. In this study we examined the associations between the above factors for predicting retrograde autobiographical memory changes following electroconvulsive therapy. Seventy-four depressed participants with major depressive disorder were administered electroconvulsive therapy 3 times per week using either a right unilateral or bitemporal electrode placement and brief or ultrabrief pulse width. Verbal fluency and retrograde autobiographical memory (assessed using the Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form) were tested at baseline and after the last electroconvulsive therapy treatment. Time to reorientation was measured immediately following the third and sixth electroconvulsive therapy treatments. Results confirmed the utility of measuring time to reorientation early during the electroconvulsive therapy treatment course as a predictor of greater retrograde amnesia and the importance of assessing baseline cognitive status for identifying patients at greater risk for developing later side effects. With increased number of electroconvulsive therapy treatments, older age was associated with increased time to reorientation. Consistency of verbal fluency performance was moderately correlated with change in Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form scores following right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy. Electroconvulsive therapy treatment techniques associated with lesser cognitive side effects should be particularly considered for

  16. Colon polyps: epidemiology, risk factors, diagnostic criteria and courses of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapteva Е.А.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Article focuses on the intestinal polyps. Intestinal polyps are considered to be obligatory precancerous diseases of the colon. Risk factors, epidemiology, clinical manifestations and diagnostic methods of polyps have been analyzed. The courses of treatment of colon polyps have been revealed.

  17. Tumour necrosis factor inhibitor treatment and occurrence of anterior uveitis in ankylosing spondylitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lie, Elisabeth; Lindström, Ulf; Zverkova-Sandström, Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Tumour necrosis factor-α inhibitor (TNFi) treatment has been shown to reduce the rates of anterior uveitis (AU) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Our objective was to compare the effect of adalimumab (ADA), etanercept (ETN) and infliximab (IFX) on AU occurrence in AS, using...

  18. Behavioral Activation Therapy for Depressed Cancer Patients: Factors Associated with Treatment Outcome and Attrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopko, D. R.; Robertson, S. M. C.; Colman, L.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years there has been increased focus on evaluating the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for cancer patients. Among the several limitations inherent to these programs of research, few studies have targeted patients with well-diagnosed clinical depression and little is known about factors that best predict treatment outcome and…

  19. Iliotibial band syndrome: soft tissue and biomechanical factors in evaluation and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert L; Souza, Richard B; Fredericson, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Muscle performance factors and altered loading mechanics have been linked to a variety of lower extremity musculoskeletal disorders. In this article, biomechanical risk factors associated with iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) are described, and a strategy for incorporating these factors into the clinical evaluation of and treatment for that disorder is presented. Abnormal movement patterns in runners and cyclists with ITBS are discussed, and the pathophysiological characteristics of this syndrome are considered in light of prior and current studies in anatomy. Differential diagnoses and the use of imaging, medications, and injections in the treatment of ITBS are reviewed. The roles of hip muscle strength, kinematics, and kinetics are detailed, and the assessment and treatment of muscle performance factors are discussed, with emphasis on identifying and treating movement dysfunction. Various stages of rehabilitation, including strengthening progressions to reduce soft-tissue injury, are described in detail. ITBS is an extremely common orthopedic condition that presents with consistent dysfunctional patterns in muscle performance and movement deviation. Through careful assessment of lower quarter function, the clinician can properly identify individuals and initiate treatment.

  20. The insulin-like growth factor 1 axis in prognosis and treatment of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Hermien

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is a tyrosine kinase receptor mediating cell growth and survival. IGF-1R signaling has been implicated in malignant behavior of tumors and drugs targeting the IGF-1R as anticancer treatment have been developed. We aimed to determine clinical indicators

  1. Incidence, risk factors and treatment of diarrhoea among Dutch travellers: reasons not to routinely prescribe antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belderok, S.M.; van den Hoek, A.; Kint, J.A.; van der Loeff, M.F.S.; Sonder, G.J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Travellers' diarrhoea (TD) is the most common infectious disease among travellers. In the Netherlands, stand-by or prophylactic antibiotics are not routinely prescribed to travellers. This study prospectively assessed the incidence rate, risk factors, and treatment of TD among immunocomp

  2. Factors that predict outcome of intensive care treatment in very elderly patients : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, Sophia E; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Levi, Marcel; de Jonge, Evert

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Advanced age is thought to be associated with increased mortality in critically ill patients. This report reviews available data on factors that determine outcome, on the value of prognostic models, and on preferences regarding life-sustaining treatments in (very) elderly intensive car

  3. Prevalence, treatment, and control of hypertension by sociodemographic factors among the Dutch elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.T.M. van Rossum (Caroline); H. van de Mheen (Dike); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); A. Hofman (Albert)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe study objective was to assess the prevalence, level of treatment, and control of hypertension in a general elderly population according to age and sociodemographic factors. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 7983 participants of the Rotterdam Stu

  4. Eating Disorders in Female College Athletes: Risk Factors, Prevention, and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Frances C.; Rivers, Tara C.

    2006-01-01

    Female athletes are at risk for developing eating disorders because of the pressures that are placed on them by society, their peers, their coaches, and the sports culture itself. This paper reviews the literature on the risk factors involved and various methods of prevention and treatment. The authors conclude that individual and group approaches…

  5. Factors associated with dizygotic twinning after IVF treatment with double embryo transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, E.; Lambers, M. J.; Stakelbeek, M. E. F.; Mooij, T. M.; van den Belt-Dusebout, A. W.; Heymans, M. W.; Schats, R.; Hompes, P. G. A.; Hoek, A.; Burger, C. W.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; Lambalk, C. B.

    2012-01-01

    Dizygotic twin pregnancies after IVF treatment are the result of multiple embryos transferred into the uterine cavity, followed by successful double implantation. Factors that increase the chance of multiple implantation after IVF are relatively unknown. The present study aimed to investigate whethe

  6. Delays in seeking treatment for symptomatic tuberculosis in Sabah, East Malaysia: factors for patient delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundi, C; Fielding, K; Godfrey-Faussett, P; Rodrigues, L C; Mangtani, P

    2011-09-01

    The state of Sabah contributes one third of the tuberculosis (TB) cases in Malaysia. To collect information on factors that affect the time period from the onset of symptoms to first contact with health care providers, whether private or government. A cross-sectional study using a pre-tested questionnaire was conducted among 296 newly registered smear-positive TB patients in 10 districts in Sabah. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to determine which risk factors were associated with patient delay (>30 days) and 'extreme' patient delay (>90 days). The percentage of patients who sought treatment after 30 and 90 days was respectively 51.8% (95%CI 45.7-57.9) and 23.5% (95%CI 18.6-29.0). The strongest factors associated with patient delay and 'extreme' patient delay was when the first choice for treatment was a non-government health facility and in 30-39-year-olds. 'Extreme' patient delay was also weakly associated, among other factors, with comorbidity and livestock ownership. Delay and extreme delay in seeking treatment were more common when the usual first treatment choice was a non-government health facility. Continuous health education on TB aimed at raising awareness and correcting misconceptions is needed, particularly among those who use non-government facilities.

  7. Correlates of Parental Differential Treatment: Parental and Contextual Factors during Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Pike, Alison

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined whether parental and contextual risk factors contribute to mothers' and fathers' differential treatment (MDT/FDT) when accounting for sibling dyad characteristics. Also explored was whether family type (single mothers vs. 2 parents) moderated the links between the parental and contextual correlates and MDT. One hundred…

  8. Factors Associated with Recent Suicide Attempts in Clients Presenting for Addiction Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Alexander; Mazmanian, Dwight; Jamieson, John; Black, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Factors associated with recent suicide attempts were examined in clients who sought treatment at an addictions facility between 2001 and 2008. Clients who reported being hospitalized for attempting suicide in the past year (n = 76) were compared to all other clients (n = 5914) on demographic, mental health, substance use, and problem gambling…

  9. The insulin-like growth factor 1 axis in prognosis and treatment of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Hermien

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is a tyrosine kinase receptor mediating cell growth and survival. IGF-1R signaling has been implicated in malignant behavior of tumors and drugs targeting the IGF-1R as anticancer treatment have been developed. We aimed to determine clinical indicators

  10. Longitudinal Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence among Men in Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Casey T.; O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Doron-Lamarca, Susan; Panuzio, Jillian; Suvak, Michael K.; Gagnon, David R.; Murphy, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined static and time-varying risk factors for perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) among men in treatment for alcohol use disorders. Method: Participants were 178 men diagnosed with alcohol abuse or dependence and their partners. Most (85%) of the men were European American; their average age was 41.0 years.…

  11. Risk factors for substance use among street children entering treatment in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibendu Bhattacharjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although empirical studies have reported on substance use in children in India, multivariable statistical models examining risk factors in children seeking treatment for substance use are largely lacking. The goal of this study was to test a conceptual model predicting age of first use, duration of use of any psychoactive substance, and primary substance of choice from child and family characteristics in a sample of children entering substance use treatment. Methods: This was a single-sample cross-sectional study of 159 children entering a treatment and rehabilitation center in Delhi that provides substance use treatment and teaches children the skills to allow for their re-integration into society. De-identified data were extracted from clinical case records. Summary statistics were used to describe the sample characteristics. Regression analyses were used to examine the proposed conceptual model. Results: Child's age, schooling, and age at first crime were unrelated to age at first use of a psychoactive substance, duration of use of such substances, or choice of primary substance. However, parental and family factors served as risk factors for predicting one or more of these three outcomes. Conclusions: Findings suggest that child psychoactive substance use may have a multidimensional set of possible family and parental origins, and that child factors such as age, education, and age at first crime may play a lesser or insignificant role in a child's psychoactive substance use.

  12. Incidence, risk factors and treatment of diarrhoea among Dutch travellers: reasons not to routinely prescribe antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belderok, S.M.; van den Hoek, A.; Kint, J.A.; van der Loeff, M.F.S.; Sonder, G.J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Travellers' diarrhoea (TD) is the most common infectious disease among travellers. In the Netherlands, stand-by or prophylactic antibiotics are not routinely prescribed to travellers. This study prospectively assessed the incidence rate, risk factors, and treatment of TD among

  13. Strategies for preserving residual renal function in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongnuch, Arkom; Assanatham, Montira; Panorchan, Kwanpeemai; Davenport, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    patients are at risk of sudden intravascular volume shifts associated with dialysis treatments. On the other hand, peritoneal dialysis patients are exposed to a variety of hypertonic dialysates and episodes of peritonitis. Whereas blood pressure control, using an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), and low-protein diets along with keto acid supplementation have been shown to reduce the rate of progression in patients with earlier stages of CKD, the strategies to preserve residual renal function (RRF) in dialysis patients are not well established. For peritoneal dialysis patients, there are additional technical factors that might aggravate the rate of loss of residual renal function including peritoneal dialysis prescriptions and modality, bio-incompatible dialysis fluid and over ultrafiltration of fluid causing dehydration. In this review, we aim to evaluate the evidence of interventions and treatments, which may sustain residual renal function in peritoneal dialysis patients.

  14. Antiplasmodial activity and toxicity of crude extracts from alternatives parts of plants widely used for the treatment of malaria in Burkina Faso: contribution for their preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansané, Adama; Sanon, Souleymane; Ouattara, Lamoussa P; Traoré, Abdoulaye; Hutter, Sébastien; Ollivier, Evelyne; Azas, Nadine; Traore, Alfred S; Guissou, Innocent P; Sirima, Sodiomon B; Nebié, Issa

    2010-01-01

    In order to prevent the destruction of the ecology and to sustain the flora mainly for medicinal plants, we investigated on alternative parts taken from four plants already known to display antiplasmodial activities and largely used by traditional healers in sub-Saharan Africa. The evaluated parts are bark of trunk for Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and leaves for Sarcocephalus latifolius instead of roots, and leaves for Combretum molle and Anogeissus leiocarpus instead of stem bark. The antiplasmodial activity of extracts of these plants was evaluated in vitro using the multi-resistant strain (W2) of Plasmodium falciparum. Antiproliferative activity was also assessed, using K562S human monocyte cell lines, along with calculation of the selectivity index (SI) of each extract. The highest in vitro antiplasmodial activity was found in the alkaloid extract of trunk bark from Z. zanthoxyloides and from the MeOH extract of A. leiocarpus leaves (IC(50) = 1.2 microg/mL and 4.9 microg/mL, respectively) with good selectivity index. Moderate activity was found in the MeOH extract (IC(50) = 5.7 microg/mL) and MeOH/H2O extract (IC(50) = 7.9 microg/mL) of C. molle leaves. Moderate activity was also found in the MeOH/H20 extract (IC(50) = 5.2 microg/mL) and the decoction (IC(50) = 8.2 microg/mL) from leaves of A. leiocarpus. No good activity was found with extracts from roots of S. latifolius. All extracts tested displayed low levels of cytotoxicity against K562S cells. The data generated clearly show that the trunk bark for Z. zanthoxyloides and the leaves for A. leiocarpus and C. molle could be used for the treatment of malaria instead of roots and stem bark.

  15. Optimal Subdivision for Treatment and Management of Catastrophic Landslides in a Watershed Using Topographic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao-Yuan; Fu, Kuei-Lin; Lin, Cheng-Yu

    2016-11-01

    Recent extreme rainfall events led to many landslides due to climate changes in Taiwan. How to effectively promote post-disaster treatment and/or management works in a watershed/drainage basin is a crucial issue. Regarding the processes of watershed treatment and/or management works, disaster hotspot scanning and treatment priority setup should be carried out in advance. A scanning method using landslide ratio to determine the appropriate outlet of an interested watershed, and an optimal subdivision system with better homogeneity and accuracy in landslide ratio estimation were developed to help efficient executions of treatment and/or management works. Topography is a key factor affecting watershed landslide ratio. Considering the complexity and uncertainty of the natural phenomenon, multivariate analysis was applied to understand the relationship between topographic factors and landslide ratio in the interested watershed. The concept of species-area curve, which is usually adopted at on-site vegetation investigation to determinate the suitable quadrate size, was used to derive the optimal threshold in subdivisions. Results show that three main component axes including factors of scale, network and shape extracted from Digital Terrain Model coupled with areas of landslide can effectively explain the characteristics of landslide ratio in the interested watershed, and a relation curve obtained from the accuracy of landslide ratio classification and number of subdivisions could be established to derive optimal subdivision of the watershed. The subdivision method promoted in this study could be further used for priority rank and benefit assessment of landslide treatment in a watershed.

  16. [Analysis of risk factors of drug-induced lung injury in patients receiving gemcitabine treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamichi, Hidenori; Fujita, Tetsuo; Tsuji, Daiki; Atsumi, Ichiko; Totsuka, Kasumi; Suzuki, Rina; Miki, Yoshihiro; Tomita, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Hidenori; Shiokawa, Mitsuru

    2012-05-01

    Gemcitabine hydrochloride is a very safe medicine that even outpatients can be administered, and the bone marrow depression that is the dose limiting factor remains moderate and does not need special treatment, although it is confirmed in most cases. Meanwhile, caution is required because there is a possibility of drug-induced lung injury and death due to high frequency, compared with the appearance rate described in the packaging insertion. We investigated the clinical background of a patient in whom drug-induced lung injury appeared, and clarified the risk factor by administering gemcitabine hydrochloride. Males, people aged 65 or over, those with a smoking history and those undergoing first-line chemotherapy treatment are at risk of drug-induced lung injury. Attention must be paid to the occurrence of drug-induced lung injury, to examining the clinical course, the chest image, and the blood test, and to do earlier detection, the offending medicine discontinuance, and beginning of the treatment.

  17. Genetics of ischemic stroke, stroke-related risk factors, stroke precursors and treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della-Morte, David; Guadagni, Fiorella; Palmirotta, Raffaele; Testa, Gianluca; Caso, Valeria; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Abete, Pasquale; Rengo, Franco; Ferroni, Patrizia; Sacco, Ralph L; Rundek, Tatjana

    2012-04-01

    Stroke remains a leading cause of death worldwide and the first cause of disability in the western world. Ischemic stroke (IS) accounts for almost 80% of the total cases of strokes and is a complex and multifactorial disease caused by the combination of vascular risk factors, environment and genetic factors. Investigations of the genetics of atherosclerosis and IS has greatly enhanced our knowledge of this complex multifactorial disease. In this article we sought to review common single-gene disorders relevant to IS, summarize candidate gene and genome-wide studies aimed at discovering genetic stroke risk factors and subclinical phenotypes, and to briefly discuss pharmacogenetics related to stroke treatments. Genetics of IS is, in fact, one of the most promising research frontiers and genetic testing may be helpful for novel drug discoveries as well as for appropriate drug and dose selection for treatment of patients with cerebrovascular disease.

  18. Hepatitis B viral breakthrough associated with inappropriate preservation of entecavir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabay, Oguz; Tuna, Nazan; Yahyaoglu, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    If virologic breakthrough is observed during chronic hepatitis B treatment, drug resistance or compliance problem should be considered. But in some cases, breakthrough depends on drug preservation conditions. We report the case of a 30-years-old man, who experienced viral breakthrough due to wrong preservation conditions of the drug. PMID:22345891

  19. Hepatitis B viral breakthrough associated with inappropriate preservation of entecavir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz Karabay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available If virologic breakthrough is observed during chronic hepatitis B treatment, drug resistance or compliance problem should be considered. But in some cases, breakthrough depends on drug preservation conditions. We report the case of a 30-years-old man, who experienced viral breakthrough due to wrong preservation conditions of the drug.

  20. Psychological factors and treatment effectiveness in resistant anxiety disorders in highly comorbid inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ociskova M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Marie Ociskova, Jan Prasko, Klara Latalova, Dana Kamaradova, Ales Grambal Department of Psychiatry, Olomouc University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacký University Olomouc, Czech Republic Background: Anxiety disorders are a group of various mental syndromes that have been related with generally poor treatment response. Several psychological factors may improve or hinder treatment effectiveness. Hope has a direct impact on the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Also, dissociation is a significant factor influencing treatment efficiency in this group of disorders. Development of self-stigma could decrease treatment effectiveness, as well as several temperamental and character traits. The aim of this study was to explore a relationship between selected psychological factors and treatment efficacy in anxiety disorders. Subjects and methods: A total of 109 inpatients suffering from anxiety disorders with high frequency of comorbidity with depression and/or personality disorder were evaluated at the start of the treatment by the following scales: the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale, the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, and the Temperament and Character Inventory – revised. The participants, who sought treatment for anxiety disorders, completed the following scales at the beginning and end of an inpatient-therapy program: Clinical Global Impression (objective and subjective the Beck Depression Inventory – second edition, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The treatment consisted of 25 group sessions and five individual sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy or psychodynamic therapy in combination with pharmacotherapy. There was no randomization to the type of group-therapy program. Results: Greater improvement in psychopathology, assessed by relative change in objective Clinical Global Impression score, was connected with low initial

  1. The health belief model and factors associated with adherence to treatment recommendations for positional plagiocephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Sandi; Luerssen, Thomas G; Hadley, Caroline; Daniels, Bradley; Strickland, Ben A; Brookshier, Jim; Pan, I-Wen

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE This study aimed to examine factors associated with adherence to recommended treatment among pediatric patients with positional skull deformity by reviewing a single-institution experience (2007-2014) with the treatment of positional plagiocephaly. METHODS A retrospective chart review was conducted. Risk factors, treatment for positional head shape deformity, and parent-reported adherence were recorded. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the impact of patient clinical and demographic characteristics on adherence. RESULTS A total of 991 patients under age 12 months were evaluated for positional skull deformity at the Texas Children's Hospital Cranial Deformity Clinic between 2007 and 2014. According to an age- and risk factor-based treatment algorithm, patients were recommended for repositioning, physical therapy, or cranial orthosis therapy or crossover from repositioning/physical therapy into cranial orthosis therapy. The patients' average chronological age at presentation was 6.2 months; 69.3% were male. The majority were white (40.7%) or Hispanic (32.6%); 38.7% had commercial insurance and 37.9% had Medicaid. The most common initial recommended treatment was repositioning or physical therapy; 85.7% of patients were adherent to the initial recommended treatment. Univariate analysis showed differences in adherence rates among subgroups. Children's families with Medicaid were less likely to be adherent to treatment recommendations (adherence rate, 80.2%). Families with commercial insurance were more likely to be adherent to the recommended treatment (89.6%). Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that factors associated with parent-reported adherence to recommended treatment included primary insurance payer, diagnosis (plagiocephaly vs brachycephaly), and the nature of the recommended treatment. Families were less likely to be adherent if they had Medicaid, a child with a diagnosis of brachycephaly, or were initially recommended

  2. Modified duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection in treatment of patients with chronic pancreatitis%改良保留十二指肠胰头切除术治疗慢性胰腺炎的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏洪吉; 吴河水; 熊炯炘; 陶京; 周峰; 王春友

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察改良保留十二指肠的胰头切除术(改良Beger手术)对伴胰头炎性肿块的慢性胰腺炎病人的治疗效果.方法:回顾性分析自2004年1月至2010年12月,在我院胰腺外科接受改良Beger手术治疗的51例伴胰头炎性肿块的慢性胰腺炎病人的临床资料,并对病人术后疼痛症状、生活质量及内分泌功能等进行随访.结果:无手术死亡病例,术后并发症发生率为15.7%,其中胰漏3例,胆漏2例,十二指肠漏l例,腹腔出血1例,切口裂开1例.术后6个月,病人疼痛得到明显缓解,EORTC QLQ-C30疼痛评分由(64.3±5.8)降至(12.5±3.7)(P<0.01),生活质量获显著提高,GLQI生活质量评分由(70.1±5.8)增至(86.4±6.6)(P<0.01);病人内分泌功能未受影响,无新增糖尿病病例.结论:采用改良Beger手术治疗伴胰头炎性肿块的慢性胰腺炎是安全、有效的.%Objective To observe the therapeutic efficacy of a modified duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection procedure in the treatment of patients with chronic pancreatitis and an inflammatory mass in the head of the pancreas. Methods From Jan 2004 to Dec 2010, a modified duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection procedure was performed in fifty-one patients with chronic pancreatitis and an inflammatory mass in the head of the pancreas. The pain scale in the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GLQI) questionnaire, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were used to evaluate the changes in preoperative and postoperative pain symptomatology, quality of life, and endocrine function of the patients correspondingly. Results There was no hospital mortality. The overall postoperative incidence rate of complications was 13.7%, including pancreatic fistula in 3 cases, bile leakage in 2 cases, duodenal fistula in 1 case, intraabdominal bleeding in 1 case and wound disruption in 1 case

  3. Awareness of the Warning Signs, Risk Factors, and Treatment for Tuberculosis among Urban Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi O. Desalu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the awareness of the warning signs, risk factors, and treatment of tuberculosis among urban Nigerians. Methods. This was a cross-sectional survey among 574 adults in Ilorin, Nigeria. Semistructured questionnaire was administered by trained interviewers to obtain information about awareness of tuberculosis warning signs, risk factors, and treatment. Results. Majority of the subjects (71.4% were aware of at least one warning sign of tuberculosis. Cough (66.2%, weight loss (38.0%, and haemoptysis (30.7% were the most identified warning signs. The predictors of awareness of warning sign were increasing age (, higher family income (, higher level of education (, and belonging to Christian faith (. Awareness of risk factors for tuberculosis was higher for tobacco smokers (77.0% and history of contact with a case of TB (76.0%. Less than half were aware of HIV infection (49.8%, alcohol consumption (42.5%, chronic kidney disease (40.4%, extremes of ages (39.4%, cancers (36.9%, and diabetes mellitus (27.5% as risk factors for TB. Tuberculosis was reported to be curable by 74.6% of the subjects and 67.9% knew that there are medications for treatment of tuberculosis, while 11.5% knew the duration of treatment. Conclusion. This study has revealed that the awareness of HIV and noncommunicable diseases as risk factors for TB is poor. This study has therefore demonstrated the need for health education programs that will emphasize recognition, identification, and modification of risk factor for TB.

  4. Anterior cruciate ligament remnant and its values for preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Muneta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Controversy surrounds the remnant-preserving anterior cruciate ligament surgery. Advantages of remnant preservation have been reported in regard to better healing and knee function, although no consensus has been reached. This review article discussed the value and meaning of anterior cruciate ligament remnant preservation in several sections such as effects on healing, remnant classification, biomechanical evaluation, relation to proprioception, animal studies, and clinical studies. We hope that this review will facilitate further discussion and investigation for better treatment of anterior cruciate ligament injuries. So far, the current reviews have not provided sufficient scientific evidence to support the value of preserving the remnant.

  5. 氢氧化钠梯度浓度浸泡制备乌鸡皮蛋工艺研究%Study on the Major Factors for Making Preserved Dark Eggs with Gradient Concentration Sodium Hydroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中科; 黄姝洁; 卢晓黎

    2011-01-01

    以乌鸡蛋为原料,以感官评价为指标,采用正交试验研究了氢氧化钠梯度浓度浸泡制备乌鸡皮蛋的工艺方法,优化出的关键工艺参数为:食盐4%、红茶末2.5%、硫酸锌0.4%,浸泡初期温度25℃~27℃、氢氧化钠6%;进入转色期后,温度21℃~23℃、氢氧化钠浓度2.5%.%Dark egg was taken as the research object, taking the sense organs assess as the test indices, the orthogonal experiment as the means of analyzing, the level of main factors for making preserved dark eggs with gradient concentration sodium hydroxide have been selected. The results show that optimum conditions were: salt concentration was 4%, black tea amount was 2.5%, zinc sulfate concentration was 0.4%, the initial curing temperature was 25-27℃, the initial sodium hydroxide concentration was 6%, the temperature of turning stage was 21-23℃, the sodium hydroxide concentration of turning stage was 2.5%.

  6. Circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 2 are increased in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction relative to heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: evidence for a divergence in pathophysiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan N Putko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various pathways have been implicated in the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF. Inflammation in response to comorbid conditions, such as hypertension and diabetes, may play a proportionally larger role in HFPEF as compared to HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study investigated inflammation mediated by the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα axis in community-based cohorts of HFPEF patients (n = 100, HFREF patients (n = 100 and healthy controls (n = 50. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to investigate levels of TNFα, its two receptors (TNFR1 and TNFR2, and a non-TNFα cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6, in plasma derived from peripheral blood samples. Plasma levels of TNFα and TNFR1 were significantly elevated in HFPEF relative to controls, while levels of TNFR2 were significantly higher in HFPEF than both controls and HFREF. TNFα, TNFR1 and TNFR2 were each significantly associated with at least two of the following: age, estimated glomerular filtration rate, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, peripheral vascular disease or history of atrial fibrillation. TNFR2 levels were also significantly associated with increasing grade of diastolic dysfunction and severity of symptoms in HFPEF. CONCLUSIONS: Inflammation mediated through TNFα and its receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, may represent an important component of a comorbidity-induced inflammatory response that partially drives the pathophysiology of HFPEF.

  7. [Clinical efficacy of mouse nerve growth factor in the treatment of sudden deafness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Xiao, Dajiang; Wu, Sihai; Yuan, Yuan

    2014-05-01

    To study the clinical efficacy of mouse nerve growth factor (NGF) in the treatment of sudden deafness. A retrospective analysis was performed on 115 cases of hospitalized patients who were suffered from sudden deafness. Patients were divided into two groups according to treatment medicine. Control group: patients were treated with intravenous vasodilators, energy mixture, steroid pulse therapy, and methylcobalamin neurotrophic therapy. NGF group: intramuscular NGF treatment was added on the basis of conventional therapy mentioned above. Both treatments lasted 14 days, the total efficiency were compared. Patients were further divided into sub-groups according to age, duration and the level of pre-treatment PTA, and the treatment efficiency was further compared. By SPSS 11.0 statistical analysis, a P 60 dBHL, the efficiency of NGF therapy was not superior to the traditional treatment. NGF can significantly improve the symptom of patients with short duration or low PTA. For this kind of patients, NGF adjuvant therapy should be recommended. For the patients with longer duration and higher level of PTA, NGF therapy is not advocated. NGF treatment should not be in consideration of the age.

  8. Clinical and neurobiological factors in the management of treatment refractory attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Se-Hoon; Yoon, Hee-Jung; Bak, Jeongjae; Hahn, Sang-Woo; Kim, Yong-Ku

    2016-10-03

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent mental disorder of childhood, which often continues into adolescence and adulthood. Stimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH) and non-stimulants such as atomoxetine are effective medications for the treatment of ADHD. However, about 30% of patients do not respond to these medications. Pharmacological treatment for ADHD, although highly effective, is associated with marked variabilities in clinical response, optimal dosage needed and tolerability. This article provides an overview of up-to-date knowledge regarding the clinical and neurobiological factors which contribute to and help predict treatment-refractory ADHD. Pharmacogenetic, pharmacogenomics and neuroimaging studies are still controversial with respect to determining the associations between response to medication and genetic factors, thereby resulting in hypotheses that differences in the genetic factors and neuroimaging findings contribute to treatment outcome. Much research on the potential role of genotype in pharmacological effects has focused on the catecholaminergic gene related to executive functions. Many neuroimaging studies have also reported a relationship between treatment response and common patterns of brain structure or activity according to various genetic polymorphisms. When children, adolescents and adults with ADHD do not respond to MPH, we should consider additional pharmacological options, including other classes of psychostimulants, the nonstimulant atomoxetine, bupropion, tricyclic antidepressant, clonidine, guanfacine and lisdexamphetamine. Prudent choice of an appropriate medication and active engagement of children, parents, and teachers in daily management may help to ensure long-term adherence. Therefore, additional research might help to optimize the treatment of children, adolescents and adults with ADHD and to find new options for the treatment of patients who do not respond to stimulants and the other

  9. Practical Limits to the Scope of Digital Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Kastellec

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines factors that limit the ability of institutions to digitally preserve the cultural heritage of the modern era. The author takes a wide-ranging approach to shed light on limitations to the scope of digital preservation.  The author finds that technological limitations to digital preservation have been addressed but still exist, and that non-technical aspects—access, selection, law, and finances—move into the foreground as technological limitations recede.  The author proposes a nested model of constraints to the scope of digital preservation and concludes that costs are digital preservation’s most pervasive limitation.

  10. Preservation of Chytridiomycota in culture collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Frank H; Mozley-Standridge, Sharon E; Porter, David; Boyle, Donna G; Hyatt, Alex D

    2007-02-01

    Methods for the preservation of fungi in the Chytridiomycota in culture collections are reviewed in this paper. The Chytridiomycota can be preserved with varying degrees of success using a number of different protocols including cryopreservation. The survival of fungi in the Chytridiomycota is sensitive to environmental factors such as lack of moisture, high temperatures, high osmotic potential, and availability of oxygen, all of which must be considered in designing preservation methods. The age of the culture at the initiation of preservation appears to be a particularly important determinant of viability. Recently, commonly used methods for preservation of other groups of fungi have been modified to improve the survival of the Chytridiomycota in culture collections. High rates of survival have been reported after cryopreservation of aerobic and anaerobic chytrids in 10 % glycerol or dimethyl sulphoxide as cryoprotectants. The rates of freezing and thawing must be carefully controlled in the methods for cryopreservation considered in this review. Further research on increasing long-term survival rates and morphological, physiological and genetic stability of Chytridiomycota at low temperatures is necessary.

  11. Psychological factors and treatment effectiveness in resistant anxiety disorders in highly comorbid inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ociskova, Marie; Prasko, Jan; Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Grambal, Ales

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are a group of various mental syndromes that have been related with generally poor treatment response. Several psychological factors may improve or hinder treatment effectiveness. Hope has a direct impact on the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Also, dissociation is a significant factor influencing treatment efficiency in this group of disorders. Development of self-stigma could decrease treatment effectiveness, as well as several temperamental and character traits. The aim of this study was to explore a relationship between selected psychological factors and treatment efficacy in anxiety disorders. A total of 109 inpatients suffering from anxiety disorders with high frequency of comorbidity with depression and/or personality disorder were evaluated at the start of the treatment by the following scales: the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale, the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, and the Temperament and Character Inventory - revised. The participants, who sought treatment for anxiety disorders, completed the following scales at the beginning and end of an inpatient-therapy program: Clinical Global Impression (objective and subjective) the Beck Depression Inventory - second edition, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The treatment consisted of 25 group sessions and five individual sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy or psychodynamic therapy in combination with pharmacotherapy. There was no randomization to the type of group-therapy program. Greater improvement in psychopathology, assessed by relative change in objective Clinical Global Impression score, was connected with low initial dissociation level, harm avoidance, and self-stigma, and higher amounts of hope and self-directedness. Also, individuals without a comorbid personality disorder improved considerably more than comorbid patients. According to backward-stepwise multiple regression, the best

  12. Home-Made Cost Effective Preservation Buffer Is a Better Alternative to Commercial Preservation Methods for Microbiome Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Sebastian; Gillingham, Mark A. F.; Wilhelm, Kerstin; Sommer, Simone

    2017-01-01

    The investigation of wildlife gastrointestinal microbiomes by next-generation sequencing approaches is a growing field in microbial ecology and conservation. Such studies often face difficulties in sample preservation if neither freezing facilities nor liquid nitrogen (LQN) are readily available. Thus, in order to prevent microbial community changes because of bacterial growth after sampling, preservation buffers need to be applied to samples. However, the amount of microbial community variation attributable to the different preservation treatments and potentially affecting biological interpretation is hardly known. Here, we sampled feces of 11 sheep (Ovis aries sp.) by using swabs and analyzed the effect of air-drying, an inexpensive self-made nucleic acid preservation buffer (NAP), DNA/RNA Shield™, and RNAlater®, each together with freezing (for 10 days) or storing at room temperature (for 10 days) prior to 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing to determine bacterial communities. Results revealed that the proportions of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to a bacterial phylum were affected by the preservation treatments, and that alpha diversities [observed OTUs, Shannon index, and phylogenetic diversity (PD)] were lower in all preservation treatments than in samples taken by forensic swabs and immediately frozen which is considered as the favored preservation treatment in the absence of any logistic constraints. Overall, NAP had better preservation qualities than RNAlater® and DNA/RNA Shield™ making this self-made buffer a valuable solution in wildlife microbiome studies. PMID:28197142

  13. Research of refraction status in 354 amblyopia children and influence factors for its treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ting Tang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To study the refraction status in 354 amblyopia children and to investigate the related influence factors for the treatment effect. METHODS:Three hundred and fifty-four children diagnosed as ametropia amblyopia from January 2010 to June 2015 in our hospital were selected. The children were divided into groups according to the children's age, refraction types of amblyopia and degree of amblyopia. The clinical treatment effect of different groups was compared. RESULTS:The cure rate for amblyopia children in different groups was significantly different(PPPCONCLUSION:The treatment effect of ametropia amblyopia is correlated with the children's age, types of amblyopia and degree of amblyopia. It has a poor treatment effect for the older children with severe myopia and amblyopia.

  14. Risk factors for treatment-limiting toxicities in patients starting nevirapine-containing antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesselring, Anouk M; Wit, Ferdinand W; Sabin, Caroline A;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This collaboration of seven observational clinical cohorts investigated risk factors for treatment-limiting toxicities in both antiretroviral-naive and experienced patients starting nevirapine-based combination antiretroviral therapy (NVPc). METHODS: Patients starting NVPc after 1...... to treatment-limiting toxicities and/or patient/physician choice (TOXPC, n = 10,186). Patients were classified according to prior antiretroviral treatment experience and CD4 cell count/viral load at start NVPc. Models were stratified by cohort and adjusted for age, sex, nadir CD4 cell count, calendar year...... of starting NVPc and mode of transmission. RESULTS: Median time from starting NVPc to TOXPC and HSR were 162 days [interquartile range (IQR) 31-737] and 30 days (IQR 17-60), respectively. In adjusted Cox analyses, compared to naive patients with a low CD4 cell count, treatment-experienced patients with high...

  15. 非手术综合治疗保留中晚期喉癌患者喉器官的效果分析%Effective analysis of non-surgical combined treatments for laryngeal organ preservation in locally advanced laryngeal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜芳; 张欣欣; 马林; 刘明波; 陈南翔; 王嘉陵; 武文明; 黄德亮

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the therapeutic effects,larynx preservation and adverse events of non-surgical combined treatments for laryngeal organ preservation in locally advanced laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas(SCCs).Methods Forty-six patients with locally advanced laryngeal carcinoma (T2-4,N0-N3) were treated individually with non-surgical combined treatments for larynx preservation (LP).These treatments included concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) (± epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)inhibitor),induction chemotherapy (ICT) followed by CCRT (± EGFR inhibitor),or concurrent radiotherapy and EGFR inhibitor.Radiation therapy was given to a total dose of 60-70 Gy.The KaplanMeier method was used to determine the overall survival.Side-effects were evaluated with the established Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 3.0 criteria.Results The average follow-up time was 31.8 months (range 6-95 months).All patients completed the planned radiotherapywithout treatment breaks,and 45(97.8%) of 46 patients completed the planned chemotherapy.The 3-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 87.3% and 67.2%,respectively.The 5-year larynx preservation rate was 100.0%.The 3-year and 5-year progression free survival rates were 95.1% and 87.7%,respectively.The most common acute side effect in grade 3 was oropharyngeal mucositis.After treatment,tracheotomy was still required in 2 patients with glottis cancer for laryngeal edema or stenosis.No patient depended on a percutaneous gastrostomy and experienced speech impairment.Conclusion Patients with locally advanced laryngeal cancer can be offered non-surgical combined treatments for laryngeal preservation and the high quality of life,showing a higher laryngeal preservation survival rate with minimal toxicities.%目的 评估应用非手术综合治疗方法治疗中晚期喉癌患者的治疗效果.方法 回顾性分析2007年11月至2015年4月,解放军总医院耳鼻咽喉头颈外科46例应

  16. Influence factors and clinical treatment of high intraocular pressure after LASEK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Feng Lei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the influence factors of high intraocular pressure after laser epithelial keratomileusis(LASEK, and to discuss the clinical treatment and prognosis of the high intraocular pressure patients. METHODS: A retrospective study was used. From August 2013 to February 2016, 160 LASEK patients(160 eyesin our hospital were selected. Visual acuity after operation was recorded. The incidence and influence factors of high intraocular pressure were investigated. The treatment method and prognosis of high intraocular pressure were recorded. RESULTS: In the 160 patients, all patients had complete epithelial flap and different degree of photophobia. There were 19 patients with postoperative photophobia, conjunctival hyperemia and foreign body sensation significantly. At postoperative 3mo, average intraocular pressure were 18.40±4.98mmHg, which was higher than that of preoperative, 16.27±2.24mmHg(PPOR=3.209, maximum diameter of curvature(OR=3.071and fundus C/D(OR=9.224value were the main risk factors leading to postoperative steroid induced ocular hypertension(PCONCLUSION: The postoperative steroid induced ocular hypertension in LASEK is common, but has no obvious effect on visual acuity. The cutting depth, maximum diameter, curvature fundus C/D value were the main influencing factors, so we should careful use the hormone drugs in treatment and prevention. Periodic review and detection for change of intraocular pressure are needed.

  17. 几种栅栏因子在即食海蜇保鲜中的应用研究%Study on preservation of ready-to eat jellyfish with several hurdle factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓明; 陈舜胜

    2011-01-01

    通过对即食海蜇样品感官评定以及测定样品中肉毒梭状芽孢杆菌、菌落总数、TVB-N值、汁液流失率作为评价指标,研究温度、pH、包装方式等物理栅栏因子对即食海蜇保鲜的影响。盐矾海蜇经前处理后,分别采用普通包装、真空包装以及各种不同气体比例的气调包装(A:60%CO2/40%N2、B:60%CO2/35%N2/5%O2、C:60%CO2/30%N2/10%O2、D:50%CO2/45%N2/5%O2、E:50%CO2/40%N2/10%O2、F:40%CO2/55%N2/5%O2、G:40%CO2/50%N2/10%O2)后,分别在3℃、室温贮藏。实验结果表明:所有样品在保藏期间均没有肉毒梭状芽孢杆菌的检出;低温结合气调包装D处理可以明显延长即食海蜇制品的保质期,其保质期是常温贮藏A处理样品的1.5倍;用不同浓度柠檬酸溶液(Ⅰ:1%、Ⅱ:0.5%、Ⅲ:0.1%)浸泡处理结合气调包装D处理的即食海蜇样品,其中0.5%、1%柠檬酸浸泡处理的样品,分别在3℃低温贮藏56d后,海蜇质构变软,感官不可接受。0.1%柠檬酸浸泡处理过的样品,在贮藏70d后,感官评分较高,TVB-N值3.6152mgN/100g,菌落总数为2.85×104cfu/g。%The effect of several physical hurdle factors,such as temperature,pH,modified atmosphere packaging on ready-to-eat jellyfish preservation were studied,using sensory evaluation and determination of Clostridium botulinum,total bacterial count,TVB-N value,drip loss.Salted jellyfish,after preliminary treatment,was stored at 3℃ and room temperature using different packaging:common packaging,vacuum packaging,modified atmosphere packaging(MAP)(A:60%CO2/40%N2,B:60%CO2/35%N2/5%O2,C:60%CO2/30%N2/10%O2,D:50%CO2/45%N2/5%O2,E:50%CO2/40%N2/10%O2,F:40%CO2/55%N2/5%O2,G:40%CO2/50%N2/10%O2).The result showed that:Clostridium botulinum was not detected in all samples.The combination of low temperature and simple D can significantly prolong the shelf life of ready-to-eat jellyfish products,1.5 times than simple A stored at room

  18. Factors influencing the diagnosis and treatment of chronic prostatitis among urologists in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long-Fei Liu; Jin-Rui Yang; David A.Ginsberg; Hui-Wen Xie; Jian-Ming Rao; Long Wang; Zhuo Yin; Qian He; Tu-Bao Yang

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To identify the factors influencing diagnosis and treatment of chronic prostatitis (CP) among Chinese urologists. Methods: A sample of 656 urologists from 29 provinces of China were asked to complete a questionnaire that ex- plored attitudes towards CP as well as diagnosis and treatment patterns in the management of CP. Both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis schemes were used to determine the factors that influence the diagnosis and treatment of CP. Results: A total of 656 questionnaires were given out. All were returned and 410 of those were included in the final univariate and multivariate analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that belief of bacterial infection in the etiology of CP (odds ratio [OR], 2.544; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.650-3.923; P < 0.001) was the most significant factor influencing the routine performance of bacterial culture test. Using the same model, the type of hospital (OR, 2.799; 95% CI, 1.719-4.559; P < 0.001) and the routine use of the 4- or the 2-glass test (OR, 3.194; 95% CI, 2.069-4.931, P < 0.001) were determined to be significant factors influencing the use of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) new classification system. According to the same model, belief of bacterial infection in the etiology of CP (OR, 3.415; 95% CI, 2.024-5.762; P < 0.001) and the routine use of bacterial culture test (OR, 2.261; 95% CI, 1.364-3.749; P < 0.01) were important factors influencing the routine prescription of antibiotics. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that attitudes towards CP, and the characteristics of individual urologists' practices may influence the diagnosis and treatment of CP among Chinese urologists. (Asian JAndrol 2008 Jul; 10: 675-681)

  19. Personal care product preservatives: risk assessment and mixture toxicities with an industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajo, Jose B; Perdigón-Melón, Jose A; Petre, Alice L; Rosal, Roberto; Letón, Pedro; García-Calvo, Eloy

    2015-04-01

    The aquatic toxicity of eight preservatives frequently used in personal care products (PCPs) (iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, bronopol, diazolidinyl urea, benzalkonium chloride, zinc pyrithione, propylparaben, triclosan and a mixture of methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone) was assessed by means of two different approaches: a battery of bioassays composed of single species tests of bacteria (Vibrio fischeri and Pseudomonas putida) and protozoa (Tetrahymena thermophila), and a whole biological community resazurin-based assay using activated sludge. The tested preservatives showed considerable toxicity in the studied bioassays, but with a marked difference in potency. In fact, all biocides except propylparaben and diazolidinyl urea had EC50 values lower than 1 mg L(-1) in at least one assay. Risk quotients for zinc pyrithione, benzalkonium chloride, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate and triclosan as well as the mixture of the studied preservatives exceeded 1, indicating a potential risk for the process performance and efficiency of municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). These four single biocides explained more than 95% of the preservative mixture risk in all bioassays. Each individual preservative was also tested in combination with an industrial wastewater (IWW) from a cosmetics manufacturing facility. The toxicity assessment was performed on binary mixtures (preservative + IWW) and carried out using the median-effect principle, which is a special case of the concept of Concentration Addition (CA). Almost 70% of all experiments resulted in EC50 values within a factor of 2 of the values predicted by the median-effect principle (CI values between 0.5 and 2). The rest of the mixtures whose toxicity was mispredicted by CA were assessed with the alternative concept of Independent Action (IA), which showed higher predictive power for the biological community assay. Therefore, the concept used to accurately predict the toxicity of mixtures of a preservative

  20. 78 FR 39300 - Notice of Advisory Council on Historic Preservation Quarterly Business Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... entity with the legal responsibility to encourage federal agencies to factor historic preservation into.... Preserve America at 10: Future Directions 1. Follow up from Forum 2. Presidential Heritage Awards C...

  1. Impact of tumour necrosis factor inhibitor treatment on radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis patients in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ornbjerg, Lykke Midtbøll; Østergaard, Mikkel; Bøyesen, Pernille;

    2013-01-01

    To compare radiographic progression during treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) and subsequent treatment with tumour necrosis factor α inhibitors (TNF-I) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in clinical practice.......To compare radiographic progression during treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) and subsequent treatment with tumour necrosis factor α inhibitors (TNF-I) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in clinical practice....

  2. Factors influencing treatment default among tuberculosis patients in a high burden province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigozi, G; Heunis, C; Chikobvu, P; Botha, S; van Rensburg, D

    2017-01-01

    To determine and describe the factors influencing treatment default of tuberculosis (TB) patients in the Free State Province of South Africa. A retrospective records review of pulmonary TB cases captured in the ETR.Net electronic TB register between 2003 and 2012 was performed. Subjects were >15 years of age and had a recorded pre-treatment smear result. The demographic and clinical characteristics of defaulters were described. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with treatment default. The odds ratios (OR) together with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Statistical significance was considered at 0.05. A total of 7980 out of 110 349 (7.2%) cases defaulted treatment. Significantly higher proportions of cases were male (8.3% vs. female: 5.8%; p64 years: 3.9%; ptreatment sputum smear result (7.8% vs. positive smear results: 7.1%; ptreatment (95.5% vs. >2 months: 4.8%; ptreatment when being retreated compared to being treated for the first time for TB (adjusted OR (AOR) 2.0, 95% CI 1.85-2.25). Female cases were 40% less likely to default treatment compared to their male counterparts (AOR 0.6, 95% CI 0.51-0.71). Treatment default was less likely among cases >24 years old compared to younger cases (25-34 years: AOR 0.8, 95% CI 0.77-0.87; 35-44 years: AOR 0.6, 95% CI 0.50-0.64; 45-54 years: AOR 0.4, 95% CI 0.32-0.49; 55-64 years: AOR 0.3, 95% CI 0.21-0.43; >64 years: AOR 0.3, 95% CI 0.19-0.35). Co-infected cases receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) were 40% less likely to default TB treatment relative to those whose ART status was unknown (AOR 0.6, 95% CI 0.46-0.57). Salient factors influence TB patient treatment default in the Free State Province. Therefore, the strengthening of clinical and programmatic interventions for patients at high risk of treatment default is recommended. In particular, ART provision to co-infected cases facilitates TB treatment adherence and outcomes. Copyright

  3. Factors associated with low adherence to medicine treatment for chronic diseases in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Mengue, Sotero Serrate; Arrais, Paulo Sergio Dourado; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Farias, Mareni Rocha; Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva Dal

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze factors associated with low adherence to drug treatment for chronic diseases in Brazil. METHODS Analysis of data from Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos (PNAUM - Brazilian Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines), a population-based cross-sectional household survey, based on a probabilistic sample of the Brazilian population. We analyzed the association between low adherence to drug treatment measured by the Brief Medication Questionnaire and demographic, socioeconomic, health, care and prescription factors. We used Poisson regression model to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios, their respective 95% confidence interval (95%CI) and p-value (Wald test). RESULTS The prevalence of low adherence to drug treatment for chronic diseases was 30.8% (95%CI 28.8-33.0). The highest prevalence of low adherence was associated with individuals: young adults; no education; resident in the Northeast and Midwest Regions of Brazil; paying part of the treatment; poor self-perceived health; three or more diseases; reported limitations caused by a chronic disease; using five drugs or more. CONCLUSIONS Low adherence to drug treatment for chronic diseases in Brazil is relevant, and regional and demographic differences and those related to patients’ health care and therapy regime require coordinated action between health professionals, researchers, managers and policy makers. PMID:27982378

  4. Treatment of chronical myocardial ischemia by adenovirus-mediated hypatocyte growth factor gene transfer in minipigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Biao; ZHANG YouRong; ZHAO Zhong; WU DanLi; YUAN LiZhen; WU Bin; WANG LiSheng; HUANG Jun

    2008-01-01

    Growth factor gene transfer-induced therapeutic angiogenesis has become a novel approach for the treatment of myocardial ischemia. In order to provide a basis for the clinical application of an adeno-virus with hepatocyte growth factor gene (Ad-HGF) in the treatment of myocardial ischemia, we estab-lished a minipig model of chronically ischemic myocardium in which an Ameroid constrictor was placed around the left circumflex branch of the coronary artery (LCX). A total of 18 minipigs were ran-domly divided into 3 groups: a surgery control group, a model group and an Ad-HGF treatment group implanted with Ameroid constrictor. Ad-HGF or the control agent was injected directly into the ischemic myocardium, and an improvement in heart function and blood supply were evaluated. The results showed that myocardial perfusion remarkably improved in the Ad-HGF group compared with that in both the control and model groups. Four weeks after the treatment, the density of newly formed blood vessels was higher and the number of collateral blood vessels was greater in the Ad-HGF group than in the model group. The area of myocardial ischemia reduced evidently and the left ventricular ejection fraction improved significantly in the Ad-HGF group. These results suggest that HGF gene therapy may become a novel approach in the treatment of chronically ischemic myocardium.

  5. Treatment of chronical myocardial ischemia by adenovirus-mediated hepatocyte growth factor gene transfer in minipigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Growth factor gene transfer-induced therapeutic angiogenesis has become a novel approach for the treatment of myocardial ischemia. In order to provide a basis for the clinical application of an adeno- virus with hepatocyte growth factor gene (Ad-HGF) in the treatment of myocardial ischemia, we estab- lished a minipig model of chronically ischemic myocardium in which an Ameroid constrictor was placed around the left circumflex branch of the coronary artery (LCX). A total of 18 minipigs were ran- domly divided into 3 groups: a surgery control group, a model group and an Ad-HGF treatment group implanted with Ameroid constrictor. Ad-HGF or the control agent was injected directly into the ischemic myocardium, and an improvement in heart function and blood supply were evaluated. The results showed that myocardial perfusion remarkably improved in the Ad-HGF group compared with that in both the control and model groups. Four weeks after the treatment, the density of newly formed blood vessels was higher and the number of collateral blood vessels was greater in the Ad-HGF group than in the model group. The area of myocardial ischemia reduced evidently and the left ventricular ejection fraction improved significantly in the Ad-HGF group. These results suggest that HGF gene therapy may become a novel approach in the treatment of chronically ischemic myocardium.

  6. Predictive factors for the methotrexate treatment outcome in ectopic pregnancy: A comparative study of 400 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Lucie; Pedreiro, Cécile; Moret, Stéphanie; Chene, Gautier; Gaucherand, Pascal; Lamblin, Géry

    2017-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the global success rate of intramuscular methotrexate for the treatment of ectopic pregnancy, identify factors predictive of treatment success or failure, and study methotrexate tolerability in a large patient cohort. For this single-center retrospective observational study, we retrieved the records of all women who had a clinically or echographically confirmed ectopic pregnancy with a Fernandez score ectopic pregnancy. The medical treatment protocol was effective for 314 patients, i.e., an overall success rate of 78.5%. A single methotrexate dose was sufficient for 63.5% of the women and a second dose was successful for 73.2% of the remaining women. The medical treatment success rate fell as initial hCG levels climbed. The main factors associated with methotrexate failure included day (D) 0, D4 and D7 hCG levels, pretherapeutic blood progesterone, hematosalpinx at D0 and pain at D7. Early favorable kinetics of hCG levels was predictive of success. Methotrexate treatment was successful in 90% of women who had D0 hCG ectopic pregnancy was 80.7%. In this study, we showed that an initial hCG value ectopic pregnancy by methotrexate, and hematosalpinx and pretherapeutic blood progesterone >5ng/ml at diagnosis were predictive of its failure. We also confirmed good tolerability for single-dose methotrexate protocols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dissatisfaction with dentofacial appearance and the normative need for orthodontic treatment: determinant factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Barbosa de Almeida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aims at assessing the normative need for orthodontic treatment and the factors that determine the subjective impact of malocclusion on 12-year-old Brazilian school children. METHODS: A total of 451 subjects (215 males and 236 females were randomly selected from private and public schools of Juiz de Fora, Brazil. The collected data included sociodemographic information and occlusal conditions. The esthetic subjective impact of malocclusion was assessed by means of the Orthodontic Aesthetic Subjective Impact Score - OASIS, whereas the malocclusion and the need for orthodontic treatment were assessed by means of the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI and the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need-Aesthetic Component (IOTN-AC. RESULTS: Prevalence of normative need for orthodontic treatment was 65.6% (n = 155, and prevalence of orthodontic esthetic subjective impact was 14.9%. The following variables showed significant association with esthetic subjective impact of malocclusion: female (p = 0.042; OR = 0.5; CI = 0.2-0.9, public school student (p = 0.002; OR = 6.8; CI = 1.9-23.8, maxillary overjet ≥ 4 mm (p = 0.037; OR = 1.7; CI = 1-3 and gingival smile ≥ 4 mm (p = 0.008; OR = 3.4; CI = 1.3-8.8. CONCLUSION: The normative need for orthodontic treatment overestimated the perceived need. Occlusal and sociocultural factors influenced the dissatisfaction of schoolchildren with their dentofacial appearance.

  8. Preserving reptiles for research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotte, Steve W.; Jacobs, Jeremy F.; Zug, George R.; Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    What are voucher specimens and why do we collect them? Voucher specimens are animals and/or their parts that are deposited in a research museum to document the occurrence of a taxon at a specific location in space and time (Pleijel et al., 2008; Reynolds and McDiarmid, 2012). For field biologists, vouchers are the repeatable element of a field study as they allow other biologists, now and in the future, to confirm the identity of species that were studied. The scientific importance of a voucher specimen or series of specimens is that other people are afforded the opportunity to examine the entire animal and confirm or correct identifications. A photographic record is somewhat useful for recording the occurrence of a species, but such records can be insufficient for reliable confirmation of specific identity. Even if a photo shows diagnostic characters of currently recognized taxa, it may not show characters that separate taxa that may be described in the future. Substantial cryptic biodiversity is being found in even relatively well-known herpetofaunas (Crawford et al., 2010), and specimens allow researchers to retroactively evaluate the true diversity in a study as understanding of taxonomy evolves. They enable biologists to study the systematic relationships of populations by quantifying variation in different traits. Specimens are also a source of biological data such as behaviour, ecology, epidemiology, and reproduction through examination of their anatomy, reproductive and digestive tracts, and parasites (Suarez and Tsutsui, 2004). Preserving reptiles as vouchers is not difficult, although doing it properly requires care, effort, and time. Poorly preserved vouchers can invalidate the results and conclusions of your study because of the inability to confirm the identity of your study animals. Good science requires repeatability of observations, and the absence of vouchers or poorly preserved ones prevents such confirmation. Due to space restrictions, we are

  9. 2015 Site Environmental Report Fernald Preserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, Bill [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hooten, Gwen [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Fernald Preserve 2015 Site Environmental Report provides stakeholders with the results from the Fernald, Ohio, Site’s environmental monitoring programs for 2015; a summary of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) activities conducted onsite; and a summary of the Fernald Preserve’s compliance with the various environmental regulations, compliance agreements, and DOE policies that govern site activities. This report has been prepared in accordance with the “Integrated Environmental Monitoring Plan,” which is Attachment D of the Comprehensive Legacy Management and Institutional Controls Plan (LMICP) (DOE 2016). Remediation of the Fernald Preserve has been successfully completed with the exception of the groundwater. During 2015, activities at the Fernald Preserve included: environmental monitoring activities related to direct radiation, groundwater, and surface water; ecological restoration monitoring and maintenance as well as inspections, care, and monitoring of the site and the OSDF to ensure that provisions of the LMICP are fully implemented; OSDF leak detection monitoring and collection, monitoring, and treatment of leachate from the OSDF; extraction, monitoring, and treatment of contaminated groundwater from the Great Miami Aquifer (Operable Unit 5); ongoing operation of the Fernald Preserve Visitors Center, associated outreach, and educational activities; and monitoring as specified in the site’s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. Environmental monitoring programs were developed to ensure that the remedy remains protective of the environment. The requirements of these programs are described in detail in the LMICP and reported in this Site Environmental Report.

  10. Fertility preservation in young cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Revel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of advances in treatment, almost 80% of children and adolescents who receive a diagnosis of cancer become long-term survivors. The increased survival rate of children and adolescents with cancer has resulted in a major interest in the long-term effects of cancer treatment on the possibility for future fertility. Currently established methods for the preservation of fertility are available only for pubertal males and females. Pubertal male cancer patients should be encouraged to freeze numerous sperm samples even when sperm count and motility are poor. In these cases, intracytoplasmic sperm injection is a powerful technique compared with intrauterine insemination since thawed sperm samples with poor parameters can produce relatively high fertilization rates resulting in normal pregnancies and deliveries. Married pubertal women should be proposed ovulation induction, follicular aspiration, and fertilization with husband sperm. Single women could benefit from vitrification of oocytes. This requires a delay of about 3 weeks in the commencement of chemotherapy to enable follicular growth. Fertility preservation for prepubertal patients is more of a problem. Young girls could be offered cryopreservation of gametes in the gonadal tissue. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue was suggested for fertility preservation for young boys, but this method is totally experimental and not currently offered. Discussing future fertility is part of the consultation of young female and male patients facing potentially gonadotoxic cancer therapy. It is the role of reproductive specialists to create various options in their laboratory to preserve fertility potential of cancer patients.

  11. Umbilical Hernia in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: Surgical Treatment and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banshodani, Masataka; Kawanishi, Hideki; Moriishi, Misaki; Shintaku, Sadanori; Ago, Rika; Hashimoto, Shinji; Nishihara, Masahiro; Tsuchiya, Shinichiro

    2015-12-01

    No previous reports have focused on surgical treatments and risk factors of umbilical hernia alone in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Herein, we evaluated the treatments and risk factors. A total of 411 PD patients were enrolled. Of the 15 patients with umbilical hernia (3.6%), six underwent hernioplasty. There was no recurrence in five patients treated with tension-free hernioplasty. The mean PD vintage after onset of hernia in the hernioplasty group tended to be longer than that in the non-hernioplasty group. An incarcerated hernia occurred in one non-hernioplasty patient. Although the incidence was significantly higher among women (P = 0.02), female sex was not a risk factor for umbilical hernia (P = 0.08). Our findings suggest that umbilical hernias should be repaired for continuing PD. Furthermore, there were no significant risk factors for umbilical hernia in PD patients. Future studies with larger sample groups are required to elucidate these risk factors.

  12. Confirmatory factor analysis of the PedsQL among youth in a residential treatment setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven; Lambert, Matthew C; Nelson, Timothy D; Trout, Alexandra L; Epstein, Michael H; Pick, Robert

    2013-10-01

    The Pediatric Quality of Life assessment (PedsQL™) is the most widely used measure for assessing adolescent health-related quality of life (HRQoL). While youth in residential treatment facilities face many physical and mental health, behavioral, education, and familial challenges that could impact their HRQoL, no research has sought to assess the factor structure of the PedsQL™ among youth receiving residential care. High school-aged youth (N = 229) attending a large residential treatment center in Omaha, NE were recruited to complete a data collection packet comprised of various health assessments including the PedsQL. Four competing confirmatory factor analysis models were used to test the hypothesized internal structure of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Teen Report. Models A, B, and C had acceptable CFI (≥.90), TLI (≥.90), and RMSEA (≤.08) fit indicators. However, factor loadings for items 5 and 6 were problematic. After removing the two problematic items, Model D was fit to the data and proved to be the superior of the four models. This model included two first-order factors (physical health problems; school attendance problems) and one second-order factor (psychological health problems). The findings suggest that researchers and practitioners studying youth in residential settings can reliably use the PedsQL™ to assess their HRQoL.

  13. Daily Influent Quantity Forecasting Method for Sewage Treatment Plant Considering Uncertain Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONGTengrui; FENGYuzhao; 等

    2002-01-01

    Daily influent quantity forecasting plays an important role in sewage treatment plant design and operation.Its uncertain factors are classified into three categories including day types,weather conditions and special events,of which the latter two are consicered with a BP(Back Propagation)model.On this basis,the daily period feature is taken into account in the presented model.The data from a practical sewage treatment plant utility is employed to show the effectiveness of the method.

  14. Non-communicable disease risk factors and treatment preference of obese patients in Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Manning

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insights into the characteristics of treatment seekers for lifestyle changes and treatment preferences are necessary for intervention planning.Aim: To compile a profile of treatment-seeking obese patients with non-communicable diseases (NCDs or NCD risk factors and to compare patients who choose group-based (facility-based therapeutic group [FBTG] versus usual care (individual consultations treatment.Setting: A primary healthcare facility in Cape Town, South Africa.Methods: One hundred and ninety-three patients were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Ninety six chose FBTG while 97 chose usual care. A questionnaire, the hospital database and patients’ folders were used to collect data. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured. STATA 11.0 was used for descriptive statistics and to compare the two groups.Results: The subjects’ mean age was 50.4 years, 78% were women and of low education levels and income, and 41.5% had type 2 diabetes, 83.4% hypertension and 69.5% high cholesterol. Mean (s.d. HbA1c was 9.1 (2.0%, systolic BP 145.6 (21.0 mmHg, diastolic BP 84.5 (12.0 mmHg, cholesterol 5.4 (1.2 mmol/L, body mass indicator (BMI 39.3 (7.3 kg/m2 and waist circumference 117 (12.6 cm. These figures were undesirable although pharmacological treatment for diabetes and hypertension was in place. Only 14% were physically active, while TV viewing was > 2h/day. Mean daily intake of fruit and vegetables (2.2 portions/day was low while added sugar (5 teaspoons and sugar-sweetened beverages (1.3 glasses were high. Usual care patients had a higher smoking prevalence, HbA1c, number of NCD risk factors and refined carbohydrate intake, and a lower fruit and vegetable intake.Conclusion: Treatment seekers were typically middle-aged, low income women with various modifiable and intermediate risk factors for NCDs. Patients choosing usual care could have more NCD risks.Keywords: Non-communicable diseases; primary health care; family

  15. Treatment strategies in patients with core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Erick Crespo

    2011-10-01

    Core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemias (CBF AML) are characterized by sensitivity to high-dose cytarabine. Due to good prognosis in CBF AML patients, it is important to determine the optimal treatment. Long-term RFS (relapse-free survival) is reported among 40-60%. Experience with FA/FLAG vs. IA/IAG as front-line chemotherapy has been reported by some authors. Other studies, regarding treatment strategies such as high-dose daunorubicin, do not determine survival curves in this precise subgroup of patients. Preliminary data with gemtuzumab ozogamicin plus FLAG has been reported. There are not studies with FLAG using oral fludarabine in acute leukemia patients.

  16. Viral hepatitis and HIV-associated tuberculosis: Risk factors and TB treatment outcomes in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Likanonsakul Sirirat

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The occurrence of tuberculosis (TB, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, and viral hepatitis infections in the same patient poses unique clinical and public health challenges, because medications to treat TB and HIV are hepatotoxic. We conducted an observational study to evaluate risk factors for HBsAg and/or anti-HCV reactivity and to assess differences in adverse events and TB treatment outcomes among HIV-infected TB patients. Methods Patients were evaluated at the beginning, during, and at the end of TB treatment. Blood samples were tested for aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, total bilirubin (BR, complete blood count, and CD4+ T lymphocyte cell count. TB treatment outcomes were assessed at the end of TB treatment according to international guidelines. Results Of 769 enrolled patients, 752 (98% had serologic testing performed for viral hepatitis: 70 (9% were reactive for HBsAg, 237 (31% for anti-HCV, and 472 (63% non-reactive for both markers. At the beginning of TB treatment, 18 (26% patients with HBsAg reactivity had elevated liver function tests compared with 69 (15% patients non-reactive to any viral marker (p = 0.02. At the end of TB treatment, 493 (64% were successfully treated. Factors independently associated with HBsAg reactivity included being a man who had sex with men (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–4.3 and having low TB knowledge (AOR, 1.8; CI, 1.0–3.0. Factors most strongly associated with anti-HCV reactivity were having injection drug use history (AOR, 12.8; CI, 7.0–23.2 and living in Bangkok (AOR, 15.8; CI, 9.4–26.5. The rate of clinical hepatitis and death during TB treatment was similar in patients HBsAg reactive, anti-HCV reactive, both HBsAg and anti-HCV reactive, and non-reactive to any viral marker. Conclusion Among HIV-infected TB patients living in Thailand, markers of viral hepatitis infection, particularly hepatitis C virus

  17. Differences between Risk Factors Associated with Tuberculosis Treatment Abandonment and Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Nathália Mota de Faria Gomes; Meire Cardoso da Mota Bastos; Renata Magliano Marins; Aline Alves Barbosa; Luiz Clóvis Parente Soares; Annelise Maria de Oliveira Wilken de Abreu; João Tadeu Damian Souto Filho

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To identify the risk factors that were associated with abandonment of treatment and mortality in tuberculosis (TB) patients. Methods. This study was a retrospective longitudinal cohort study involving tuberculosis patients treated between 2002 and 2008 in a TB reference center. Results. A total of 1,257 patients were evaluated, with 69.1% men, 54.4% under 40 years of age, 18.9% with extrapulmonary disease, and 9.3% coinfected with HIV. The risk factors that were associated with ab...

  18. The insulin-like growth factor axis and collagen turnover during prednisolone treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolthers, O D; Juul, A; Hansen, M

    1994-01-01

    Serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I collagen (PICP), the carboxyterminal pyridinoline crosslinked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), and the aminoterminal propeptide....../l during the 2.5 and 5.0 mg prednisolone periods respectively. Short term treatment with low daily doses of prednisolone is associated with suppression of serum markers of type I and III collagen turnover in children with asthma. Intermediate and long term effects remain to be studied....

  19. Antarctic science preserve polluted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Geophysicists are alarmed at the electromagnetic pollution of a research site in the Antarctic specifically set aside to study the ionosphere and magnetosphere. A private New Zealand communications company called Telecom recently constructed a satellite ground station within the boundaries of this Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), protected since the mid-1970s. The placement of a commercial facility within this site sets an ominous precedent not only for the sanctity of other SSSIs, but also for Specially Protected Areas—preserves not even open to scientific research, such as certain penguin rookeries.The roughly rectangular, one-by-one-half mile site, located at Arrival Heights not far from McMurdo Station, is one of a number of areas protected under the Antarctic treaty for designated scientific activities. Many sites are set aside for geological or biological research, but this is the only one specifically for physical science.

  20. PRESERVING A TRADITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    COVER STORY The Chinese art of paper cutting has long been a popular pastime in the country’s rural areas.For more than 1,000 years,farming families have used it as a method for decorating their homes,but the tradition has struggled for survival in recent years.In Yanchuan County in China’s northwestern Shaanxi Province,however,the art form has experienced a revival thanks to the efforts of a local woman.Paper cutting master Gao Fenglian has invested her own money in establishing a paper cutting gallery in the region.The craft’s growing popularity has also fuelled a new wave of people wanting to learn how to cut.More than 10,000 of the county’s 200,000 are now skilled in the ancient craft,and its revival could serve as a model for the preservation of other Chinese traditions.

  1. Seismic Fault Preserving Diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Lavialle, Olivier; Germain, Christian; Donias, Marc; Guillon, Sebastien; Keskes, Naamen; Berthoumieu, Yannick

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the denoising and enhancing of 3-D reflection seismic data. We propose a pre-processing step based on a non linear diffusion filtering leading to a better detection of seismic faults. The non linear diffusion approaches are based on the definition of a partial differential equation that allows us to simplify the images without blurring relevant details or discontinuities. Computing the structure tensor which provides information on the local orientation of the geological layers, we propose to drive the diffusion along these layers using a new approach called SFPD (Seismic Fault Preserving Diffusion). In SFPD, the eigenvalues of the tensor are fixed according to a confidence measure that takes into account the regularity of the local seismic structure. Results on both synthesized and real 3-D blocks show the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  2. Seismic fault preserving diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavialle, Olivier; Pop, Sorin; Germain, Christian; Donias, Marc; Guillon, Sebastien; Keskes, Naamen; Berthoumieu, Yannick

    2007-02-01

    This paper focuses on the denoising and enhancing of 3-D reflection seismic data. We propose a pre-processing step based on a non-linear diffusion filtering leading to a better detection of seismic faults. The non-linear diffusion approaches are based on the definition of a partial differential equation that allows us to simplify the images without blurring relevant details or discontinuities. Computing the structure tensor which provides information on the local orientation of the geological layers, we propose to drive the diffusion along these layers using a new approach called SFPD (Seismic Fault Preserving Diffusion). In SFPD, the eigenvalues of the tensor are fixed according to a confidence measure that takes into account the regularity of the local seismic structure. Results on both synthesized and real 3-D blocks show the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  3. Preservation of Built Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marie Kirstine

    When built environments and recently also cultural environments are to be preserved, the historic and architectural values are identified as the key motivations. In Denmark the SAVE system is used as a tool to identify architectural values, but in recent years it has been criticized for having...... a too narrow aesthetic goal, especially when it comes to the evaluation of built environments as a whole. Architectural value has therefore been perceived as a different concept than aesthetic value, primarily related to a static and unchanging expression. This fact creates problems in relation...... to current conservation tasks, which today include more and more untraditionally built environments, including cultural environments. Architectural value must in this case rather be associated with development, ongoing processes, and allow room for future change. The Danish architect Johannes Exner, defines...

  4. Cancer, Fertility Preservation, and Future Pregnancy: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L. Matthews

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the increases in 5-year cancer survival and recent advances in fertility preserving technologies, an increasing number of women with cancer are presenting for discussion of fertility preserving options. This review will summarize the risk of infertility secondary to cancer treatment, available treatment options for fertility preservation, and techniques to reduce future risks for patients. Concerns that will be addressed include the risk of the medications and procedures, the potential delay in cancer treatment, likelihood of pregnancy complications, as well as the impact of future pregnancy on the recurrence risk of cancer. Recent advances in oocyte cryopreservation and ovarian stimulation protocols will be discussed. Healthcare providers need to be informed of available treatment options including the risks, advantages, and disadvantages of fertility preserving options to properly counsel patients.

  5. Clinical Factors for Prognosis and Treatment Guidance of Spinal Cord Astrocytoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Kazutoshi; Yano, Shunsuke; Aoyama, Takeshi; Koyanagi, Izumi; Sasamori, Toru; Hamauch, Shuji; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To obtain information useful in establishing treatment guidelines by evaluating baseline clinical features and treatment outcomes of patients with spinal cord astrocytoma (SCA). Overview of Literature The optimal management of SCA remains controversial, and there are no standard guidelines. Methods The study included 20 patients with low-grade and 13 with high-grade SCA surgically treated between 1989 and 2014. Patients were classified according to the extent of surgical resection. Survival was assessed using Kaplan–Meier plots and compared between groups by log-rank tests. Neurological status was defined by the modified McCormick scale and compared between groups by Mann–Whitney U tests. Results Surgical resection was performed for 19 of 20 low-grade (95%) and 10 of 13 high-grade (76.9%) SCA patients. Only nine patients (27.3%) underwent gross total resection, all of whom had low-grade SCA. Of all patients, 51.5% showed deteriorated neurological status compared to preoperative baseline. Median overall survival was significantly longer for low-grade SCA than that (91 months, 78% at 5 years vs. 15 months, 31% at 5 years; p=0.007). Low-grade SCA patients benefited from more aggressive resection, whereas high-grade SCA patients did not. Multivariate analysis revealed histology status (hazard ratio [HR], 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09–0.98; p<0.05) and postoperative neurological status (HR, 0.12; CI, 0.02–0.95; p<0.05) as independent predictors of longer overall survival. Adjuvant radiotherapy had no significant impact on survival rate. However, a trend for increased survival was observed with radiation cordotomy (RCT) in high-grade SCA patients. Conclusions Aggressive resection for low-grade and RCT may prolong survival. Preservation of neurological status is an important treatment goal. Given the low incidence of SCA, establishing strong collaborative, interdisciplinary, and multi-institutional study groups

  6. Risk factors for 48-hours mortality after prehospital treatment of opioid overdose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichmann, Sine; Nielsen, Søren Loumann; Siersma, Volkert Dirk

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Opioid overdose is commonly treated by prehospital emergency services and the majority of the patients are discharged immediately after treatment and a short observation period. There is a minor risk for rebound opioid toxicity and other life-threatening conditions might occur after...... such episodes. The authors describe the short-term outcome and identify risk factors for death within 48 h after prehospital treatment of opioid overdose in Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark. METHODS: Data on all cases of opioid overdose treated by the medical emergency care unit between 1994 and 2003 were...... recorded prospectively. Risk factors for death within 48 h after initial medical emergency care unit contact were analysed in a multivariable logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The authors recorded 4762 episodes of opioid overdose, covering 1967 unique identified patients. A total of 78 patients (8...

  7. Cytomegalovirus colitis in a patient with Behcet's disease receiving tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitory treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ismail Sari; Merih Birlik; Can Gonen; Server Akar; Duygu Gurel; Fatos Onen; Nurullah Akkoc

    2008-01-01

    Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors are effective in the treatment of various inflammatory rheumatic conditions. Increased risks of serious infections are the major issues concerning the long-term safety of these agents. We present a case of a young male Behcet's patient whose disease was complicated by cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis. Colitis started 10 d after the third Infliximab dose and responded to the cessation of TNF blocking treatment and administration of ganciclovir. Tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma act at several levels in combating viral infections.CMV infections should be kept in mind and included in the differential diagnosis of severe gastrointestinal symptoms in patients receiving anti-TNF agents.

  8. Effect of mouse nerve growth factor combined with mecobalamine on treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Rong Hu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical effect of mouse nerve growth fact (NGF) combined with mecobalamine on treatment of diabetic peripheral n-europathy (DPN).Methods:A total of 84 cases of patients with DPN treated in ourhospital between April 2012 and June 2015 were selected, and divided into study group and control group randomly (n=42); Control group was only given mecobalamine treatment, while study group was given mouse nerve growth factor combined with mecobalamine treatment for 4 weeks. TThe motor nerve conduction velocity median nerve (MNCV), sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV), serum high sensitivity c-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and Toronto clinical scoring system (TCSS) changes of median nerve and nervus peroneus communis before and after treatment were compared. Results:There were no significant differences in MNCV, SNCV of mediannerve and nervus peroneus communis before treatment. MNCV and SNCV of both groups after treatment were significantly increased. MNCV, SNCV of mediannerve and nervus peroneus communis in study group was significantly higher than that in control group. hs-CRP and TCSS scoring of both groups before treatment showed no statistic significant difference. hs-CRP scoring of both groups after treatment showed no significant difference. TCSS scoring was significantly lower than that in control group. Adverse reaction total occurrence rate after given drug in study group was 16.67% (7/42), compared with 7.14% (3/42) in control group, difference was significant.Conclusions:Mouse NGF combined with mecobalamine could achieve good curative effect. It is of higher safety in the treatment of patients with DPN, and deserves popularization and application.

  9. 利用不同化学方法处理水蜜桃保鲜效果的对比研究%Effects of Different Chemical Treatment Methods on Water Peach Preservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刚成诚; 李建龙; 王亦佳; 陈奕兆; 范娟

    2012-01-01

    以江苏省张家港市凤凰镇的凤凰水蜜桃(Prunus persica)为实验材料,在冷藏条件下,研究了分别用质量分数2%的CaCl2、0.3g/L水杨酸、0.5g/L赤霉素对凤凰水蜜桃浸泡15min的保鲜效果,并对其结果进行比较。结果表明:经过处理后的水蜜桃各种指标都好于对照组,说明以上3种化学方法均起到了保鲜作用,CaCl2处理在保持果实硬度、可溶性固形物,降低细胞膜透性、丙二醛含量和抑制多酚氧化酶活性方面要好于其他处理;水杨酸处理在保持可溶性糖含量,抑制呼吸强度方面要好于其他处理;赤霉素处理保鲜效果不如其他2种处理效果明显。此外,由于CaCl2通过果实体内的生理生化反应来发挥作用,无环境污染,因此符合食品安全的要求,而且方便获得,成本较低,所以利用CaCl2处理水蜜桃是经济实用、有效可行的最佳的化学保鲜方法。%The preservation effect of Fenghuang water peach picked from Zhangjiagang City,Nanjing Province,was investigated by using 2% calcium chloride(CaCl2),0.3 g/L salicylic acid(SA) and 0.5 g/L gibberellic acid(GA3) under refrigerated condition.The results showed that each index in treated group was better than that in control group.SA treatment revealed more effective in maintaining soluble sugar content,slowing down respiratory rate than other treatments.CaCl2 treatment was better in keeping fruit firmness and total soluble solids,reducing membrane permeability and malonaldehyde(MDA) content and inhibiting the activity of polyphenol oxidese(PPO).In addition,Due to low cost,important roles in physiological and biochemical reaction in fruits,no environmental pollution and meeting the requirements of food safety policy,CaCl2 treatment is the best choice for chemical preservation of water peach.

  10. Penile-preserving surgery in penile carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Gowardhan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile cancer is an uncommon cancer involving the glans, prepuce or both in over 75% cases. Historically, the standard treatment of the primary tumor has been a partial or total penectomy. Although these are still widely practiced procedures for control of the disease, as our understanding of the natural history of the disease has evolved, the treatment options have broadened, focusing more and more on penile-preserving techniques such as Mohs′s micrographic surgery, wide local excision, subtotal and total glansectomy, laser, brachytherapy, external beam radiotherapy and topical application of chemotherapeutic agents such as 5-Fluorouracil. Penile-preserving options are increasingly being used as a first-line treatment, not restricted to Tis/Ta tumors, but for T1, T2 and even T3 tumors in selected cases. The metastatic stage of the tumor does not influence the treatment of the primary lesion. In this review, we discuss the various penile-preserving options currently available and their role in the management of penile carcinoma of various stages.

  11. Phyllodes tumors of the breast: diagnosis, treatment and prognostic factors related to recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi-Rui; Wang, Chen-Chen; Yang, Zhao-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare tumor types that consist of 0.3–1.0% in all breast tumors. The naming and classification of breast phyllodes tumor have been debated for years. Based on the classification criteria modified by WHO in 2003, this review mainly introduced the clinicopathologic characteristics, pre-operational diagnosis and the treatment of breast phyllodes tumors, and also summarized the prognostic factors related to tumor recurrence. PMID:28066617

  12. Accurate Diagnosis as a Prognostic Factor in Intrauterine Insemination Treatment of Infertile Saudi Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Isa, Ahmed Mostafa; Abu-Rafea, Basim; Alasiri, Saleh Ahmed; Al-Mutawa, Johara; Binsaleh, Saleh; Al-Saif, Sameera; Al-Saqer, Aisha

    2014-01-01

    Background The study meant to define the prognostic factors that help in prescribing intrauterine insemination (IUI) for infertility treatment which remains an area of continuous improvements. Methods The diagnostic indications of a cohort of IUI-treated patients and their corresponding pregnancy rates (PRs) were randomly and prospectively studied among Saudi cohort of 303 patients for a period of 20 months. The indications of IUI cases were statistically analyzed for those eligible patients ...

  13. TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-α INHIBITORS IN THE TREATMENT OF AXIAL SPONDYLOARTHRITIS, INCLUDING ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Lapshina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides guidelines for the use of tumor necrosis factor-α  (TNF-α inhibitors in the treatment of patients with axial spondyloarthritis  (axSpA, including ankylosing spondylitis. It gives data on the efficacy of TNF-α inhibitors in patients with non-radiographic axSpA. By using international and Russian guidelines, the authors lay down indications for this therapy and criteria for evaluation of its efficiency and safety.

  14. Research on preservation effects of ozone treatment combined with modified atmosphere packaging of fresh-cut vegetable%臭氧协同气调包装对鲜切叶菜的保鲜作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华璐云; 雷桥; 谢晶

    2012-01-01

    采用臭氧水处理鲜切大白菜,并进行气调包装贮藏,通过正交实验法分析相关生理指标与保鲜效果,主要研究了4℃贮藏期间菌落总数、失重率、细胞膜透性、多酚氧化酶活性、VC含量和感官品质的变化。实验结果显示:臭氧水处理结合气调包装能有效控制微生物数量,保护了细胞膜透性及降低了VC含量的损失,并对多酚氧化酶有抑制作用,感官品质优良,可使鲜切白菜在4℃条件下保藏至20d以上。极差分析表明:优化的工艺参数为1.44mg/L的臭氧水处理5min协同5%O2/20%CO2/75%N2的气调包装。%Physiological indexes and preservation effects of fresh cut cabbage treated with ozone water combined with modified atmosphere packaging were studied.Analysis included total bacteria counts,weight loss rate,membrane permeability,PPO activity,VC content and sensory qualities during storage at 4℃.Results indicated that ozone treatment combined with modified atmosphere packaging was effective in controlling the total bacteria counts and protecting membrane permeability,and decreasing the loss of VC content and PPO activity.The shelf-life of fresh-cut cabbage was more than 20 days at 4℃ with better sensory qualities.The optimized preservation conditions by range analysis were as follows:treating fresh-cut cabbage with 1.44mg/L ozone for 5min and packing with 5% O2/20% CO2/75% N2.

  15. Application of insulin-like growth factor 1 in the treatment of inner ear disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norio eYamamoto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensorineural hearing loss is considered an intractable disease, given that hair and supporting cells of the postnatal mammalian cochlea are unable to regenerate. However, with progress in regenerative medicine in the 21st century, several innovative approaches for achieving regeneration of inner ear hair and supporting cells have become available. These methods include stem cell transplantation, overexpression of specific genes, and treatment with growth factors. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 is one of the growth factors that are involved in the development of the inner ear. Treatment with IGF-1 maintains hair cell numbers in the postnatal mammalian cochlea after various types of hair cell injuries, with activation of two major pathways downstream of IGF-1 signaling. In the aminoglycoside-treated neonatal mouse cochlear explant culture, promotion of the cell-cycle in supporting cells as well as inhibition of hair cell apoptosis was observed in the IGF-1-treated group. Activation of downstream molecules was observed in supporting cells and, in turn, supporting cells contribute to the maintenance of hair cell numbers. Using comprehensive analysis of the gene expression, the candidate effector molecules of the IGF-1 signaling pathway in the protection of hair cells were identified as Netrin1 and Gap43. Based on these studies, a clinical trial has sought to investigate the effects of IGF-1 on sensorineural hearing loss. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss that was refractory to systemic steroids was treated with IGF-1 in a gelatin hydrogel and the outcome was compared with a historical control of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The proportion of patients showing hearing improvement was significantly higher in the IGF-1-treatment group at 24 weeks after treatment than in the control group. A randomized clinical trial is ongoing to compare the effect of IGF-1 treatment with that of intra-tympanic steroids for sudden sensorineural hearing loss that is

  16. Multidisciplinary treatment of the neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bree, Remco; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Leemans, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Since lymph node metastases are one of the most important prognostic factors, treatment of the neck is challenging. In clinically N0 neck, (super)selective neck dissection is indicated, whereas a more extensive neck dissection with preservation of important structures is performed in N2-N3 disease.

  17. Evaluation of Bit Preservation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Kulovits, Hannes

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a methodology which supports evaluation of bit preservation strategies for different digital materials. This includes evaluation of alternative bit preservation solution. The methodology presented uses the preservation planning tool Plato for evaluations, and a BR......-ReMS prototype to calculate measures for how well bit preservation requirements are met. Planning storage of data as part of preservation planning involves classification of data with regard to requirements on confidentiality, bit safety, available and costs. Choice of storage with such parameters is quite...... complex since e.g. more copies of data means better bit safety, but higher cost and bigger risk of breaking confidentiality. Based on a case of a bit repository offering varied bit preservation solutions, the article will present results of using the methodology to make plans and choices of alternatives...

  18. Factors Associated with Mortality among Patients on TB Treatment in the Southern Region of Zimbabwe, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarinda, Kudakwashe C; Sandy, Charles; Masuka, Nyasha; Hazangwe, Patrick; Choto, Regis C; Mutasa-Apollo, Tsitsi; Nkomo, Brilliant; Sibanda, Edwin; Mugurungi, Owen; Harries, Anthony D; Siziba, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Background. In 2013, the tuberculosis (TB) mortality rate was highest in southern Zimbabwe at 16%. We therefore sought to determine factors associated with mortality among registered TB patients in this region. Methodology. This was a retrospective record review of registered patients receiving anti-TB treatment in 2013. Results. Of 1,971 registered TB patients, 1,653 (84%) were new cases compared with 314 (16%) retreatment cases. There were 1,538 (78%) TB/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfected patients, of whom 1,399 (91%) were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with median pre-ART CD4 count of 133 cells/uL (IQR, 46-282). Overall, 428 (22%) TB patients died. Factors associated with increased mortality included being ≥65 years old [adjusted relative risk (ARR) = 2.48 (95% CI 1.35-4.55)], a retreatment TB case [ARR = 1.34 (95% CI, 1.10-1.63)], and being HIV-positive [ARR = 1.87 (95% CI, 1.44-2.42)] whilst ART initiation was protective [ARR = 0.25 (95% CI, 0.22-0.29)]. Cumulative mortality rates were 10%, 14%, and 21% at one, two, and six months, respectively, after starting TB treatment. Conclusion. There was high mortality especially in the first two months of anti-TB treatment, with risk factors being recurrent TB and being HIV-infected, despite a high uptake of ART.

  19. Stroke in young adults: Incidence rate, risk factors, treatment and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gómez, F J; Pérez-Torre, P; DeFelipe, A; Vera, R; Matute, C; Cruz-Culebras, A; Álvarez-Velasco, R; Masjuan, J

    2016-10-01

    To analyse the incidence, risk factors, aetiology, treatment and clinical evolution of young patients with stroke. Retrospective registry of patients aged 55 years or younger hospitalised in a stroke unit during 2014. We recorded the incidence rate for all strokes and analysed demographic data, risk factors, degree of stress, stroke type and aetiology, reperfusion treatments and clinical evolution. The study included 110 patients, the majority of whom were men (60.9%, 1.6:1 ratio). The incidence rate was 13.3% (110 of 830 strokes). Most of the patients had cardiovascular risk factors. Smoking was the most common risk factor (56.4%), followed by arterial hypertension (50%), dyslipidaemia (42.7%), obesity (33%), diabetes (18.2%) and emboligenic heart disease (12.7%). Some 64.3% of the heart disease cases and 51.1% of the dyslipidaemia cases were discovered during hospitalisation. Some 57.2% of the patients experienced psychosocial stress in the stage prior to the stroke. Some 83.6% of the stroke cases were ischaemic, 12.7% were haemorrhagic and 3.6% were venous sinus thrombosis. Of the ischaemic stroke cases, 30.4% were cryptogenic, 23.9% were lacunar, 16.3% were from uncommon causes, 15.2% were atherothrombotic and 14.1% were cardioembolic. Some 78.6% of the cerebral haemorrhage cases were hypertensive. Some 23.3% of the ischaemic stroke cases underwent reperfusion treatments in the acute phase, achieving levels of functional independence at 3 months of 62.5%. The majority of stroke events in patients 55 years of age or younger appear to be related to a high prevalence of classical cardiovascular risk factors and possibly to psychosocial stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  20. Schedule of factors influencing access to psychiatric treatment in persons with schizophrenia: Validity and pilot testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Shanivaram Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : A substantial proportion of patients with severe mental disorders remain untreated in India. Qualitative research has highlighted the complex interplay of multiple factors that preclude schizophrenia patients in rural Indian settings from accessing treatment. Aims: (a To establish the face and content validities of an interview schedule titled "Schedule of Factors Influencing Access (SOFIAc to Psychiatric Treatment in Persons with Schizophrenia," which comprehensively assesses the factors that prevent schizophrenia patients from accessing psychiatric treatment. (b To assess the feasibility of its administration. Materials and Methods: SOFIAc contains 15 items. This schedule involves three phases of interviewing patients and family members. This was given to 12 experts. They used Likert scales (1=not at all satisfactory to 5=very much satisfactory to rate each item of the schedule. In addition, the experts rated (the same way as above the following five dimensions of the schedule (as a whole separately: A (comprehensiveness of the factors, B (scoring system, C (interviewing method, D (general instructions given to the raters, E (overall schedule. Later on, 10 persons with schizophrenia were interviewed with SOFIAc to test the feasibility of administration. Results: Thirteen items were rated as either satisfactory (score=4 or very much satisfactory (score=5 by all 12 experts; remaining two were rated as 4 or 5 by 11 experts. Regarding comprehensiveness of the factors, scoring methods and general instructions given to the interviewers, all provided scores >4; regarding the method of interviewing, 11 provided the score of >4; with regard to overall interview schedule, all experts provided scores >4. Pilot testing revealed that it took 60 min to administer SOFIAc. Conclusion: SOFIAc has satisfactory face and content validities. It is also feasible to administer SOFIAc.

  1. Treatment for liver metastases from breast cancer: Results and prognostic factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ping Li; Zhi-Qiang Meng; Wei-Jian Guo; Jie Li

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Liver metastases from breast cancer (BCLM) are associated with poor prognosis. Cytotoxic chemotherapy can result in regression of tumor lesions and a decrease in symptoms. Available data, in the literature, also suggest a subgroup of patients rraay berefit from surgery, but few talked about transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE).We report the results of TACE and systemic chemotherapy for patients with liver metastases from breast cancer and evaluate the prognostic factors. METHODS: Forty-eight patients with liver metastases, from proved breast primary cancer were treated with TACEor systemic chemotherapy between January 1995 and December 2000. Treatment results were assessed according to WHO criteria, along with analysis of prognostic factors for survival using Cox regression model.RESULTS: The median follow-up was 28 mo (1-72 mo). Response rates were calculated for the TACE group and chemotherapy group, being 35.7% and 7.1%,respectively. The difference was significant. The one-, two- and three-year Survival rates for the TACE group were 63.04%, 30.35%, and 13.01%, and those for the systemic chemotherapy group were 33.88%, 11.29%, and 0%. According to univariate analysis, variables significantly associated with survival were the lymph node status of the primary cancer, the clinical stage of liver metastases, the Child-Pugh grade, loss of weight. Other factors such as age, the intervals between the primary to the metastases, the maximal diameter of the liver metastases, the number of liver metastases, extrahepatic metastasis showed no prognostic significances. These factors mentioned above such as the lymph node status of the primary cancer, the clinical stage of liver metastases, the Child-Pugh grade, loss of weight were also independent factors in multivariate analysis.CONCLUSION: TACE treatment of liver metastases from breast cancer may prolong survival in certain patients. This approach offers new promise for the curative treatment of the patients

  2. Influencing factors on microbubble ozonation treatment of acid red 3R wastewater

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    Yurong YA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The microbubble ozonation was used to treat acid red 3R wastewater in order to investigate the influencing factors on its performance. The effects of ozone dose, initial acid red 3R concentration and activated carbon on the performance of microbubble ozonation treatment of acid red 3R wastewater are investigated. The decolorization rate, TOC removal rate, pH variation and ozone utilization efficiency in the microbubble ozonation treatment are compared under different treatment conditions. The results indicate that when increasing ozone dose or decreasing initial acid red 3R concentration, both decolorization rate and TOC removal rate of acid red 3R wastewater increase, but ozone utilization efficiency decreases. The coal-based activated carbon shows strong catalytic activity for microbubble ozonation, which could enhance the decolorization rate and TOC removal rate of acid red 3R wastewater. The better performance of microbubble ozonation treatment is achieved when the ozone dose is 48.3 mg/min and the initial acid red 3R mass concentration is 100 mg/L. Under these conditions, the decolorization efficiency reaches to 100% after treatment for 30 min, the TOC removal efficiency reaches to 78.0% after treatment for 120 min, the reaction rate constant of TOC removal is 0.015 min-1 and the ozone utilization efficiency is higher than 99%. With addition of the coal-based activated carbon of 5 g/L, the decolorization efficiency reaches to 100% after treatment for 15 min, the TOC removal efficiency reaches to 91.2% after treatment for 120 min and the reaction rate constant of TOC removal increases to 0037 min-1.The accumulation and following degradation of intermediate products of small molecule organic acid happens during treatment process, and as a result, the solution pH decreases initially and then increases. Therefore, the optimization of influencing factors for microbubble ozonation could increase both contaminant removal

  3. Intensity modulated radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy for larynx preservation of advanced resectable hypopharyngeal cancer

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    Chao Hsing-Lung

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To analyze the rate of larynx preservation in patients of locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer treated with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT plus concurrent chemotherapy, and compare the results with patients treated with primary surgery. Methods Between January 2003 and November 2007, 14 patients were treated with primary surgery and 33 patients were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT using IMRT technique. Survival rate, larynx preservation rate were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analysis was conducted for significant prognostic factors with Cox-regression method. Results The median follow-up was 19.4 months for all patients, and 25.8 months for those alive. The 5-year overall survival rate was 33% and 44% for primary surgery and definitive CCRT, respectively (p = 0.788. The 5-year functional larynx-preservation survival after IMRT was 40%. Acute toxicities were common, but usually tolerable. The rates of treatment-related mucositis (≥ grade 2 and pharyngitis (≥ grade 3 were higher in the CCRT group. For multivariate analysis, treatment response and cricoid cartilage invasion strongly correlated with survival. Conclusions IMRT plus concurrent chemotherapy may preserve the larynx without compromising survival. Further studies on new effective therapeutic agents are essential.

  4. Fertility preservation in patients with haematological disorders: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, Suneeta; Morse, Christopher B; Sammel, Mary D; Kim, Jayeon; Mersereau, Jennifer E; Efymow, Brenda; Gracia, Clarisa R

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the factors associated with utilization of fertility preservation and the differences in treatments and outcomes by prior chemotherapy exposure in patients with haematological diseases. This study included all 67 women with haematological diseases seen for fertility preservation consultation at two university hospitals between 2006 and 2011. Of the total, 49% had lymphoma, 33% had leukaemia, 7% had myelodysplastic syndrome and 4% had aplastic anaemia; 46% had prior chemotherapy; and 33% were planning for bone marrow transplantation, 33% pursued ovarian stimulation and 7% used ovarian tissue banking; and 48% of patients did not pursue fertility preservation treatment. All five cycle cancellations were in the post-chemotherapy group: three patients with leukaemia and two with lymphoma. Patients with prior chemotherapy had lower baseline antral follicle count (10 versus 22) and received more gonadotrophins to achieve similar peak oestradiol concentrations, with no difference in oocyte yield (10.5 versus 10) after adjustment for age. Embryo yield was similar between those who had prior chemotherapy and those who had not. Half of the patients with haematological diseases who present for fertility preservation have been exposed to chemotherapy. While ovarian reserve is likely impaired in this group, oocyte yield may be acceptable.

  5. Evaluation of Bit Preservation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Kulovits, Hannes

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a methodology which supports evaluation of bit preservation strategies for different digital materials. This includes evaluation of alternative bit preservation solution. The methodology presented uses the preservation planning tool Plato for evaluations, and a BR...... for different digital material with different requirements for bit integrity and confidentiality. This case shows that the methodology, including the tools used, is useful for this purpose....

  6. Factors contributing to delay in diagnosis and start of treatment of leprosy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholls, P.G.; Chhina, N; Aaen, Karen Bro

    2005-01-01

    The objective of our research was to identify factors contributing to delay in diagnosis and start of treatment in leprosy, focussing on patients' narratives of help-seeking behaviour. Our research took place in Purulia, West Bengal, India and in Nilphamari, northern Bangladesh. Between January...... and August 2000, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 104 patients that explored each individual's narrative of help-seeking behaviour and the context of beliefs and attitudes towards leprosy. Subsequently we surveyed 356 patients currently receiving treatment for leprosy and recorded specific...... aspects of each help-seeking action and their reports of local beliefs and attitudes towards leprosy. Delay was estimated from time of first symptoms through to start of effective treatment (mean 18 months, median 9 months in Purulia and mean 20 months, median 12 months in Nilphamari). The number of help...

  7. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in mood disorders and antidepressant treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrén, Eero; Kojima, Masami

    2017-01-01

    Levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are reduced in the brain and serum of depressed patients and at least the reduction in serum levels is reversible upon successful treatment. These data, together with a wealth of reports using different animal models with depression-like behavior or manipulation of expression of BDNF or its receptor TrkB have implicated BDNF in the pathophysiology of depression as well as in the mechanism of action of antidepressant treatments. Recent findings have shown that posttranslational processing of BDNF gene product can yield different molecular entities that differently influence signaling through BNDF receptor TrkB and the pan-neurotrophin receptor p75(NTR). We will here review these data and discuss new insights into the possible pathophysiological roles of those new BDNF subtypes as well as recent findings on the role of BDNF mediated neuronal plasticity in mood disorders and their treatments.

  8. Knowledge, Treatment, Control, and Risk Factors for Hypertension among Adults in Southern Iran

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    Sayed Fazel Zinat Motlagh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the first and the most common risk factor to diseases such as cardiovascular, stroke, and renal diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the factors relevant to hypertension knowledge, treatment, and control in southern Iran. In this cross-sectional study, conducted in Kohgiluye Boyer-Ahmad province, south of Iran, a total of 1836 hypertension patients were randomly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. Hypertension treatment and its control were defined during study. In addition, knowledge about hypertension was measured by hypertension knowledge level scale (HK-LS. Treatment rates were 75.5 and 37.7 percent for female and male, respectively. Habitat, education, income, family history with hypertension, smoking, and time of diagnosis to the disease were found to be related to the treatment of the disease. Control rates were 30.7 and 31.4 for males and females, respectively. Habitat, education, and time of diagnosis to the disease were related to control. Over 50 percent of patients had average knowledge on hypertension. Considering the low rate of control and knowledge on hypertension among patients, health care providers should reinforce their services to improve appropriate knowledge level among elders and, also, plan comprehensive programs to promote health in order to encourage patients change and reform their life style.

  9. Lipoarabinomannan in urine during tuberculosis treatment: association with host and pathogen factors and mycobacteriuria

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    Wood Robin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of lipoarabinomannan (LAM, a Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb cell wall antigen, is a potentially attractive diagnostic. However, the LAM-ELISA assay has demonstrated variable sensitivity in diagnosing TB in diverse clinical populations. We therefore explored pathogen and host factors potentially impacting LAM detection. Methods LAM-ELISA assay testing, sputum smear and culture status, HIV status, CD4 cell count, proteinuria and TB outcomes were prospectively determined in adults diagnosed with TB and commencing TB treatment at a South African township TB clinic. Sputum TB isolates were characterised by IS61110-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP and urines were tested for mycobacteriuria by Xpert® MTB/RIF assay. Results 32/199 (16.1% of patients tested LAM-ELISA positive. Median optical density and proportion testing LAM positive remained unchanged during 2 weeks of treatment and then declined over 24 weeks. LAM was associated with positive sputum smear and culture status, HIV infection and low CD4 cell counts but not proteinuria, RFLP strain or TB treatment outcome. The sensitivity of LAM for TB in HIV-infected patients with CD4 counts of ≥ 200, 100-199, 50-99, and Conclusions Urinary LAM was related to host immune factors, was unrelated to Mtb strain and declined steadily after an initial 2 weeks of TB treatment. The strong association of urine LAM with mycobacteriuria is a new finding, indicating frequent TB involvement of the renal tract in advanced HIV infection.

  10. Lipoarabinomannan in urine during tuberculosis treatment: association with host and pathogen factors and mycobacteriuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Robin; Racow, Kimberly; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Middelkoop, Keren; Vogt, Monica; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Lawn, Stephen D

    2012-02-27

    Detection of lipoarabinomannan (LAM), a Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) cell wall antigen, is a potentially attractive diagnostic. However, the LAM-ELISA assay has demonstrated variable sensitivity in diagnosing TB in diverse clinical populations. We therefore explored pathogen and host factors potentially impacting LAM detection. LAM-ELISA assay testing, sputum smear and culture status, HIV status, CD4 cell count, proteinuria and TB outcomes were prospectively determined in adults diagnosed with TB and commencing TB treatment at a South African township TB clinic. Sputum TB isolates were characterised by IS61110-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and urines were tested for mycobacteriuria by Xpert® MTB/RIF assay. 32/199 (16.1%) of patients tested LAM-ELISA positive. Median optical density and proportion testing LAM positive remained unchanged during 2 weeks of treatment and then declined over 24 weeks. LAM was associated with positive sputum smear and culture status, HIV infection and low CD4 cell counts but not proteinuria, RFLP strain or TB treatment outcome. The sensitivity of LAM for TB in HIV-infected patients with CD4 counts of ≥ 200, 100-199, 50-99, and Urinary LAM was related to host immune factors, was unrelated to Mtb strain and declined steadily after an initial 2 weeks of TB treatment. The strong association of urine LAM with mycobacteriuria is a new finding, indicating frequent TB involvement of the renal tract in advanced HIV infection.

  11. Healing of chronic cutaneous wounds by topical treatment with basic fibroblast growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaobing; Shen, Zuyao; Guo, Zhenrong; Zhang, Mingliang; Sheng, Zhiyong

    2002-03-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of topical application of recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor (rbFGF) on the healing of chronic cutaneous wounds. Twenty-eight patients with thirty-three chronic cutaneous wounds resulting from trauma, diabetes mellitus, pressure sore and radiation injuries were enrolled in this prospective, open-label crossover trial. Prior to treatment with rbFGF, all wounds failed to heal with conventional therapies within 4 weeks. All wounds were locally treated with rbFGF at a dose of 150 AU/cm(2). Healing time and the quality of wounds were used to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment. Healing of all chronic wounds was expedited. During the study, eighteen wounds completely healed within 2 weeks, four healed within 3 weeks, and another eight completely healed within 4 weeks. Only three wounds failed to heal within 4 weeks, but healed at 30, 40 and 42 days after treatment with rbFGF. Thus, compared with conventional therapies, the effective rate of rbFGF treatment within 4 weeks was 90.9%. Histological assessment showed more abundant capillary sprouts or tubes and that fibroblasts were differentiated in wounds treated with rbFGF. No adverse side effects related to basic fibroblast growth factor were observed. Our results indicate that rbFGF could be used to accelerate healing in chronic wounds. It is our belief that this may be a more effective method of chronic wound management.

  12. Knowledge, Treatment, Control, and Risk Factors for Hypertension among Adults in Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinat Motlagh, Sayed Fazel; Chaman, Reza; Ghafari, Sayed Rashid; Parisay, Zafar; Golabi, Mohamad Reza; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Babouei, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is the first and the most common risk factor to diseases such as cardiovascular, stroke, and renal diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the factors relevant to hypertension knowledge, treatment, and control in southern Iran. In this cross-sectional study, conducted in Kohgiluye Boyer-Ahmad province, south of Iran, a total of 1836 hypertension patients were randomly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. Hypertension treatment and its control were defined during study. In addition, knowledge about hypertension was measured by hypertension knowledge level scale (HK-LS). Treatment rates were 75.5 and 37.7 percent for female and male, respectively. Habitat, education, income, family history with hypertension, smoking, and time of diagnosis to the disease were found to be related to the treatment of the disease. Control rates were 30.7 and 31.4 for males and females, respectively. Habitat, education, and time of diagnosis to the disease were related to control. Over 50 percent of patients had average knowledge on hypertension. Considering the low rate of control and knowledge on hypertension among patients, health care providers should reinforce their services to improve appropriate knowledge level among elders and, also, plan comprehensive programs to promote health in order to encourage patients change and reform their life style.

  13. Characteristics, Risk Factors, and Treatment Practices of Known Adult Hypertensive Patients in Saudi Arabia

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    N. Al-Hamdan

    2010-01-01

    Methods. Cross-sectional community-based study using the WHO stepwise approach. Saudi adults were randomly chosen from Primary Health Care Centers catchment areas. Data was collected using a questionnaire which included sociodemographic data, history of hypertension, risk factors, treatment practices, biochemical and anthropometric measurements. Collected data was cheeked, computer fed, and analysed using SPSS V17. Results. Out of 4719 subjects (99.2% response, 542 (11.5% subjects were known hypertensives or detected by health workers in the past 12 months. Hypertension was significantly associated with age, gender, geographical location, education, employment, diabetes, physical inactivity, excess body weight, and ever smoking. Multiple logistic analysis controlling for age showed that significant predictors of hypertension were diabetes mellitus, ever smoking, obesity, and hypercholesteremia. Several treatment modalities and practices were significantly associated with gender, age, education, and occupation. About 74% were under prescribed treatment by physicians, 62% on dietary modification, 37% attempted weight reduction, 27% performed physical exercise, and less than 7% used herbs, consulted traditional healers or quitted smoking. Income was not significantly associated with any treatment modality or patient practices. Conclusion. Hypertension (known and undetected is a major chronic health problem among adults in Saudi Arabia. Many patients' practices need changes. A comprehensive approach is needed to prevent, early detect, and control the disease targeting, the risk factors, and predictors identified.

  14. POST Traumatic Stress Disorder in Emergency Workers: Risk Factors and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentero, Piergiorgio; Dell'Olivo, Bianca; Setti, Ilaria

    Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are emergent phenomena resulting from exposure to a traumatic event that causes actual or threatened death or injury and produces intense fear, helplessness, or horror. In order to assess the role of different factors contributing to this kind of emergent phenomenon prevalence rates across gender, cultures, and samples exposed to different traumas are examined. Risk factors for PTSD, including pre-existing individual-based factors, features of the traumatic event, and post-trauma interventions are examined as well. Several characteristics of the trauma, related to cognitions, post-trauma social support and therapeutic interventions for PTSD are also considered. Further work is needed in order to analyze the inter-relationships among these factors and underlying mechanisms. The chaotic nature of traumatic processes, the multiple and interactive impacts on traumatic events require a comprehensive perspective aimed at planning effective interventions. Treatment outcome studies recommended the combined use of training and therapies as first-line treatment for PTSD.

  15. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor in the Treatment of Acute Radiation Syndrome: A Concise Review

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    Michal Hofer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article concisely summarizes data on the action of one of the principal and best known growth factors, the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, in a mammalian organism exposed to radiation doses inducing acute radiation syndrome. Highlighted are the topics of its real or anticipated use in radiation accident victims, the timing of its administration, the possibilities of combining G-CSF with other drugs, the ability of other agents to stimulate endogenous G-CSF production, as well as of the capability of this growth factor to ameliorate not only the bone marrow radiation syndrome but also the gastrointestinal radiation syndrome. G-CSF is one of the pivotal drugs in the treatment of radiation accident victims and its employment in this indication can be expected to remain or even grow in the future.

  16. Factors Associated with Fatality during the Intensive Phase of Anti-Tuberculosis Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, M.; Caminero, J. A.; García-García, J. M.; Jiménez-Fuentes, M. A.; Medina, J. F.; Millet, J. P.; Ruiz-Manzano, J.; Caylá, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the case-fatality rate (CFR) at the end of the intensive phase of tuberculosis (TB) treatment, and factors associated with fatality. Methods TB patients diagnosed between 2006 and 2013 were followed-up during treatment. We computed the CFR at the end of the intensive phase of TB treatment, and the incidence of death per 100 person-days (pd) of follow-up. We performed survival analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression, and calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results A total of 5,182 patients were included, of whom 180 (3.5%) died; 87 of these deaths (48.3%) occurred during the intensive phase of treatment, with a CFR of 1.7%. The incidence of death was 0.028/100 pd. The following factors were associated with death during the intensive phase: being >50 years (HR = 36.9;CI:4.8–283.4); being retired (HR = 2.4;CI:1.1–5.1); having visited the emergency department (HR = 3.1;CI:1.2–7.7); HIV infection (HR = 3.4;CI:1.6–7.2); initial standard treatment with 3 drugs (HR = 2.0;CI:1.2–3.3) or non-standard treatments (HR = 2.68;CI:1.36–5.25); comprehension difficulties (HR = 2.8;CI:1.3–6.1); and smear-positive sputum (HR = 2.3-CI:1.0–4.8). Conclusion There is a non-negligible CFR during the intensive phase of TB, whose reduction should be prioritised. The CFR could be a useful indicator for evaluating TB programs. PMID:27487189

  17. Parents' information needs in tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor treatment decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipstein, Ellen A; Lovell, Daniel J; Denson, Lee A; Moser, David W; Saeed, Shehzad A; Dodds, Cassandra M; Britto, Maria T

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the study was to describe parents' experiences and the information used when making decisions about tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor (TNFαi) treatment. We interviewed parents of children with Crohn disease (CD) or juvenile idiopathic arthritis who had experience deciding about TNFαi treatment. Interview questions focused on information used to make decisions and factors that influenced decision making. We used thematic analysis for all coding and analysis. Coding structure was developed by a multidisciplinary team review of the initial interviews. Two coders then coded the remaining interviews, compared coding, and resolved disagreements through discussion. Data were analyzed by thematic grouping and then compared between diseases. We interviewed 35 parents. For nearly all parents the decision about TNFαi treatment was the most challenging medical decision they had made; however, parents of children with CD experienced more stress and anxiety than did other parents. Both groups of parents sought information from multiple sources including health care providers, the Internet, and social contacts. They looked for information related to treatment effectiveness, adverse effects, and other individuals' treatment experiences. In CD, information was used to help make the decision, whereas in juvenile idiopathic arthritis it was used to confirm the decision. The decision-making experience, and associated information seeking, leaves some parents with long-lasting concerns and worry about TNFαi treatment. Providing parents with structured decision-making support may lead to more effective and efficient decision making, decreased psychosocial distress, and, ultimately, improved outcomes for their children.

  18. The unmet orthodontic treatment need of adolescents and influencing factors for not seeking orthodontic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalj, Stjepan; Slaj, Martina; Athanasiou, Athanasios E; Govorko, Danijela Kalibović; Slaj, Mladen

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate unmet orthodontic treatment needs of adolescents in Zagreb, Croatia, compare normative and self-perceived need and investigate factors influencing the reason why untreated subjects with severe malocclusions have not been treated before. One thousand and forty-two non-orthodontically treated subjects in age groups of 12 and 18 years, from sixteen randomly selected public schools in Zagreb, Croatia were examined. The Dental Aesthetic Index, Aesthetic Component of Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need and a questionnaire concerning self-perceived orthodontic treatment need, perception of aesthetics, function, behaviors and socioeconomic status were used. Around one third of untreated adolescent population had an objective need, less than 20 percent had aesthetic need, and self-perceived need was reported in one third of population. Associations and agreements between objective, aesthetic and self-perceived need were weak (r = 0.27-0.48; p 0.05) to 0.32 (p malocclusion were better related in persons with no treatment need or minor need (r = 0.53-0.59) than in those with major need (r = 0.31-0.40). Multiple logistic regression analyses confirmed that objective, aesthetic and self-perceived needs were better related between themselves than to socio-economic status of subjects, function, activities of daily living and oral health-related behaviors. It appears that self-perceived treatment need has low role in predicting objective need, but relation between satisfaction and awareness of malocclusion could be one of basic factors in process of making decision to go for treatment and maybe could serve in predicting patient's compliance.

  19. Inactivation kinetics and factors of variability in the pulsed light treatment of Listeria innocua cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, Aaron R; Woodling, Sarah E; Moraru, Carmen I

    2007-11-01

    Pulsed light (PL) treatment can effectively reduce microbial populations in clear substrates and on surfaces, but its effectiveness varies as a function of substrate or treatment-related factors. For PL to be successfully adopted by the food industry, all factors of influence, as well as the inactivation kinetics for the microorganisms of concern, must be elucidated. In this study, the inactivation kinetics of Listeria innocua and the effect of inoculum size on PL inactivation were investigated. Stainless steel coupons (50.8 by 101.6 mm) of defined surface properties and transparent glass chamber slides (25.4 by 50.8 by 10 mm) were each inoculated with 1 ml of aqueous suspensions of L. innocua containing inoculum populations of up to 10(9) CFU. The thickness of the liquid layer in the glass slides was 1.16 mm. The inoculated substrates were exposed to PL treatment of up to 17 J/cm2 in a static PL chamber equipped with a pulsed Xenon lamp. Survivors were recovered and enumerated by both standard plate counting and most-probable-number procedures. The data indicated that in clear liquids, PL resulted in more than a 6-log reduction of L. innocua after a 12-J/cm2 treatment, regardless of the initial inoculum size. For the stainless steel surfaces, less than a 4-log reduction after a 12-J/cm2 treatment and a noticeable effect of substrate characteristics and inoculum size on inactivation were observed. The survivor curves showed pronounced tailing for all substrates used in the study. The Weibull model accurately predicted the survivor ratios for the PL treatment of L. innocua in clear liquids, with a shape and scale parameter of 0.33 and 3.01, respectively. The Weibull model resulted in significant overestimation of PL effectiveness for the stainless steel substrates, where the influence of various substrate properties and inoculum level on inactivation was significant.

  20. Modelling Organizational Preservation Goals to Guide Digital Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Dappert

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an extended and updated version of the work reported at iPres 2008. Digital preservation activities can only succeed if they go beyond the technical properties of digital objects. They must consider the strategy, policy, goals, and constraints of the institution that undertakes them and take into account the cultural and institutional framework in which data, documents and records are preserved. Furthermore, because organizations differ in many ways, a one-size-fits-all approach cannot be appropriate. Fortunately, organizations involved in digital preservation have created documents describing their policies, strategies, work-flows, plans, and goals to provide guidance. They also have skilled staff who are aware of sometimes unwritten considerations. Within Planets (Farquhar & Hockx-Yu, 2007, a four-year project co-funded by the European Union to address core digital preservation challenges, we have analyzed preservation guiding documents and interviewed staff from libraries, archives, and data centres that are actively engaged in digital preservation. This paper introduces a conceptual model for expressing the core concepts and requirements that appear in preservation guiding documents. It defines a specific vocabulary that institutions can reuse for expressing their own policies and strategies. In addition to providing a conceptual framework, the model and vocabulary support automated preservation planning tools through an XML representation.

  1. Preservation of samples for dissolved mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, S.N.

    1989-01-01

    Water samples for dissolved mercury requires special treatment because of the high chemical mobility and volatility of this element. Widespread use of mercury and its compounds has provided many avenues for contamination of water. Two laboratory tests were done to determine the relative permeabilities of glass and plastic sample bottles to mercury vapor. Plastic containers were confirmed to be quite permeable to airborne mercury, glass containers were virtually impermeable. Methods of preservation include the use of various combinations of acids, oxidants, and complexing agents. The combination of nitric acid and potassium dichromate successfully preserved mercury in a large variety of concentrations and dissolved forms. Because this acid-oxidant preservative acts as a sink for airborne mercury and plastic containers are permeable to mercury vapor, glass bottles are preferred for sample collection. To maintain a healthy work environment and minimize the potential for contamination of water samples, mercury and its compounds are isolated from the atmosphere while in storage. Concurrently, a program to monitor environmental levels of mercury vapor in areas of potential contamination is needed to define the extent of mercury contamination and to assess the effectiveness of mercury clean-up procedures.Water samples for dissolved mercury require special treatment because of the high chemical mobility and volatility of this element. Widespread use of mercury and its compounds has provided many avenues for contamination of water. Two laboratory tests were done to determine the relative permeabilities of glass and plastic sample bottles to mercury vapor. Plastic containers were confirmed to be quite permeable to airborne mercury, glass containers were virtually impermeable. Methods of preservation include the use of various combinations of acids, oxidants, and complexing agents. The combination of nitric acid and potassium dichromate successfully preserved mercury in a

  2. Factors associated with compliance with community directed treatment with ivermectin for onchocerciasis control in Southwestern Ethiopia

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    Wondafrash Mekite

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although ivermectin is distributed free of charge through the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC, not all eligible individuals within communities receive the annual treatment. This poses a serious threat to efforts aimed to control onchocerciasis. This study attempts to determine factors associated with compliance to Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI and provides a basis for trying to understand how best to sustain long-term compliance in order to achieve success in the control of onchocerciasis. Methods An unmatched case-control study was conducted in Bebeka coffee plantation southwest Ethiopia. Cases were, compliant i.e., those individuals who had been registered on the relevant treatment registers and had taken all the five annual doses of Ivermectin. Controls were non-compliant, i.e. those individuals who had been recorded in the relevant treatment registers during the first treatment round(2003, and did not take at least two doses of which one being in the last treatment round (2007. Data were collected using a pre-tested interviewer administered structured questionnaire. Data were edited, cleaned, coded and analyzed using SPSS version 12.0.1 for Microsoft Windows. Multiple logistic regression models was used to identify factors associated with compliance to ivermectin. Results From the total of 456 individuals selected for administration of the survey questionnaire, 450(225 cases and 225 controls were contacted and completed the study 2 refused and 4 were unavailable. Five factors associated with compliance were identified: high risk perception [Adjusted Odds Ratio(AOR = 1.98, 95% Confidence Interval (CI, 1.32-2.95], one's family support [AOR = 1.86, 95% CI, 1.22-2.84], perceiving that the Community Drug Distributors (CDDs are doing their work well [AOR = 2.84, 95% CI, 1.50-5.37] and perceiving measuring height is the best way to determine a person's treatment dose [AOR = 6.37, 95% CI, 2

  3. A combined model of human erythropoiesis and granulopoiesis under growth factor and chemotherapy treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirm, Sibylle; Engel, Christoph; Loeffler, Markus; Scholz, Markus

    2014-05-26

    Haematotoxicity of conventional chemotherapies often results in delays of treatment or reduction of chemotherapy dose. To ameliorate these side-effects, patients are routinely treated with blood transfusions or haematopoietic growth factors such as erythropoietin (EPO) or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). For the latter ones, pharmaceutical derivatives are available, which differ in absorption kinetics, pharmacokinetic and -dynamic properties. Due to the complex interaction of cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy and the stimulating effects of different growth factor derivatives, optimal treatment is a non-trivial task. In the past, we developed mathematical models of thrombopoiesis, granulopoiesis and erythropoiesis under chemotherapy and growth-factor applications which can be used to perform clinically relevant predictions regarding the feasibility of chemotherapy schedules and cytopenia prophylaxis with haematopoietic growth factors. However, interactions of lineages and growth-factors were ignored so far. To close this gap, we constructed a hybrid model of human granulopoiesis and erythropoiesis under conventional chemotherapy, G-CSF and EPO applications. This was achieved by combining our single lineage models of human erythropoiesis and granulopoiesis with a common stem cell model. G-CSF effects on erythropoiesis were also implemented. Pharmacodynamic models are based on ordinary differential equations describing proliferation and maturation of haematopoietic cells. The system is regulated by feedback loops partly mediated by endogenous and exogenous EPO and G-CSF. Chemotherapy is modelled by depletion of cells. Unknown model parameters were determined by fitting the model predictions to time series data of blood counts and cytokine profiles. Data were extracted from literature or received from cooperating clinical study groups. Our model explains dynamics of mature blood cells and cytokines after growth-factor applications in healthy volunteers

  4. Listeria monocytogenes endophthalmitis - case report and review of risk factors and treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajor, Anna; Luhr, Anke; Brockmann, Dorothee; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Framme, Carsten; Sedlacek, Ludwig

    2016-07-16

    The majority of cases of endophthalmitis are caused by exogenous pathogens; only 5-10 % are of endogenous origin. One cause of these rare cases of endogenous endophthalmitis is Listeria monocytogenes. Twenty-six cases of endophthalmitis due to this pathogen have been published over the last twenty years. The aim of this review is to summarize the main risk factors and common clinical findings of endogenous endophthalmitis due to Listeria monocytogenes. We report on a 62-year-old female presenting with a sterile hypopyon iritis with secondary glaucoma and an underlying rheumatoid disease. In microbiological analysis we identified Listeria monocytogenes. Further we searched through all published cases for typical signs, risk factors, details of medical and surgical treatment and outcome of endogenous endophthalmitis due to this rare pathogen. Ocular symptoms in almost all of these published cases included pain, redness of the eye, and decreased vision. Main clinical features included elevated intraocular pressure and fibrinous anterior chamber reaction, as well as a dark hypopyon. While the infection is typically spread endogenously, neither an exogenous nor endogenous source of infection could be identified in most cases. Immunocompromised patients are at higher risk of being infected than immunocompetent patients. The clinical course of endophthalmitis caused by Listeria monocytogenes had different visual outcomes. In some cases, the infection led to enucleation, blindness, or strong visual loss, whereas most patients showed a tendency of visual improvement during therapy. Early diagnosis and treatment initiation are crucial factors in the outcome of endogenous endophthalmitis caused by Listeria monocytogenes. This possible differential diagnosis should be kept in mind while treating patients with presumable sterile hypopyon and anterior uveitis having a high intraocular pressure. A bacterial source should be considered with a prompt initiation of systemic

  5. Factors influencing adherence to cancer treatment in older adults with cancer: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puts, M. T. E.; Tu, H. A.; Tourangeau, A.; Howell, D.; Fitch, M.; Springall, E.; Alibhai, S. M. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer is a disease that mostly affects older adults. Treatment adherence is crucial to obtain optimal outcomes such as cure or improvement in quality of life. Older adults have numerous comorbidites as well as cognitive and sensory impairments that may affect adherence. The aim of this systematic review was to examine factors that influence adherence to cancer treatment in older adults with cancer. Patients and Methods Systematic review of the literature published between inception of the databases and February 2013. English, Dutch, French and German-language articles reporting cross-sectional or longitudinal, intervention or observational studies of cancer treatment adherence were included. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Web of Science, ASSIA, Ageline, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED), SocAbstracts and the Cochrane Library. Two reviewers reviewed abstracts and abstracted data using standardized forms. Study quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool 2011. Results Twenty-two manuscripts were identified reporting on 18 unique studies. The quality of most studies was good. Most studies focused on women with breast cancer and adherence to adjuvant hormonal therapy. More than half of the studies used data from administrative or clinical databases or chart reviews. The adherence rate varied from 52% to 100%. Only one qualitative study asked older adults about reasons for non-adherence. Factors associated with non-adherence varied widely across studies. Conclusion Non-adherence was common a