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Sample records for factor tnf-related apoptosis-inducing

  1. Type I interferons and interferon regulatory factors regulate TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL in HIV-1-infected macrophages.

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    Yunlong Huang

    Full Text Available TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL is a member of the TNF family that participates in HIV-1 pathogenesis through the depletion of CD4+ T cells. TRAIL is expressed on the cell membrane of peripheral immune cells and can be cleaved into a soluble, secreted form. The regulation of TRAIL in macrophages during HIV-1 infection is not completely understood. In this study, we investigated the mechanism(s of TRAIL expression in HIV-1-infected macrophages, an important cell type in HIV-1 pathogenesis. A human monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM culture system was infected with macrophage-tropic HIV-1(ADA, HIV-1(JR-FL, or HIV-1(BAL strains. TRAIL, predominantly the membrane-bound form, increased following HIV-1 infection. We found that HIV-1 infection also induced interferon regulatory factor (IRF-1, IRF-7 gene expression and signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1 activation. Small interfering RNA knockdown of IRF-1 or IRF-7, but not IRF-3, reduced STAT1 activation and TRAIL expression. Furthermore, the upregulation of IRF-1, IRF-7, TRAIL, and the activation of STAT1 by HIV-1 infection was reduced by the treatment of type I interferon (IFN-neutralizing antibodies. In addition, inhibition of STAT1 by fludarabine abolished IRF-1, IRF-7, and TRAIL upregulation. We conclude that IRF-1, IRF-7, type I IFNs, and STAT1 form a signaling feedback loop that is critical in regulating TRAIL expression in HIV-1-infected macrophages.

  2. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand deficiency enhances survival in murine colon ascendens stent peritonitis

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    Beyer K

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Katharina Beyer,1 Laura Stollhof,1 Christian Poetschke,2 Wolfram von Bernstorff,1 Lars Ivo Partecke,1 Stephan Diedrich,1 Stefan Maier,1 Barbara M Bröker,2 Claus-Dieter Heidecke1 1Department of General, Visceral, Thoracic, and Vascular Surgery, 2Institute of Immunology, University of Greifswald, Greifswald, GermanyBackground: Apart from inducing apoptosis in tumor cells, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL influences inflammatory reactions. Murine colon ascendens stent peritonitis (CASP represents a model of diffuse peritonitis. Recently, it has been demonstrated that administration of exogenous TRAIL not only induces apoptosis in neutrophils but also enhances survival in this model. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of genetic TRAIL deficiency on the course of CASP.Methods: Peritonitis was induced in 6- to 8-week-old female TRAIL−/− mice as well as in wild-type mice. The sepsis severity score and survival of mice were monitored. Bacterial loads in blood as well as in the lymphoid organs were examined. Additionally, the number of apoptotic cells within the lymphoid organs was determined.Results: As early as 8 hours postinduction of CASP, TRAIL−/− mice were significantly more affected by sepsis than wild-type mice, as measured by the sepsis severity score. However, during the further course of sepsis, TRAIL deficiency led to significantly decreased sepsis severity scores, resulting in an enhanced overall survival in TRAIL−/− mice. The better survival of TRAIL−/− mice was accompanied by a decreased bacterial load within the blood. In marked contrast, the number of apoptotic cells within the lymphoid organs was highly increased in TRAIL−/− mice 20 hours after induction of CASP.Conclusion: Hence, exogenous and endogenous TRAIL is protective during the early phase of sepsis, while endogenous TRAIL appears to be detrimental in the later course of this disease.Keywords: CASP, mice

  3. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand cooperates with NSAIDs via activated Wnt signalling in (pre)malignant colon cells

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    Heijink, Dianne M.; Jalving, Mathilde; Oosterhuis, Dorenda; Sloots, Ineke A.; Koster, Roelof; Hollema, Harry; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Koornstra, Jan J.; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; de Jong, Steven

    2011-01-01

    TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor agonistic agents and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are interesting agents for the chemoprevention and treatment of colorectal cancer. We investigated whether NSAIDs sensitize colon cancer and adenoma cell lines and ex vivo cultu

  4. Expression of human TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand extracellular region in E.coli

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    唐蓓; HE; Fengtian; 等

    2002-01-01

    This study is conducted to clone the cDNA encoding human TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand(hTRAIL)extracellular region(amino acids 41-281,hTRAIL41-281)and to express it in E.coli.The hTRAIL41-281 cDNA is amplified by reverse transcription(RT)PCR from total RNA derived from human acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60.After sequenced,the cDNA is cloned into the vector pQE-80L and transformed into E.coli DH5α to express the recombinant hTRAIL41-281(rhTRAIL41-281)induced by IPTG.The recombinant protein is analyzed by SDS-PAGE.The cloned cDNA is consistent with the cDNA sequence encoding hTRAIL41-281 reported in GenBankTM.After inducing.the hTRAIL41-281 protein is expressed,and the mass of the recombinant protein is about 30% of total bacteria protein,which demonstrates that the cDNA encoding hTRAIL41-281 is successfully cloned and expressed in E.coli.

  5. The Role of TNF Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand in Neurodegenerative Diseases

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    Y.Huang; N.Erdmann; H.Peng; Y.Zhao

    2005-01-01

    A hallmark of all forms of neurodegenerative diseases is impairment of neuronal functions, and in many cases neuronal cell death. Although the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases may be distinct, different diseases display a similar pathogenesis, for example abnormal immunity within the central nervous system (CNS), activation of macrophage/microglia and the involvement of proinflammatory cytokines. Recent studies show that neurons in a neurodegenerative state undergo a highly regulated programmed cell death, also called apoptosis. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a member of the TNF family, has been shown to be involved in apoptosis during many diseases. As one member of a death ligand family, TRAIL was originally thought to target only tumor cells and was not present in CNS. However, recent data showed that TRAIL was unregulated in HIV-l-infected and immune-activated macrophages, a major disease inducing cell during HIV-l-associated dementia (HAD). TRAIL is also induced on neuron by [$-amyloid protein, an important pathogen for Alzheimer's disease. In this review, we summarize the possible common aspects that TRAIL involved those neurodegenerative diseases, TRAIL induced apoptosis signaling in the CNS cells, and specific role of TRAIL in individual diseases. Cellular & MolecularImmunology. 2005;2(2):113-122.

  6. The Role of TNF Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand in Neurodegenerative Diseases

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    Y.Huang; N.Erdmann; H.Peng; Y.Zhao; Jialin Zheng

    2005-01-01

    A hallmark of all forms of neurodegenerative diseases is impairment of neuronal functions, and in many cases neuronal cell death. Although the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases may be distinct, different diseases display a similar pathogenesis, for example abnormal immunity within the central nervous system (CNS), activation of macrophage/microglia and the involvement of proinflammatory cytokines. Recent studies show that neurons in a neurodegenerative state undergo a highly regulated programmed cell death, also called apoptosis. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a member of the TNF family, has been shown to be involved in apoptosis during many diseases. As one member of a death ligand family, TRAIL was originally thought to target only tumor cells and was not present in CNS. However, recent data showed that TRAIL was unregulated in HIV-1-infected and immune-activated macrophages, a major disease inducing cell during HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). TRAIL is also induced on neuron by β-amyloid protein, an important pathogen for Alzheimer's disease. In this review, we summarize the possible common aspects that TRAIL involved those neurodegenerative diseases, TRAIL induced apoptosis signaling in the CNS cells, and specific role of TRAIL in individual diseases. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2005;2(2):113-122.

  7. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) exerts therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia in mice.

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    Steinwede, Kathrin; Henken, Stefanie; Bohling, Jennifer; Maus, Regina; Ueberberg, Bianca; Brumshagen, Christina; Brincks, Erik L; Griffith, Thomas S; Welte, Tobias; Maus, Ulrich A

    2012-10-22

    Apoptotic death of alveolar macrophages observed during lung infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae is thought to limit overwhelming lung inflammation in response to bacterial challenge. However, the underlying apoptotic death mechanism has not been defined. Here, we examined the role of the TNF superfamily member TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in S. pneumoniae-induced macrophage apoptosis, and investigated the potential benefit of TRAIL-based therapy during pneumococcal pneumonia in mice. Compared with WT mice, Trail(-/-) mice demonstrated significantly decreased lung bacterial clearance and survival in response to S. pneumoniae, which was accompanied by significantly reduced apoptosis and caspase 3 cleavage but rather increased necrosis in alveolar macrophages. In WT mice, neutrophils were identified as a major source of intraalveolar released TRAIL, and their depletion led to a shift from apoptosis toward necrosis as the dominant mechanism of alveolar macrophage cell death in pneumococcal pneumonia. Therapeutic application of TRAIL or agonistic anti-DR5 mAb (MD5-1) dramatically improved survival of S. pneumoniae-infected WT mice. Most importantly, neutropenic mice lacking neutrophil-derived TRAIL were protected from lethal pneumonia by MD5-1 therapy. We have identified a previously unrecognized mechanism by which neutrophil-derived TRAIL induces apoptosis of DR5-expressing macrophages, thus promoting early bacterial killing in pneumococcal pneumonia. TRAIL-based therapy in neutropenic hosts may represent a novel antibacterial treatment option.

  8. Anti-liver cancer activity of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand gene and its bystander effects

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    Chao He; Wei-Feng Lao; Xiao-Tong Hu; Xiang-Ming Xu; Jing Xu; Bing-Liang Fang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To observe the anti-liver cancer activity of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) gene and its bystander effects on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line SMMC7721.METHODS: Full-length cDNA of human TRAIL was transferred into SMMC7721 cells with a binary adenoviral vector system.Polymerase-chain reaction following reverse transcription (RT-PCR) was used to determine the expression of TRAIL gene. Effects of the transfected gene on proliferation of SMMC7721 cells were measured by MTT assay. Its influence on apoptosis was demonstrated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). The bystander effect was observed by co-culturing the SMNC7721 cells with and without the transfected TRAIL gene at different ratios, and the culture medium supernatant from the transfected cells was also examined for its influence on SMMC7721 cells.RESULTS: The growth-inhibition rate and apoptotic cell fraction in the cells transfected with the TRAIL gene, Bax gene or only LacZ gene were 91.2%, 48.0%, 28.8% and 29.1%, 12.5%, 6.6%, respectively. The growth-inhibition rate of transfection with these three sequences in normal human fibroblasts was 6.1%, 45.5% and 7.6%, respectively,indicating a discriminative inhibition of TRAIL transfection on the cancer cells. In the co-culturing test, addition of the transfected TRAIL to SMMC7721 cells in proportions of 5%,25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, resulted in a growth-inhibition of 15.9%, 67%, 80.2%, 86.4% and 87.7%, respectively.We failed to observe a significant growth-inhibition effect of the culture medium supernatant on SMMC7721 cells.CONCLUSION: TRAIL gene transferred by a binary adenoviral vector system can inhibit proliferation of SMMC7721 cells and induce their apoptosis. A bystander effect was observed,which seemed not to be mediated by soluble factors.

  9. Does DcR1 (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing-ligand Receptor 3) have any role in human AMD pathogenesis?

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    Anand, Akshay; Sharma, Neel K; Singh, Ramandeep; Gupta, Amod; Prabhakar, Sudesh; Jindal, Neeru; Bhatt, Arvind K; Sharma, Suresh K; Gupta, Pawan K

    2014-02-18

    It has been postulated that there is a link between age related degenerative diseases and cancer. The TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been shown to selectively kill tumor cells by binding to pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic receptors. Our aim was to study the levels of anti-apoptotic receptor (DcR1) in age related macular degeneration (AMD) and controls. AMD patients (115) were classified into two groups: Dry and Wet AMD. Wet AMDs were further classified into occult, predominant classic and minimal classic. 61 healthy individuals were recruited as normal controls. After normalization with total protein, DcR1 levels were analyzed by ELISA. Mann Whitney U-statistic was used for analysis of DcR1 ELISA results. We have observed DcR1 levels in serum sample which were significantly lower in AMD patients as compared to controls (p = 0.001). On the other hand, we did not find difference in DcR1 levels between wet and dry AMD. The present study defines the plausible role of DcR1 in AMD pathology signifying a new therapeutic target for AMD.

  10. The role of neutrophils and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy for urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.

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    Rosevear, Henry M; Lightfoot, Andrew J; O'Donnell, Michael A; Griffith, Thomas S

    2009-12-01

    Intravesical Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy is a highly effective treatment for carcinoma in situ of the bladder, as well as high-risk nonmuscle invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Despite over 30 years of clinical experience with BCG, the therapy's mechanism has remained enigmatic. Observations regarding the role of neutrophils in BCG immunotherapy have led to exciting discoveries regarding the potential role of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in creating the therapeutic benefit of BCG immunotherapy. In this paper, we will review the scope of the disease, highlight our understanding of the role for BCG in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, explain the recent discoveries regarding the role of neutrophils and TRAIL in therapy, and theorize on potential future areas of research.

  11. Killing effect of TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand regulated by tetracycline on gastric cancer cell line NCI-N87

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    Xiao-Chao Wei; Xin-Juan Wang; Kai-Chen; Lei Zhang; Yu Liang; Xin-Li Lin

    2001-01-01

    AIM To clone the cDNA fragment of human TRAIL (TNFrelated apoptosis inducing ligand) into a tetracyclineregulated gene expression system, the RevTet-On system, transduce expression vectors into a gastric carcinoma cell line-NCl-N87 and examine the effects of controlled expression of TRAIL in vitro on the gastric carcinoma cells. METHODS The full-length cDNA of TRAIL was inserted into a vector under the control of the tetracyclineresponsive element (TRE) to obtain the plasmid pRevTRETRAIL, which was transfected into a packaging cell line PT67. In addition, vector pRev-Tet- On and pRevTRE were also transfected into PT67 separately. After hygromycin and G418 selection, the viral titer was determined. The medium containing retroviral vectors was collected and used to transduce a gastric carcinoma cell line NCI-N87.The resulting cell line NCI-N87-Tet-On-TRE-TRAIL and a control cell line, NCI-N87-Tet-On-TRE, were established.TRAIL expression in the cell line was induced by incubating cells with doxycycline (Dox), which is a tetracycline analogue. The killing effect on gastric carcinoma cells was analyzed after induction. RESULTS The recombinant plasmid pRev-TRE-TRAIL was constructed. After hygromycin or G418 selection, the producer cell lines PT67-TRE, PT67-TRE-TRAIL and PT67TetOn were obtained, with titers of about 108CFU@ L-1 By transducing NCI-N87 cells with retroviral vectors from these cell lines, stable cell lines NCI-N87-Tet-On-TRETRAIL (NN3T) and control cell line NCI-N87-Tet-On-TRE (NN2T) were established. The growth curves of the selected cell lines were the same with the wild type NCIN87. When Dox was added, cell death was obvious in the test groups (29% -77%), whereas no difference was observed in control and wild type cell lines. With the addition of a medium from the test group, human leukemia cell line Jurkat was activated till death (83%), indicating the secretion of active TRAIL proteins from the test cells to the medium. CONCLUSION With the use of the

  12. Evaluation of preventive and therapeutic activity of novel non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, CG100649, in colon cancer: Increased expression of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptors enhance the apoptotic response to combination treatment with TRAIL.

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    Woo, Jong Kyu; Kang, Ju-Hee; Jang, Yeong-Su; Ro, Seonggu; Cho, Joong Myung; Kim, Hwan-Mook; Lee, Sang-Jin; Oh, Seung Hyun

    2015-04-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been suggested as the potential new class of preventive or therapeutic antitumor agents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antitumor activity of the novel NSAID, CG100649. CG100649 is a novel NSAID dual inhibitor for COX-2 and carbonic anhydrase (CA)-I/-II. In the present study, we investigated the alternative mechanism by which CG100649 mediated suppression of the colon cancer growth and development. The anchorage‑dependent and -independent clonogenic assay showed that CG100649 inhibited the clonogenicity of human colon cancer cells. The flow cytometric analysis showed that CG100649 induced the G2/M cell cycle arrest in colon cancer cells. Animal studies showed that CG100649 inhibited the tumor growth in colon cancer xenograft in nude mice. Furthermore, quantitative PCR and FACS analysis demonstrated that CG100649 upregulated the expression of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors (DR4 and DR5) but decreased the expression of decoy receptors (DcR1 and DcR2) in colon cancer cells. The results showed that CG100649 treatment sensitized TRAIL‑mediated growth suppression and apoptotic cell death. The combination treatment resulted in significant repression of the intestinal polyp formation in APCmin/+ mice. Our data clearly demonstrated that CG100649 contains preventive and therapeutic activity for colon cancer. The present study may be useful for identification of the potential benefit of the NSAID CG100649, for the achievement of a better treatment response in colon cancer.

  13. Soluble TNF-related apoptosis induced ligand (sTRAIL) is augmented by Post-Conditioning and correlates to infarct size and left ventricle dysfunction in STEMI patients: a substudy from a randomized clinical trial.

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    Luz, André; Santos, Mário; Magalhães, Rui; Oliveira, José Carlos; Pacheco, Ana; Silveira, João; Cabral, Sofia; Torres, Severo; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F; Carvalho, Henrique

    2017-02-01

    Low levels of Soluble TNF-related apoptosis induced ligand (sTRAIL) seem to be related to worse prognosis after an acute coronary syndrome. PostConditioning (PostCond) may protect the heart from reperfusion injury. We sought to evaluate the impact of PostCond on sTRAIL in relationship to infarct size (area under the curve of Troponin T, AUCTnT) and left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) in a series of patients undergoing primary coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In a substudy of a randomized trial that tested the effects of PostCond in STEMI-patients, sTRAIL was measured 24 h after reperfusion (PostCond n = 39, Control n = 39). Correlations between sTRAIL and both AUCTnT and LVEF were studied for each study arm. At 24 h, sTRAIL was higher for PostCond vs Controls (46.4 ± 30.6 vs 32.9 ± 23.4, p = 0.031), was negatively related to AUCTnT [B = -0.09, 95 % CI (-0.15 to -0.30), p = 0.005] and was positively related to both in-hospital [B = 0.10, 95 % CI (0.02-0.17), p = 0.018], and follow-up LVEF [B = 0.21, 95 % (0.10-0.32), p = 0.001]. No significant relationship was found for Controls. On multivariate analysis, PostCond was an independent predictor for sTRAIL [B = 12.13 95 % CI (0.40-23.87), p = 0.043]. In conclusion, PostCond positively influenced sTRAIL, which was related to reduced infarct size and better LVEF. Further studies are needed to understand potential mechanisms elicited by PostCond in infarct size reduction.

  14. Newcastle disease virus promotes expression of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand in human NK cells%新城疫病毒对人NK细胞表达TRAIL的促进作用

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    殷君; 王立芳; 樊晓晖; 梁莹; 肖庆; 宋德志; 高灵茜; 赖振屏

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanism for the TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) expression in NK (natural killer) cells stimulated by NDV (Newcastle disease virus). Methods: Pure NK cells were isolated by using MACS (magnetic activated cell sorting). The cytotoxicity of NK cells stimulated by NDV was detected by LDH releasing assay. TRAIL transcription levels in NK cells stimulated by NDV were detected through RFQ-PCR (real-time fluorogenic quantitative-PCR). TRAIL expression on NK cell membrane stimulated with NDV for 16 h was analyzed by FCM (flow cytometry). The level of IFN (interferon) -y was determined by ELISA after NK cells were stimulated by NDV. TRAIL expression on NK cell membrane was analyzed by FCM after applying the anti-human IFN-γ while NDV was added into NK cell medium. Results: The purity of NK cells detected by FCM was (90.60+ 1.15)%. NDV can enhance the cytotoxicity of NK cells after stimulation for 16 h, and the cytotoxicity of NK cells reached (22.28±0.84)% after stimulation with 204.8HU NDV. TRAIL mRNA expression levels were increased after stimulation with various concentrations of NDV for 4 h. TRAIL expression on NK cell membrane was significantly increased after stimulation with NDV for 16 h. IFN-γ level was significantly increased after NK cells were stimulated by NDV, consistent with the concentration of NDV and it was time-dependent. IFN-γ level reached a peak of 796.47+37.87 pg/mL after stimulation with 25.6 HU NDV for 16 h. TRAIL expression was significantly decreased after IFN-γ was neutralized. Conclusion: NDV can enhance the expression of IFN-γ in NK cells, and IFN-γ can up-regulate the TRAIL expression. This is one of the mechanisms for TRAIL expression on NK cells stimulated by NDV. Besides this mechanism, there exists another mechanism for TRAIL expression on NK cells directly stimulated by NDV.%目的:研究新城疫病毒(Newcastle disease virus

  15. TRAIL及联合阿霉素治疗骨肉瘤的动物实验研究%Treatment of osteosarcoma with TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand or in combination with doxorubicin in animal experiment

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    吴刚; 喻爱喜; 祝少博; 漆白文

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand(TRAIL)and in combination with doxorubidcin (ADM) to xenografted tumors in nude mice and to explore its potential mechanism.Methods MG-63 cells(5×10~6/ml) were suspended in 0.2 ml RPMI-1640 and inoculated subcutaneously into the lower limb of nude mice.Treatment groups were given TRAIL of different concentration or combination of TRAIL and ADM intraperitoneally.Normal saline was administrated in the control group.Auti-tumor effects were estimated by tumor volumes.Serum alkaline phosphatase(ALP)was detected by ALP kits.Induction of apoptosis in xenografted tumors was confirmed by TUNEL(TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling)assay.Expression of Bax was detected by immunohistochemical assay.Expression of TRAIL receptors was detected by RT-PCR assay.Results Growth curve of tumors indicated that tumors carried by TRAIL-treated mice grew more slowly than that with normal saline and 2μg TRAIL was more effective,Also tumors treated with combination of TRAIL and ADM grew more slowly than any other group.ALP activities of each group were moderately different but significance was not reached.TUNEL showed that there were more apoptotic cells in the combination group than any other group.Immunohistochemical assay showed that expression of Bax was up-regulated in the combination group.RT-PCR showed that expression of TRAIL-R2 mRNA was up-regulated in the combination group.Conclusion TRAIL can induce an effective apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells in vivo in a dose-dependent fashion.ADM can enhance the effect of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis.And up-regulations of Bax and TRAIL-R2 may be the involved mechanism.%目的 探讨肿瘤坏死因子相关凋亡诱导配体(TRAIL)以及TRAIL联合阿霉素(ADM)对裸鼠移植性骨肉瘤的治疗作用及机制.方法 取对数生长的MG-63骨肉瘤细胞,以5×10~6/ml浓度的细胞悬液0.2 ml接种于裸鼠下肢外侧皮下,建立裸鼠肿瘤模型随机分组.各以1、2

  16. Evidence that tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) inhibits angiogenesis by inducing vascular endothelial cell apoptosis

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    Chen, Pei-Lin, E-mail: pchen@dal.ca [Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Easton, Alexander S., E-mail: alexander.easton@dal.ca [Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2010-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and its related ligands TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) and Fas ligand (FasL) play roles in the regulation of vascular responses, but their effect on the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) is unclear. Therefore, we have examined the effects of these ligands on angiogenesis modeled with primary cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). To examine angiogenesis in the context of the central nervous system, we have also modeled cerebral angiogenesis with the human brain endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3. Parameters studied were bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and cell number (MTT) assay (to assess endothelial proliferation), scratch assay (migration) and networks on Matrigel (tube formation). In our hands, neither TRAIL nor FasL (1, 10, and 100 ng/ml) had an effect on parameters of angiogenesis in the HUVEC model. In hCMEC/D3 cells by contrast, TRAIL inhibited all parameters (10-100 ng/ml, 24 h). This was due to apoptosis, since its action was blocked by the pan-caspase inhibitor zVADfmk (5 x 10{sup -5} mol/l) and TRAIL increased caspase-3 activity 1 h after application. However FasL (100 ng/ml) increased BrdU uptake without other effects. We conclude that TRAIL has different effects on in vitro angiogenesis depending on which model is used, but that FasL is generally ineffective when applied in vitro. The data suggest that TRAIL primarily influences angiogenesis by the induction of vascular endothelial apoptosis, leading to vessel regression.

  17. Understanding the Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde nature of apoptosis-inducing factor: future perspectives

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    Giulio Preta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF is emerging as a key protein in regulation of basic physiological processes including phagocytosis, mitophagy and regulation of the redox state. Recent evidences suggest that the enzymatic activity of AIF may play an active role in tumor progression controlling energy metabolism and redox balance. The present manuscript briefly describes the story of this protein from its initial discovery as caspase-independent apoptotic protein, throughout its role in oxidative phosphorylation and lately involvement in tumor progression. Understanding the dualistic nature of AIF is a critical starting point to clarify its contribution in tumor metabolic balance and to develop new AIF-specific therapeutic strategies.

  18. Understanding the Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde nature of apoptosis-inducing factor: future perspectives.

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    Preta, Giulio

    2017-08-01

    Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is emerging as a key protein in regulation of basic physiological processes including phagocytosis, mitophagy and regulation of the redox state. Recent evidences suggest that the enzymatic activity of AIF may play an active role in tumor progression controlling energy metabolism and redox balance. The present manuscript briefly describes the story of this protein from its initial discovery as caspase-independent apoptotic protein, throughout its role in oxidative phosphorylation and lately involvement in tumor progression. Understanding the dualistic nature of AIF is a critical starting point to clarify its contribution in tumor metabolic balance and to develop new AIF-specific therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2017 Chang Gung University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of apoptosis-inducing factor, proline dehydrogenase, and NADPH oxidase in apoptosis and oxidative stress

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    Becker DF

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Donald F BeckerDepartment of Biochemistry and Redox Biology Center, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NEAbstract: Flavoproteins catalyze a variety of reactions utilizing flavin mononucleotide or flavin adenine dinucleotide as cofactors. The oxidoreductase properties of flavoenzymes implicate them in redox homeostasis, oxidative stress, and various cellular processes, including programmed cell death. Here we explore three critical flavoproteins involved in apoptosis and redox signaling, ie, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF, proline dehydrogenase, and NADPH oxidase. These proteins have diverse biochemical functions and influence apoptotic signaling by unique mechanisms. The role of AIF in apoptotic signaling is two-fold, with AIF changing intracellular location from the inner mitochondrial membrane space to the nucleus upon exposure of cells to apoptotic stimuli. In the mitochondria, AIF enhances mitochondrial bioenergetics and complex I activity/assembly to help maintain proper cellular redox homeostasis. After translocating to the nucleus, AIF forms a chromatin degrading complex with other proteins, such as cyclophilin A. AIF translocation from the mitochondria to the nucleus is triggered by oxidative stress, implicating AIF as a mitochondrial redox sensor. Proline dehydrogenase is a membrane-associated flavoenzyme in the mitochondrion that catalyzes the rate-limiting step of proline oxidation. Upregulation of proline dehydrogenase by the tumor suppressor, p53, leads to enhanced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species that induce the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. NADPH oxidases are a group of enzymes that generate reactive oxygen species for oxidative stress and signaling purposes. Upon activation, NADPH oxidase 2 generates a burst of superoxide in neutrophils that leads to killing of microbes during phagocytosis. NADPH oxidases also participate in redox signaling that involves hydrogen peroxide-mediated activation of

  20. Noscapine induces apoptosis in human glioma cells by an apoptosis-inducing factor-dependent pathway.

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    Newcomb, Elizabeth W; Lukyanov, Yevgeniy; Smirnova, Iva; Schnee, Tona; Zagzag, David

    2008-07-01

    Previously, we identified noscapine as a small molecule inhibitor of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 pathway in hypoxic human glioma cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Noscapine is a nontoxic ingredient in cough medicine currently used in clinical trials for patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukemia to assess antitumor efficacy. Here, we have evaluated the sensitivity of four human glioma cell lines to noscapine-induced apoptosis. Noscapine was a potent inhibitor of proliferation and inducer of apoptosis. Induction of apoptosis was associated with activation of the c-jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway concomitant with inactivation of the extracellular signal regulated kinase signaling pathway and phosphorylation of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. Noscapine-induced apoptosis was associated with the release of mitochondrial proteins apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and/or cytochrome c. In some glioma cell lines, only AIF release occurred without cytochrome c release or poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. Knock-down of AIF decreased noscapine-induced apoptosis. Our results suggest the potential importance of noscapine as a novel agent for use in patients with glioblastoma owing to its low toxicity profile and its potent anticancer activity.

  1. E1B and E4 oncoproteins of adenovirus antagonize the effect of apoptosis inducing factor

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    Turner, Roberta L. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States); Wilkinson, John C., E-mail: john.wilkinson@ndsu.edu [Department of Biochemistry, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States); Ornelles, David A., E-mail: ornelles@wakehealth.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Adenovirus inundates the productively infected cell with linear, double-stranded DNA and an abundance of single-stranded DNA. The cellular response to this stimulus is antagonized by the adenoviral E1B and E4 early genes. A mutant group C adenovirus that fails to express the E1B-55K and E4ORF3 genes is unable to suppress the DNA-damage response. Cells infected with this double-mutant virus display significant morphological heterogeneity at late times of infection and frequently contain fragmented nuclei. Nuclear fragmentation was due to the translocation of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondria into the nucleus. The release of AIF was dependent on active poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), which appeared to be activated by viral DNA replication. Nuclear fragmentation did not occur in AIF-deficient cells or in cells treated with a PARP-1 inhibitor. The E1B-55K or E4ORF3 proteins independently prevented nuclear fragmentation subsequent to PARP-1 activation, possibly by altering the intracellular distribution of PAR-modified proteins. - Highlights: • E1B-55K or E4orf3 prevents nuclear fragmentation. • Nuclear fragmentation requires AIF and PARP-1 activity. • Adenovirus DNA replication activates PARP-1. • E1B-55K or E4orf3 proteins alter the distribution of PAR.

  2. Role of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF in programmed nuclear death during conjugation in Tetrahymena thermophila

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    Endoh Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Programmed nuclear death (PND, which is also referred to as nuclear apoptosis, is a remarkable process that occurs in ciliates during sexual reproduction (conjugation. In Tetrahymena thermophila, when the new macronucleus differentiates, the parental macronucleus is selectively eliminated from the cytoplasm of the progeny, concomitant with apoptotic nuclear events. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these events are not well understood. The parental macronucleus is engulfed by a large autophagosome, which contains numerous mitochondria that have lost their membrane potential. In animals, mitochondrial depolarization precedes apoptotic cell death, which involves DNA fragmentation and subsequent nuclear degradation. Results We focused on the role of mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF during PND in Tetrahymena. The disruption of AIF delays the normal progression of PND, specifically, nuclear condensation and kilobase-size DNA fragmentation. AIF is localized in Tetrahymena mitochondria and is released into the macronucleus prior to nuclear condensation. In addition, AIF associates and co-operates with the mitochondrial DNase to facilitate the degradation of kilobase-size DNA, which is followed by oligonucleosome-size DNA laddering. Conclusions Our results suggest that Tetrahymena AIF plays an important role in the degradation of DNA at an early stage of PND, which supports the notion that the mitochondrion-initiated apoptotic DNA degradation pathway is widely conserved among eukaryotes.

  3. Human dendritic cells mediate cellular apoptosis via tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanger, N A; Maliszewski, C R; Schooley, K; Griffith, T S

    1999-10-18

    TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) is a member of the TNF family that induces apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrate that human CD11c(+) blood dendritic cells (DCs) express TRAIL after stimulation with either interferon (IFN)-gamma or -alpha and acquire the ability to kill TRAIL-sensitive tumor cell targets but not TRAIL-resistant tumor cells or normal cell types. The DC-mediated apoptosis was TRAIL specific, as soluble TRAIL receptor blocked target cell death. Moreover, IFN-stimulated interleukin (IL)-3 receptor (R)alpha(+) blood precursor (pre-)DCs displayed minimal cytotoxicity toward the same target cells, demonstrating a clear functional difference between the CD11c(+) DC and IL-3Ralpha(+) pre-DC subsets. These results indicate that TRAIL may serve as an innate effector molecule on CD11c(+) DCs for the elimination of spontaneously arising tumor cells and suggest a means by which TRAIL-expressing DCs may regulate or eliminate T cells responding to antigen presented by the DCs.

  4. Roscovitine sensitizes leukemia and lymphoma cells to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Molinsky, J.; Klánová, M.; Koc, M; Beranová, L. (Lenka); Anděra, L. (Ladislav); Ludvíková, Z.; Bohmova, M.; Gasova, Z.; Strnad, M.; Ivánek, R. (Robert); Trněný, M.; Nečas, E.; Živný, J.; Klener, P.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a death ligand with selective antitumor activity. However, many primary tumors are TRAIL resistant. Previous studies reported that roscovitine, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, sensitized various solid cancer cells to TRAIL. We show that roscovitine and TRAIL demonstrate synergistic cytotoxicity in hematologic malignant cell lines and primary cells. Pretreatment of TRAIL-resistant leukemia cells with roscovitine induced en...

  5. Outer mitochondrial membrane localization of apoptosis-inducing factor: mechanistic implications for release

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    Seong‑Woon Yu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ADP-ribose polymerase-1-dependent cell death (known as parthanatos plays a pivotal role in many clinically important events including ischaemia/reperfusion injury and glutamate excitotoxicity. A recent study by us has shown that uncleaved AIF (apoptosis-inducing factor, but not calpain-hydrolysed truncated-AIF, was rapidly released from the mitochondria during parthanatos, implicating a second pool of AIF that might be present in brain mitochondria contributing to the rapid release. In the present study, a novel AIF pool is revealed in brain mitochondria by multiple biochemical analyses. Approx. 30% of AIF loosely associates with the outer mitochondrial membrane on the cytosolic side, in addition to its main localization in the mitochondrial intermembrane space attached to the inner membrane. Immunogold electron microscopic analysis of mouse brain further supports AIF association with the outer, as well as the inner, mitochondrial membrane in vivo. In line with these observations, approx. 20% of uncleaved AIF rapidly translocates to the nucleus and functionally causes neuronal death upon NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate treatment. In the present study we show for the first time a second pool of AIF in brain mitochondria and demonstrate that this pool does not require cleavage and that it contributes to the rapid release of AIF. Moreover, these results suggest that this outer mitochondrial pool of AIF is sufficient to cause cell death during parthanatos. Interfering with the release of this outer mitochondrial pool of AIF during cell injury paradigms that use parthanatos hold particular promise for novel therapies to treat neurological disorders.

  6. Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Localization of Apoptosis-Inducing Factor: Mechanistic Implications for Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Woon Yu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ADP-ribose polymerase-1-dependent cell death (known as parthanatos plays a pivotal role in many clinically important events including ischaemia/reperfusion injury and glutamate excitotoxicity. A recent study by us has shown that uncleaved AIF (apoptosis-inducing factor, but not calpain-hydrolysed truncated-AIF, was rapidly released from the mitochondria during parthanatos, implicating a second pool of AIF that might be present in brain mitochondria contributing to the rapid release. In the present study, a novel AIF pool is revealed in brain mitochondria by multiple biochemical analyses. Approx. 30% of AIF loosely associates with the outer mitochondrial membrane on the cytosolic side, in addition to its main localization in the mitochondrial intermembrane space attached to the inner membrane. Immunogold electron microscopic analysis of mouse brain further supports AIF association with the outer, as well as the inner, mitochondrial membrane in vivo. In line with these observations, approx. 20% of uncleaved AIF rapidly translocates to the nucleus and functionally causes neuronal death upon NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate treatment. In the present study we show for the first time a second pool of AIF in brain mitochondria and demonstrate that this pool does not require cleavage and that it contributes to the rapid release of AIF. Moreover, these results suggest that this outer mitochondrial pool of AIF is sufficient to cause cell death during parthanatos. Interfering with the release of this outer mitochondrial pool of AIF during cell injury paradigms that use parthanatos hold particular promise for novel therapies to treat neurological disorders.

  7. Cardioprotection by modulation of mitochondrial respiration during ischemia–reperfusion: Role of apoptosis-inducing factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Aijun [Department of Internal Medicine (Division of Cardiology), Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Department of Anesthesiology, Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China); Szczepanek, Karol; Hu, Ying [Department of Internal Medicine (Division of Cardiology), Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Lesnefsky, Edward J. [Department of Internal Medicine (Division of Cardiology), Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); McGuire Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Richmond, VA 23249 (United States); Chen, Qun, E-mail: qchen8@vcu.edu [Department of Internal Medicine (Division of Cardiology), Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States)

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •Blockade of electron transport prevents the loss of AIF from mitochondria during IR. •Blockade of electron transport decreases caspase-independent cell death during IR. •Mitochondrial AIF content is down-regulated in Harlequin mice. •Blockade of electron transport protects Harlequin mouse hearts during IR. •Amobarbital protection is partially dependent on mitochondrial AIF content. -- Abstract: The transient, reversible blockade of electron transport (BET) during ischemia or at the onset of reperfusion protects mitochondria and decreases cardiac injury. Apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) is located within the mitochondrial intermembrane space. A release of AIF from mitochondria into cytosol and nucleus triggers caspase-independent cell death. We asked if BET prevents the loss of AIF from mitochondria as a mechanism of protection in the buffer perfused heart. BET during ischemia with amobarbital, a rapidly reversible inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I, attenuated a release of AIF from mitochondria into cytosol, in turn decreasing the formation of cleaved and activated PARP-1. These results suggest that BET-mediated protection may occur through prevention of the loss of AIF from mitochondria during ischemia–reperfusion. In order to further clarify the role of mitochondrial AIF in BET-mediated protection, Harlequin (Hq) mice, a genetic model with mitochondrial AIF deficiency, were used to test whether BET could still decrease cell injury in Hq mouse hearts during reperfusion. BET during ischemia protected Hq mouse hearts against ischemia–reperfusion injury and improved mitochondrial function in these hearts during reperfusion. Thus, cardiac injury can still be decreased in the presence of down-regulated mitochondrial AIF content. Taken together, BET during ischemia protects both hearts with normal mitochondrial AIF content and hearts with mitochondrial AIF deficiency. Although preservation of mitochondrial AIF content plays a key role in

  8. Induction of apoptosis in osteogenic sarcoma cells by combination of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand and chemotherapeutic agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jie; FU Zhi-min; FANG Chang-qing; LI Jian-hua

    2007-01-01

    Background Osteosarcoma is one of the most common primary malignant tumors of bone with poor prognosis.TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) cytokine family. TRAIL induces apoptosis in various tumor cell lines but is not found to be cytotoxic to many normal cell types in vitro. We investigated the cytotoxic activity of TRAIL and chemotherapeutic agents, including methotrexate (MTX), doxorubicin(DOX) and cisplatin (CDDP), on established osteosarcoma cell line-OS-732.Methods OS-732 cells were incubated with chemotherapeutic agents MTX,DOX and CDDP at various peak plasma concentrations(PPC), 0.1PPC,1PPC and 10PPC, alone or with 100 ng/ml of TRAIL for 24 hours or 48 hours. MTT was used to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of different agents on OS-732. The apoptosis proportion was assayed by flow cytometry. Cellular morphologic changes were observed by phase contrast microscope, scan electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope.Results The inhibitory rate was (24.438±3.414)% with TRAIL of 100 ng/ml for 24 hours. The cells were responsive to DOX and CDDP with a dose-effect relationship (P<0.05). In OS-732 cells, DOX and CDDP cooperated synergistically with TRAIL when incubated the cells with them for 24 hours (the combined inhibitory rate is (58.360±2.146)% and (54.101 ±2.721)%, respectively). TRAIL alone or drugs alone induced the apoptosis rate was less than 25% (P<0.05).However, the combination of TRAIL and MTX did not present synergistic effects on OS-732 cells (P>0.05, compared with TRAIL alone).Conclusions Osteosarcoma OS-732 cells were not responsive to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. DOX and CDDP sensitize osteosarcoma OS-732 cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The combination of TRAIL and MTX presented no synergistic effects on killing OS-732 cells.

  9. Expression of tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand receptor in glioblastoma

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    Dongling Gao; Zhongwei Zhao; Hongxin Zhang; Lan Zhang; Kuisheng Chen; Yunhan Zhang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Receptors for tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) include death receptor 4, death receptor 5, decoy receptor 1, and decoy receptor 2. Activation of death receptor 4 and 5 selectively kills tumor cells.OBJECTIVE: To detect TRAIL receptor expression in glioblastoma by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR and to compare this expression to that in normal brain tissue.DESIGN: Observational analysis.SETTING: Department of Pathology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University; Henan Tumor Pathology Key Laboratory.PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-five patients (17 males and 8 females) who received glioblastoma resection were selected from the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, between September 2003 to June 2004. All glioblastoma samples were diagnosed pathologically. Twenty patients (12 males and 8 females) with craniocerebral injury who received normal brain tissue resection were selected in the same time period. There were no significant differences in sex and age between glioblastoma patients or between craniocerebral injury patients (P>0.05). All patients and appropriate relatives provided informed consent, and this study was approved by the local research ethics committee.METHODS: Polyclonal antibody against TRAIL receptors and an immunohistochemical kit (batch number: 200502) were purchased from Boster Company, Wuhan. Immunohistochemistry: Expression of death receptor 4, death receptor 5, decoy receptor 1, and decoy receptor 2 were observed in both glioblastoma and normal brain tissue. The experiment was performed according to the kit instructions, and positive staining was brown-yellow. Assessment: There were no positive signals (-); weakly positive signals, positive cells75% (++++). Evaluation: Expression levels of TRAIL receptors were estimated in both normal brain tissue and glioblastoma. Expression of decoy receptor 1 and decoy receptor 2 mRNA in glioblastoma were detected by reverse transcription polymerase

  10. The dietary flavonoid apigenin sensitizes malignant tumor cells to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horinaka, Mano; Yoshida, Tatsushi; Shiraishi, Takumi; Nakata, Susumu; Wakada, Miki; Sakai, Toshiyuki

    2006-04-01

    Dietary flavonoid apigenin is expected to have preventive and therapeutic potential against malignant tumors. In this report, we show for the first time that apigenin markedly induces the expression of death receptor 5 (DR5) and synergistically acts with exogenous soluble recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) to induce apoptosis in malignant tumor cells. TRAIL is a promising candidate for cancer therapeutics due to its ability to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells. The combined use of apigenin and TRAIL at suboptimal concentrations induces Bcl-2-interacting domain cleavage and the activation of caspases-8, -10, -9, and -3. Furthermore, human recombinant DR5/Fc chimera protein and caspase inhibitors dramatically inhibit apoptosis induced by the combination of apigenin and TRAIL. On the other hand, apigenin-mediated induction of DR5 expression is not observed in normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Moreover, apigenin does not sensitize normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that this combined treatment with apigenin and TRAIL might be promising as a new therapy against malignant tumors.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus - induced tumor necrosis factor - related apoptosis - inducing ligand expression mediates apoptosis and caspase-8 activation in infected osteoblasts

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    Bost Kenneth L

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus infection of normal osteoblasts induces expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL. Results Normal osteoblasts were incubated in the presence of purified bacterial products over a range of concentrations. Results demonstrate that purified surface structures and a selected superantigen present in the extracellular environment are not capable of inducing TRAIL expression by osteoblasts. Osteoblasts were co-cultured with S. aureus at various multiplicities of infection utilizing cell culture chamber inserts. Results of those experiments suggest that direct contact between bacteria and osteoblasts is necessary for optimal TRAIL induction. Finally, S. aureus infection of osteoblasts in the presence of anti-TRAIL antibody demonstrates that TRAIL mediates caspase-8 activation and apoptosis of infected cells. Conclusions Collectively, these findings suggest a mechanism whereby S. aureus mediates bone destruction via induction of osteoblast apoptosis.

  12. APOPTOSIS INDUCTION BY THE RECOMBINANT FUSION APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR ON HELA CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于翠娟; 孟艳玲; 桂俊豪; 赵晶; 金明; 王智; 王成济; 杨安钢

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To obtain the recombinant fusion AIF genes inserted into the eukaryotic expression vector Pires2-EGFP, to observe the expression and location of the fusion AIF genes (3NE: PE(280-358)-AIFΔ1-120, and 4NE: PE(280-364)-AIFΔ1-120), and to detect and compare their apoptosis inducing effects on the transfected HeLa cells. Methods: Full-length human AIF gene was cloned by RT-PCR, and its N-terminal mitochondrial localization sequence (MLS) was replaced by part sequence of Psuedomonas exotoxin A (PE) translocation domain (PEII(280-358/364)), then the recombinant fusion genes were inserted into the Pires2-EGFP eukaryotic expression vector. After these genes were transiently transfected into HeLa cells with LipofectAmine, the expression of the recombinant fusion AIF genes and their effects on HeLa cells were detected by fluorescent microscopy, laser confocal microscopy and electron microscopy. Results: The eukaryotic expression vectors containing the recombinant fusion AIF genes (Pires2-EGFP-PEII(280-358/364)- AIFΔ1- 120) were constructed successfully. It was demonstrated that the fusion AIF protein genes were expressed effectively in the transfected cells, with the GFP comco-expressed in cells by indirect immunofluorescence staining analysis. After transfection, expression of the genes could induce HeLa cells to exhibit the typical apoptosis features: such as plasma membrane blebbing and peripheral chromatin condensation. As compared with control groups, the untreated cells and the void vector transfected cells, the living cell number of the AIF gene transfected cells reduced distinctly. Conclusion: Our data prove that the expression of the recombinant human AIF fusion genes could induce apoptosis in transfected HeLa cells, which provides new strategy for cancer killing.

  13. Expression of tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand death receptors in sporadic and hereditary colorectal tumours : Potential targets for apoptosis induction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornstra, JJ; Jalving, M; Rijcken, FEM; Westra, Jantine; Zwart, N; Hollema, H; de Vries, EGE; Hofstra, RWM; Plukker, JTM; de Jong, S; Kleibeuker, JH

    2005-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and antibodies against TRAIL receptors death receptor 4 (DR4) and death receptor 5 (DR5) are under investigation for cancer therapy. To study the potential application of these agents, the expression of DR4 and DR5 were studied immunoh

  14. Roscovitine sensitizes leukemia and lymphoma cells to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinsky, Jan; Klanova, Magdalena; Koc, Michal; Beranova, Lenka; Andera, Ladislav; Ludvikova, Zdenka; Bohmova, Martina; Gasova, Zdenka; Strnad, Miroslav; Ivanek, Robert; Trneny, Marek; Necas, Emanuel; Zivny, Jan; Klener, Pavel

    2013-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a death ligand with selective antitumor activity. However, many primary tumors are TRAIL resistant. Previous studies reported that roscovitine, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, sensitized various solid cancer cells to TRAIL. We show that roscovitine and TRAIL demonstrate synergistic cytotoxicity in hematologic malignant cell lines and primary cells. Pretreatment of TRAIL-resistant leukemia cells with roscovitine induced enhanced cleavage of death-inducing signaling complex-bound proximal caspases after exposure to TRAIL. We observed increased levels of both pro- and antiapoptotic BCL-2 proteins at the mitochondria following exposure to roscovitine. These results suggest that roscovitine induces priming of cancer cells for death by binding antiapoptotic BCL-2 proteins to proapoptotic BH3-only proteins at the mitochondria, thereby decreasing the threshold for diverse proapoptotic stimuli. We propose that the mitochondrial priming and enhanced processing of apical caspases represent major molecular mechanisms of roscovitine-induced sensitization to TRAIL in leukemia/lymphoma cells.

  15. Apoptosis-inducing factor deficiency decreases the proliferation rate and protects the subventricular zone against ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osato, K; Sato, Y; Ochiishi, T; Osato, A; Zhu, C; Sato, M; Swanpalmer, J; Modjtahedi, N; Kroemer, G; Kuhn, H G; Blomgren, K

    2010-10-21

    Cranial radiotherapy in children often leads to progressive cognitive decline. We have established a rodent model of irradiation-induced injury to the young brain. A single dose of 8 Gy was administered to the left hemisphere of postnatal day 10 (P10) mice. Harlequin (Hq) mice, carrying the hypomorphic apoptosis-inducing factor AIF(Hq) mutation, express 60% less AIF at P10 and displayed significantly fewer dying cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) 6 h after IR, compared with wild type (Wt) littermates. Irradiated cyclophilin A-deficient (CypA(-/-)) mice confirmed that CypA has an essential role in AIF-induced apoptosis after IR. Hq mice displayed no reduction in SVZ size 7 days after IR, whereas 48% of the SVZ was lost in Wt mice. The proliferation rate was lower in the SVZ of Hq mice. Cultured neural precursor cells from the SVZ of Hq mice displayed a slower proliferation rate and were more resistant to IR. IR preferentially kills proliferating cells, and the slower proliferation rate in the SVZ of Hq mice may, at least partly, explain the protective effect of the Hq mutation. Together, these results indicate that targeting AIF may provide a fruitful strategy for protection of normal brain tissue against the detrimental side effects of IR.

  16. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and TNF-related molecules in HIV-1+ individuals: relationship with in vitro Thl/Th2-type response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzardi, G P; Marriott, J B; Cookson, S; Lazzarin, A; Dalgleish, A G; Barcellini, W

    1998-01-01

    We examined the secretion and expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of TNF-α and TNF-related molecules with regard to Th1/Th2-type cytokine production. In 76 HIV+ patients at different disease stages and in 25 controls we measured cytokine (TNF-α/β, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), IL-2, IL-4, IL-10), and activation marker secretion (sCD4, sCD8, sCD30) in phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated and unstimulated PBMC cultures by ELISA, and membrane-bound TNF-α and CD30 expression by flow cytometry. We found an expansion of the TNF system in HIV+ individuals, that positively correlated with TNF-α, IFN-γ and sCD8, probably representing activation of the cytotoxic compartment. In advanced disease these correlations disappeared, and TNF-α and TNF-related molecules positively correlated with IL-10. Our results are in line with the hypothesis that an expanded TNF system is immunopathological in conjunction with Th2-type immunity in the advanced stage of disease and with the inexorable progression to disease seen when both IL-10 and TNF-α are elevated. PMID:9764604

  17. Apoptosis-Inducing Factor Participation in Bovine Macrophage Mycobacterium bovis-Induced Caspase-Independent Cell Death▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Manriquez, X.; López-Vidal, Y.; Moran, J.; Adams, L. G.; Gutiérrez-Pabello, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex species survive and replicate in phagosomes of the host cell. Cell death (CD) has been highlighted as one of the probable outcomes in this host-pathogen interaction. Previously, our group demonstrated macrophage apoptosis as a consequence of Mycobacterium bovis infection. In this study, we aimed to identify the contribution of apoptotic effector elements in M. bovis-induced CD. Bovine macrophages were either infected with M. bovis (multiplicity of infection, 10:1) or treated with an M. bovis cell extract (CFE). Structural changes compatible with CD were evaluated. Chromatin condensation was increased three times by the CFE. On the other hand, a terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay demonstrated that levels of DNA fragmentation induced by M. bovis and CFE were 53.7% ± 24% and 38.9% ± 14%, respectively, whereas control cells had a basal proportion of 8.9% ± 4.1%. Rates of DNA fragmentation were unaffected by the presence of the pan-caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp (z-VAD). Cells treated with 100 μg of CFE for 12 h had a fivefold decrease in the level of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization compared to that of untreated cells. Neither M. bovis infection nor CFE treatment induced activation of caspase 3, 8, or 9. Translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) to the nucleus was identified in 32% ± 3.5% and 26.3% ± 4.9% of M. bovis-infected and CFE-treated cells, respectively. Incubation of macrophages with z-VAD prior to infection did not alter the percentage of cells showing AIF translocation. Our data suggest that M. bovis-induced CD in bovine macrophages is caspase independent with AIF participation. PMID:17158896

  18. A deficiency of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF in Harlequin mouse heart mitochondria paradoxically reduces ROS generation during ischemia-reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun eChen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: AIF (apoptosis inducing factor is a flavin and NADH containing protein located within mitochondria required for optimal function of the respiratory chain. AIF may function as an antioxidant within mitochondria, yet when released from mitochondria it activates caspase-independent cell death. The Harlequin (Hq mouse has a markedly reduced content of AIF, providing an experimental model to query if the main role of AIF in the exacerbation of cell death is enhanced mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS or the activation of cell death programs. We asked if the ROS generation is altered in Hq heart mitochondria at baseline or following ischemia-reperfusion (IR.Methods: Buffer perfused mouse hearts underwent 30 min ischemia and 30 min reperfusion. Mitochondrial function including oxidative phosphorylation and H2O2 generation was measured. Immunoblotting was used to determine the contents of AIF and PAR [poly(ADP-ribose] in cell fractions.Results: There were no differences in the release of H2O2 between wild type (WT and Hq heart mitochondria at baseline. IR increased H2O2 generation from WT but not from Hq mitochondria compared to corresponding time controls. The complex I activity was decreased in WT but not in Hq mice following IR. The relocation of AIF from mitochondria to nucleus was increased in WT but not in Hq mice. IR activated PARP-1 only in WT mice. Cell injury was decreased in Hq mouse heart following in vitro IR.Conclusion: A deficiency of AIF within mitochondria does not increase ROS production during IR, indicating that AIF functions less as an antioxidant within mitochondria. The decreased cardiac injury in Hq mouse heart accompanied by less AIF translocation to the nucleus suggests that AIF relocation, rather than the AIF content within mitochondria, contributes to cardiac injury during IR.

  19. Berberine induces caspase-independent cell death in colon tumor cells through activation of apoptosis-inducing factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong Wang

    Full Text Available Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid derived from plants, is a traditional medicine for treating bacterial diarrhea and intestinal parasite infections. Although berberine has recently been shown to suppress growth of several tumor cell lines, information regarding the effect of berberine on colon tumor growth is limited. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the effects of berberine on regulating the fate of colon tumor cells, specifically the mouse immorto-Min colonic epithelial (IMCE cells carrying the Apc(min mutation, and of normal colon epithelial cells, namely young adult mouse colonic epithelium (YAMC cells. Berberine decreased colon tumor colony formation in agar, and induced cell death and LDH release in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in IMCE cells. In contrast, YAMC cells were not sensitive to berberine-induced cell death. Berberine did not stimulate caspase activation, and PARP cleavage and berberine-induced cell death were not affected by a caspase inhibitor in IMCE cells. Rather, berberine stimulated a caspase-independent cell death mediator, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF release from mitochondria and nuclear translocation in a ROS production-dependent manner. Amelioration of berberine-stimulated ROS production or suppression of AIF expression blocked berberine-induced cell death and LDH release in IMCE cells. Furthermore, two targets of ROS production in cells, cathepsin B release from lysosomes and PARP activation were induced by berberine. Blockage of either of these pathways decreased berberine-induced AIF activation and cell death in IMCE cells. Thus, berberine-stimulated ROS production leads to cathepsin B release and PARP activation-dependent AIF activation, resulting in caspase-independent cell death in colon tumor cells. Notably, normal colon epithelial cells are less susceptible to berberine-induced cell death, which suggests the specific inhibitory effects of berberine on colon tumor cell growth.

  20. Dioscin induces caspase-independent apoptosis through activation of apoptosis-inducing factor in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Ae; Jang, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Yun-Han; Sung, Eon-Gi; Song, In-Hwan; Kim, Joo-Young; Kim, Suji; Sohn, Ho-Yong; Lee, Tae-Jin

    2014-07-01

    Dioscin, a saponin extracted from the roots of Polygonatum zanlanscianense, shows several bioactivities such as antitumor, antifungal, and antiviral properties. Although, dioscin is already known to induce cell death in variety cancer cells, the molecular basis for dioscin-induced cell death was not definitely known in cancer cells. In this study, we found that dioscin treatment induced cell death in dose-dependent manner in breast cancer cells such as MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-453, and T47D cells. Dioscin decreased expressions of Bcl-2 and cIAP-1 proteins, which were down-regulated at the transcriptional level. Conversely, Mcl-1 protein level was down-regulated by facilitating ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated Mcl-1 degradation in dioscin-treated cells. Pretreatment with z-VAD fails to attenuate dioscin-induced cell death as well as caspase-mediated events such as cleavages of procaspase-3 and PARP. In addition, dioscin treatment increased the population of annexin V positive cells and induced DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependent manner in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) was released from the mitochondria and translocated to the nucleus. Suppression in AIF expression by siRNA reduced dioscin-induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that dioscin-induced cell death was mediated via AIF-facilitating caspase-independent pathway as well as down-regulating anti-apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2, cIAP-1, and Mcl-1 in breast cancer cells.

  1. Helicobacter pylori enhances tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-mediated apoptosis in human gastric epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Ying Wu; Hwei-Fang Tsai; We-Cheng Lin; Ai-Hsiang Chou; Hui-Ting Chen; Jyh-Chin Yang; Ping-I Hsu; Ping-Ning Hsu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relations between tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) infection in apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells and to assess the expression of TRAIL onthe surface of infiltrating T-cells in Hpylori-infected gastric mucosa.METHODS: Human gastric epithelial cell lines and primary gastric epithelial cells were co-cultured with H pylori in vitro, then recombinant TRAIL proteins were added to the culture. Apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells was determined by a specific ELISA for cell death. Infiltrating lymphocytes were isolated from H pylori-infected gastric mucosa, and expression of TRAIL in T cells was analyzed by flow cytometry.RESULTS: The apoptosis of gastric epithelial cell lines and primary human gastric epithelial cells was mildly increased by interaction with either TRAIL or H pylorialone. Interestingly,the apoptotic indices were markedly elevated when gastric epithelial cells were incubated with both TRAIL and H pylori (Control vsTRAIL and H pylori: 0.51±0.06 vs 2.29±0.27,P = 0.018). A soluble TRAIL receptor (DR4-Fc) could specifically block the TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Further studies demonstrated that infiltrating T-cells in gastric mucosa expressed TRAIL on their surfaces, and the induction of TRAIL sensitivity by H pylori was dependent upon direct cell contact of viable bacteria, but not CagA and VacA of H pylori.CONCLUSION: H pylori can sensitize human gastric epithelial ceils and enhance susceptibility to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Modulation of host cell sensitivity to apoptosis by bacterial interaction adds a new dimension to the immunopathogenesis of H pylori infection.

  2. Deletion of the Mitochondrial Flavoprotein Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF) Induces β-Cell Apoptosis and Impairs β-Cell Mass

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    Schulthess, Fabienne T.; Katz, Sophie; Ardestani, Amin; Kawahira, Hiroshi; Georgia, Senta; Bosco, Domenico; Bhushan, Anil; Maedler, Kathrin

    2009-01-01

    Background Apoptosis is a hallmark of β-cell death in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Understanding how apoptosis contributes to β-cell turnover may lead to strategies to prevent progression of diabetes. A key mediator of apoptosis, mitochondrial function, and cell survival is apoptosis inducing factor (AIF). In the present study, we investigated the role of AIF on β-cell mass and survival using the Harlequin (Hq) mutant mice, which are hypomorphic for AIF. Methodology/Principal Findings Immunohistochemical evaluation of pancreata from Hq mutant mice displayed much smaller islets compared to wild-type mice (WT). Analysis of β-cell mass in these mice revealed a greater than 4-fold reduction in β-cell mass together with an 8-fold increase in β-cell apoptosis. Analysis of cell cycle dynamics, using BrdU pulse as a marker for cells in S-phase, did not detect significant differences in the frequency of β-cells in S-phase. In contrast, double staining for phosphorylated Histone H3 and insulin showed a 3-fold increase in β-cells in the G2 phase in Hq mutant mice, but no differences in M-phase compared to WT mice. This suggests that the β-cells from Hq mutant mice are arrested in the G2 phase and are unlikely to complete the cell cycle. β-cells from Hq mutant mice display increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis, which was confirmed in human islets in which AIF was depleted by siRNA. AIF deficiency had no effect on glucose stimulated insulin secretion, but the impaired effect of hydrogen peroxide on β-cell function was potentiated. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that AIF is essential for maintaining β-cell mass and for oxidative stress response. A decrease in the oxidative phosphorylation capacity may counteract the development of diabetes, despite its deleterious effects on β-cell survival. PMID:19197367

  3. Deletion of the mitochondrial flavoprotein apoptosis inducing factor (AIF induces beta-cell apoptosis and impairs beta-cell mass.

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    Fabienne T Schulthess

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apoptosis is a hallmark of beta-cell death in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Understanding how apoptosis contributes to beta-cell turnover may lead to strategies to prevent progression of diabetes. A key mediator of apoptosis, mitochondrial function, and cell survival is apoptosis inducing factor (AIF. In the present study, we investigated the role of AIF on beta-cell mass and survival using the Harlequin (Hq mutant mice, which are hypomorphic for AIF. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immunohistochemical evaluation of pancreata from Hq mutant mice displayed much smaller islets compared to wild-type mice (WT. Analysis of beta-cell mass in these mice revealed a greater than 4-fold reduction in beta-cell mass together with an 8-fold increase in beta-cell apoptosis. Analysis of cell cycle dynamics, using BrdU pulse as a marker for cells in S-phase, did not detect significant differences in the frequency of beta-cells in S-phase. In contrast, double staining for phosphorylated Histone H3 and insulin showed a 3-fold increase in beta-cells in the G2 phase in Hq mutant mice, but no differences in M-phase compared to WT mice. This suggests that the beta-cells from Hq mutant mice are arrested in the G2 phase and are unlikely to complete the cell cycle. beta-cells from Hq mutant mice display increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis, which was confirmed in human islets in which AIF was depleted by siRNA. AIF deficiency had no effect on glucose stimulated insulin secretion, but the impaired effect of hydrogen peroxide on beta-cell function was potentiated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that AIF is essential for maintaining beta-cell mass and for oxidative stress response. A decrease in the oxidative phosphorylation capacity may counteract the development of diabetes, despite its deleterious effects on beta-cell survival.

  4. Target and resistance-related proteins of recombinant mutant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand on myeloma cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    JIAN, YUAN; Chen, Yuling; GENG, CHUANYING; Liu, Nian; YANG, GUANGZHONG; Liu, Jinwei; Li, Xin; Deng, Haiteng; CHEN, WENMING

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant mutant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (rmhTRAIL) has become a potential therapeutic drug for multiple myeloma (MM). However, the exact targets and resistance mechanisms of rmhTRAIL on MM cells remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the target and resistance-related proteins of rmhTRAIL on myeloma cell lines. A TRAIL-sensitive myeloma cell line, RPMI 8226, and a TRAIL-resistance one, U266, were chosen and the differentially ex...

  5. Decreased affinity of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (rhTRAIL) D269H/E195R to osteoprotegerin (OPG) overcomes TRAIL resistance mediated by the bone microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosman, Matthieu C J; Reis, Carlos R; Schuringa, Jan J; Vellenga, Edo; Quax, Wim J

    2014-01-10

    The bone marrow microenvironment provides important signals for the survival and proliferation of hematopoietic and malignant cells. In multiple myeloma, plasma cells are surrounded by stromal cells including osteoblasts. These stromal cells protect multiple myeloma cells from apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic agents. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a soluble receptor of the cytokine TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), is secreted by osteoblasts and has been implicated in the prevention of cell death induced by TRAIL in malignant cells. Previously, we have designed death receptor-specific TRAIL variants that induce apoptosis exclusively via one of its death receptors. Here, we have studied in detail the interaction between recombinant human (rhTRAIL) variants and OPG. We show that a DR5-specific variant (rhTRAIL D269H/E195R) displays a significantly decreased affinity to OPG. Furthermore, this rhTRAIL variant shows a much higher activity when compared with rhTRAIL WT and retains its effectiveness in inducing cell death in multiple myeloma cell lines, in the presence of OPG secreted by stromal cells. We also demonstrate that stromal cells are largely insensitive to high concentrations of this rhTRAIL variant. In conclusion, rhTRAIL D269H/E195R is a potential therapy for multiple myeloma due to its high effectiveness and diminished binding to OPG.

  6. Interferon (IFN)-beta induces apoptotic cell death in DHL-4 diffuse large B cell lymphoma cells through tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehadian, Amaylia; Koide, Naoki; Mu, Mya Mya; Hassan, Ferdaus; Islam, Shamima; Yoshida, Tomoaki; Yokochi, Takashi

    2005-07-08

    The effect of interferon (IFN)-alpha, beta and gamma on the growth of DHL-4 diffuse large B cell lymphoma cells was studied. IFN-beta significantly inhibited the cell growth, and the effect was stronger than that of IFN-alpha. IFN-gamma did not inhibit the cell growth because of lack of IFN-gamma receptors. IFN-beta caused apoptotic cell death which was accompanied by DNA fragmentation, caspase 3 activation and annexin V binding. IFN-beta lead to the expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) mRNA. Anti-TRAIL antibody significantly prevented IFN-beta-induced apoptosis. It was suggested that IFN-beta might cause apoptosis in DHL-4 cells through TRAIL.

  7. Apoptosis-inducing factor and caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways triggered by different grape seed extracts on human colon cancer cell line Caco-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinicola, Simona; Cucina, Alessandra; Pasqualato, Alessia; Proietti, Sara; D'Anselmi, Fabrizio; Pasqua, Gabriella; Santamaria, Anna Rita; Coluccia, Pierpaolo; Laganà, Aldo; Antonacci, Donato; Giuliani, Alessandro; Bizzarri, Mariano

    2010-09-01

    Consumption of grape seed extract (GSE) is widely marketed as a dietary supplement and is considered safe for human health. Nevertheless, the analytical composition of GSE from different grape cultivars, growing in special agronomic constraints, differs greatly in flavan-3-ols content. The major concern with GSE studies is a lack of availability of uniformly standardised preparations, which raises an important question whether different GSE samples have comparable activity and trigger the same mechanisms of action on a given biological system. Therefore, it is tempting to speculate that GSE, obtained from different cultivars, could exert differentiated anticancer effects. The focus of the present study is to determine the selective biological efficacy of GSE obtained from three different sources on the human colon cancer cell line Caco-2. Irrespective of its source, high doses of GSE induced a significant inhibition on Caco-2 cell growth. Moreover, apoptosis was enhanced through both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent mechanisms, leading to an early apoptosis-inducing factor release and, further, to a dramatic increase in caspase 7 and 3 activity. However, a significant difference in apoptotic rates induced by the three grape sources clearly emerged when treating cancer cells with low and intermediate GSE concentrations (25 and 50 microg/ml).

  8. Hispolon from Phellinus linteus induces apoptosis and sensitizes human cancer cells to the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand through upregulation of death receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hun; Kim, Yu Chul; Park, Byoungduck

    2016-02-01

    The tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a potent anticancer agent possessing the ability to induce apoptosis in various cancer cells but not in non‑malignant cells. However, certain type of cancer cells are resistant to TRAIL‑induced apoptosis and some acquire resistance after the first treatment. So development of an agent that can reduce or avoid resistance in TRAIL‑induced apoptosis has garnered significant attention. The present study evaluated the anticancer potential of hispolon in TRAIL‑induced apoptosis and indicated hispolon can sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL. As the mechanism of action was examined, hispolon was found to activate caspase‑3, caspase‑8 and caspase‑9, while downregulating the expression of cell survival proteins such as cFLIP, Bcl‑2 and Bcl‑xL and upregulating the expression of Bax and truncated Bid. We also found hispolon induced death receptors in a non‑cell type‑specific manner. Upregulation of death receptors by hispolon was found to be p53-independent but linked to the induction of CAAT enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). Overall, hispolon was demonstrated to potentiate the apoptotic effects of TRAIL through downregulation of anti‑apoptotic proteins and upregulation of death receptors linked with CHOP and pERK elevation.

  9. Supra-additive antitumor activity of 5FU with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand on gastric and colon cancers in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, Shouji; Mochizuki, Yoshino; Kusada, Osamu; Kaminishi, Michio

    2002-09-01

    We investigated supra-additive cytotoxic effects of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) on gastric and colon cancer cells with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in vitro. p53 wild- and mutant-type gastric and colon cancer cell lines were treated by 5FU alone, TRAIL alone, and a combination of 5FU and TRAIL, and cell viability after each treatment was determined by MTT assay. The p53 wild-type cells were more sensitive to 5FU alone or to TRAIL alone than p53 mutant-type cells. The cell growth inhibitory effects of the combined treatment were supra-additive and more significant in proportion to the increasing concentrations of TRAIL as compared with 5FU alone both in p53 wild- and mutant-type cells. Furthermore, TRAIL could cause a decrease in 5FU IC(50) to within the range of clinically relevant doses, particularly in p53 wild-type cells. This is the first demonstration of the supra-additive antitumor activity of 5FU with TRAIL on gastric cancer cells, giving evidence that TRAIL can reduce the requirement for 5FU that ultimately results in minimizing risks for systemic side effects while increasing the antitumor activity of 5FU, suggesting the clinical applicability of this combination for gastric and colon cancers.

  10. AKT2 Blocks Nucleus Translocation of Apoptosis-Inducing Factor (AIF and Endonuclease G (EndoG While Promoting Caspase Activation during Cardiac Ischemia

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    Shuai Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The AKT (protein kinase B, PKB family has been shown to participate in diverse cellular processes, including apoptosis. Previous studies demonstrated that protein kinase B2 (AKT2−/− mice heart was sensitized to apoptosis in response to ischemic injury. However, little is known about the mechanism and apoptotic signaling pathway. Here, we show that AKT2 inhibition does not affect the development of cardiomyocytes but increases cell death during cardiomyocyte ischemia. Caspase-dependent apoptosis of both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathway was inactivated in cardiomyocytes with AKT2 inhibition during ischemia, while significant mitochondrial disruption was observed as well as intracytosolic translocation of cytochrome C (Cyto C together with apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF and endonuclease G (EndoG, both of which are proven to conduct DNA degradation in a range of cell death stimuli. Therefore, mitochondria-dependent cell death was investigated and the results suggested that AIF and EndoG nucleus translocation causes cardiomyocyte DNA degradation during ischemia when AKT2 is blocked. These data are the first to show a previous unrecognized function and mechanism of AKT2 in regulating cardiomyocyte survival during ischemia by inducing a unique mitochondrial-dependent DNA degradation pathway when it is inhibited.

  11. Transcription factor Sox4 is required for PUMA-mediated apoptosis induced by histone deacetylase inhibitor, TSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sang-Min; Kang, Eun-Jin; Kim, Jung-Woong; Kim, Chul-Hong; An, Joo-Hee; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2013-08-23

    PUMA is a crucial regulator of apoptotic cell death mediated by p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms. In many cancer cells, PUMA expression is induced in response to DNA-damaging reagent in a p53-dependent manner. However, few studies have investigated transcription factors that lead to the induction of PUMA expression via p53-independent apoptotic signaling. In this study, we found that the transcription factor Sox4 increased PUMA expression in response to trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor in the p53-null human lung cancer cell line H1299. Ectopic expression of Sox4 led to the induction of PUMA expression at the mRNA and protein levels, and TSA-mediated up-regulation of PUMA transcription was repressed by the knockdown of Sox4. Using luciferase assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we also determined that Sox4 recruits p300 on the PUMA promoter region and increases PUMA gene expression in response to TSA treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that Sox4 is required for p53-independent apoptotic cell death mediated by PUMA induction via TSA treatment.

  12. Role of interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 1 single nucleotide polymorphism in natural clearance and treatment response of HCV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Sikandar; Manzoor, Sobia; Imran, Muhammad; Ashraf, Javed; Ashraf, Sarah; Resham, Saleha; Ghani, Eijaz

    2015-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) pathogenesis and treatment outcomes are multifactorial phenomena involving both viral and host factors. This study was designed to determine the role of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 1(TRAIL-R1) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) genetic mutations in susceptibility and response to interferon-based therapy of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The detection of TRAIL-R1 rs4242392 and IFN-γ rs2069707 single nucleotide polymorphisms was completed in 118 chronic HCV patients and 96 healthy controls by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphisms polymerase chain reaction. Patients were further categorized into sustained virological responder (SVR) and nonresponder (NR) groups on the basis of their response to interferon-based therapy for HCV infection. Real-time PCR was used for HCV quantification. HCV genotyping was performed by Ohno's method. The results demonstrated that the distribution of the TRAIL-R1 rs4242392TT genotype was significantly higher in the SVR group (78%) compared to the NR group (36%). It showed that chronic HCV patients possessing the TRAIL-R1 rs4242392TT genotype are better responders to interferon-based therapy (p0.05). The distribution of IFN-γ rs2069707 was the opposite to TRAIL-R1 rs4242392 prevalence, that is, there was high distribution of the IFN-γ rs2069707GG genotype in patients and healthy controls (p0.05). In conclusion, genetic variation of TRAIL-R1 rs4242392 is linked with response to interferon-based therapy for HCV infection, and genetic variation IFN-γ rs2069707 is associated with natural clearance of HCV infection.

  13. miR-27b attenuates apoptosis induced by transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV infection via targeting runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1

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    Xiaomin Zhao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV, belonging to the coronaviridae family, is the key cause of the fatal diarrhea of piglets and results in many pathological processes. microRNAs (miRNAs play a key role in the regulation of virus-induced apoptosis. During the process of apoptosis induced by TGEV infection in PK-15 cells, the miR-27b is notably down-regulated. Thus, we speculate that miR-27b is involved in regulating the process of apoptosis in PK-15 cells. In this study we demonstrated that the over-expression of miR-27b led to the inhibition of TGEV-induced apoptosis, reduction of Bax protein level, and decrease of caspase-3 and −9 activities. Conversely, silencing of miR-27b by miR-27b inhibitors enhanced apoptosis via up-regulating Bax expression and promoting the activities of caspase-3 and −9 in TGEV-infected cells. Subsequently, the runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1 is a candidate target of miR-27b predicted by bioinformatics search. We further identified that the miR-27b directly bound to the 3′ UTR of RUNX1 mRNA and suppressed RUNX1 expression, which indicates RUNX1 is the direct target gene of miR-27b. The over-expression of RUNX1 increased apoptosis and knockdown RUNX1blocked apoptosis of viral-infected cells via regulating Bax expression and the activities of caspase-3 and −9. Our data reveal that miR-27b may repress the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis by targeting RUNX1, indicating that TGEV may induce apoptosis via down-regulating miR-27b and that miR-27b may act as a target for therapeutic intervention.

  14. Caspase-independent cell death mediated by apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) nuclear translocation is involved in ionizing radiation induced HepG2 cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hengwen [Department of Radiation, Cancer Center of Guangdong General Hospital (Guangdong Academy of Medical Science), Guangzhou, 510080, Guangdong (China); Yang, Shana; Li, Jianhua [Department of Physiology, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510182, Guangdong (China); Zhang, Yajie [Department of Pathology, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510182, Guangdong (China); Gao, Dongsheng [Department of Oncology, Guangdong Medical College Affiliated Pengpai Memorial Hospital, Hai Feng, 516400, Gungdong (China); Zhao, Shenting, E-mail: zhaoshenting@126.com [Department of Physiology, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510182, Guangdong (China)

    2016-03-25

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer in the world. The aim of radiotherapy is to eradicate cancer cells with ionizing radiation. Except for the caspase-dependent mechanism, several lines of evidence demonstrated that caspase-independent mechanism is directly involved in the cell death responding to irradiation. For this reason, defining the contribution of caspase-independent molecular mechanisms represents the main goal in radiotherapy. In this study, we focused on the role of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), the caspase-independent molecular, in ionizing radiation induced hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) cell death. We found that ionizing radiation has no function on AIF expression in HepG2 cells, but could induce AIF release from the mitochondria and translocate into nuclei. Inhibition of AIF could reduce ionizing radiation induced HepG2 cell death. These studies strongly support a direct relationship between AIF nuclear translocation and radiation induced cell death. What's more, AIF nuclear translocation is caspase-independent manner, but not caspase-dependent manner, in this process. These new findings add a further attractive point of investigation to better define the complex interplay between caspase-independent cell death and radiation therapy. - Highlights: • AIF nuclear translocation is involved in ionizing radiation induced hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 cell death. • AIF mediated cell death induced by ionizing radiation is caspase-independent. • Caspase-independent pathway is involved in ionzing radiation induced HepG2 cell death.

  15. Target and resistance-related proteins of recombinant mutant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand on myeloma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Yuan; Chen, Yuling; Geng, Chuanying; Liu, Nian; Yang, Guangzhong; Liu, Jinwei; Li, Xin; Deng, Haiteng; Chen, Wenming

    2016-06-01

    Recombinant mutant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (rmhTRAIL) has become a potential therapeutic drug for multiple myeloma (MM). However, the exact targets and resistance mechanisms of rmhTRAIL on MM cells remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the target and resistance-related proteins of rmhTRAIL on myeloma cell lines. A TRAIL-sensitive myeloma cell line, RPMI 8226, and a TRAIL-resistance one, U266, were chosen and the differentially expressed proteins between the two cell lines were analyzed prior and subsequent to rmhTRAIL administration by a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The results showed that following TRAIL treatment, 6 apoptosis-related proteins, calpain small subunit 1 (CPNS1), peflin (PEF1), B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 (BAP31), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC), BAG family molecular chaperone regulator 2 (BAG2) and chromobox protein homolog 3 (CBX3), were upregulated in RPMI 8226 cells while no change was identified in the U266 cells. Furthermore, small ubiquitin-related modifier 1 and several other ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP)-related proteins expressed higher levels in TRAIL-resistant cells U266 compared to the RPMI-8226 cells prior and subsequent to rmhTRAIL treatment. These results suggested that CPNS1, PEF1, BAP31, ASC, BAG2 and CBX3 were possibly target proteins of rmhTRAIL on RPMI 8226 cells, while UPP may have a vital role in mediating TRAIL-resistance in U266 cells.

  16. Apoptosis-inducing factor downregulation increased neuronal progenitor, but not stem cell, survival in the neonatal hippocampus after cerebral hypoxia-ischemia

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    Sun Yanyan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A considerable proportion of all newly generated cells in the hippocampus will die before becoming fully differentiated, both under normal and pathological circumstances. The caspase-independent apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF has not been investigated previously in this context. Results Postnatal day 8 (P8 harlequin (Hq mutant mice, expressing lower levels of AIF, and wild type littermates were injected with BrdU once daily for two days to label newborn cells. On P10 mice were subjected to hypoxia-ischemia (HI and their brains were analyzed 4 h, 24 h or 4 weeks later. Overall tissue loss was 63.5% lower in Hq mice 4 weeks after HI. Short-term survival (4 h and 24 h of labeled cells in the subgranular zone was neither affected by AIF downregulation, nor by HI. Long-term (4 weeks survival of undifferentiated, BLBP-positive stem cells was reduced by half after HI, but this was not changed by AIF downregulation. Neurogenesis, however, as judged by BrdU/NeuN double labeling, was reduced by half after HI in wild type mice but preserved in Hq mice, indicating that primarily neural progenitors and neurons were protected. A wave of cell death started early after HI in the innermost layers of the granule cell layer (GCL and moved outward, such that 24 h after HI dying cells could be detected in the entire GCL. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that AIF downregulation provides not only long-term overall neuroprotection after HI, but also protects neural progenitor cells, thereby rescuing hippocampal neurogenesis.

  17. Similar to spironolactone, oxymatrine is protective in aldosterone-induced cardiomyocyte injury via inhibition of calpain and apoptosis-inducing factor signaling.

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    Ting-Ting Xiao

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that oxymatrine (OMT possesses variously pharmacological properties, especially on the cardiovascular system. We previously demonstrated that activated calpain/apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF-mediated pathway was the key molecular mechanism in aldosterone (ALD induces cardiomyocytes apoptosis. In the present study, we extended the experimentation by investigating the effect of OMT on cardiomyocytes exposed to ALD, as compared to spironolactone (Spiro, a classical ALD receptor antagonist. Cardiomyocytes were pre-incubated with OMT, Spiro or vehicle for 1 h, and then, cardiomyocytes were exposed to ALD 24 h. The cell injury was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH leakage ratio. Apoptosis was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL assay, annexin V/PI staining, and relative caspase-3 activity assay. Furthermore, expression of pro-apoptotic proteins including truncated Bid (tBid, calpain and AIF were evaluated by western blot analysis. ALD stimulation increased cardiomyocytes apoptosis, caspase-3 activity and protein expression of calpain, tBid and AIF in the cytosol (p<0.05. Pre-incubated with cardiomyocytes injury and increased caspase-3 activity were significantly attenuated (p<0.05. Furthermore, OMT suppressed ALD-induced high expression of calpain and AIF. And these effects of OMT could be comparable to Spiro. These findings indicated that OMT might be a potential cardioprotective-agent against excessive ALD-induced cardiotoxicity, at least in part, mediated through inhibition of calpain/AIF signaling.

  18. Expression of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL in keratinocytes mediates apoptotic cell death in allogenic T cells

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    Kiefer Paul

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of the present study was to evaluate the aptitude of TRAIL gene expression for inducing apoptosis in co-cultivated T-cells. This should allow preparing a strategy for the development of a durable, allogenic skin substitute based on the induction of an immune-privileged transplant. In order to counteract the significant potential of rejection in transplanted allogenic keratinocytes, we created a murine keratinocyte cell line which expressed TRAIL through stable gene transfer. The exogenic protein was localized on the cellular surface and was not found in soluble condition as sTRAIL. Contact to TRAIL expressing cells in co-culture induced cell death in sensitive Jurkat-cells, which was further intensified by lymphocyte activation. This cytotoxic effect is due to the induction of apoptosis. We therefore assume that the de-novo expression of TRAIL in keratinocytes can trigger apoptosis in activated lymphocytes and thus prevent the rejection of keratinocytes in allogenic, immune-privileged transplants.

  19. Genetically engineered Newcastle disease virus expressing interleukin-2 and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand for cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) has shown oncolytic therapeutic efficacy in preclinical studies and are currently in clinical trials. In this study, we have evaluated the possibility to enhance the cancer therapeutic potential of NDV by means of inserting both interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tu...

  20. TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL)-Armed Exosomes Deliver Proapoptotic Signals to Tumor Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoltini, Licia; Chiodoni, Claudia; Squarcina, Paola; Tortoreto, Monica; Villa, Antonello; Vergani, Barbara; Bürdek, Maja; Botti, Laura; Arioli, Ivano; Cova, Agata; Mauri, Giorgio; Vergani, Elisabetta; Bianchi, Beatrice; Della Mina, Pamela; Cantone, Laura; Bollati, Valentina; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Gianni, Alessandro Massimo; Colombo, Mario Paolo; Huber, Veronica

    2016-07-15

    Exosomes deliver signals to target cells and could thus be exploited as an innovative therapeutic tool. We investigated the ability of membrane TRAIL-armed exosomes to deliver proapoptotic signals to cancer cells and mediate growth inhibition in different tumor models. K562 cells, transduced with lentiviral human membrane TRAIL, were used for the production of TRAIL(+) exosomes, which were studied by nanoparticle tracking analysis, cytofluorimetry, immunoelectronmicroscopy, Western blot, and ELISA. In vitro, TRAIL(+) exosomes induced more pronounced apoptosis (detected by Annexin V/propidium iodide and activated caspase-3) in TRAIL-death receptor (DR)5(+) cells (SUDHL4 lymphoma and INT12 melanoma), with respect to the DR5(-)DR4(+)KMS11 multiple myeloma. Intratumor injection of TRAIL(+) exosomes, but not mock exosomes, induced growth inhibition of SUDHL4 (68%) and INT12 (51%), and necrosis in KMS11 tumors. After rapid blood clearance, systemically administered TRAIL(+) exosomes accumulated in the liver, lungs, and spleen and homed to the tumor site, leading to a significant reduction of tumor growth (58%) in SUDHL4-bearing mice. The treatment of INT12-bearing animals promoted tumor necrosis and a not statistically significant tumor volume reduction. In KMS11-bearing mice, despite massive perivascular necrosis, no significant tumor growth inhibition was detected. TRAIL-armed exosomes can induce apoptosis in cancer cells and control tumor progression in vivo Therapeutic efficacy was particularly evident in intratumor setting, while depended on tumor model upon systemic administration. Thanks to their ability to deliver multiple signals, exosomes thus represent a promising therapeutic tool in cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 22(14); 3499-512. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Simultaneous inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and enhanced activation of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor-mediated apoptosis induction by an scFv : sTRAIL fusion protein with specificity for human EGFR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, E; Samplonius, DF; van Genne, L; Dijkstra, MH; Kroesen, BJ; de Leij, LFMH; Helfrich, W

    2005-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling inhibition by monoclonal antibodies and EGFR-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors has shown clinical efficacy in cancer by restoring susceptibility of tumor cells to therapeutic apoptosis induction. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing lig

  2. Expression of osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, stromal cell-derived factor-1 and their receptors in epithelial metastatic breast cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labovsky Vivian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While breast cancer (BC is the major cause of death among women worldwide, there is no guarantee of better patient survival because many of these patients develop primarily metastases, despite efforts to detect it in its early stages. Bone metastasis is a common complication that occurs in 65-80 % of patients with disseminated disease, but the molecular basis underlying dormancy, dissemination and establishment of metastasis is not understood. Our objective has been to evaluate simultaneously osteoprotegerin (OPG, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1, and their receptors (R in 2 human BC cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. Methods OPG, RANKL, TRAIL and SDF-1 expression and release, in addition to the expression of their receptors has been investigated using immunofluorescence, immunocytochemistry and ELISA analyses. Results MCF-7 cells released higher levels of OPG in conditioned media (CM than MDA-MB-231 cells; 100 % of both types of cell expressed OPG, RANKL, TRAIL and SDF-1. Moreover, 100 % in both lines expressed membrane RANKL and RANK, whereas only 50 % expressed CXCR4. Furthermore, 100 % expressed TRAIL-R1 and R4, 30-50 % TRAIL-R2, and 40-55 % TRAIL-R3. Conclusions MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells not only released OPG, but expressed RANKL, TRAIL and SDF-1. The majority of the cells also expressed RANK, CXCR4 and TRAIL-R. Since these ligands and their receptors are implicated in the regulation of proliferation, survival, migration and future bone metastasis during breast tumor progression, assessment of these molecules in tumor biopsies of BC patients could be useful in identifying patients with more aggressive tumors that are also at risk of bone metastasis, which may thus improve the available options for therapeutic intervention.

  3. The Role of Selected Flavonols in Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand Receptor–1 (TRAIL-R1 Expression on Activated RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Warat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand Receptors (TRAIL-R are an important factor of apoptosis in cancer cells. There are no data about the effect of flavonols on the receptor expression on a surface of macrophage like cells. In this study, the expression level of TRAIL-R1 on murine RAW264.7 macrophages in the presence of selected flavonols: galangin, kaempferol, kaempferide and quercetin, which differ from their phenyl ring substituents, were studied. The expression of TRAIL-R1 death receptors on non-stimulated and lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated macrophages was determined using flow cytometry. The results suggested that compounds being tested can modulate TRAIL-R1 expression and can enhance TRAIL-mediated apoptosis.

  4. A novel Rieske-type protein derived from an apoptosis-inducing factor-like (AIFL) transcript with a retained intron 4 induces change in mitochondrial morphology and growth arrest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Yasuhiko, E-mail: 97318@ib.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Integrated Biosciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Furuyama, Isao; Oda, Shoji [Department of Integrated Biosciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Mitani, Hiroshi, E-mail: mitani@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Integrated Biosciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)

    2011-04-01

    Highlights: {yields} A novel major transcript, AIFL-I4, is found. {yields} Nuclear localization of AIFL-I4 induces mitochondrial morphology change and suppression of cell proliferation. {yields} AIFL-I4 mutant with a lesion in [2Fe-2S] cluster binding site does not induce these phenotypes. {yields} [2Fe-2S] cluster binding site is essential for these phenotypes. -- Abstract: Apoptosis-inducing factor-like (AIFL) protein contains a Rieske domain and pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase (Pyr{sub r}edox) domain that shows 35% homology to that of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) protein. We identified a novel major transcript of the medaka (Oryzias latipes) AIFL gene that retained intron 4 (AIFL-I4) in embryos and tissues from adult fish. The product of this transcript, AIFL-I4 protein, lacked the Pyr{sub r}edox domain because of a nonsense codon in intron 4. Both AIFL-I4 and full-length AIFL (fAIFL) transcripts were highly expressed in the brain and late embryos, and relative fAIFL and AIFL-I4 expression levels differed among tissues. Transient expression of AIFL-I4 and fAIFL tagged with GFP showed that AIFL-I4 localized in the nucleus, while fAIFL localized throughout the cytoplasm. We also found that overexpression of AIFL-I4 induced a change in mitochondrial morphology and suppression of cell proliferation. AIFL-I4 mutant with a lesion in [2Fe-2S] cluster binding site of the Rieske domain did not induce these phenotypes. This report is the first to demonstrate nuclear localization of a Rieske-type protein translated from the AIFL gene. Our data suggested that the [2Fe-2S] cluster binding site was essential for the nuclear localization and involved in mitochondrial morphology and suppression of cell proliferation.

  5. Role of TNF-associated cytokines in renal tubular cell apoptosis induced by hyperoxaluria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horuz, Rahim; Göktaş, Cemal; Çetinel, Cihangir A; Akça, Oktay; Aydın, Hasan; Ekici, Işın D; Albayrak, Selami; Sarıca, Kemal

    2013-06-01

    Crystal-cell interaction has been reported as one of the most crucial steps in urinary stone formation. Hyperoxaluria-induced apoptotic changes in renal tubular epithelial cells is the end-stage of this interaction. We aimed to evaluate the possible pathways responsible in the induction of apoptosis within the involved cells by assessing the receptoral expression of three different pathways. 16 male Spraque-Dowley rats were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n:8) received only distilled water; Group 2 (n:8) received 0.75 % ethylene glycol (EG) in their daily water to induce hyperoxaluria for 2 weeks. After 24 h urine collection, all animals were euthenized and right kidneys were removed and fixed for immunohistochemical evaluation. Oxalate and creatinine levels (in 24 h-urine) and FAS, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and TRAIL receptor-2 expressions (in tissue) have been assessed. In addition to TNF (p = 0.0007) expression; both FAS (p = 0.0129 ) and FASL (p = 0.032) expressions significantly increased in animals treated with EG. The expressions of TRAIL (p = 0.49) and TRAIL-R2 (p = 0.34) receptors did not change statistically after hyperoxaluria induction. Although a positive correlation with cytokine expression density and 24 h-urinary oxalate expression (mg oxalate/mg creatinine) has been assessed with TNF (p = 0.04, r = 0.82), FAS (p = 0.05, r = 0.80), FAS-L (p = 0.04, r = 0.82); no correlation could be demonstrated between TRAIL and TRAIL R2 expressions. Our results indicate that apoptosis induced by oxalate is possibly mediated via TNF and FAS pathways. However, TRAIL and TRAIL-R2 seemed to have no function in the cascade. Correlation with urinary oxalate levels did further strengthen the findings.

  6. Quercetin enhances apoptotic effect of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in ovarian cancer cells through reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated CCAAT enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP)-death receptor 5 pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Liu; Zongyuan, Yang; Cheng, Gong; Lingyun, Zhang; GuiLian, Yu; Wei, Gong

    2014-01-01

    Although tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has shown efficacy in a phase 2 clinical trial, development of resistance to TRAIL by tumor cells is a major roadblock. We investigated whether quercetin, a flavonoid, can sensitize human ovarian cancer cells to TRAIL. Results indicate that quercetin sensitized cancer cells to TRAIL. The quercetin induced expression of death receptor DR5 but did not affect expression of DR4 in cancer cells. The induction of DR5 was mediated through activation of JNK and through upregulation of a transcription factor CCAAT enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP); as silencing of these signaling molecules abrogated the effect of quercetin. Upregulation of DR5 was mediated through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as ROS scavengers reduced the effect of quercetin on JNK activation, CHOP upregulation, DR induction, TRAIL sensitization, downregulated the expression of cell survival proteins and upregulated the proapoptotic proteins. Furthermore, quercetin enhances TRAIL mediated inhibition of tumor growth of human SKOV-3 xenograft was associated with induction of apoptosis, activation of caspase-3, CHOP and DR5. Overall, our data suggest that quercetin enhances apoptotic death of ovarian cancer cells to TRAIL through upregulation of CHOP-induced DR5 expression following ROS mediated endoplasmic reticulum-stress. PMID:24612139

  7. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand-Induced Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells after Treatment with Xanthohumol-A Natural Compound Present in Humulus lupulus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłósek, Małgorzata; Mertas, Anna; Król, Wojciech; Jaworska, Dagmara; Szymszal, Jan; Szliszka, Ewelina

    2016-06-22

    TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) is an endogenous ligand, which plays role in immune surveillance and anti-tumor immunity. It has ability to selectively kill tumor cells showing no toxicity to normal cells. We tested the apoptotic and cytotoxic activities of xanthohumol, a prenylated chalcone found in Humulus lupulus on androgen-sensitive human prostate adenocarcinoma cells (LNCaP) in combination with TRAIL. Cytotoxicity was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide tetrazolium reduction assay (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase assay (LDH). The expression of death receptors (DR4/TRAIL-R1 and DR5/TRAIL-R2) and apoptosis were detected using flow cytometry. We examined mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) by DePsipher reagent using fluorescence microscopy. The intracellular expression of proteins was evaluated by Western blotting. Our study showed that xanthohumol enhanced cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of TRAIL. The tested compounds activated caspases-3, -8, -9, Bid, and increased the expression of Bax. They also decreased expression of Bcl-xL and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, while the expression of death receptors was not changed. The findings suggest that xanthohumol is a compound of potential use in chemoprevention of prostate cancer due to its sensitization of cancer cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis.

  8. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand-Induced Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells after Treatment with Xanthohumol—A Natural Compound Present in Humulus lupulus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kłósek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand is an endogenous ligand, which plays role in immune surveillance and anti-tumor immunity. It has ability to selectively kill tumor cells showing no toxicity to normal cells. We tested the apoptotic and cytotoxic activities of xanthohumol, a prenylated chalcone found in Humulus lupulus on androgen-sensitive human prostate adenocarcinoma cells (LNCaP in combination with TRAIL. Cytotoxicity was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide tetrazolium reduction assay (MTT and lactate dehydrogenase assay (LDH. The expression of death receptors (DR4/TRAIL-R1 and DR5/TRAIL-R2 and apoptosis were detected using flow cytometry. We examined mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm by DePsipher reagent using fluorescence microscopy. The intracellular expression of proteins was evaluated by Western blotting. Our study showed that xanthohumol enhanced cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of TRAIL. The tested compounds activated caspases-3, -8, -9, Bid, and increased the expression of Bax. They also decreased expression of Bcl-xL and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, while the expression of death receptors was not changed. The findings suggest that xanthohumol is a compound of potential use in chemoprevention of prostate cancer due to its sensitization of cancer cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis.

  9. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand-Induced Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells after Treatment with Xanthohumol—A Natural Compound Present in Humulus lupulus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłósek, Małgorzata; Mertas, Anna; Król, Wojciech; Jaworska, Dagmara; Szymszal, Jan; Szliszka, Ewelina

    2016-01-01

    TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) is an endogenous ligand, which plays role in immune surveillance and anti-tumor immunity. It has ability to selectively kill tumor cells showing no toxicity to normal cells. We tested the apoptotic and cytotoxic activities of xanthohumol, a prenylated chalcone found in Humulus lupulus on androgen-sensitive human prostate adenocarcinoma cells (LNCaP) in combination with TRAIL. Cytotoxicity was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide tetrazolium reduction assay (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase assay (LDH). The expression of death receptors (DR4/TRAIL-R1 and DR5/TRAIL-R2) and apoptosis were detected using flow cytometry. We examined mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) by DePsipher reagent using fluorescence microscopy. The intracellular expression of proteins was evaluated by Western blotting. Our study showed that xanthohumol enhanced cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of TRAIL. The tested compounds activated caspases-3, -8, -9, Bid, and increased the expression of Bax. They also decreased expression of Bcl-xL and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, while the expression of death receptors was not changed. The findings suggest that xanthohumol is a compound of potential use in chemoprevention of prostate cancer due to its sensitization of cancer cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. PMID:27338375

  10. The oestrogen metabolite 2-methoxyoestradiol alone or in combination with tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand mediates apoptosis in cancerous but not healthy cells of the human endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Sumie; Sadarangani, Anil; Lange, Soledad; Villalón, Manuel; Brañes, Jorge; Brosens, Jan J; Owen, Gareth I; Cuello, Mauricio

    2007-06-01

    Cancers of the reproductive tract account for 12% of all malignancies in women. As previous studies have shown that oestrogen metabolites can cause apoptosis, we characterised the effect of oestrogen and oestrogen metabolites on non-cancerous and cancerous human endometrial cells. Herein, we demonstrate that 2-methoxyoestradiol (2ME), but not 17beta-oestradiol, induces apoptosis in cancer cell lines and primary cultured tumours of endometrial origin. In contrast, 2ME had no effect on cell viability of corresponding normal tissue. This ability of 2ME to induce apoptosis does not require oestrogen receptor activation, but is associated with increased entry into the G2/M phases of the cell cycle and the activation of both the intrinsic and the extrinsic apoptotic pathways. The selective behaviour of 2ME on cancerous as opposed to normal tissue may be due to a reduction in 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II levels in cancer cells and to a differential down-regulation of superoxide dismutase. Furthermore, we demonstrate that pre-treatment with 2ME enhances the sensitivity of reproductive tract cancer cells to the apoptotic drug tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), without the loss in cell viability to normal cells incurred by currently chemotherapeutic drugs. In conclusion, 2ME, alone or in combination with TRAIL, may be an effective treatment for cancers of uterine origin with minimal toxicity to corresponding healthy female reproductive tissue.

  11. A novel mechanism of hepatocellular carcinoma cell apoptosis induced by lupeol via Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Inhibition and Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingli; Tu, Yi; He, Wen; Peng, Yan; Qiu, Zhenpeng

    2015-09-05

    Lupeol is a naturally available triterpenoid with selective anticancerous potential on various human cancer cells. The present study shows that lupeol can inhibit cell proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HCCLM3 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, through caspase-3 dependent activation and Poly ADP-Ribose Polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Lupeol-induced cell death is associated with a marked decrease in the protein expression of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and ser-9-phosphoryltion of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Beta (GSK-3β), with concomitant suppression of Akt1, phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K), β-catenin, c-Myc and Cyclin D1 mRNA expression. Suppressing overexpression of BDNF by lupeol results in decreased protein expression of p-Akt and PI3K (p110α), as well as reactivation of GSK-3β function in HepG2 cells. Lupeol treatment also inhibits LiCl-induced activation of Wnt signaling pathway and exerts the in vitro anti-invasive activity in Huh-7 cells. LiCl-triggered high expression of β-catenin, c-Myc and Cyclin D1 protein is reduced followed by lupeol exposure. The findings suggest a mechanistic link between caspase dependent pathway, BDNF secretion and Akt/PI3K/GSK-3β in HCC cells. These results indicate that lupeol can suppress HCC cell proliferation by inhibiting BDNF secretion and phosphorylation of GSK-3β(Ser-9), cooperated with blockade of Akt/PI3K and Wnt signaling pathway.

  12. Induction of apoptosis in renal cell carcinoma by reactive oxygen species: involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38delta/gamma, cyclooxygenase-2 down-regulation, and translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ambrose, Monica

    2012-02-03

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common malignancy of the kidney. Unfortunately, RCCs are highly refractory to conventional chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and even immunotherapy. Thus, novel therapeutic targets need to be sought for the successful treatment of RCCs. We now report that 6-anilino-5,8-quinolinequinone (LY83583), an inhibitor of cyclic GMP production, induced growth arrest and apoptosis of the RCC cell line 786-0. It did not prove deleterious to normal renal epithelial cells, an important aspect of chemotherapy. To address the cellular mechanism(s), we used both genetic and pharmacological approaches. LY83583 induced a time- and dose-dependent increase in RCC apoptosis through dephosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1\\/2 and its downstream extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1 and -2. In addition, we observed a decrease in Elk-1 phosphorylation and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) down-regulation. We were surprised that we failed to observe an increase in either c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase or p38alpha and -beta mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. In contradiction, reintroduction of p38delta by stable transfection or overexpression of p38gamma dominant negative abrogated the apoptotic effect. Cell death was associated with a decrease and increase in Bcl-x(L) and Bax expression, respectively, as well as release of cytochrome c and translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor. These events were associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species formation. The antioxidant N-acetyl l-cysteine, however, opposed LY83583-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction, ERK1\\/2 inactivation, COX-2 down-regulation, and apoptosis. In conclusion, our results suggest that LY83583 may represent a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of RCC, which remains highly refractory to antineoplastic agents. Our data provide a molecular basis for the anticancer activity of LY83583.

  13. 肿瘤坏死因子相关细胞凋亡诱导配体表达载体的制备%Construction of tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand expression vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡刁龙; 夏金堂; 朱光辉; 翁杰锋

    2008-01-01

    Objective To construct and identify recombined adeno associated virus encoding soluble tumornecrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand(sTRAIL)gene cDNA.Methods The shuttle plasmid pAAV-sTRAIL was first constructed.then transfected into HEK 293 cells by calcium phosphateprecipitation method.Recombinant adeno-associated viruS rAAV-sTRAIL Was produced by homologous recombination in 293 cells.Monoclonal rAAV-sTRAIL Was screened by plaque assay;virus identity was confirmed by PCR;purified virus stockswere prepared by CsCl gradients banding;virus particle titers were determined by OD260 measurements andfunctional titers in plaque forming units were determined by endpoint dilution infection on 293 cells. Western blotwas employed to detect the expression of the rAAV-sTRAIL in 293 cells.Results rAAV-sTRAIL was constructedand verified with hish particles titers and good purification.Furthermore,western blot showed that rAAV-sTRAILexpressed sTRAIL proteins in 293 cells.Conclusion The development of rAAV-sTRAIL provided an effective geneexpression vector tool for studv of the anti-tumor effect and for the clinical application of TRAIL cell.%目的 构建一种携带肿瘤坏死因子相关细胞凋亡诱导配体(TRAIL)基因的重组腺相关病毒(rAAV)载体.方法 首先构建携带可溶性肿瘤坏死因子相关细胞凋亡诱导配体(sTRAIL)基因的穿梭质粒腺相关病毒穿梭质粒-可溶性肿瘤坏死因子相关细胞凋亡诱导配体(pAAV-sTRAIL),将穿梭质粒转染入HEK 293细胞(人胚肾细胞系)中,采用细胞内质粒DNA同源重组法构建重组腺相关病毒载体rAAV-sTRAIL.以噬斑分析法筛选单克隆rAAV-sTRAIL;PCR法鉴定阳性rAAV-sTRAIL;氯化铯密度梯度离心法纯化rAAV-sTRAIL;紫外分光光度仪测定rAAV-sTRAIL颗粒数及纯度,噬斑分析法测定rAAV-sTRAIL感染滴度;Western免疫印迹检测rAAV-sTRAIL在HEK 293细胞中的表达情况.结果 成功构建了rAAV-sTRAIL,制备的病毒

  14. Bim is a crucial regulator of apoptosis induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiló, N; Uranga, S; Marinova, D; Martín, C; Pardo, J

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, induces apoptosis in infected macrophages in vitro and in vivo. However, the molecular mechanism controlling this process is not known. In order to study the involvement of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in M. tuberculosis-induced apoptosis, we analysed cell death in M. tuberculosis-infected embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from different knockout mice for genes involved in this route. We found that apoptosis induced by M. tuberculosis is abrogated in the absence of Bak and Bax, caspase 9 or the executioner caspases 3 and 7. Notably, we show that MEF deficient in the BH3-only BCL-2-interacting mediator of cell death (Bim) protein were also resistant to this process. The relevance of these results has been confirmed in the mouse macrophage cell line J774, where cell transfection with siRNA targeting Bim impaired apoptosis induced by virulent mycobacteria. Notably, only infection with a virulent strain, but not with attenuated ESX-1-defective strains, such as Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and live-attenuated M. tuberculosis vaccine strain MTBVAC, induced Bim upregulation and apoptosis, probably implicating virulence factor early secreted antigenic target 6-kDa protein in this process. Our results suggest that Bim upregulation and apoptosis is mediated by the p38MAPK-dependent pathway. Our findings show that Bim is a master regulator of apoptosis induced by M. tuberculosis. PMID:25032866

  15. 肿瘤坏死因子相关凋亡诱导配体介导脓毒症免疫抑制的研究进展%An advance in the study of tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis induced ligand and immunosupression in sepsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶天柱; 田冶; 朱玮珉; 邓小明

    2013-01-01

    Background Tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis induced ligand (TRAIL) is a new proapoptotic member of tumor necrosis factor superfamily which has been implicated in the regulation of apoptosis of tumor cell when bind to its receptor DR4/DRS.Objective To summarize the potential mechanism of TRAIL in the pathophysiology of sepsis.Content Based on researches using sepsis models,we concluded that TRAIL accelerates the apoptosis of activated neutrophil and this molecule was involved in the immunosupression.Trend Studies on TRAIL involved a variety of disciplines such as tumor therapy,autoimmune disease,cardiovascular disease,transplant,infections,trauma and so on.TRAIL played an important role in the regulation of immune response of septic host.%背景 肿瘤坏死因子相关凋亡诱导配体(tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis induced ligand,TRAIL)是肿瘤坏死因子超家族成员之一,其与受体DR4/DR5结合可以诱导肿瘤细胞的凋亡,而备受关注. 目的 总结TRAIL通路在脓毒症中的可能机制,探讨其在脓毒症疾病过程中的调控作用. 内容 脓毒症动物模型的研究发现,TRAIL可以加快活化的中性粒细胞发生凋亡并参与脓毒症免疫耐受的形成. 趋势 TRAIL受体在肿瘤、自身免疫性疾病、感染、心血管疾病、器官移植等领域的研究越来越多,作用机制也在不断地阐明.TRAIL及其受体在脓毒症疾病过程中发挥重要调节作用.

  16. Apoptosis induced by propolis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y H; Lee, W Y; Nam, S Y; Choi, K C; Park, Y E

    1999-07-01

    Propolis has been reported to exhibit a wide spectrum of activities including antibiotic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory and tumor carcinostatic properties. We showed propolis induced apoptosis in a human hepatoma cell line (SNU449) by FITC-Annexin V/PI staining. We also compared the apoptosis inducing effect between Korean and Commercial (Sigma # p-1010) propolis. There was no difference on apoptosis between them.

  17. Nuclear apoptosis induced by isolated mitochondria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    We isolated and purified mitochondria from mouse livers and spinach leaves. When added into egg extracts of Xenopus laevis, they caused nuclei of mouse liver to undergo apoptotic changes. Chromatin condensation, margination and DNA ladder were observed. After incubating isolated mitochondria in some hypotonic solutions, and centrifuging these mixtures at high speed, we got mitochondrial supernatants. It was found that in the absence of cytosolic factor, the supernatant alone was able to induce apoptotic changes in nuclei. The effective components were partly of protein. DNA fragmentation was partly inhibited by caspase inhibitors AC-DEVD-CHO and AC-YVADCHO. Meanwhile, caspase inhibitors fully blocked chromatin condensation. Primary characterization of the nuclear endonuclease(s) induced by mitochondrial supernatants was also conducted. It was found that this endonuclease is different from endonuclease G, cytochrome c-induced nuclease, or Ca2+-activated endonuclease.

  18. 全人源抗人肿瘤坏死因子相关诱导凋亡配体受体单克隆抗体蛋白高效表达体系的建立及其功能性分析%Establishment of a high efficient expression system of a novol human monoclonal antibody against tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor and its functional characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石佳宁; 韩晓健; 吕福莲; 毕冬梅; 金艾顺

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establishe a high efficient expression system and to generate mAb to tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor-1 (TRAIL)-R1,and to evaluate its functional characteristics.Methods We constructed a pcDNA3.4 vector containing anti-TRAIL-R1 Ab gene,and established a high efficient method expressing Ab protein using Expi293FTM cell expression system.We then purified TR1-404 Ab using Protein A/G.We detected the production of TR1-404 and its specific binding activity by the double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect ELISA.TRAIL-R1 expression on Hela cells and HCT116 cells was determined by flow cytometric assay.The survival and proliferation of Hela cells and HCT116 cells were analyzed after treatment with TR1-404 alone or TRAIL alone or combination of TR1-404 with TRAIL using MTT assay.We measured TR1-404 or TRAIL-induced tumor cell apoptosis using Annexin V/PI double staining.Results We successfully constructed plasmid expressing mAb to TRAIL-R1 and established a high efficient protein expression system.TR1-404 can bind to not only recombinant human TRAIL-R1 specifically but also TRAIL-R1 on surface of Hela and HCT116 cells.We found that TR1-404 enhanced TRAIL-induced cell apoptosis in Hela cells but not in HCT116.Conclusions In the study,we successfully establish a high protein expression system.TR1-404 can bind to TRAIL-R1 specifically.TR1-404 Ab increased TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in Hela tumor cells.%目的 建立高效表达全人源抗人肿瘤坏死因子相关诱导凋亡配体受体(TRAIL)-R1单克隆抗体(TR1-404)蛋白体系,并评价TR 1-404抗体蛋白功能特性.方法 构建pcDNA3.4载体抗体质粒,转染Expi293 FTM细胞,表达抗体蛋白.收集细胞培养上清,使用ProteinA/G纯化抗体蛋白.利用双抗体夹心和间接酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)检测抗体蛋白浓度及特异性.流式细胞分析检测TR1-404与Hela细胞和HCT116细胞表面TRAIL-R1的

  19. NVP-BKM120 potentiates apoptosis in tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-resistant glioma cell lines via upregulation of Noxa and death receptor 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kimberly A; Jane, Esther P; Premkumar, Daniel R; Morales, Alejandro; Pollack, Ian F

    2015-08-01

    We previously observed that glioma cells are differentially sensitive to TRAIL-induced toxicity. Based on our observation that TRAIL-resistant glioma cell lines typically exhibited high levels of Akt activation, we hypothesized that inhibition of Akt signaling using the PI3 kinase inhibitor NVP-BKM120 could promote TRAIL-induced apoptosis in gliomas. We assessed this combination in established and primary cultured glioma cells. Combination treatment led to significant cellular death when compared to either drug alone, but had no effect in normal human astrocytes, and demonstrated activation of the caspase cascade. This enhanced apoptosis appears dependent upon the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of Smac/DIABLO, AIF and cytochrome c into the cytosol. The upregulation of Noxa and sequestration of Mcl-1 by Noxa were important factors for cell death. Knockdown of Noxa abrogated apoptosis and suggested dependency on Noxa in combination-induced apoptosis. BKM120 upregulated cell surface expression of death receptor 5 (DR5), but did not increase levels of the other major TRAIL receptor, death receptor 4 (DR4). This study demonstrates that antagonizing apoptosis-resistance pathways, such as the PI3/Akt pathway, in combination with death receptor activation, may induce cell death in TRAIL-resistant glioma.

  20. Relationship between ascorbyl radical intensity and apoptosis-inducing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, H; Satoh, K; Ohata, H; Takahashi, H; Yoshida, H; Iida, M; Kuribayashi, N; Sakagami, T; Momose, K; Takeda, M

    1996-01-01

    Ascorbic acid and its related compounds were compared for their ascorbyl radical intensity and apoptosis-inducing activity. Sodium L-ascorbate, L-ascorbic acid, D-isoascorbic acid, sodium 6-beta-O-galactosyl-L-ascorbate and sodium 5,6-benzylidene-L-ascorbate, at the concentration of 1-10 mM, induced apoptotic cell death characterized by cell shrinkage, nuclear fragmentation and internucleosomal DNA cleavage in human promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells. On the other hand, L-ascorbic acid-2-phosphate magnesium salt and L-ascorbic acid 2-sulfate did not induce any of these apoptosis-associated characteristics. ESR measurements revealed that all the active compounds were progressively degraded, producing the ascorbyl radical (g = 2.0064, hfc = 0.17 mT) in culture medium, whereas the inactive compounds were stable and did not produce the ascorbyl radical. Cytotoxicity began to appear when the radical intensity exceeded a certain threshold level. In the presence of N-acetyl-L-cysteine, both ascorbyl radical intensity and apoptosis-inducing activity were significantly reduced. These data suggest the possible involvement of the ascorbyl radical in apoptosis induction by ascorbic acid-related compounds. Exposure of HL-60 cells to ascorbic acid or its active derivatives resulted in the rapid elevation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration, which might serve as the initial signal leading to the cell death pathway.

  1. 76 FR 15324 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... biology of HLRCC and related cancers, including growth, motility, invasion, and metabolite production... Technology: The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its...

  2. Neuron Apoptosis Induced by 3,4-methylenedioxy Methamphetamine and Expression of Apoptosis-related Factors in Rat Brain%3,4-亚甲基二氧基甲基苯丙胺诱导大鼠神经元凋亡及凋亡相关因子的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪; 祝三平; 况伟宏; 李静; 孙啸; 黄明生; 孙学礼

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the neuron apoptosis induced by I. P 3.4-methylenedioxy methamphetamine (MDMA) and the expression of apoptosis-related factors in rat brain. Methods Twenty rats were divided into 4 groups. In group A, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with single dosage of saline, while the rats of group B, C, D were injected I. P with MDMA in different regimen, which were 20 mg/kg, single injection in group B, 20 mg/ kg twice a day (8 am and 8 pm) , for 2 day in group C, as well as 20 mg/kg, twice a day (8 am and 8 pm) for 4 days. Neuron apoptosis were measured by TUNEL, and the expression of Caspase-3 and CytC were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results Compared with saline group, apoptosis neurons were detected at the related brain regions (such as frontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum) of the rats in MDMA treated groups;Expression of Caspase-3 and CytC was observed at different level. Compared with group B, the number of apoptosis neurons of group C and D increased, and also the apoptosis-related factors in the brain tissue increased (P<0. 05). Conclusion MDMA could induce neurons apoptosis and the expression of apoptosis-related factors such as Caspase-3 and CytC in rat brain.Objective To study the neuron apoptosis induced by I. P 3.4-methylenedioxy methamphetamine (MDMA) and the expression of apoptosis-related factors in rat brain. Methods Twenty rats were divided into 4 groups. In group A, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with single dosage of saline, while the rats of group B, C, D were injected I. P with MDMA in different regimen, which were 20 mg/kg, single injection in group B, 20 mg/ kg twice a day (8 am and 8 pm) , for 2 day in group C, as well as 20 mg/kg, twice a day (8 am and 8 pm) for 4 days. Neuron apoptosis were measured by TUNEL, and the expression of Caspase-3 and CytC were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results Compared with saline group, apoptosis neurons were detected at the related brain regions (such as frontal

  3. Molecular Mechanism of Bovine Trabecular Meshwork Cells Apoptosis Induced by Dexamethasone and Protection by Pilocarpine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yajuan Gu; Shujun Zeng; Pengxin Qiu; Yuping Wu; Dawei Peng; Guangmei Yan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To study the molecular mechanism of trabecular meshwork cells apoptosis induced by dexamethasone and the protection of pilocarpine.Methods: Determining mRNA expression with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), protein expression with Western blots and the percentage of apoptotic cells with fluorescent microscopy.Results: Dexamethasone up-regulated Fas proteins and affected Bax, caspase-8 and caspase-9 proteins in an action of first decrease then increase. Pre-treatment with pilocarpine decreased the four proteins expression, which were increased by dexamethasone. Pilocarpine self could decrease pro-apoptotic factors Bax, caspase-8 and caspase-9 proteins expression.Conclusion: Fas/FasL pathway participated in apoptotic process induced by dexamethasone in trabecular meshwork cells and the process was probably related with both caspase-8 and caspase-9 pathways. Pilocarpine protected the cells against apoptosis through down-regulating Fas, Bax, caspase-8 and caspase-9 proteins expression.

  4. Propolis Augments Apoptosis Induced by Butyrate via Targeting Cell Survival Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Eric; Bordonaro, Michael; Lee, Seon; Atamna, Wafa; Lazarova, Darina L.

    2013-01-01

    Diet is one of the major lifestyle factors affecting incidence of colorectal cancer (CC), and despite accumulating evidence that numerous diet-derived compounds modulate CC incidence, definitive dietary recommendations are not available. We propose a strategy that could facilitate the design of dietary supplements with CC-preventive properties. Thus, nutrient combinations that are a source of apoptosis-inducers and inhibitors of compensatory cell proliferation pathways (e.g., AKT signaling) may produce high levels of programmed death in CC cells. Here we report the combined effect of butyrate, an apoptosis inducer that is produced through fermentation of fiber in the colon, and propolis, a honeybee product, on CC cells. We established that propolis increases the apoptosis of CC cells exposed to butyrate through suppression of cell survival pathways such as the AKT signaling. The programmed death of CC cells by combined exposure to butyrate and propolis is further augmented by inhibition of the JNK signaling pathway. Analyses on the contribution of the downstream targets of JNK signaling, c-JUN and JAK/STAT, to the apoptosis of butyrate/propolis-treated CC cells ascertained that JAK/STAT signaling has an anti-apoptotic role; whereas, the role of cJUN might be dependent upon regulatory cell factors. Thus, our studies ascertained that propolis augments apoptosis of butyrate-sensitive CC cells and re-sensitizes butyrate-resistant CC cells to apoptosis by suppressing AKT signaling and downregulating the JAK/STAT pathway. Future in vivo studies should evaluate the CC-preventive potential of a dietary supplement that produces high levels of colonic butyrate, propolis, and diet-derived JAK/STAT inhibitors. PMID:24023824

  5. Propolis augments apoptosis induced by butyrate via targeting cell survival pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Drago

    Full Text Available Diet is one of the major lifestyle factors affecting incidence of colorectal cancer (CC, and despite accumulating evidence that numerous diet-derived compounds modulate CC incidence, definitive dietary recommendations are not available. We propose a strategy that could facilitate the design of dietary supplements with CC-preventive properties. Thus, nutrient combinations that are a source of apoptosis-inducers and inhibitors of compensatory cell proliferation pathways (e.g., AKT signaling may produce high levels of programmed death in CC cells. Here we report the combined effect of butyrate, an apoptosis inducer that is produced through fermentation of fiber in the colon, and propolis, a honeybee product, on CC cells. We established that propolis increases the apoptosis of CC cells exposed to butyrate through suppression of cell survival pathways such as the AKT signaling. The programmed death of CC cells by combined exposure to butyrate and propolis is further augmented by inhibition of the JNK signaling pathway. Analyses on the contribution of the downstream targets of JNK signaling, c-JUN and JAK/STAT, to the apoptosis of butyrate/propolis-treated CC cells ascertained that JAK/STAT signaling has an anti-apoptotic role; whereas, the role of cJUN might be dependent upon regulatory cell factors. Thus, our studies ascertained that propolis augments apoptosis of butyrate-sensitive CC cells and re-sensitizes butyrate-resistant CC cells to apoptosis by suppressing AKT signaling and downregulating the JAK/STAT pathway. Future in vivo studies should evaluate the CC-preventive potential of a dietary supplement that produces high levels of colonic butyrate, propolis, and diet-derived JAK/STAT inhibitors.

  6. Ferutinin, an apoptosis inducing terpenoid from Ferula ovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Maryam Moghaddam; Nakhaeizadeh, Hossein; Bahrami, Ahamd Reza; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Arghiani, Nahid; Rassouli, Fatemeh Behnam

    2014-01-01

    A current hurdle in cancer management is the intrinsic or acquired resistance of cancer cells to chemical agents that restricts the efficacy of therapeutic strategies. Accordingly, there is an increasing desire to discover new natural compounds with selective toxicity to combat malignancies. In present study, the cytotoxic and apoptosis- inducing activities of ferutinin, a terpenoid derivative from Ferula ovina, were investigated on human breast (MCF7) and bladder (TCC) cancer cells as well as normal fibroblasts (HFF3).The toxicity and DNA damage inducing effects of ferutinin were studied by MTT and comet assays, DAPI and PI staining and DNA laddering. The IC50 values of ferutinin were identified and compared with routine prescribed drugs, doxorubicin and vincristine, by MTT test. Alkaline comet assay and DAPI staining revealed DNA damage due to ferutinin, which was significantly (p<0.001) higher in MCF7 and TCC than HFF3 cells. Apoptosis induction was evidenced by PI staining and DNA laddering. Our results suggest that ferutinin could be considered as an effective anticancer agent for future in vivo and clinical experiments.

  7. Id2从核迁移到细胞质后通过调节凋亡诱导因子表达促进骨骼肌细胞分化%Id2 translocation from nucleus to cytoplasm accelerating differentiation of skeletal muscle cells by regulating the expression of apoptosis inducing factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓芳; 赖桂华; 王乐禹; 欧阳钧; 余磊; 邱小忠

    2011-01-01

    activator. Two percents of the horse serum, which usually was used to induce myoblasts differentiation, caused most of Id2 proteins translocation from nucleus to cytoplasm. Translocation of Id2 protein from nucleus to cytoplasm inhibited the ROS-induced expression of mitochondrial apoptosis inducing factor ( AIF ). Immunofluorescence analysis implied that the denervated skeletal muscle showed more increased Id2 and AIF proteins in the nucleus. Conclusion Id2 translocation from nucleus to cytoplasm can accelerate differentiation of skeletal muscle cells. The functional role of Id2 during the skeletal muscle regeneration is related to the expression of AIF.

  8. Monocyte-mediated tumoricidal activity via the tumor necrosis factor-related cytokine, TRAIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, T S; Wiley, S R; Kubin, M Z; Sedger, L M; Maliszewski, C R; Fanger, N A

    1999-04-19

    TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) is a molecule that displays potent antitumor activity against selected targets. The results presented here demonstrate that human monocytes rapidly express TRAIL, but not Fas ligand or TNF, after activation with interferon (IFN)-gamma or -alpha and acquire the ability to kill tumor cells. Monocyte-mediated tumor cell apoptosis was TRAIL specific, as it could be inhibited with soluble TRAIL receptor. Moreover, IFN stimulation caused a concomitant loss of TRAIL receptor 2 expression, which coincides with monocyte acquisition of resistance to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. These results define a novel mechanism of monocyte-induced cell cytotoxicity that requires TRAIL, and suggest that TRAIL is a key effector molecule in antitumor activity in vivo.

  9. Galangin potentiates human breast cancer to apoptosis induced by TRAIL through activating AMPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Yan, Chong-Yang; Zhou, Qian-Qian; Zhen, Lin-Lin

    2017-03-06

    Breast cancer is reported as the most frequent tumor with limited treatments among the female worldwide. Galangin, a natural active compound 3, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavone, is a type of bioflavonoid isolated from the Alpinia galangal root and suggested to induce apoptosis in various cancers. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is an effective anti-tumor agent for human breast cancer. Promoted expression of CHOP, a down-streaming transcription factor for endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress), enhanced death factor 4 (DR4) activity and accelerated reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as cell death. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is crucial for various cancers mortality. In the present study, galangin regulated ER stress to augment CHOP and DR4 expression levels, sensitizing TRAIL activity, leading to human breast cancer cell apoptosis through Caspase-3 activation, which was associated with AMPK phosphorylation. In addition, AMPK inhibition and silence reduced anti-cancer activity of galangin and TRAIL in combinational treatment. Hence, our study indicated that galangin could effectively stimulate human breast cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through TRAIL/Caspase-3/AMPK signaling pathway. AMPK signaling pathway activation by galangin might be of benefit for promoting the effects of TRAIL-regulated anti-tumor therapeutic strategy.

  10. Endothelial Cell Apoptosis Induces TGF-β Signaling-Dependent Host Endothelial-Mesenchymal Transition to Promote Transplant Arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Xiong, J; Yang, B; Zhou, Q; Wu, Y; Luo, H; Zhou, H; Liu, N; Li, Y; Song, Z; Zheng, Q

    2015-12-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) apoptosis is an initial event in transplant arteriosclerosis (TA), resulting in allograft function loss. To elucidate the precise mechanisms of ECs apoptosis leading to neointimal smooth muscle cells (SMCs) accumulation during TA. We induced apoptosis in cultured ECs by overexpressing p53 through lentivirus-mediated transfection. ECs apoptosis induced the production of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in both apoptotic and neighboring viable cells, leading to increased TGF-β1 in the culture media. Conditioned media from Ltv-p53-transfected ECs further promoted transition of cultured ECs to SM-like cells by activating TGF-β/Smad3, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, and MAPK/ERK signaling in a TGF-β-dependent manner. In transgenic rat aorta transplantation models, inhibition of ECs apoptosis in Bcl-xL(+/+) knock-in rat aortic allografts significantly reduced TGF-β1 production both in allograft endothelia and in blood plasma, which in turn decreased accumulation of SM22α+ cells from transgenic recipient ECs originally marked with EGFP knock-in in neointima and alleviated TA. Systemic treatment with SIS3, AP23573, or PD98059 also prevented recipient ECs-originated SM-like cells accumulation and intima hyperplasia in aortic allografts. These data suggest that allograft EC apoptosis induced recipient endothelial-mesenchymal (smooth muscle) transition via TGF-β signaling, resulting in recipient EC-derived SMC accumulation as a major mechanism of vascular remodeling during TA.

  11. Effects of mild hypothermia plus ifenprodil on apoptosis inducing factor translocation after global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in rats%浅低温联合艾芬地尔对大鼠全脑缺血再灌注后凋亡诱导因子的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹瑜; 周迎; 高玮; 曾秋婷; 惠康丽; 徐苗苗; 段满林; 徐建国

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of mild hypothermia combined with ifenprodil on the survival of neuronal and translocation of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) following global cerebral ischemiareperfusion to understand the mechanism of combination in cerebral resuscitation.Methods Eighty male SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups of sham (Ⅰ),model (Ⅱ),ifenprodil (Ⅲ),mild hypothermia (Ⅳ) and ifenprodil plus mild hypothermia (Ⅴ) (n =16 each).Group Ⅰ completed all procedures except for ventricular fibrillation (VF) and cardio pulmonary resuscitation (CPR).For groups Ⅱ and Ⅴ,the model of global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion was established and VF induced with transoesophageal cardiac pacing; groups Ⅲ and Ⅴ received by an intraperitoneal injection of ifenprodil immediately after reperfusion and other groups had an equal volume of distilled water.Rectal temperature was cooled down to (32 ± 1) ℃ in groups Ⅳ and Ⅴ by rubbing body surface with ethanol in 10 min after reperfusion and maintained 4 hours continuously while other groups at (37 ± 1)℃.In hippocampal CA1 region at 24 hours after reperfusion,the pathomorphological changes and quantity of pyramidal cells were detected with hematoxylin and eosin staining,nuclear translocation of AIF was shown with immunofluorescence technique and the nuclear expression level of AIF was measured with Western blot.Results Compared with group] (75.0 ± 3.2),the number of pyramidal cells decreased in other groups (P < 0.05) ; compared with group Ⅱ (36.0 ± 1.2),the number increased in group Ⅲ (46.8 ± 1.3),Ⅳ (49.0 ±2.7)and Ⅴ (61.3 ±2.60) (P <0.05).In particular,cell count increased significantly in group Ⅴ (P < 0.05).Compared to group Ⅰ,the transloctation of AIF form mitochondria to nucleus was detected in other groups ; compared with group Ⅰ (0.022 ± 0.003),the expression level of AIF in the nucleus was higher in other groups (P < 0.05).Compared with group Ⅱ (1.020 ± 0

  12. Ethanolic Extract of Propolis (EEP Enhances the Apoptosis- Inducing Potential of TRAIL in Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Krol

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP is one of the richest sources of phenolic acids and flavonoids. EEP and its phenolic compounds have been known for various biological activities including immunopotentiation, chemopreventive and antitumor effects. Tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL is a naturally occurring anticancer agent that preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells and is not toxic toward normal cells. We examined the cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of EEP and phenolic compounds identified in propolis in combination with TRAIL on HeLa cancer cells. HeLa cells were resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Our study demonstrated that EEP and its components significantly sensitize to TRAIL induced death in cancer cells. The percentage of the apoptotic cell after exposure to 50 μg/mL EEP and 100 ng/mL TRAIL increased to 71.10±1.16%. The strongest cytotoxic effect in combination with TRAIL on HeLa cells exhibited apigenin and CAPE at the concentration of 50 μM (58.87±0.75% and 49.59±0.39%, respectively. In this report, we show for the first time that EEP markedly augmented TRAIL mediated apoptosis in cancer cells and confirmed the importance of propolis in chemoprevention of malignant tumors.

  13. Ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) enhances the apoptosis- inducing potential of TRAIL in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szliszka, Ewelina; Czuba, Zenon P; Domino, Maciej; Mazur, Bogdan; Zydowicz, Grzegorz; Krol, Wojciech

    2009-02-13

    Ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) is one of the richest sources of phenolic acids and flavonoids. EEP and its phenolic compounds have been known for various biological activities including immunopotentiation, chemopreventive and antitumor effects. Tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a naturally occurring anticancer agent that preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells and is not toxic toward normal cells. We examined the cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of EEP and phenolic compounds identified in propolis in combination with TRAIL on HeLa cancer cells. HeLa cells were resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Our study demonstrated that EEP and its components significantly sensitize to TRAIL induced death in cancer cells. The percentage of the apoptotic cell after exposure to 50 microg/mL EEP and 100 ng/mL TRAIL increased to 71.10 +/- 1.16%. The strongest cytotoxic effect in combination with TRAIL on HeLa cells exhibited apigenin and CAPE at the concentration of 50 microM (58.87 +/- 0.75% and 49.59 +/- 0.39%, respectively). In this report, we show for the first time that EEP markedly augmented TRAIL mediated apoptosis in cancer cells and confirmed the importance of propolis in chemoprevention of malignant tumors.

  14. Growth inhibition and apoptosis induced by lupeol, a dietary triterpene, in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan; Liu, Fen; Zhang, Lurong; Wu, Yan; Hu, Bo; Zhang, Yinsheng; Li, Yunsen; Liu, Haiyan

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most malignant tumor worldwide and is known to be resistant to conventional chemotherapy. New therapeutic strategies are urgently needed for treating HCC. Lup-20(29)-en-3H-ol (Lupeol), a novel dietary triterpene, is found in fruits, vegetables, and medicinal plants and possesses multiple bio-activities with very low toxicity. In the current study, we investigated its growth-inhibitory effects in HCC cell lines SMMC7721 and HepG2. In the in vitro studies, lupeol treatment alone caused decrease of cell viability in two HCC cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. It also induced apoptosis and caused cell accumulation in S phase. Further analysis revealed the induction of active caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) cleavage by lupeol treatment. In the in vivo studies, nude mice implanted with SMMC7721 cells subcutaneously were treated with lupeol three times a week and tumor development was significantly inhibited. We further investigated the combination anti-tumor effect of lupeol and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in HCC, considering TRAIL treatment alone could not achieve high level of anti-tumor effect. The results demonstrated that lupeol could exert a combinational effect with TRAIL, resulting in chemosensitization of HCC. Our results suggested that lupeol alone or as an adjuvant to therapeutic agents could be developed as a potential agent for treating HCC.

  15. Growth Inhibition and Apoptosis Inducing Mechanisms of Curcumin on Human Ovarian Cancer Cell Line A2780

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Li-duan; TONG Qiang-song; WU Cui-huan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the growth inhibition effects and apoptosis inducing mechanisms of curcumin on human ovarian cancer cell line A2780. Methods: After treatment with 10-50 μmol/L curcumin for 6-24 h, the growth activity of A2780 cancer cells were studied by [ 4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyItetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetry. Cellular apoptosis was inspected by flow cytometery and acridine orange-ethidium bromide fluorescent staining methods. The fragmentation of cellular chromosome DNA was detected by DNA ladder, the ultrastructural change was observed under a transmission electron microscope,and the protein levels of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB, P65) and cysteinyl aspartate specific protease-3 (Caspase-3) in ovarian cancer cells were measured by immunohistochemistry. Results: After treatment with various concentrations of curcumin, the growth inhibition rates of cancer cells reached 62.05%- 89.24%,with sub-G1 peaks appearing on histogram. Part of the cancer cells showed characteristic morphological changes of apoptosis under fluorescence and electron microscopes, and the rate of apoptosis was 21.5 % -33.5%. The protein expression of NF-κB was decreased, while that of Caspase-3 was increased in a timedependent manner. Conclusion: Curcumin could significantly inhibit the growth of human ovarian cancer cells;inducing apoptosis through up-regulating Caspase-3 and down-regulating gene expression of NF-κB is probably one of its molecular mechanisms.

  16. 肝细胞生长因子在肿瘤坏死因子相关凋亡诱导配体作用下对原代肝星状细胞增殖及凋亡的影响%Effect of hepatocyte growth factor on the proliferation and apoptosis of primary hepatic stellate cells under tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张君红; 姜海行; 覃山羽; 陆正峰; 孟云超; 宁琳; 杨文

    2012-01-01

    背景:活化的肝星状细胞是肝纤维化的关键因素,研究表明肝细胞生长因子能促进星状细胞凋亡,其具体机制可能与增强肿瘤坏死因子相关凋亡诱导配体(TRAIL)诱导星状细胞凋亡有关.目的:观察肿瘤坏死因子相关凋亡诱导配体作用下,肝细胞生长因子对原代肝星状细胞增殖、凋亡的影响并初步探讨其可能机制.方法:将SD 大鼠原代肝星状细胞复苏、传代,细胞增殖明显时用于实验.实验分为4 组:空白对照组为单纯肝星状细胞培养;肝细胞生长因子组:将100 μg/L 肝细胞生长因子作用于肝星状细胞;TRAIL 组:将2 mg/L 的TRAIL 作用于肝星状细胞;肝细胞生长因子+TRAIL 组:将肝细胞生长因子预先刺激肝星状细胞24 h,再加入2 mg/L TRAIL.结果与结论:MTT 检测显示肝细胞生长因子及TRAIL 分别在50~200 μg/L、0.5~1.5 mg/L 各浓度下对肝星状细胞增殖抑制率无影响,TRAIL 在2 mg/L 作用下对肝星状细胞有抑制作用.流式细胞仪检测肝细胞生长因子+TRAIL 组的中晚期凋亡率明显高于空白对照组及肝细胞生长因子组(P < 0.05);肝细胞生长因子+TRAIL组DR5荧光强度明显高于其他3组(P < 0.01).提示在TRAIL 作用下,肝细胞生长因子能促进肝星状细胞的凋亡、抑制其增殖.可能与肝细胞生长因子上调活化肝星状细胞表面DR5 表达有关.%BACKGROUND: Activated hepatic stellate cells play a key role in liver fibrosis. Research shows that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) can promote the apoptosis of activated hepatic stellate cells and the specific mechanisms may have relationship with the apoptosis of enhanced-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced stellate cells. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of HGF under the action of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in primary hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) proliferation, apoptosis and to explore the possible mechanisms involved. METHODS

  17. Berberine potentizes apoptosis induced by X-rays irradiation probably through modulation of gap junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bing; WANG Qin; YUAN Dong-dong; HONG Xiao-ting; TAO Liang

    2011-01-01

    Background Clinical combination of some traditional Chinese medical herbs, including berberine, with irradiation is demonstrated to improve efficacy of tumor radiotherapy, yet the mechanisms for such effect remain largely unknown. The present study investigated the effect of berberine on apoptosis induced by X-rays irradiation and the relation between this effect and gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC).Methods The role of gap junctions in the modulation of X-rays irradiation-induced apoptosis was explored by manipulation of connexin (Cx) expression, and gap junction function, using oleamide, a GJIC inhibitor, and berberine.Results In transfected HeLa cells, Cx32 expression increased apoptosis induced by X-rays irradiation, while inhibition of gap junction by oleamide reduced the irradiation responses, indicating the dependence of X-rays irradiation-induced apoptosis on GJIC. Berberine, at the concentrations without cytotoxicity, enhanced apoptosis induced by irradiation only in the presence of functional gap junctions.Conclusions These results suggest that berberine potentizes cell apoptosis induced by X-rays irradiation, probably through enhancement of gap junction activity.

  18. Solid-phase synthesis of an apoptosis-inducing tetrapeptide mimicking the Smac protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Quement, Sebastian Thordal; Ishøy, Mette; Petersen, Mette Terp;

    2011-01-01

    An approach for the solid-phase synthesis of apoptosis-inducing Smac peptidomimetics is presented. Using a Rink linker strategy, tetrapeptides mimicking the N-4-terminal residue of the Smac protein [(N-Me)AVPF sequence] were synthesized on PEGA resin in excellent purities and yields. Following tw...

  19. Plasma levels of oxidative stress-responsive apoptosis inducing protein (ORAIP) in rats subjected to physicochemical oxidative stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Takako; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Murayama, Kimie; Seko, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is known to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of various disorders including atherosclerosis, aging and especially ischaemia/reperfusion injury. It causes cell damage that leads to apoptosis. However, the precise mechanism has been uncertain. Recently, we identified an apoptosis-inducing humoral factor in a hypoxia/reoxygenated medium of cardiac myocytes. We named this novel post-translationally modified secreted form of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) as oxidative stress-responsive apoptosis inducing protein (ORAIP). We developed a sandwich ELISA and confirmed that myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion markedly increased plasma levels of ORAIP. To investigate whether the role of ORAIP is common to various types of oxidative stress, we measured plasma ORAIP levels in rats subjected to three physicochemical models of oxidative stress including N2/O2 inhalation, cold/warm-stress (heat shock) and blood acidification. In all three models, plasma ORAIP levels significantly increased and reached a peak level at 10-30 min after stimulation, then decreased within 60 min. The (mean±S.E.M.) plasma ORAIP levels before and after (peak) stimulation were (16.4±9.6) and (55.2±34.2) ng/ml in N2/O2 inhalation, (14.1±12.4) and (34.3±14.6) ng/ml in cold/warm-stress, and (18.9±14.3) and (134.0±67.2) ng/ml in blood acidification study. These data strongly suggest that secretion of ORAIP in response to oxidative stress is universal mechanism and plays an essential role. ORAIP will be an important novel biomarker as well as a specific therapeutic target of these oxidative stress-induced cell injuries. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. The Roles of C1q/TNF-related Protein-3 (CTRP3) and C1q/TNF-related Protein-9 (CTRP9) in Obesity Related Diseases%C1q/肿瘤坏死因子相关蛋白3和9在肥胖相关疾病中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王媛; 刘戈力

    2016-01-01

    As one of new anti-inflammatory adipokines factor with connection to inflammation and obesity related metabolic diseases, C1q/TNF-related protein-3 (CTRP3) and C1q/TNF-related protein-9 (CTRP9) have a variety of biological functions. Recently, studies of the roles in CTRP3 and CTRP9 targeted in obesity related diseases become hot, and found that they play an important role in obesity related cardiovascular disease and glucose-lipid metabolism. This article is objected to review organizational structure and function about CTRP3 and CTRP9,and its role in the development of obesity related diseases.%C1q/肿瘤坏死因子相关蛋白3(CTRP3)和C1q/肿瘤坏死因子相关蛋白9(CTRP9)作为新的连接炎症和肥胖相关代谢疾病的抗炎脂肪因子之一,具有多种生物学功能。近年来针对CTRP3和CTRP9在肥胖相关疾病中的作用的研究成为热点,并发现其在肥胖相关的心血管疾病及糖脂代谢中发挥重要作用。就CTRP3和CTRP9的组织结构和功能及它们在肥胖相关疾病的发生发展中的作用进行综述。

  1. A central role for C1q/TNF-related protein 13 (CTRP13 in modulating food intake and body weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardi S Byerly

    Full Text Available C1q/TNF-related protein 13 (CTRP13, a hormone secreted by adipose tissue (adipokines, helps regulate glucose metabolism in peripheral tissues. We previously reported that CTRP13 expression is increased in obese and hyperphagic leptin-deficient mice, suggesting that it may modulate food intake and body weight. CTRP13 is also expressed in the brain, although its role in modulating whole-body energy balance remains unknown. Here, we show that CTRP13 is a novel anorexigenic factor in the mouse brain. Quantitative PCR demonstrated that food restriction downregulates Ctrp13 expression in mouse hypothalamus, while high-fat feeding upregulates expression. Central administration of recombinant CTRP13 suppressed food intake and reduced body weight in mice. Further, CTRP13 and the orexigenic neuropeptide agouti-related protein (AgRP reciprocally regulate each other's expression in the hypothalamus: central delivery of CTRP13 suppressed Agrp expression, while delivery of AgRP increased Ctrp13 expression. Food restriction alone reduced Ctrp13 and increased orexigenic neuropeptide gene (Npy and Agrp expression in the hypothalamus; in contrast, when food restriction was coupled to enhanced physical activity in an activity-based anorexia (ABA mouse model, hypothalamic expression of both Ctrp13 and Agrp were upregulated. Taken together, these results suggest that CTRP13 and AgRP form a hypothalamic feedback loop to modulate food intake and that this neural circuit may be disrupted in an anorexic-like condition.

  2. Sensing lymphoma cells based on a cell-penetrating/apoptosis-inducing/electron-transfer peptide probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, Kazuharu, E-mail: kzsuga@maebashi-it.ac.jp [Maebashi Institute of Technology, Gunma 371-0816 (Japan); Shinohara, Hiroki; Kadoya, Toshihiko [Maebashi Institute of Technology, Gunma 371-0816 (Japan); Kuramitz, Hideki [Department of Environmental Biology and Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering for Research, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)

    2016-06-14

    To electrochemically sense lymphoma cells (U937), we fabricated a multifunctional peptide probe that consists of cell-penetrating/apoptosis-inducing/electron-transfer peptides. Electron-transfer peptides derive from cysteine residue combined with the C-terminals of four tyrosine residues (Y{sub 4}). A peptide whereby Y{sub 4}C is bound to the C-terminals of protegrin 1 (RGGRLCYCRRRFCVCVGR-NH{sub 2}) is known to be an apoptosis-inducing agent against U937 cells, and is referred to as a peptide-1 probe. An oxidation response of the peptide-1 probe has been observed due to a phenolic hydroxyl group, and this response is decreased by the uptake of the peptide probe into the cells. To improve the cell membrane permeability against U937 cells, the RGGR at the N-terminals of the peptide-1 probe was replaced by RRRR (peptide-2 probe). In contrast, RNRCKGTDVQAWY{sub 4}C (peptide-3 probe), which recognizes ovalbumin, was constructed as a control. Compared with the other probes, the change in the peak current of the peptide-2 probe was the greatest at low concentrations and occurred in a short amount of time. Therefore, the cell membrane permeability of the peptide-2 probe was increased based on the arginine residues and the apoptosis-inducing peptides. The peak current was linear and ranged from 100 to 1000 cells/ml. The relative standard deviation of 600 cells/ml was 5.0% (n = 5). Furthermore, the membrane permeability of the peptide probes was confirmed using fluorescent dye. - Highlights: • We constructed a multifunctional peptide probe for the electrochemical sensing of lymphoma cells. • The peptide probe consists of cell-penetrating/apoptosis-inducing/electron-transfer peptides. • The electrode response of the peptide probe changes due to selective uptake into the cells.

  3. A novel firefly luciferase biosensor enhances the detection of apoptosis induced by ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Junwei; Zhang, Huan; Fang, Liurong; Xi, Yongqiang; Zhou, Yanrong; Luo, Rui; Wang, Dang, E-mail: wangdang511@126.com; Xiao, Shaobo; Chen, Huanchun

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • We developed a novel firefly luciferase based biosensor to detect apoptosis. • The novel biosensor 233-DnaE-DEVDG was reliable, sensitive and convenient. • 233-DnaE-DEVDG faithfully indicated ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induced apoptosis. • EsxA, esxT and esxL in ESAT-6 family proteins induced apoptosis. • Activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) participated in esxT-induced apoptosis. - Abstract: The activation of caspase-3 is a key surrogate marker for detecting apoptosis. To quantitate caspase-3 activity, we constructed a biosensor comprising a recombinant firefly luciferase containing a caspase-3 cleavage site. When apoptosis was induced, caspase-3 cleavage of the biosensor activated firefly luciferase by a factor greater than 25. The assay conveniently detected apoptosis in real time, indicating that it will facilitate drug discovery. We screened ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and found that esxA, esxT and esxL induced apoptosis. Further, activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the NF-κB-regulated genes encoding tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) participated in esxT-induced apoptosis. We conclude that this assay is useful for high-throughput screening to identify and characterize proteins and drugs that regulate apoptosis.

  4. Cancer immunoediting by GITR (glucocorticoid-induced TNF-related protein) ligand in humans: NK cell/tumor cell interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltz, Katrin M; Krusch, Matthias; Bringmann, Anita; Brossart, Peter; Mayer, Frank; Kloss, Mercedes; Baessler, Tina; Kumbier, Ingrid; Peterfi, Andrea; Kupka, Susan; Kroeber, Stefan; Menzel, Dagmar; Radsak, Markus P; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Salih, Helmut R

    2007-08-01

    Glucocorticoid-induced TNF-related protein (GITR) has been shown to stimulate T cell-mediated antitumor immunity in mice. However, the functional relevance of GITR and its ligand (GITRL) for non-T cells has yet to be fully explored. In addition, recent evidence suggests that GITR plays different roles in mice and humans. We studied the role of GITR-GITRL interaction in human tumor immunology and report for the first time that primary gastrointestinal cancers and tumor cell lines of different histological origin express substantial levels of GITRL. Signaling through GITRL down-regulated the expression of the immunostimulatory molecules CD40 and CD54 and the adhesion molecule EpCAM, and induced production of the immunosuppressive cytokine TGF-beta by tumor cells. On NK cells, GITR is constitutively expressed and up-regulated following activation. Blocking GITR-GITRL interaction in cocultures of tumor cells and NK cells substantially increased cytotoxicity and IFN-gamma production of NK cells demonstrating that constitutive expression of GITRL by tumor cells diminishes NK cell antitumor immunity. GITRL-Ig fusion protein or cell surface-expressed GITRL did not induce apoptosis in NK cells, but diminished nuclear localized c-Rel and RelB, indicating that GITR might negatively modulate NK cell NF-kappaB activity. Taken together, our data indicate that tumor-expressed GITRL mediates immunosubversion in humans.

  5. C1q/TNF-related protein-9 inhibits cytokine-induced vascular inflammation and leukocyte adhesiveness via AMP-activated protein kinase activation in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chang Hee; Lee, Min Jung; Kang, Yu Mi; Lee, Yoo La; Seol, So Mi; Yoon, Hae Kyeong; Kang, Sang-Wook; Lee, Woo Je; Park, Joong-Yeol

    2016-01-05

    Although recent studies have reported cardioprotective effects of C1q/TNF-related protein 9 (CTRP9), the closet adiponectin paralog, its role on cytokine-induced endothelial inflammation is unknown. We investigated whether CTRP9 prevented inflammatory cytokine-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation and inhibited the expression of adhesion molecules and a chemokine in the vascular endothelial cell. We used human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) to examine the effects of CTRP9 on NF-κB activation and the expression of NF-κB-mediated genes, including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) was used as a representative proinflammatory cytokine. In an adhesion assay using THP-1 cells, CTRP9 reduced TNFα-induced adhesion of monocytes to HAECs. Treatment with CTRP9 significantly decreased TNFα-induced activation of NF-κB, as well as the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and MCP-1. In addition, treatment with CTRP9 significantly increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), the downstream target of AMPK. The inhibitory effect of CTRP9 on the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and MCP-1 and monocyte adhesion to HAECs was abolished after transfection with an AMPKα1-specific siRNA. Our study is the first to demonstrate that CTRP9 attenuates cytokine-induced vascular inflammation in endothelial cells mediated by AMPK activation.

  6. C1q/TNF-related protein 6 (CTRP6) links obesity to adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xia; Seldin, Marcus M; Little, Hannah C; Choy, Nicholas; Klonisch, Thomas; Wong, G William

    2017-09-08

    Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, and metabolic regulators linking obesity to inflammation have therefore received much attention. Secreted C1q/TNF-related proteins (CTRPs) are one such group of regulators that regulate glucose and fat metabolism in peripheral tissues and modulate inflammation in adipose tissue. We have previously shown that expression of CTRP6 is up-regulated in leptin-deficient mice and, conversely, down-regulated by the anti-diabetic drug rosiglitazone. Here, we provide evidence for a novel role of CTRP6 in modulating both inflammation and insulin sensitivity. We found that in obese and diabetic humans and mouse models, CTRP6 expression was markedly up-regulated in adipose tissue and that stromal vascular cells, such as macrophages, are a major CTRP6 source. Overexpressing mouse or human CTRP6 impaired glucose disposal in peripheral tissues in response to glucose and insulin challenge in wild-type mice. Conversely, Ctrp6 gene deletion improved insulin action and increased metabolic rate and energy expenditure in diet-induced obese mice. Mechanistically, CTRP6 regulates local inflammation and glucose metabolism by targeting macrophages and adipocytes, respectively. In cultured macrophages, recombinant CTRP6 dose-dependently up-regulated the expression and production of TNF-α. Conversely, CTRP6 deficiency reduced circulating inflammatory cytokines and pro-inflammatory macrophages in adipose tissue. CTRP6-overexpressing mice or CTRP6-treated adipocytes had reduced insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and glucose uptake. In contrast, loss of CTRP6 enhanced insulin-stimulated Akt activation in adipose tissue. Together, these results establish CTRP6 as a novel metabolic/immune regulator linking obesity to adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Gene expression in bone mesenchymal stem cells transfered by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and these cells' effects on C6 glioma cells in vitro%肿瘤坏死因子相关凋亡诱导配体基因转染骨髓间充质干细胞后基因表达情况及其对C6胶质瘤细胞作用的体外研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤祥军; 张力; 王晓勋; 黄宽明; 鲁军体; 曹刚; 张相华; 涂汉军

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨转染肿瘤坏死因子相关凋亡诱导配体(TRAIL)基因的骨髓间充质干细胞(BMSC)基因表达情况及其功能.方法 实验分三组,即转染TRAIL基因组、转染空载体组及空白对照组.用脂质体法将TRAIL转入绿色荧光蛋白(GFP)-BMSC中,反转录PCR法检测BMSC的TRAILmRNA水平,Western blot、免疫荧光法检测TRAIL蛋白的表达;将携带有TRAIL的GFP-BMSC同大鼠C6胶质瘤细胞共培养,通过四甲基偶氮唑蓝比色法检测其对肿瘤细胞的旁观者效应,Hochest-PI双染色法观察TRAIL转染的BMSC对C6细胞凋亡的影响.结果 免疫荧光检测显示,转染TRAIL 24、48 h的GFP-BMSC细胞质和细胞膜有TRAIL蛋白的表达,24h比48 h荧光强,空白对照组及空载体组细胞未见表达.反转录PCR、Western blot显示转染TRAIL基因组细胞TRAIL mRNA及蛋白高表达,空白对照组及空载体组未见表达.转染TRAIL的GFP-BMSC明显抑制C6细胞存活,抑制率为(62.7±0.1)%,高于空载体组的(16.7±0.1)%(P<0.05),同时转染TRAIL基因的BMSC可促进C6细胞的凋亡.结论 转染TRAIL的BMSC能够稳定表达目的基因,且能促进大鼠C6胶质瘤细胞凋亡,具有明显的旁观者效应.%Objective To investigate the gene expression in bone mesenchymal stem cells transferred by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its effect on C6 glioma cells in vitro.Methods The experiment was divided into three groups,the test group transfected with TRAIL gene to BMSC,control group of BMSC transfected with empty liposomal vector,and blank control of BMSC alone.After transfering the TRAIL into GFP-BMSC with Liposomes,the expression of TRAIL was detected by RTPCR,Western blot,and immunofluorescence.After co-culturing C6 glioma cells with GFP-BMSC-TRAIL,the bystander effect of TRAIL was detected by MTT assay,and C6 cells apoptosis was detected by immunohistochemical method.Results GFP-BMSC-TRAIL vector was successfully constructed

  8. Connexin43 siRNA promotes HUVEC proliferation and inhibits apoptosis induced by ox-LDL: an involvement of ERK signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guotian; Yang, Xiuli; Li, Bo; Yang, Meng; Ren, Mingfen

    2014-09-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), one of the most important risk factors of atherosclerosis, is a highly antigenic, potent chemoattractant that facilitates the development of atherosclerosis. Gap junctions also play an important in the development of atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of ox-LDL on connexin43 and the mechanisms of connexin43 siRNA-inhibited apoptosis induced by ox-LDL in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC), to clarify the role of connexin43 in atherosclerosis. Our results showed that ox-LDL significantly inhibited the growth and promoted apoptosis of HUVEC in a dose-dependent manner. Also, ox-LDL upregulated the expression of connexin43. Furthermore, knockdown connexin43 by siRNA promoted proliferation and inhibited apoptosis in ox-LDL-stimulated HUVEC. Moreover, the level of phosphor-ERK1/2 and connexin43 was remarkably attenuated by a ERK pathway inhibitor (PD98059). These results suggest that connexin43 siRNA promotes HUVEC proliferation and inhibits apoptosis induced by ox-LDL, and ERK signaling pathway appears to be involved in these processes.

  9. Apoptosis induced by Fas signaling does not alter hepatic hepcidin expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sizhao; Lu; Emily; Zmijewski; John; Gollan; Duygu; Dee; Harrison-Findik

    2014-01-01

    BL/6NCR mice, Jo2 treatment(0.2 μg/g b.w.) of C57BL/6J strain mice for 6 h induced a more prominent activation of apoptosis, liver injury and acute phase reaction. Similar to C57BL/6NCR mice, the level of liver hepcidin-1 mRNA expression in the livers of C57BL/6J mice injected with a sublethal dose of Jo2(0.2 μg/g b.w.) remained unchanged. The injection of C57BL/6J mice with a higher dose of Jo2(0.32 μg/g b.w.) did not also alter hepatic hepcidin expression.CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that human or mouse hepcidin gene expression is not regulated by apoptosis induced via Fas receptor activation in the liver.

  10. QSAR study of 4-aryl-4H-chromenes as a new series of apoptosis inducers using different chemometric tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshneviszadeh, Mehdi; Edraki, Najmeh; Miri, Ramin; Foroumadi, Alireza; Hemmateenejad, Bahram

    2012-04-01

    The apoptosis-inducing activity data of a series of 4-aryl-4H-chromenes based on three cell lines (human breast cancer cell line T47D, human non-smal cell lung cancer cell line H1299, and human colorectal cancer cell line DLD-1) have been subjected to quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis. A collection of chemometrics methods including multiple linear regression (MLR), factor analysis-based multiple linear regression (FA-MLR), principal component regression (PCR), and partial least squared combined with genetic algorithm for variable selection (GA-PLS) were employed to make connections between structural parameters and induction of apoptosis in three different cell lines. Models of high statistical qualities were obtained for each cell line using GA-PLS method. The results revealed that 2D autocorrelation descriptors and dipole moments as a quantum chemical parameter are important structural parameters that significantly influence the activity in all three types of cell lines. However, the determinant descriptors for activity of compounds in H1299 cell line were partly different from the two other cell lines, which might be deduce that the studied compounds induce apoptosis through a different mechanism of action.

  11. Role of Notch-1 signaling pathway in PC12 cell apoptosis induced by amyloid beta-peptide (25-35)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huimin Liang; Yaozhou Zhang; Xiaoyan Shi; Tianxiang Wei; Jiyu Lou

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that Notch-1 expression is increased in the hippocampus of Alzheimer’s disease patients. We speculate that Notch-1 signaling may be involved in PC12 cell apoptosis induced by amyloid beta-peptide (25-35) (Aβ25-35). In the present study, PC12 cells were cultured with different doses (0, 0.1, 1.0, 10 and 100 nmol/L) of N-[N-(3,5-Dilfuorophen-acetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester, a Notch-1 signaling pathway inhibitor, for 30 minutes. Then cultured cells were induced with Aβ25-35 for 48 hours. Pretreatment of PC12 cells with high doses of N-[N-(3,5-Dilfuorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (> 10 nmol/L) prolonged the survival of PC12 cells after Aβ25-35 induction, decreased the expression of apoptosis-related proteins caspase-3, -8, -9, increased the activity of oxidative stress-related su-peroxide dismutase and catalase, inhibited the production of active oxygen, and reduced nuclear factor kappa B expression. This study indicates that the Notch-1 signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in Aβ25-35-induced PC12 apoptosis.

  12. Utilization of Alternative Polyadenylation Signals in the Novel Human Apoptosis-Inducing Gene hap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    hap, a novel human apoptosis-inducing gene which can interact with another newly discovered apoptosis-inducing gene ASY, was identified by cloning its cDNAs from human lung cell line (WI-38) cDNA library. Two major mRNA species (1.8 and 2. 7 kb in length, respectively) were previously identified by Northern blot analysis of poly(A)+ RNA from human multiple tissues using partial hap cDNA as a probe. In the present work, the molecular mechanism accounting for the generation of the two hap transcripts were investigated. The rapid amplification of cDNA 3'-ends (3'-RACE) technique and the sequential Southern blot analysis, in conjunction with the sequencing analysis demonstrated that the two hap transcripts derive from the alternative polyadenylation site selection: a AATAAA signal at position 1 528 -1 533 nt for the 1.8 kb hap mRNA; and a AATAAA signal at position 2 375 -2 380 nt for the 2. 7 kb hap mRNA. Furthermore, a number of regulatory elements within hap 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) were also examined.

  13. l-Cystathionine Inhibits the Mitochondria-Mediated Macrophage Apoptosis Induced by Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingzhu; Du, Junbao; Chen, Siyao; Liu, Angie Dong; Holmberg, Lukas; Chen, Yonghong; Zhang, Chunyu; Tang, Chaoshu; Jin, Hongfang

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the regulatory role of l-cystathionine in human macrophage apoptosis induced by oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and its possible mechanisms. THP-1 cells were induced with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and differentiated into macrophages. Macrophages were incubated with ox-LDL after pretreatment with l-cystathionine. Superoxide anion, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening were examined. Caspase-9 activities and expression of cleaved caspase-3 were measured. The results showed that compared with control group, ox-LDL treatment significantly promoted superoxide anion generation, release of cytochrome c (cytc) from mitochondrion into cytoplasm, caspase-9 activities, cleavage of caspase-3, and cell apoptosis, in addition to reduced mitochondrial membrane potential as well as increased MPTP opening. However, 0.3 and 1.0 mmol/L l-cystathionine significantly reduced superoxide anion generation, increased mitochondrial membrane potential, and markedly decreased MPTP opening in ox-LDL + l-cystathionine macrophages. Moreover, compared to ox-LDL treated-cells, release of cytc from mitochondrion into cytoplasm, caspase-9 activities, cleavage of caspase-3, and apoptosis levels in l-cystathionine pretreated cells were profoundly attenuated. Taken together, our results suggested that l-cystathionine could antagonize mitochondria-mediated human macrophage apoptosis induced by ox-LDL via inhibition of cytc release and caspase activation. PMID:25514411

  14. Antioxidant, anticancer, and apoptosis-inducing effects of Piper extracts in HeLa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Widowati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer as well as one of leading cause of cancer-related death for women worldwide. In regards to that issue, focus of this paper will be on popularly used Piperaceae members including Piper betle L, Piper cf fragile Benth, Piper umbellatum L, Piper aduncum L, Piper pellucidum L. This research was conducted to elucidate the antioxidant, anticancer and apoptosis inducing activities of Piperaceae extracts on cervical cancer cells, namely HeLa cell line. Methods: The anticancer activity was determined by inhibiting the proliferation of cells. Apoptosis inducing was determined by inhibiting proliferation cells and by SubG1 flow cytometry. The antioxidant activity is determined by using superoxide dismutase value and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity. Results: The highest anticancer activity at 24 h incubation was found for P.pellucidum extract (IC50: 2.85 µg/ml; The anticancer activity at 48 h incubation was more than at 24 h for all extracts. The highest apoptotic activity was found for P.betle (12.5 µg/ml at both 24 and 48 h incubatio. The highest antioxidant activity was also represented by P.betle extract. Conclusions: All Piperaceae extracts have high anticancer activity; longer incubation increase anticancer activity. P.betle extract has the highest antioxidant property. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(3.000: 225-230

  15. Apoptosis Induced by High Concentrations of Nicotinamide in Tobacco Suspension Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵友; 朱瑞宇; 戴尧仁

    2004-01-01

    As an inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), nicotinamide has a restraining effect on apoptosis at certain low concentrations. In our present study, apoptosis induced by high concentrations of nicotinamide was observed in tobacco suspension cells. When cells were preincubated with 250 mmol/L nicotinamide for 24 h, the hallmarks of apoptosis were detected, including DNA fragments increasing in size by multiples of 180-200 bp, the condensation and peripheral distribution of nuclear chromatin, and a positive reaction to the TUNEL assay. At the same time, the degradation of PARP and the reduction in the potential of the inner membrane of mitochondria appeared in apoptotic cells induced by high concentrations of nicotinamide. This result indicates that apoptosis induced by high concentrations of nicotinamide is associated with caspase-3-like activity and with the opening of mitochondrial permeability pores. These results partially support the hypothesis that high concentrations of PARP inhibitor could force cells to enter an apoptotic pathway by delay of DNA repair in replicating cells.

  16. Dimerization of two novel apoptosis-inducing proteins and its function in regulating cell apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘青珍; 甘淼; 齐义鹏; 李凌云; 齐兵

    2003-01-01

    Asy (apoptosis/saibousi Yutsudo) is a novel apoptosis-inducing gene found in 1999 by Yutsudo group in Japan. In 2000, Qi Bing et al. cloned another novel gene, named hap (homologue of ASY protein), which encoded the ASY interact ing protein, from human lung cell line (WI-38) cDNA library by using yeast two-h ybrid system. It has been proved that ASY formed homodimer in yeast and human ce ll line, ASY and HAP formed heterodimer in yeast cells, and both induced cell ap optosis in human tumor cell lines Sao2 and CGL4. This paper showed that HAP coul d form homodimer in yeast cells by yeast two-hybrid system; HAP and ASY could pr oduce heterodimer in human cell line by cross-immunoprecipitation test; by using apoptosis-testing technologies such as AnnexinV, TUNEL, DNA ladder and Flow Cyt ometry, the cell apoptosis in human normal or tumor cell lines transfected with hap or asy individually or cotransfected by the both was qualified or quantified . It was firstly demonstrated that ASY or HAP induced cell apoptosis not only in human tumor cell lines, but also in human normal cell lines. Moreover, we prove d that the heterodimer between ASY and HAP decreased apoptosis-inducing activity from the homodimer of ASY or HAP. It revealed that by choosing to form heterodi mer or homodimer between ASY and / or HAP is an important mechanism of regulatin g apoptosis in human cell lines.

  17. Inhibitory effect of gemcitabine and oncolytic adenovirus carrying tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand on implanted human T24 bladder cancer T24 in nude mice%荷载肿瘤坏死因子相关诱导凋亡配体基因的溶瘤腺病毒联合吉西他滨对裸鼠人膀胱癌T24细胞移植瘤的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙方浩; 毛立军; 魏晋; 陈伟; 娄禄; 陈家存

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the inhibitory effect of oncolytic adenovirus carrying tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and gemcitabine on implanted human T24 cell bladder cancer in nude mice.Methods The bladder cancer xenograft model was established by subcutaneously injecting 2 × 106 T24 cells into the right flank of mice.Mice were divided randomly into four groups and treated by intratumoral injection of ZD55-TRAIL [multiple of infection (MOI) =10] plus gemcitabine (4.0 g/L),ZD55-TRAIL (MOI =10),gemcitabine (4.0 g/L) which was dissolved in 100 μl saline,or 100 μl phosphate buffer(PBS) as the control,respectively,once every for three consecutive days.The tumor volume was measured every week for 9 weeks.Seven days after the end of the treatment,some mice were sacrificed followed by the determination of TRAIL and early region 1A (E1A) protein levels in tumor tissue by immunohistochemical staining.The apoptosis of tumor xenografts was measured by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL).Results In the control group,tumors displayed rapid and continued outgrowth during the course of the experiment,with the mean tumor size of (2 501.0 ±221.8) mm3.In sharp contrast,the mean tumor size in the ZD55-TRAIL plus gemcitabine group was (129.0 ± 8.3) mm3,which was significantly smaller than that in the ZD55-TRAIL group [(1 760.6 ± 83.3) mm3,P < 0.05] and the gemcitabine group [(1 129.3 ± 73.2) mm3,P < 0.05].As compared with the gemcitabine-and PBS-treated groups,there was marked increase of TRAIL staining in the ZD55-TRAIL plus gemcitabine group and ZD55-TRAIL-treated group.Moreover,the E1A expression was detected only in ZD55-TRAIL plus gemcitabine group and ZD55-TRAIL-treated group but not in the gemcitabine group and PBS group.TUNEL staining showed there was significantly increased apoptosis in the ZD55-TRAIL plus gemcitabine group [(85.8 ± 5.6) %] in comparison to that in the PBS-treated group [(15.8 ± 3.2) %],ZD55-TRAIL group

  18. Knockdown of Akt Sensitizes Osteosarcoma Cells to Apoptosis Induced by Cisplatin Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changwei Yang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Akt plays an important role in the inhibition of apoptosis induced by chemotherapy and other stimuli. We therefore investigated if knockdown of Akt2 promoted drug-induced apoptosis in cultured osteosarcoma cells in vitro. SAOS-2 cells were transfected with Akt2 siRNA. The sensitivity of the transformed cell line to the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin was assessed. Reduced expression of Akt2 did not directly inhibit the growth rate of the transfected cells; however, it significantly increased their sensitivity to cisplatin. Knockdown of Akt2, together with cisplatin treatment, promoted the expression of p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA. It is possible that the augmentation of cisplatin cytotoxicity may be mediated by PUMA activation. The results of this study suggest that knockdown of Akt2 expression may have therapeutic applications in enhancing the efficacy of chemotherapy in patients with osteosarcoma.

  19. APOPTOSIS INDUCED BY HYPERTHERMIA IN HUMAN GLIOBLASTOMA CELL LINE AND MURINE GLIOBLASTOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the role of apoptosis in tumor cell of malignant glioma death following treatment with hyperthermia and calcium ionophore. Methods: The apoptosis induced by hyperthermia and calcium ionophore, A23187, in human glioblastoma cell line TJ905 and murine glioblastoma G422 was evaluated by characteristic findings in DNA agarose gel electrophresis, ultrastructural examination and flow cytometric analysis. Results: Apoptosis could be induced by moderate hyperthermia, but not by mild hyperthermia, calcium ionophore enhanced significantly the effect of mild hyperthermia on the induction of apoptosis. Conclusion: This result indicates that apoptotic cell death is one of the mechanisms of hyperthermic therapy for malignant glioma and taking measures to increase the cytolic calcium may enhance the effect of hyperthermia.

  20. Targeting elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF-2K) induces apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Ahmed A; Abdel-Aziz, Abdel-Aziz H; Mansour, Ahmed M; Alpay, S Neslihan; Huo, Longfei; Ozpolat, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PaCa) is one of the most aggressive, apoptosis-resistant and currently incurable cancers with a poor survival rate. Eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF-2K) is an atypical kinase, whose role in PaCa survival is not yet known. Here, we show that eEF-2K is overexpressed in PaCa cells and its down-regulation induces apoptotic cell death. Rottlerin (ROT), a polyphenolic compound initially identified as a PKC-δ inhibitor, induces apoptosis and autophagy in a variety of cancer cells including PaCa cells. We demonstrated that ROT induces intrinsic apoptosis, with dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and stimulates extrinsic apoptosis with concomitant induction of TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors, DR4 and DR5, with caspase-8 activation, in PANC-1 and MIAPaCa-2 cells. Notably, while none of these effects were dependent on PKC-δ inhibition, ROT down-regulates eEF-2K at mRNA level, and induce eEF-2K protein degradation through ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Down-regulation of eEF-2K recapitulates the events observed after ROT treatment, while its over-expression suppressed the ROT-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, eEF-2K regulates the expression of tissue transglutaminase (TG2), an enzyme previously implicated in proliferation, drug resistance and survival of cancer cells. Inhibition of eEF-2K/TG2 axis leads to caspase-independent apoptosis which is associated with induction of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Collectively, these results indicate, for the first time, that the down-regulation of eEF-2K leads to induction of intrinsic, extrinsic as well as AIF-dependent apoptosis in PaCa cells, suggesting that eEF-2K may represent an attractive therapeutic target for the future anticancer agents in PaCa.

  1. Apoptosis induced by nucleosides in the human hepatoma HepG2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suh-Ching Yang; Che-Lin Chiu; Chi-Chang Huang; Jiun-Rong Chen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the apoptotic effects of nucleosides on the human hepatoma HepG2.METHODS: The nucleosides included inosine (I), cytidine(C), uridine (U), thymidine (T), adenosine (A), and guanosine (G). Cells were incubated by the mediums with or without nucleosides at 37 ℃ in a 50 mL/L CO2 humidified atmosphere.RESULTS: It was found that the cell viabilities were significantly decreased, when cells were treated with 30 mmol/L I, 30 mmol/L C, 30 mmol/L U, 30 mmol/L T,0.5 mmol/L A, and 0.5 mmol/L G after 12 h incubation (P<0.05). About the apoptotic phenomenon, the cell percentages of sub-G1 cells were significantly increased in the mediums containing nucleosides such as C, U, T,A, and G (P<0.05). Furthermore, the caspase-3 activity was increased, when the cells were incubated with T(P<0.05). The protein expressions of p53 and p21 showed no difference in each group. To investigate the mechanism of apoptosis induced by nucleosides, it was found that the contents of soluble Fas ligand contents were increased in HepG2 cells following I, U, T, and A treatment (P<0.05).But, TNF-α and cytochrome c were undetectable.CONCLUSION: Thymidine may induce the apoptosis in HepG2, but the effective dosages and reactive time must be investigated in the future study. However, the apoptosis-inducing abilities of other nucleosides were still unclear in this study.

  2. Role of alpha-synuclein in neuronal apoptosis induced by rotenone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanying Liu; Hui Yang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aggregation of α-synuclein is the major component of Lewy bodies, which are the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson disease (PD). Although the mechanism of this protein aggregates is unclear,previous study showed that environmental toxins such as rotenone could induce the expression and aggregation of α-synuclein.OBJECTIVE: To observe the role of α-synuclein in PD.DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial.SETTING: Beijing Institute for Neuroscience, Capital University of Medical Sciences.MATERIALS: This study was performed from July 2005 to January 2006 at the Beijing Institute for Neuroscience, Capital University of Medical Sciences. Human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were provided by Beijing Institute for Neuroscience, Capital University of Medical Sciences.METHODS: Human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were treated to make α-synuclein over express. Rotenone was added into the medium of cultured both native SH-SY5Y cells and α-synuclein-overexpression SH-SY5Y cells. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay was used to detect with the cell viability. Flow cytometry and electrophoresis were adopted to measure the cell apoptosis.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cell viability, DNA fragmentation, and the number of cell apoptosis.RESULTS: After being treated with rotenone, LDH activity of α-synuclein overexpressed SH-SY5Y cells was (76.625±6.34) μ kat/L, which was significantly lower than that of control group (P < 0.05). As compared with normal SH-SY5Y cell, α-synuclein over-expressed SH-SY5Y cells had less DNA fragments and apoptotic cells. Α-synuclein might play a role in cell apoptosis induced by rotenone, which was also confirmed by using of antioxidant reagent.CONCLUSION: α-synuclein may partially protect against cell apoptosis induced by rotenone in SH-SY5Y cells.

  3. Tyrosine kinase Etk/BMX protects nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells from apoptosis induced by radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Zhu, Weiliang; Zhang, Jian; Guo, Linlang

    2011-04-01

    Etk (Epithelial and endothelial tyrosine kinase), also known as Bmx (bone marrow X kinase) plays an important role in apoptosis of cancer cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Etk/Bmx is involved in the apoptosis induced by irradiation in NPC cells and correlated with the apoptosis associated proteins such as p53, Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L) and Bak. To this end, we first developed a NPC subline (SUNE1-Etk) by transfection. The SUNE1-Etk that over-expresses Etk/BMX and its parental SUNE1 cell line were used to confirm whether Etk/BMX can protect NPC cells from apoptosis induced by radiation. The proliferation rates or the level of cell survival following irradiation were assessed by MTT and flow cytometry. Tumorigenecity study was done to substantiate the results in vitro. The results showed that the cell viability was significantly higher in SUNE1-Etk cells than that in parental SUNE1 cells in vitro, and tumors inoculated with SUNE1-Etk cells grew rapidly than those with SUNE1 after irradiation treatment. Our data also demonstrated that the up-expression of Etk/BMX increased G(2)/M arrest in response to irradiation. The protein level of p53 was greatly down-regulated whereas Bcl-2 was up-regulated, after irradiation treatment of SUNE1-Etk cells. Our results suggested that Etk/BMX may play a role in protection of NPC cells from apoptosis, and both p53 and Bcl-2 may be involved in radiation-induced apoptosis through Etk/Bmx pathway in NPC cells.

  4. L-Ascorbic Acid Protected Against Extrinsic and Intrinsic Apoptosis Induced by Cobalt Nanoparticles Through ROS Attenuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yake; Hong, Hongxiang; Lu, Xu; Wang, Wei; Liu, Fan; Yang, Huilin

    2017-02-01

    Currently, tissue damage induced by cobalt nanoparticles (CoNPs) and cobalt ions (Co(2+)) are the most serious syndrome in the patients with metal-on-metal hip prostheses. Therefore, an urgent need exists for the identification of the mechanisms and the development of therapeutic strategies to limit it. The purpose of this study was to explore the mechanism of this damage and to demonstrate if L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) could protect against the cell toxicities induced by CoNPs and Co(2+) in vitro. With CoNPs and Co(2+) treatment, cell viability was significantly decreased; the ROS (reactive oxygen species) level in mitochondria was dramatically increased in CoNPs treated cells, but cobalt ions could barely induce the ROS. Consistently, the level of cell apoptosis was increased with the upregulation of pro-apoptotic factors (caspases 8, 9, and 3, and Bax) and the downregulation of anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2. Besides that, the levels of cytochrome c and AIF were increased and released from mitochondria into the cytoplasm. After the cells were pretreated with L-AA, the cell viability decreased by CoNPs was reversed and the ROS induced by CoNPs was suppressed. The level of cell apoptosis induced by CoNPs was decreased as well. But it could not reverse the effects induced by Co(2+). These studies demonstrated that CoNPs induce extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways via generation of ROS, and L-AA could prevent the cytotoxicity by reducing the level of ROS. While Co(2+) may induce cytotoxicity through other signals, it could not be protected by L-AA treatment.

  5. Beta1 integrin inhibits apoptosis induced by cyclic stretch in annulus fibrosus cells via ERK1/2 MAPK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Ding, Wei; Sun, Wei; Sun, Xiao-jiang; Xie, You-zhuan; Zhao, Chang-qing; Zhao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain is associated with intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) due to cellular loss through apoptosis. Mechanical factors play an important role in maintaining the survival of the annulus fibrosus (AF) cells and the deposition of extracellular matrix. However, the mechanisms that excessive mechanical forces lead to AF cell apoptosis are not clear. The present study was to look for how AF cells sense mechanical changes. In vivo experiments, the involvement of mechanoreceptors in apoptosis was examined by RT-PCR and/or immunoblotting in the lumbar spine of rats subjected to unbalanced dynamic and static forces. In vitro experiments, we investigated apoptotic signaling pathways in untransfected and transfected AF cells with the lentivirus vector for rat β1 integrin overexpression after cyclic stretch. Apoptosis in AF cells was assessed using flow cytometry, Hoechst 33258 nuclear staining. Western blotting was used to analyze expression of β1 integrin and caspase-3 and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling molecules. In the rat IVDD model, unbalanced dynamic and static forces induced apoptosis of disc cells, which corresponded to decreased expression of β1 integrin. Cyclic stretch-induced apoptosis in rat AF cells correlated with the activation of caspase-3 and with decreased levels of β1 integrin and the phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 activation level. However, the overexpression of β1 integrin in AF cells ameliorated cyclic stretch-induced apoptosis and decreased caspase-3 activation. Furthermore, ERK1/2-specific inhibitor promotes apoptosis in vector β1-infected AF cells. These results suggest that the disruption of β1 integrin signaling may underlie disc cell apoptosis induced by mechanical stress. Further work is necessary to fully elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie IVDD caused by unbalanced dynamic and static forces.

  6. RhoA and p38 MAPK mediate apoptosis induced by cellular cholesterol depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleros, Laura; Lasa, Marina; Rodríguez-Alvarez, Francisco J; Toro, María J; Chiloeches, Antonio

    2006-07-01

    Cholesterol is essential for cell viability, and homeostasis of cellular cholesterol is crucial to various cell functions. Here we examined the effect of cholesterol depletion on apoptosis and the mechanisms underlying this effect in NIH3T3 cells. We show that chronic cholesterol depletion achieved with lipoprotein-deficient serum (LPDS) and 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) treatment resulted in a significant increase in cellular apoptosis and caspase-3 activation. This effect is not due to a deficiency of nonsterol isoprenoids, intermediate metabolites of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway, but rather to low cholesterol levels, since addition of cholesterol together with LPDS and 25-HC nearly abolished apoptosis, whereas addition of farnesyl pyrophosphate or geranylgeranyl-pyrophosphate did not reverse the cell viability loss induced by LPDS plus 25-HC treatment. These effects were accompanied by an increase in ERK, JNK and p38 MAPK activity. However, only the inhibition of p38 MAPK with the specific inhibitor SB203580 or the overexpression of a kinase defective MKK6 resulted in a significant decrease in apoptosis and caspase-3 cleavage induced by cholesterol depletion. Furthermore, LPDS plus 25-HC increased RhoA activity, and this effect was reversed by addition of exogenous cholesterol. Finally, overexpression of the dominant negative N19RhoA inhibited p38 MAPK phosphorylation and apoptosis induced by low cholesterol levels. Together, our results demonstrate that cholesterol depletion induces apoptosis through a RhoA- and p38 MAPK-dependent mechanism.

  7. Isolation and characterization of a human apoptosis-inducing gene with yeast two-hybrid system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐兵; 齐义鹏; Masuo; Yutsudo; 刘青珍

    2000-01-01

    asy gene is a novel apoptosis-inducing gene, but its mechanism is unclear. To investigate the mechanism of asy inducing apoptosis, a novel gene encoding ASY interacting protein (asyip) is isolated from human lung cell line (WI-38) cDNA library with yeast two-hybrid system. The asyip gene is constitutively expressed as two mRNA transcripts with the size of 1.8 and 2.7 kb in various human tissues at different levels. Sequence analysis of full-length cDNA reveals that the two alternative transcripts of asyip gene contain common 5’ end and different 3’ end, and share a common open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 236 amino acids. Two protein kinase C phosphorylation sites and two casein kinase II phosphorylation sites are found in ASYIP amino acid sequence. Two highly hydrophobic regions encoding potentially two transmembrane domains are present. The ASYIP protein contains a C-terminal endoplasmic reticulum retrieval signal (Lys-Lys-Lys-Ala-Glu). Immunoprecipitation assay confirmed the interaction of

  8. Isolation and characterization of a human apoptosis-inducing gene with yeast two-hybrid system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    asy gene is a novel apoptosis-inducing gene,but its mechanism is unclear.To investigate the mechanism of asy inducing apoptosis,a novel gene encoding ASY interacting protein (asyip) is isolated from human lung cell line (WI-38) cDNA library with yeast two-hybrid system.The asyip gene is constitutively expressed as two mRNA transcripts with the size of 1.8 and 2.7 kb in various human tissues at different levels.Sequence analysis of full-length cDNA reveals that the two alternative transcripts of asyip gene contain common 5' end and different 3' end,and share a common open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 236 amino acids.Two protein kinase C phosphorylation sites and two casein kinase II phosphorylation sites are found in ASYIP amino acid sequence.Two highly hydrophobic regions encoding potentially two transmembrane domains are present.The ASYIP protein contains a C-terminal endoplasmic reticulum retrieval signal (Lys-Lys-Lys-Ala-Glu).Immunoprecipitation assay confirmed the interaction of ASY and ASYIP in mammalian cells.Compared with asy gene,overexpression of asyip gene can inhibit growth of tumor cell Saos2 and induce cell apoptosis with a low efficiency.

  9. Parkin Sensitizes toward Apoptosis Induced by Mitochondrial Depolarization through Promoting Degradation of Mcl-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Carroll

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial depolarization promotes Parkin- and PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1-dependent polyubiquitination of multiple proteins on mitochondrial outer membranes, resulting in the removal of defective mitochondria via mitophagy. Because Parkin mutations occur in Parkinson’s disease, a condition associated with the death of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain, wild-type Parkin is thought to promote neuronal survival. However, here we show that wild-type Parkin greatly sensitized toward apoptosis induced by mitochondrial depolarization but not by proapoptotic stimuli that failed to activate Parkin. Parkin-dependent apoptosis required PINK1 and was efficiently blocked by prosurvival members of the Bcl-2 family or knockdown of Bax and Bak. Upon mitochondrial depolarization, the Bcl-2 family member Mcl-1 underwent rapid Parkin- and PINK1-dependent polyubiquitination and degradation, which sensitized toward apoptosis via opening of the Bax/Bak channel. These data suggest that similar to other sensors of cell stress, such as p53, Parkin has cytoprotective (mitophagy or cytotoxic modes (apoptosis, depending on the degree of mitochondrial damage.

  10. Vacuolization and apoptosis induced by nano-selenium in HeLa cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Selenium(Se),a potential drug candidate for cancer prevention,has a special property:Its nutritional dosage and tolerable upper intake level appear in a narrow range,while the therapeutic use of this mineral may depend on a higher body intake level.Nano-selenium(nano-Se) particles,however,preserve the selenium element’s low toxicity characteristic but give a high biochemical activity effect of selenium compounds.In the present study different morphologies of synthesized nano-Se were evaluated concerning its anti-proliferation and apoptosis-inducing effect.Then nano-Se(sphere) were picked out to investigate its influence on two significant events involved in apoptosis,cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial membrane potential disruption.Furthermore,massive vacuolization of HeLa cells treated by nano-Se(sphere) was observed and more methods were used to measure the level of vacuolization.Such vacuolization needs energy supply and has been demonstrated to be related to Se endocytosis.These results suggest a possible mechanism to trigger apoptosis initiation.

  11. Apoptosis induced by Ginkgo biloba (EGb761 in melanoma cells is Mcl-1-dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufang Wang

    Full Text Available Melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer. Unfortunately, there is currently no chemotherapeutic agent available to significantly prolong the survival of the most patients with metastatic melanomas. Here we report that the Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761, one of the most widely sold herbal supplements in the world, potently induces apoptosis in human melanoma cells by disturbing the balance between pro- and anti-apoptosis Bcl-2 family proteins. Treatment with EGb761 induced varying degrees of apoptosis in melanoma cell lines but not in melanocytes. Induction of apoptosis was caspase-dependent and appeared to be mediated by the mitochondrial pathway, in that it was associated with reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of Bax and Bak. Although EGb761 did not cause significant change in the expression levels of the BH3-only Bcl-2 family proteins Bim, Puma, Noxa, and Bad, it significantly downregulated Mcl-1 in sensitive but not resistant melanoma cells, suggesting a major role of Mcl-1 in regulating apoptosis of melanoma cells induced by EGb761. Indeed, siRNA knockdown of Mcl-1 enhanced EGb761-induced apoptosis, which was associated with increased activation of Bax and Bak. Taken together, these results demonstrate that EGb761 kills melanoma cells through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and that Mcl-1 is a major regulator of sensitivity of melanoma cells to apoptosis induced by EGb761. Therefore, EGb761 with or without in combination with targeting Mcl-1 may be a useful strategy in the treatment of melanoma.

  12. Mitochondria are involved in apoptosis induced by ultraviolet radiation in lepidopteran Spodoptera litura cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shigang Shan; Kaiyu Liu; Jianxin Peng; Hanchao Yao; Yi Li; Huazhu Hong

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondria are involved in apoptosis of mammalian cells and even single-cell organisms, but mitochondria are not required in apoptosis in cultured Drosophila cells such as S2 and BG2 cell lines. It is not very clear whether mitochondria are involved in apoptosis in other insect cells such as lepidopteran cell lines. Thus, we determined to elucidate the role of mitochondria in apoptosis induced by ultraviolet radiation in Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) cell line (SL-ZSU-1). The Western blot results suggested that cytochrome c in the ultraviolet-treated SL-1 cells was released from the mitochondria to cytosol as early as 4 h after the induction of ultraviolet radiation and increased in the cytosolic fractions in a time-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis of mitochondrial membrane potential (△Ψm) of SL-ZSU-1 cell treated with ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light indicated the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential was dependent on the times of ultraviolet treatment. Both of them are different from apoptosis in cultured Drosophila melanogaster cell lines (S2 and BG2) and it appears evident mitochondria are involved in apoptosis of the studied lepidopteran cells.

  13. Apoptosis Induced by Zinc Deficiency in Rat Osteoblast: Possible Involvement of Protein Kinase C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CEN XIAO-BO; WANG RUI-SHU; AND WANG HANG

    1999-01-01

    Rat osteoblasts were isolated from the 21-day fetal rat calvarias. The cells were grown in DMEM plus 10% FBS, and were treated for 24 h. With 10 μmol/L TPEN or 10 μmol/L TPEN supplemented with 10 μmol/L Zn2+ . Apoptosis of osteoblasts were measured by flow cytometry, electron microscopy and DNA fragmentation analyzed by gel electrophoresis. In addition, IP3 production and PKC activity were measured in order to show whether they are involved in apoptosis in osteoblast induced by zinc deficiency. The results showed that 10 μmol/L TPEN could induce apoptosis in osteoblast in 24 h. But cells treated with 10 μmol/L TPEN supplemented with 10 μmol/L Zn2+showed no apoptotic changes in 24 h. TPEN significantly reduced the formation of IP3 and PKC activity after 24 h incubation. No differences were observed between the cells treated with TPEN supplemented with Zn2 + simultaneously and the untreated cells. It can be inferred that apoptosis induced by zinc deficiency may be due to the decreased activity of PKC which is impaired by reduced formation of IP3.

  14. Mitochondrial Apoptosis Induced by Chamaemelum Nobile Extract in Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafapour Kandelous, Hirsa; Salimi, Misha; Khori, Vahid; Rastkari, Noushin; Amanzadeh, Amir; Salimi, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Chamaemelum nobile (Asteraceae) commonly known as 'Roman chamomile' is a medicinal plant used for numerous diseases in traditional medicine, although its anticancer activity is unknown. The present study was carried out to investigate the anticancer as well as apoptotic activity of ethyl acetate fraction of C. nobile on different cancerous cell lines. The cells were treated with varying concentrations (0.001- 0.25 mg/mL) of this fraction for 24, 48 and 72 h. Apoptosis induced in MCF-7 cells following treatment with ethyl acetate fraction was measured using Annexin V/PI, flowcytometry and western blotting analysis. The results showed that C. nobile ethyl acetate fraction revealed relatively high antiproliferative activity on MCF-7 cells; however, it caused minimal growth inhibitory response in normal cells. The involvement of apoptosis as a major cause of the fraction-induced cell death was confirmed by annexin-V/PI assay. In addition, ethyl acetate fraction triggered the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by decreasing the Bcl-2 as well as increasing of Bax protein expressions and subsequently increasing Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Furthermore, decreased proliferation of MCF-7 cells in the presence of the fraction was associated with G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. These findings confirm that ethyl acetate fraction of C.nobile may contain a diversity of phytochemicals which suppress the proliferation of MCF-7 cells by inducing apoptosis.

  15. Apoptosis induces Bcl-XS and cleaved Bcl-XL in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willimott, Shaun; Merriam, Thomas; Wagner, Simon D

    2011-02-18

    The Bcl-X gene has both pro-survival, Bcl-XL, and pro-apoptotic, Bcl-XS, gene products, which are produced by alternative splicing. The function of these proteins has previously been characterised in cell lines, often by transfecting expression constructs, and primary cell systems capable of dynamically regulating Bcl-XL and Bcl-XS have not been described. Such a system is potentially important to allow testing of agents that promote apoptosis by increasing the amount of Bcl-XS at the expense of Bcl-XL. In this report we characterise Bcl-X gene products in primary human leukaemic B-cells in culture conditions associated with survival and apoptosis. We found that Bcl-XS was induced in spontaneous and drug-induced apoptosis and that apoptosis induced in cells cultured on mouse fibroblasts expressing CD40 ligand with IL-4 (CD154/IL-4), a condition mimicking the tissue microenvironment, additionally produced expression of cleavage products of Bcl-XL. Both Bcl-XS and Bcl-XL were produced in a caspase dependent manner. We tested emetine, an agent previously reported to increase Bcl-XS but found that it did not have this effect in primary human B-cells. Therefore, there are two mechanisms-cleavage of Bcl-XL and production of Bcl-XS-by which Bcl-X gene products could enhance apoptosis in CLL but neither appeared to have a primary role in inducing leukaemic cell death.

  16. Characterization and cytotoxic activity of apoptosis-inducing pierisin-5 protein from white cabbage butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarayan, Sarathbabu; Marimuthu, Satheesh Kumar; Nachimuthu, Senthil Kumar; Zhang, Wenqing; Subramanian, Selvi

    2016-06-01

    In this study, caspase-dependent apoptosis-inducing pierisin-5 gene was identified and characterized from cabbage white butterfly, Pieris canidia. A thousand-fold increase in expression of pierisin-5 gene was observed from second to third instar larvae, gradually decreasing before pupation. Pierisin-5 was purified from the fifth-instar larvae and was found to exhibit cytotoxicity against HeLa and HepG2 human cancer cell lines. Pierisin-5 showed growth inhibition and several morphological changes such as cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and apoptotic body formation with programmed cell death in HeLa and HepG2 cells. Moreover, DNA fragmentation was observed after gel electrophoresis analysis. Caspase substrate assay showed further cleavage of Ac-DEVD-pNA, suggesting the activation of Caspase-3. Flow cytometry analysis revealed the cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and increased the percentage of apoptotic cells in cancer cell lines treated with pierisin-5. These findings suggest that pierisin-5 could significantly induce apoptosis in cancer cell lines and is mediated by activation of caspase-3 in the mitochondrial pathway. Phylogenetic analysis using pierisin proteins from Pierid butterflies, ADP-ribosylating toxins from bacteria, human, rat, and mouse indicated the possibility of horizontal transfer of pierisin genes from bacteria to butterflies. The single copy of pierisin gene unlike other insect toxin genes also supports lateral transfer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by a plumbagin derivative in estrogen positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Sunil; Esau, Luke; Moosa, Basem; Khashab, Niveen M; Bajic, Vladimir B; Kaur, Mandeep

    2014-01-01

    Plumbagin [5-hydroxy- 2-methyl-1, 4-naphthaquinone] is a well-known plant derived anticancer lead compound. Several efforts have been made to synthesize its analogs and derivatives in order to increase its anticancer potential. In the present study, plumbagin and its five derivatives have been evaluated for their antiproliferative potential in one normal and four human cancer cell lines. Treatment with derivatives resulted in dose- and time-dependent inhibition of growth of various cancer cell lines. Prescreening of compounds led us to focus our further investigations on acetyl plumbagin, which showed remarkably low toxicity towards normal BJ cells and HepG2 cells. The mechanisms of apoptosis induction were determined by APOPercentage staining, caspase-3/7 activation, reactive oxygen species production and cell cycle analysis. The modulation of apoptotic genes (p53, Mdm2, NF-kB, Bad, Bax, Bcl-2 and Casp-7) was also measured using real time PCR. The positive staining using APOPercentage dye, increased caspase-3/7 activity, increased ROS production and enhanced mRNA expression of proapoptotic genes suggested that acetyl plumbagin exhibits anticancer effects on MCF-7 cells through its apoptosis-inducing property. A key highlighting point of the study is low toxicity of acetyl plumbagin towards normal BJ cells and negligible hepatotoxicity (data based on HepG2 cell line). Overall results showed that acetyl plumbagin with reduced toxicity might have the potential to be a new lead molecule for testing against estrogen positive breast cancer.

  18. Apoptosis inducing ability of silver decorated highly reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites in A549 lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Merajuddin; Khan, Mujeeb; Al-Marri, Abdulhadi H; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H; Nayak, Vadithe Lakshma; Kamal, Ahmed; Adil, Syed F

    2016-01-01

    Recently, graphene and graphene-based materials have been increasingly used for various biological applications due to their extraordinary physicochemical properties. Here, we demonstrate the anticancer properties and apoptosis-inducing ability of silver doped highly reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites synthesized by employing green approach. These nano composites (PGE-HRG-Ag) were synthesized by using Pulicaria glutinosa extract (PGE) as a reducing agent and were evaluated for their anticancer properties against various human cancer cell lines with tamoxifen as the reference drug. A correlation between the amount of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of highly reduced graphene oxide (HRG) and the anticancer activity of nanocomposite was observed, wherein an increase in the concentration of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of HRG led to the enhanced anticancer activity of the nanocomposite. The nanocomposite PGE-HRG-Ag-2 exhibited more potent cytotoxicity than standard drug in A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line. A detailed investigation was undertaken and Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis demonstrated that the nanocomposite PGE-HRG-Ag-2 showed G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Studies such as, measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Annexin V-FITC staining assay suggested that this compound induced apoptosis in human lung cancer cells.

  19. Ruthenium(II) complexes as apoptosis inducers by stabilizing c-myc G-quadruplex DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao; Wu, Qiong; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Sun, Fen-Yong; Chen, Lan-Mei; Chen, Jin-Chan; Yang, Shu-Ling; Mei, Wen-Jie

    2014-06-10

    Two ruthenium(II) complexes, [Ru(L)2(p-tFMPIP)](ClO4)2 (L = bpy, 1; phen, 2; p-tFMPIP = 2-(4-(trifluoromethyphenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5f][1,10] phenanthroline)), were prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis technology. The inhibitory activity evaluated by MTT assay shown that 2 can inhibit the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells with inhibitory activity (IC50) of 16.3 μM, which was related to the induction of apoptosis. Besides, 2 exhibit low toxicity against normal HAcat cells. The inhibitory growth activity of both complexes related to the induction of apoptosis was also confirmed. Furthermore, the studies on the interaction of both complexes with c-myc G4 DNA shown that 1 and 2 can stabilize the conformation of c-myc G4 DNA in groove binding mode, which has been rational explained by using DFT theoretical calculation methods. In a word, this type of ruthenium(II) complexes can act as potential apoptosis inducers with low toxicity in clinic by stabilizing c-myc G4 DNA.

  20. Recently confirmed apoptosis-inducing lead compounds isolated from marine sponge of potential relevance in cancer treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah

    2011-09-20

    Despite intense efforts to develop non-cytotoxic anticancer treatments, effective agents are still not available. Therefore, novel apoptosis-inducing drug leads that may be developed into effective targeted cancer therapies are of interest to the cancer research community. Targeted cancer therapies affect specific aberrant apoptotic pathways that characterize different cancer types and, for this reason, it is a more desirable type of therapy than chemotherapy or radiotherapy, as it is less harmful to normal cells. In this regard, marine sponge derived metabolites that induce apoptosis continue to be a promising source of new drug leads for cancer treatments. A PubMed query from 01/01/2005 to 31/01/2011 combined with hand-curation of the retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 39 recently confirmed apoptosis-inducing anticancer lead compounds isolated from the marine sponge that are selectively discussed in this review. 2011 by the authors.

  1. Azadirachtin interacts with the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) binding domain of its receptors and inhibits TNF-induced biological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoh, Maikho; Kumar, Pankaj; Nagarajaram, Hampathalu A; Manna, Sunil K

    2010-02-19

    The role of azadirachtin, an active component of a medicinal plant Neem (Azadirachta indica), on TNF-induced cell signaling in human cell lines was investigated. Azadirachtin blocks TNF-induced activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and also expression of NF-kappaB-dependent genes such as adhesion molecules and cyclooxygenase 2. Azadirachtin inhibits the inhibitory subunit of NF-kappaB (IkappaB alpha) phosphorylation and thereby its degradation and RelA (p65) nuclear translocation. It blocks IkappaB alpha kinase (IKK) activity ex vivo, but not in vitro. Surprisingly, azadirachtin blocks NF-kappaB DNA binding activity in transfected cells with TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF)2, TNF receptor-associated death domain (TRADD), IKK, or p65, but not with TNFR, suggesting its effect is at the TNFR level. Azadirachtin blocks binding of TNF, but not IL-1, IL-4, IL-8, or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) with its respective receptors. Anti-TNFR antibody or TNF protects azadirachtin-mediated down-regulation of TNFRs. Further, in silico data suggest that azadirachtin strongly binds in the TNF binding site of TNFR. Overall, our data suggest that azadirachtin modulates cell surface TNFRs thereby decreasing TNF-induced biological responses. Thus, azadirachtin exerts an anti-inflammatory response by a novel pathway, which may be beneficial for anti-inflammatory therapy.

  2. Analysis of macrophage apoptosis induced by Brucella melitensis and the effects of caspases 3,8 and 9

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任晓莉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the difference of macrophage RAW264.7 apoptosis induced by Brucella melitensis virulent strain 16M and attenuated strain M5-90 and elucidate the regulatory role of caspases 3,8 and 9.Methods The best multiplicity of infection (MOI) was determined through kinetic analysis of Brucella melitensis strain 16M and M5-90 induced mouse macrophages apop-

  3. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by a plumbagin derivative in estrogen positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    KAUST Repository

    Sagar, Sunil

    2014-01-31

    Plumbagin [5-hydroxy- 2-methyl-1, 4-naphthaquinone] is a well-known plant derived anticancer lead compound. Several efforts have been made to synthesize its analogs and derivatives in order to increase its anticancer potential. In the present study, plumbagin and its five derivatives have been evaluated for their antiproliferative potential in one normal and four human cancer cell lines. Treatment with derivatives resulted in dose- and time-dependent inhibition of growth of various cancer cell lines. Prescreening of compounds led us to focus our further investigations on acetyl plumbagin, which showed remarkably low toxicity towards normal BJ cells and HepG2 cells. The mechanisms of apoptosis induction were determined by APOPercentage staining, caspase-3/7 activation, reactive oxygen species production and cell cycle analysis. The modulation of apoptotic genes (p53, Mdm2, NF-kB, Bad, Bax, Bcl-2 and Casp-7) was also measured using real time PCR. The positive staining using APOPercentage dye, increased caspase-3/7 activity, increased ROS production and enhanced mRNA expression of proapoptotic genes suggested that acetyl plumbagin exhibits anticancer effects on MCF-7 cells through its apoptosis-inducing property. A key highlighting point of the study is low toxicity of acetyl plumbagin towards normal BJ cells and negligible hepatotoxicity (data based on HepG2 cell line). Overall results showed that acetyl plumbagin with reduced toxicity might have the potential to be a new lead molecule for testing against estrogen positive breast cancer. 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.

  4. MAPK signaling pathways regulate mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis induced by isoorientin in human hepatoblastoma cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Li; Wang, Jing; Xiao, Haifang; Wu, Wanqiang; Wang, Yutang; Liu, Xuebo

    2013-03-01

    Isoorientin (ISO) (CAS RN: 4261-42-1) is a flavonoid compound that can be extracted from several plant species, such as Phyllostachys pubescens, Patrinia, and Drosophyllum lusitanicum. ISO is able to induce apoptosis through mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in HepG2 cells, however, the effects of ISO on MAPK signaling pathways remain unknown. The present study investigated the effects of ISO on this pathway, and the roles of MAPK kinases on mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The results showed that ISO induced cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and induction apoptosis is main cause for ISO-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. ISO significantly inhibited the levels of ERK1/2 kinase and increased the expression of JNK and p38 kinases. Furthermore, U0126 (an ERK1/2 inhibitor) significantly enhanced the ISO-induced the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, the release of cytochrome c to the cytosol fraction, and the levels of cleaved caspase-3. While SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) and SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor) markedly prevented the expression of these proteins induced by ISO. Furthermore, the ROS inhibitor (NAC) notably promoted the inhibited effect of ISO on the ERK1/2 kinase. NAC also suppressed the p-JNK and p-p38, but failed to reverse the effects of ISO. These results demonstrated for the first time that ISO induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells through inactivating ERK1/2 kinase and activating JNK and p38 kinases, and ROS stimulated by ISO is able to activate the MAPK singaling pathway as the upstream signaling molecules. Initiating event of the mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis induced by ISO is MAPK signals.

  5. Puerarin protects human bronchial epithelial cells from apoptosis induced by gunpowder smog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-xia CHEN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate protective effects of puerarin on the human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B cell line against apoptosis caused by gunpowder smog and its mechanisms. Methods  BEAS-2B cells cultured in vitro were randomly divided into control group, smog group (the group treated with 4g gunpowder smog for 10min, and smog + puerarin group [puerarin group, the cells were pre-incubated with various concentrations of puerarin (12.5, 25.0, 50.0, 100.0µg/ml and then exposed to smoke]. Puerarin was added into the cells after innoculation for 12h and then the cells were sequentially cultured for 24h and followed by exposure to smoke for 10min. After being cultured again for 2h, the smoked cells were examined for cell viability using Cell Counting Kit-8(CCK-8, cell apoptosis was observed using Hoechst33258 nucleus staining, and positive rates of Annexin V-PI staining cells and caspase-3 were determined with flow cytometer. Resu lts  Compared with control, treatment of BEAS-2B cells with 4g gunpowder smog induced a characteristic apoptotic cell death (P<0.01. Pretreatment with various concentrations of puerarin antagonized the action of gunpowder smog in different degrees. The 25µg/ml was determined as the optimal effective concentration of puerarin. Compared with smog group, the apoptosis rate of BEAS-2B cells and positive rates of Annexin V-PI staining cells and caspase-3 were decreased significantly in smog + puerarin group (P<0.05, P<0.01. Conclusion  Gunpowder smog can induce apoptosis of BEAS-2B cells in vitro, while pretreatment with puerarin could protect BEAS-2B cells against apoptosis induced by gunpowder smog. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.01.16

  6. Study on Apoptosis-Inducing Effect of XIAP Antisense Oligonucleotides on Glioblastoma Cells in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongwei Zhao; Zhengchun Sun; Yunhan Zhang; Ming Zhang; Xudong Ma

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the apoptosis-inducing effect of XIAP antisense oligonucleotides on glioblastoma cells in vitro.METHODS There were 4 groups in our experiment. Group A,as a cell control group, had normal cell culture and no treatment applied. Group B, as a blank control group, had normal cell culture and no liposome control of ASODN. Group C was N-ODN.Group D was the ASODN group. RT-PCR and Western blot assay were conducted to detect the expression of XIAP in all A-172cell groups after treatment with XIAP antisense oligonucleotides (ASODN). MTT assay and flow-cytometry (FCM) detection were used to detect the ability of cell anchoring growth and apoptotic rates of all groups. The processing time was 72 h.RESULTS The expression of XIAP in the A-172 cells was greatly down-regulated, after treated with XIAP-ASODN. Among different concentrations of ASODN, the 300nM was the most optimal one. The down-regulation of XIAP obviously inhibited the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity of the A-172 cells and the increased apoptotic rate of A-172 cells (87.45%) was significantly higher than that of the A-172 in the control groups. There was a statistically significant difference between the treatment and control groups (P < 0.01).CONCLUSION The XIAP-ASODN can effectively regulate the expression of the XIAP down, as a result, inhibit the growth of the glioblastoma cells (A-172) and obviously increase the apoptotic rate of the A-172 cells. The results of the study manifest an overt killing role of XIAP-ASODN to the glioblastoma cells.

  7. Loss of Drosophila pseudouridine synthase triggers apoptosis-induced proliferation and promotes cell-nonautonomous EMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicidomini, R; Di Giovanni, A; Petrizzo, A; Iannucci, L F; Benvenuto, G; Nagel, A C; Preiss, A; Furia, M

    2015-01-01

    Many developing tissues display regenerative capability that allows them to compensate cell loss and preserve tissue homeostasis. Because of their remarkable regenerative capability, Drosophila wing discs are extensively used for the study of regenerative phenomena. We thus used the developing wing to investigate the role played in tissue homeostasis by the evolutionarily conserved eukaryotic H/ACA small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein pseudouridine synthase. Here we show that localized depletion of this enzyme can act as an endogenous stimulus capable of triggering apoptosis-induced proliferation, and that context-dependent effects are elicited in different sub-populations of the silenced cells. In fact, some cells undergo apoptosis, whereas those surrounding the apoptotic foci, although identically depleted, overproliferate. This overproliferation correlates with ectopic induction of the Wg and JAK-STAT (Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription) mitogenic pathways. Expression of a p35 transgene, which blocks the complete execution of the death program and generates the so-called ‘undead cells', amplifies the proliferative response. Pseudouridine synthase depletion also causes loss of apicobasal polarity, disruption of adherens cell junctions and ectopic induction of JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) and Mmp1 (matrix metalloproteinase-1) activity, leading to a significant epithelial reorganization. Unexpectedly, cell-nonautonomous effects, such as epithelial mesenchymal transition in the contiguous unsilenced squamous epithelium, are also promoted. Collectively, these data point out that cell–cell communication and long-range signaling can take a relevant role in the response to pseudouridine synthase decline. Considering that all the affected pathways are highly conserved throughout evolution, it is plausible that the response to pseudouridine synthase depletion has been widely preserved. On this account, our results can add new light on the

  8. Ghrelin ameliorates the human alveolar epithelial A549 cell apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chunrong; Zheng, Haichong; He, Wanmei; Lu, Guifang; Li, Xia [Department of Medical Intensive Care Unit, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Deng, Yubin, E-mail: dengyub@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Research Center of Translational Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Zeng, Mian, E-mail: zengmian2004@163.com [Department of Medical Intensive Care Unit, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2016-05-20

    Ghrelin is a gastric acyl-peptide that plays an inhibitory role in cell apoptosis. Herein we investigate the protective effects of ghrelin in LPS-induced apoptosis of human alveolar epithelial A549 cells, along with the possible molecular mechanisms. LPS exposure impaired cell viability and increased apoptosis of A549 cells significantly in concentration- and time-dependent manners embodied in increased Bax and cleaved caspase-3 production, coupled with decreased Bcl-2 levels. Simultaneously, LPS remarkably decreased the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinas (ERK) in A549 cells. However, ghrelin'pretreatment ameliorated LPS-caused alterations in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 expression, whereas activated the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling. These results demonstrate that ghrelin lightens LPS-induced apoptosis of human alveolar epithelial cells partly through activating the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathway and thereby might benefit alleviating septic ALI. -- Graphical abstract: Ghrelin ameliorates the human alveolar epithelial A549 cells apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide partly through activating the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathway. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •It has been observed that LPS insult significantly increased apoptosis in A549 cells. •Both Akt and ERK signaling are critical adapter molecules to mediate the ghrelin-mediated proliferative effect. •Ghrelin may have a therapeutic effect in the prevention of LPS-induced apoptosis.

  9. Apoptosis inducing ability of silver decorated highly reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites in A549 lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Merajuddin Khan,1 Mujeeb Khan,1 Abdulhadi H Al-Marri,1 Abdulrahman Al-Warthan,1 Hamad Z Alkhathlan,1 Mohammed Rafiq H Siddiqui,1 Vadithe Lakshma Nayak,2 Ahmed Kamal,2 Syed F Adil1 1Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology, CSIR – Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad, India Abstract: Recently, graphene and graphene-based materials have been increasingly used for various biological applications due to their extraordinary physicochemical properties. Here, we demonstrate the anticancer properties and apoptosis-inducing ability of silver doped highly reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites synthesized by employing green approach. These nano­composites (PGE-HRG-Ag were synthesized by using Pulicaria glutinosa extract (PGE as a reducing agent and were evaluated for their anticancer properties against various human cancer cell lines with tamoxifen as the reference drug. A correlation between the amount of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of highly reduced graphene oxide (HRG and the anticancer activity of nanocomposite was observed, wherein an increase in the concentration of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of HRG led to the enhanced anticancer activity of the nanocomposite. The nanocomposite PGE-HRG-Ag-2 exhibited more potent cytotoxicity than standard drug in A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line. A detailed investigation was undertaken and Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS analysis demonstrated that the nanocomposite PGE-HRG-Ag-2 showed G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Studies such as, measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and Annexin V-FITC staining assay suggested that this compound induced apoptosis in human lung cancer cells. Keywords: plant extract, graphene/silver nanocomposites, anticancer, apoptosis

  10. MicroRNA-135a Regulates Apoptosis Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide in Rat Cardiomyoblast Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Shi, Yong-Feng; Diao, Hong-Ying; Li, Yang-Xue; Cui, Yan; Song, Xian-Jing; Tian, Xin; Li, Tian-Yi; Liu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress and apoptosis are the most important pathologic features of ischemic heart disease. Recent research has indicated that microRNAs (miRs) play an essential role in apoptosis. However, whether miRs might regulate B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) protein in apoptosis during ischemic heart disease is still unclear. The aim of this study, therefore, was to confirm the regulation of microRNA-135a (miR-135a) in oxidative stress injuries induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in rat cardiomyoblast cells H9c2. To this end, we analyzed the effects of H2O2 treatment on miR-135a expression in rat cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, we upregulated and inhibited miR-135a using mimics and inhibitors, respectively, and examined the effects on cell viability and apoptosis-related proteins. We observed that miR-135a was markedly up-regulated under H2O2 treatment in rat cardiomyoblast cells. Overexpression of miR-135a blocked the Bcl-2 protein and enhanced the apoptosis induced by H2O2, and miR-135a inhibition restored Bcl-2 protein expression. Interestingly, miR-135a inhibition did not attenuate H2O2-induced apoptosis with Bcl-2 knockdown. The results of the present study indicate that miR-135a regulates H2O2-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells via targeting Bcl-2, and that miR-135a may be a novel therapeutic target for ischemic heart disease. PMID:28123342

  11. PRMT5, a novel TRAIL receptor-binding protein, inhibits TRAIL-induced apoptosis via nuclear factor-kappaB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Hoshikawa, Yutaka; Oh-hara, Tomoko; Koike, Sumie; Naito, Mikihiko; Noda, Tetsuo; Arai, Hiroyuki; Tsuruo, Takashi; Fujita, Naoya

    2009-04-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the TNF superfamily and has selective antitumor activity. Although TNF-alpha-induced intracellular signaling pathways have been well studied, TRAIL signaling is not fully understood. Here, we identified a novel TRAIL receptor-binding protein, protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), as a result of proteomic screening. PRMT5 selectively interacted with death receptor 4 and death receptor 5 but not with TNF receptor 1 or Fas. PRMT5 gene silencing sensitized various cancer cells to TRAIL without affecting TRAIL resistance in nontransformed cells. PRMT5 contributed to TRAIL-induced activation of inhibitor of kappaB kinase (IKK) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), leading to induction of several NF-kappaB target genes. Although IKK inhibition increased sensitivity to both TRAIL and TNF-alpha, PRMT5 knockdown potentiated TRAIL-mediated cytotoxicity alone. PRMT5 had no effect on TNF-alpha-mediated NF-kappaB signaling. These results show the selectivity of PRMT5 for TRAIL signaling. The PRMT5 small interfering RNA-mediated susceptibility to TRAIL was rescued by ectopic expression of active IKKbeta, confirming the involvement of PRMT5 in TRAIL resistance by activating the NF-kappaB pathway. Collectively, our findings suggest the therapeutic potential of PRMT5 in TRAIL-based cancer treatments

  12. Organic cadmium complexes as proteasome inhibitors and apoptosis inducers in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Bi, Caifeng; Buac, Daniela; Fan, Yuhua; Zhang, Xia; Zuo, Jian; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Nan; Dong, Lili; Dou, Q Ping

    2013-06-01

    Although cadmium (Cd) is a widespread environmental contaminant and human carcinogen, our studies indicate an organic Cd complex to be a potent inhibitor of proteasomal chymotrypsin-like (CT-like) activity, further capable of inducing apoptosis in a cancer cell-specific manner. It has been reported that the ligands indole-3-butyric acid (L1) and indole-3-propionic acid (L2) have cancer-fighting effects when tested in a rat carcinoma model. In addition, 3, 5-diaminobenzoic acid o-vanillin Schiff bases (L3) have high antimicrobial activity and a large number of Schiff base complexes have been reported to have proteasome-inhibitory activity. We therefore hypothesized that synthetic forms of Cd in combination with L1, L2 and L3 may have proteasome-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing activities, which would be cancer cell-specific. To test this hypothesis, we have synthesized three novel Cd-containing complexes: [Cd2(C12H12O2N)4(H2O)2]·2H2O (Cd1), [Cd2(C11H10O2N)4(H2O)2]·2H2O (Cd2) and [Cd(C7H4N2O2)(C8H6O2)2]·2H2O (Cd3), by using these three ligands. We sought out to characterize and assess the proteasome-inhibitory and anti-proliferative properties of these three Cd complexes in human breast cancer cells. Cd1, Cd2 and Cd3 were found to effectively inhibit the chymotrypsin-like activity of purified 20S proteasome with IC50 values of 2.6, 3.0 and 3.3 μΜ, respectively. Moreover, inhibition of cancer cell proliferation also correlated with this effect. As a result of proteasomal shutdown, the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and the proteasome target IκB-α protein as well as induction of apoptosis were observed. To account for the cancer specificity of this effect, immortalized, non-tumorigenic breast MCF10A cells were used under the same experimental conditions. Our results indicate that MCF10A cells are much less sensitive to the Cd1, Cd2 and Cd3 complexes when compared to MDA MB 231 breast cancer cells. Therefore, our study suggests that these Cd organic

  13. C1q/TNF-Related Protein 9 Protects Diabetic Rat Heart against Ischemia Reperfusion Injury: Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Sanxing; Cheng, Liang; Yang, Yang; Fan, Chongxi; Zhao, Dajun; Qin, Zhigang; Feng, Xiao; Zhao, Lin; Ma, Jipeng; Wang, Xiaowu; Yang, Jian; Xu, Xuezeng

    2016-01-01

    As a newly identified adiponectin paralog, C1q/TNF-related protein 9 (CTRP9) reduces myocardial ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury through partially understood mechanisms. In the present study, we sought to identify the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in CTRP9 induced cardioprotection in diabetic heart. Isolated hearts from high-fat-diet (HFD) induced type 2 diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to ex vivo IR protocol via a Langendorff apparatus at the presence of globular CTRP9. CTRP9 significantly improved post-IR heart function and reduced cardiac infarction, cardiomyocytes apoptosis, Caspase-3, Caspase-9, Caspase-12, TNF-α expression, and lactate dehydrogenase activity. The cardioprotective effect of CTRP9 was associated with reduced ERS and increased expression of disulfide-bond A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L) in diabetic heart. CTRP9 reduced ERS in thapsigargin (TG) treated cardiomyocytes and protected endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stressed H9c2 cells against simulated ischemia reperfusion (SIR) injury, concurrent with increased expression of DsbA-L. Knockdown of DsbA-L increased ERS and attenuated CTRP9 induced protection against SIR injury in H9c2 cells. Our findings demonstrated for the first time that CTRP9 exerts cardioprotection by reducing ERS in diabetic heart through increasing DsbA-L.

  14. Metabolomics profiles delineate uridine deficiency contributes to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis induced by celastrol in human acute promyelocytic leukemia cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Huan, Fei; Li, Aiping; Liu, Yanqing; Xia, Yankai; Duan, Jin-ao; Ma, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    Celastrol, extracted from “Thunder of God Vine”, is a promising anti-cancer natural product. However, its effect on acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and underlying molecular mechanism are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore its effect on APL and underlying mechanism based on metabolomics. Firstly, multiple assays indicated that celastrol could induce apoptosis of APL cells via p53-activated mitochondrial pathway. Secondly, unbiased metabolomics revealed that uridine was the most notable changed metabolite. Further study verified that uridine could reverse the apoptosis induced by celastrol. The decreased uridine was caused by suppressing the expression of gene encoding Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, whose inhibitor could also induce apoptosis of APL cells. At last, mouse model confirmed that celastrol inhibited tumor growth through enhanced apoptosis. Celastrol could also decrease uridine and DHODH protein level in tumor tissues. Our in vivo study also indicated that celastrol had no systemic toxicity at pharmacological dose (2 mg/kg, i.p., 21 days). Altogether, our metabolomics study firstly reveals that uridine deficiency contributes to mitochondrial apoptosis induced by celastrol in APL cells. Celastrol shows great potential for the treatment of APL. PMID:27374097

  15. Apoptosis-inducing effects of extracts from desert plants in HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deepak; Bhatia; Animesh; Mandal; Eviatar; Nevo; Anupam; Bishayee

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigat the mechanism of antitumor efficacy of Origanum clayi(O.clayi) and Ochradenus baccatus(O.baccatus) extracts by exploring apoptosis-inducing potential.Methods:The aqueous extracts of aerial parts of aforementioned plants were prepared and used for this study.HepG2 cells were treated with varying concentrations(0,2 and 5 mg/mL)of each plant extract for 24 or 48 h.Cell apoptosis was measured by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate binding assay and flow cytometry.The expression levels of various apoptosisrelated genes were determined by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.Results:O.clayi and O.baccatus extracts exerted apoptotic effects on HepG2 cells for 48 h following treatment.O.clayi extract was found to be a better apoptosis-inducing agent than O.baccatus extract as the former delivered greater efficacy at a lower concentration.Both extracts manifested upregulation of Bax,Bad.cytochrome c.caspase-3,caspase-7.caspase-9 and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase.Conclusions:The aqueous extracts of O.clayi and O.baccatus are capable of inducing apoptosis in HepG2 cells through modulation of mitochondrial pathway which explains their antitumor activities.These desert plants may serve as useful resources to develop effective remedies for hepatocellular carcinoma and other human malignancies.

  16. Potential antioxidant activity, cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing effects of Chelidonium majus L. extract on leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadova, Slavomira; Miadokova, Eva; Alfoldiova, Lubica; Kopaskova, Marcela; Hasplova, Katarina; Hudecova, Alexandra; Vaculcikova, Dagmar; Gregan, Fridrich; Cipak, Lubos

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether a methanol extract isolated from the greater celandine Chelidonium majus L. (CME) had antioxidant effect and was able to inhibit proliferation and to induce apoptosis in leukemia cells in vitro. The potential antioxidant activity of CME was proved by the 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. The cytotoxicity of CME was measured by the cell growth inhibition assay using murine leukemia L1210 cell line and human promyelocytic HL-60 leukemia cells. Apoptosis-inducing effect was determined by fluorescence microscopy (chromatin condensation and nuclear DNA fragmentation). In the DPPH assay CME acted as a scavenger of DPPH free radical. The results on antiproliferative properties assessment clearly demonstrated that CME had a cytotoxic effect towards both leukemia cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the human promyelocytic HL-60 cells were more sensitive to CME treatment than the L1210 cells. We concluded that the extract of C. majus L. had a strong antioxidant potential and exerted the antiproliferative activity via apoptosis on leukemia cells. CME due to the presence of the isoquinoline alkaloids and the flavonoid components may play an important role in both cancer chemoprevention through its antioxidant activity and modern cancer chemotherapy as cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing agent.

  17. Prolactin Rescues Immature B-Cells from Apoptosis Induced by B-Cell Receptor Cross-Linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Fernández, Rocio; Blanco-Favela, Francisco; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M; Chávez-Sánchez, Luis; Gorocica-Rosete, Patricia; Pizaña-Venegas, Alberto; Chávez-Rueda, Adriana Karina

    2016-01-01

    Prolactin has an immunomodulatory effect and has been associated with B-cell-triggered autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In mice that develop SLE, the PRL receptor is expressed in early bone marrow B-cells, and increased levels of PRL hasten disease manifestations, which are correlated with a reduction in the absolute number of immature B-cells. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of PRL in an in vitro system of B-cell tolerance using WEHI-231 cells and immature B-cells from lupus prone MRL/lpr mice. WEHI-231 cells express the long isoform of the PRL receptor, and PRL rescued the cells from cell death by decreasing the apoptosis induced by the cross-linking of the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) as measured by Annexin V and active caspase-3. This decrease in apoptosis may have been due to the PRL and receptor interaction, which increased the relative expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-xL and decreased the relative expression of proapoptotic Bad. In immature B-cells from MRL/lpr mice, PRL increased the viability and decreased the apoptosis induced by the cross-linking of BCR, which may favor the maturation of self-reactive B-cells and contribute to the onset of disease.

  18. Prolactin Rescues Immature B-Cells from Apoptosis Induced by B-Cell Receptor Cross-Linking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Fernández, Rocio; Blanco-Favela, Francisco; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.; Chávez-Sánchez, Luis; Gorocica-Rosete, Patricia; Pizaña-Venegas, Alberto; Chávez-Rueda, Adriana Karina

    2016-01-01

    Prolactin has an immunomodulatory effect and has been associated with B-cell-triggered autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In mice that develop SLE, the PRL receptor is expressed in early bone marrow B-cells, and increased levels of PRL hasten disease manifestations, which are correlated with a reduction in the absolute number of immature B-cells. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of PRL in an in vitro system of B-cell tolerance using WEHI-231 cells and immature B-cells from lupus prone MRL/lpr mice. WEHI-231 cells express the long isoform of the PRL receptor, and PRL rescued the cells from cell death by decreasing the apoptosis induced by the cross-linking of the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) as measured by Annexin V and active caspase-3. This decrease in apoptosis may have been due to the PRL and receptor interaction, which increased the relative expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-xL and decreased the relative expression of proapoptotic Bad. In immature B-cells from MRL/lpr mice, PRL increased the viability and decreased the apoptosis induced by the cross-linking of BCR, which may favor the maturation of self-reactive B-cells and contribute to the onset of disease. PMID:27314053

  19. Prolactin Rescues Immature B-Cells from Apoptosis Induced by B-Cell Receptor Cross-Linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Flores-Fernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolactin has an immunomodulatory effect and has been associated with B-cell-triggered autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. In mice that develop SLE, the PRL receptor is expressed in early bone marrow B-cells, and increased levels of PRL hasten disease manifestations, which are correlated with a reduction in the absolute number of immature B-cells. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of PRL in an in vitro system of B-cell tolerance using WEHI-231 cells and immature B-cells from lupus prone MRL/lpr mice. WEHI-231 cells express the long isoform of the PRL receptor, and PRL rescued the cells from cell death by decreasing the apoptosis induced by the cross-linking of the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR as measured by Annexin V and active caspase-3. This decrease in apoptosis may have been due to the PRL and receptor interaction, which increased the relative expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-xL and decreased the relative expression of proapoptotic Bad. In immature B-cells from MRL/lpr mice, PRL increased the viability and decreased the apoptosis induced by the cross-linking of BCR, which may favor the maturation of self-reactive B-cells and contribute to the onset of disease.

  20. [Protective effect of serum containing n-butanol fraction from Gynostemma pentaphyllum on NG108-15 cell apoptosis induced by Aβ25.35 protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-chun; Zhong, Zhen-guo; Liu, Shu-ling; Wang, Chun-ling; Zhang, Wen-yan; Cui, Wen

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the inhibition effect of serum containing n-butanol fractions from Gynostemma pentaphyllum on NG108-15 cell apoptosis induced by Aβ25-35 protein in vitro. The apoptosis of NG108-15 cells induced by Aβ25-35 protein in vitro was evaluated by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry assay. The cellular Caspase-3 level during the apoptosis was determined by ELISA. The serum containing n-butanol fractions from Gynostemma pentaphyllum significantly inhibited the NG108-15 cells apoptosis induced by Aβ25-35 protein in vitro,and decreased the cellular Caspase-3 level. The inhibition effect of n-butanol fractions from Gynostemma pentaphyllum on NG108-15 cell apoptosis induced by Aβ25.35 protein is likely related to its potency on reducing of cellular Caspase-3 level.

  1. Lower Circulating C1q/TNF-Related Protein-3 (CTRP3 Levels Are Associated with Obesity: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Risa M Wolf

    Full Text Available C1q/TNF-related protein-3 (CTRP3 is a novel adipokine that lowers blood glucose levels, reduces liver triglyceride synthesis, and is protective against hepatic steatosis in diet-induced obese mouse models. We hypothesized that higher circulating serum levels of CTRP3 would be associated with a lean body mass index (BMI and a more favorable metabolic profile in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate CTRP3 levels in lean individuals compared to obese individuals.This was a cross-sectional study of obese (n=44 and lean control patients (n=60. Fasting metabolic parameters were measured in all patients and serum CTRP3 levels were measured by ELISA.BMI of the lean group was 21.9 ± 0.2 kg/m2 and obese group was 45.2 ± 1.1 kg/m2. We found significantly lower circulating levels of CTRP3 in obese individuals (405 ± 8.3 vs. 436 ± 6.7 ng/mL, p=0.004 compared to the lean group. Serum CTRP3 levels were inversely correlated with BMI (p=0.001, and triglycerides (p<0.001, and significantly associated with gender (p<0.01, ethnicity (p=0.05, HDL-cholesterol (p<0.01, and adiponectin (p<0.01. We found BMI (p<0.01, gender (p<0.01, and ethnicity (p<0.05 to be significant predictors of CTRP3 levels when controlling for age in multiple regression analysis.CTRP3 is a beneficial adipokine whose circulating levels are significantly lower in obese individuals. Obesity causes dysregulation in adipokine production, including the down-regulation of CTRP3. Lower CTRP3 levels may contribute to the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders associated with obesity. Optimizing CTRP3 levels through novel therapies may improve obesity and its comorbidities.

  2. C1q/TNF-Related Protein 9 (CTRP9) attenuates hepatic steatosis via the autophagy-mediated inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Tae Woo; Hong, Ho Cheol; Hwang, Hwan-Jin; Yoo, Hye Jin; Baik, Sei Hyun; Choi, Kyung Mook

    2015-12-05

    C1q/TNF-Related Protein (CTRP) 9, the closest paralog of adiponectin, has been reported to protect against diet-induced obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. We explored the protective effect of CTRP9 against hepatic steatosis and apoptosis, and identified the mechanisms through autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress using in vitro and in vivo experiments. Treating HepG2 cells with human recombinant CTRP9 significantly ameliorated palmitate- or tunicamycin-induced dysregulation of lipid metabolism, caspase 3 activity and chromatin condensation, which lead to reduction of hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation. CTRP9 treatment induced autophagy markers including LC3 conversion, P62 degradation, Beclin1 and ATG7 through AMPK phosphorylation in human primary hepatocytes. Furthermore, CTRP9 decreased palmitate- or tunicamycin-induced ER stress markers, such as eIF2α, CHOP and IRE-1, in HepG2 cells. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, and 3 methyladenine (3 MA), an autophagy inhibitor, canceled the effects of CTRP9 on ER stress, apoptosis and hepatic steatosis. In the livers of HFD-fed mice, adenovirus-mediated CTRP9 overexpression significantly induced AMPK phosphorylation and autophagy, whereas suppressed ER stress markers. In addition, both SREBP1-mediated lipogenic gene expression and apoptosis were significantly attenuated, which result in improvement in hepatic steatosis by overexpression of CTRP9. These results demonstrate that CTRP9 alleviates hepatic steatosis through relief of ER stress via the AMPK-mediated induction of autophagy.

  3. C1q/TNF-Related Protein-9 Ameliorates Ox-LDL-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction via PGC-1α/AMPK-Mediated Antioxidant Enzyme Induction

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    Haijian Sun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL accumulation is one of the critical determinants in endothelial dysfunction in many cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. C1q/TNF-related protein 9 (CTRP9 is identified to be an adipocytokine with cardioprotective properties. However, the potential roles of CTRP9 in endothelial function remain largely elusive. In the present study, the effects of CTRP9 on the proliferation, apoptosis, migration, angiogenesis, nitric oxide (NO production and oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs exposed to ox-LDL were investigated. We observed that treatment with ox-LDL inhibited the proliferation, migration, angiogenesis and the generation of NO, while stimulated the apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS production in HUVECs. Incubation of HUVECs with CTRP9 rescued ox-LDL-induced endothelial injury. CTRP9 treatment reversed ox-LDL-evoked decreases in antioxidant enzymes including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD(PH dehydrogenase quinone 1, and glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL, as well as endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS. Furthermore, CTRP9 induced activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC1-α and phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK. Of interest, AMPK inhibition or PGC1-α silencing abolished CTRP9-mediated antioxidant enzymes levels, eNOS expressions, and endothelial protective effects. Collectively, we provided the first evidence that CTRP9 attenuated ox-LDL-induced endothelial injury by antioxidant enzyme inductions dependent on PGC-1α/AMPK activation.

  4. Caspase-mediated cleavage of Beclin1 inhibits autophagy and promotes apoptosis induced by S1 in human ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoning; Su, Jing; Xia, Meihui; Li, Hongyan; Xu, Ye; Ma, Chunhui; Ma, Liwei; Kang, Jingsong; Yu, Huimei; Zhang, Zhichao; Sun, Liankun

    2016-02-01

    S1, a novel BH3 mimetic, can induce apoptosis dependent on Bax/Bak through inhibition of Bcl-2 in various tumors. S1 also induces autophagy through interrupting the interaction of Bcl-2 and Beclin1. Our results showed that S1 induces apoptosis in human ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Autophagy precedes apoptosis, in SKOV3 cells treated with S1 (6 μmol/L), autophagy reached the maximum peak at 12 h after treatment and decreased to 24 h. In SKOV3 cells treated with different concentrations of S1 for 24 h, the highest level of autophagy was observed with 5 μmol/L and decreased to 10 μmol/L. Autophagy inhibitors 3-MA and CQ enhanced apoptosis induced by S1 in SKOV3 cells. However, overactivation of caspases in apoptosis induced by S1 may inhibit the autophagy-inducing function of Beclin1. Because the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD recovered the autophagy-inducing function of Beclin1 through reduction of activated caspase-mediated cleavage of Beclin1. Furthermore, the Beclin1 cleavage products could further increase apoptosis induced by S1 in SKOV3 cells. This indicates that apoptosis induced by high doses and long exposure of S1 causes the overactivation of caspases and subsequent cleavage of Beclin1, and inhibits the protection of autophagy. Moreover, the cleaved product of Beclin1 further promotes apoptosis induced by S1 in SKOV3 cells. Our results suggest this may be a molecular mechanism for enhancing the sensitivity of cancer cells to apoptosis induced by small molecular compound targeting Bcl-2.

  5. Apoptosis induced by(DIPP-L-Leu)2-L-Lys-OCH3 in K562 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Apoptosis as a mechanism of deleting cells from tissues plays an important role in physiological and varieties of pathological situations, especially cancer conditions. In order to search for tumor cells apoptosis inducers, the inhibition effects on K562 cells of N-phosphoryl dipeptide methyl esters were studied by MTT assays, and (DIPP-L-Leu)2- L-Lys-OCH3 was the compound which had the best activity. From the studies of the typical apoptotic morphologic changes, DNA agarose gel electrophoresis, and flow cytometry analysis, it could be concluded that (DIPP-L-Leu)2- L-Lys-OCH3 could induce apoptosis of K562 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and the IC50 was 22.66 mol/L according to MTT assays.

  6. Human Melanoma Cells under Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Are More Susceptible to Apoptosis Induced by the BH3 Mimetic Obatoclax

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    Chen Chen Jiang

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Past studies have shown that melanoma cells have largely adapted to endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, and this is associated with up-regulation of the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. In this report, we show that the BH3 mimetic obatoclax potently overcomes resistance of melanoma cells to apoptosis induced by ER stress. Obatoclax, as a single agent at nanomolar concentrations, was relatively ineffective in the induction of apoptosis in melanoma cells, but treatment with obatoclax at these concentrations in combination with the ER stress inducer tunicamycin (TM or thapsigargin markedly enhanced apoptotic cell death. This was primarily because of the inhibition of Mcl-1 by obatoclax, in that cotreatment with TM and another BH3 mimetic ABT737, which does not antagonize Mcl-1, caused only minimal increases in apoptosis. Moreover, overexpression of Mcl-1 inhibited apoptosis to greater degrees than overexpression of Bcl-2. In addition to direct inhibition of Mcl-1 by obatoclax, the combination of obatoclax and TM caused strong up-regulation of the BH3-only protein Noxa. Small RNA interference knockdown of Noxa partially inhibited apoptosis induced by cotreatment with obatoclax and TM. Similarly, knockdown of Bak also blocked induction of apoptosis by the compounds. The Mcl-1/Bak interaction seemed to be disrupted more efficiently in melanoma cells cotreated with obatoclax and TM. Taken together, these results identify obatoclax as a potent agent that overcomes resistance of melanoma cells to ER stress-induced apoptosis and seem to have important implications in the use of BH3 mimetics in the treatment of melanoma.

  7. The role of cytochrome c on apoptosis induced by Anagrapha falcifera multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus in insect Spodoptera litura cells.

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    Kaiyu Liu

    Full Text Available There are conflicting reports on the role of cytochrome c during insect apoptosis. Our previous studies have showed that cytochrome c released from the mitochondria was an early event by western blot analysis and caspase-3 activation was closely related to cytochrome c release during apoptosis induced by baculovirus in Spodoptera litura cells (Sl-1 cell line. In the present study, alteration in mitochondrial morphology was observed by transmission electron microscopy, and cytochrome c release from mitochondria in apoptotic Sl-1 cells induced with Anagrapha falcifera multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AfMNPV has further been confirmed by immunofluoresence staining protocol, suggesting that structural disruption of mitochondria and the release of cytochrome c are important events during Lepidoptera insect cell apoptosis. We also used Sl-1 cell-free extract system and the technique of RNA interference to further investigate the role of cytochrome c in apoptotic Sl-1 cells induced by AfMNPV. Caspase-3 activity in cell-free extracts supplemented with exogenous cytochrome c was determined and showed an increase with the extension of incubation time. DsRNA-mediated silencing of cytochrome c resulted in the inhibition of apoptosis and protected the cells from AfMNPV-induced cell death. Silencing of expression of cytochrome c had a remarkable effect on pro-caspase-3 and pro-caspase-9 activation and resulted in the reduction of caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity in Sl-1 cells undergoing apoptosis. Caspase-9 inhibitor could inhibit activation of pro-caspase-3, and the inhibition of the function of Apaf-1 with FSBA blocked apoptosis, hinting that Apaf-1 could be involved in Sl-1 cell apoptosis induced by AfMNPV. Taken together, these results strongly demonstrate that cytochrome c plays an important role in apoptotic signaling pathways in Lepidopteran insect cells.

  8. Effects of Fas, NF-κB and caspases on rat microvascular endothelial cell apoptosis induced by TNFα

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To study the apoptotic effect of TNFα on rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVEC) and the influences of Fas, NF-κB in its mechanism. METHODS: Apoptosis of PMVEC was analyzed and quantitated with TUNEL, flow cytometer. The distribution of NF-κB was detected via histoimmunochemical staining in TNF-treated cells and the control. Northern blot was applied to assess the influence of TNF on PMVEC Fas expression. Fas antibody was used to investigate the apoptotic effect of Fas on PMVEC. Activation of caspase-8 was detected with Western blot. Expression of caspase-3 was analyzed with histoimmunochemical staining. RESULTS: After treatment with 5×108 U/L TNF for 24 hours, viable PMVEC significantly diminished. Apoptosis rate was 14.0%±3.1% detected with TUNEL, and 13.1% with flow cytometer. Histoimmunochemical staining showed that NF-κB relocated from cytoplasm to the nuclear. When the cells were co-cultured with TNF and APDC, an NF-κB inhibitor, less cells were viable and more cells were positively stained with TUNEL. Fas expression in PMVEC was elevated treated with TNF. Apoptosis in PMVEC was found aggravated, when the cells were co-cultured with TNF and anti-Fas antibody. The positive rate was 24.1%±1.5% with TUNEL. Increase of caspase-8 activation was manifested by Western blot following TNF stimulation. Caspase-3 expression was found elevated using histoimmunochemical staining. Cell permeable caspase-3 inhibitor significantly ameliorated PMVEC apoptosis induced by TNF. CONCLUSION: 1. Large dose of TNF(5×108 U/L) can induce apoptosis in rat PMVEC. 2. NF-κB has a protective effect on PMVEC apoptosis. 3. TNF up-regulates Fas expression in PMVEC. And the latter takes a part in apoptosis. 4. TNF induced caspase-8 activation in PMVEC, and more caspase-3 was expressed. These may be involved in PMVEC apoptosis induced by TNF.

  9. Scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid reduces neuronal apoptosis induced by amyloid beta-peptide (25-35)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruiting Wang; Xingbin Shen; Enhong Xing; Lihua Guan; Lisheng Xin

    2013-01-01

    Scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid might attenuate learning/memory impairment and neuronal loss in rats induced by amyloid beta-peptide. This study aimed to explore the effects of Scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid on amyloid beta-peptide-induced neuronal apoptosis and the expression of apoptosis-related proteins in the rat hippocampus. Male Wistar rats were given intragastric administration of Scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid, 50 or 100 mg/kg, once per day. On day 8 after administration, 10 μg amyloid beta-peptide (25–35) was injected into the bilateral hippocampus of rats to induce neuronal apoptosis. On day 20, hippocampal tissue was harvested and probed with the terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotin-16-dUTP nick-end labeling assay. Scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid at 50 and 100 mg/kg reduced neuronal apoptosis induced by amyloid beta-peptide (25–35) in the rat hippocampus. Immunohistochemistry and western blot assay revealed that expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, cytochrome c and caspase-3 was significantly diminished by 50 and 100 mg/kg Scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid, while expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was increased. Moreover, 100 mg/kg Scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid had a more dramatic effect than the lower dosage. These experimental findings indicate that Scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid dose-dependently attenuates neuronal apoptosis induced by amyloid beta-peptide in the hippocampus, and it might mediate this by regulating the expression of Bax, cytochrome c, caspase-3 and Bcl-2.

  10. Comprehensive Suppression of All Apoptosis-Induced Proliferation Pathways as a Proposed Approach to Colorectal Cancer Prevention and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordonaro, Michael; Drago, Eric; Atamna, Wafa; Lazarova, Darina L.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the WNT/beta-catenin pathway are present in the majority of all sporadic colorectal cancers (CRCs), and histone deacetylase inhibitors induce apoptosis in CRC cells with such mutations. This apoptosis is counteracted by (1) the signaling heterogeneity of CRC cell populations, and (2) the survival pathways induced by mitogens secreted from apoptotic cells. The phenomena of signaling heterogeneity and apoptosis-induced survival constitute the immediate mechanisms of resistance to histone deacetylase inhibitors, and probably other chemotherapeutic agents. We explored the strategy of augmenting CRC cell death by inhibiting all survival pathways induced by the pro-apoptotic agent LBH589, a histone deacetylase inhibitor: AKT, JAK/STAT, and ERK signaling. The apoptosis-enhancing ability of a cocktail of synthetic inhibitors of proliferation was compared to the effects of the natural product propolis. We utilized colorectal adenoma, drug-sensitive and drug-resistant colorectal carcinoma cells to evaluate the apoptotic potential of the combination treatments. The results suggest that an effective approach to CRC combination therapy is to combine apoptosis-inducing drugs (e.g., histone deacetylase inhibitors, such as LBH589) with agents that suppress all compensatory survival pathways induced during apoptosis (such as the cocktail of inhibitors of apoptosis-associated proliferation). The same paradigm can be applied to a CRC prevention approach, as the apoptotic effect of butyrate, a diet-derived histone deacetylase inhibitor, is augmented by other dietary agents that modulate survival pathways (e.g., propolis and coffee extract). Thus, dietary supplements composed by fermentable fiber, propolis, and coffee extract may effectively counteract neoplastic growth in the colon. PMID:25500581

  11. Epigenetic silencing of apoptosis-inducing gene expression can be efficiently overcome by combined SAHA and TRAIL treatment in uterine sarcoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopold F Fröhlich

    Full Text Available The lack of knowledge about molecular pathology of uterine sarcomas with a representation of 3-7% of all malignant uterine tumors prevents the establishment of effective therapy protocols. Here, we explored advanced therapeutic options to the previously discovered antitumorigenic effects of the histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA by combined treatment with the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL/Apo-2L. In addition, we investigated the uterine sarcoma cell lines, MES-SA and ESS-1, regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms of SAHA and TRAIL-induced apoptosis and their resistance towards TRAIL. Compared to single SAHA or TRAIL treatment, the combination of SAHA with TRAIL led to complete cell death of both tumor cell lines after 24 to 48 hours. In contrast to single SAHA treatment, apoptosis occured faster and was more pronounced in ESS-1 cells than in MES-SA cells. Induction of SAHA- and TRAIL-induced apoptosis was accompanied by upregulation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway via reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-3, -6, and -7 activation, and PARP cleavage, but was also found to be partially caspase-independent. Apoptosis resistance was caused by reduced expression of caspase-8 and DR 4/TRAIL-R1 in ESS-1 and MES-SA cells, respectively, due to epigenetic silencing by DNA hypermethylation of gene promoter sequences. Treatment with the demethylating agent 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine or gene transfer therefore restored gene expression and increased the sensitivity of both cell lines against TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Our data provide evidence that deregulation of epigenetic silencing by histone acetylation and DNA hypermethylation might play a fundamental role in the origin of uterine sarcomas. Therefore, tumor growth might be efficiently overcome by a cytotoxic combinatorial treatment of HDAC inhibitors with TRAIL.

  12. Mcl-1 Is a Novel Target of miR-26b That Is Associated with the Apoptosis Induced by TRAIL in HCC Cells

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    Chunlin Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the role of miR-26b and Mcl-1 in TRAIL-inducing cell death in hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods. The expression of miR-26b and Mcl-1 in HCC was detected by RT-qPCR and western blot. The regulation of Mcl-1 by miR-26b was determined by luciferase reporter assay. MTT and flow cytometry were employed to detect the cell viability and apoptosis. Results. miR-26b is commonly downregulated in HCC cell lines compared with the LO2 cell line. In contrast, the Mcl-1 expression is upregulated in HCC cell lines. Bioinformatic analysis identified a putative target site in the Mcl-1 mRNA for miR-26b and luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-26b directly targeted the 3′-UTR (3′-Untranslated Regions of Mcl-1 mRNA. Transfection of miR-26b mimics suppressed Mcl-1 expression in HCC cells and sensitized the cancer cells to TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand cytotoxicity. In addition, transfection of HCC cells with Mcl-1 expression plasmid abolished the sensitization effect of miR-26b to TRAIL-inducing apoptosis. Conclusions. Our study showed that miR-26b was a negative regulator of Mcl-1 gene and sensitized TRAIL-inducing apoptosis in HCC cells, suggesting that the miR-26b-Mcl-1 pathway might be a novel target for the treatment of HCC.

  13. Combined blockade of angiotensin II and prorenin receptors ameliorates podocytic apoptosis induced by IgA-activated mesangial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Joseph C K; Chan, Loretta Y Y; Saleem, M A; Mathieson, P W; Tang, Sydney C W; Lai, Kar Neng

    2015-07-01

    Glomerulo-podocytic communication plays an important role in the podocytic injury in IgA nephropathy (IgAN). In this study, we examine the role of podocytic angiotensin II receptor subtype 1 (AT1R) and prorenin receptor (PRR) in podocytic apoptosis in IgAN. Polymeric IgA (pIgA) was isolated from patients with IgAN and healthy controls. Conditioned media were prepared from growth arrested human mesangial cells (HMC) incubated with pIgA from patients with IgAN (IgA-HMC media) or healthy controls (Ctl-HMC media). A human podocyte cell line was used as a model to examine the regulation of the expression of AT1R, PRR, TNF-α and CTGF by IgA-HMC media. Podocytic nephrin expression, annexin V binding and caspase 3 activity were used as the functional readout of podocytic apoptosis. IgA-HMC media had no effect on AngII release by podocytes. IgA-HMC media significantly up-regulated the expression of AT1R and PRR, down-regulated nephrin expression and induced apoptosis in podocytes. Mono-blockade of AT1R, PRR, TNF-α or CTGF partially reduced podocytic apoptosis. IgA-HMC media activated NFκB, notch1 and HEY1 expression by podocytes and dual blockade of AT1R with PRR, or anti-TNF-α with anti-CTGF, effectively rescued the podocytic apoptosis induced by IgA-HMC media. Our data suggests that pIgA-activated HMC up-regulates the expression of AT1R and PRR expression by podocytes and the associated activation of NFκB and notch signalling pathways play an essential role in the podocytic apoptosis induced by glomerulo-podocytic communication in IgAN. Simultaneously targeting the AT1R and PRR could be a potential therapeutic option to reduce the podocytic injury in IgAN.

  14. Anti-Proliferative and Apoptosis-Inducing Effect of Theabrownin against Non-small Cell Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feifei; Zhou, Li; Jin, Wangdong; Yang, Weiji; Wang, Ying; Yan, Bo; Du, Wenlin; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Lei; Guo, Yonghua; Zhang, Jin; Shan, Letian; Efferth, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    With the highest cancer incidence rate, lung cancer, especially non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is the leading cause of cancer death in the world. Tea (leaves of Camellia sinensis) has been widely used as a traditional beverage beneficial to human health, including anti-NSCLC activity. Theabrownin (TB) is one major kind of tea pigment responsible for the beneficial effects of tea liquor. However, its effect on NSCLC is unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing effect of TB on NSCLC (A549) cells, using MTT assay, morphological observation (DAPI staining), in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and annexin-V/PI flow cytometry. Subsequently, the expression of several genes associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis were detected by real time PCR assay to explore its potential underlying mechanism. TB was revealed to inhibit cell proliferation of A549 cells in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner. Morphological observation, TUNEL assay and flow cytometric analysis evidenced an apoptosis-inducing effect of TB on A549 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The real time PCR assay demonstrated that TB down-regulated the expression of TOPO I, TOPO II, and BCL-2, and up-regulated the expression of E2F1, P53, GADD45, BAX, BIM, and CASP 3,7,8,9, which suggests an activation of P53-mediated apoptotic (caspase-dependent) pathway in response to TB treatment. The western blot analysis showed a similar trend for the corresponding protein expression (P53, Bax, Bcl-2, caspase 3,9, and PARP) and further revealed DNA damage as a trigger of the apoptosis (phosphorylation of histone H2A.X). Accordingly, TB can be speculated as a DNA damage inducer and topoisomerase (Topo I and Topo II) inhibitor that can up-regulate P53 expression and subsequently modulate the expression of the downstream genes to induce cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis of A549 cells

  15. Anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing effect of theabrownin against non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the highest cancer incidence rate, lung cancer, especially non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, is the leading cause of cancer death in the world. Tea (leaves of Camellia sinensis has been widely used as a traditional beverage beneficial to human health, including anti-NSCLC activity. Theabrownin (TB is one major kind of tea pigment responsible for the beneficial effects of tea liquor. However, its effect on NSCLC is unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing effect of TB on NSCLC (A549 cells, using MTT assay, morphological observation (DAPI staining, in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay, and annexin V/PI flow cytometry. Subsequently, the expression of several genes associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis were detected by real time PCR assay to explore its potential underlying mechanism. TB was revealed to inhibit cell proliferation of A549 cells in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner. Morphological observation, TUNEL assay and flow cytometric analysis evidenced an apoptosis-inducing effect of TB on A549 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The real time PCR assay demonstrated that TB down-regulated the expression of TOPO I, TOPO II, and BCL-2, and up-regulated the expression of E2F1, P53, GADD45, BAX, BIM, and CASP 3,7,8,9, which suggests an activation of P53-mediated apoptotic (caspase-dependent pathway in response to TB treatment. The western blot analysis showed a similar trend for the corresponding protein expression (P53, Bax, Bcl-2, caspase 3,9, and PARP and further revealed DNA damage as a trigger of the apoptosis (phosphorylation of histone H2A.X. Accordingly, TB can be speculated as a DNA damage inducer and topoisomerase (Topo I and Topo II inhibitor that can up-regulate P53 expression and subsequently modulate the expression of the downstream genes to induce cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis of

  16. 抗肿瘤坏死因子相关凋亡诱导配体受体2嵌合抗体表达载体的构建、表达及其抗肿瘤活性分析%Construction and stable expression of anti-human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 2 chimeric antibody in CHO cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕付佳; 史娟; 张亚玺; 刘士廉; 刘彦信; 郑德先

    2011-01-01

    目的:构建抗人肿瘤坏死因子相关凋亡诱导配体(TRAIL)受体2(死亡受体5,DR5)的人-鼠嵌合抗体表达载体,获得稳定表达该嵌合抗体的细胞株,并分析嵌合抗体的抗肿瘤活性.方法:采用DNA重组技术,扩增抗人DR5的鼠源单克隆抗体(mAb)AD5-10的重链(HC)、轻链(LC)可变区基因片段,并将其分别插入含有人IgG重链、轻链恒定区基因的真核表达载体RpCI-neo,以重、轻链表达质粒共转染中国仓鼠卵巢细胞(CHO),筛选稳定表达抗人DR5嵌合抗体(hmAD5-10)的重组细胞.采用Western blot和间接ELISA检测嵌合抗体的表达量及其与抗原DR5的结合活性.采用MTS比色法检测嵌合抗体的生物学活性.并对重组细胞株进行无血清培养驯化.结果:获得了2株稳定表达嵌合抗体的重组细胞株CHO-A5和CHO-B11,抗体的表达水平分别为(0.36±0.11)mg/L和(0.16±0.01)mg/L,嵌合抗体与DR5有较好的结合活性,对体外培养的人T淋巴细胞白血病细胞SVT35有显著的杀伤作用.结论:在真核细胞中表达了具有生物学活性的抗DR5的人-鼠嵌合抗体,为其应用于肿瘤治疗研究奠定了基础.%AIM: To establish an human-mouse chimeric antibody against tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosisinducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor 2 (death receptor 5, DR5) in an eukaryotic cell line and analyse ifs tumoricidal activity. METHODS: The cDNAs encoding for the variable regions of heavy chain (VH) and light chain (VL) of AD5-10 were amplified by PCR and inserted into the human lgG heavy and light chain containing expression vector RpClneo, respectively. The recombinant plasmids were co-transfected into HEK293 and/or CHO cells. The production of anti-DR5 human-mouse chimeric antibody (hmAD5-10) and the antibody affinity for DR5 were identified by ELISA and Western blot assay. The tumoricidal activity of hmAD5-10 was demonstrated by MTS assay. The stable expression cells were selected and cultured in serum-free medium

  17. Protective effect of crocin against apoptosis induced by subchronic exposure of the rat vascular system to diazinon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Abnous, Khalil; Khoei, Alireza; Imenshahidi, Mohsen

    2016-07-01

    Research has suggested that natural antioxidant, crocin, an active ingredient of saffron, may protect against diazinon (DZN)-induced toxicity. Although increased production of lipid peroxidation by DZN in rat aorta has been shown previously, the effects of DZN on oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in vascular system have not been evaluated. In this study, the effect of crocin on DZN-induced apoptosis in rat vascular system was investigated. The rats were divided into 7 groups: corn oil (control), DZN (15 mg/kg/day, gavage), crocin (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) + DZN, vitamin E (200 IU/kg, i.p., 3 days a week) + DZN, and crocin (50 mg/kg/day, i.p.). The treatments were continued for 4 weeks. Levels of apoptotic (Bax, caspase 3, and caspase 9) and antiapoptotic proteins (Bcl2) were analyzed by Western blotting. Transcript levels of Bax and Bcl2 genes were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results showed DZN-induced apoptosis by activation of caspase 9 and caspase 3 and by increasing the Bax/Bcl2 ratio (both protein and messenger RNA levels). Crocin and vitamin E inhibited apoptosis induced by DZN. In summary, subchronic exposure to DZN induced caspase-mediated apoptosis, and crocin reduced the toxic effects of DZN by inhibiting apoptosis in aortic tissue.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of two vascular apoptosis-inducing proteins (VAPs) from Crotalus atrox venom

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    Igarashi, Tomoko; Oishi, Yuko [Department of Cardiac Physiology, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, 5-7-1 Fujishiro-dai, Suita, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan); Araki, Satohiko [Sugashima Marine Biological Laboratory, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Toba, Mie 517-0004 (Japan); Mori, Hidezo [Department of Cardiac Physiology, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, 5-7-1 Fujishiro-dai, Suita, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan); Takeda, Soichi, E-mail: stakeda@ri.ncvc.go.jp [Department of Cardiac Physiology, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, 5-7-1 Fujishiro-dai, Suita, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan); Laboratory for Structural Biochemistry, Riken Harima Institute at SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Mikazuki, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    Vascular apoptosis-inducing protein 1 (VAP1) and VAP2 from C. atrox venom were crystallized in variety of different crystal forms. Diffraction data sets were obtained to 2.5 and 2.15 Å resolution for VAP1 and VAP2, respectively. VAPs are haemorrhagic snake-venom toxins belonging to the reprolysin family of zinc metalloproteinases. In vitro, VAPs induce apoptosis specifically in cultured vascular endothelial cells. VAPs have a modular structure that bears structural homology to mammalian ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinases). VAP1 is a homodimer with a MW of 110 kDa in which the monomers are connected by a single disulfide bridge. VAP2 is homologous to VAP1 and exists as a monomer with a MW of 55 kDa. In the current study, several crystal forms of VAP1 and VAP2 were obtained using the vapour-diffusion method and diffraction data sets were collected using SPring-8 beamlines. The best crystals of VAP1 and VAP2 generated data sets to 2.5 and 2.15 Å resolution, respectively.

  19. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new benzimidazole-thiazolidinedione hybrids as potential cytotoxic and apoptosis inducing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Srinivasa Reddy, T; Thummuri, Dinesh; Senwar, Kishna Ram; Praveen Kumar, Niggula; Naidu, V G M; Bhargava, Suresh K; Shankaraiah, Nagula

    2016-11-29

    A series of new benzimidazole-thiazolidinedione hybrids has been synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic potential against a selected human cancer cell lines of prostate (PC-3 and DU-145), breast (MDA-MB-231), lung (A549) and a normal breast epithelial cells (MCF10A). Among the tested compounds, 11p exhibited promising cytotoxicity with IC50 value of 11.46 ± 1.46 μM on A549 lung cancer cell line and did not show significant toxicity on normal MCF10A cells. Lung cancer cells (A549) have been used to know the mechanism of cell growth inhibition and apoptosis inducing effect with compound 11p. The treatment of A549 cells with 11p showed typical apoptotic morphology like cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and horseshoe shaped nuclei formation. Flow-cytometry analysis revealed the G2/M phase of cell cycle arrest in a dose dependent manner. Preliminary mechanistic studies suggested that the cell migration was inhibited through the disruption of F-actin protein. Acridine orange-ethidium bromide (AO-EB), DAPI, annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide, rhodamine-123 and MitoSOX assays suggested the induction of apoptosis in A549 cells by compound 11p.

  20. Composition of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides and their apoptosis-inducing effect on human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells

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    Qian Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP is a natural functional component that has a variety of biological activities. The molecular structures and apoptosis-inducing activities on human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells of two LBP fractions, LBP-d and LBP-e, were investigated. Results: The results showed that LBP-d and LBP-e both consist of protein, uronic acid, and neutral sugars in different proportions. The structure of LBP was characterized by gas chromatography, periodate oxidation, and Smith degradation. LBP-d was composed of eight kinds of monosaccharides (fucose, ribose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, galactose, and glucose, while LBP-e was composed of six kinds of monosaccharides (fucose, rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, galactose, and glucose. LBP-d and LBP-e blocked SMMC-7721 cells at the G0/G1 and S phases with an inhibition ratio of 26.70 and 45.13%, respectively, and enhanced the concentration of Ca2 + in the cytoplasm of SMMC-7721. Conclusion: The contents of protein, uronic acid, and galactose in LBP-e were much higher than those in LBP-d, which might responsible for their different bioactivities. The results showed that LBP can be provided as a potential chemotherapeutic agent drug to treat cancer.

  1. [Mechanisms of gross saponins of Tribulus terrestris via activating PKCepsilon against myocardial apoptosis induced by oxidative stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Si-Si; Ji, Ying-Shi; Li, Hong; Yang, Shi-Jie

    2009-02-01

    This study is to observe the effect of gross saponins of Tribulus terrestris (GSTT) on protein kinase Cepsilon (PKCepsilon) and apoptosis-associated protein in the apoptosis of cultured cardiocyte apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and to explore the mechanisms of GSTT against myocardial apoptosis. Primary cardiocytes were isolated and cultured. Myocardial apoptosis was induced by H2O2 and analyzed with flow cytometry. Protein content of phospho-PKCepsilon, Bcl-2, and Bax were detected with Western blotting analysis. Cleaved caspase-3 protein content was determined with immunocytochemical technique. After the pretreatment of 100 mg x L(-1) GSTT, compared with H2O2 group, GSTT could not only decrease the apoptotic percentage in cardiocytes damaged by H2O2 (P < 0.01), but also reduce protein contents of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 (P < 0.01), and increase protein content of phospho-PKCepsilon and Bcl-2 significantly (P < 0.01). PKC inhibitor chelerythrine (Che) could prevent partly the effect of GSTT against myocardial apoptosis (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). Mechanisms of GSTT against myocardial apoptosis might be associated with inhibition of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway after PKCepsilon activation.

  2. The resistance of activated T-cells from SLE patients to apoptosis induced by human thymic stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budagyan, V M; Bulanova, E G; Sharova, N I; Nikonova, M F; Stanislav, M L; Yarylin, A A

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we show the differential sensitivity of phytohemagglutinine (PHA) activated T-cells from healthy donors or patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) to apoptosis induced by human thymic stromal cell line of epithelial origin. T-cells from SLE patients were mainly resistant to the apoptotic action of the stromal cells, while normal T-lymphocytes readily died via apoptosis. Gel electrophoresis revealed a DNA fragmentation pattern characteristic of apoptosis after 18 h of coculture. The simultaneous measurement of [3H]-thymidine uptake showed that the proliferative response of T-cells from SLE patients was significantly decreased compared to their normal counterparts. Such difference may account for the distinct result of interactions between the stromal and lymphoid cells, leading to the subsequent survival of T-lymphocytes from SLE patients. Nevertheless pretreatment of normal activated T-lymphocytes with anti-Fas mAbs, which have the capacity to substantially inhibit signaling through this receptor resulted in abolition of this form of programmed cell death. Thus, the precise role of Fas receptor and its ligand in this in vitro test system needs further investigation.

  3. Novel nitric oxide-releasing spirolactone-type diterpenoid derivatives with in vitro synergistic anticancer activity as apoptosis inducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dahong; Han, Tong; Tian, Kangtao; Tang, Shuang; Xu, Shengtao; Hu, Xu; Wang, Lei; Li, Zhanlin; Hua, Huiming; Xu, Jinyi

    2016-09-01

    Herein, we reported the cytotoxicity, NO-releasing property, and apoptosis induced ability of two series of novel nitric oxide-releasing spirolactone-type diterpenoid derivatives (10a-f and 15a-f). All the title compounds were more potent than oridonin (7) and parent compound (9 or 14) against human tumor Bel-7402, K562, MGC-803 and CaEs-17 cells. SARs were concluded based on above data. Compound 15d exhibited the strongest antiproliferative activity with the IC50 of 0.86, 1.74, 1.16 and 3.75μM, respectively, and could produce high level (above 25μM) of NO at the time point of 60min. Further mechanism evaluation showed that 15d could induce S phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis at low micromolar concentrations in Bel-7402 cells via mitochondria-related pathways. It was expected that the remarkable biological profile of the synthetic NO-releasing spirolactone-type diterpenoid analogs make them possible as promising candidates for the development of anticancer agents.

  4. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 1,2,3-triazole linked aminocombretastatin conjugates as mitochondrial mediated apoptosis inducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Ahmed; Shaik, Bajee; Nayak, V Lakshma; Nagaraju, Burri; Kapure, Jeevak Sopanrao; Shaheer Malik, M; Shaik, Thokhir Basha; Prasad, B

    2014-10-01

    A series of 1,2,3-triazole linked aminocombretastatin conjugates were synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxicity, inhibition of tubulin polymerization and apoptosis inducing ability. Most of the conjugates exhibited significant anticancer activity against some representative human cancer cell lines and two of the conjugates 6d and 7c displayed potent cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 53 nM and 44 nM against A549 human lung cancer respectively, and were comparable to combretastatin A-4 (CA-4). SAR studies revealed that 1-benzyl substituted triazole moiety with an amide linkage at 3-position of B-ring of the combretastatin subunit are more active compared to 2-position. G2/M cell cycle arrest was induced by these conjugates 6d and 7c and the tubulin polymerization assay (IC50 of 1.16 μM and 0.95 μM for 6d and 7c, respectively) as well as immunofluorescence analysis showed that these conjugates effectively inhibit microtubule assembly at both molecular and cellular levels in A549 cells. Colchicine competitive binding assay suggested that these conjugates bind at the colchicine binding site of tubulin as also observed from the docking studies. Further, mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS generation, caspase-3 activation assay, Hoechst staining and DNA fragmentation analysis revealed that these conjugates induce cell death by apoptosis.

  5. Caspase-3 and its inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO in rat lens epithelial cell apoptosis induced by hydrogen in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚克; 王凯军; 徐雯; 孙朝晖; 申屠形超; 邱培瑾

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of caspase-3 and its inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO in rat lens epithelial cell apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in vitro.Methods Rat lenses were incubated in modified Eagle' s medium containing 2 mmol/L H2O2 to induce apoptosis in vitro. Apoptosis in lens epithelial cells was assessed by transmission electron microscopy and annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) double staining flow cytometry after 12, 24 and 48 h of incubation. The activity of caspase-3 was analyzed by western blotting.Results Observations under transmission electron microscopy revealed that 2 mmol/L H2O2 could effectively induce lens epithelial cell apoptosis in vitro. Caspase-3 activity increased during cell apoptosis and the peak measurement occurred at 24 h after treatment with H2O2. Cell apoptosis was blocked by caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO.Conclusions The activation of caspase-3 plays an important role in executing apoptosis in H2O2-treated lens epithelial cells and in the formation of cataract. The caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO may effectively prevent lens epithelial cell apoptosis caused by oxidative injury.

  6. Apoptosis induced by low-intensity ultrasound in vitro: Alteration of protein profile and potential molecular mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yi; Wan, Mingxi

    2017-03-01

    To analyze the potential mechanism related to the apoptosis induced by low intensity focused ultrasound, comparative proteomic method was introduced in the study. After ultrasound irradiation (3.0 W/cm2, 1 minute, 6 hours incubation post-irradiation), the human SMMC-7721 hepatocarcinoma cells were stained by trypan blue to detect the morphologic changes, and then the percentage of early apoptosis were tested by the flow cytometry with double staining of FITC-labelled Annexin V/Propidium iodide. Two-dimensional SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to get the protein profile and some proteins differently expressed after ultrasound irradiation were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. It's proved early apoptosis of cells were induced by low intentisy focused ultrasound. After ultrasound irradiation, the expressing characteristics of several proteins changed, in which protein p53 and heat shock proteins are associated with apoptosis initiation. It is suggested that the low-intensity ultrasound-induced apoptotic cancer therapy has the potential application via understanding its relevant molecular signaling and key proteins. Moreover, the comparative proteomic method is proved to be useful to supply information about the protein expression to analyze the metabolic processes related to bio-effects of biomedical ultrasound.

  7. Downregulation of Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide Pathway Is Involved in Mitochondrion-Related Endothelial Cell Apoptosis Induced by High Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfang Zong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The study aimed to investigate whether endogenous H2S pathway was involved in high-salt-stimulated mitochondria-related vascular endothelial cell (VEC apoptosis. Methods. Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs were used in the study. H2S content in the supernatant was detected. Western blot was used to detect expression of cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE, cleaved-caspase-3, and mitochondrial and cytosolic cytochrome c (cytc. Fluorescent probes were used to quantitatively detect superoxide anion generation and measure the in situ superoxide anion generation in HUVEC. Mitochondrial membrane pore opening, mitochondrial membrane potential, and caspase-9 activities were measured. The cell apoptosis was detected by cell death ELISA and TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL methods. Results. High-salt treatment downregulated the endogenous VEC H2S/CSE pathway, in association with increased generation of oxygen free radicals, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced the opening of mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore and leakage of mitochondrial cytc, activated cytoplasmic caspase-9 and caspase-3 and subsequently induced VEC apoptosis. However, supplementation of H2S donor markedly inhibited VEC oxidative stress and mitochondria-related VEC apoptosis induced by high salt. Conclusion. H2S/CSE pathway is an important endogenous defensive system in endothelial cells antagonizing high-salt insult. The protective mechanisms for VEC damage might involve inhibiting oxidative stress and protecting mitochondrial injury.

  8. [Study on the cell apoptosis induced by intracellular hyperthermia in human lung adenocarcinoma SPC-A1 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yongjie; Li, Hong; Yan, Zhubing; Gu, Hongchen

    2007-12-01

    This is a comparative study on the efficacy of differential cell apoptosis induced by three methods (intracellular hyperthermia, with water bath hyperthermia and extracellular hyperthermia) in human lung adenocarcinoma SPC-A1 cells in vitro. The effects of hyperthermia on cell apoptosis were determined by Transmission electron microscopy(TEM), agarose gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry methods, respectively. The intracellular effect of particle heating was compared with that of water bath hyperthermia and extracellular hyperthermia; significant differences between these heating methods were detected, the rate of apoptosis being 36.59%, 5.66%, 7.78% respectively. When treated with intracellular hyperthermia, the SPC-A1 cells manifested typical morphological characters of apoptosis by TEM observation, and the SPC-A1 cell DNA was degraded into large fragments by agarose gel electrophoresis assay. Our results showed that amino-silane Fe3O4 induced intracellular hyperthermia was superior to water bath hyperthermia and extracellular hyperthermia. It is mainly the interaction between intracellular nanoparticles and cell that induced apoptosis. Therefore, the aminosilane-coated Fe3O4 may be used in hyperthermia or chemotherapeutics on cancer cells for further clinical application.

  9. Dietary Flavonoids Sensitize HeLa Cells to Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL

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    Wojciech Król

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available TRAIL is a promising candidate for cancer therapeutics that preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells. The combined treatment flavonoids with TRAIL might be promising as a chemoprevention and/or new therapy against malignant tumors. We examined the cytotoxic effect of dietary flavonoids in combination with TRAIL on HeLa cells. It was found that treatment with noncytotoxic concentration of some flavonoids significantly sensititizes to TRAIL induced death in HeLa cells. Our study demonstrated that flavone, apigenin and genistein markedly augmented TRAIL mediated cytotoxicity against HeLa, whereas kaempferol and quercetin produced no effect.

  10. Dietary flavonoids sensitize HeLa cells to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szliszka, Ewelina; Czuba, Zenon P; Jernas, Katarzyna; Król, Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    TRAIL is a promising candidate for cancer therapeutics that preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells. The combined treatment flavonoids with TRAIL might be promising as a chemoprevention and/or new therapy against malignant tumors. We examined the cytotoxic effect of dietary flavonoids in combination with TRAIL on HeLa cells. It was found that treatment with noncytotoxic concentration of some flavonoids significantly sensititizes to TRAIL induced death in HeLa cells. Our study demonstrated that flavone, apigenin and genistein markedly augmented TRAIL mediated cytotoxicity against HeLa, whereas kaempferol and quercetin produced no effect.

  11. Modulators of Response to Tumor Necrosis-Factor-Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) Therapy in Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    antibody, MORAb-003. Methods: FRα expression was examined in ovarian cell lines (SKOV3ip1, IGROV, HeyA8, A2780-par, and HIO -180) with fluorescence...IGROVand SKOV3ip1 cell lines both expressed high levels of FRα compared with the non-transformed ( HIO -180) cells. HeyA8 and A2780-par cell lines lacked

  12. Cacospongionolide and scalaradial, two marine sesterterpenoids as potent apoptosis-inducing factors in human carcinoma cell lines.

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    Daniela De Stefano

    Full Text Available Apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death, is a critical defence mechanism against the formation and progression of cancer and acts by eliminating potentially deleterious cells without causing such adverse effects, as inflammatory response and ensuing scar formation. Therefore, targeting apoptotic pathways becomes an intriguing strategy for the development of chemotherapeutic agents. In last decades, marine natural products, such as sesterterpenoids, have played an important role in the discovery and development of new drugs. Interestingly, many of these compounds have a strong potential as anticancer drugs by inhibiting cell proliferation and/or inducing cell death. In the present study, we investigated the effects of scalaradial and cacospongionolide, two sesterterpenoids from Cacospongia scalaris and Fasciospongia cavernosa marine sponges, on the apoptotic signalling pathway in three different human tumoral cells. Results were obtained by using DNA fragmentation, comet and viability assays, quantification of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and Western blot. The T47D (human breast carcinoma, A431 (human epidermoid carcinoma, HeLa (human cervix carcinoma and HCT116 (human colon carcinoma cells were incubated for 24 h with scalaradial or cacospongionolide. Treatment of T47D cells with scalaradial or cacospongionolide for 24 h brought about a significant increase in DNA migration as well as fragmentation. Moreover, incubation of HCT116 and HeLa cells with scalaradial or cacospongionolide for 24 h caused an increased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins. Furthermore, scalaradial or cacospongionolide, added to HCT116 and HeLa cells overnight, induced a significant and concentration-dependent loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, an early apoptosis signalling event. These effects paralleled with those achieved with p50 and p65, NF-κB subunits, nuclear level. In conclusion, scalaradial and cacospongionolide, by determining human cancer cell apoptosis, may represent new promising compounds to inhibit cancer cell proliferation.

  13. Repression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL but not its receptors during oral cancer progression

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    Muller Susan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TRAIL plays an important role in host immunosurveillance against tumor progression, as it induces apoptosis of tumor cells but not normal cells, and thus has great therapeutic potential for cancer treatment. TRAIL binds to two cell-death-inducing (DR4 and DR5 and two decoy (DcR1, and DcR2 receptors. Here, we compare the expression levels of TRAIL and its receptors in normal oral mucosa (NOM, oral premalignancies (OPM, and primary and metastatic oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC in order to characterize the changes in their expression patterns during OSCC initiation and progression. Methods DNA microarray, immunoblotting and immunohistochemical analyses were used to examine the expression levels of TRAIL and its receptors in oral epithelial cell lines and in archival tissues of NOM, OPM, primary and metastatic OSCC. Apoptotic rates of tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL in OSCC specimens were determined by cleaved caspase 3 immunohistochemistry. Results Normal oral epithelia constitutively expressed TRAIL, but expression was progressively lost in OPM and OSCC. Reduction in DcR2 expression levels was noted frequently in OPM and OSCC compared to respective patient-matched uninvolved oral mucosa. OSCC frequently expressed DR4, DR5 and DcR1 but less frequently DcR2. Expression levels of DR4, DR5 and DcR1 receptors were not significantly altered in OPM, primary OSCC and metastatic OSCC compared to patient-matched normal oral mucosa. Expression of proapoptotic TRAIL-receptors DR4 and DR5 in OSCC seemed to depend, at least in part, on whether or not these receptors were expressed in their parental oral epithelia. High DR5 expression in primary OSCC correlated significantly with larger tumor size. There was no significant association between TRAIL-R expression and OSSC histology grade, nodal status or apoptosis rates of tumor cells and TIL. Conclusion Loss of TRAIL expression is an early event during oral carcinogenesis and may be involved in dysregulation of apoptosis and contribute to the molecular carcinogenesis of OSCC. Differential expressions of TRAIL receptors in OSCC do not appear to play a crucial role in their apoptotic rate or metastatic progression.

  14. The apoptosis-inducing protein kinase DRAK2 is inhibited in a calcium-dependent manner by the calcium-binding protein CHP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Hiroshi; Kamei, Jun-ichi; Nakamura, Norihiro; Matsumoto, Miho; Inoue, Hiroki; Kanazawa, Hiroshi

    2003-08-01

    Calcineurin homologous protein (CHP) is an EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding protein capable of interacting with various cellular proteins including Na(+)/H(+) exchangers, kinesin-related proteins, and apoptosis-inducing protein kinase DRAK2. We investigated the role of CHP on the DRAK2 protein kinase in vitro. CHP significantly reduced (approximately 85% inhibition) the kinase activity of DRAK2 for both autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of exogenous substrate (myosin light chain). The inhibitory effect of CHP was dependent on the presence of Ca(2+), whereas the interaction between CHP and DRAK2 was not Ca(2+)-dependent. These observations suggest that CHP negatively regulates the apoptosis-inducing protein kinase DRAK2 in a manner that depends on intracellular Ca(2+)-concentration.

  15. Kinase Signaling in Apoptosis Induced by Saturated Fatty Acids in Pancreatic β-Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šrámek, Jan; Němcová-Fürstová, Vlasta; Kovář, Jan

    2016-09-12

    Pancreatic β-cell failure and death is considered to be one of the main factors responsible for type 2 diabetes. It is caused by, in addition to hyperglycemia, chronic exposure to increased concentrations of fatty acids, mainly saturated fatty acids. Molecular mechanisms of apoptosis induction by saturated fatty acids in β-cells are not completely clear. It has been proposed that kinase signaling could be involved, particularly, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), protein kinase C (PKC), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and Akt kinases and their pathways. In this review, we discuss these kinases and their signaling pathways with respect to their possible role in apoptosis induction by saturated fatty acids in pancreatic β-cells.

  16. Oppositional regulation of Noxa by JNK1 and JNK2 during apoptosis induced by proteasomal inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietkiewicz, Sabine; Sohn, Dennis; Piekorz, Roland P; Grether-Beck, Susanne; Budach, Wilfried; Sabapathy, Kanaga; Jänicke, Reiner U

    2013-01-01

    Proteasome inhibitors (PIs) potently induce apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Comparing PI-induced apoptosis susceptibilities of various mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) lines differing in their c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1 and 2 status, we show that several hallmarks of apoptosis were most rapidly detectable in JNK2-/- cells, whereas they appeared only delayed and severely reduced in their intensities in cells expressing JNK2. Consistent with our finding that PI-induced apoptosis requires de novo protein synthesis, the proteasomal inhibitor MG-132 induced expression of the BH3-only protein Noxa at the transcriptional level in a JNK1-dependent, but JNK2-opposing manner. As the knockdown of Noxa blocked only the rapid PI-induced apoptosis of JNK2-/- cells, but not the delayed death occurring in JNK1-/- and JNK1+/+ cells, our data uncover a novel PI-induced apoptosis pathway that is regulated by the JNK1/2-dependent expression of Noxa. Furthermore, several transcription factors known to modulate Noxa expression including ATF3, ATF4, c-Jun, c-Myc, HIF1α, and p53 were found upregulated following MG-132 exposure. From those, only knockdown of c-Myc rescued JNK2-/- cells from PI-induced apoptosis, however, without affecting expression of Noxa. Together, our data not only show that a rapid execution of PI-induced apoptosis requires JNK1 for upregulation of Noxa via an as yet unknown transcription factor, but also that JNK2 controls this event in an oppositional manner.

  17. Oppositional regulation of Noxa by JNK1 and JNK2 during apoptosis induced by proteasomal inhibitors.

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    Sabine Pietkiewicz

    Full Text Available Proteasome inhibitors (PIs potently induce apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Comparing PI-induced apoptosis susceptibilities of various mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF lines differing in their c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK 1 and 2 status, we show that several hallmarks of apoptosis were most rapidly detectable in JNK2-/- cells, whereas they appeared only delayed and severely reduced in their intensities in cells expressing JNK2. Consistent with our finding that PI-induced apoptosis requires de novo protein synthesis, the proteasomal inhibitor MG-132 induced expression of the BH3-only protein Noxa at the transcriptional level in a JNK1-dependent, but JNK2-opposing manner. As the knockdown of Noxa blocked only the rapid PI-induced apoptosis of JNK2-/- cells, but not the delayed death occurring in JNK1-/- and JNK1+/+ cells, our data uncover a novel PI-induced apoptosis pathway that is regulated by the JNK1/2-dependent expression of Noxa. Furthermore, several transcription factors known to modulate Noxa expression including ATF3, ATF4, c-Jun, c-Myc, HIF1α, and p53 were found upregulated following MG-132 exposure. From those, only knockdown of c-Myc rescued JNK2-/- cells from PI-induced apoptosis, however, without affecting expression of Noxa. Together, our data not only show that a rapid execution of PI-induced apoptosis requires JNK1 for upregulation of Noxa via an as yet unknown transcription factor, but also that JNK2 controls this event in an oppositional manner.

  18. The effects of humanin and its analogues on male germ cell apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yue; Ohanyan, Aikoui; Lue, Yan-He; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Liu, Peter Y; Cohen, Pinchas; Wang, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Human (HN) prevents stress-induced apoptosis in many cells/tissues. In this study we showed that HN ameliorated chemotherapy [cyclophosphamide (CP) and Doxorubicin (DOX)]-induced male germ cell apoptosis both ex vivo in seminiferous tubule cultures and in vivo in the testis. HN acts by several putative mechanisms via binding to: an IL-12 like trimeric membrane receptor; BAX; or insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3, a proapoptotic factor). To understand the mechanisms of HN on male germ cell apoptosis, we studied five HN analogues including: HNG (HN-S14G, a potent agonist), HNG-F6A (no binding to IGFBP-3), HN-S7A (no self-dimerization), HN-C8P (no binding to BAX), and HN-L12A (a HN antagonist) on CP-induced male germ cell apoptosis in mice. CP-induced germ cell apoptosis was inhibited by HN, HNG, HNG-F6A, HN-S7A, and HN-C8P (less effective); but not by HN-L12A. HN-L12A, but not HN-S7A or HN-C8P, blocked the protective effect of HN against CP-induced male germ cell apoptosis. HN, HN-S7A, and HN-C8P restored CP-suppressed STAT3 phosphorylation. These results suggest that HN: (1) decreases DOX (ex vivo) and CP (in vivo) induced male germ cell apoptosis; (2) action is mediated by the membrane receptor/STAT3 with minor contribution by BAX-binding pathway; (3) self-dimerization or binding to IGFBP-3 may not be involved in HN's effect in testis. HN is an important molecule in the regulation of germ cell homeostasis after injury and agonistic analogues may be developed for treating male infertility or protection against chemotherapy side effects.

  19. Downregulation of the Expression of GLUT1 Plays a Role in Apoptosis Induced by Sodium Butyrate in HT-29 Cell Line

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    Guang-Jin Yuan

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of glucose and sodium butyrate transporters(glucose transporter1-5 and Monocarboxylate transporter 1 and their relationship with cell apoptosis induced bysodium butyrate in colonic caner cell line HT-29 were studied. Cell apoptosis was detectedby flow cytometric assay. The expression of MCT1 and GLUT1-5 mRNA were detected byRT-PCR and the uptake of glucose was detected using 2-deoxy-[3H]glucose. The expressionof bax and bcl-x/l were detected by westernblot assay. We found that sodium butyrateinduced apoptosis in HT-29 cell line. The expression of GLUT1 mRNA, bcl-x/l, as well theuptake of glucose was inhibited by sodium butyrate. The expression of MCT1 and GLUT2,GLUT3, GLUT5 was not regulated by sodium butyrate. However, the concentration ofglucose had positive correlation with the expression of bcl-x/l protein and negativecorrelation with the apoptosis induced by sodium butyrate. All the results suggested thatdownregulation of the expression of GLUT1 was associated with the apoptosis induced bysodium butyrate in HT-29 cell line.

  20. BAK and NOXA are critical determinants of mitochondrial apoptosis induced by bortezomib in mesothelioma.

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    Sara Busacca

    Full Text Available Based on promising preclinical efficacy associated with the 20S proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM, two phase II clinical trials have been initiated (EORTC 08052 and ICORG 05-10. However, the potential mechanisms underlying resistance to this targeted drug in MPM are still unknown. Functional genetic analyses were conducted to determine the key mitochondrial apoptotic regulators required for bortezomib sensitivity and to establish how their dysregulation may confer resistance. The multidomain proapoptotic protein BAK, but not its orthologue BAX, was found to be essential for bortezomib-induced apoptosis in MPM cell lines. Immunohistochemistry was performed on tissues from the ICORG-05 phase II trial and a TMA of archived mesotheliomas. Loss of BAK was found in 39% of specimens and loss of both BAX/BAK in 37% of samples. However, MPM tissues from patients who failed to respond to bortezomib and MPM cell lines selected for resistance to bortezomib conserved BAK expression. In contrast, c-Myc dependent transactivation of NOXA was abrogated in the resistant cell lines. In summary, the block of mitochondrial apoptosis is a limiting factor for achieving efficacy of bortezomib in MPM, and the observed loss of BAK expression or NOXA transactivation may be relevant mechanisms of resistance in the clinic.

  1. BAK and NOXA are critical determinants of mitochondrial apoptosis induced by bortezomib in mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busacca, Sara; Chacko, Alex D; Klabatsa, Astero; Arthur, Kenneth; Sheaff, Michael; Barbone, Dario; Mutti, Luciano; Gunasekharan, Vignesh K; Gorski, Julia J; El-Tanani, Mohamed; Broaddus, V Courtney; Gaudino, Giovanni; Fennell, Dean A

    2013-01-01

    Based on promising preclinical efficacy associated with the 20S proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), two phase II clinical trials have been initiated (EORTC 08052 and ICORG 05-10). However, the potential mechanisms underlying resistance to this targeted drug in MPM are still unknown. Functional genetic analyses were conducted to determine the key mitochondrial apoptotic regulators required for bortezomib sensitivity and to establish how their dysregulation may confer resistance. The multidomain proapoptotic protein BAK, but not its orthologue BAX, was found to be essential for bortezomib-induced apoptosis in MPM cell lines. Immunohistochemistry was performed on tissues from the ICORG-05 phase II trial and a TMA of archived mesotheliomas. Loss of BAK was found in 39% of specimens and loss of both BAX/BAK in 37% of samples. However, MPM tissues from patients who failed to respond to bortezomib and MPM cell lines selected for resistance to bortezomib conserved BAK expression. In contrast, c-Myc dependent transactivation of NOXA was abrogated in the resistant cell lines. In summary, the block of mitochondrial apoptosis is a limiting factor for achieving efficacy of bortezomib in MPM, and the observed loss of BAK expression or NOXA transactivation may be relevant mechanisms of resistance in the clinic.

  2. TNF–related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL and erythropoiesis: a role for PKCe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Vitale

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of the hematopoietic stem cell pool size and the processes of cell differentiation along the hematopoietic lineages involve apoptosis. Among the different factors with a recognized activity on blood progenitor cells, TRAIL - a member of the TNF family of cytokines - has an emerging role in the modulation of normal hematopoiesis. PKCÂ levels are regulated by EPO in differentiating erythroid progenitors and control the protection against the apoptogenic effect of TRAIL. EPO-induced erythroid CD34 cells are insensitive to the apoptogenic effect of TRAIL between day 0 and day 3, due to the lack of specific surface receptors expression. Death receptors appear after day 3 of differentiation and consequently erythoid cells became sensitive to TRAIL up to day 9/10, when the EPO-driven up-regulation of PKCe intracellular levels inhibits the TRAIL-mediated apoptosis, via Bcl-2. In the time interval between day 3 and 9, therefore, the number of erythroid progenitors can be limited by the presence of soluble or membrane-bound TRAIL present in the bone marrow microenvironment.

  3. Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis Induced by Telomere Cleavage and TRF2 Loss

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    Asha S. Multani

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities involving telomeric associations (TAs often precede replicative senescence and abnormal chromosome configurations. We report here that telomere cleavage following exposure to proapoptotic agents is an early event in apoptosis. Exposure of human and murine cancer cells to a variety of pro-apoptotic stimuli (staurosporine, thapsigargin, anti-Fas antibody, cancer chemotherapeutic agents resulted in telomere cleavage and aggregation, finally their extrusion from the nuclei. Telomere loss was associated with arrest of cells in G2/M phase and preceded DNA fragmentation. Telomere erosion and subsequent large-scale chromatin cleavage were inhibited by overexpression of the anti -apoptotic protein, bcl-2, two peptide caspase inhibitors (BACMK and zVADfmk, indicating that both events are regulated by caspase activation. The results demonstrate that telomere cleavage is an early chromatin alteration detected in various cancer cell lines leading to drug-induced apoptosis, suggest that this event contributes to mitotic catastrophe and induction of cell death. Results also suggest that the decrease of telomeric-repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2 may be the earliest event in the ara-C-induced telomere shortening, induction of endoreduplication and chromosomal fragmentation leading to cell death.

  4. Endosome–mitochondria juxtaposition during apoptosis induced by H. pylori VacA

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    Calore, F; Genisset, C; Casellato, A; Rossato, M; Codolo, G; Esposti, MD; Scorrano, L; de Bernard, M

    2011-01-01

    The vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) is an important virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori with pleiotropic effects on mammalian cells, including the ability to trigger mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. However, the mechanism by which VacA exerts its apoptotic function is unclear. Using a genetic approach, in this study we show that killing by VacA requires the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members BAX and BAK at the mitochondrial level, but not adequate endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ levels, similarly controlled by BAX and BAK. A combination of subcellular fractionation and imaging shows that wild-type VacA, but not mutants in its channel-forming region, induces the accumulation of BAX on endosomes and endosome–mitochondria juxtaposition that precedes the retrieval of active BAX on mitochondria. It is noteworthy that in Bax- and Bak-deficient cells, VacA is unable to cause endosome–mitochondria juxtaposition and is not retrieved in mitochondria. Thus, VacA causes BAX/BAK-dependent juxtaposition of endosomes and mitochondria early in the process of cell death, revealing a new function for these proapoptotic proteins in the regulation of relative position of organelles. PMID:20431599

  5. Acute exposure to vibration is an apoptosis-inducing stimulus in the vocal fold epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaleski, Carolyn K; Kimball, Emily E; Mizuta, Masanobu; Rousseau, Bernard

    2016-10-01

    Clinical voice disorders pose significant communication-related challenges to patients. The purpose of this study was to quantify the rate of apoptosis and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) signaling in vocal fold epithelial cells in response to increasing time-doses and cycle-doses of vibration. 20 New Zealand white breeder rabbits were randomized to three groups of time-doses of vibration exposure (30, 60, 120min) or a control group (120min of vocal fold adduction and abduction). Estimated cycle-doses of vocal fold vibration were extrapolated based on mean fundamental frequency. Laryngeal tissue specimens were evaluated for apoptosis and gene transcript and protein levels of TNF-α. Results revealed that terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining was significantly higher after 120min of vibration compared to the control. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed no significant effect of time-dose on the mean area of epithelial cell nuclei. Extrapolated cycle-doses of vibration exposure were closely related to experimental time-dose conditions, although no significant correlations were observed with TUNEL staining or mean area of epithelial cell nuclei. TUNEL staining was positively correlated with TNF-α protein expression. Our findings suggest that apoptosis can be induced in the vocal fold epithelium after 120min of modal intensity phonation. In contrast, shorter durations of vibration exposure do not result in apoptosis signaling. However, morphological features of apoptosis are not observed using TEM. Future studies are necessary to examine the contribution of abnormal apoptosis to vocal fold diseases.

  6. EXPRESSION OF MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE-7 AND FAS LIGAND: THEIR APOPTOSIS-INDUCING EFFECT ON GASTRIC CANCER CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑华川; 杨雪飞; 孙晋民; 李晓晗; 姜卫国; 张荫昌; 辛彦

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) and Fas ligand (FasL) in gastric cancer and explore their role in progression of gastric cancer. Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin and embedded tissues of primary gastric cancer and adjacent non-tumor mucosa from 113 cases were evaluated for MMP-7, FasL and Capase-3 expression by streptavidin-peroxidase (S-P) immunohistochemistry. The expression of the first two proteins in cancer cells of primary foci was compared with clinicopathological parameters of tumors. We also observed the correlation of MMP-7 and FasL expression with Caspase-3 expression in cancer cells of primary foci. Results: MMP-7 positive immunostaining was less frequently detected in adjacent epithelial cells than in cancer cells of primary foci of gastric cancer (P0.05). FasL expression was correlated with tumor size, invasive depth, metastasis, Lauren's classification, histological classification (P0.05). Cancer cells of primary foci expressed less Caspase-3 than their adjacent epithelial cells (P<0.05, 32.7% vs 50.4%). There was an obvious correlation between FasL, MMP-7 and Caspase-3 expression in cancer cells of primary foci (P<0.05). Co-expression of MMP-7 and FasL paralleled with Caspase-3 expression in cancer cells of primary foci (P<0.05). Conclusion: MMP-7 and FasL expression was up-regulated in gastric carcinogenesis and was principally involved in progression of gastric cancer. FasL expression could reflect the differentiation of gastric cancer cells and underlie the molecular mechanisms of different pathways of gastric tumorigenesis. Co-expression of MMP-7 and FasL could have apoptosis-inducing effect on gastric cancer cells.

  7. ClC-3 deficiency protects preadipocytes against apoptosis induced by palmitate in vitro and in type 2 diabetes mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yun-Ying; Huang, Xiong-Qin; Zhao, Li-Yan; Sun, Fang-Yun; Chen, Wen-Liang; Du, Jie-Yi; Yuan, Feng; Li, Jie; Huang, Xue-Lian; Liu, Jie; Lv, Xiao-Fei; Guan, Yong-Yuan; Chen, Jian-Wen; Wang, Guan-Lei

    2014-11-01

    Palmitate, a common saturated free fatty acid (FFA), has been demonstrated to induce preadipocyte apoptosis in the absence of adipogenic stimuli, suggesting that preadipocytes may be prone to apoptosis under adipogenic insufficient conditions, like type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). ClC-3, encoding Cl(-) channel or Cl(-)/H(+) antiporter, is critical for cell fate choices of proliferation versus apoptosis under diseased conditions. However, it is unknown whether ClC-3 is related with preadipocyte apoptosis induced by palmitate or T2DM. Palmitate, but not oleate, induced apoptosis and increase in ClC-3 protein expression and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte. ClC-3 specific siRNA attenuated palmitate-induced apoptosis and increased protein levels of Grp78, ATF4, CHOP and phosphorylation of JNK1/2, whereas had no effects on increased phospho-PERK and phospho-eIF2α protein expression. Moreover, the enhanced apoptosis was shown in preadipocytes from high-sucrose/fat, low-dose STZ induced T2DM mouse model with hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia (elevated serum TG and FFA levels) and insulin resistance. ClC-3 knockout significantly attenuated preadipocyte apoptosis and the above metabolic disorders in T2DM mice. These data demonstrated that ClC-3 deficiency prevent preadipocytes against palmitate-induced apoptosis via suppressing ER stress, and also suggested that ClC-3 may play a role in regulating cellular apoptosis and disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism during T2DM.

  8. Insulin enhances apoptosis induced by cisplatin in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma EC9706 cells related to inhibition of autophagy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yang; Wen Fengbiao; Dang Lifeng; Fan Yuxia; Liu Donglei; Wu Kai; Zhao Song

    2014-01-01

    Background Chemoresistance is common among patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).We investigated the effect and mechanism of insulin on enhancing anticancer functions of cisplatin in human esophageal cancer cell line EC9706.Methods The viability of EC9706 cells exposed to cisplatin was assessed using MTT assay.The times T1,when the number of living cells reached a plateau and T2,when the number of living cells reached a new plateau after the addition of insulin were found.T1 and T2 plateau cells were stained by Annexin V-FITC/PI and monodansylcadaverin (MDC).Fluorescent microscopy was used to observe the expression of apoptosis and autophagy intuitively.Apoptotic ratio and fluorescent intensity were analysed by flow cytometry (FCM) quantitatively.Western blotting analysis was used to estimate the protein expression levels of AKT,mTOR,PI3K,PTEN,autophage related indicator LC3-Ⅱ and autophage related protein Beclin1 changes that occurred in the course of treatment.Results A larger number of typical autophagosomes were detected in EC9706 cells exposed to cisplatin.Insulin can increase the apoptosis induced by cisplatin.Apoptotic ratio of T1 plateau cells ((32.6±4.3)%) is significantly less than T2 plateau ((47.5±5.6)%).MDC fluorescent intensity at T1 plateau (104.9±13.2) was significantly higher than intensity at T2 plateau (82.6±10.3).After cotreatment with insulin,the expression level of LC3-Ⅱ,Beclin1 and PTEN in T2 plateau cells were significantly downregulated,but AKT,mTOR and PI3K expressions significantly upregulated compared with T1 plateau.Conclusions Insulin could enhance cisplatin-induced apoptosis in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma EC9706 cells related to inhibition of autophagy.The activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway induced by insulin resulted in the suppression of autophagy in EC9706 cells,which may be attributed to the anticancer effects of cisplatin.

  9. Apigenin induces apoptosis via tumor necrosis factor receptor- and Bcl-2-mediated pathway and enhances susceptibility of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma to 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Leong-Perng; Chou, Tzung-Han; Ding, Hsiou-Yu; Chen, Pin-Ru; Chiang, Feng-Yu; Kuo, Po-Lin; Liang, Chia-Hua

    2012-07-01

    Apigenin, a natural plant flavone, may have chemopreventive and therapeutic potentials for anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-cancer. Nevertheless, the anti-tumor effect of apigenin on human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is not fully understood. The antioxidant capacity and protective effects of apigenin against oxidative stress in murine normal embryonic liver BNLCL2 cells are examined. Cell viability, morphologic change, clonogenic survival, cell cycle distribution, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione formation, and death receptors- and Bcl-2-mediated caspase pathways of HNSCC SCC25 cells and A431 cells with apigenin are investigated. Apigenin inhibits the growth of SCC25 and A431 cells and induces cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. Apigenin has an antioxidant capacity as well as the ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation. It protects BNLCL2 cells against oxidative damage, and is potentially able to prevent cancer. Apigenin increases intracellular ROS levels and reduces levels of glutathione; it also induces cell apoptosis via tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R)-, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor (TRAIL-R)-, and Bcl-2-mediated caspase-dependent cell death pathways in SCC25 cells. The combination of apigenin with 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) or cisplatin induces the dramatic death of SCC25 cells. Apigenin induces SCC25 cell apoptosis via the up-regulation of both TNF-R and TRAIL-R signaling pathways, and has a synergistic effect on the inhibition of cell proliferation in combination with 5-Fu or cisplatin. These analytical findings suggest that apigenin may be a good therapeutic agent against HNSCC cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Involvement of FOXO transcription factors, TRAIL-FasL/Fas, and sirtuin proteins family in canine coronavirus type II-induced apoptosis.

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    Gabriella Marfè

    Full Text Available n our previous study, we have shown that canine coronavirus type II (CCoV-II activates both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathway in a canine fibrosarcoma cell line (A-72 cells. Herein we investigated the role of Sirtuin and Forkhead box O (FOXO families in this experimental model using Nortern Blot and Western Blot analysis. Our results demonstrated that mitochondrial SIRT3 and SIRT4 protein expression increased from 12 and 24 h post infection (p.i. onwards, respectively, whereas the nuclear SIRT1 expression increased during the first 12 h p.i. followed by a decrease after 36 h p.i., reaching the same level of control at 48 h p.i. Sirtuins interact with/and regulate the activity of FOXO family proteins, and we herein observed that FOXO3A and FOXO1 expression increased significantly and stably from 12 h p.i. onwards. In addition, CCoV-II induces a remarkable increase in the expression of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, while we observed a slight up-regulation of FasL/Fas at 36 p.i. with a decrease of both proteins at the end of infection. Furthermore, we found that virus infection increased both bax translocation into mitochondria and decreased bcl-2 expression in cytosol in a time-dependent manner.These data suggest that FOXO transcription factors mediate pro-apoptotic effects of CCoV-II, in part due to activation of extrinsic apoptosis pathway, while some Sirtuin family members (such as SIRT3 and SIRT4 may be involved in intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Moreover, these results propose that TRAIL is an important mediator of cell death induced by CCoV-II during in vitro infection.

  11. C1q 肿瘤坏死因子相关蛋白家族代谢功能的研究进展%The research of C1q/TNF-related proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾昊; 武婷; 马琴; 赵建力

    2016-01-01

    C1q 肿瘤坏死因子相关蛋白(CTRPs)是一类主要由脂肪组织分泌,广泛地表达于人和鼠的多种组织,具有调节糖脂代谢、影响心血管系统、抑制炎症反应等作用的家族蛋白。其中,与代谢有关的功能主要是促进糖原合成,促进脂质摄取,加速脂肪酸氧化,提高胰岛素敏感性。每一个CTRP 都有其独特的组织表达谱,反映其独特的糖脂代谢的功能。笔者将对近年来 CTRP 家族蛋白代谢功能的研究进展作一综述。%C1q /TNF-related proteins (CTRPs)belong to the same category of C1q /TNF-related protein family,mainly secreted by adipose tissue and widely expressed in human and rodent.Their function turned out to be metabolic modulation,cardiovascular system protection and suppression of inflammation.But for metabolic modulation,enhancing the synthesis of glycogen,promoting fatty acid uptake and oxidation,in-creasing insulin sensitivity is the major role of CTRPs playing in governing the metabolism.Each CTRP has its own unique tissue expression profile and nonredundant function in regulating sugar and /or fat metabo-lism.In this review we focus on the recent progress about the metabolic function of CTRPs.

  12. Associations of C1q/TNF-Related Protein-9 Levels in Serum and Epicardial Adipose Tissue with Coronary Atherosclerosis in Humans

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    Jing Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the correlation of CTRP9 with coronary atherosclerosis. Methods. Coronary angiography confirmed CAD in 241 patients (62 received CABG and non-CAD in 121 (55 received valve replacement. Results. Serum levels of LDL-C, CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, and leptin in CAD patients were significantly higher than those in non-CAD patients (P<0.05, but APN and CTRP9 were lower (P<0.05. Serum levels of CTRP9 and APN were negatively related to BMI, HOMA-IR, TNF-α, IL-6, and leptin but positively to HDL-C (P<0.05 in CAD patients. After adjustment of APN, CTRP9 was still related to the above parameters. Serum CTRP9 was a protective factor of CAD (P<0.05. When compared with non-CAD patients, leptin mRNA expression increased dramatically, while CTRP9 mRNA expression reduced markedly in epicardial adipose tissue of CAD patients (P<0.05. The leptin expression and macrophage count in CAD group were significantly higher than in non-CAD group, but CAD patients had a markedly lower CTRP9 expression (P<0.05. Conclusions. Circulating and coronary CTRP9 plays an important role in the inflammation and coronary atherosclerosis of CAD patients. Serum CTRP9 is an independent protective factor of CAD.

  13. C1q/TNF-related Protein-12 (CTRP12), a Novel Adipokine That Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Glycemic Control in Mouse Models of Obesity and Diabetes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhikui; Peterson, Jonathan M.; Lei, Xia; Cebotaru, Liudmila; Wolfgang, Michael J.; Baldeviano, G. Christian; Wong, G. William

    2012-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, their underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Many secreted endocrine factors and the intertissue cross-talk they mediate are known to be dysregulated in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here, we describe CTRP12, a novel adipokine with anti-diabetic actions. The mRNA and circulating levels of CTRP12 were decreased in a mouse model of obesity, but its expression in adipocytes was increased by the anti-diabetic drug rosiglitazone. A modest rise in circulating levels of CTRP12 by recombinant protein administration was sufficient to lower blood glucose in wild-type, leptin-deficient ob/ob, and diet-induced obese mice. A short term elevation of serum CTRP12 by adenovirus-mediated expression improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, normalized hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, and lowered postprandial insulin resistance in obese and diabetic mice. CTRP12 improves insulin sensitivity in part by enhancing insulin signaling in the liver and adipose tissue. Further, CTRP12 also acts in an insulin-independent manner; in cultured hepatocytes and adipocytes, CTRP12 directly activated the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway to suppress gluconeogenesis and promote glucose uptake, respectively. Collectively, these data establish CTRP12 as a novel metabolic regulator linking adipose tissue to whole body glucose homeostasis through insulin-dependent and independent mechanisms. PMID:22275362

  14. TRAIL receptor gene editing unveils TRAIL-R1 as a master player of apoptosis induced by TRAIL and ER stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Florent; Rattier, Thibault; Constantinescu, Andrei Alexandru; Zischler, Luciana; Morlé, Aymeric; Ben Mabrouk, Hazem; Humblin, Etienne; Jacquemin, Guillaume; Szegezdi, Eva; Delacote, Fabien; Marrakchi, Naziha; Guichard, Gilles; Pellat-Deceunynck, Catherine; Vacher, Pierre; Legembre, Patrick; Garrido, Carmen; Micheau, Olivier

    2017-02-07

    TRAIL induces selective tumor cell death through TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2. Despite the fact that these receptors share high structural homologies, induction of apoptosis upon ER stress, cell autonomous motility and invasion have solely been described to occur through TRAIL-R2. Using the TALEN gene-editing approach, we show that TRAIL-R1 can also induce apoptosis during unresolved unfolded protein response (UPR). Likewise, TRAIL-R1 was found to co-immunoprecipitate with FADD and caspase-8 during ER stress. Its deficiency conferred resistance to apoptosis induced by thaspigargin, tunicamycin or brefeldin A. Our data also demonstrate that tumor cell motility and invasion-induced by TRAIL-R2 is not cell autonomous but induced in a TRAIL-dependant manner. TRAIL-R1, on the other hand, is unable to trigger cell migration owing to its inability to induce an increase in calcium flux. Importantly, all the isogenic cell lines generated in this study revealed that apoptosis induced TRAIL is preferentially induced by TRAIL-R1. Taken together, our results provide novel insights into the physiological functions of TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 and suggest that targeting TRAIL-R1 for anticancer therapy is likely to be more appropriate owing to its lack of pro-motile signaling capability.

  15. CSE1L/CAS, a microtubule-associated protein, inhibits taxol (paclitaxel)-induced apoptosis but enhances cancer cell apoptosis induced by various chemotherapeutic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ching-Fong; Luo, Shue-Fen; Shen, Tzu-Yun; Lin, Chin-Huang; Chien, Jung-Tsun; Du, Shin-Yi; Jiang, Ming-Chung

    2008-03-31

    CSE1L/CAS, a microtubule-associated, cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein, is highly expressed in various cancers. Microtubules are the target of paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. We studied the effects of increased or reduced CAS expression on cancer cell apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic drugs including paclitaxel. Our results showed that CAS overexpression enhanced apoptosis induced by doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, and tamoxifen, but inhibited paclitaxel-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. Reductions in CAS produced opposite results. CAS overexpression enhanced p53 accumulation induced by doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, tamoxifen, and etoposide. CAS was associated with alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin and enhanced the association between alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin. Paclitaxel can induce G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and microtubule aster formation during apoptosis induction, but CAS overexpression reduced paclitaxel-induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and microtubule aster formation. Our results indicate that CAS may play an important role in regulating the cytotoxicities of chemotherapeutic drugs used in cancer chemotherapy against cancer cells.

  16. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β facilitates cell apoptosis induced by high fluence low-power laser irradiation through acceleration of Bax translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Wu, Shengnan; Xing, Da

    2011-03-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is a critical activator of cell apoptosis induced by a diverse array of insults. However, the effects of GSK-3β on the human lung adenocarcinoma cell (ASTC-a-1) apoptosis induced by high fluence low-power laser irradiation (HF-LPLI) are not clear. Here, we showed that GSK-3β was constantly translocated from cytoplasm to nucleus and activated during HF-LPLI-induced cell apoptosis. In addition, we found that co-overexpression of YFP-GSK-3β and CFP-Bax in ASTC-a-1 cells accelerated both Bax translocations to mitochondria and cell apoptosis, compared to the cells expressed CFP-Bax only under HF-LPLI treatment, indicating that GSK-3β facilitated ASTC-a-1 cells apoptosis through acceleration mitochondrial translocation of Bax. Our results demonstrate that GSK-3β exerts some of its pro-apoptotic effects in ASTC-a-1 cells by regulating the mitochondrial localization of Bax, a key component of the intrinsic apoptotic cascade.

  17. Essential role of caspase-8 in p53/p73-dependent apoptosis induced by etoposide in head and neck carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uematsu Hiroshi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caspase-8 is a key upstream mediator in death receptor-mediated apoptosis and also participates in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis via cleavage of proapoptotic Bid. However, the role of caspase-8 in p53- and p73-dependent apoptosis induced by genotoxic drugs remains unclear. We recently reported that the reconstitution of procaspase-8 is sufficient for sensitizing cisplatin- but not etoposide-induced apoptosis, in chemoresistant and caspase-8 deficient HOC313 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC cells. Results We show that p53/p73-dependent caspase-8 activation is required for sensitizing etoposide-induced apoptosis by utilizing HOC313 cells carrying a temperature-sensitive p53G285K mutant. Restoration of wild-type p53 function under the permissive conditions, together with etoposide treatment, led to substantial transcriptional activation of proapoptotic Noxa and PUMA, but failed to induce apoptosis. In addition to p53 restoration, caspase-8 reconstitution was needed for sensitization to etoposide-induced apoptosis, mitochondria depolarization, and cleavage of the procaspases-3, and -9. In etoposide-sensitive Ca9-22 cells carrying a temperature-insensitive mutant p53, siRNA-based p73 knockdown blocked etoposide-induced apoptosis and procaspase-8 cleavage. However, induction of p73 protein and up-regulation of Noxa and PUMA, although observed in Ca9-22 cells, were hardly detected in etoposide-treated HOC313 cells under non-permissive conditions, suggesting a contribution of p73 reduction to etoposide resistance in HOC313 cells. Finally, the caspase-9 inhibitor Ac-LEHD-CHO or caspase-9 siRNA blocked etoposide-induced caspase-8 activation, Bid cleavage, and apoptosis in both cell lines, indicating that p53/p73-dependent caspase-8 activation lies downstream of mitochondria. Conclusions we conclude that p53 and p73 can act as upstream regulators of caspase-8, and that caspase-8 is an essential mediator of the p53/p73

  18. Plasma C1q/TNF-Related Protein-3 (CTRP-3) and High-Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB-1) Concentrations in Subjects with Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Huili; Qu, Hua; Wang, Hang

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To detect the association of C1q/TNF-related protein-3 (CTRP-3) and high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1) in subjects with prediabetes (pre-DM) and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (nT2DM). Methods. 224 eligible participants were included. The 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and several clinical parameters of metabolic disorders and cytokines were measured. All participants were divided into three groups: normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n = 62), pre-DM (n = 111), and nT2DM group (n = 56). Results. Plasma CTRP-3 concentrations were significantly lower in subjects with pre-DM and nT2DM than that of the NGT group, while plasma HMGB-1 levels were higher in pre-DM and nT2DM group compared with the NGT group (P < 0.05). A multiple linear regression analysis showed both plasma CTRP-3 and HMGB-1 concentrations were independently associated with homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (P < 0.05 for all). Further multiple logistical regression analyses revealed that both plasma CTRP-3 and HMGB-1 levels were significantly associated with pre-DM and nT2DM after adjusting for several confounders (P < 0.001 for all). Conclusions. Circulating CTRP-3 and HMGB-1 concentrations might be promising biomarkers to predict prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.

  19. Exosomes derived from human platelet-rich plasma prevent apoptosis induced by glucocorticoid-associated endoplasmic reticulum stress in rat osteonecrosis of the femoral head via the Akt/Bad/Bcl-2 signal pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shi-Cong; Yuan, Ting; Rui, Bi-Yu; Zhu, Zhen-Zhong; Guo, Shang-Chun; Zhang, Chang-Qing

    2017-01-01

    An excess of glucocorticoids (GCs) is reported to be one of the most common causes of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). In addition, GCs can induce bone cell apoptosis through modulating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Among the three main signal pathways in ER stress, the PERK (protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase)/CHOP (CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein) pathway has been considered to be closely associated with apoptosis. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been referred to as a concentration of growth factors and the exosomes derived from PRP (PRP-Exos) have a similar effect to their parent material. The enriched growth factors can be encapsulated into PRP-Exos and activate Akt and Erk pathways to promote angiogenesis. Activation of the Akt pathway may promote the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins like Bcl-2, while CHOP can inhibit B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) expression to increase the level of cleaved caspase-3 and lead to cell death. Consequently, we hypothesized that PRP-Exos prevent apoptosis induced by glucocorticoid-associated ER stress in rat ONFH via the Akt/Bad/Bcl-2 signal pathway. To verify this hypothesis, a dexamethasone (DEX)-treated in vitro cell model and methylprednisolone (MPS)-treated in vivo rat model were adopted. Characterization of PRP-Exos, and effects of PRP-Exos on proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and osteogenesis of cells treated with GCs in vitro and in vivo were examined. Furthermore, the mechanism by which PRP-Exos rescue the GC-induced apoptosis through the Akt/Bad/Bcl-2 pathway was also investigated. The results indicate that PRP-Exos have the capability to prevent GC-induced apoptosis in a rat model of ONFH by promoting Bcl-2 expression via the Akt/Bad/Bcl-2 signal pathway under ER stress. PMID:28255363

  20. Circulating complement-C1q TNF-related protein 1 levels are increased in patients with type 2 diabetes and are associated with insulin sensitivity in Chinese subjects.

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    Xuebo Pan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complement-C1q TNF-related protein 1 (CTRP1, a member of the CTRP superfamily, possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects in mice. However, the clinical relevance of CTRP1 has been seldom explored. The current study aimed to investigate the association of circulating CTRP1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in a Chinese population. DESIGN AND METHODS: Serum CTRP1 and adiponectin levels of 96 T2DM patients and 85 healthy subjects were determined by ELISA, and their associations with adiposity, glucose and lipid profiles were studied. In a subgroup of this study, the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was performed in 20 healthy and 20 T2DM subjects to evaluate the relationship among serum levels of CTRP1 and adiponectin, insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. RESULTS: Serum CTRP1 levels were significantly increased in patients with T2DM, compared with healthy controls (p<0.001. Similar to adiponectin, serum levels of CTRP1 were significantly correlated to several parameters involved in glucose metabolism and insulin resistance, and independently associated with fasting glucose levels (p<0.05 after BMI and gender adjustments. Furthermore, CTRP1 levels were positively correlated to insulin secretion, while negatively to insulin sensitivity, as measured by OGTT. CONCLUSION: CTRP1 is a novel adipokine associated with T2DM in humans. The paradoxical increase of serum CTRP1 levels in T2DM subjects may be due to a compensatory response to the adverse glucose and lipid metabolism, which warrants further investigation.

  1. Circulating C1q complement/TNF-related protein (CTRP) 1, CTRP9, CTRP12 and CTRP13 concentrations in Type 2 diabetes mellitus: In vivo regulation by glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Man Man; Tan, Bee Kang; Chen, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The C1q complement/TNF-related protein (CTRP) superfamily, which includes the adipokine adiponectin, has been shown in animal models to have positive metabolic and cardiovascular effects. We sought to investigate circulating CTRP1, CTRP9, CTRP12 and CTRP13 concentrations in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), with age and BMI matched controls, and to examine the effects of a 2 hour 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on serum CTRP1, CTRP9, CTRP12 and CTRP13 levels in persons with T2DM. Design Cross-sectional study [newly diagnosed T2DM (n = 124) and control (n = 139) participants]. Serum CTRP1, CTRP9, CTRP12 and CTRP13 were measured by ELISA. Results Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol (TCH), Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, TCH/High-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio, triglycerides/HDL ratio, glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment–insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), C-reactive protein and endothelial lipase were significantly higher, whereas leptin and adiponectin were significantly lower in T2DM participants. Serum CTRP1 were significantly higher and CTRP12 significantly lower in T2DM participants. Age, diastolic blood pressure, glucose and CTRP12 were predictive of serum CTRP1; leptin was predictive of serum CTRP9; glucose and CTRP1 were predictive of serum CTRP12; endothelial lipase was predictive of serum CTRP13. Finally, serum CTRP1 were significantly higher and CTRP12 significantly lower in T2DM participants after a 2 hour 75g OGTT. Conclusions Our data supports CTRP1 and CTRP12 as potential novel biomarkers for the prediction and early diagnosis of T2DM. Furthermore, pharmacological agents that target CTRP1 and CTRP12 could represent a new strategy in the treatment of T2DM. PMID:28207876

  2. A soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products inhibits myocardial apoptosis induced by ischemia/reperfusion via the JAK2/STAT3 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xue; Guo, Cai-xia; Zeng, Xiang-jun; Li, Hui-hua; Chen, Bu-xing; Du, Feng-he

    2015-08-01

    sRAGE can protect cardiomyocytes from apoptosis induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). However, the signaling mechanisms in cardioprotection by sRAGE are currently unknown. We investigated the cardioprotective effect and potential molecular mechanisms of sRAGE inhibition on apoptosis in the mouse myocardial I/R as an in vivo model and neonatal rat cardiomyocyte subjected to ischemic buffer as an in vitro model. Cardiac function and myocardial infarct size following by I/R were evaluated with echocardiography and Evans blue/2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining and caspase-3 activity. Expression of the apoptosis-related proteins p53, Bax, Bcl-2, JAK2/p-JAK2, STAT3/p-STAT3, AKT/p-AKT, ERK/p-ERK, STAT5A/p-STAT5A and STAT6/p-STAT6 were detected by western blot analysis in the presence and absence of the JAK2 inhibitor AG 490. sRAGE (100 µg/day) improved the heart function in mice with I/R: the left ventricular ejection fraction and fractional shortening were increased by 42 and 57%, respectively; the infarct size was decreased by 52%, the TUNEL-positive myocytes by 66%, and activity of caspase-3 by 24%, the protein expression of p53 and ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 by 29 and 88%, respectively; protein expression of the p-JAK2, p-STAT3 and p-AKT were increased by 92, 280 and 31%, respectively. sRAGE have no effect on protein expression of p-ERK1/2, p-STAT5A and p-STAT6 following by I/R. sRAGE (900 nmol/L) exhibited anti-apoptotic effects in cardiomyocytes by decreasing TUNEL-positive myocytes by 67% and caspase-3 activity by 20%, p53 protein level and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio by 58 and 86%, respectively; increasing protein expression of the p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 by 26 and 156%, respectively, p-AKT protein level by 33%. The anti-apoptotic effects of sRAGE following I/R were blocked by JAK2 inhibitor AG 490. The effect of sRAGE reduction on TUNEL-positive myocytes and caspase-3 activity were abolished by PI3K inhibitor LY294002, but not ERK 1

  3. JNK and NFκB dependence of apoptosis induced by vinblastine in human acute promyelocytic leukaemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calviño, Eva; Tejedor, M Cristina; Sancho, Pilar; Herráez, Angel; Diez, José C

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between the mitogen-activated protein kinase response, nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) expression and the apoptosis in human acute promyelocytic leukaemia NB4 cells treated with vinblastine was investigated in this work. Cell viability, subdiploid DNA and cell cycle were analysed by propidium iodide permeability and flow cytometry analyses. Apoptosis was determined by annexin V-Fluorescein isothiocyanate assays. Western-blot analysis was used for determination of expression levels of apoptotic factors (p53, Bax and Bcl2), intracellular kinases [serine/threonine-specific protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)], NFκB factor and caspases. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay was usefully applied to study DNA-NFκB interaction. In NB4 cells, vinblastine produces alteration of p53 and DNA fragmentation. Vinblastine treatment had an antiproliferative effect via the induction of apoptosis producing Bax/Bcl-2 imbalance. Vinblastine treatment suppressed NFκB expression and depressed NFκB-DNA binding activity while maintaining JNK activation that subsequently resulted in apoptotic response through caspase-dependent pathway. Our study provides a possible anti-cancer mechanism of vinblastine action on NB4 cells by deregulation of the intracellular signalling cascade affecting to JNK activation and NFκB expression. Moreover, JNK activation and NFκB depression can be very significant factors in apoptosis induction by vinblastine.

  4. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole derivatives containing benzimidazole skeleton as potential anticancer and apoptosis inducing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, T Srinivasa; Kulhari, Hitesh; Reddy, V Ganga; Bansal, Vipul; Kamal, Ahmed; Shukla, Ravi

    2015-08-28

    A series of forty different pyrazole containing benzimidazole hybrids (6-45) have been designed, synthesized and evaluated for their potential anti-proliferative activity against three human tumor cell lines - lung (A549), breast (MCF-7), and cervical (HeLa). Some of the compounds, specifically 9, 17, and 28, showed potent growth inhibition against all the cell lines tested, with IC50 values in the range of 0.83-1.81 μM. Breast cancer cells were used for further detailed studies to understand the mechanism of cell growth inhibition and apoptosis inducing effect of compounds. The morphology, cell migration and long term clonogenic survival of MCF-7 breast cancer cells were severely affected by treatment with these compounds. Flow-cytometry revealed the compounds arrested MCF-7 cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle via down regulation of cyclin D2 and CDK2. Fluorescent staining and DNA fragmentation studies showed that cell proliferation was inhibited by induction of apoptosis. Moreover, the compounds led to collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (DΨm) and increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were noted. The ease of synthesis and the remarkable biological activities make these compounds promising new frameworks for the development of cancer therapeutics.

  5. Computational design, chemical synthesis, and biological evaluation of a novel ERK inhibitor (BL-EI001) with apoptosis-inducing mechanisms in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Fu, Leilei; Zhang, Cui; Zhang, Lan; Zhang, Yonghui; Ouyang, Liang; He, Gu; Huang, Jian

    2015-03-30

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) plays a crucial role in the resistance of apoptosis in carcinogenesis; however, its targeted small-molecule inhibitors still remain to be discovered. Thus, in this study, we computationally and experimentally screened a series of small-molecule inhibitors targeting ERK toward different types of human breast cancer cells. Subsequently, we synthesized some candidate ERK inhibitors, identified a novel ERK inhibitor (BL-EI001) with anti-proliferative activities, and analyzed the BL-EI001/ERK complex. Moreover, we found that BL-EI001 induced breast cancer cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway but independent on Ras/Raf/MEK pathway. In addition, we carried out proteomics analyses for exploring some possible BL-EI001-induced apoptotic pathways, and further found that BL-EI001-induced apoptosis affected ERK phosphorylation in breast cancer. Further, we found that BL-EI001 bear anti-tumor activities without remarkable toxicities, and also induced mitochondrial apoptosis by targeting ERK in vivo. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in silico design and experimental discovery of a synthesized small-molecule ERK inhibitor (BL-EI001)as a potential novel apoptosis-inducing drug in the treatment of breast cancer.

  6. Apoptosis Induced by Photodynamic Therapy with Benzoporphyrin Derivative Monoacid Ring A and Exploration of its Potential Mechanism in Bladder Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuanshan Xu; Shiming Wu; Zhigang Wang; Lehua Yu; Qing Yang; Xiabo Zeng

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate apoptosis induced by photodynamic therapy with benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA) and explore its potential mechanism in human bladder cancer cells.METHODS Photosensitization of BPD-MA was activated with a red light Laser (632.8nm) delivered at 10 mW/cm2 to give a total dose of 2.4 J/cm2.Cellular apoptosis was measured with flow cytometry analysis and an insitu terminal deoxyuridine nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. Changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (△ψm) were monitored by a flow cytometric method with Rhodamine 123 staining and the expression of bcl2 in BIU-87 cells was detected with immunocytochemical staining.RESULTS At 8 h following photodynamic treatment, the degree of apoptosis was significantly increased when analyzed with flow cytometry and TUNEL assay. Treatment of the BIU-87 cells by PDT with BPD-MA resulted in the collapse of the △m and a decrease of bcl-2 expression.CONCLUSION BPD-MA-mediated PDT can effectively induce apoptosis in BIU-87 cells. The mechanism probably is through a mitochondrial-initiated pathway.

  7. Implication of Akt, ERK1/2 and alternative p38MAPK signalling pathways in human colon cancer cell apoptosis induced by green tea EGCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo-Guisado, María Isabel; Zur, Rafal; Lorenzo, María Jesús; Risco, Ana; Martín-Serrano, Miguel A; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Cuenda, Ana; Centeno, Francisco

    2015-10-01

    We investigated apoptosis induced by the green tea component the epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and the pathways underlying its activity in a colon cancer cell line. A complete understanding of the mechanism(s) and molecules targeted by green tea polyphenols could be useful in developing novel therapeutic approaches for cancer treatment. EGCG, which is the major polyphenol in green tea, has cytotoxic effects and induced cell death in HT-29 cell death. In this study, we evaluated the effect EGCG on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt pathways. EGCG treatment increased phospho-ERK1/2, -JNK1/2 and -p38α, -p38γ and -p38δ, as well as phospho-Akt levels. Using a combination of kinase inhibitors, we found that EGCG-induced cell death is partially blocked by inhibiting Akt, ERK1/2 or alternative p38MAPK activity. Our data suggest that these kinase pathways are involved in the anti-cancer effects of EGCG and indicate potential use of this compound as chemotherapeutic agent for colon cancer treatment.

  8. Antiproliferative and Apoptosis-Inducing Activities of 4-Isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethylphenol Isolated from Butanol Fraction of Cordyceps bassiana

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    Ji Hye Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cordyceps species have been widely used for treating various cancer diseases. Although the Cordyceps species have been widely known as an alternative anticancer remedy, which compounds are responsible for their anticancer activity is not fully understood. In this study, therefore, we examined the anticancer activity of 5 isolated compounds derived from the butanol fraction (Cb-BF of Cordyceps bassiana. For this purpose, several cancer cell lines such as C6 glioma, MDA-MB-231, and A549 cells were employed and details of anticancer mechanism were further investigated. Of 5 compounds isolated by activity-guided fractionation from BF of Cb-EE, KTH-13, and 4-isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethylphenol, Cb-BF was found to be the most potent antiproliferative inhibitor of C6 glioma and MDA-MB-231 cell growth. KTH-13 treatment increased DNA laddering, upregulated the level of Annexin V positive cells, and altered morphological changes of C6 glioma and MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, KTH-13 increased the levels of caspase 3, caspase 7, and caspase 9 cleaved forms as well as the protein level of Bax but not Bcl-2. It was also found that the phosphorylation of AKT and p85/PI3K was also clearly reduced by KTH-13 exposure. Therefore, our results suggest KTH-13 can act as a potent antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing component from Cordyceps bassiana, contributing to the anticancer activity of this mushroom.

  9. Antiproliferative and Apoptosis-Inducing Activities of 4-Isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethyl)phenol Isolated from Butanol Fraction of Cordyceps bassiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hye; Sung, Gi-Ho; Kim, Han Gyung; Park, Jae Gwang; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Yoon, Deok Hyo; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kang, Hyojeung; Song, Changsik; Cho, Jae Han; Lee, Kang-Hyo; Kim, Tae Woong

    2015-01-01

    The Cordyceps species have been widely used for treating various cancer diseases. Although the Cordyceps species have been widely known as an alternative anticancer remedy, which compounds are responsible for their anticancer activity is not fully understood. In this study, therefore, we examined the anticancer activity of 5 isolated compounds derived from the butanol fraction (Cb-BF) of Cordyceps bassiana. For this purpose, several cancer cell lines such as C6 glioma, MDA-MB-231, and A549 cells were employed and details of anticancer mechanism were further investigated. Of 5 compounds isolated by activity-guided fractionation from BF of Cb-EE, KTH-13, and 4-isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethyl)phenol, Cb-BF was found to be the most potent antiproliferative inhibitor of C6 glioma and MDA-MB-231 cell growth. KTH-13 treatment increased DNA laddering, upregulated the level of Annexin V positive cells, and altered morphological changes of C6 glioma and MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, KTH-13 increased the levels of caspase 3, caspase 7, and caspase 9 cleaved forms as well as the protein level of Bax but not Bcl-2. It was also found that the phosphorylation of AKT and p85/PI3K was also clearly reduced by KTH-13 exposure. Therefore, our results suggest KTH-13 can act as a potent antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing component from Cordyceps bassiana, contributing to the anticancer activity of this mushroom. PMID:25918546

  10. Singlet oxygen treatment of tumor cells triggers extracellular singlet oxygen generation, catalase inactivation and reactivation of intercellular apoptosis-inducing signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riethmüller, Michaela; Burger, Nils; Bauer, Georg

    2015-12-01

    Intracellular singlet oxygen generation in photofrin-loaded cells caused cell death without discrimination between nonmalignant and malignant cells. In contrast, extracellular singlet oxygen generation caused apoptosis induction selectively in tumor cells through singlet oxygen-mediated inactivation of tumor cell protective catalase and subsequent reactivation of intercellular ROS-mediated apoptosis signaling through the HOCl and the NO/peroxynitrite signaling pathway. Singlet oxygen generation by extracellular photofrin alone was, however, not sufficient for optimal direct inactivation of catalase, but needed to trigger the generation of cell-derived extracellular singlet oxygen through the interaction between H2O2 and peroxynitrite. Thereby, formation of peroxynitrous acid, generation of hydroxyl radicals and formation of perhydroxyl radicals (HO2(.)) through hydroxyl radical/H2O2 interaction seemed to be required as intermediate steps. This amplificatory mechanism led to the formation of singlet oxygen at a sufficiently high concentration for optimal inactivation of membrane-associated catalase. At low initial concentrations of singlet oxygen, an additional amplification step needed to be activated. It depended on singlet oxygen-dependent activation of the FAS receptor and caspase-8, followed by caspase-8-mediated enhancement of NOX activity. The biochemical mechanisms described here might be considered as promising principle for the development of novel approaches in tumor therapy that specifically direct membrane-associated catalase of tumor cells and thus utilize tumor cell-specific apoptosis-inducing ROS signaling.

  11. Pyrrocidine A, a metabolite of endophytic fungi, has a potent apoptosis-inducing activity against HL60 cells through caspase activation via the Michael addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, Shota; Fujisawa, Nozomi; Yoshida, Jun; Watanabe, Mitsuru; Dan, Shingo; Yamori, Takao; Shiono, Yoshihito; Kimura, Ken-ichi

    2016-03-01

    Pyrrocidine A is a known antimicrobial compound produced by endophytic fungi and has a unique 13-membered macrocyclic alkaloid structure with an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl group. We have previously reported that pyrrocidine A shows potent cytotoxicity against human acute promyelocytic leukemia HL60 cells, and the activity is 70-fold higher than that of pyrrocidine B which is the analog lacking the α,β-unsaturated carbonyl group. Pyrrocidine A induced nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation and caspase activation in HL60 cells. Since the DNA fragmentation was suppressed by pretreatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp (OMe) fluoromethylketone (z-VAD-fmk), caspase-mediated apoptosis contributes to pyrrocidine A-induced cytotoxicity. JFCR39 human cancer cells panel indicated that the mechanism of action of pyrrocidine A is different from other clinical anticancer drugs, and this compound broadly inhibited the growth of various cancer cell lines. The apoptosis induction by pyrrocidine A was suppressed by both N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) and glutathione, both of which are thiol-containing antioxidants. Furthermore, pyrrocidine A directly bound to N-acetyl-l-cysteine methyl ester (NACM) through the Michael-type addition at the α,β-unsaturated carbonyl group and was detected by HPLC and liquid chromatography-ESI-tandem MS (LC-ESI-MS/MS) analyses. This indicates that this moiety is crucial for the potent apoptosis-inducing activity of pyrrocidine A.

  12. [Enhanced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis-inducing effects of docetaxel-loaded lipid microbubble on human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Kang, Juan; Zeng, Yan; Li, Ao; Wu, Xiaoling; Wang, Zhigang

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the proliferation inhibition and apoptosis-inducing effect of docetaxel-loaded lipid microbubble (DLLM) combined with ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) on human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. DLLM was prepared by mechanical vibration, and its physical properties were characterized. The median inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of DLLM was determined with MTT assay, and its cytotoxicity evaluated with cell counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The effects of docetaxel, DLLM, and DLLM combined with UTMD on cell cycle and apoptosis of BxPC3 cells were tested with flow cytometry (FCM) and TUNEL assay, respectively. DLLM had an average size of 1.6 µm, and the average drug entrapment efficiency and drug-loaded amount was 64.2% and 16.1%, respectively. Compared with the control groups, DLLM had a significantly enhanced cytotoxic effect (PBxPC3 cells (PBxPC3 cells, and can serve as an effective drug delivery system for pancreatic cancer therapy.

  13. β-Caryophyllene, a Compound Isolated from the Biblical Balm of Gilead (Commiphora gileadensis, Is a Selective Apoptosis Inducer for Tumor Cell Lines

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    Eitan Amiel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The biblical balm of Gilead (Commiphora gileadensis was investigated in this study for anticancerous activity against tumor cell lines. The results obtained from ethanol-based extracts and from essential oils indicated that β-caryophyllene (trans-(1R,9S-8-methylene-4,11,11-trimethylbicyclo[7.2.0]undec-4-ene is a key component in essential oils extracted from the balm of Gilead. β-Caryophyllene can be found in spice blends, citrus flavors, soaps, detergents, creams, and lotions, as well as in a variety of food and beverage products, and it is known for its anti-inflammatory, local anaesthetic, and antifungal properties. It is also a potent cytotoxic compound over a wide range of cell lines. In the current paper, we found that Commiphora gileadensis stem extracts and essential oil have an antiproliferative proapoptotic effect against tumor cells and not against normal cells. β-caryophyllene caused a potent induction of apoptosis accompanied by DNA ladder and caspase-3 catalytic activity in tumor cell lines. In summary, we showed that C. gileadensis stems contain an apoptosis inducer that acts, in a selective manner, against tumor cell lines and not against normal cells.

  14. Comparative study of the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing activities of black tea theaflavins and green tea catechin on murine myeloid leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Hong-Lok; Ip, Wai-Ki; Chen, Zhen-Yu; Mak, Nai-Ki; Leung, Kwok-Nam

    2004-03-01

    Among the black tea polyphenols, theaflavins are generally considered to be the more effective components for the inhibition of carcinogenesis. In this study, we attempted to compare the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing activities of the four black tea theaflavins (TF-1, TF-2A, TF-2B and TF-3) with the major green tea catechin epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the murine myeloid leukemia WEHI-3B JCS cells. All the four black tea theaflavins were shown to exert potent anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effects on the leukemia WEHI-3B JCS cells in a dose-dependent manner. The observed anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effects were in the following order of potency: EGCG > TF-2B > TF-3 > TF-2A > TF-1. In addition, all theaflavins were capable of inducing apoptosis in the leukemia WEHI-3B JCS cells. Among the four theaflavins tested, TF-2B and TF-3 were found to be slightly more potent in inducing apoptosis of the WEHI-3B JCS cells than that of TF-2A and TF-1 but were comparable to the major green tea epicatechin EGCG. More interestingly, both TF-2B and TF-3 were found to be much more effective than TF-1 and TF-2B in reducing both the in vitro clonogenicity and in vivo tumorigenicity of the WEHI-3B JCS cells, suggesting that these two black tea theaflavins might represent potential candidates for the treatment of some forms of leukemia.

  15. Pouterin, a novel potential cytotoxic lectin-like protein with apoptosis-inducing activity in tumorigenic mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boleti, Ana Paula de A; Ventura, Cláudio A; Justo, Giselle Z; Silva, Rodrigo A; de Sousa, Ana Carolina T; Ferreira, Carmen V; Yano, Tomomasa; Macedo, Maria Lígia R

    2008-06-15

    In this study, the cytotoxicity of pouterin in tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic mammalian cell lines was investigated. We found that HeLa, Hep-2 and HT-29 tumor cells were highly sensitive to pouterin cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner, whereas non-tumorigenic Vero cells and human lymphocytes were relatively resistant to the protein. Among the tumor cell lines, HeLa cells showed the highest susceptibility to pouterin cytotoxicity, exhibiting a time-dependent increase in LDH leakage and an IC(50) value of 5mug/mL. Morphological alterations such as rounding, cell shrinkage and chromatin condensation, consistent with apoptotic cell death were observed. Apoptosis induction was demonstrated by DNA fragmentation as detected by terminal dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). Furthermore, HeLa cells incubated with pouterin showed disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. Western blot analysis revealed that pouterin caused increased expression of p21, thus indicating cell cycle arrest. Subsequent studies provided evidence that apoptosis may be partially explained in the activation of the tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) signaling. Interestingly, a time-dependent decrease of the expression of p65 nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) subunit, concomitant with a downregulation of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (IAP1) was observed, suggesting that TNFR-mediated apoptosis is the predominant pathway induced by pouterin in HeLa cells.

  16. Comparative evaluation of antiproliferative, antiangiogenic and apoptosis inducing potential of black tea polyphenols in the hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathiba Duvuru

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the relative chemopreventive efficacy of two black tea polyphenols, Polyphenon-B [P-B] and BTF-35 on 7,12-dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP carcinogenesis. Methods Hamsters were divided into 6 groups. The right buccal pouches of animals in groups 1–3 were painted with 0.5% of DMBA three times a week for 14 weeks. While hamsters in group 1 received no further treatment, animals in groups 2 and 3 received diet containing 0.05% P-B and BTF-35 respectively, four weeks before DMBA painting that was continued until the end of the experiments. Animals in groups 4 and 5 were given P-B and BTF-35 alone respectively as in groups 2 and 3. Group 6 animals served as the untreated control. All the animals were sacrificed after 18 weeks. The expression of p21, cyclin D1, glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-P, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, cytokeratins and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF was analysed by RT-PCR, immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. Results DMBA treated animals developed buccal pouch carcinomas that displayed increased expression of p21, cyclin D1, GST-P, NF-κB, cytokeratins, VEGF and Bcl-2 with decreased expression of Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP. Dietary administration of both P-B and BTF-35 reduced the incidence of DMBA-induced HBP carcinomas by modulating markers of cell proliferation, cell survival, tumour infiltration, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Conclusion The results of the present study provide a mechanistic basis for the chemopreventive potential of black tea polyphenols. The greater efficacy of BTF-35 in inhibiting HBP carcinogenesis and modulating multiple molecular targets may have a potential role in the prevention of oral cancer.

  17. Lipocalin 2, a new GADD153 target gene, as an apoptosis inducer of endoplasmic reticulum stress in lung cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsin, I-Lun; Hsiao, Yueh-Chieh [Institute of Medical and Molecular Toxicology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan (China); Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ming-Fang [Division of Chest Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40201, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan (China); Jan, Ming-Shiou [Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan (China); Tang, Sheau-Chung; Lin, Yu-Wen [Institute of Medical and Molecular Toxicology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan (China); Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Chung-Ping, E-mail: cliff@vghtc.com.tw [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Veterans General Hospital—Taichung, Taichung 40705, Taiwan (China); Department of Surgery, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine and Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China); Ko, Jiunn-Liang, E-mail: jlko@csmu.edu.tw [Institute of Medical and Molecular Toxicology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan (China); Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan (China); Division of Chest Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40201, Taiwan (China)

    2012-09-15

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is activated under severe cellular conditions. GADD153, a member of the C/EBP family, is an unfolded protein response (UPR) responsive transcription factor. Increased levels of lipocalin 2, an acute phase protein, have been found in several epithelial cancers. The aim of this study is to investigate the function of lipocalin 2 in lung cancer cells under ER stress. Treatment with thapsigargin, an ER stress activator, led to increases in cytotoxicity, ER stress, apoptosis, and lipocalin 2 expression in A549 cells. GADD153 silencing decreased lipocalin 2 expression in A549 cells. On chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, ER stress increased GADD153 DNA binding to lipocalin 2 promoter. Furthermore, silencing of lipocalin 2 mitigated ER stress-mediated apoptosis in A549 cells. Our findings demonstrated that lipocalin 2 is a new GADD153 target gene that mediates ER stress-induced apoptosis. Highlights: ► We demonstrate that Lipocalin 2 is a new GADD153 target gene. ► Lipocalin 2 mediates ER stress-induced apoptosis. ► ER stress-induced lipocalin 2 expression is calcium-independent in A549 cells. ► Lipocalin 2 dose not play a major role in ER stress-induced autophagy.

  18. The downregulation of thioredoxin accelerated Neuro2a cell apoptosis induced by advanced glycation end product via activating several pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiang; Ma, Haiying; Qiu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Bo; Qi, Hui; Li, Zeyu; Kong, Hui; Kong, Li

    2015-08-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx), a 12 kDa protein, has different functions in different cellular environments, playing important anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic roles and regulating the expression of transcription factors. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a heterogeneous group of irreversible adducts from glucose-protein condensation reactions and are considered crucial to the development of diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy, neurodegeneration and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to use a Trx inhibitor to investigate the effects and mechanism of Trx down-regulation on AGE-induced Neuro2a cell apoptosis. Neuro2a cells were cultured in vitro and treated with different conditions. The apoptosis and proliferation of Neuro2a cells were detected using flow cytometry, DNA-Ladder and CCK8 assays. Rho 123 was used to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential. ROS generation and caspase3 activity were detected using a DCFH-DA probe and micro-plate reader. Western blotting and real-time PCR were used to detect the expression of proteins and genes. We found that the down-regulation of thioredoxin could accelerate AGE-induced apoptosis in Neuro2a cells. A possible underlying mechanism is that the down-regulation of thioredoxin stimulated the up-regulation of ASK1, p-JNK, PTEN, and Txnip, as well as the down-regulation of p-AKT, ultimately increasing ROS levels and caspase3 activity.

  19. c-Abl is an upstream regulator of acid sphingomyelinase in apoptosis induced by inhibition of integrins αvβ3 and αvβ5.

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    Xiuhai Ren

    Full Text Available Inhibition of integrins αvβ3/αvβ5 by the cyclic function-blocking peptide, RGDfV (Arg-Gly-Asp-Phe-Val can induce apoptosis in both normal cells and tumor cells. We show that RGDfV induced apoptosis in ECV-304 carcinoma cells, increased activity and mRNA expression of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM, and increased ceramides C(16, C(18:0, C(24:0 and C(24:1 while decreasing the corresponding sphingomyelins. siRNA to ASM decreased RGDfV-induced apoptosis as measured by TUNEL, PARP cleavage, mitochondrial depolarization, and caspase-3 and caspase-8 activities, as well as by annexinV in a 3D collagen model. These findings indicate a causal role for ASM in RGDfV-induced apoptosis in ECV-304. We have shown that c-Abl, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, also mediates RGDfV-induced apoptosis. However, c-Abl, has not been previously linked to ASM in any system. Here we show that STI-571 (imatinib, inhibitor of c-Abl inhibited RGDfV-induced ASM activity. Furthermore, STI-571 and c-Abl-siRNA both inhibited RGDfV-induced increase in ASM mRNA, but ASM-siRNA did not affect c-Abl phosphorylation or expression, supporting that c-Abl regulates the RGDfV-induced increase in ASM expression. These studies implicate ASM as a mediator of apoptosis induced by inhibition of integrins αvβ3/αvβ5, and for the first time place c-Abl as an upstream regulator of ASM expression and activity.

  20. VHL-deficient renal cancer cells gain resistance to mitochondria-activating apoptosis inducers by activating AKT through the IGF1R-PI3K pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Ryuji; Harada, Hiroshi; Hirota, Kiichi

    2016-10-01

    We previously developed (2-deoxyglucose)-(ABT-263) combination therapy (2DG-ABT), which induces apoptosis by activating Bak in the mitochondria of highly glycolytic cells with varied genetic backgrounds. However, the rates of apoptosis induced by 2DG-ABT were lower in von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-deficient cancer cells. The re-expression of VHL protein in these cells lowered IGF1R expression in a manner independent of oxygen concentration. Lowering IGF1R expression via small interfering RNA (siRNA) sensitized the cells to 2DG-ABT, suggesting that IGF1R interfered with the activation of apoptosis by the mitochondria. To determine which of the two pathways activated by IGF1R, the Ras-ERK pathway or the PI3K-AKT pathway, was involved in the impairment of mitochondria activation, the cells were treated with a specific inhibitor of either PI3K or ERK, and 2DG-ABT was added to activate the mitochondria. The apoptotic rates resulting from 2DG-ABT treatment were higher in the cells treated with the PI3K inhibitor, while the rates remained approximately the same in the cells treated with the ERK inhibitor. In 2DG-ABT-sensitive cells, a 4-h 2DG treatment caused the dissociation of Mcl-1 from Bak, while ABT treatment alone caused the dissociation of Bcl-xL from Bak without substantially reducing Mcl-1 levels. In 2DG-ABT-resistant cells, Mcl-1 dissociated from Bak only when AKT activity was inhibited during the 4-h 2DG treatment. Thus, in VHL-deficient cells, IGF1R activated AKT and stabilized the Bak-Mcl-1 complex, thereby conferring cell resistance to apoptosis.

  1. A mechanism of male germ cell apoptosis induced by bisphenol-A and nonylphenol involving ADAM17 and p38 MAPK activation.

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    Paulina Urriola-Muñoz

    Full Text Available Germ cell apoptosis regulation is pivotal in order to maintain proper daily sperm production. Several reports have shown that endocrine disruptors such as Bisphenol-A (BPA and Nonylphenol (NP induce germ cell apoptosis along with a decrease in sperm production. Given their ubiquitous distribution in plastic products used by humans it is important to clarify their mechanism of action. TACE/ADAM17 is a widely distributed extracellular metalloprotease and participates in the physiological apoptosis of germ cells during spermatogenesis. The aims of this work were: 1 to determine whether BPA and NP induce ADAM17 activation; and 2 to study whether ADAM17 and/or ADAM10 are involved in germ cell apoptosis induced by BPA and NP in the pubertal rat testis. A single dose of BPA or NP (50 mg/kg induces germ cell apoptosis in 21-day-old male rats, which was prevented by a pharmacological inhibitor of ADAM17, but not by an inhibitor of ADAM10. In vitro, we showed that BPA and NP, at similar concentrations to those found in human samples, induce the shedding of exogenous and endogenous (TNF-α ADAM17 substrates in primary rat Sertoli cell cultures and TM4 cell line. In addition, pharmacological inhibitors of metalloproteases and genetic silencing of ADAM17 prevent the shedding induced in vitro by BPA and NP. Finally, we showed that in vivo BPA and NP induced early activation (phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and translocation of ADAM17 to the cell surface. Interestingly, the inhibition of p38 MAPK prevents germ cell apoptosis and translocation of ADAM17 to the cell surface. These results show for the first time that xenoestrogens can induce activation of ADAM17 at concentrations similar to those found in human samples, suggesting a mechanism by which they could imbalance para/juxtacrine cell-to-cell-communication and induce germ cell apoptosis.

  2. Study of the mechanism on the apoptosis induced in Human leukemia cell line K562 by the combination of indole-3-acetic acid and horseradish peroxidase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Tusheng; Yang Ling; Huang Chen; Liu Liying; Ni Lei; Wang Aiying; Luo Yu

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mechanisms of apoptosis induced in Human leukemia cell line K562 by the combination of indole-3-acetic acid and horseradish peroxidase. Methods Human leukemia cell line K562 were exposed to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) at 20, 40, 60, 80 or 100 mol/L and horseradish peroxidase(HRP) at 1.2 g/mL for varying times. MTT assay was applied to detect the cell proliferation. Flow cytometry was performed to detect the arrest of cell cycle. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay was used to measure apoptosis. 2, 7-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) uptake was measured to determine free radical by confocal microscope. Content of malondiadehyde (MDA) and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured by biochemical methods. Results IAA/HRP initiated growth inhibition of K562 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry revealed that cell cycle arrested at G1/G0 after 24 hours treatment. After 72 hours treatment, apoptotic rate of 100 mol/L IAA group increased to 43.9%, which was 5 times that of control(P<0.01). Content of MDA and activity of SOD increased respectively in treatments compared with control. Meanwhile, IAA/HRP stimulated the formation of free radical, which was increased by IAA concentration-dependently. Conclusion The combination of IAA and HRP can inhibit the growth of Human leukemia cell line K562 in vitro by inducing apoptosis which is associated with the increase of free radical. The combination of IAA and HRP might be a promising chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent against human leukemia.

  3. Studies on the apoptosis inducing and cell cycle regulatory effect of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb chloroform extract on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, Hep 3B

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    Ramesh J. Praseeja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Preliminary studies in our lab showed the anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC activity of Cuscuta reflexa in Hep 3B cell line. This study aims to detail the mechanism behind the anti-HCC effect of C. reflexa on HCC cell line. The chloroform extract of C. reflexa (CRCE reduced the proliferation of Hep 3B cells in a dose and time dependent manner without showing much cytotoxic effect on non-hepatocyte cell lines, HEK 293 and RAW 264.7. C. reflexa induced apoptosis in Hep 3B cells as evidenced by DNA fragmentation, Annexin V-FITC apoptotic assay, PARP cleavage, Caspase activation etc. Treatment with this extract significantly increased the percentage of apoptotic cells. It also caused G1 arrest, associated with apoptotic induction. The active fractions present in CRCE were also isolated by TLC.Industrial relevance. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC has gained major clinical interest because of its worldwide increasing incidence and carries a poor survival rate. A complete cure for this disease is not available today. C. reflexa is ethnomedically used for the treatment of various diseases especially jaundice. In this study we have evaluated the apoptosis inducing and associated cell cycle regulatory effect of CRCE in HCC cell line (Hep 3B. Results showed that CRCE is able to induce apoptosis in Hep 3B cells in a dose and time dependent manner through the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. CRCE is a potential candidate for further development as an anti-HCC drug. The HPTLC fingerprint profile of CRCE was analyzed and the active fraction was isolated. Further studies are needed to identify and characterize the isolated active fraction for the development of active anti-HCC drug.Keywords. Hepatocellular carcinoma; Hep 3B; Cuscuta reflexa; Apoptosis; Cell cycle arrest

  4. Inhibitory effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on apoptosis induced by etoposide, okadaic acid and AraC in Neuro2a cells

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    Tomizawa,Kazuhito

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal apoptosis is involved in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson.s disease. An efficient means of preventing it remains to be found. Some n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22 : 6n-3 and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20 : 5n-3 have been reported to be protective against the neuronal apoptosis and neuronal degeneration seen after spinal cord injury (SCI [1]. However, it is unclear which kinds of PUFAs have the most potent ability to inhibit neuronal apoptosis and whether the simultaneous treatment of PUFAs inhibits the apoptosis. In the present study, we compared the abilities of various n-3- and n-6- PUFAs to inhibit the apoptosis induced after the administration of different apoptotic inducers, etoposide, okadaic acid, and AraC, in mouse neuroblastoma cells (Neuro2a. Preincubation with DHA (22 : 6n-3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20 : 5n-3, alpha-linolenic acid (alpha-LNA, 18 : 3n-3, linoleic acid (LA, 18 : 2n-6, arachidonic acid (AA, 20 : 4n-3, and gamma-linolenic acid (gamma-LNA, 18 : 3n-6 significantly inhibited caspase-3 activity and LDH leakage but simultaneous treatment with the PUFAs had no effect on the apoptosis of Neuro2a cells. There were no significant differences of the anti-apoptotic eff ect among the PUFAs. These results suggest that PUFAs may not be effective for inhibiting neuronal cell death after acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. However, dietary supplementation with PUFAs may be beneficial as a potential means to delay the onset of the diseases and/or their rate of progression.

  5. Effects of dissolved gases and an echo contrast agent on apoptosis induced by ultrasound and its mechanism via the mitochondria-caspase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hidemi; Zhao, Qing-Li; Kondo, Takashi

    2002-05-01

    Human histiocytic lymphoma U937 cells were exposed to continuous 1-MHz ultrasound (US) for therapeutic use, (0 approximately 6.5 W/cm(2) (I(SPTA)). Apoptosis and its related end points were examined by flow cytometry. Fraction of cells with low mitochondria membrane potential were observed after sonication and significant superoxide and peroxide formation, increased activity of caspase-3, and DNA fragmentation revealed biochemically, were also found. The fraction of early apoptosis and secondary necrosis increased with the incubation time after sonication. Early apoptosis observed at 6 h after sonication reached its maximum at 2 min of sonication and gradually decreased. On the other hand, secondary necrosis increased with the duration of sonication. When the effects of dissolved gases, Ar, N(2), O(2), air, N(2)O and CO(2), on free radical formation due to inertial cavitation were investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping, formation of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen atoms was found in solutions saturated with Ar, N(2), O(2) and air, but not with N(2)O and CO(2). Apoptosis induced by US was also dependent on the dissolved gases in the order Ar = N(2) = O(2) = air > N(2)O = CO(2) approximately 0. These results suggest that US-induced apoptosis, which is mitochondria-caspase dependent, was linked to inertial cavitation. However, quantities of free radicals did not influence the fraction of early apoptosis and secondary necrosis. When the cells were sonicated in the presence of an echo contrast agent, Levovist; synergistic enhancement of secondary necrosis induced by US was observed at concentrations of more than 20 mg/mL. In contrast, an additive increase of early apoptosis was observed in the combined treatments. These results suggest that Levovist; acting as cavitation nuclei, enhances secondary necrosis induced by US due to an increase in the membrane damage.

  6. The combination of extracorporeal shock wave therapy and noncontact apoptosis-inducing radiofrequency achieved significant waist circumferential reduction: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeyeon

    2017-06-30

    A paradigm shift towards noninvasive body contouring has occurred over the past few years. Radiofrequency (RF) is one popular treatment method. Noncontact-type RF systems with frequencies in the tens of megahertz represent a novel approach. The current pilot study investigated the efficacy of an interesting combination of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) and an apoptosis-inducing RF (AiRF) system for circumferential reduction. Twenty-seven females, ages ranging from 13-69 years, (mean age 37.96 years) participated in the study. They were assigned to two treatment-based groups: Group A (n=19) and Group B (n=8). A voluntary daily dietary restriction plan of 500 kcal was put in place for all subjects. A combination of two different devices was used; an extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) system and a 27.12 MHz AiRF system. Either 4 (n=28) or 6 sessions (n=19) were given, one week apart. In Group A, the ESWT was applied before the RF with the reverse order of application in Group B. Weight and waist circumference were noted at baseline, then one week after the 4(th) and the 6(th) treatment sessions at which points clinical photography was also obtained. All patients showed statistically significant waist circumferential loss in both the 4- and 6-week treated groups: Group A, 6.3 cm and 8.8 cm; Group B, 5.9 cm and 6.4 cm, respectively. Greater circumference loss tended to be seen in Group A in both groups, but without statistical significance. No patient complained of pain during or after the treatment sessions, and there were no adverse events. This pilot study showed that the combination of ESWT and AiRF was safe and effective for significant waist circumferential reduction. The results tended to be better when ESWT was applied before AiRF, although the difference was not significant.

  7. Antitumor and apoptosis-inducing effects of α-mangostin extracted from the pericarp of the mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana L.)in YD-15 tongue mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae Nim; Jang, Hye Yeon; Kim, Hyeong Jin; Shin, Seong Ah; Choo, Gang Sik; Park, Young Seok; Kim, Sang Ki; Jung, Ji Youn

    2016-04-01

    α-mangostin is a dietary xanthone which has been shown to have antioxidant, anti-allergic, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects in various types of human cancer cells. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for the apoptosis-inducing effects of α-mangostin on YD-15 tongue mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells. The results from MTT assays revealed that cell proliferation significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the cells treated with α-mangostin. DAPI staining illustrated that chromatin condensation in the cells treated with 15 µM α-mangostin was far greater than that in the untreated cells. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that α-mangostin suppressed YD-15 cell viability by inducing apoptosis and promoting cell cycle arrest in the sub-G1 phase. Western blot analysis of various signaling molecules revealed that α-mangostin targeted the extracellular signal‑regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways through the inhibition of ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation in a dose‑dependent manner. α-mangostin also increased the levels of Bax (pro-apoptotic), cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved-poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), whereas the levels of the anti-apoptotic factors, Bcl-2 and c-myc, decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The anticancer effects of α-mangostin were also investigated in a tumor xenograft mouse model. The α-mangostin-treated nude mice bearing YD-15 tumor xenografts exhibited a significantly reduced tumor volume and tumor weight due to the potent promoting effects of α-mangostin on cancer cell apoptosis, as determined by TUNEL assay. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the level of cleaved caspase-3 increased, whereas the Ki-67, p-ERK1/2 and p-p38 levels decreased in the α-mangostin‑treated mice. Taken together, the findings of our study indicate that α-mangostin induces the apoptosis of

  8. Inhibition on Apoptosis Induced by Elevated Hydrostatic Pressure in Retinal Ganglion Cell-5 via Laminin Upregulating β1-integrin/Focal Adhesion Kinase/Protein Kinase B Signaling Pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Li; Yan-Ming Chen; Ming-Ming Sun; Xiao-Dan Guo; Ya-Chen Wang; Zhong-Zhi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Background:Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy characterized by degeneration of neurons due to loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs).High intraocular pressure (HIOP),the main risk factor,causes the optic nerve damage.However,the precise mechanism of HIOP-induced RGC death is not yet completely understood.This study was conducted to determine apoptosis of RGC-5 cells induced by elevated hydrostatic pressures,explore whether laminin is associated with apoptosis under pressure,whether laminin can protect RGCs from apoptosis and affirm the mechanism that regulates the process of RGCs survival.Methods:RGC-5 cells were exposed to 0,20,40,and 60 mmHg in a pressurized incubator for 6,12,and 24 h,respectively.The effect of elevated hydrostatic pressure on RGC-5 cells was measured by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining,3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay,and Western blotting of cleaved caspase-3 protein.Location and expression oflaminin were detected by immunofluorescence.The expression of β 1-integrin,phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and protein kinase B (PKB,or AKT) were investigated with real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analysis.Results:Elevated hydrostatic pressure induced apoptosis in cultured RGC-5 cells.Pressure with 40 mmHg for 24 h induced a maximum apoptosis.Laminin was declined in RGC-5 cells after exposing to 40 mmHg for 24 h.After pretreating with laminin,RGC-5 cells survived from elevated pressure.Furthermore,β1-integrin and phosphorylation of FAK and AKT were increased compared to 40 mmHg group.Conclusions:The data show apoptosis tendency of RGC-5 cells with elevated hydrostatic pressure.Laminin can protect RGC-5 cells against high pressure via β 1-integrin/FAK/AKT signaling pathway.These results suggest that the decreased laminin of RGC-5 cells might be responsible for apoptosis induced by elevated hydrostatic pressure,and laminin or activating β1

  9. Matrine induces caspase-independent program cell death in hepatocellular carcinoma through bid-mediated nuclear translocation of apoptosis inducing factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huan; Xu, Minying; Gao, Ya; Deng, Zhigang; Cao, Hanwei; Zhang, Wenqing; Wang, Qiao; Zhang, Bing; Song, Gang; Zhan, Yanyan; Hu, Tianhui

    2014-03-16

    Matrine, a clinical drug in China, has been used to treat viral hepatitis, cardiac arrhythmia and skin inflammations. Matrine also exhibits chemotherapeutic potential through its ability to trigger cancer cell death. However, the mechanisms involved are still largely unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the major determinant for the cell death induced by matrine in human hepatocellular carcinoma. We use human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 and human hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft in nude mice as models to study the action of matrine in hepatocellular cancers. We found that caspase-dependent and -independent Program Cell Death (PCD) occurred in matrine-treated HepG2 cells, accompanied by the decreasing of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the increasing ROS production. Further studies showed that AIF released from the mitochondria to the nucleus, and silencing of AIF reduced the caspase-independent PCD induced by matrine. What's more, AIF nuclear translocation, and the subsequent cell death as well, was prevented by Bid inhibitor BI-6C9, Bid-targeted siRNA and ROS scavenger Tiron. In the in vivo study, matrine significantly attenuated tumor growth with AIF release from mitochondria into nucleus in nude mice. These data imply that matrine potently induce caspase-independent PCD in HepG2 cells through Bid-mediated AIF translocation.

  10. Stimulation of macrophages with the β-glucan produced by aureobasidium pullulans promotes the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL.

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    Koji Kawata

    Full Text Available A β-glucan produced by Aureobasidium pullulans (AP-PG is consisting of a β-(1,3-linked main chain with β-(1,6-linked glucose side residues. Various β-glucans consisting of β-(1,3-linked main chain including AP-PG are believed to exhibit anti-tumor activities, and actually, anti-tumor activities of AP-PG in mice have been demonstrated. In this study, we demonstrate that stimulation with AP-PG induces TRAIL expression in mouse and human macrophage-like cell lines. TRAIL is known to be a cytokine which specifically induces apoptosis in transformed cells, but not in untransformed cells. The expression of TRAIL mRNA after stimulation with AP-PG was increased in RAW264.7 cells, Mono Mac 6 cells, and macrophage-differentiated THP-1 cells. The mRNA expression of TNF-α and FasL is only weakly increased after stimulation with AP-PG. The induction activity of TRAIL by curdlan, a bacterial β-glucan, was very similar to that by AP-PG in RAW264.7 cells, but weaker in macrophage-differentiated THP-1 cells. Activation of caspases was found in HeLa cells after treatment with the supernatant of cultured medium from AP-PG-stimulated Mono Mac 6 cells, and was inhibited by the anti-TRAIL neutralizing antibody. These findings suggest that the stimulation with AP-PG effectively induces TRAIL in macrophages, and that it may be related to apoptosis induction of tumor cells.

  11. Caspase-independent apoptosis in Friend's erythroleukemia cells: role of mitochondrial ATP synthesis impairment in relocation of apoptosis-inducing factor and endonuclease G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comelli, Marina; Genero, Nadia; Mavelli, Irene

    2009-02-01

    Mitochondria have emerged as the central components of both caspase-dependent and independent apoptosis signalling pathways through release of different apoptogenic proteins. We previously documented that parental and differentiated Friend's erythroleukemia cells were induced to apoptosis by oligomycin and H(2)O(2) exposure, showing that the energy impairment occurring in both cases as a consequence of a severe mitochondrial F(0)F(1)ATPsynthase inactivation was a common early feature. Here we provide evidence for AIF and Endo G mitochondrio-nuclear relocation in both cases, as a component of caspase-independent apoptosis pathways. No detectable change in mitochondrial transmembrane potential and no variation in mitochondrial levels of Bcl-2 and Bax are observed. These results point to the osmotic rupture of the mitochondrial outer membrane as occurring in response to cell exposure to the two energy-impairing treatments under conditions preserving the mitochondrial inner membrane. A critical role of the mitochondrial F(0)F(1)ATP synthase inhibition in this process is also suggested.

  12. PCSK9 siRNA inhibits HUVEC apoptosis induced by ox-LDL via Bcl/Bax-caspase9-caspase3 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun-Yan; Tang, Zhi-Han; Jiang, Lu; Li, Xue-Fei; Jiang, Zhi-Sheng; Liu, Lu-Shan

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigated the effects of ox-LDL on PCSK9, and the molecular mechanisms of PCSK9 siRNA-inhibited apoptosis induced by ox-LDL in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), to clarify the role of PCSK9 in atherosclerogenesis. HUVECs were incubated with ox-LDL for 24 h. The apoptosis was observed by Hoechst 33258 staining. The expression of PCSK9, LOX-1 mRNAs and proteins was detected by RT-PCR, western blot, respectively. The PCSK9 siRNAs labeled with fluorescence were transfected into HUVECs by Lipofectamine 2000. After transfection for 24 h, cells were treated with ox-LDL for 24 h, HUVECs apoptosis transfected siRNA was detected by Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometer. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase3, 8, 9 was detected by western blot. The activity of caspase3, 9 was detected by kits. Our results showed that apoptosis of HUVECs and the expressions of PCSK9 and LOX-1 were upregulated secondary to induction by ox-LDL in a concentration-dependent manner. However, ox-LDL-induced HUVEC apoptosis and PCSK9 expression, but not LOX-1 expression, were significantly reduced by PCSK9 siRNA. These results demonstrate a linkage between HUVEC apoptosis and PCSK9 expression. Furthermore, we detected the possible pathway involved in apoptotic regulation by PCSK9 siRNA; our results showed that the expression of Bcl-2 decreased, whereas that of Bax increased. In addition, ox-LDL enhanced the activity of caspase9 and then caspase3. Pretreatment of HUVECs with PCSK9 siRNA blocked these effects of ox-LDL. These findings suggest that ox-LDL-induced HUVECs apoptosis could be inhibited by PCSK9 siRNA, in which Bcl/Bax-caspase9-caspase3 pathway maybe was involved through reducing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and inhibited the activation of both caspase9 and 3.

  13. Down-regulation of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (Long Form contributes to apoptosis induced by Hsp90 inhibition in human lung cancer cells

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    Wang Qilin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular FLICE-Inhibitory Protein (long form, c-FLIPL is a critical negative regulator of death receptor-mediated apoptosis. Overexpression of c-FLIPL has been reported in many cancer cell lines and is associated with chemoresistance. In contrast, down-regulation of c-FLIP may drive cancer cells into cellular apoptosis. This study aims to demonstrate that inhibition of the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 either by inhibitors geldanamycin/17-N-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (GA/17-AAG or siRNA technique in human lung cancer cells induces c-FLIPL degradation and cellular apoptosis through C-terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP-mediated mechanisms. Methods Calu-1 and H157 cell lines (including H157-c-FLIPL overexpressing c-FLIPL and control cell H157-lacZ were treated with 17-AAG and the cell lysates were prepared to detect the given proteins by Western Blot and the cell survival was assayed by SRB assay. CHIP and Hsp90 α/β proteins were knocked down by siRNA technique. CHIP and c-FLIPL plasmids were transfected into cells and immunoprecipitation experiments were performed to testify the interactions between c-FLIPL, CHIP and Hsp90. Results c-FLIPL down-regulation induced by 17-AAG can be reversed with the proteasome inhibitor MG132, which suggested that c-FLIPL degradation is mediated by a ubiquitin-proteasome system. Inhibition of Hsp90α/β reduced c-FLIPL level, whereas knocking down CHIP expression with siRNA technique inhibited c-FLIPL degradation. Furthermore, c-FLIPL and CHIP were co-precipitated in the IP complexes. In addition, overexpression of c-FLIPL can rescue cancer cells from apoptosis. When 17-AAG was combined with an anti-cancer agent celecoxib(CCB, c-FLIPL level declined further and there was a higher degree of caspase activation. Conclusion We have elucidated c-FLIPL degradation contributes to apoptosis induced by Hsp90 inhibition, suggesting c-FLIP and Hsp90 may be the promising combined targets

  14. An Antigen-Presenting and Apoptosis-Inducing Polymer Microparticle Prolongs Alloskin Graft Survival by Selectively and Markedly Depleting Alloreactive CD8+ T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Selectively depleting the pathogenic T cells is a fundamental strategy for the treatment of allograft rejection and autoimmune disease since it retains the overall immune function of host. The concept of killer artificial antigen-presenting cells (KaAPCs has been developed by co-coupling peptide–major histocompatibility complex (pMHC multimer and anti-Fas monoclonal antibody (mAb onto the polymeric microparticles (MPs to induce the apoptosis of antigen-specific T cells. But little information is available about its in vivo therapeutic potential and mechanism. In this study, polyethylenimine (PEI-coated poly lactic-co-glycolic acid microparticle (PLGA MP was fabricated as a cell-sized scaffold to covalently co-couple H-2Kb-Ig dimer and anti-Fas mAb for the generation of alloantigen-presenting and apoptosis-inducing MPs. Intravenous infusions of the biodegradable KaAPCs prolonged the alloskin graft survival for 43 days in a single MHC-mismatched murine model, depleted the most of H-2Kb-alloreactive CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood, spleen, and alloskin graft in an antigen-specific manner and anti-Fas-dependent fashion. The cell-sized KaAPCs circulated throughout vasculature into liver, kidney, spleen, lymph nodes, lung, and heart, but few ones into local allograft at early stage, with a retention time up to 36 h in vivo. They colocalized with CD8+ T cells in secondary lymphoid organs while few ones contacted with CD4+ T cells, B cells, macrophage, and dendritic cells, or internalized by phagocytes. Importantly, the KaAPC treatment did not significantly impair the native T cell repertoire or non-pathogenic immune cells, did not obviously suppress the overall immune function of host, and did not lead to visible organ toxicity. Our results strongly document the high potential of PLGA MP-based KaAPCs as a novel antigen-specific immunotherapy for allograft rejection and autoimmune disorder. The in vivo mechanism of alloinhibition, tissue

  15. Construction of nanometer cisplatin core-ferritin (NCC-F) and proteomic analysis of gastric cancer cell apoptosis induced with cisplatin released from the NCC-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xue-Tao; Huang, Lin; Huang, He-Qing

    2012-06-18

    mRNA and to identify the reliability of the protein expression according to these differential proteins, which indicated that the mRNA level changes of six differential proteins corresponded to those of its differential protein expression in 2-DE gels. These studies played an important role in reasonably revealing the different pathways of GCC apoptosis induced with both the CDDP released by NCC-PPF and the free CDDP. We thus suggest that apoPPF has great potential for constructing a nanometer carrier filled with various drugs for application in clinical work. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. El coactivador de receptores nucleares RAC3 tiene un rol protector de la Apoptosis inducida por distintos estímulos RAC3 nuclear receptor co-activator has a protective role in the apoptosis induced by different stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina P. Coló

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available RAC3 pertenece a la familia de coactivadores de receptores nucleares p160, y se encuentra sobreexpresado en varios tumores. Demostramos previamente que RAC3 es coactivador del factor de transcripción anti-apoptótico NF-kapa;B. En este trabajo investigamos su rol en la apoptosis inducida por H2O2 en una línea celular no tumoral derivada de riñón embrionario humano (HEK293, y por el ligando inductor de apoptosis relacionado a TNF (TRAIL en una línea de leucemia mieloide crónica humana (K562, naturalmente resistente a la muerte por este estímulo. Observamos que las células tumorales K562 poseen niveles altos de RAC3 comparados con las células no tumorales HEK293. La sobreexpresión normal de coactivador o por transfección, inhibe la apoptosis mediante una disminución de la activación de caspasas, translocación del factor inductor de apoptosis (AIF al núcleo, aumento de la actividad de NF-kapa;B y las quinasas AKT y p38 y disminución de la quinasa ERK. Lo opuesto fue observado por disminución de RAC3 mediante la técnica de ARN interferente (RNAi en K562, aumentando así la apoptosis inducida por TRAIL. Estas evidencias sugieren que una sobreexpresión de RAC3 contribuye al desarrollo de tumores, participando en las cascadas que controlan la muerte celular por mecanismos no estrictamente dependientes de hormonas esteroideas y/o de acetilación, constituyendo esto un posible blanco de ataque para el tratamiento de tumores.RAC3 belongs to the family of p160 nuclear receptors coactivators and it is over-expressed in several tumors. We have previously shown that RAC3 is a NF-kappa;B coactivator. In this paper, we investigated the role of RAC3 in cell-sensitivity to apoptosis, using H2O2 in the human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK293, and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL in a human chronic myeloid leukemia cell line (K562 naturally resistant to TRAIL. We observed that the tumoral K562 cells have high levels

  17. Linkage between PTK Signaling Pathway “Crosstalking” and Caspase-3/ CPP32-1ike Proteases Activation in Signaling Transduction of CD4+ T Lymphocytes Apoptosis Induced by Superantigen SEB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊世勤; 朱锡华

    2003-01-01

    Exposure of naive murine CD4+ T lymphocytes to superantigen such as staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) induces a strong proliferative response. Prolonged exposure or subsequent restimulation of the responding T cell population with SEB leads to the apoptotic events of activation-induced cell death (AICD). The signaling mechanism responsible for the AICD is a target of intensive investigation. However, the precise downstream signahng pathways of SEB-induced AICD remains unclear. Our results here show that the sequential activation of caspase-1/ICE-hke and caspase-3/CPP32-hke cysteine proteases probably plays a role in the signaling transduction of SEB-induced AICD, but caspase-3/CPP32-hke proteases activation does not depend on caspase-1-like proteases activation. Herbimycin A, a specific inhibitor of protein tyresine kinases,inhibit caspase-3/CPP32-1ike cysteine proteases activation. However, it does not prevent DNA fragmentation of CD4+ Tcells apoptosis induced by SEB. These results indicate that protein tyrosine kinases pathway is probably involved in the signaling transduction of CD4+ T cells apoptosis induced by SEB and “crosstalks” with the pathway of caspase-3/CPP32-1ike proteases activation.

  18. A viral vector expressing hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha inhibits hippocampal neuronal apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiqing Chai; Weina Kong; Lingyun Liu; Wenguo Yu; Zhenqing Zhang; Yimin Sun

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) attenuates amyloid-beta protein neurotoxicity and decreases apoptosis induced by oxidative stress or hypoxia in cortical neurons. In this study, we construct-ed a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector expressing the human HIF-1αgene (rAAV-HIF-1α), and tested the assumption that rAAV-HIF-1αrepresses hippocampal neuronal apoptosis induced by amyloid-beta protein. Our results conifrmed that rAAV-HIF-1αsigniifcant-ly reduces apoptosis induced by amyloid-beta protein in primary cultured hippocampal neurons. Direct intracerebral rAAV-HIF-1αadministration also induced robust and prolonged HIF-1αproduction in rat hippocampus. Single rAAV-HIF-1αadministration resulted in decreased apoptosis of hippocampal neurons in an Alzheimer’s disease rat model established by intrace-rebroventricular injection of aggregated amyloid-beta protein (25-35). Our in vitro and in vivo ifndings demonstrate that HIF-1 has potential for attenuating hippocampal neuronal apoptosis induced by amyloid-beta protein, and provides experimental support for treatment of neurode-generative diseases using gene therapy.

  19. Characterization of the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing activities of a triterpene saponin, securioside B against BAC1.2F5 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Yui

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the growth state of macrophages in local pathological sites is considered a factor that regulates the processes of many disease, such as tumors, inflammation, and atherosclerosis, the substances that regulate macrophage growth or survival may be useful for disease control. We previously reported that securiosides A and B, novel triterpene saponins, exerted macrophage-oriented cytotoxicity in the presence of a L-cell-conditioned medium containing macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF, while the compounds did not exhibit an effect on macrophages in the absence of the growth-stimulating factors.

  20. Investigation of 1-(4-morpholinophenyl)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-propenone and 1-(4-morpholinophenyl)-3-(3-fluorophenyl)-propenone as new apoptosis inducers on Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingang; Tao, Ke; Hou, Taiping

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the toxicity of 1-(4-morpholinophenyl)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-propenone (A) and 1-(4-morpholinophenyl)-3-(3-fluorophenyl)-propenone (B) on Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells and the mechanism of the toxicity. By cell-based thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, we found that the IC(50) were 35.45 μM for A and 31.97 μM for B respectively. Formation of apoptotic bodies was observed at 24 h in the treated cells. There was a significant increase of DNA ladders in the treated Sf9 cells compared to controls. In the presence of 50 μM compound A and B for 24 h, ATP content of Sf9 cells reduced by approximately 50%. Compared to the controls, the significant over-expression of caspase-3 in treated cells was measured by caspase-3 activity kit, and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was detected in apoptosis cells. The results suggested that the two compounds could be identified as new potent cell apoptosis inducers.

  1. Natural product-inspired rational design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 2,3-dihydropyrano[2,3-f]chromen-4(8H)-one based hybrids as potential mitochondrial apoptosis inducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivel, Palaniappan; Ilangovan, Andivelu; Kaushik, Mahabir Prasad

    2016-10-21

    Synthesis of novel pyranochromanone amide hybrids, by combining pyranochromanone pharmacophore and privileged scaffolds such as 2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiaole/2-aminothiazole/aminopyridine/aminonaphthalene and anti-cancer evaluation of a series led us to discover a series of new chemical entities (NCEs) showing broad spectrum of anti-cancer activity against three different human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, A549 and HeLa), at IC50 values ranging from 14.3 to 97.8 μM. Among them, some compounds such as 15b, 15d, 20a and 20b displayed excellent activity against breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Detailed biological studies such as AO/EB dual staining, Hoechst 33342 staining, FACS analysis of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) using JC-1 dye and DNA fragmentation confirmed the apoptosis induced by the hybrids. Gene expression studies by Real time RT-PCR has shown that these compounds are efficient regulator of anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2. Western blot analysis also revealed that these compounds persuade apoptosis through intrinsic pathway by up-regulating the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and down-regulating the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Molecular docking studies reveal that compounds 15b and 20b binds efficiently with Bcl-2 promoter G-quadruplex.

  2. Targeted elimination of activated hepatic stellate cells by an anti-epidermal growth factor-receptor single chain fragment variable antibody-tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (scFv425-sTRAIL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arabpour, Mohammad; Poelstra, Klaas; Helfrich, Wijnand; Bremer, Edwin; Haisma, Hidde J.

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundProgressive liver fibrosis is the result of chronic liver injury and is characterized by the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix that may result in liver failure. Activated hepatic stellate cells are known to play a central role in this process and their elimination is a crucial

  3. A hemagglutinin from northeast red beans with immunomodulatory activity and anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities toward tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yau Sang; Wong, Jack Ho; Fang, Evandro Fei; Pan, Wenliang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2013-10-01

    A 64-kDa hemagglutinin from a Phaseolus vulgaris cultivar, the northeast red bean, was purified by a protocol composed of three chromatographic steps involving affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, cation exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose and FPLC-gel filtration on Superdex 75. The purified hemagglutinin appeared as a single 32-kDa band in SDS-PAGE indicating its dimeric nature. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the hemagglutinin resembled the sequences of lectins and hemagglutinins from a number of Phaseolus species. The hemagglutinin manifested moderate thermostability and pH stability. It retained full activity up to 65 °C and in the pH range 2-12. It did not interact with simple sugars such as glucose, mannose and galactose. The hemagglutinin exerted immunostimulatory effects by upregulating the expression of cytokines like interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α. It also exhibited antiproliferative activity on a number of tumor cells including MCF7 (breast cancer), HepG2 (liver cancer), CNE1 and CNE2 (nasopharyngeal cancer) cells, with stronger activity toward MCF7 and CNE1 cells. The hemagglutinin induced phophatidylserine externalization, mitochondrial depolarization and DNA condensation in MCF7 cells, indicating initiation of apoptosis. However, at high hemagglutinin concentrations, severe damage to the MCF7 cells was detected.

  4. Oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis induced by ethanolic mango seed extract in cultured estrogen receptor positive breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Al-Shwyeh Hussah; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Rasedee, Abdullah; Mirghani, Mohamed Elwathig Saeed

    2015-02-05

    Breast cancer has become a global health issue requiring huge expenditures for care and treatment of patients. There is a need to discover newer cost-effective alternatives for current therapeutic regimes. Mango kernel is a waste product with potential as a source of anti-cancer phytochemicals, especially since it is non-toxic towards normal breast cell lines at concentrations for which it induces cell death in breast cancer cells. In this study, the anti-cancer effect of mango kernel extract was determined on estrogen receptor-positive human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cells. The MCF-7 cells were cultured and treated with 5, 10 and 50 μg/mL of mango kernel extract for 12 and 24 h. In response to treatment, there were time- and dose-dependent increases in oxidative stress markers and pro-apoptotic factors; Bcl-2-like protein 4 (BAX), p53, cytochrome c and caspases (7, 8 and 9) in the MCF-7 cells treated with the extract. At the same time, there were decreases in pro-survival markers (Bcl-2 and glutathione) as the result of the treatments. The changes induced in the MCF-7 cells by mango kernel extract treatment suggest that the extract can induce cancer cell apoptosis, likely via the activation of oxidative stress. These findings need to be evaluated further to determine whether mango kernel extract can be developed as an anti-breast cancer agent.

  5. Oxidative Stress-Mediated Apoptosis Induced by Ethanolic Mango Seed Extract in Cultured Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Shwyeh Hussah Abdullah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer has become a global health issue requiring huge expenditures for care and treatment of patients. There is a need to discover newer cost-effective alternatives for current therapeutic regimes. Mango kernel is a waste product with potential as a source of anti-cancer phytochemicals, especially since it is non-toxic towards normal breast cell lines at concentrations for which it induces cell death in breast cancer cells. In this study, the anti-cancer effect of mango kernel extract was determined on estrogen receptor-positive human breast carcinoma (MCF-7 cells. The MCF-7 cells were cultured and treated with 5, 10 and 50 μg/mL of mango kernel extract for 12 and 24 h. In response to treatment, there were time- and dose-dependent increases in oxidative stress markers and pro-apoptotic factors; Bcl-2-like protein 4 (BAX, p53, cytochrome c and caspases (7, 8 and 9 in the MCF-7 cells treated with the extract. At the same time, there were decreases in pro-survival markers (Bcl-2 and glutathione as the result of the treatments. The changes induced in the MCF-7 cells by mango kernel extract treatment suggest that the extract can induce cancer cell apoptosis, likely via the activation of oxidative stress. These findings need to be evaluated further to determine whether mango kernel extract can be developed as an anti-breast cancer agent.

  6. Amelotin gene expression is temporarily being upregulated at the initiation of apoptosis induced by TGFβ1 in mouse gingival epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yohei; Matsui, Sari; Noda, Keisuke; Yamazaki, Mizuho; Iwai, Yasunobu; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Izawa, Takashi; Tanaka, Eiji; Ganss, Bernhard; Ogata, Yorimasa

    2016-10-01

    Amelotin (AMTN) is expressed and secreted by ameloblasts in the maturation stage of amelogenesis and persist with low levels in the junctional epithelium (JE) of erupted teeth. The purpose of this study is to investigate the transcriptional regulation of the AMTN gene by transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFβ1) in gingival epithelial (GE1) cells in the apoptosis phase. Apoptosis was evaluated by the fragmentation of chromosomal DNA and TUNEL staining. A real-time PCR was carried out to examine the AMTN mRNA levels induced by TGFβ1 and Smad3 overexpression. Transient transfection analyses were completed using the various lengths of mouse AMTN gene promoter constructs with or without TGFβ1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were performed to investigate the Smad3 bindings to the AMTN gene promoter by TGFβ1. TGFβ1-induced apoptosis in GE1 cells were detected at 24 and 48 h by DNA fragmentation and TUNEL staining. AMTN mRNA levels increased at 6 h and reached maximum at 24 h in GE1 cells. Luciferase activities of the mouse AMTN gene promoter constructs were induced by TGFβ1. The results of the ChIP assays showed that there was an increase in Smad3 binding to Smad-binding element (SBE)#1 and SBE#2 after stimulation by TGFβ1. Immunohistochemical localization of AMTN was detected in the JE, and the AMTN protein levels in Smad3-deficient mice were decreased compared with wild-type mice. AMTN mRNA levels were induced at the initiation of apoptosis by TGFβ1, which mediated through the Smad3 bindings to SBEs in the mouse AMTN gene promoter.

  7. Protection of ischemic postconditioning against neuronal apoptosis induced by transient focal ischemia is associated with attenuation of NF-κB/p65 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Liang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Accumulating evidences have demonstrated that nuclear factor κB/p65 plays a protective role in the protection of ischemic preconditioning and detrimental role in lethal ischemia-induced programmed cell death including apoptosis and autophagic death. However, its role in the protection of ischemic postconditioning is still unclear. METHODS: Rat MCAO model was used to produce transient focal ischemia. The procedure of ischemic postconditioning consisted of three cycles of 30 seconds reperfusion/reocclusion of MCA. The volume of cerebral infarction was measured by TTC staining and neuronal apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining. Western blotting was used to analyze the changes in protein levels of Caspase-3, NF-κB/p65, phosphor- NF-κB/p65, IκBα, phosphor- IκBα, Noxa, Bim and Bax between rats treated with and without ischemic postconditioning. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to examine the distribution of NF-κB/p65 and Noxa. RESULTS: Ischemic postconditioning made transient focal ischemia-induced infarct volume decrease obviously from 38.6% ± 5.8% to 23.5% ± 4.3%, and apoptosis rate reduce significantly from 46.5% ± 6.2 to 29.6% ± 5.3% at reperfusion 24 h following 2 h focal cerebral ischemia. Western blotting analysis showed that ischemic postconditioning suppressed markedly the reduction of NF-κB/p65 in cytoplasm, but elevated its content in nucleus either at reperfusion 6 h or 24 h. Moreover, the decrease of IκBα and the increase of phosphorylated IκBα and phosphorylated NF-κB/p65 at indicated reperfusion time were reversed by ischemic postconditioning. Correspondingly, proapoptotic proteins Caspase-3, cleaved Caspase-3, Noxa, Bim and Bax were all mitigated significantly by ischemic postconditioning. Confocal microscopy revealed that ischemic postconditioning not only attenuated ischemia-induced translocation of NF-κB/p65 from neuronal cytoplasm to nucleus, but also inhibited the abnormal

  8. 肉桂醛对HL-60细胞的生长抑制及诱导凋亡作用研究%Proliferation Inhibitory and Apoptosis-inducing Effects of Cinnamaldehyde on HL-60 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏练平; 罗美; 蒋瑾; 蒋立科

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the proliferation inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects of cinnamaldehyde on HL-60 cells.Methods: The proliferation inhibitory effect was evaluated using trypan-blue staining and MTT assay,and the apoptosis-inducing effect using flow cytometry,scanning electron microscope(SEM) and transmission electron microscope(TEM).Results: Cinnamaldehyde had an oblivious inhibitory effect on the proliferation of HL-60 cells with dependence upon its concentration and treatment time and the LC50,median lethal concentration was 34.87 μg/mL.The rate of apoptosis in HL-60 cells was 32.6 % after being treated with cinnamaldehyde at the dose of 20 μg/mL.for 16 h.Typical apoptotic morphological changes in the cells was observed under fluorescence microscopy,SEM and TEM.Conclusion: cinnamaldehyde cna notably inhibit the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of HL-60 cells.%目的:探讨肉桂醛对HL-60细胞的增殖及凋亡的影响。方法:采用台盼蓝细胞计数和四甲基偶氮唑蓝(MTT)法研究肉桂醛对HL-60细胞增殖的抑制作用;采用流失细胞仪(FCM)、荧光显微镜(FM)、扫描电镜(SEM)以及透射电镜(TEM)探讨肉桂醛对HL-60细胞的诱导凋亡作用。结果:台盼蓝细胞计数和MTT法结果表明:肉桂醛对HL-60细胞的增殖有明显抑制作用,抑制作用与肉桂醛质量浓度及作用时间呈依赖关系,其半数致死质量浓度为34.87μg/mL;流式细胞仪检测结果表明:肉桂醛(终质量浓度20μg/mL)作用16h后,HL-60细胞早期凋亡比例为32.6%;该组细胞在荧光显微镜、扫描电镜以及透射电镜观察下均呈现早期凋亡特征。结论:肉桂醛能抑制HL-60细胞增殖并促进其凋亡。

  9. Novel 5-Substituted 2-(Aylmethylthio-4-chloro-N-(5-aryl-1,2,4-triazin-3-ylbenzenesulfonamides: Synthesis, Molecular Structure, Anticancer Activity, Apoptosis-Inducing Activity and Metabolic Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Żołnowska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel 5-substituted 2-(arylmethylthio-4-chloro-N-(5-aryl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl benzenesulfonamide derivatives 27–60 have been synthesized by the reaction of aminoguanidines with an appropriate phenylglyoxal hydrate in glacial acetic acid. A majority of the compounds showed cytotoxic activity toward the human cancer cell lines HCT-116, HeLa and MCF-7, with IC50 values below 100 μM. It was found that for the analogues 36–38 the naphthyl moiety contributed significantly to the anticancer activity. Cytometric analysis of translocation of phosphatidylserine as well as mitochondrial membrane potential and cell cycle revealed that the most active compounds 37 (HCT-116 and HeLa and 46 (MCF-7 inhibited the proliferation of cells by increasing the number of apoptotic cells. Apoptotic-like, dose dependent changes in morphology of cell lines were also noticed after treatment with 37 and 46. Moreover, triazines 37 and 46 induced caspase activity in the HCT-116, HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines. Selected compounds were tested for metabolic stability in the presence of pooled human liver microsomes and NADPH, both R2 and Ar = 4-CF3-C6H4 moiety in 2-(R2-methylthio-N-(5-aryl-1,2,4-triazin-3-ylbenzenesulfonamides simultaneously increased metabolic stability. The results pointed to 37 as a hit compound with a good cytotoxicity against HCT-116 (IC50 = 36 μM, HeLa (IC50 = 34 μM cell lines, apoptosis-inducing activity and moderate metabolic stability.

  10. Advances in studies on apoptosis-inducing effects of golgi apparatus in oxidative stress%高尔基体在氧化应激中促凋亡作用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊炬(综述); 王佳; 周文胜(审校)

    2016-01-01

    As an important organelle inside a cell, golgi apparatus is involved in the physiological activities like the processing and modiifcation of proteins, metabolism of lipids and vesicular transportation. Besides, it plays an important role in the ion homeostasis and stresses. In oxidative stress, the golgi apparatus undergoes the golgi apparatus stress (GA stress). hTerefore, the Ca2+/Mn2+ pump activities will alter and GA Ca2+/Mn2+ dyshomeostasis will occur functionally. Structurally, the golgi apparatus will fragment and release the stress-induced fragmentation products. Behavior mentioned above will initiate the relevant apoptotic pathway of the golgi apparatus which mediates its apoptosis. p115 (golgi-vesicular transport protein) is a stress-associated protein; fragments derived from the p115 will exert the apoptosis-inducing effects by inducing the phosphorylation of p53 in oxidative stress.%高尔基体是细胞内重要的细胞器,除参与细胞内蛋白加工修饰、脂类代谢及囊泡转运等生理活动外,在离子稳态、应激等方面也发挥着重要作用。在氧化应激中高尔基体发生应激反应,功能上出现Ca2+/Mn2+泵活性改变,Ca2+/Mn2+稳态失衡;结构上出现高尔基体碎裂,释放应激性碎裂产物,上述行为将启动高尔基体相关凋亡通路,介导细胞发生凋亡。p115是高尔基体应激相关蛋白,在氧化应激中p115裂解后产生的碎裂片段通过促p53磷酸化而发挥促凋亡作用。

  11. Lysophosphatidic acid is a major serum noncytokine survival factor for murine macrophages which acts via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway.

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, J. S.; Lieberthal, W; Heydrick, S; Levine, J. S.

    1998-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is the smallest and structurally simplest of all the glycerophospholipids. It occurs normally in serum and binds with high affinity to albumin, while retaining its biological activity. The effects of LPA are pleiotropic and range from mitogenesis to stress fiber formation. We show a novel role for LPA: as a macrophage survival factor with potency equivalent to serum. Administration of LPA protects macrophages from apoptosis induced by serum deprivation, and protect...

  12. Expression pattern and apoptosis-inducing activity to murine macrophages and hepatocytes of Leptospira interrogans Sph2 hemolysin%钩端螺旋体溶血素Sph2表达模式及诱导巨噬细胞和肝细胞凋亡活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁士标; 林旭瑷; 王欢; 严杰

    2010-01-01

    measurement, and the apoptosis-inducing activity of rSph2 to murine mononuclear-macrophagelike cell line(J774A. 1) and hepatic cell line(IAR20) was determined by flow cytometry. A real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR was applied to detect the change of sph2 mRNA levels before and after L. Interrogans strain Lai infecting J774A. 1 and IAR20 cells. Results The cloned sph2 gene had 100% sequence identity to the corresponding gene in GenBank. The constructed prokaryotic expression system was able to efficiently express rSph2. The rSph2 could lyse sheep erythrocytes in concentration-dependent pattern. 10μg/ml rSph2 could induce the apoptosis of J774A. 1 cells and IAR20 cells, and the peak apoptotic rates were 23.96% and 32.92%, respectively. The mRNA level of sph2 gene was significantly elevated within 0.5-2 h of L. Interrogans strain Lai infecting either J774A. 1 or IAR20 cells, and then the mRNA level was quickly descended. Conclusion The sph2 gene of L. Interrogans strain Lai has a transient expression when the microbe contacts host cells. rSph2 possesses activities of sheep erythrocyte lysis and inducing macrophage and hepatocyte apoptosis, indicating Sph2 as an important virulence factor during pathogenic process of Leptospira.

  13. Induction of antiproliferative effect by diosgenin through activation of p53,release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and modulation of caspase-3 activity in different human cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cecile CORBIERE; Bertrand LIAGRE; Faraj TERRO; Jean-Louis BENEYTOUT

    2004-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that a plant steroid, diosgenin, altered cell cycle distribution and induced apoptosis in the human osteosarcoma 1547 cell line. The objective of this study was to investigate if the antiproliferative effect of diosgenin was similar for different human cancer cell lines such as laryngocarcinoma HEp-2 and melanoma M4Beu cells. Moreover, this work essentially focused on the mitochondrial pathway. We found that diosgenin had an important and similar antiproliferative effect on different types of cancer cells. In addition, our new results show that diosgenininduced apoptosis is caspase-3 dependent with a fall of mitochondrial membrane potential, nuclear localization of AIF and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. Diosgenin treatment also induces p53 activation and cell cycle arrest in the different cell lines studied.

  14. 细胞同步化对肿瘤坏死因子诱导Hela细胞凋亡的影响%Effect of Cell Cycle Phase in Hela Cells on Apoptosis Induced by Tumor Necrosis Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯敢; 黄迪南; 祝其锋

    2001-01-01

    目的研究细胞周期时相对肿瘤坏死因子(TNF)诱导Hela细胞凋亡的影响.方法应用胸腺嘧啶核苷(TdR)双阻断法将培养的Hela细胞同步化,采用MTT法、流式细胞术和荧光染色,分析同步化的Hela细胞和正常培养的Hela细胞对TNF(加放线菌酮增效)诱导凋亡的敏感性.结果同步化Hela细胞较正常培养的Hela细胞对TNF诱导凋亡的敏感性增强.结论TNF诱导Hela细胞凋亡与细胞周期有关.

  15. Role of decoy molecules in neuronal ischemic preconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneerselvam, Mathivadhani; Patel, Piyush M.; Roth, David M.; Kidd, Michael W.; Chin-Lee, Blake; Head, Brian P.; Niesman, Ingrid R.; Inoue, Satoki; Patel, Hemal H.; Davis, Daniel P.

    2011-01-01

    Decoy receptors bind with TNF related apoptosis inducing ligands (TRAIL) but do not contain the cytoplasmic domains necessary to transduce apoptotic signals. We hypothesized that decoy receptors may confer neuronal protection against lethal ischemia after ischemic preconditioning (IPC). Mixed cortical neurons were exposed to IPC one day prior to TRAIL treatment or lethal ischemia. IPC increased decoy receptor but reduced death receptor expression compared to lethal ischemia. IPC-induced increase in decoy receptor expression was reduced by prior treatment with CAPE, a nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitor (NFκB). Expression of decoy molecules, dependent on NFκB, may mediate neuronal survival induced by IPC. PMID:21315738

  16. 山莨菪碱对缺氧复氧损伤血管内皮细胞凋亡的影响%Effects of Anisodamine on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells' Apoptosis Induced by Hypoxia-reoxygenation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙菁; 孟凡山; 陈威; 计达; 沈洪

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of anisodamine on human umbilical vein endothelial cells' ( HUVECs ) apoptosis induced by hypoxia and reoxygenation. Methods The HUVECs were divided into groups control ( group A ), hypoxia - reoxygenation 0. 9% saline ( group B ), hypoxia - reoxygenation epinephrine ( group C ), hypoxia - reoxygenation Ani ( group D ), hypoxia -reoxygenation epinephrine plus Ani ( group E ). The cell apoptoses were detected by fluorescence flow cytometry, the gene expression of Bel - 2 by reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction ( RT - PCR ) . Results There was significant difference in apoptotic indexes ( AI ) of HUVECs at hours 12, 24 of reoxygenation between 5 groups ( P < 0. 05 ), group B were significantly different from groups C, D, E ( P <0. 05 ), group C not from group D ( P >0. 05 ), but groups C, D from group E ( P <0. 05 ). There was significant difference in Bcl - 2mRNA level between 5 groups at hours 12, 24 of reoxygenation ( P < 0. 05 ), and Bcl - 2mRNA expression increased more significantly in group Ethan in other groups ( P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusion Ani can reduce apoptosis of HUNVECs after hypoxia - reoxygenation. Ani protects the function of endothelia cells after hypoxia -reoxygenation by influencing the mRNA expression of Bcl -2.%目的 探讨山莨菪碱(anisodamine,Ani)对缺氧复氧损伤血管内皮细胞凋亡的影响.方法 采用人脐静脉内皮细胞缺氧复氧方法观察血管内皮细胞凋亡的变化,实验分5组:对照组、生理盐水组、肾上腺素组、Ani组、肾上腺素+Ani组.采用流式细胞术检测细胞凋亡,采用RT-PCR法检测血管内皮细胞B细胞淋巴瘤/白血病-2基因(Bcl-2)mRNA表达水平.结果 5组血管内皮细胞复氧12 h、24 h的细胞凋亡率比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).其中生理盐水组复氧12 h、24 h细胞凋亡率与肾上腺素组、Ani组、肾上腺素+Ani组比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).

  17. 谷胱甘肽对多巴胺诱导的GH4细胞凋亡的保护作用%Glutathione protects GH4 pituitary lactotrope tumor cells from apoptosis induced by dopamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晗; 李书鹏; 姜玉华; 刘芳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore mechanisms of dopamine(DA) inducing GH4 cell apoptosis and glutathione(GSH) protecting GH4 cells from apoptosis induced by DA. Methods ① GH4 pituitary cells were treated with DA at 0, 100, 300 and 500μmol/L for 24 h, then treated with DA at 500 μmol/L for 0,1,3,5,12 and 24 h to select the appropriate concentration and time. ② Then GH4 cells were treated with raclopride( a D2 receptor antagonist, Rac) and GSH to explore the effects of Rac and GSH on apoptosis. ③Apoptotic cells were counted by an inverted phase contrast microscope. Morphological appearance was observed by PI labeling, and expressions of Bcl-2 and PARP-1 were detected by Western blot. Results DA induced concentration-and time-dependent GH4 cell apoptosis. A selective D2 receptor antagonist could not block the cytotoxic effect. PI revealed that exposure to GSH (1 mmol/L) for lh prior to the DA treatment attenuated DA-induced apoptosis. Western blot showed up-regulation of Bcl-2 and down-regulation of PARP-1. Conclusion DA exerts cytotoxic effects on GH4 cells mainly through auto-oxidation in the intracellular space. A selective D2 receptor antagonist cannot block DA-induced apoptosis, while GSH can block it, which may be relevant to regulation of Bcl-2 and PARP-1.%目的 探讨多巴胺(DA)诱导垂体瘤GH4细胞凋亡及谷胱甘肽(GSH)对DA诱导细胞凋亡的保护作用机制.方法 本实验通过3部分探讨DA的凋亡作用及GSH的保护作用:①实验分空白对照组及DA用药组,体外观察不同浓度、时间DA对GH4细胞生长的影响;②实验分空白对照组、DA组、DA联合DA D2受体拮抗剂组,观察D2受体在细胞凋亡中的作用;③实验设空白对照组、DA组、GSH用药组,PI染色分别观察3组细胞的凋亡情况,Western blot检测Bcl-2及PARP-1的表达.结果 DA诱导的GH4细胞凋亡呈浓度-时间依赖性,选择性D2受体拮抗剂不能阻断细胞凋亡,经GSH处理GH4细胞后,PI染色显示凋

  18. Effects of astaxanthin on renal fibrosis and cell apoptosis induced by partial unilateral ureteral obstruction in rats%天然虾青素对抗肾纤维化及细胞凋亡的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢潮鑫; 孟猛; 殷先锋; 何凤玲; 叶汉深; 谢栋

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of astaxanthin on renal fibrosis and apoptosis induced by partial unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in rats. Methods Ninety-six male adult SD rats were randomized into 6 equal groups, namely the blank control group, sham-operated group, UUO group, and astaxanthin group at high, medium, and low doses. Left ureteral ligation was performed in UUO and astaxanthin groups, and two days before the operation, the rats in astaxanthin groups were lavaged with 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg astaxanthin daily for 14 days, while the same volume of saline was given to rats in UUO group and sham-operated group. Renal pathological in the rats was observed with HE staining, and the expression levels of TGF-β1, SGK1, and CTGF in the left kidney were detected immunohistochemically; the expression level of Bcl-2 and Bax were detected using Bcl-2 and Bax detection kits. Results Compared to UUO group, high- and medium-dose astaxanthin groups showed obviously ameliorated renal pathologies and reduced expressions of TGF-β1, SGK1, and CTGF in the left kidney with lessened renal cell apoptosis. Conclusion Astaxanthin can reduce UUO-induced renal fibrosis and renal cell apoptosis, demonstrating the renoprotective effect of astaxanthin against renal fibrosis.%目的 采用单侧输尿管梗阻(partial Unilateral ureteral obstruction,UUO)模型大鼠,研究天然虾青素(虾青素)对抗肾间质纤维化及肾细胞凋亡的作用.方法 将96只成年雄性SD大鼠随机分组,每组16只,分别为空白组、假手术组(Sham)、模型组(UUO)、天然虾青素组(高、中、低剂量)组,空白组大鼠不做任何处理,Sham组大鼠仅游离左侧输尿管,UUO组和虾青素组大鼠结扎左侧输尿管.虾青素组于术前2d灌胃给予虾青素(100、50、25 mg·kg-1·d-1,空白组、Sham组和UU0组灌胃给予等体积生理盐水,连续14d,处死大鼠,采用HE染色,观察大鼠肾脏病理情况,并通过SABC方法测定大鼠肾间质TGF-β1、SGK1

  19. Apoptosis inducing effects of oridonin on THP-1 cells and its mechanisms of action%冬凌草甲素对THP-1细胞的诱导凋亡作用及其作用机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐妍; 胡婷; 王春芝; 林东军; 肖若芝; 潘祥林; 刘加军

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨冬凌草甲素对急性单核细胞白血病THP-1细胞的诱导凋亡作用及其作用机制.方法 以不同浓度的冬凌草甲素(16~56 μmol/L)作用于体外培养的THP-1细胞0、24、48及72 h,应用MTT法检测细胞生长抑制率,用Annexin V/PI双染法检测细胞凋亡,Hoechst 33258荧光染色法观察细胞凋亡时的形态学变化,用免疫印迹法(Western Blotting)检测Caspase-3及其裂解底物多聚(ADP-核糖)聚合酶PARP[(poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase)]表达水平的变化.结果 32 μmol/L以上的冬凌草甲素可显著抑制细胞的生长及诱导细胞发生凋亡,呈现出明显的量效与时效关系,在Hoechst 33258荧光染色后,细胞出现核浓缩及核碎裂等典型的凋亡特征.Western Blotting检测结果表明,Caspase-3被活化出现相对分子质量为20×103的裂解片段,PARP被裂解后出现相对分子质量为89×103的亚单位片段.结论 冬凌草甲素能显著抑制THP-1细胞的生长并诱导细胞发生凋亡,通过激活Caspase-3途径可能是冬凌草甲素诱导细胞发生凋亡的重要作用机制;这为冬凌草甲素用于白血病的辅助治疗提供了有力的实验依据.%Objective To investigate the apoptosis inducing effects of oridonin on leukemic THP-1 cells and its mechanisms of action. Methods THP-1 cells in culture medium in vitro were given different concentrations of oridonin (16~56 μmol/L) for 24, 48 and 72 h. The inhibitory rate of the cells were measured by MTT assay, apoptotic morphology was observed by Hoechst 33258 staining, and Annexin V/PI staining was used to detect cell apoptosis by flow cytometry (FCM). Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) expression were detected by Western blotting. Results Oridonin (over 32 μmol/L) could inhibit the growth of THP-1 cells and cause apoptosis remarkably, the suppression was both in time-and dose-dependentmanner. Marked morphological changes of cell apoptosis such as condensation of chromatin was

  20. Study of Liver Cancer Cell Apoptosis Induced by Piperine in Vitro%胡椒碱对诱导肝癌细胞凋亡的体外实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿荣; 乔延江; 博・格日勒图

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of liver cancer cell apoptosis induced by piperine in vitro .Methods MTT was used to investigate the cytotoxicity effect of piperine on liver cancer SMMC -7721 cell.HE dying was used to observe cell shape.The effect of piperine on liver cancer SMMC -7721 cell cycles was determined with Annexin V -PI flow cytometry.Results The inhibitive effect of piperine on liver cancer SMMC -7721 cell was dose-dependent,the IC50 was 18.5 ±4.33 μmol /L.In the control group,SMMC-7721 cells showed a mean and smooth fluorescence in nuclear appearance ,while SMMC-7721 cells in the experimental group showed nuclear necrotic debris and fluorescence was clear and intense ,indicating an apparent apoptosis phe -nomenon.Compared with the control group ,piperine at 25 μmol/L and 50 μmol/L had significant influence on SMMC -7721 cell cycle.G0 /G1 and S phase cell ratio significantly decreased ,while G2 /M phase cell ratio significantly increased (P <0.05)with the increase of piperine.Conclusion Piperine has significant apoptosis induction effect on SMMC -7721 cells,which are sustained at G2 /M phase,it can be potential drug for liver cancer .But the specific mechanism need further investigating .%目的:探讨胡椒碱对诱导肝癌细胞凋亡的作用。方法采用 MTT 法检测胡椒碱对人肝癌 SMMC-7721细胞的细胞毒作用。采用 HE 法荧光染色后观察细胞形态。采用 Annexin V-PI 流式细胞术分析胡椒碱对人肝癌 SMMC-7721细胞各个细胞周期的影响。结果胡椒碱对 SMMC-7721细胞的抑制作用呈浓度依赖的形式,经计算 IC 50为(18.5±4.33)μmol/L。对照组中肝癌细胞 SMMC-7721核表面发出均匀荧光,光滑不毛糙;实验组中肝癌细胞 SMMC-7721核坏死碎片,包括皱缩等,荧光清晰但浓染致密,呈现出典型的细胞凋亡性状特点。与阴性对照组相比,胡椒碱25μmol/L和50μmol/L 2种浓度均对 SMMC-7721细胞各

  1. Effect of L-arginine on neuronal apoptosis induced by focal cerebral ischemia in rats%L-精氨酸对局灶性脑缺血大鼠神经元凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建新; 李兰芳; 李永辉; 张会欣

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of L-arginine(L-arg)on neuronal apoptosis induced by focal cerebral ischemia in rats.Methods Fifly-six male SD rats,weighing 250-300 g,were randomly divided into 7 groups(n=8 each):sham operation group(SH),2 h cerebral ischemia group(IS1),2 h cerebral ischemia and L-arg treatment group(L-arg1),6 h cerebral ischemia group(IS2),6 h cerebral ischemia and L-arg treatment group(L-arg2),12 h cerebral ischemia group(IS3),and 12 h cerebral ischemia and L-arg treatment group (L-arg3).Focal cerebral ischemia was produced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 12 h.A nylon thread with rounded tip was inserted into left internal carotid artery cranial until resistance was met.The distance from bifurcation of common carotid artery to the tip of the thread was about 18-19 mm.Focal cerebral ischemia was confirmed by left Horner's syndrome and right side hemiplegia.In each L-arg group,L-arg 500 mg/kg was given intraperitoneally after cerebral ischemia twice a day for 3 days.In IS group,normal saline was given instead of L-arg.The animals were decapitated 3 days after treatment.The brains were immediately removed for the determination of the neuronal apoptosis rate in the ischemic region and the expression of Caspase-3,Bcl-2 and Bax protein.Results The neuronal apoptosis rate and the expression of Caspase-3 and Bax protein were significantly higher,while the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax protein was significantly lower in IS1,IS2 and IS3 group than in SH group(P <0.01).The neuronal apoptosis rate and the expression of Caspase-3 and Bax protein were significantly lower,while the expression of Bcl-2 protein and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax protein were significantly higher in L-arg1 and L-arg2 group than in IS1 and IS2 group(P<0.01).There was no significant difference in the indexes mentioned above between IS3 and L-arg3 group(P>0.05).Conclusion L-arg can reduce the neuronal apoptosis and has certain therapeutic effect during the early cerebral ischemia

  2. 苏木精对人类膀胱癌T24细胞的杀伤及诱导凋亡作用%Hematoxylin's cytocidal and apoptosis-inducing effects on human urinary bladder cancer cell-T24

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任连生; 张蕻; 白喜花; 韩雪冰; 米振国

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察苏木精对人类膀胱癌T24细胞的杀伤及诱导凋亡的作用,探讨其对靶细胞杀伤的作用机制.方法 将靶细胞培养于含药量分别为0、12.5、25、50、100、200μg/ml的RPMI1640培养基中,培养24h,倒置显微镜下观察细胞的形态学变化,收集靶细胞,采用锥虫蓝拒染法测定药物对靶细胞的杀伤作用.采用流式细胞术(FCM)检测不同药物质量浓度对靶细胞凋亡的影响.结果 随着药物质量浓度的逐步增加,细胞发生形态学变化,且细胞死亡率逐步增加,对照组细胞死亡率为(2.63±0.29)%,各组细胞死亡率分别为(10.00±4.82)%、(21.88±3.42)%、(76.41±4.82)%、(92.27±7.62)%和(96.34±8.78)%.对照组细胞凋亡的自然发生率为0.47%;含药量为50μg/ml时,细胞凋亡率显著增高,达到43.18%,死细胞率为48.47%,活细胞率为8.35%;随着药物质量浓度的增大.细胞凋亡率逐渐降低.而死细胞率则逐渐上升.结论 苏木精可通过诱导细胞凋亡和直接杀伤作用于靶细胞,在较低浓度下,可诱导靶细胞发牛凋亡,药物浓度超过100μg/ml时,则能直接杀死靶细胞.%Objective To observe hematoxylin's cytocidal and apoptosis-inducing effects on human urinary cancer cell-T24,and its cytocidal mechanism to the target cell.Methods Target cells were incubated in the medium 1640 for 24h,which contained hematoxylin in dosage of zero(blank),12.5,25,50,100,200μg/ml,respectively;under inverted microscopy to observe target cells'morphologic change,and then harvest them;by trypan blue tmpochrome method to determine hematoxylin's cytocidal activity to the target cells;by flow cytomelry to detect the effects of hematoxylin in its different levels on target cells'apoptosis.Results The control group(without hematoxylin)showed their target cells in a fusiform adherent growth,plump,close-arranged,and with a good transparence.With the addition and increment of hematoxylin,target cells turned round,not adherent

  3. 姜黄素对过氧化氢诱导氧化损伤的黑素细胞的保护作用%Protective Effect of Curcumin on Melanocytes Apoptosis Induced by H2 O2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海平; 高华; 樊星

    2014-01-01

    目的探讨姜黄素对过氧化氢( H2 O2)诱导的黑素细胞凋亡的保护作用。方法采用H2 O2诱导黑素细胞建立体外氧化应激模型,姜黄素按7.5、15、25μmol· L -13种浓度给药,分别测定各组黑素细胞活力、细胞超氧化物歧化酶( SOD)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶( GSH-Px)活性及丙二醛( MDA)、细胞活性氧( ROS)含量。乳酸脱氢酶( LDH)试剂盒检测细胞培养液中LDH 漏出量,Annexin V &PI检测细胞凋亡水平。结果除低剂量(7.5μmol· L -1)姜黄素组外,15μmol· L -1和25μmol· L -1的姜黄素均能显著提高 H2O2所致黑素细胞的细胞活力(P<0.01);提高黑素细胞内SOD、GSH-Px的活性,减少ROS、MDA的生成(P<0.01);与H2O2组比较,LDH漏出率显著降低(P<0.01);细胞凋亡率亦明显降低(15μmol· L -1姜黄素组P<0.05,25μmol· L-1姜黄素组P<0.01),并显示出剂量-效应关系。结论姜黄素对 H2O2所致黑素细胞凋亡具有保护作用,有效提高了黑素细胞抗氧化应激的作用,并呈剂量依赖性。%OBJECTIVE To explore the antioxidant and protective effect of curcumin on melanocytes apoptosis induced by H2O2.METHODS Melanocytes were cultured in M254 medium and the cellular injury was induced by H2 O2.Curcumin was given in three doses of 7.5,15 and 25μmol· L-1.The cell viability of melanocytes was calcu-lated by MTT assay.The concent of surperoxide dismutase (SOD),glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px),malonaldehyde ( MDA) and reactive oxygen species ( ROS ) were measured.The outleakage of lactate dehydrogenase ( LDH ) was measured by its kits.Annexin V&PI was used to measure the level of apoptosis.RESULTS Curcumin 15μmol · L-1 and 25μmol· L-1 significantly increased the cell viability of melanocytes (P<0.01).The two doses of Curcumin increased the activity of SOD and GSH-Px,and decreased the concent of MDA and ROS in melanocytes injured by H2O2(P<0

  4. Hydrogen peroxide preconditioning protects PC12 cells against apoptosis induced by oxidative stress%过氧化氢预处理对抗氧化应激诱导的PC12细胞凋亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐小卿; 陈静; 唐二虎; 冯鉴强; 陈培熹

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress can induce significant cell death by apoptosis. We explore whether prior exposure to H2O2(H2O2 preconditioning) protects PC12 cells against the apoptotic consequences of subsequent oxidative damages and what role the ATP sensitive potassium (KATP) channels play in the preconditioning protection. PC12 cells were preconditioned with 90 min exposure to H2O2 at 10 μmol/L, followed by 24-h recovery and subsequent exposures to different concentrations (20, 30, 50 and 100 μmol/L) of H2O2 for 24 h respectively. We used PI staining flow cytometry (FCM) to observe the apoptosis of PC12 cells. It was shown that 24-h exposures to H2O2 at 20, 30, 50 and 100 μmol/L respectively induced substantial cell apoptosis, which was greatly prevented in the preconditioning cells, indicating that H2O2 preconditioning protected PC 12 cells against apoptosis induced by H2O2. Administration of pinacidil (10 μmol/L), an KATP channel activator, significantly attenuated the apoptosis of PC12 cells induced by H2O2 at 30 and 50μmol/L for 24 h respectively. Glybenclamide (10 μmol/L), a KATP channel inhibitor, significantly suppressed or abolished the protective effects caused by the pinacidil but not by H2O2 preconditioning. However, when both H2O2 preconditioning and pinacidil were coapplied, their protection against the apoptosis of PC12 cells was much stronger than that of the individual one of them. These results suggest that H2O2 preconditioning protects PC12 cells against apoptosis and that the activation of KATP channels is not involved in, but synergetically enhances adaptive protection of H2O2 preconditioning.%氧化应激可明显地诱导细胞凋亡.本研究旨在探讨H2O2预处理能否对H2O2诱导的PC12细胞凋亡产生保护作用及ATP敏感性K+(ATP-sensitive potassium,KATP)通道在其中的作用.采用PI染色流式细胞仪(flow cytometry,FCM)检测PC12细胞凋亡.结果表明,经10μmol/L H2O2预处理90 min的PC12细胞,分别在20、30、50和100

  5. Model for Osteosarcoma-9 as a potent factor in cell survival and resistance to apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourvouhaki, Ekaterini; Carvalho, Carla; Aguiar, Paulo

    2007-07-01

    In this paper we use a simple model to explore the function of the gene Osteosarcoma-9 (OS-9). We are particularly interested in understanding the role of this gene as a potent anti-apoptotic factor. The theoretical description is constrained by experimental data from induction of apoptosis in cells where OS-9 is overexpressed. The data available suggest that OS-9 promotes cell viability and confers resistance to apoptosis, potentially implicating OS-9 in the survival of cancer cells. Three different apoptosis-inducing mechanisms were tested and are modeled here. A more complex and realistic model is also discussed.

  6. Exploring the contextual sensitivity of factors that determine cell-to-cell variability in receptor-mediated apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Gaudet

    Full Text Available Stochastic fluctuations in gene expression give rise to cell-to-cell variability in protein levels which can potentially cause variability in cellular phenotype. For TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand variability manifests itself as dramatic differences in the time between ligand exposure and the sudden activation of the effector caspases that kill cells. However, the contribution of individual proteins to phenotypic variability has not been explored in detail. In this paper we use feature-based sensitivity analysis as a means to estimate the impact of variation in key apoptosis regulators on variability in the dynamics of cell death. We use Monte Carlo sampling from measured protein concentration distributions in combination with a previously validated ordinary differential equation model of apoptosis to simulate the dynamics of receptor-mediated apoptosis. We find that variation in the concentrations of some proteins matters much more than variation in others and that precisely which proteins matter depends both on the concentrations of other proteins and on whether correlations in protein levels are taken into account. A prediction from simulation that we confirm experimentally is that variability in fate is sensitive to even small increases in the levels of Bcl-2. We also show that sensitivity to Bcl-2 levels is itself sensitive to the levels of interacting proteins. The contextual dependency is implicit in the mathematical formulation of sensitivity, but our data show that it is also important for biologically relevant parameter values. Our work provides a conceptual and practical means to study and understand the impact of cell-to-cell variability in protein expression levels on cell fate using deterministic models and sampling from parameter distributions.

  7. Co-Targeting IGF-1R and Autophagy Enhances the Effects of Cell Growth Suppression and Apoptosis Induced by the IGF-1R Inhibitor NVP-AEW541 in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Nan; Shi, Yawei; Liu, Ruiming; Li, Wen; Lin, Yin; Wang, Shenming

    2017-01-01

    Background Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most intractable type of breast cancer, and there is a lack of effective targeted therapy. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is reportedly a potential target for TNBC treatment. However, satisfying treatment outcomes in breast cancer patients have yet to be achieved with IGF-1R-targeted agents. Methods To confirm whether inhibiting IGF-1R could induce autophagy, we detected autophagy-related proteins by western blotting and immunofluorescence staining of LC3-II. The IGF-1R inhibitor NVP-AEW541, autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and Atg7 small interfering RNA (siRNA) were used to further investigate the effects of autophagy induced by IGF-1R inhibition in TNBC cells. The CCK8 assay, EdU assay, apoptosis and cell cycle analyses were applied to test cell function after treatment. Results NVP-AEW541 markedly induced autophagy in TNBC cells by increasing the levels of the autophagy-related protein Beclin-1 and the LC3-II/LC-I ratio and reducing the selective autophagy substrate p62. Joint application of 3-MA or Atg7 siRNA enhanced the cell growth inhibition and apoptosis effects of NVP-AEW541 by arresting cells at G1/G0 phase and increasing Bax expression and decreasing that of Bcl-2. Conclusion Targeting IGF-1R in TNBC induces cell-protective autophagy, thereby weakening the therapeutic effect of agents directed toward IGF-1R. Our findings reveal that combined use autophagy-disrupting agents can enhance the therapeutic efficacy of IGF-1R inhibitors in TNBC cells and may provide a valuable treatment strategy for IGF-1R inhibitor-based therapies for TNBC and other IGF-1 signaling-associated tumors. PMID:28046018

  8. Radiation response and regulation of apoptosis induced by a combination of TRAIL and CHX in cells lacking mitochondrial DNA: A role for NF-{kappa}B-STAT3-directed gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Vladimir N., E-mail: vni3@columbia.edu; Ghandhi, Shanaz A.; Zhou, Hongning; Huang, Sarah X.; Chai, Yunfei; Amundson, Sally A.; Hei, Tom K.

    2011-07-01

    Mitochondrial DNA depleted ({rho}{sup 0}) human skin fibroblasts (HSF) with suppressed oxidative phosphorylation were characterized by significant changes in the expression of 2100 nuclear genes, encoding numerous protein classes, in NF-{kappa}B and STAT3 signaling pathways, and by decreased activity of mitochondrial death pathway, compared to the parental {rho}{sup +} HSF. In contrast, the extrinsic TRAIL/TRAIL-Receptor mediated death pathway remained highly active, and exogenous TRAIL in a combination with cycloheximide (CHX) induced higher levels of apoptosis in {rho}{sup 0} cells compared to {rho}{sup +} HSF. Global gene expression analysis using microarray and qRT-PCR demonstrated that mRNA expression levels of many growth factors and their adaptor proteins (FGF13, HGF, IGFBP4, IGFBP6, and IGFL2), cytokines (IL6, {Oota}L17{Beta}, {Oota}L18, {Oota}L19, and {Oota}L28{Beta}) and cytokine receptors (IL1R1, IL21R, and IL31RA) were substantially decreased after mitochondrial DNA depletion. Some of these genes were targets of NF-{kappa}B and STAT3, and their protein products could regulate the STAT3 signaling pathway. Alpha-irradiation further induced expression of several NF-{kappa}B/STAT3 target genes, including IL1A, IL1B, IL6, PTGS2/COX2 and MMP12, in {rho}{sup +} HSF, but this response was substantially decreased in {rho}{sup 0} HSF. Suppression of the IKK-NF-{kappa}B pathway by the small molecular inhibitor BMS-345541 and of the JAK2-STAT3 pathway by AG490 dramatically increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis in the control and irradiated {rho}{sup +} HSF. Inhibitory antibodies against IL6, the main activator of JAK2-STAT3 pathway, added into the cell media, also increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HSF, especially after alpha-irradiation. Collectively, our results indicated that NF-{kappa}B activation was partially lost in {rho}{sup 0} HSF resulting in downregulation of the basal or radiation-induced expression of numerous NF-{kappa}B targets, further suppressing IL6

  9. The regulation of Cathepsin B on cell apoptosis induced by SAHA in breast cancer cell line MCF-7%组织蛋白酶B在SAHA诱导乳腺癌MCF-7细胞凋亡过程中的调控作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 周伟强

    2016-01-01

    Aim To clarify the regulation role of ca-thepsin B ( Cat B ) in cell proliferation and apoptosis induced by SAHA in ER-positive breast cancer cell line MCF-7.Methods MTT was used to screen the optimal concentration and treatment time of SAHA . The expression levels of related proteins were deter-mined by ELISA , and the morphological changes were observed through time-lapse live cell imaging acquisi-tion.Cell viability and apoptosis assay in MCF-7 cells were assessed by Muse Cell Analyzer with SAHA and /or Cystatin C treatment .Results MTT assay showed that the anti-tumor efficacy of SAHA was significant . The optimal concentration and treatment time were 10μmol・ L-1 and 24 h respectively . ELISA assay showed that SAHA could induce expression of Cat B in MCF-7 cells.Real-time live-cell imaging experiments demonstrated that the combination treatment of Cystatin C and SAHA significantly resumed the inhibitory effect caused by SAHA alone .Cytology test showed that SA-HA alone obviously depressed the cell viability and in-duced apoptosis . However , the effect was reversed with the combination of Cystatin C .Conclusion Cat B plays an important role in apoptosis induced by SAHA in ER +breast cancer cells MCF-7.%目的:阐明组织蛋白酶B(cathepsin B, Cat B)在SA-HA诱导的乳腺癌雌激素受体阳性细胞系MCF-7细胞凋亡中的调控作用。方法采用 MTT法检测SAHA对乳腺癌MCF-7细胞生长状况的影响;应用ELISA方法测定SAHA作用于MCF-7细胞后相关蛋白表达变化的情况;通过BioSta-tionIM活细胞工作站实时收集各种处理因素对乳腺癌MCF-7细胞增殖干预的形态学影响;并通过自动细胞分析仪Muse Cell Analyzer分析SAHA对MCF-7细胞活力和细胞凋亡的影响。结果 SAHA能明显抑制乳腺癌MCF-7细胞的增殖,其最佳作用浓度为10μmol・ L-1,最佳作用时间为24 h。ELISA结果表明,SAHA能诱导乳腺癌MCF-7细胞中Cat B的表达。实时

  10. NB4 Cell Apoptosis Induced By Bortezomib Combined with As2O3 and Its Mechanism%硼替佐米联合三氧化二砷诱导NB4细胞凋亡及相关机制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓文; 夏海龙; 夏瑞祥

    2011-01-01

    本研究旨在探索硼替佐米(bortezornib)联合三氧化二砷(As2O3)诱导急性早幼粒细胞白血病NB4细胞株的凋亡及相关调控机制.用流式细胞术Annexin V/PI双染法检测细胞凋亡;Hoechst染色法观察凋亡细胞形态;Western blot检测caspase-3,caspase-9的活化以及NOXA蛋白的表达;以小干扰RNA(siRNA)技术特异性"沉默"NOXA基因;用脂质体Lipofectamine2000转染pEGFP-Noxa质粒和空载体pEGFP.结果表明,bortezomib(10 nmol/L)联合As2O3(0.5 μmol/L)诱导NB4细胞凋亡率较单药As2O3(0.5 μmol/L)诱导时增加,相应的caspase-3,-9的活化明显加强.单药As2O3诱导的NB4细胞中Noxa蛋白水平未发生改变,bortezomib和As2O3联合诱导的NB4中NOXA蛋白水平上调.特异性"沉默"NOXA基因后bortezomib和As2O3联合诱导的NB4细胞中caspase-3的活化程度降低,细胞凋亡率也明显下降.通过转染质粒高表达NOXA蛋白,单药As2O3诱导的NB4细胞中caspase-3的活化程度增加.结论:bortezomib可以增加NB4细胞对As2O3诱导凋亡的敏感性,这可能和促凋亡蛋白NOXA的表达上调有关.%This study was aimed to investigate the apoptosis induced by bortezomib combined with As2O3 in APL cell line NB4 and its mechanism. The apoptotic cells were detected by flow cytometry with Annexin V/propidium iodide double staining; the morphology of apoptotic cells was observed by Hoechst staining, Western blot was used to measure activation of caspase-3 and -9 as well as expression of NOXA; the siRNA technique was used to specifically silence NOXA gene; the lipofectamine 2000 was used to transfect pEGFP-Noxa plasmid and pEGFP vacant vector. The results showed that the bortezomib combined with As2O3 could induce significant apoptosis of NB4 cells and activation of caspase 3 and caspase 9, but As2O3 (0. 5 μmol/L) alone could not cause marked activation of caspase cascade and apoptosis of NB4 cells. The expression level of NOXA in NB4 cells induced by bortezomib combined with As2O

  11. Germ cell apoptosis induced by progesterone in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Yu-gui; Liao Ting-ting; Liu Jia-yin; Jia Yue; Cai Rui-fen; Gao Li; Wang Xing-hai; Tong Jian-sun; Ma Ding-zhi; Zhang Cai-ting; Wang Xue-song

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To document the effect of progesterone exposure with large dose and long term on spermatogenesis,especially on the germ cell apoptosis in rats.This study was also to evaluate the toxicity of progesterone in the reproductive system when administered with large doses and long term in men.Methods: Groups of adult male SD rats were administered with 37.5, 75 and 150 mg/kg depotmedroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) per two-weeks for 12 or 18 weeks.At the end of treatment, each male rat was paired with one adult female SD rat to estimate the reproductive function.Serum testosterone concentration was analyzed in duplicate by radioimmunoassay (RIA).The pathological changes of testes, epididymis, and prostate were checked under light microscopic, epididymis was also used for sperm count, and fresh testis tissue was used for apoptosis assessment by flow cytometry.Results.After treatment with DMPA, weights of gonad, the ratio of testes/body, the ratio of epididymides/body,and the ratio of prostate/body decreased significantly (P<0.01).The level of serum testosterone, sperm count, sperm activity decreased significantly(P<0.01) while abnormality of sperm increased significantly (P<0.01).The embryonic number in uterus of pairing female rat decreased significantly after DMPA treatment.Compared with control, the number and the ratio of apoptotic germ cell increased dramatically (P<0.01) along with dose increase or treating prolongation of DMPA, which analyzed by flow cytometry.Conclusion: In summary, in addition to inhibition of pituitary gonadotrophin and subsequently deprivation of androgen, progesterone (DMPA)inhibits spermatogenesis by the induced germ cell apoptosis.The reproductive toxicity of DMPA administrated with large doses and long term is confirmed.

  12. Early autophagy activation inhibits podocytes from apoptosis induced by aldosterone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文琰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the protection of early autoph-agy activation on podocyte injury induced by aldosterone.Methods In vitro cultured mouse podocyte clones(MPC5) were treated with aldosterone for 6,12,24,48 hrespectively. Apoptosis of podocytes was detected by

  13. Germ cell apoptosis induced by Ureaplasma urealyticum infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen XU; Mei-Ge LU; Jing-Sheng FENG; Qiang-Su Guo; Yi-Fei WANG

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) infection on germ cell apoptosis of male rats. Methods: Male rats were infected artificially with UU serotype 8 (T960) . Morphological changes of germ cells in the seminiferous tubules and the lumen of the epididymides were observed under the light microscope. Fluorescence-conjugated polyclonal antibodies to Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) were used to localize Fas and FasL. TUNEL staining of germ cells and Sertoli cells was performed by the AKPase method. TUNEL-positive rate ( % positive cells) and TUNEL-positive area (area occupied by stained cells) were analysed by KS400 Image Analysis System. The DNA laddering analysis was performed by agarose gels electrophoresis. Results: In those rats infected with UU: (1) Exfoliated germ cells were dramatically increased. Many multinucleated giant cells were found in the seminiferous tubules and the lumen of the epididymides. (2) The number of TUNEL-positive cells and the TUNEL-positive area were significantly increased.(3) The expression of Fas and FasL in germ cells and Sertoli cells was up-regulated. (4) Discrete bands of fragmented DNA were found in the testicular cells. Conclusion: In male rats, germ cell apoptosis was increased in UU infection.

  14. The interplays between autophagy and apoptosis induced by enterovirus 71.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyan Xi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is the causative agent of human diseases with distinct severity, from mild hand, foot and mouth disease to severe neurological syndromes, such as encephalitis and meningitis. The lack of understanding of viral pathogenesis as well as lack of efficient vaccine and drugs against this virus impedes the control of EV71 infection. EV71 virus induces autophagy and apoptosis; however, the relationship between EV71-induced autophagy and apoptosis as well as the influence of autophagy and apoptosis on virus virulence remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, it was observed that the Anhui strain of EV71 induced autophagy and apoptosis in human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD-A cells. Additionally, by either applying chemical inhibitors or knocking down single essential autophagic or apoptotic genes, inhibition of EV71 induced autophagy inhibited the apoptosis both at the autophagosome formation stage and autophagy execution stage. However, inhibition of autophagy at the stage of autophagosome and lysosome fusion promoted apoptosis. In reverse, the inhibition of EV71-induced apoptosis contributed to the conversion of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-I (LC3-I to LC3-II and degradation of sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1/P62. Furthermore, the inhibition of autophagy in the autophagsome formation stage or apoptosis decreased the release of EV71 viral particles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, the results of this study not only revealed novel aspect of the interplay between autophagy and apoptosis in EV71 infection, but also provided a new insight to control EV71 infection.

  15. Apoptosis induced by norcantharidin in human tumor cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Xiao Sun; Qing Wen Ma; Tian De Zhao; Yu Lin Wei; Guang Sheng Wang; Jia Shi Li

    2000-01-01

    @@INTRODUCTION The antitumor activity of norcantharidin (NCTD),the demethylated analogue of cantharidin, was studied in the early 1980s in China. NCTD has no side effects on urinary organs which cantharidin has shown and is easier to synthesize, and it can inhibit the proliferation of several tumor cell lines as well as transplanted tumors. Clinical trials with NCTD as a monotherapeutic agent indicated that NCTD had beneficial effects in patients with different kinds of digestive tract cancers, such as primary hepatoma,carcinomas of esophagus and gastric cancer, but no depressive effect on bone marrow cells. NCTD can increase the white blood cell count by stimulating the bone marrow and has some antagonistic effect against leukopenia caused by other agents. The exact cellular and molecular mechanisms of NCTD on tumor cells have not yet been elucidated to date[1-3].

  16. Thymocyte apoptosis induced by p53-dependent and independent pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, A.R.; Purdie, C.A.; Harrison, D.J.; Morris, R.G.; Bird, C.C.; Hooper, M.L.; Wyllie, A.H. (Edinburgh Univ. Medical School (United Kingdom). Dept. of Pathology)

    1993-04-29

    The authors studied the dependence of apoptosis on p53 expression in cells from the thymus cortex. Short-term thymocyte cultures were prepared from mice constitutively heterozygous or homozygous for a deletion in the p53 gene introduced into the germ line after gene targeting. Wild-type thymocytes readily undergo apoptosis after treatment with ionizing radiation, the glucocorticoid methylprednisolone, or etoposide (an inhibitor of topoisomerase II), or after Ca[sup 2+]-dependent activation by phorbol ester and a calcium ionophore. In contrast, homozygous null p53 thymocytes are resistant to induction of apoptosis by radiation or etoposide, but retain normal sensitivity to glucocorticoid and calcium. The time- dependent apoptosis that occurs in untreated cultures is unaffected by p53 status. Cells heterozygous for p53 deletion are partially resistant to radiation and etoposide. Results show that p53 exerts a significant and dose-dependent effect in the initiation of apoptosis, but only when it is induced by agents that cause DNA-strand breakage. (Author).

  17. Synchronized turbo apoptosis induced by cold-shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, J. H.; Dieker, J. W.; Hilbrands, L. B.; Berden, J. H.

    2010-01-01

    In our research on the role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we aim to evaluate the effects of early and late apoptotic cells and blebs on antigen presenting cells. This requires the in vitro generation of sufficiently large and homogeneous populations of early and late apoptotic cells. Here, we present a quick method encountered by serendipity that results in highly reproducible synchronized homogeneous apoptotic cell populations. In brief, granulocytic 32Dcl3 cells are incubated on ice for 2 h and subsequently rewarmed at 37°C. After 30–90 min at 37°C more than 80–90% of the cells become early apoptotic (Annexin V positive/propidium iodide negative). After 24 h of rewarming at 37°C 98% of the cells were late apoptotic (secondary necrotic; Annexin V positive/propidium iodide positive). Cells already formed apoptotic blebs at their cell surface after approximately 20 min at 37°C. Inter-nucleosomal chromatin cleavage and caspase activation were other characteristics of this cold-shock-induced process of apoptosis. Consequently, apoptosis could be inhibited by a caspase inhibitor. Finally, SLE-derived anti-chromatin autoantibodies showed a high affinity for apoptotic blebs generated by cold-shock. Overall, cold-shock induced apoptosis is achieved without the addition of toxic compounds or antibodies, and quickly leads to synchronized homogeneous apoptotic cell populations, which can be applied for various research questions addressing apoptosis. PMID:20972831

  18. 冬凌草甲素联合丙戊酸钠对HL-60细胞的生长抑制和诱导凋亡作用研究%Growth inhibition and apoptosis induced by oridonin combined with valproic acid in HL-60 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹慧娟; 姜国胜

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the apoptosis-inducing effect of oridonin combined with valproic acid( VPA)on leukemic cell line HL-60,and study the feasibility of oridonin combined with VPA to be used in clinical practice. Methods Oridonin of 6-12 μmol/L combined with VPA of 0. 5-1 mmol/L were added in exponential growth HL-60 cells respectively. Cell count assays were used to measure the growth inhibitory effect of oridonin combined with VPA or alone. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate apoptosis with Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) double staining. Results Combined use of oridonin and VPA could synergistically inactivate HL-60 cells,and inhibit the cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in a dose-and time-dependent manner (P < 0.05 ). Conclusion Oridonin has a synergistic effect combined with VPA. Oridonin has a promising prospect in clinical use of leukemia.%目的 研究中药单体冬凌草甲素(ORI)联合组蛋白去乙酰化酶抑制剂丙戊酸钠(VPA)诱导急性早幼粒白血病细胞株HL-60凋亡,探讨其应用于临床的可行性.方法 在对数生长期的HL-60细胞中分别加入6~12 la,mol/L的ORI和0.5~1 mmol/L的VPA,采用细胞计数法测定ORI和VPA单独和联合应用时对细胞的生长抑制,并用Annexin V/PI双标法流式细胞术检测细胞凋亡.结果 ORI联合VPA可协同降低HL-60细胞活力,抑制细胞增殖,诱导细胞凋亡,比单独用药凋亡作用更为显著(P<0.05).结论 ORI和VPA具有协同作用,能高效杀灭白血病细胞.ORI和VPA是一种有望应用于白血病临床治疗的新型生物制剂.

  19. Potent Systemic Anticancer Activity of Adenovirally Expressed EGFR-Selective TRAIL Fusion Protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, Edwin; van Dam, Gooitzen M.; de Bruyn, Marco; van Riezen, Manon; Dijkstra, Marike; Kamps, Gera; Helfrich, Wijnand; Haisma, Hidde

    2008-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated potent tumor cell-selective pro-apoptotic activity of scFv425:sTRAIL, a recombinant fusion protein comprised of EGFR-directed antibody fragment (scFv425) genetically fused to human soluble TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (sTRAIL). Here, we report on the promising th

  20. 重组腺相关病毒介导的MDA-7基因对人肝癌细胞的选择性凋亡诱导效应%Selective apoptosis-inducing effect of adeno-associated virus mediated gene transfer of MDA-7 on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐波; 朱光辉; 夏金堂; 翁杰锋; 李书华; 李雯

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨PEG启动子调控腺相关病人毒介导的黑色素瘤分化相关基因MDA-7对肝癌细胞的选择性凋亡诱导效应.方法 以重组腺相关病人毒rAAV-PEG-MDA-7表达系统感染人肝癌细胞株HepG2细胞和正常人肝细胞株LO2细胞,Westerm Blot检测转染细胞内MDA-7蛋白,MTT法检测细胞增殖抑制率,流式细胞术分析细胞周期、Annexin-Ⅴ、线粒体跨膜电位(△Ψm),RT-PCR检测bcl-2基因mRNA.结果 重组腺相关病毒rAAV-PEG-MDA7可特异性转染HepG2细胞,MDA7蛋白在HepG2细胞中高效表达,并呈时间依赖性;重组腺相关病毒rAAV-PEC-MDA-7可抑制HepG2细胞增殖并诱导其凋亡,细胞周期分析处于G0/G1期细胞百分比明显增多,处于G2/M期的细胞减少,并且可见到较明显的凋亡峰的形成,从24 h开始Annexin-Ⅴ阳性细胞比例增多,△Ψm降低,抗凋亡基因bcl-2 mRNA表达降低.而重组腺相关病毒rAAV-PEG-MDA-7对LO2细胞无类似效应.结论 构建出的重组腺相关病毒rAAV-PEG-MDA-7表达系统可选择性抑制肝癌细胞增殖和诱导其凋亡,其诱导凋亡机制受到bcl-2家族经线粒体途径的调节.%Objective To investigate the selective apoptosis-inducing effect of adeno-associated virus mediated gene transfer of MDA-7 regulated by PEG promoter on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.Methods We transduced human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 and normal human hepatocytes LO2 with rAAV-PEG-MDA-7 and assessed the cell growth inhibition,cell cycle and apoptosis.MDA-7 protein was detected by Western blotting,cell growth-inhibiting rate evaluated by MTT and cell cycle, Annexin-Ⅴ labeling and mitochondrial transmembrane potential were determined by flow eytometry.The expression of bcl-2 mRNA was determined bv RT-PCR.Results rAAV-PEG-MDA-7 was effectively transfected into HepG2 cells.MDA-7 protein was highly expressed in HepG2 cells in a time-dependent manner.rAAV-PEG-MDA-7 suppressed HepG2 cell growth.The cells

  1. Mechanisms of radioinduced apoptosis; Mecanismes de l'apoptose radio-induite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baatout, S.; Derradji, H.; Petitfour, Ol.; Von Schodoletz, H.; Mergeay, M. [Lab. de Radiobiologie, Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, SCK-CEN, Boeretang, Mol (Belgium)

    2002-07-01

    A general overview of the activation mechanisms of programmed cell death or apoptosis following an irradiation is given in this review. First, are summarized the main induction pathways of radiation-induced apoptosis by which extracellular (tumor necrosis factor (TNF), Fas ligand, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)) and intracellular (mitochondria and caspases) signals are integrated. A second part is then devoted to the importance of p53 and of its regulators (ATR, ATM, DNA-PKcs) in the process of radiation-induced apoptosis. Thereafter, signal transduction pathways and more specially the role of some protein kinases (MEKK, SAPK/JNK, p38-MAPK) is treated. At last, a chapter concerns the clinical interest of radiation-induced apoptosis and the implication of apoptosis in the treatment of certain diseases. (author)

  2. Roles and Clinical Applications of OPG and TRAIL as Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Bernardi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVD remain the major cause of death and premature disability in Western societies. Assessing the risk of CVD is an important aspect in clinical decision-making. Among the growing number of molecules that are studied for their potential utility as CVD biomarkers, a lot of attention has been focused on osteoprotegerin (OPG and its ligands, which are receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. Based on the existing literature and on our experience in this field, here we review what the possible roles of OPG and TRAIL in CVD are and their potential utility as CVD biomarkers.

  3. Induction of Apoptosis by Recombinant Soluble Human TRAIL in Jurkat Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic potential of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a member of the TNF superfamily, and to analyze TRAIL-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells. Methods Expression of TRAIL receptors (DR4 and DR5) was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cytotoxic effects were determined by colony formation assay and a cell counting kit. The effects of recombinant TRAIL on apoptosis of Jurkat cells were determined by DNA fragmentation (DNA ladder) and PI staining. Changes in mitochondrial membrane potential were detected with JC-1 fluorescence. Results TRAIL inhibited the proliferation and induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation (characteristic of apoptosis) and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Conclusion Recombinant soluble TRAIL can be used as a therapy for cancer.

  4. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-13 and RNA regulation in immunity and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, Tanya; Bock, Florian J; Chang, Paul

    2015-06-01

    Post-transcriptional regulation of RNA is an important mechanism for activating and resolving cellular stress responses. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-13 (PARP13), also known as ZC3HAV1 and zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP), is an RNA-binding protein that regulates the stability and translation of specific mRNAs, and modulates the miRNA silencing pathway to globally affect miRNA targets. These functions of PARP13 are important components of the cellular response to stress. In addition, the ability of PARP13 to restrict oncogenic viruses and to repress the prosurvival cytokine receptor tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 4 (TRAILR4) suggests that it can be protective against malignant transformation and cancer development. The relevance of PARP13 to human health and disease make it a promising therapeutic target.

  5. APOPTOSIS INDUCED BY CYCLOSPORINE A IN RENAL TUBULAR AND INTERSTITIAL CELLS AND THE PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF ENALAPRIL AND LOSARTAN ON IT%环孢菌素A致大鼠肾小管间质细胞凋亡及Losartan、Enalapril的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国华; 张训; 侯凡凡; 王力; 易朝辉

    2001-01-01

    以低盐饮食(钠含量0.05%)饲养大鼠7天后随机分成①对照组,②CsA 处理组,③CsA+盐酸维拉帕米处理组,④CsA+Losartan处理组,⑤CsA+Enalapril处理组。CsA皮下注射剂量为15mg/(kg*d),连续4周。用TUNEL法检测凋亡细胞,免疫组化方法观察增殖细胞核抗原(PCNA)、Fas抗原表达。结果发现CsA处理后大鼠肾小管间质凋亡细胞较对照组明显增加,增殖细胞也有代偿性增加,肾小管上皮细胞Fas抗原表达增多。与CsA处理组相比,Losartan、Enalapril处理组肾小管间质细胞凋亡和Fas抗原表达明显减少。结果提示CsA可促进肾小管间质细胞凋亡,导致肾小管间质纤维化,Fas可能是介导肾小管细胞凋亡的重要介质。Losartan、Enalapril对CsA所致的肾小管间质细胞凋亡有保护作用。%The rats were fed on low salt diet for seven days,and then were randomly divided into five groups: control (n=7), CsA treated (n=7), CsA+Verapamil (n=7), CsA+Enalapril (n=7) and CsA+Losartan (n=7).CsA was given by subcutaneous injection (15mg*kg-1*d-1) for four weeks. The apoptosis of tubular and interstitial cells was detected by TUNEL assay. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Fas antigen expression were examined by immunohistochemical staining. Apoptosis of tubular and interstitial cells increased in CsA treated rats. CsA+Losartan and CsA+Enalapril treated rats had a statistically significant decrease in apoptosis when compared to CsA treated rats (7.3±1.1 and 6.6±0.8 vs 13.9±1.2 respectively, P<0.01 in all),and the tubular Fas antigen expression in CsA + Losartan or CsA+ Enalapril group was significantly lower than in CsA treated group(19.8±2.4 and 18.2±1.8 vs 37.8±5.7 respectively, P<0.01 in all).The results showed that CsA nephropathy was associated with marked increase in apoptosis of tubular and interstitial cells. Fas may be an important mediator of tubular apoptosis induced by CsA. Enalapril and

  6. Study on the apoptosis induced by polysaccharides from Pleurotus ferulae combined with cisplatin on mice cervical carcinoma U14%阿魏菇多糖联合顺铂对小鼠宫颈癌U14细胞的凋亡诱导作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩平; 王冬慧; 杨琳; 姜玲; 李娜; 王金辉; 李国玉

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察阿魏菇多糖(polysaccharides from Pleurotus ferulae,PFP)、顺铂(DDP)及两者联合对小鼠宫颈癌细胞株U14移植瘤的抑制作用及凋亡诱导作用,并初步探讨阿魏菇多糖的抗肿瘤作用机制.方法:建立昆明小鼠U14宫颈癌模型,并随机分为四组:模型对照组、PFP组、DDP组、PFP+DDP组,治疗10天后检测各组瘤重及抑瘤率,采用TUNEL法检测各组瘤组织凋亡指数(apoptosis index,AI).结果:模型组小鼠体内瘤体积、瘤重明显高于各干预组(P<0.01),PFP+DDP组小鼠体内瘤重和瘤体积分别为[(0.40±0.61)g,(197.84±11.99)mm3 ]低于DDP组[(0.61±0.26)g,(211.46±14.58)mm3]; PFP组、DDP组、PFP+ DDP组瘤组织凋亡指数均高于模型对照组,其中以PFP+DDP组最明显.结论:PFP联合DDP比两药单独应用抑制肿瘤生长及诱导肿瘤细胞凋亡的作用更强,二者具有协同抗癌作用.PFP可以增强DDP的药物敏感性,其作用机制可能是通过诱导宫颈癌细胞凋亡而实现的.%Objective :To observe the growth - inhihition and the apoptosis induced hy polysaccharides from Pleurotus ferulae ( PFP ), cisplatin( DDP ) and their combination on murine cervical carcinoma U14; To investigate the mechanisms of PFP in the treatment of cancer. Methods: The mice with U14 were randomly divided into four groups : Model group , DDP group , PFP group , PFP + DDP group. After 10 days , the inhihitory rates of each group were detected. The U14 cell apoptosis index ( AI ) was assessed by TUNEL. Results : The weight and volume of tumor in model group were higher than that in other three groups( P <0. 01 ). The weight and volume of tumor in PFP + DDP group ( 0. 40 ±0. 61 )g and ( 199. 82 ± 13. 62 )mm3 , respectively , were lower than that in DDP group ( 0. 61 ±0. 26 ) g and ( 209. 51 ±23. 28 )mm3. The tumor cell apoptosis in experimental group was higher than those in model group, and the apoptosis index was highest in PFP + DDP group. Conclusion: PFP and DDP

  7. Relationship between apoptosis and expression of apoptosis inducing factor in cochlear after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in guinea pigs%豚鼠脑缺血再灌注损伤后内耳凋亡诱导因子的表达及与细胞凋亡的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许险艳; 杨维群; 温扬敏; 罗彩林; 陈宜阳

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨豚鼠脑缺血再灌注损伤后螺旋神经节细胞凋亡诱导因子(AIF)表达的改变、细胞凋亡的情况以及两者之间的关系.方法:健康豚鼠40只随机分成正常组、假手术组和模型组,模型组分为缺血再灌注6、24、48h3组.用H-E染色观察脑缺血再灌注不同时间段耳蜗各部位的形态学改变,用免疫组织化学和免疫印迹检测螺旋神经节细胞AIF的表达部位和表达量,用原位末端凋亡检测法(TUNEL法)检测螺旋神经节细胞凋亡的情况.结果:正常组、假手术组螺旋神经节罕见凋亡细胞,AIF为阳性表达,表达部位在细胞质;模型组螺旋神经节在缺血再灌注每个时间段均有细胞凋亡,AIF为强阳性表达,表达部位在细胞核和细胞质,与正常组比较差异有统计学意义.结论:AIF参与了豚鼠脑缺血再灌注损伤后螺旋神经节细胞凋亡的发生.

  8. Expression and significance of relative factors in HEK-293 apoptosis induced by hantavirus%凋亡相关蛋白在汉坦病毒诱导HEK-293细胞凋亡过程中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高巍; 王晓燕; 刘伟; 康鹏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To provide reference to possible mechanism of injury in human embryonic kidney 293 cell (HEK-293), which was induced by hantavirus by means of investigating the variation of Bcl-2、Bax and Caspase-3. Methods HEK-293 in vitro culture was divided into normal control group and infection group processed by hantavirus. Hantavirus antigen in HEK-293 cells were detected by indirectimmunofluorescent assay and the expression of Bcl-2N Bax and Caspase-3 were assessed by Western blot. Results Fluorescence-positive cells e-merged one day after HEK-293 cells were infected with hantavirus, and with time going on, fluorescence intensity increased gradually, as well as a large amount of foliated or granular greenyellow fluorescence in intracytoplasm. As Western blot results showed ,in contrast to control group, the expression of Bel-2、Bax and Caspase-3 did not present marked change 1 day postinfection (P >0. 05) ,and the expression of Bcl-2 decreased with that of Bax and Caspase-3. activation increasing 3 or 5 days postinfection ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion The injury mechanism produced by hantavirus which infected and proliferated in HEK-293 cell could be relative to the decrease of Bcl-2 expression and the up-regulation of Bax protein, as well as apoptosis of HEK-293 cells induced by mitochondrial-mediated manner.%目的 探讨Bcl-2、Bax及Caspase-3在汉坦病毒诱导人胚肾细胞(HEK-293)凋亡过程中的变化,为研究汉坦病毒诱导人胚肾细胞损伤的机制提供参考.方法 体外培养HEK-293细胞,分为正常对照组和汉坦病毒处理的感染组,采用间接免疫荧光法检测HEK-293内汉坦病毒抗原;用Westen blot方法检测Bcl-2、Bax及Caspase-3蛋白表达水平.结果 汉坦病毒感染HEK-293细胞1d后即开始出现荧光阳性细胞,随着时间延长,荧光强度逐渐增强,细胞胞浆内出现大量片状或颗粒性的黄绿色荧光;Western blot结果显示,与对照组比较,汉坦病毒感染1d后Bcl-2、Bax蛋白及Caspase-3酶原活化片段表达量未见明显变化(P>0.05),感染3d和5d后Bcl-2蛋白表达降低,Bax蛋白表达上调,Caspase-3酶原活化片段表达升高(P<0.05).结论 汉坦病毒可感染HEK-293细胞并在其体内增殖,其损伤机制可能与Bcl-2表达减少和Bax蛋白表达上调,通过线粒体途径诱导HEK-293细胞发生凋亡有关.

  9. Oleifolioside A mediates caspase-independent human cervical carcinoma HeLa cell apoptosis involving nuclear relocation of mitochondrial apoptogenic factors AIF and EndoG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai Yang; Jin, Cheng-Yun; Kim, Kyoung-Sook; Lee, Young-Choon; Park, Shin-Hyung; Kim, Gi-Young; Kim, Wun-Jae; Moon, Hyung-In; Choi, Yung Hyun; Lee, Jai-Heon

    2012-05-30

    Apoptosis, the main type of programmed cell death, plays an essential role in a variety of biological events. Whereas "classical" apoptosis is dependent on caspase activation, caspase-independent death is increasingly recognized as an alternative pathway. To develop new anticancer agents, oleifolioside A was isolated from Dendropanax morbifera Leveille and the biochemical mechanisms of oleifolioside A-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells were investigated. Exposure to oleifolioside A resulted in caspase activation and typical features of apoptosis, although cell death was not prevented by caspase inhibition. Oleifolioside A treatment induced up-regulation of Bad, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, nuclear relocation of mitochondrial factors, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), endonuclease G (EndoG), and apoptosis induction. This is the first report of anticancer activity of oleifolioside A, and nuclear translocation of AIF and EndoG in oleifolioside A-treated HeLa cells might represent an alternative death signaling pathway in the absence of caspase activity.

  10. Rapid and efficient cancer cell killing mediated by high-affinity death receptor homotrimerizing TRAIL variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, C R; van der Sloot, A M; Natoni, A; Szegezdi, E; Setroikromo, R; Meijer, M; Sjollema, K; Stricher, F; Cool, R H; Samali, A; Serrano, L; Quax, W J

    2010-10-21

    The tumour necrosis factor family member TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively induces apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells through the activation of death receptors 4 (DR4) and 5 (DR5) and is considered a promising anticancer therapeutic agent. As apoptosis seems to occur primarily via only one of the two death receptors in many cancer cells, the introduction of DR selectivity is thought to create more potent TRAIL agonists with superior therapeutic properties. By use of a computer-aided structure-based design followed by rational combination of mutations, we obtained variants that signal exclusively via DR4. Besides an enhanced selectivity, these TRAIL-DR4 agonists show superior affinity to DR4, and a high apoptosis-inducing activity against several TRAIL-sensitive and -resistant cancer cell lines in vitro. Intriguingly, combined treatment of the DR4-selective variant and a DR5-selective TRAIL variant in cancer cell lines signalling by both death receptors leads to a significant increase in activity when compared with wild-type rhTRAIL or each single rhTRAIL variant. Our results suggest that TRAIL induced apoptosis via high-affinity and rapid-selective homotrimerization of each DR represent an important step towards an efficient cancer treatment.

  11. Effects of heme oxygenase-1 on rat renal tubular epithelial cell apoptosis induced by albumin%血红素加氧酶1对白蛋白诱导肾小管上皮细胞凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马瑨; 刘章锁; 王沛; 骆红

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨血红素加氧酶1(HO-1)对白蛋白诱导肾小管上皮细胞凋亡的影响及其可能机制.方法 体外培养大鼠肾小管上皮细胞(NRK-52E)为正常对照.白蛋白对照组加去脂的小牛血清白蛋白(BSA)30 g/L共同培养.干预组先加钴卟啉(Cobalt protoporphyrinIX,CoPP,血红素加氧酶1诱导剂)5 μmol/L,0.5 h后再加入BSA 30 g/L,作用24 h.四甲基偶氮唑盐(MTT)比色法检测CoPP对BSA抑制NRK-52E细胞增殖的影响.细胞免疫荧光染色检测细胞凋亡率.RT-PCR法检测凋亡相关蛋白Bcl-2、Bax mRNA表达情况.结果 与正常对照组比较,BSA对细胞增殖具有抑制作用并诱导细胞凋亡,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),而CoPP对BSA引起的细胞毒性作用具有保护作用(P<0.05);BSA对照组HO-1 mRNA表达增加(0.44±0.06比0.39±0.05,P<0.05),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).CoPP预处理后,HO-1mRNA表达(0.50±0.06)较BSA对照组增加(P<0.05).BSA可上调Bax mRNA表达(0.87±0.04比0.67±0.03,P<0.05)及下调Bcl-2 mRNA的表达(0.25±0.04比0.42±0.02,P<0.05),当加入CoPP预处理后可抑制上述改变(Bax mRNA:0.75±0.07,Bcl-2 mRNA:0.36±0.03,均P<0.05).结论 BSA可显著增加细胞的凋亡率并直接调控凋亡相关蛋白mRNA的表达,CoPP可抑制上述BSA的作用.HO-1对BSA所致肾小管上皮细胞凋亡具有保护作用,可以抑制细胞凋亡.%Objective To investigate the influence of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) on rat renal tubular epithelial cell apoptosis induced by albumin and the possible mechanism. Methods The renal tubular epithelial cells (NRK-52E) were cultured in DMEM/F12 1:1 medium as normal control group; NRK-52E cells were cultured with 30 g/L fat-free bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the BSA control group; NRK-52E cells were cultured with CoPP (Cobalt pretoporphyrin Ⅸ) 5 μ mol/L for 24 hours as the treatment group. MTT assay was used to observe the effects of CoPP on growth inhibition induced by BSA in NRK-52E cells. The effect of CoPP was

  12. 流感病毒H1N1感染A549细胞诱导凋亡及黄芩苷干预作用的研究%Effect of baicalin on apoptosis induced by H1N1 virus in vitro and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓婷; 张沂; 顾立刚; 吴珺; 邱泽计; 于卓男; 王玥琦

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate the regulatory effects of baicalin on apoptosis induced by virus H1 N1 in hu-man pulmonary carcinoma cell A549 . Methods The chips were used to screen the RNA samples in virus-in-fected A549 cells. Differentially expressed genes were selected in the pathway of apoptosis. The mRNA ex-pressions of caspase-3 and -8 were verified by Real-Time PCR. Results With the DNA microarray, the functions of differentially expressed genes involved in apoptosis biological pathways were analyzed by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes ( KEGG ) Path-way databases. caspase-3, -7, -8, -10, TRAIL, MYD88 , IL1 A and IL1 B were up-regulated in virus-in-fected group. Oseltamivir could down-regulate gene ex-pressions of caspase-3 ,-4 and-8 . High-dose of baica-lin could down-regulate gene expressions of caspase-3 ,-4,-6 and -8. Except gene expressions of above, low-dose of baicalin could also down-regulate gene expres-sions of IL1RAP and Cn. Real-Time PCR experiments showed that baicalin could significantly decrease mR-NA expression of caspase-3 , -4 , -6 , -8 , IL1 RAP and Cn ( P < 0. 01 ) , compared with the virus-infected group. The results also figured that the interference ef-ficacy of low-dose baicalin was better than that of high-doses. As expected, real-time PCR data were in good agreement with the microarray assay. Conclusions Baicalin can be detected in their suppression effect of caspase-3,-4,-6, and -8 mRNA expression, so it re-sists against the apoptosis to fight against influenza vi-rus in vitro.%目的:研究黄芩苷对流感病毒H1N1感染A549细胞诱导的凋亡干预作用,探讨黄芩苷抗流感病毒感染的作用机制。方法采用基因芯片技术研究流感病毒感染细胞后细胞内凋亡信号通路中相关基因转录的变化。同时,采用荧光定量PCR检测各组细胞中天门冬氨酸特异性半胱氨酸蛋白-8(caspase-8)和 caspase-3的mRNA表达的变化。 Western blot法检测各组细胞中的相关蛋白的变

  13. 二氢杨梅素诱导肝癌细胞株HepG2凋亡途径的探讨%Study on apoptosis-inducing mechanism of dihydromyricetin on human liver cancer HepG2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑钧华

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨二氢杨梅素对人类肝癌细胞株HepG2的抑制生长和诱导凋亡作用及其机制。方法:采用四甲基噻唑蓝比色法测试二氢杨梅素对细胞死亡率和细胞增殖活力的影响,并计算半抑制浓度IC50;通过HE荧光染色法和Annexin V-PI 流式细胞术分别观察和分析二氢杨梅素对肝癌细胞HepG2各个细胞周期的影响,最后利用Western 印迹法对与细胞周期和凋亡相关的蛋白群p34cdc-2、CyclinB1、Bcl-2和PARP 在二氢杨梅素作用前后的表达量进行研究。结果:肝癌细胞HepG2的细胞死亡率随着二氢杨梅素溶液浓度的升高而升高,IC50值为(35.22±1.56)μmol / L,且呈现良好量效关系;二氢杨梅素对肝癌细胞HepG2各个细胞周期均有显著影响,其中G2/ M 期细胞比率剧增、S 期细胞比率大幅降低,而G0/ G1期细胞比率则呈指数级减少,与阴性对照组比较,差异具统计学意义(P <0.05);p34cdc-2蛋白的表达量未见变化,CyclinB1蛋白的表达量剧增,Bcl-2蛋白的表达量大幅下降,而PARP 蛋白则因发生水解而表达量有所减少。结论:二氢杨梅素对人类肝癌细胞株HepG2具显著的抑制生长和诱导凋亡的药理作用,其作用机制是通过线粒体信号转导途径,激活含半胱氨酸的天冬氨酸蛋白水解酶Caspase-3,进而参与细胞凋亡。%Objective To discuss the proliferation inhibition, apoptosis-inducing effects and the mechanism of dihydromyricetin on human liver cancer HepG2. Methods The effects of dihydromyricetin on cell death rate and proliferation in light of MTT test were examined and IC50 was calculated. The effects of dihydromyricetin on liver cancer HepG2 in different cell cycles were observed and analyzed in light of HE fluorescent staining method and Annexin V-PI flow cytometry (FCM). The protein expressions of p34cdc-2、CyclinB1、Bcl-2 and PARP which were related to the cell cycle and

  14. Effect of acetyl-L-carnitine preconditioning on PC12 cell apoptosis induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation%乙酰左旋肉碱预处理对低氧低糖诱导PC12细胞凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠霞; 许顺江; 崔冬生; 王涛; 聂红艳; 牛静亚; 张睿; 周洁; 裴运海; 李江静

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价乙酰左旋肉碱预处理对低氧低糖诱导PC12细胞凋亡的影响.方法 PC12细胞接种于96孔板中,采用随机数字表法,将细胞随机分为5组(n=6):对照组(C组)、细胞损伤组(Ⅰ组)和不同浓度乙酰左旋肉碱预处理组(A1-3组).C组加入含葡萄糖4.5 g/L的DMEM溶液孵育3h;Ⅰ组加入含葡萄糖0.5 g/L和Na2SO4 3 mmol/L的DMEM溶液孵育3h;A1-3组分别加入0.2、0.4和0.6 mmol/L乙酰左旋肉碱孵育24h,然后加入含葡萄糖0.5 g/L和Na2S2O4 3mmol/L的DMEM溶液孵育3h.采用MTT法检测细胞活力,采用TUNEL法检测细胞凋亡率,测定细胞SOD和ATP酶的活性和MDA含量.结果 与C组比较,Ⅰ组细胞活力降低,细胞凋亡率升高,SOD和ATP酶的活性降低,MDA含量增加(P<0.05),A1-3组细胞活力、细胞凋亡率、SOD和ATP酶的活性和MDA含量差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);与Ⅰ组比较,A1-3组细胞活力升高,细胞凋亡率降低,SOD和ATP酶的活性升高,MDA含量下降(P< 0.05);A1-3组间细胞活力、细胞凋亡率、SOD和ATP酶的活性和MDA含量比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 乙酰左旋肉碱预处理可通过抑制细胞凋亡,减轻低氧低糖诱导PC12细胞损伤.%Objective To investigate the effect of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) preconditioning on the PC12 cell apoptosis induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation.Methods PC12 cells were seeded in 96-well plates and randomly divided into 5 groups ( n =6 each):control group (group C),cell injury group (group Ⅰ) and preconditioning with different concentrations of ALC groups (groups A1-3 ).In group C,the cells were incubated with DMEM liquid culture medium containing glucose 0.5 g/L for 3 h.In groups Ⅰ and A1-3 the cells were incubated with DMEM liquid culture medium containing sodium hydrosulfite (Na2S2O4) 3 mmol/L and glucose 0.5 g/L for 3 h,and in addition the cells were pre-incubated with ALC 0.2,0.4 and 0.6 mmol/L for 24 h in groups A1-3 respectively.Cell viability was

  15. 西洋参茎叶总皂苷通过抑制内质网应激减轻毒胡萝卜素诱导的心肌细胞凋亡%PQS attenuates cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by thapsigargin through inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蜜; 王晓礽; 陶天琪; 徐菲菲; 刘秀华; 史大卓

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To study the effect of Panax quinquefolium saponin (PQS) on cardiomyocyte apoptosis in-duced by thapsigargin ( TG) .METHODS:Primary cultured cardiomyocytes from neonatal SD rats were divided into con-trol group, TG group, PQS (40 mg/L, 80 mg/L and 160 mg/L) +TG group, si-PERK+TG group, and mock+TG group.The cells were treated with 1 μmol/L TG for 24 h to induce apoptosis.The PERK gene in the cardiomyocytes was knocked down by RNAi.The cell viability was detected by CCK-8 assay.Apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry.Wes-tern blotting was used to determine the expression of ERS molecules GRP78, CRT, ATF4 and CHOP, anti-apoptosis pro-tein Bcl-2 and pro-apoptosis protein Bax.RESULTS: Compared with control group, TG significantly and the apoptosis, reduced the cell viability (P<0.05), increased the phosphorylation of PERK and eIF2α, increased the expression of GRP78, CRT, ATF4, CHOP and pro-apoptosis protein Bax, and decreased the expression of anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2 (P<0.05).Compared with TG group, PQS treatment (160 mg/L) significantly reduced the apoptosis and increased the cell viability (P<0.05).All the 3 different concentrations of PQS significantly increased the expression of anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2 and reduced the expression of pro-apoptosis protein Bax (P<0.05) in a dose-dependent manner.PQS pre-treatment and knockdown of PERK both reduced the protein levels of GRP78, CRT, PERK, p-PERK, eIF2α, p-eIF2α, ATF4, CHOP and pro-apoptosis protein Bax, and increased the expression of anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2 (P<0.05). CONCLUSION:PQS at concentration of 160 mg/L attenuated cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by TG.PQS had the simi-lar effect as PERK knockdown on cardiomyocyte apoptosis.The mechanism may be associated with inhibiting PERK-eIF2α-ATF4-CHOP pathway of ERS-related apoptosis.%目的:研究西洋参茎叶总皂苷( PQS)减轻毒胡萝卜素( TG)诱导的心肌细胞凋亡的分子机制。方法:原代培养的心肌

  16. Protective effects of tea polyphenols on cerebral nerve cell apoptosis induced by D-galactose and beta-amyloid peptide 25-35%茶多酚对D-半乳糖与Aβ25~35诱导脑神经细胞凋亡的保护效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲娴; 李冰; 杨文豪; 吕俊华

    2007-01-01

    子水平变化.④小鼠脑神经细胞凋亡情况.结果:纳入大鼠90只均进入结果分析.①药物处理12周后,茶多酚中、高剂量组和维生素E组的小鼠游出迷宫时间短于模型组,进入迷宫盲端的错误次数较模型组减少,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05~0.01).②茶多酚中、高剂量组超氧化物歧化酶活性较模型组有所增高,茶多酚高剂量组丙二醛含量较模型组有所降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05~0.01).③茶多酚中、高剂量组和维生素E组红细胞内和脑神经元细胞浆钙离子浓度均低于模型组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05~0.01).④茶多酚各剂量组神经细胞凋亡率均低于模型组,差异有显著性意义(P<0.05).结论:茶多酚具有抑制D-半乳糖与Aβ25~35诱致脑神经细胞凋亡作用,并明显改善摸型小鼠学习记忆能力,其作用可能与提高全身性抗氧化能力,改善氧化应激损伤引起的细胞内钙超载有关.%BACKGROUND: Some researches demonstrate that tea polyphenols (TP) has protective effects on neurotoxicity of hippocampal nerve cells induced byβ-amyloid peptide (Aβ), 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and oxidative substances. In addition, clinical preliminary examination indicates that TP plays a certain preventive and therapeutic effects on the reduction of recognition function in high-risk population with Alzheimer disease (AD); however, its target and mechanism are still hot topics.OBJECTIVE: To observe the interfering effects of TP on cerebral nerve cell apoptosis induced by D-galactose and Aβ25~35 in mice.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.SETTING: Department of Pharmacology, Pharmacological College of Jinan University.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Experimental Center of Jinan University from September 2004 to January 2005. A total of 90 healthy Kumning mice, aged 2 months, each gender in half, weighing 26-28 g, were provided by Guangdong Provincial Medical

  17. Binding Mode Analysis of Zerumbone to Key Signal Proteins in the Tumor Necrosis Factor Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. Several signaling pathways have been implicated as causative and progression agents. The tumor necrosis factor (TNF α protein plays a dual role in promoting and inhibiting cancer depending largely on the pathway initiated by the binding of the protein to its receptor. Zerumbone, an active constituent of Zingiber zerumbet, Smith, is known to act on the tumor necrosis factor pathway upregulating tumour necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL death receptors and inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. Zerumbone is a sesquiterpene that is able to penetrate into the hydrophobic pockets of proteins to exert its inhibiting activity with several proteins. We found a good binding with the tumor necrosis factor, kinase κB (IKKβ and the Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB component proteins along the TNF pathway. Our results suggest that zerumbone can exert its apoptotic activities by inhibiting the cytoplasmic proteins. It inhibits the IKKβ kinase that activates the NF-κB and also binds to the NF-κB complex in the TNF pathway. Blocking both proteins can lead to inhibition of cell proliferating proteins to be downregulated and possibly ultimate induction of apoptosis.

  18. Resveratrol induces growth arrest and apoptosis through activation of FOXO transcription factors in prostate cancer cells.

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    Qinghe Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Resveratrol, a naturally occurring phytopolyphenol compound, has attracted extensive interest in recent years because of its diverse pharmacological characteristics. Although resveratrol possesses chemopreventive properties against several cancers, the molecular mechanisms by which it inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis have not been clearly understood. The present study was carried out to examine whether PI3K/AKT/FOXO pathway mediates the biological effects of resveratrol. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Resveratrol inhibited the phosphorylation of PI3K, AKT and mTOR. Resveratrol, PI3K inhibitors (LY294002 and Wortmannin and AKT inhibitor alone slightly induced apoptosis in LNCaP cells. These inhibitors further enhanced the apoptosis-inducing potential of resveratrol. Overexpression of wild-type PTEN slightly induced apoptosis. Wild type PTEN and PTEN-G129E enhanced resveratrol-induced apoptosis, whereas PTEN-G129R had no effect on proapoptotic effects of resveratrol. Furthermore, apoptosis-inducing potential of resveratrol was enhanced by dominant negative AKT, and inhibited by wild-type AKT and constitutively active AKT. Resveratrol has no effect on the expression of FKHR, FKHRL1 and AFX genes. The inhibition of FOXO phosphorylation by resveratrol resulted in its nuclear translocation, DNA binding and transcriptional activity. The inhibition of PI3K/AKT pathway induced FOXO transcriptional activity resulting in induction of Bim, TRAIL, p27/KIP1, DR4 and DR5, and inhibition of cyclin D1. Similarly, resveratrol-induced FOXO transcriptional activity was further enhanced when activation of PI3K/AKT pathway was blocked. Over-expression of phosphorylation deficient mutants of FOXO proteins (FOXO1-TM, FOXO3A-TM and FOXO4-TM induced FOXO transcriptional activity, which was further enhanced by resveratrol. Inhibition of FOXO transcription factors by shRNA blocked resveratrol-induced upregulation of Bim, TRAIL, DR4, DR5, p27/KIP1 and

  19. Nuclear localization of the mitochondrial factor HIGD1A during metabolic stress.

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    Kurosh Ameri

    Full Text Available Cellular stress responses are frequently governed by the subcellular localization of critical effector proteins. Apoptosis-inducing Factor (AIF or Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH, for example, can translocate from mitochondria to the nucleus, where they modulate apoptotic death pathways. Hypoxia-inducible gene domain 1A (HIGD1A is a mitochondrial protein regulated by Hypoxia-inducible Factor-1α (HIF1α. Here we show that while HIGD1A resides in mitochondria during physiological hypoxia, severe metabolic stress, such as glucose starvation coupled with hypoxia, in addition to DNA damage induced by etoposide, triggers its nuclear accumulation. We show that nuclear localization of HIGD1A overlaps with that of AIF, and is dependent on the presence of BAX and BAK. Furthermore, we show that AIF and HIGD1A physically interact. Additionally, we demonstrate that nuclear HIGD1A is a potential marker of metabolic stress in vivo, frequently observed in diverse pathological states such as myocardial infarction, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE, and different types of cancer. In summary, we demonstrate a novel nuclear localization of HIGD1A that is commonly observed in human disease processes in vivo.

  20. Protein kinase Cmu downregulation of tumor-necrosis-factor-induced apoptosis correlates with enhanced expression of nuclear-factor-kappaB-dependent protective genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, F J; Horn, J; Link, G; Haas, E; Siemienski, K; Wajant, H; Pfizenmaier, K

    1998-10-01

    Protein kinase Cmu (PKCmu) represents a new subtype of the PKC family characterized by the presence of a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and an amino-terminal hydrophobic region. In order to analyse the potential role of PKCmu in signal-transduction pathways, stable PKCmu transfectants were established with human and murine cell lines. All transfectants showed a reduced sensitivity to tumor-necrosis-factor (TNF)-induced apoptosis, which correlated with the amount of transgene expressed and with an enhanced basal transcription rate of NF-kappaB-driven genes including the inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (cIAP2) and TNF-receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAF1). Sensitivity to apoptosis induced by the lipid mediator ceramide was unchanged in PKCmu transfectants. In support of a PKCmu action on NF-kappaB, we show enhancement and downregulation of TNF-induced expression of a NF-kappaB-dependent reporter gene by transient overexpression of wild-type and kinase-negative mutants of PKCmu, respectively. Interestingly, no significant changes were found in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, indicative of PKCmu action downstream of IkappaB degradation, probably by modulation of the transactivation capacity of NF-kappaB. The dominant negative action of the kinase-negative mutant further suggest a regulatory role of PKCmu for NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression.

  1. Human decidual stromal cells secrete soluble pro-apoptotic factors during decidualization in a cAMP-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leno-Durán, E; Ruiz-Magaña, M J; Muñoz-Fernández, R; Requena, F; Olivares, E G; Ruiz-Ruiz, C

    2014-10-10

    Is there a relationship between decidualization and apoptosis of decidual stromal cells (DSC)? Decidualization triggers the secretion of soluble factors that induce apoptosis in DSC. The differentiation and apoptosis of DSC during decidualization of the receptive decidua are crucial processes for the controlled invasion of trophoblasts in normal pregnancy. Most DSC regress in a time-dependent manner, and their removal is important to provide space for the embryo to grow. However, the mechanism that controls DSC death is poorly understood. The apoptotic response of DSC was analyzed after exposure to different exogenous agents and during decidualization. The apoptotic potential of decidualized DSC supernatants and prolactin (PRL) was also evaluated. DSC lines were established from samples of decidua from first trimester pregnancies. Apoptosis was assayed by flow cytometry. PRL production, as a marker of decidualization, was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. DSCs were resistant to a variety of apoptosis-inducing substances. Nevertheless, DSC underwent apoptosis during decidualization in culture, with cAMP being essential for both apoptosis and differentiation. In addition, culture supernatants from decidualized DSC induced apoptosis in undifferentiated DSC, although paradoxically these supernatants decreased the spontaneous apoptosis of decidual lymphocytes. Exogenously added PRL did not induce apoptosis in DSC and an antibody that neutralized the PRL receptor did not decrease the apoptosis induced by supernatants. Further studies are needed to examine the involvement of other soluble factors secreted by decidualized DSC in the induction of apoptosis. The present results indicate that apoptosis of DSC occurs in parallel to differentiation, in response to decidualization signals, with soluble factors secreted by decidualized DSC being responsible for triggering cell death. These studies are relevant in the understanding of how the regression of decidua

  2. Factors influencing ER subtype-mediated cell proliferation and apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, N.M.

    2014-01-01

      The aim of the current thesis is to elucidate the role of estrogen receptor (ER)αand ERβin cell proliferation and apoptosis induced by estrogenic compounds. Special attention is paid to the importance of the receptor preference of the estrogenic compounds, the cellular ERα/E

  3. Construction and Co-expression of Bicistronic Plasmid Encoding Human WEE1 and Stem Cell Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping LEI; Wen-Han LI; Wen-Jun LIAO; Bing YU; Hui-Fen ZHU; Jing-Fang SHAO; Guan-Xin SHEN

    2005-01-01

    To protect the hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from apoptosis induced by chemotherapy and promote HSC proliferation, bi-functional gene delivery systems are increasingly investigated in gene therapy.In the present study, we constructed a bicistronic vector, pWISG, expressing the anti-apoptotic protein human WEE1 (WEE1Hu) and the fusion protein of the proliferation-stimulating stem cell factor (SCF) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) separately with internal ribosome entry site (IRES). We first examined the expression and location of WEE1Hu in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and showed that WEE1Hu was located in the nucleus, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. We determined the expression and receptor-binding ability of the SCF-EGFP fusion protein on CD34+ cells,which were proved by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and flow cytometry,respectively. Furthermore, inhibition of cisplatin-induced apoptosis was observed in CD34+ cells transfected with pWISG, which implies that protection for CD34+ cells was achieved via WEE1Hu and SCF-EGFP. Our study suggests that the introduction of two functional genes via bicistronic vector is more powerful and efficient than single gene therapy.

  4. YAP promotes proliferation, chemoresistance, and angiogenesis in human cholangiocarcinoma through TEAD transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Patricia; Stein, Claudia; Blumer, Tanja; Abraham, Yann; Dill, Michael T; Pikiolek, Monika; Orsini, Vanessa; Jurisic, Giorgia; Megel, Philippe; Makowska, Zuzanna; Agarinis, Claudia; Tornillo, Luigi; Bouwmeester, Tewis; Ruffner, Heinz; Bauer, Andreas; Parker, Christian N; Schmelzle, Tobias; Terracciano, Luigi M; Heim, Markus H; Tchorz, Jan S

    2015-11-01

    The Yes-associated protein (YAP)/Hippo pathway has been implicated in tissue development, regeneration, and tumorigenesis. However, its role in cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is not established. We show that YAP activation is a common feature in CC patient biopsies and human CC cell lines. Using microarray expression profiling of CC cells with overexpressed or down-regulated YAP, we show that YAP regulates genes involved in proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. YAP activity promotes CC growth in vitro and in vivo by functionally interacting with TEAD transcription factors (TEADs). YAP activity together with TEADs prevents apoptosis induced by cytotoxic drugs, whereas YAP knockdown sensitizes CC cells to drug-induced apoptosis. We further show that the proangiogenic microfibrillar-associated protein 5 (MFAP5) is a direct transcriptional target of YAP/TEAD in CC cells and that secreted MFAP5 promotes tube formation of human microvascular endothelial cells. High YAP activity in human CC xenografts and clinical samples correlates with increased MFAP5 expression and CD31(+) vasculature. These findings establish YAP as a key regulator of proliferation and antiapoptotic mechanisms in CC and provide first evidence that YAP promotes angiogenesis by regulating the expression of secreted proangiogenic proteins. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  5. Regulation of TRAIL-Receptor Expression by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System

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    Dhifaf Sarhan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The tumor necrosis factor (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand- receptor (TRAIL-R family has emerged as a key mediator of cell fate and survival. Ligation of TRAIL ligand to TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2 initiates the extrinsic apoptotic pathway characterized by the recruitment of death domains, assembly of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC, caspase activation and ultimately apoptosis. Conversely the decoy receptors TRAIL-R3 and TRAIL-R4, which lack the pro-apoptotic death domain, function to dampen the apoptotic response by competing for TRAIL ligand. The tissue restricted expression of the decoy receptors on normal but not cancer cells provides a therapeutic rational for the development of selective TRAIL-mediated anti-tumor therapies. Recent clinical trials using agonistic antibodies against the apoptosis-inducing TRAIL receptors or recombinant TRAIL have been promising; however the number of patients in complete remission remains stubbornly low. The mechanisms of TRAIL resistance are relatively unexplored but may in part be due to TRAIL-R down-regulation or shedding of TRAIL-R by tumor cells. Therefore a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying TRAIL resistance is required. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS has been shown to regulate TRAIL-R members suggesting that pharmacological inhibition of the UPS may be a novel strategy to augment TRAIL-based therapies and increase efficacies. We recently identified b-AP15 as an inhibitor of proteasome deubiquitinase (DUB activity. Interestingly, exposure of tumor cell lines to b-AP15 resulted in increased TRAIL-R2 expression and enhanced sensitivity to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and cell death in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, targeting the UPS may represent a novel strategy to increase the cell surface expression of pro-apoptotic TRAIL-R on cancer cells and should be considered in clinical trials targeting TRAIL-receptors in cancer patients.

  6. High glucose increases Cdk5 activity in podocytes via transforming growth factor-β1 signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yue [Department of Diagnostics, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050017 (China); Li, Hongbo; Hao, Jun [Department of Pathology, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050017 (China); Zhou, Yi [Department of Neurology, the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050000 (China); Liu, Wei, E-mail: lwei929@126.com [Department of Pathology, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050017 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Podocytes are highly specialized and terminally differentiated glomerular cells that play a vital role in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), who is an atypical but essential member of the Cdk family of proline-directed serine/threonine kinases, has been shown as a key regulator of podocyte differentiation, proliferation and morphology. Our previous studies demonstrated that the expression of Cdk5 was significantly increased in podocytes of diabetic rats, and was closely related with podocyte injury of DN. However, the mechanisms of how expression and activity of Cdk5 are regulated under the high glucose environment have not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we showed that high glucose up-regulated the expression of Cdk5 and its co-activator p35 with a concomitant increase in Cdk5 kinase activity in conditionally immortalized mouse podocytes in vitro. When exposed to 30 mM glucose, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was activated. Most importantly, we found that SB431542, the Tgfbr1 inhibitor, significantly decreased the expression of Cdk5 and p35 and Cdk5 kinase activity in high glucose-treated podocytes. Moreover, high glucose increased the expression of early growth response-1 (Egr-1) via TGF-β1-ERK1/2 pathway in podocytes and inhibition of Egr-1 by siRNA decreased p35 expression and Cdk5 kinase activity. Furthermore, inhibition of Cdk5 kinase activity effectively alleviated podocyte apoptosis induced by high glucose or TGF-β1. Thus, the TGF-β1-ERK1/2-Egr-1 signaling pathway may regulate the p35 expression and Cdk5 kinase activity in high glucose-treated podocytes, which contributes to podocyte injury of DN. - Highlights: • HG up-regulated the expression of Cdk5 and p35, and Cdk5 activity in podocytes. • HG activated TGF-β1 pathway and SB431542 inhibited Cdk5 expression and activity. • HG increased the expression of Egr-1 via TGF-β1-ERK1/2 pathway. • Inhibition of Egr-1

  7. Osteoprotegerin rich tumor microenvironment: implications in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Sudeshna; Sharma-Walia, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a soluble decoy receptor for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL). It belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF). OPG was initially discovered to contribute to homeostasis of bone turnover due to its capability of binding to receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kB). However, apart from bone turnover, OPG plays important and diverse role(s) in many biological functions. Besides having anti-osteoclastic activity, OPG is thought to exert a protective anti-apoptotic action in OPG-expressing tumors by overcoming the physiologic mechanism of tumor surveillance exerted by TRAIL. Along with inhibiting TRAIL induced apoptosis, it can induce proliferation by binding to various cell surface receptors and thus turning on the canonical cell survival and proliferative pathways. OPG also induces angiogenesis, one of the hallmarks of cancer, thus facilitating tumor growth. Recently, the understanding of OPG and its different roles has been augmented substantially. This review is aimed at providing a very informative overview as to how OPG affects cancer progression especially breast cancer. PMID:27072583

  8. Proteomics demonstration that normal breast epithelial cells can induce apoptosis of breast cancer cells through insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 and maspin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toillon, Robert-Alain; Lagadec, Chann; Page, Adeline; Chopin, Valérie; Sautière, Pierre-Eric; Ricort, Jean-Marc; Lemoine, Jérôme; Zhang, Ming; Hondermarck, Hubert; Le Bourhis, Xuefen

    2007-07-01

    Normal breast epithelial cells are known to exert an apoptotic effect on breast cancer cells, resulting in a potential paracrine inhibition of breast tumor development. In this study we purified and characterized the apoptosis-inducing factors secreted by normal breast epithelial cells. Conditioned medium was concentrated by ultrafiltration and separated on reverse phase Sep-Pak C18 and HPLC. The proapoptotic activity of eluted fractions was tested on MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and nano-LC-nano-ESI-MS/MS allowed the identification of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and maspin as the proapoptotic factors produced by normal breast epithelial cells. Western blot analysis of conditioned media confirmed the specific secretion of IGFBP-3 and maspin by normal cells but not by breast cancer cells. Immunodepletion of IGFBP-3 and maspin completely abolished the normal cell-induced apoptosis of cancer cells, and recombinant proteins reproduced the effect of normal cell-conditioned medium on apoptosis of breast cancer cells. Together our results indicated that normal breast epithelial cells can induce apoptosis of breast cancer cells through IGFBP-3 and maspin. These findings provide a molecular hypothesis for the long observed inhibitory effect of normal surrounding cells on breast cancer development.

  9. CIDE-3 interacts with lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor, and overexpression increases apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jie; Zhang, Wei; Gu, Yu; Hong, Liu; Yao, Li; Li, Fanfan; Zhao, Daqing; Feng, Yingming; Zhang, Helong; Li, Qing

    2011-12-01

    Cell death-inducing DFF45-like effector-3 (CIDE-3) is a novel member of an apoptosis-inducing protein family, but its function is unknown. CIDE-3 shows a different distribution pattern in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and normal adjacent tissues. Therefore, this work tested the hypothesis that CIDE-3 induces apoptosis in HCC cells, inhibiting oncogenesis and tumor development. We used immunohistochemistry to evaluate the expression of CIDE-3 in 82 HCC samples and 51 adjacent liver tissues. Overexpression of CIDE-3 induced apoptosis, as detected by flow cytometry, in the HCC cell line SMMC-7721, which had undetectable levels of CIDE-3 in the absence of CIDE-3 overexpression. A yeast two-hybrid system was employed to screen for proteins that interact with CIDE-3. The expression of CIDE-3 was decreased in HCC tissue, compared to adjacent normal tissues, and CIDE-3 expression and HCC differentiation were positively correlated. CIDE-3 expression levels were lower in poorly differentiated HCC tissue than in well-differentiated HCC tissue. Overexpressed CIDE-3 inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in HCC cells. We found that lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor (LITAF) interacted with CIDE-3 in hepatic cells. This is the first demonstrated interaction between CIDE-3 and LITAF, and the first report that CIDE-3 induces apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

  10. Tumor Necrosis Factor-related Apoptosis Ligand Induces Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer PC-3M Cell Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhohui; WANG Huafang; GU Longjie; YE Zhewei; XIAO Yajun

    2005-01-01

    To study the effect of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL)on PC-3M cell line, PC-3M cell line was incubated with gradient concentrations of TRAIL for 4-24h. Annixin-Ⅴ fluorescence staining and TUNEL method were employed to detect the apoptosis of PC-3M cells. The morphology of apoptotic PC-3M cells was observed by electron microscopy. The relationship between TRAIL concentrations and the percentage of apoptotic cells was evaluated by flow cytometry. The proliferation inhibitory ratio was calculated by using MTT colorimetry. Our results showed that apoptosis of PC-3M cells could be induced by treatment with TRAIL for at most 4 h. The results of flow cytometry and MTT colorimetry demonstrated a time- and concentration-dependent relationship between cell apoptosis rate and TRAIL concentration. It is concluded that apoptosis of PC-3M cells can be induced by TRAIL. Because of the selective killing effect of TRAIL on tumor ceils, it may become a potential alternative for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer.

  11. Nucleoli in large (giant bi- and multinucleate cells after apoptosis-inducing photodynamic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Smetana

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present experimental study was undertaken to provide information on nucleolar changes accompanying the apoptotic process in large or giant binucleate and multinucleate cells (LBMNCs. Such cells were present in a small but constant percentage in cultures of HL-60 cells. The apoptotic process was induced by photodynamic treatment (PDT by means of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA as the precursor of the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX and irradiation with broad spectrum blue light (BL. Nucleolar changes in LBMNCs were characterized by marked reduction or disappearance of silver stained particles representing AgNORs in nucleoli including the large ones. In addition, PDT also significantly reduced the number of nucleoli regardless of their size. These changes apparently reflected the decrease or cessation of nucleolar biosynthetic activities and resembled those which were previously observed in naturally maturing bone marrow megakaryocytes (Janoutová et al., 2001.

  12. QUANTITATIVE STUDY ON APOPTOSIS INDUCED BY ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSES IN NIH- 3T3 FIBROBLASTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Mei - lan; CAO Xiao - zhe; WANG De - wen; GU Qing- yang; LIU Jie

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To observe the apoptotic changes following exposure to EMP and to explore the possible injury mechanism in NIH - 3T3 fibroblasts. Methods: Following NIH - 3T3 cells were exposed to EMP,the proliferation and viability of NIH - 3T3 fibroblasts were estimated by hemacytometer and MTT Measurements. Apoptotic rate was measured by flow cytometer. The imnmohistochemical SP method was used to determine bcl- 2, p53. The positively stained cells were analyzed with CMIAS- Ⅱ image analysis system at a magnification 400. All data were analyzed by SPSS8.0 software. Results: The proliferation and viability of NIH- 3T3 cells were markedly inhibited and significant apoptosis was induced following exposure to EMP.EMP could increase the number of non- adherent cells, the highest ratio (33.9%) of non- adherent cells also occurred at 6h. The As70 value of MTT decreased immediately at 1 h, 6h following the cells were exposed as compared with the control (P < 0.05). The highest ratio of apoptosis was 15.07% at 6h, then decreased gradually. Down - regulation of bcl - 2 and up - regulation of p53 were induced by EMP ( P < 0.05). Conclusions: EMP could promote apoptosis of NIH - 3T3 fibroblasts. EMP could also down - regulate bcl - 2 level and up - regulate p53 level in NIH - 3T3 fibroblasts. Bcl - 2 and p53 gene may take part in the process of apoptosis.

  13. Overexpression of LOXIN Protects Endothelial Progenitor Cells From Apoptosis Induced by Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veas, Carlos; Jara, Casandra; Willis, Naomi D; Pérez-Contreras, Karen; Gutierrez, Nicolas; Toledo, Jorge; Fernandez, Paulina; Radojkovic, Claudia; Zuñiga, Felipe A; Escudero, Carlos; Aguayo, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    Human endothelial progenitor cells (hEPC) are adult stem cells located in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. Studies have indicated that hEPC play an important role in the recovery and repair of injured endothelium, however, their quantity and functional capacity is reduced in several diseases including hypercholesterolemia. Recently, it has been demonstrated that hEPC express lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) and its activation by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) induces cellular dysfunction and apoptosis. This study aimed to investigate whether overexpression of LOXIN, a truncated isoform of LOX-1 that acts as a dominant negative, plays a protective role against ox-LDL-induced apoptosis in hEPC. Human endothelial progenitor cells exposed to ox-LDL showed a significant increase in LOX-1 expression, and apoptosis began at ox-LDL concentrations above 50 μg/mL. All hEPC apoptosed at 200 μg/mL ox-LDL. High LOXIN expression was generated using adenoviral systems in hEPC and SiHa cells transduced with 100 colony-forming units per cell. Transduced LOXIN localized to the plasma membrane and blocked ox-LDL uptake mediated by LOX-1. Overexpression of LOXIN protected hEPC from ox-LDL-induced apoptosis, and therefore maybe a novel way of improving hEPC function and quantity. These results suggest that adenoviral vectors of LOXIN may provide a possible treatment for diseases related to ox-LDL and vascular endothelium dysfunction, including atherosclerosis.

  14. New apoptosis-inducing sesquiterpenoids from the mycelial culture of Chinese edible fungus Pleurotus cystidiosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yongbiao; Pang, Haiyue; Wang, Jifeng; Shi, Guowei; Huang, Jianzhong

    2015-01-21

    Two new bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoids, pleuroton A (1) and pleuroton B (2), and three clitocybulol derivatives, clitocybulol D (3), clitocybulol E (4), and clitocybulol F (5), were obtained from the mycelial culture of edible fungus Pleurotus cystidiosus O. K. Mill by repeated column chromatography over RP-18, Sephadex LH-20, and silica gel. Their structures were determined according to nuclear magnetic resonance data, high-resolution electron impact mass spectrometry, and circular dichroism spectra. These new sesquiterpenoids exhibited significant cytotoxicity against two human prostate cancer DU-145 and C42B cells in the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The median inhibitory concentration (IC50) of compounds 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 was 174, 28, 233, 162, and 179 nM, respectively, against the DU-145 cell and was 104, 52, 163, 120, and 119 nM, respectively, against the C42B cell. Especially, pleuroton B (2) exhibited the strongest cytotoxity among these sesquiterpenoids, which was confirmed by the colony formation assay. Furthermore, pleuroton B (2) could trigger the apoptosis of DU-145 cells through the detection of apoptosis cells using annexin V-FITC staining by flow cytometry, the observation of condensed nuclei in the apoptosis cells, and the western blot analysis for the expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2, Bak, and Bax. Analysis of structure-activity relationships of these sesquiterpenoids revealed that the unusual functional moiety of pleuroton B should contribute to its significant bioactivity. These results display the pharmacological potential of P. cystidiosus.

  15. BAX OVEREXPRESSION ENHANCES APOPTOSIS INDUCED BY ADRIAMYCIN IN HCC-9204 CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑建勇; 李江; 李开宗; 王文亮; 王为忠

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of overexpression of Bax to the sensitivity of human HCC-9204 cells to adriamycin (ADR). Methods: Human cultured hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HCC-9204 was exposed in vitro to adriamycin for various time. An inducible vector containing Bax gene, with ZnSO4 as external inducer was constructed. Cell apoptosis was ascertained by morphological criteria, detection of apoptotic DNA fragmentation by TUNEL assay and flow cytometry. Tetrazolium blue (MTT) assay was used to evaluate the differences in drug sensitivity of HCC-9204 cells after Bax-transfection. Results: HCC-9204 cells treated with adriamycin at 20μmol/L showed extensive cell death. TUNEL assay showed nucleus fragmentation. And apoptotic peak was also shown by flow cytometry. FACS analyses showed a significant sub-G1 peak and apoptosis in 31% cells at 24h after treatment. Furthermore, the time-course of cell viability following exposure of HCC-9204/Bax cells to adriamycin showed that Bax was able to significantly decrease cell survival following exposure to adriamycin.

  16. Antiproliferative, Antimicrobial and Apoptosis Inducing Effects of Compounds Isolated from Inula viscosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wamidh H. Talib

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The antiproliferative and antimicrobial effects of thirteen compounds isolated from Inula viscosa (L. were tested in this study. The antiproliferative activity was tested against three cell lines using the MTT assay. The microdilution method was used to study the antimicrobial activity against two Gram positive bacteria, two Gram negative bacteria and one fungus. The apoptotic activity was determined using a TUNEL colorimetric assay. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the morphological changes in treated cancer cells and bacteria. Antiproliferative activity was observed in four flavonoids (nepetin, 3,3′-di-O-methylquercetin, hispidulin, and 3-O-methylquercetin. 3,3′-di-O-Methylquercetin and 3-O-methylquercetin showed selective antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells, with IC50 values of 10.11 and 11.23 µg/mL, respectively. Both compounds exert their antiproliferative effect by inducing apoptosis as indicted by the presence of DNA fragmentation, nuclear condensation, and formation of apoptotic bodies in treated cancer cells. The antimicrobial effect of Inula viscosa were also noticed in 3,3′-di-O-methylquercetin and 3-O-methyquercetin that inhibited Bacillus cereus at MIC of 62.5 and 125 µg/mL, respectively. Salmonella typhimurium was inhibited by both compounds at MIC of 125 µg/mL. 3,3′-di-O-Methylquercetin induced damage in bacterial cell walls and cytoplasmic membranes. Methylated quercetins isolated from Inula viscosa have improved anticancer and antimicrobial properties compared with other flavonoids and are promising as potential anticancer and antimicrobial agents.

  17. Antiproliferative, antimicrobial and apoptosis inducing effects of compounds isolated from Inula viscosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Wamidh H; Zarga, Musa H Abu; Mahasneh, Adel M

    2012-03-14

    The antiproliferative and antimicrobial effects of thirteen compounds isolated from Inula viscosa (L.) were tested in this study. The antiproliferative activity was tested against three cell lines using the MTT assay. The microdilution method was used to study the antimicrobial activity against two Gram positive bacteria, two Gram negative bacteria and one fungus. The apoptotic activity was determined using a TUNEL colorimetric assay. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the morphological changes in treated cancer cells and bacteria. Antiproliferative activity was observed in four flavonoids (nepetin, 3,3'-di-O-methylquercetin, hispidulin, and 3-O-methylquercetin). 3,3'-di-O-Methylquercetin and 3-O-methylquercetin showed selective antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells, with IC(50) values of 10.11 and 11.23 µg/mL, respectively. Both compounds exert their antiproliferative effect by inducing apoptosis as indicted by the presence of DNA fragmentation, nuclear condensation, and formation of apoptotic bodies in treated cancer cells. The antimicrobial effect of Inula viscosa were also noticed in 3,3'-di-O-methylquercetin and 3-O-methyquercetin that inhibited Bacillus cereus at MIC of 62.5 and 125 µg/mL, respectively. Salmonella typhimurium was inhibited by both compounds at MIC of 125 µg/mL. 3,3'-di-O-Methylquercetin induced damage in bacterial cell walls and cytoplasmic membranes. Methylated quercetins isolated from Inula viscosa have improved anticancer and antimicrobial properties compared with other flavonoids and are promising as potential anticancer and antimicrobial agents.

  18. Antiproliferative, Antimicrobial and Apoptosis Inducing Effects of Compounds Isolated from Inula viscosa

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The antiproliferative and antimicrobial effects of thirteen compounds isolated from Inula viscosa (L.) were tested in this study. The antiproliferative activity was tested against three cell lines using the MTT assay. The microdilution method was used to study the antimicrobial activity against two Gram positive bacteria, two Gram negative bacteria and one fungus. The apoptotic activity was determined using a TUNEL colorimetric assay. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the morphol...

  19. Cellular targeting of the apoptosis-inducing compound gliotoxin to fibrotic rat livers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagens, W. I.; Beljaars, L.; Mann, D. A.; Wright, M. C.; Julien, B.; Lotersztajn, S.; Reker-Smit, C.; Poelstra, K.

    2008-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is associated with proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and their transformation into myofibroblastic cells that synthesize scar tissue. Several studies indicate that induction of apoptosis in myofibroblastic cells may prevent fibrogenesis. Gliotoxin (GTX) was found to induc

  20. Apoptosis-inducing effects of Melissa officinalis L. essential oil in glioblastoma multiforme cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Rafaela Muniz de; Takiya, Christina Maeda; Guimarães, Lívia Paes Tavares Pacheco; Rocha, Gleice da Graça; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Gattass, Cerli Rocha

    2014-07-01

    Current therapies for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are not effective. This study investigated the activity of the M. officinalis essential oil (EO) and its major component (citral) in GBM cell lines. Both EO and citral decreased the viability and induced apoptosis of GBM cells as demonstrated by DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation. Antioxidant prevented citral-induced death, indicating its dependence on the production of reactive oxygen species. Citral downmodulated the activity and inhibited the expression of multidrug resistance associated protein 1 (MRP1). These results show that EO, through its major component, citral, may be of potential interest for the treatment of GBM.

  1. Curcumin Protects Mitochondria and Cardiomyocytes from Oxidative Damage and Apoptosis Induced by Hemiscorpius Lepturus Venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naserzadeh, Parvaneh; Mehr, Sara Nekhoee; Sadabadi, Zeinab; Seydi, Enayatollah; Salimi, Ahmad; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2017-10-10

    The main aim of the current study was to determine cardio-toxicity mechanisms of H. lepturus and protective effect of curcumin against this toxin in rats, using isolated heart mitochondria and cardiomyocytes. Our findings indicated that H. lepturus venom caused significantly ((P<0.05) cytotoxicity and caspase 3 activation in cardiomyocytes and mitochondrial dysfunction including increased mitochondrial ROS level, swelling in the mitochondria, decline in the mitochondria membrane potential (MMP), decrease in the cytochrome-c oxidase activity (complex IV), decrease ATP level and finally mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) rupture in isolated mitochondria. Our results showed that the administration of curcumin efficiently decreased (P<0.05) cytotoxicity and caspase 3 activation, ROS formation, MMP collapse, mitochondrial swelling and mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) rupture. Our findings suggest H. lepturus venom cusses a disruptive effect on mitochondrial respiratory chain, especially on complex II, and IV that predispose cardiomyocytes to ATP depletion and death signaling that could be protected with administration of curcumin. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Oxidative stress mediated apoptosis induced by nickel ferrite nanoparticles in cultured A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Ahmad, Javed; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; AlSalhi, Mohamad S; Alrokayan, Salman A

    2011-05-10

    Due to the interesting magnetic and electrical properties with good chemical and thermal stabilities, nickel ferrite nanoparticles are being utilized in many applications including magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery and hyperthermia. Recent studies have shown that nickel ferrite nanoparticles produce cytotoxicity in mammalian cells. However, there is very limited information concerning the toxicity of nickel ferrite nanoparticles at the cellular and molecular level. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and apoptosis induction by well-characterized nickel ferrite nanoparticles (size 26 nm) in human lung epithelial (A549) cells. Nickel ferrite nanoparticles induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity in A549 cells demonstrated by MTT, NRU and LDH assays. Nickel ferrite nanoparticles were also found to induce oxidative stress evidenced by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depletion of antioxidant glutathione (GSH). Further, co-treatment with the antioxidant L-ascorbic acid mitigated the ROS generation and GSH depletion due to nickel ferrite nanoparticles suggesting the potential mechanism of oxidative stress. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that following the exposure of A549 cells to nickel ferrite nanoparticles, the level of mRNA expressions of cell cycle checkpoint protein p53 and apoptotic proteins (bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9) were significantly up-regulated, whereas the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin and bcl-2) were down-regulated. Moreover, activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9 enzymes were also significantly higher in nickel ferrite nanoparticles exposed cells. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report showing that nickel ferrite nanoparticles induced apoptosis in A549 cells through ROS generation and oxidative stress via p53, survivin, bax/bcl-2 and caspase pathways.

  3. Ruthenium complexes containing bis-benzimidazole derivatives as a new class of apoptosis inducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Wong, Yum-Shing; Chen, Tianfeng; Fan, Cundong; Zheng, Wenjie

    2012-01-28

    A series of ruthenium complexes containing bis-benzimidazole derivatives have been synthesized and identified as able to target mitochondria and induce caspase-dependent apoptosis in cancer cells through superoxide overproduction.

  4. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is involved in podocyte apoptosis induced by saturated fatty acid palmitate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Jian-ling; WEN Yu-bing; SHI Bing-yang; ZHANG Hong; RUAN Xiong-zhong; LI Hang; LI Xue-mei; DONG Wen-ji; LI Xue-wang

    2012-01-01

    Background Podocyte apoptosis is recently indicated as an early phenomenon of diabetic nephropathy.Pancreatic β-cells exposed to saturated free fatty acid palmitate undergo irreversible endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and consequent apoptosis,contributing to the onset of diabetes.We hypothesized that palmitate could induce podocyte apoptosis via ER stress,which initiates or aggravates proteinuria in diabetic nephropathy.Methods Podocyte apoptosis was detected by 4',6-diamidio-2-phenylindole (DAPI) stained apoptotic cell count and Annexin V-PI stain.The expressions of ER molecule chaperone glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78),indicators of ER-associated apoptosis C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP),and Bcl-2 were assayed by Western blotting and real-time PCR.GRP78 and synaptopodin were co-localized by immunofluorescence stain.Results Palmitate significantly increased the percentage of cultured apoptotic murine podocytes time-dependently when loading 0.75 mmol/L (10 hours,13 hours,and 15 hours compared with 0 hour,P <0.001) and dose-dependently when loading palmitate ranging from 0.25 to 1.00 mmol/L for 15 hours (compared to control,P <0.001).Palmitate time-dependently and dose-dependently increased the protein expression of GRP78 and CHOP,and decreased that of Bcl-2.Palmitate loading ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 mmol/L for 12 hours significantly increased mRNA of GRP78 and CHOP,and decreased that of Bcl-2 compared to control (P <0.001),with the maximum concentration being 0.75 mmol/L.Palmitate 0.5 mmol/L loading for 3 hours,8 hours,and 12 hours significantly increased mRNA of GRP78 and CHOP,and decreased that of Bcl-2 compared to 0 hour (P <0.001),with the maximum effect at 3 hours.Confocal microscopy demonstrated that GRP78 expression was significantly increased when exposed to 0.5 mmol/L of palmitate for 8 hours compared to control.Conclusion Palmitate could induce podocyte apoptosis via ER stress,suggesting podocyte apoptosis and consequent proteinuria caused by lipotoxic free fatty acid could be ameliorated by relief of ER stress.

  5. Apoptosis induced by titanium dioxide nanoparticles in cultured murine microglia N9 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI XiaoBo; XU ShunQing; ZHANG ZhiRen; Hermann J Schluesener

    2009-01-01

    Owing to the rapidly increasing output of nano-scale titanium dioxide (TiO_2) particles, their potential risk for central nerve system (CNS) has elicited much concern recently. Microglia is the resident macrophage In CNS and essential for the homeostasis of the CNS microenvironment. They are sup-posed to response to nanoparticles depositing in the brain tissues. Therefore, we investigated the cy-totoxic effects of TiO_2 NPs on microglia N9 cells in vitro. Results of propidium iodide/fluorescein di-acetate (PI/FDA) double staining and MTT test clearly showed that TiO_2 NPs more efficiently affected the viability of microglia N9 cells. Further Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometric analysis proved that nano-scale but not normal scale TiO_2 induced apoptosis in vitro. These data suggest that TiO_2 NPs can elicit apoptosis of N9 cells in vitro and thus present a potential risk for CNS.

  6. Thioredoxin 1 modulates apoptosis induced by bioactive compounds in prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Rodriguez-Garcia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that natural bioactive compounds, alone or in combination with traditional chemotherapeutic agents, could be used as potential therapies to fight cancer. In this study, we employed four natural bioactive compounds (curcumin, resveratrol, melatonin, and silibinin and studied their role in redox control and ability to promote apoptosis in androgen sensitive and insensitive prostate cancer cells. Here is shown that curcumin and resveratrol promote ROS production and induce apoptosis in LNCaP and PC-3. An increase in reactive species is a trigger event in curcumin-induced apoptosis and a consequence of resveratrol effects on other pathways within these cells. Moreover, here we demonstrated that these four compounds affect differently one of the main intracellular redox regulator, the thioredoxin system. Exposure to curcumin and resveratrol promoted TRX1 oxidation and altered its subcellular location. Furthermore, resveratrol diminished TRX1 levels in PC-3 cells and increased the expression of its inhibitor TXNIP. Conversly, melatonin and silibinin only worked as cytostatic agents, reducing ROS levels and showing preventive effects against TRX oxidation. All together, this work explores the effect of compounds currently tested as chemo-preventive agents in prostate cancer therapy, on the TRX1 redox state and function. Our work shows the importance that the TRX system might have within the differences found in their mechanisms of action. These bioactive compounds trigger different responses and affect ROS production and redox systems in prostate cancer cells, suggesting the key role that redox-related pathways might play in processes like differentiation or survival in prostate cancer.

  7. Enhancement of germ cell apoptosis induced by ethanol in transgenic mice overexpressing Fas Ligand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HENG CHUAN XIA; FENG LI; ZHEN LI; ZU CHUAN ZHANG

    2003-01-01

    It was suggested that chronic ethanol exposure could result in testicular germ cell apoptosis, but the mechanism is still unclear. In the present study, we use a model of transgenic mice ubiquitously overexpressing human FasL to investigate whether Fas ligand plays a role in ethanol-induced testicular germ cell apoptosis. Both wild-type (WT)mice and transgenic (TG) mice were treated with acute ethanol (20% v/v) by introperitoneal injection for five times.After ethanol injection, WT mice displayed up-regulation of Fas ligand in the testes, which was shown by FITCconjugated flow cytometry and western blotting. Moreover, TG mice exhibited significantly more apoptotic germ cells than WT mice did after ethanol injection, which was demonstrated by DNA fragmentation, PI staining flow cytometry and TUNEL staining. In addition, histopathological examination revealed that degenerative changes of epithelial component of the tubules occurred in FasL overexpressing transgenic mice while testicular morphology was normal in wild-type mice after acute ethanol exposure, suggesting FasL expression determines the sensitivity of testes to ethanol in mice. In summary, we provide the direct evidences that Fas ligand mediates the apoptosis of testicular germ cells induced by acute ethanol using FasL transgenic mice.

  8. Modulators of Response to Tumor Necrosis-related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) Therapy in Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    shifted its movement on the gel, suggesting an interaction and supporting previously reported data . -------#1------- --------#2...anthracycline (doxorubicin), a proteosome inhibitor (MG132), DNA damaging agents (UV, temozolomide ) and an antimetabolite (5-fluorouracil). Similarly...collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources

  9. Calreticulin Binds to Fas Ligand and Inhibits Neuronal Cell Apoptosis Induced by Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beilei Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Calreticulin (CRT can bind to Fas ligand (FasL and inhibit Fas/FasL-mediated apoptosis of Jurkat T cells. However, its effect on neuronal cell apoptosis has not been investigated. Purpose. We aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of CRT following ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI. Methods. Mice underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO and SH-SY5Y cells subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD were used as models for IRI. The CRT protein level was detected by Western blotting, and mRNA expression of CRT, caspase-3, and caspase-8 was measured by real-time PCR. Immunofluorescence was used to assess the localization of CRT and FasL. The interaction of CRT with FasL was verified by coimmunoprecipitation. SH-SY5Y cell viability was determined by MTT assay, and cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. The measurement of caspase-8 and caspase-3 activity was carried out using caspase activity assay kits. Results. After IRI, CRT was upregulated on the neuron surface and bound to FasL, leading to increased viability of OGD-exposed SH-SY5Y cells and decreased activity of caspase-8 and caspase-3. Conclusions. This study for the first time revealed that increased CRT inhibited Fas/FasL-mediated neuronal cell apoptosis during the early stage of ischemic stroke, suggesting it to be a potential protector activated soon after IRI.

  10. Apoptosis Induced by Ginsenoside Rg3 in a Human Bladder Carcinoma Cell Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junxia Chen; Huimin Peng; Shuping Pu; Yuping Guo

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study was conducted to explore the effect of Rg3 on inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in bladder cancer cells.METHODS The EJ bladder cancer cell line was treated with Rg3 at various concentrations. Cell proliferation was measured by the MTT assay. Morphological changes in the cells were observed by fluorescent staining using Hoechst 33258. The cell cycle and apoptotic rate were analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM) and the expression of caspase-3 in cells was detected by immunocytochemistry. DNA ladder analysis was conducted by agarose gel electrophoresis.RESULTS Rg3 inhibited proliferation of EJ cells in a concentration-dependent manner, resulting in an IC50 for Rg3 at 48 h of 125.5 μg/ml. When treated with 150 μg/ml of Rg3 for 24 h and 48 h, the cells showed apoptotic morphological characteristics including condensed chromatin, nuclear fragmentation, apoptotic bodies and bright fluorescent granules as well as a higher caspase-3 expression. The FCM assay indicated that Rg3 altered the cell cycle and induced apoptosis of the EJ cells, when treated for 24 h and 48 h with 75 μg/ml of Rg3 as well as for 48 h with 150 μg/ml. The percentages of cells in the S phase and the G2/M transition were increased, whereas the percentages of cells in the G0-G1 transition were decreased. The apoptotic rates were increased from (1.05±0.17)% in the control group cells to (8.41 ±0.98)%, (18.57±2.20)% and (33.98±1.64)% respectively. Significant changes in the DNA ladders, showed that the effects of Rg3 were displayed in a dose and time dependent manner.CONCLUSION The results suggest that Ginsenoside Rg3 exerts an inhibitory effect on proliferation of EJ cells by inducing apoptosis.

  11. Role of microRNA-195 in cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by myocardial ischaemia–reperfusion injury

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chang-Kui Gao; Hui Liu; Cheng-Ji Cui; Zhao-Guang Liang; Hong Yao; Ye Tian

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to investigate microRNA-195 (miR-195) expression in myocardial ischaemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury and the roles of miR-195 in cardiomyocyte apoptosis though targeting Bcl-2. A mouse model of I/R injury was established. MiR-195 expression levels were detected by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), and the cardiomyocyte apoptosis was detected by TUNEL assay. After cardiomyocytes isolated from neonatal rats and transfected with miR-195 mimic or inhibitor, the hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury model was established. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential were evaluated using flow cytometry. Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA expressions were detected by RT-PCR. Bcl-2, Bax and cytochrome c (Cyt-c) protein levels were determined by Western blot. Caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities were assessed by luciferase assay. Compared with the sham group, miR-195 expression levels and rate of cardiomyocyte apoptosis increased significantly in I/R group (both < 0.05). Compared to H/R + negative control (NC) group, rate of cardiomyocyte apoptosis increased in H/R + miR-195 mimic group while decreased in H/R + miR-195 inhibitor group (both < 0.05). MiR-195 knockdown alleviated the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential ( < 0.05). MiR-195 overexpression decreased Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expression, increased BaxmRNA and protein expression, Cyt-c protein expression and caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities (all < 0.05). While, downregulated MiR-195 increased Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expression, decreased Bax mRNA and protein expression, Cyt-c protein expression and caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities (all < 0.05). Our study identified that miR-195 expression was upregulated in myocardial I/R injury, and miR-195 overexpression may promote cardiomyocyte apoptosis by targeting Bcl-2 and inducing mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

  12. In Vitro Morphological Assessment of Apoptosis Induced by Antiproliferative Constituents from the Rhizomes of Curcuma zedoaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarifah Nur Syed Abdul Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay-guided isolation of the active hexane fractions of Curcuma zedoaria led to the identification of five pure compounds, namely, curzerenone (1, neocurdione (2, curdione (3, alismol (4, and zederone (5 and a mixture of sterols, namely, campesterol (6, stigmasterol (7, and β-sitosterol (8. Alismol has never been reported to be present in Curcuma zedoaria. All isolated compounds except (3 were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against MCF-7, Ca Ski, and HCT-116 cancer cell lines and noncancer human fibroblast cell line (MRC-5 using neutral red cytotoxicity assay. Curzerenone and alismol significantly inhibited cell proliferation in human cancer cell lines MCF-7, Ca Ski, and HCT-116 in a dose-dependent manner. Cytological observations by an inverted phase contrast microscope and Hoechst 33342/PI dual-staining assay showed typical apoptotic morphology of cancer cells upon treatment with curzerenone and alismol. Both compounds induce apoptosis through the activation of caspase-3. It can thus be suggested that curzerenone and alismol are modulated by apoptosis via caspase-3 signalling pathway. The findings of the present study support the use of Curcuma zedoaria rhizomes in traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer-related diseases. Thus, two naturally occurring sesquiterpenoids, curzerenone and alismol, hold great promise for use in chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic strategies.

  13. DNA fragmentation and apoptosis induced by safranal in human prostate cancer cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Samarghandian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Apoptosis, an important mechanism that contributes to cell growth reduction, is reported to be induced by Crocus sativus (Saffron in different cancer types. However, limited effort has been made to correlate these effects to the active ingredients of saffron. The present study was designed to elucidate cytotoxic and apoptosis induction by safranal, the major coloring compound in saffron, in a human prostate cancer cell line (PC-3. Materials and Methods: PC-3 and human fetal lung fibroblast (MRC-5 cells were cultured and exposed to safranal (5, 10, 15, and 20 μg/ml. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay was performed to assess cytotoxicity. DNA fragmentation was assessed by gel electrophoresis. Cells were incubated with different concentrations of safranal, and cell morphologic changes and apoptosis were determined by the normal inverted microscope, Annexin V, and propidium iodide, followed by flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Results: MTT assay revealed a remarkable and concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of safranal on PC-3 cells in comparison with non-malignant cell line. The morphologic alterations of the cells confirmed the MTT results. The IC 50 values against PC-3 cells were found to be 13.0 ΁ 0.07 and 6.4 ΁ 0.09 μg/ml at 48 and 72 h, respectively. Safranal induced an early and late apoptosis in the flow cytometry histogram of treated cells, indicating apoptosis is involved in this toxicity. DNA analysis revealed typical ladders as early as 48 and 72 h after treatment, indicative of apoptosis. Conclusions: Our preclinical study demonstrated a prostate cancer cell line to be highly sensitive to safranal-mediated growth inhibition and apoptotic cell death. Although the molecular mechanisms of safranal action are not clearly understood, it appears to have potential as a therapeutic agent.

  14. Anticancer and apoptosis-inducing effects of Moringa concanensis using hepG2 cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Balamurugan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation is focused on the anticancer activity of the ethanolic crude extract of Moringa concanensis leaf and bark against HepG2 cell line. The study was facilitated by collecting the plant sample and subjected to ethanol crude extraction. The anticancer activity of the crude extracted sample against HepG2 cell line was examined by MTT assay. The study confirms that the leaf crude extract of M. concanensis has pronounced anticancer potential against HepG2 cell lines while compared to that of the bark extract. The plant investigated possesses remarkable anticancer activity and hence isolation of the compound contributing to the activity may lead to develop at a novel and natural phytomedicine for the disease.

  15. Effects of asiaticoside on human umbilical vein endothelial cell apoptosis induced by Aβ1-42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Cai, Pengfei; Zhou, Jie; Liu, Minghua; Jiang, Xian

    2015-01-01

    This study is to investigate the potential role of asiaticoside (AS) in Aβ1-42-induced apoptosis on the human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC). HUVEC cells were divided into Aβ1-42 group (treated with 50 μM Aβ1-42), AS groups (treated with 50 μM Aβ1-42 and 10 mM, 1 mM, 0.1 mM or 0.01 mM AS), and negative control group (without treatments). Cell proliferation was detected by CCK-8 assay. Apoptosis was analyzed by Hochest33342 staining and flow cytometry. Western Blot was carried out to detect the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax protein. Aβ1-42 treatment inhibited cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis of HUVEC cells. Interestingly, AS at concentrations of 10 mM, 1 mM, 0.1 mM and 0.01 mM reversed the effects of Aβ1-42 by increasing cell survival rate and reducing apoptosis of HUVEC cells. Furthermore, the expression of Bcl-2 protein was increased whereas the expression of Bax protein was decreased in AS groups. Compared with Aβ1-42 group, the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax was significantly increased in AS groups (P < 0.05). These results suggested that AS may be effective in protecting cells from damage caused by aggregated Aβ1-42. And this effect may be attributed to the increase of Bcl-2 and decrease of Bax under AS treatment.

  16. Effect of clausenamide on hippocampal neuron apoptosis induced by sodium nitroprusside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongjun Liu; Qifeng Zhu

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aggregation of β -amyloid peptide (A β ), excitatory intoxication, oxidation injury and inflammation reaction are generally regarded as the main pathogenesis for Alzheimer disease (AD). (-)clausenamide is characterized by promoting intelligent development, resisting oxidation, cleaning free radicals, resisting A β neurotoxicity and nerve cell apoptosis, inhibiting over phosphorylation of tau protein,and improving central cholinergic system. However, whether (-) clausenamide has an effect on hippocampal neuron apoptosis or not need further study.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of ( - ) clausenamide on survival rate of hippocampal neurons due to sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and analyze the possible pathways.DESIGN: Contrast observation.SETTING: Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Guangdong Medical College.MATERIALS: A total of 12 male SD rats of 24 hours old were provided by the Experimental Animal Center of Guangdong Medical College. The primer was synthesized by Beijing Huada Genetic Engineering Company and (-) clausenamide (99.6%) was provided by Pharmacological Department of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. SNP was provided by Sigma Company.METHODS: Bilateral hippocampus was collected from newborn rats to establish single cell suspension. On the 12th day, hippocampal neurons were pretreated with 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 μ mol/L ( - ) clausenamide for 6 hours; the culture medium was gotten rid of and neurons were washed with non-serum DMEM solution for three times. In addition, non-serum DMEM solution was added with the above mentioned volume of ( - ) clausenamide and 50 μ mol/L SNP to culture neurons for 24 hours and the collected cells were prepared for the experiment. Neurons were equally divided into control group (culture medium control), model group (SNP treatment) and experimental group [( - ) clausenamide + SNP]. Experiment of each group was done for three times at least. Survival rate of cells was measured with MTT chromatometry; levels of mRNA of hippocampal neuron bcl-2 and bax gene were detected with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); expression of hippocampal neuron Bcl-2 and Bax protein was measured with Western blot technique.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Effect of (-) clausenamide on survival rate of SNP-induced hippocampal neuron apoptosis; ② bcl-2 and bax mRNA and protein expression of hippocampal neurons.RESULTS: ① Survival rate ofhippocampal neurons: Survival rate of hippocampal neurons affected by 0.4 - 1.6 μ mol/L ( - ) clausenamide was higher in the experimental group than the model group (P < 0.01),and the survival rate was increased with the larger volume of (-) clausenamide. Survival rate was the highest when hippocampal neurons were induced by 1.6 μ mol/L, and it had obvious dosage dependence (P <0.01). ② Expression of bcl-2 and bar mRNA: Hippocampal neurons were pretreated with 0.2 - 1.6 μ mol/L( - ) clausenamide for 6 hours in the experimental group and strap of PCR product of bcl-2 gene was brightened gradually. This suggested that, with the increase of concentration, expression of bcl-2 mRNA was increased simultaneously. However, when strap of PCR product of bax gene was darkened, expression of bax was decreased with the increase of concentration. ③ Expression of Bcl-2 and Bax protein: Hippocampal neurons were pretreated with 0.2 - 1.6 μ mol/L ( - ) clausenamide for 6 hours in the experimental group and strap of PCR product of Bcl-2 protein was thickened gradually. This suggested that, with the increase of concentration, expression of Bcl-2 protein was increased simultaneously. However, when strap of PCR product of Bax protein was thinned, expression of Bax protein was decreased with the increase of concentration.CONCLUSION: ( - ) clausenamide can resist neurotoxic effect of SNP through dosage dependence, and the mechanism may be related to promoting expression of anti-apoptotic bcl-2 gene and inhibiting expression of pro-apoptotic bax gene.

  17. Semisynthesis of mallotus B from rottlerin: evaluation of cytotoxicity and apoptosis-inducing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shreyans K; Pathania, Anup S; Meena, Samdarshi; Sharma, Rajni; Sharma, Ashok; Singh, Baljinder; Gupta, Bishan D; Bhushan, Shashi; Bharate, Sandip B; Vishwakarma, Ram A

    2013-09-27

    Mallotus B (2d) is a prenylated dimeric phloroglucinol compound isolated from Mallotus philippensis. There have been no reports on the synthesis or biological activity of this compound. In the present paper, a semisynthetic preparation of mallotus B is reported via base-mediated intramolecular rearrangement of rottlerin (1), which is one of the major constituents of M. philippensis. The homodimer "rottlerone" was also formed as one of the products of this base-mediated intramolecular reaction. Rottlerin (1), along with rottlerone (2c) and mallotus B (2d), was evaluated for cytotoxicity against a panel of cancer cell lines including HEPG2, Colo205, MIAPaCa-2, PC-3, and HL-60 cells. Mallotus B (2d) displayed cytotoxicity for MIAPaCa-2 and HL-60 cells with IC₅₀ values of 9 and 16 μM, respectively. Microscopic studies in HL-60 cells indicated that mallotus B (2d) induces cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase and causes defective cell division. It also induces apoptosis, as evidenced by distinct changes in cell morphology.

  18. Growth inhibition and apoptosis induced by osthole, a natural coumarin, in hepatocellular carcinoma.

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    Lurong Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the most commonly diagnosed tumors worldwide and is known to be resistant to conventional chemotherapy. New therapeutic strategies are urgently needed for treating HCC. Osthole, a natural coumarin derivative, has been shown to have anti-tumor activity. However, the effects of osthole on HCC have not yet been reported. METHODS AND FINDINGS: HCC cell lines were treated with osthole at various concentrations for 24, 48 and 72 hours. The proliferations of the HCC cells were measured by MTT assays. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were determined by flow cytometry. HCC tumor models were established in mice by subcutaneously injection of SMMC-7721 or Hepa1-6 cells and the effect of osthole on tumor growths in vivo and the drug toxicity were studied. NF-κB activity after osthole treatment was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and the expression of caspase-3 was measured by western blotting. The expression levels of other apoptosis-related genes were also determined by real-time PCR (PCR array assays. Osthole displayed a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of the HCC cell proliferations in vitro. It also induced apoptosis and caused cell accumulation in G2 phase. Osthole could significantly suppress HCC tumor growth in vivo with no toxicity at the dose we used. NF-κB activity was significantly suppressed by osthole at the dose- and time-dependent manner. The cleaved caspase-3 was also increased by osthole treatment. The expression levels of some apoptosis-related genes that belong to TNF ligand family, TNF receptor family, Bcl-2 family, caspase family, TRAF family, death domain family, CIDE domain and death effector domain family and CARD family were all increased with osthole treatment. CONCLUSION: Osthole could significantly inhibit HCC growth in vitro and in vivo through cell cycle arrest and inducing apoptosis by suppressing NF-κB activity and promoting the expressions of apoptosis-related genes.

  19. Growth Inhibition and Apoptosis Induced by Osthole, A Natural Coumarin, in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lurong; Jiang, Guorong; Yao, Fei; He, Yan; Liang, Guoqiang; Zhang, Yinsheng; Hu, Bo; Wu, Yan; Li, Yunsen; Liu, Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed tumors worldwide and is known to be resistant to conventional chemotherapy. New therapeutic strategies are urgently needed for treating HCC. Osthole, a natural coumarin derivative, has been shown to have anti-tumor activity. However, the effects of osthole on HCC have not yet been reported. Methods and Findings HCC cell lines were treated with osthole at various concentrations for 24, 48 and 72 hours. The proliferations of the HCC cells were measured by MTT assays. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were determined by flow cytometry. HCC tumor models were established in mice by subcutaneously injection of SMMC-7721 or Hepa1-6 cells and the effect of osthole on tumor growths in vivo and the drug toxicity were studied. NF-κB activity after osthole treatment was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and the expression of caspase-3 was measured by western blotting. The expression levels of other apoptosis-related genes were also determined by real-time PCR (PCR array) assays. Osthole displayed a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of the HCC cell proliferations in vitro. It also induced apoptosis and caused cell accumulation in G2 phase. Osthole could significantly suppress HCC tumor growth in vivo with no toxicity at the dose we used. NF-κB activity was significantly suppressed by osthole at the dose- and time-dependent manner. The cleaved caspase-3 was also increased by osthole treatment. The expression levels of some apoptosis-related genes that belong to TNF ligand family, TNF receptor family, Bcl-2 family, caspase family, TRAF family, death domain family, CIDE domain and death effector domain family and CARD family were all increased with osthole treatment. Conclusion Osthole could significantly inhibit HCC growth in vitro and in vivo through cell cycle arrest and inducing apoptosis by suppressing NF-κB activity and promoting the expressions of apoptosis-related genes. PMID:22662241

  20. Mechanisms underlying apoptosis-inducing effects of Kaempferol in HT-29 human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Sook; Cho, Han Jin; Yu, Rina; Lee, Ki Won; Chun, Hyang Sook; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2014-02-17

    We previously noted that kaempferol, a flavonol present in vegetables and fruits, reduced cell cycle progression of HT-29 cells. To examine whether kaempferol induces apoptosis of HT-29 cells and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms, cells were treated with various concentrations (0-60 μmol/L) of kaempferol and analyzed by Hoechst staining, Annexin V staining, JC-1 labeling of the mitochondria, immunoprecipitation, in vitro kinase assays, Western blot analyses, and caspase-8 assays. Kaempferol increased chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and the number of early apoptotic cells in HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, kaempferol increased the levels of cleaved caspase-9, caspase-3 and caspase-7 as well as those of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Moreover, it increased mitochondrial membrane permeability and cytosolic cytochrome c concentrations. Further, kaempferol decreased the levels of Bcl-xL proteins, but increased those of Bik. It also induced a reduction in Akt activation and Akt activity and an increase in mitochondrial Bad. Additionally, kaempferol increased the levels of membrane-bound FAS ligand, decreased those of uncleaved caspase-8 and intact Bid and increased caspase-8 activity. These results indicate that kaempferol induces the apoptosis of HT-29 cells via events associated with the activation of cell surface death receptors and the mitochondrial pathway.

  1. Mechanisms Underlying Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Kaempferol in HT-29 Human Colon Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun Sook Lee; Han Jin Cho; Rina Yu; Ki Won Lee; Hyang Sook Chun; Jung Han Yoon Park

    2014-01-01

    We previously noted that kaempferol, a flavonol present in vegetables and fruits, reduced cell cycle progression of HT-29 cells. To examine whether kaempferol induces apoptosis of HT-29 cells and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms, cells were treated with various concentrations (0–60 μmol/L) of kaempferol and analyzed by Hoechst staining, Annexin V staining, JC-1 labeling of the mitochondria, immunoprecipitation, in vitro kinase assays, Western blot analyses, and caspase-8 assays...

  2. Resveratrol and propolis as necrosis or apoptosis inducers in human prostate carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scifo, Christian; Cardile, Venera; Russo, Alessandra; Consoli, Rosanna; Vancheri, Carlo; Capasso, Francesco; Vanella, Angelo; Renis, Marcella

    2004-01-01

    Vegetables and fruit help the prevention and the therapy of several kinds of cancer because they contain micronutrients, a class of substances that have been shown to exhibit chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities. In the present study the effects of resveratrol (100 and 200 microM), a phytoalexin found in grapes, and of the ethanolic extract of propolis (50 and 100 microg/ml), a natural honeybee hive product, were tested in androgen-resistant prostate cancer cells (DU145), a cell line resembling the last stage of prostate carcinoma. A comparison between the activity of these micronutrients and vinorelbine bitartrate (Navelbine), a semi-synthetic drug normally used in the therapy of prostate cancer, was conducted. Several biochemical parameters were tested, such as cell viability (MTT assay), cell membrane integrity (lactate dehydrogenase release), cell redox status (nitric oxide formation, reactive oxygen species production, reduced glutathione levels), genomic DNA fragmentation (COMET assay) with special attention on the presence of apoptotic DNA damage (TUNEL test), and possible mitochondrial transmembrane potential alteration (deltapsi). Our results point out the anticancer activity of resveratrol and propolis extract in human prostate cancer, exerting their cytotoxicity through two different types of cell death: necrosis and apoptosis, respectively. The data obtained suggest the possible use of these micronutrients both in alternative to classic chemotherapy, and in combination with very low dosage of vinorelbine (5 microM).

  3. Host cell apoptosis induced by infection with duck swollen head hemorrhagic disease virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuanfeng Li; Xiaoyue Chen; Anchun Cheng; Mingshu Wang; Chanjuan Shen; Na Zhang; Yi Zhou; Dekang Zhu; Qihui Luo; Renyong Jia

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the host cell apoptosis in the tissues of Peking ducks infected with duck swollen head hemorrhagic dis-ease virus (DSHDV).The dynamic changes associated with apoptosis occurring in the internal tissues were evaluated at different time points postinoculation (PI) by performing hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining,followed by light microscopy,terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay,and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).The results showed that DSHDV infection could induce apoptosis in host cells,including those of the bursa of Fabricius (BF),thymus,spleen,liver,intestinal tract,kidney,and esophagus.The apoptotic index (AI) values increased with time from 2 to 72 h PI,and the highest values were recorded at 72 h PI.Further,cell death due to classic necrosis was observed in the dying or deceased ducks after 72 h PI.In conclusion,host cell apoptosis can be induced by DSHDV and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of duck viral swollen head hemorrhagic disease (DVSHD).

  4. The Study on Intramyocardial Calcium Overload and Apoptosis Induced by Cosackievirus B3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU; Xiufen; WANG; Hongwei; LU; Weiwei; DONG; Yongsui; CHENG; Peixuan

    2001-01-01

    The isolated cardiac myocytes of rats were immediately infected by cosackievirus B3(CVB3) to investigate the effects of such procedure on the cell cycle, apoptosis and intracellular ionized calcium (Ca2+ i) of cardiac myocytes. Newborn Balb/c murine cardiac myocytes were cultivated,then infected by CVB3. Intracellular Ca2+ i was measured by flow cytometer. The calcium in the medium for culturing cardiac myocytes was detected by using atom absorb spectrum test. It was found that CVB3 could markedly inhibit the differentiation and proliferation of the infected cardiac myocytes and induce the apoptosis. The intracellular Ca2+ i level in the infected group was significantly higher than in the control group (P<0. 01). The calcium concentration in the medium for culturing cardiac myocytes in the infected group was significantly lower than in the control group (P<0.05). It was suggested that the apoptosis and intracellular calcium overload of the CVB3-affected cardiac myocytes are likely to play an important role in the pathogenesis of viral myocarditis.

  5. Efflux of potassium ion is an important reason of HL-60 cells apoptosis induced by tachyplesin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-tao ZHANG; Jun WU; Hai-feng ZHANG; Qi-feng ZHU

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the role of intercellular potassium in tachyplesin-induced HL-60 cells apoptosis. Methods: The concentration of intercellular potassium, cell volume and mitochondrial membrane potential were examined by flow cytometry. Results: The concentration of intercellular potassium reduced in a time-dependent manner in tachyplesin-treated HL-60 cells. In addition, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was tightly coupled with the shrinkage of cell volume. Different caspase inhibitors protected against DNA degradation but did not prevent the loss of HL-60 cell viability induced by tachyplesin. Ba2+, which was a kind of blocker of volume-regulatory K+ channels, increased the viability of tachyplesin-treated HL-60 cells and maintained mitochondrial membrane potential and cell volume. Conclusion: Efflux of K+ was an important reason for apoptosis in tachyplesin-treated HL-60 cells. Efflux of K+ affected the viability of tachyplesin-treated HL-60 cells independent of the process of caspase activation.

  6. asy and asyip: A new type of apoptosis-inducing gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Apoptosis, a wide physiological process in multicellular organisms, is critical for the organ development, the cell senescence, the tissue homeostasis and the resistance to infection of virus and bacteria. Apoptosis plays a key role in the regulation of the growth cell number such as the tissue construction, the elimination of abnormal or dangerous cells. Therefore, apoptosis is a stringent and effective cell quality controlling system, which reduces the number of harmful cells to the maximum, such as auto-immunity cell, cells infected by virus, tumor cells by cell suicide[1] . Apoptosis can be initiated by a wide variety of the extracellular and intracellular stimuli, including the developmental signals, the cellular stress and the disruption of cell cycle, transduced and amplified by the second messengers, and finally finished by the activating death effector protease. This process can be called apoptosis signal network. The defective in control of the apoptotic pathways may contribute to a variety of diseases including cancer, autoimmune and neurodegenerative conditions[2,3].

  7. A role for mixed lineage kinases in granule cell apoptosis induced by cytoskeletal disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Georg Johannes; Geist, Marie Aavang; Veng, Lone Merete

    2006-01-01

    Microtubule disruption by colchicine induces apoptosis in selected neuronal populations. However, little is known about the upstream death signalling events mediating the neurotoxicity. We investigated first whether colchicine-induced granule cell apoptosis activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase...

  8. Apoptosis induced by piroxicam plus cisplatin combined treatment is triggered by p21 in mesothelioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Baldi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malignant mesothelioma (MM is a rare, highly aggressive tumor, associated to asbestos exposure. To date no chemotherapy regimen for MM has proven to be definitively curative, and new therapies for MM treatment need to be developed. We have previously shown in vivo that piroxicam/cisplatin combined treatment in MM, specifically acts on cell cycle regulation triggering apoptosis, with survival increase. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed, at molecular level, the apoptotic increase caused by piroxicam/cisplatin treatment in MM cell lines. By means of genome wide analyses, we analyzed transcriptional gene deregulation both after the single piroxicam or cisplatin and the combined treatment. Here we show that apoptotic increase following combined treatment is mediated by p21, since apoptotic increase in piroxicam/cisplatin combined treatment is abolished upon p21 silencing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Piroxicam/cisplatin combined treatment determines an apoptosis increase in MM cells, which is dependent on the p21 expression. The results provided suggest that piroxicam/cisplatin combination might be tested in clinical settings in tumor specimens that express p21.

  9. Apoptosis induced by diallyl disulfide in human breast cancer cell line MCF.71

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-yong LEI; Shu-qiong YAO; Xu-yu ZU; Ze-xiang HUANG; Li-juan LIU; Miao ZHONG; Bing-yang ZHU; Sheng- song TANG; Duan-fang LIAO

    2008-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the effect of diallyl disulfide (DADS),a component of garlic,on apoptosis in human mammary cancer cell line (MCF-7) and its mechanisms.Methods:Cytotoxicity was analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays.Morphology of apoptotic cells was detected by acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining.Apoptotic cells stained with propidium iodide were examined using flow cytometry.Protein levels were detected by Western blot analysis.Results:DADS inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells and induced the apoptotic ratio to increase rapidly.Cleavage of the caspase-3 and caspase-3 substrate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase was observed in MCF-7 cells after 24 h of treatment with DADS.When the MCF-7 cells were signal-regulated kinase (ERK),a mitogen-activated protein kinase,was inhibited after 6 h; court N-terminal kinase (JNK),that is stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK),and p38 mitogen-aetivated protein kinase were activated after 6 h.Conclusion:These results suggest that DADS both inhibits the proliferation of MCF-7 cells and induces apoptosis of MCF-7 cells.The mechanisms may include the inhibition of ERK and the activation of the SAPK/JNK and p38 pathways.

  10. Inhibition of vascular peroxidase alleviates cardiac dysfunction and apoptosis induced by ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Yi-Shuai; He, Lan; Liu, Bin; Shi, Rui-Zheng; Zhang, Guo-Gang; Peng, Jun

    2012-07-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is involved in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury and vascular peroxidase (VPO) is a newly identified isoform of MPO. This study was conducted to explore whether VPO is involved in IR-induced cardiac dysfunction and apoptosis. In a rat Langendorff model of myocardial IR, the cardiac function parameters (left ventricular pressure and the maximum derivatives of left ventricular pressure and coronary flow), creatine kinase (CK) activity, apoptosis, VPO1 activity were measured. In a cell (rat-heart-derived H9c2 cells) model of hypoxia-reoxygenation (HR), apoptosis, VPO activity, and VPO1 mRNA expression were examined. In isolated heart, IR caused a marked decrease in cardiac function and a significant increase in apoptosis, CK, and VPO activity. These effects were attenuated by pharmacologic inhibition of VPO. In vitro, pharmacologic inhibition of VPO activity or silencing of VPO1 expression significantly suppressed HR-induced cellular apoptosis. Our results suggest that increased VPO activity contributes to IR-induced cardiac dysfunction and inhibition of VPO activity may have the potential clinical value in protecting the myocardium against IR injury.

  11. Apoptosis induced by a low-carbohydrate and high-protein diet in rat livers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Maria Emília L; Xavier, Analucia R; Oliveira, Felipe L; Filho, Porphirio JS; Azeredo, Vilma B

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether high-protein, high-fat, and low-carbohydrate diets can cause lesions in rat livers. METHODS: We randomly divided 20 female Wistar rats into a control diet group and an experimental diet group. Animals in the control group received an AIN-93M diet, and animals in the experimental group received an Atkins-based diet (59.46% protein, 31.77% fat, and 8.77% carbohydrate). After 8 wk, the rats were anesthetized and exsanguinated for transaminases analysis, and their livers were removed for flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and light microscopy studies. We expressed the data as mean ± standard deviation (SD) assuming unpaired and parametric data; we analyzed differences using the Student’s t-test. Statistical significance was set at P diet group and 3.73% ± 0.50% for early apoptosis, 5.67% ± 0.72% for late apoptosis, and 3.82% ± 0.28% for non-apoptotic death in the control diet group. The mean percentage of early apoptosis was higher in the experimental diet group than in the control diet group. Immunohistochemistry for autophagy was negative in both groups. Sinusoidal dilation around the central vein and small hepatocytes was only observed in the experimental diet group, and fibrosis was not identified by hematoxylin-eosin or Trichrome Masson staining in either group. CONCLUSION: Eight weeks of an experimental diet resulted in cellular and histopathological lesions in rat livers. Apoptosis was our principal finding; elevated plasma transaminases demonstrate hepatic lesions. PMID:27298559

  12. INTERLEUKIN-6 PROTECTS ANNULUS FIBROSUS CELL FROM APOPTOSIS INDUCED BY INTERLEUKIN-1 IN VITRO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of interleukin-6 (IL-6) on the apoptosis of annulus fibrosus (AF) cell induced by interleukin-1 β (IL-1 β).Methods Cultured AF cells were divided into 6 groups and treated with no drug, 10 ng/mL IL-6, 10 ng/mL IL1β, 10 ng/mL IL-1β and Z-VAD-FMK (a caspase-9 inhibitor), 10 ng/mL IL-1β and 10 ng/mL IL-6, 10 ng/mL IL-1β and 100 ng/mL IL-6, respectively. After three days of culture, the apoptosis rate, the positive rates of caspase3, -8, and -9 of AF cells were detected with flow cytometry.Results The apoptosis rates of cells in group 1 to 6 were 2. 67%±1.08%, 2.71%±0.53%, 20.37%±1.57%, 11.34%±0.67%, 18.17%±0.74%, and 9.42%±1.08%, respectively. There was no significant difference between group 1 and 2, while the apoptosis rates of group 4, 5, and 6 were significantly lower than group 3 (P=0.001, P=0.172, and P=0.001, respectively). Positive rates of caspase-3 in group 5 (12.35%± 0.64%) and 6(9.26%±0.36%) were significantly lower than group 3 (17.14%±0.72%; P=0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). And positive rates of caspase-9 in group 5 (15.13%±1.45%) and 6 (10.17%±2.50%) were significantly lower than group 3 (19.4%±0.98%;P=0.014 and P=0.004, respectively). But there was not obvious change of caspase-8 activity after IL-6 was added.Conclusion IL-6 is capable of protecting AF cells from IL-1 β induced apoptosis in vitro. Mechanism of the protection is related with the inhibition of caspase-3 and -9 activities.

  13. BAK overexpression mediates p53-independent apoptosis inducing effects on human gastric cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jun

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BAK (Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer is a novel pro-apoptotic gene of the Bcl-2 family. It has been reported that gastric tumors have reduced BAK levels when compared with the normal mucosa. Moreover, mutations of the BAK gene have been identified in human gastrointestinal cancers, suggesting that a perturbation of BAK-mediated apoptosis may contribute to the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. In this study, we explored the therapeutic effects of gene transfer mediated elevations in BAK expression on human gastric cancer cells in vitro. Methods Eukaryotic expression vector for the BAK gene was constructed and transferred into gastric cancer cell lines, MKN-45 (wild-type p53 and MKN-28 (mutant-type p53. RT-PCR and Western Blotting detected cellular BAK gene expression. Cell growth activities were detected by MTT colorimetry and flow cytometry, while apoptosis was assayed by electronic microscopy and TUNEL. Western Blotting and colorimetry investigated cellular caspase-3 activities. Results BAK gene transfer could result in significant BAK overexpression, decreased in vitro growth, cell cycle G0/G1 arrest, and induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. In transferred cells, inactive caspase-3 precursor was cleaved into the active subunits p20 and p17, during BAK overexpression-induced apoptosis. In addition, this process occurred equally well in p53 wild-type (MKN-45, or in p53 mutant-type (MKN-28 gastric cancer cells. Conclusions The data presented suggests that overexpression of the BAK gene can lead to apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in vitro, which does not appear to be dependent on p53 status. The action mechanism of BAK mediated apoptosis correlates with activation of caspase-3. This could be served as a potential strategy for further development of gastric cancer therapies.

  14. Protective role of metallothionein (Ⅰ/Ⅱ) against pathological damage and apoptosis induced by dimethylarsinic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang Jia; Yi-Qun Gu; Kung-Tung Chen; You-Yong Lu; Lei Yan; Jian-Ling Wang; Ya-Ping Su; J. C. Gaston Wu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To better clarify the main target organs of dimethylarsinic acid toxicity and the role of metallothionein (MTs) in modifying dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA) toxicity.METHODS: MT-Ⅰ/Ⅱ null (MT-/-) mice and the corresponding wild-type mice (MT+/+), six in each group, were exposed to DMAA (0-750 mg/kg body weight) by a single oral injection.Twenty four hours later, the lungs, livers and kidneys were collected and undergone pathological analysis, induction of apoptotic cells as determined by TUNEL and MT concentration was detected by radio-immunoassay.RESULTS: Remarkable pathological lesions were observed at the doses ranging from 350 to 750 mg/kg body weight in the lungs, livers and kidneys and MT+/+ mice exhibited a relatively slight destruction when compared with that in dose matched MT-/- mice. The number of apoptotic cells was increased in a dose dependent manner in the lungs and livers in both types of mice. DMAA produced more necrotic cells rather than apoptotic cells at the highest dose of 750 mg/kg,however, no significant increase was observed in the kidney.Hepatic MT level in MT+/+ mice was significantly increased by DMAA in a dose-dependent manner and there was nodetectable amount of hepatic MT in untreated MT-/- mice.CONCLUSION: DMAA treatment can lead to the induction of apoptosis and pathological damage in both types of mice.MT exhibits a protective effect against DMAA toxicity.

  15. Differential proteomic analysis of human erythroblasts undergoing apoptosis induced by epo-withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrin, Stéphanie; Heesom, Kate J; Satchwell, Timothy J; Hawley, Bethan R; Daniels, Geoff; van den Akker, Emile; Toye, Ashley M

    2012-01-01

    The availability of Erythropoietin (Epo) is essential for the survival of erythroid progenitors. Here we study the effects of Epo removal on primary human erythroblasts grown from peripheral blood CD34(+) cells. The erythroblasts died rapidly from apoptosis, even in the presence of SCF, and within 24 hours of Epo withdrawal 60% of the cells were Annexin V positive. Other classical hallmarks of apoptosis were also observed, including cytochrome c release into the cytosol, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, Bax translocation to the mitochondria and caspase activation. We adopted a 2D DIGE approach to compare the proteomes of erythroblasts maintained for 12 hours in the presence or absence of Epo. Proteomic comparisons demonstrated significant and reproducible alterations in the abundance of proteins between the two growth conditions, with 18 and 31 proteins exhibiting altered abundance in presence or absence of Epo, respectively. We observed that Epo withdrawal induced the proteolysis of the multi-functional proteins Hsp90 alpha, Hsp90 beta, SET, 14-3-3 beta, 14-3-3 gamma, 14-3-3 epsilon, and RPSA, thereby targeting multiple signaling pathways and cellular processes simultaneously. We also observed that 14 proteins were differentially phosphorylated and confirmed the phosphorylation of the Hsp90 alpha and Hsp90 beta proteolytic fragments in apoptotic cells using Nano LC mass spectrometry. Our analysis of the global changes occurring in the proteome of primary human erythroblasts in response to Epo removal has increased the repertoire of proteins affected by Epo withdrawal and identified proteins whose aberrant regulation may contribute to ineffective erythropoiesis.

  16. The attractive Achilles heel of germ cell tumours : an inherent sensitivity to apoptosis-inducing stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, DCJ; de Vries, EGE; Vellenga, E; de Jong, S

    2003-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) are extremely sensitive to cisplatin-containing chemotherapy. The rapid time course of apoptosis induction after exposure to cisplatin suggests that TGCT cells are primed to undergo programmed cell death as an inherent property of the cell of origin. In fact, apo

  17. Explore the Molecular Mechanism of Apoptosis Induced by Tanshinone IIA on Activated Rat Hepatic Stellate Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Long Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the activated hepatic stellate cell (HSC is the predominant event in the progression of liver fibrosis, selective clearance of HSC should be a potential strategy in therapy. Salvia miltiorrhiza roots ethanol extract (SMEE remarkably ameliorates liver fibrogenesis in DMN-administrated rat model. Next, tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA, the major compound of SMEE, significantly inhibited rat HSC viability and led to cell apoptosis. Proteome tools elucidated that increased prohibitin is involved in cell cycle arrest under Tan IIA is the treatment while knockdown of prohibitin could attenuate Tan IIA-induced apoptosis. In addition, Tan IIA mediated translocation of C-Raf which interacted with prohibitin activating MAPK and inhibiting AKT signaling in HSC. MAPK antagonist suppressed ERK phosphorylation which was necessary for Tan IIA-induced expression of Bax and cytochrome c. PD98059 also abolished Tan IIA-modulated cleavage of PARP. Our findings suggested that Tan IIA could contribute to apoptosis of HSC by promoting ERK-Bax-caspase pathways through C-Raf/prohibitin complex.

  18. A role for mixed lineage kinases in granule cell apoptosis induced by cytoskeletal disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Georg Johannes; Geist, Marie Aavang; Veng, Lone Merete; Willesen, Mette Georgi; Johansen, Flemming Fryd; Leist, Marcel; Vaudano, Elisabetta

    2006-03-01

    Microtubule disruption by colchicine induces apoptosis in selected neuronal populations. However, little is known about the upstream death signalling events mediating the neurotoxicity. We investigated first whether colchicine-induced granule cell apoptosis activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. Cultured murine cerebellar granule cells were exposed to 1 microm colchicine for 24 h. Activation of the JNK pathway was detected by western blotting as well as immunocytochemistry using antibodies against phospho-c-Jun (p-c-Jun). Next, adult male rats were injected intracerebroventricularly with colchicine (10 microg), and JNK pathway activation in dentate granule cells (DGCs) was detected by antibodies against p-c-Jun. The second part of the study tested the involvement of mixed lineage kinases (MLK) as upstream activators of the JNK pathway in colchicine toxicity, using CEP-1347, a potent MLK inhibitor. In vitro, significant inhibition of the JNK pathway, activated by colchicine, was achieved by 100-300 nm CEP-1347, which blocked both activation of cell death proteases and apoptosis. Moreover, CEP-1347 markedly delayed neurite fragmentation and cell degeneration. In vivo, CEP-1347 (1 mg/kg) significantly prevented p-c-jun increase following injection of colchicine, and enhanced survival of DGCs. We conclude that colchicine-induced neuronal apoptosis involves the JNK/MLK pathway, and that protection of granule cells can be achieved by MLK inhibition.

  19. Melatonin protects kidney against apoptosis induced by acute unilateral ureteral obstruction in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badem, Hüseyin; Cakmak, Muzaffer; Yilmaz, Hakki; Kosem, Bahadir; Karatas, Omer Faruk; Bayrak, Reyhan; Cimentepe, Ersin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To investigate whether there was a protective effect of melatonin on apoptotic mechanisms after an acute unilateral obstruction of the kidney. Material and methods A total of 25 rats consisting of five groups were used in the study, designated as follows: Group 1: control, Group 2: sham, Group 3: unilateral ureteral obstruction treated with only saline, Group 4: unilateral ureteral obstruction treated with melatonin immediately, and Group 5: unilateral obstruction treated with melatonin one day after obstruction. Melatonin was administered as a 10 mg/kg dose intraperitoneally. The kidneys were evaluated according to the apoptotic index and Ki-67 scores. Results Comparison of all obstruction groups (Group 3, 4, and 5), revealed that the apoptotic index was significantly higher in Groups 1 and 2. Despite melatonin reduced apoptotic mechanisms in Groups 4 and 5, there was no significant difference between Groups 4 and 5 in terms of the reduction of apoptosis. However, the reduction of apoptosis in the melatonin treated group did not decrease to the level of Groups 1 and 2. Conclusions Despite melatonin administration, which significantly reduces the apoptotic index occurring after acute unilateral ureteral obstruction, the present study did not observe a return to normal renal histology in the obstruction groups. PMID:27551563

  20. Apoptosis induced by 3,7-dinitrodibenzobromonium salts in K562 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruidong MIAO; Xiaohui XIA; Dongling YANG; Minghua LU; Qin WANG

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the inhibitory effect of 3,7-dini-trodibenzobromonium salts (cBr) on the proliferation of human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cell by trypan blue exclusion test and MTT colorimetric assay.The degree of DNA damage in K562 cells treated with cBr,was detected by isotopic tracer method (3H-TdR).The morphological changes of these K562 cells were examined by fluorescence and electron microscopy.Biochemical characteristics of K562 cells were detected by flow cytome-try and 3H-thymidine incorporation assay.Findings indi-cated that cBr could significantly inhibit cell proliferation and result in DNA damage of K562 cells,cBr is a new type of immunostimulant and can induce cell apoptosis.

  1. Benzothiazole derivatives bearing amide moiety: potential cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing agents against cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Modi, Arusha; Narayan, Gopeshwar; Singh, Sushil K

    2016-07-01

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in women worldwide. In recent years, benzothiazole analogues have attracted considerable attention in anticancer research. Therefore, in this study, the earlier reported amide series of benzothiazole derivatives were investigated for their antiproliferative activity. The activity of amide derivatives was evaluated using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, flow cytometric analysis, apoptosis assay, and DNA fragmentation on two human cervical cancer cell lines: SiHa and C33-A. The data reported from this investigation indicated that benzothiazole derivatives show pronounced cytotoxicity in the HPV16-positive SiHa cells compared with HPV-negative C-33A cells. The in-vitro cytotoxicity of the compounds on the HEK-293 noncancer cell line was evaluated to establish selectivity. Cells treated with benzothiazole derivatives showed prominent morphological features as evidenced by cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, apoptotic nuclei, and DNA fragmentation. The benzothiazole derivatives show accumulation of cells in the sub-G1 and S-phase of the cell cycle in SiHa and C33-A, respectively. In addition, these derivatives exert their beneficial effect by inducing apoptosis, in the chemoprevention of cervical cancer cells, and were further ascertained using a DNA fragmentation assay. The compounds studied showed potent cytotoxic and apoptotic properties against SiHa and C33-A cancer cell lines and thus represent an excellent starting point for further optimization of therapeutically effective anticancer drugs.

  2. [5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine enhances differentiation and apoptosis induced by phenylbutyrate in Kasumi-1 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Chang-lai; Tang, Ke-jing; Chen, Sen; Xing, Hai-yan; Wang, Min; Wang, Jian-xiang

    2005-03-01

    To investigate whether phenylbutyrate (PB) combined with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR)could inhibit transcription repression and induce t(8;21) acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) Kasumi-1 cells to differentiate and undergo apoptosis. Kasumi-1 cells were treated with PB and 5-Aza-CdR at different concentrations in suspension culture. Cellular proliferation was determined by the MTT assay, expression of myeloid-specific differentiation antigen and cell cycles were analyzed by flow cytometry. Cell apoptosis were assessed using AnnexinV/PI staining and flow cytometry. Treatment of Kasumi-1 cells with PB caused a dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation, with an IC(50) of 2.3 mmol/L. When combined with 5-Aza-CdR, PB resulted in a greater growth inhibition with an IC(50) of 1.95 mmol/L. Treatment of Kasumi-1 cells with PB resulted in cell cycle arrest at G(0)/G(1), while combined treatment with PB and 5-Aza-CdR led to cell cycle arrest at G(2)/M. Expression of myeloid cell differentiation antigens CD11b and CD13 induced by PB was enhanced when Kasumi-1 cells were pretreated with low dose of 5-Aza-CdR. High, but not low, concentrations of 5-Aza-CdR could enhance early apoptosis of Kasumi-1 cells induced by PB. Phenylbuty rate, when combined with 5-Aza-CdR, inhibits AML cell in vitro proliferation and increases apoptosis in a synergistic fashion.

  3. Cesium chloride protects cerebellar granule neurons from apoptosis induced by low potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jin; Yao, Weiguo; Lee, Weihua

    2007-10-01

    Neuronal apoptosis plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, and neuroprotective agents targeting apoptotic signaling could have therapeutic use. Here we report that cesium chloride, an alternative medicine in treating radiological poison and cancer, has neuroprotective actions. Serum and potassium deprivation induced cerebellar granule neurons to undergo apoptosis, which correlated with the activation of caspase-3. Cesium prevented both the activation of caspase-3 and neuronal apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Cesium at 8 mM increased the survival of neurons from 45 +/- 3% to 91 +/- 5% of control. Cesium's neuroprotection was not mediated by PI3/Akt or MAPK signaling pathways, since it was unable to activate either Akt or MAPK by phosphorylation. In addition, specific inhibitors of PI3 kinase and MAP kinase did not block cesium's neuroprotective effects. On the other hand, cesium inactivated GSK3beta by phosphorylation of serine-9 and GSK3beta-specific inhibitor SB415286 prevented neuronal apoptosis. These data indicate that cesium's neuroprotection is likely via inactivating GSK3beta. Furthermore, cesium also prevented H(2)O(2)-induced neuronal death (increased the survival of neurons from 72 +/- 4% to 89 +/- 3% of control). Given its relative safety and good penetration of the brain blood barrier, our findings support the potential therapeutic use of cesium in neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. Expression of P53 during Lens Epithelial Cell Apoptosis Induced by Ultraviolet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Xufang; ZOU; Weiyu; ZHAO; Changsong

    2001-01-01

    The apoptosis of lens epithelial cells (LECs) induced by ultraviolet and the expression of P53 were investigated. Wistar rats received 100 mW/m2 ultraviolet irradiation (UVR) (λ=280 nm-315 nm) for 15 min. One, 6, 24 h after irradiation the lens capsules were dissected. The percentages of apoptotic cells were evaluated by the TdT-dUTP terminal nick-end labeling (TUNEL) technique and the expression of P53 was detected by using immunohistochemical assay. The results showed that the percentages of TUNEL-positive nuclei at 24 h after irradiation was significantly higher than in the control group and those 1 h, 6 h after irradiation. The percentages of P53-positive cells at 6 h,24 h after irradiation were significantly higher than in the control group and those 1 h after irradiation. It was concluded that UVR could induce the apoptosis of lens epithelial cell. The expression of P53 might be responsible for the apoptosis of lens epithelial cells.

  5. Apoptosis-Inducing Effect of Three Medicinal Plants on Oral Cancer Cells KB and ORL-48

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Zabidi Majid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucea javanica, Azadirachta indica, and Typhonium flagelliforme are medicinal plants commonly used to treat conditions associated with tumour formation. This study aimed to determine the antiproliferative activity of these plants extracts on KB and ORL-48 oral cancer cell lines and to suggest their mode of cell death. The concentration producing 50% cell inhibition (IC50 was determined and the activity was examined under an inverted microscope. Immunohistochemistry fluorescent staining method (TUNEL was performed to indicate the mechanism of cell death and the fragmented DNA band pattern produced was obtained for verification. Compared to Azadirachta sp. and Typhonium sp., the antiproliferative activity of Brucea sp. extract was the most potent on both KB and ORL-48 cells with IC50 of 24.37 ± 1.75 and 6.67 ± 1.15 µg/mL, respectively. Signs of cell attrition were observed 24 hr after treatment. Green fluorescent spots indicating cell death by apoptosis were observed in images of both cells following treatment with all the three extracts. DNA fragments harvested from Brucea-treated cells produced bands in a ladder pattern suggesting the apoptotic effect of the extract. It is thus concluded that Brucea sp. extract exhibited cytotoxic activity on ORL-48 cells and their action mechanism is via apoptosis.

  6. Apoptosis-inducing activity of a driselase digest fraction of green tea residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuno, Y; Koyama, Y; Saeki, K; Sazuka, M; Ookawa, K; Isemura, M

    2001-01-01

    We enzymatically digested green tea residue with Driselase, a crude preparation containing cellulase, pectinase and proteases, in order to examine the potential usefulness of the residue. A fraction of the digest soluble in 70% ethanol was found to induce the death of U937 human histiocytic lymphoma cells by apoptosis. Other enzyme preparations gave similar products with cell death-inducing activity of varing potency. The green tea residue may therefore be a useful source of potential agents with anti-cancer activity.

  7. Experimental study on apoptosis induced by semiconductor laser to hair removal and armpit odor treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongmin; Yan, Min; Zhang, Meijue

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To observe and explore the effects and mechanism of apoptosis on canine induced by Laser. Try to find a new approach to treat of armpit odor with no traumatism. Method: We used different power of semiconductor Laser to irradiate the black hair canine to observe and evaluate the tissue effects with electroscope, flow cytometry and Tunel technique at different period of time after irradiation. Result: The apoptosis has been observed within the hair follicle cells and apocrine gland cells after irradiation. After repeat irradiation in low power level, more apoptosis has been observed. Conclusion: Apoptosis exists in hair follicle cells and apocrine gland cells after Laser irradiation.

  8. Apoptosis-inducing activity of Helleborus niger in ALL and AML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse, Patrick; Mottke, Gritt; Eberle, Jürgen; Seifert, Georg; Henze, Günter; Prokop, Aram

    2009-04-01

    Helleborus niger is used in the adjuvant treatment of different tumors in anthroposophical medicine. Indications include various types of brain tumors in children, as well as prostate cancer, leukemia and lymphoma. Our aim was to investigate the therapeutic effects of these extracts apart from the traditional use. : We used an aqueous whole plant extract of H. niger in different cancer and leukemia cell lines and primary cells of patients with childhood ALL and AML and identified the main mechanisms of action. A strong inhibition of proliferation is caused by specific apoptosis induction, which is executed via the mitochondrial pathway and caspase-3 processing. Apoptosis could be detected in lymphoma (BJAB), leukemia (Reh, Nalm6, Sup-B15) and melanoma (Mel-HO) cells and overcomes a Bcl-2-mediated block of apoptosis. In primary cells of patients with childhood ALL and AML, which were partly poor responding to doxorubicin and daunorubicin, a strong apoptosis induction was determined. In combination with the vinca alkaloid vincristine, strong synergistic effects were detected in BJAB cells. We demonstrate in vitro efficacy of H. niger extract in cells of hematological malignancies; these studies should encourage in vivo experiments. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Sex-specific differences in fetal germ cell apoptosis induced by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerquin, M.J.; Duquenne, C.; Coffigny, H.; Rouiller-Fabre, V.; Lambrot, R.; Habert, R.; Livera, G. [CEA, DSV/DRR/SEGG/LDRG, Laboratory of Differentiation and Radiobiology of the Gonads, Unit of Gametogenesis and Genotoxicity, F-92265 Fontenay aux Roses (France); Guerquin, M.J.; Duquenne, C.; Coffigny, H.; Rouiller-Fabre, V.; Lambrot, R.; Habert, R.; Livera, G. [Univ. Paris 7-Denis Diderot, UFR of Biology, UMR-S 566, F-92265 Fontenay aux Roses (France); Guerquin, M.J.; Duquenne, C.; Coffigny, H.; Rouiller-Fabre, V.; Lambrot, R.; Habert, R.; Livera, G. [INSERM, U566, F-92265 Fontenay aux Roses (France); Bakalska, M. [Institute of Experimental Morphology and Anthropology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Frydman, R. [Univ Paris-Sud, Clamart F-92140 (France); Frydman, R. [AP-HP, Service de Gynecologie-Obstetrique et Medecine de la Reproduction, Hopital Antoine Beclere, Clamart F-92141 (France); Frydman, R. [INSERM, U782, Clamart F-92140 (France)

    2009-07-01

    Background: We have previously shown that male human fetal germ cells are highly radiosensitive and that their death depends on p53 activation. Male germ cell apoptosis was initiated with doses as low as 0.1 Gy and was prevented by pifithrin {alpha}, a p53 inhibitor. In this study, we investigated the radiosensitivity of early female and male fetal proliferating germ cells. Methods and results: Both male and female fetal germ cells displayed a similar number of {gamma}H2AX foci in response to ionizing radiation (IR). In organ culture of human fetal ovaries, the germ cells underwent apoptosis only when exposed to high doses of IR (1.5 Gy and above). Accumulation of p53 was detected in irradiated male human fetal germ cells but not in female ones. Inhibition of p53 with pifithrin {alpha} did not affect oogonia apoptosis following irradiation. IR induced apoptosis similarly in mouse fetal ovaries in organ culture and in vivo during oogonial proliferation. Germ cell survival in testes from p53 knockout or p63 knockout mice exposed to IR was better than wild-type, whereas female germ cell survival was unaffected by p53 or p63 knockout. Conclusions: These findings show that pre-meiotic male and female fetal germ cells behave differently in response to a genotoxic stress-irradiation with oogonia being less sensitive and undergoing p53-independent apoptosis. (authors)

  10. Oxidative changes and apoptosis induced by 1800-MHz electromagnetic radiation in NIH/3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qingxia; Wang, Minglian; Wu, Shuicai; Ma, Xuemei; An, Guangzhou; Liu, Huan; Xie, Fei

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the potential adverse effects of mobile phone radiation, we studied reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage and apoptosis in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (NIH/3T3) after intermittent exposure (5 min on/10 min off, for various durations from 0.5 to 8 h) to an 1800-MHz GSM-talk mode electromagnetic radiation (EMR) at an average specific absorption rate of 2 W/kg. A 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate fluorescence probe was used to detect intracellular ROS levels, immunofluorescence was used to detect γH2AX foci as a marker for DNA damage, and flow cytometry was used to measure apoptosis. Our results showed a significant increase in intracellular ROS levels after EMR exposure and it reached the highest level at an exposure time of 1 h (p < 0.05) followed by a slight decrease when the exposure continued for as long as 8 h. No significant effect on the number of γH2AX was detected after EMR exposure. The percentage of late-apoptotic cells in the EMR-exposed group was significantly higher than that in the sham-exposed groups (p < 0.05). These results indicate that an 1800-MHz EMR enhances ROS formation and promotes apoptosis in NIH/3T3 cells.

  11. Tumor cell apoptosis induced by nanoparticle conjugate in combination with radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Li; Yang Wensha; Read, Paul; Larner, James; Sheng Ke, E-mail: Ks2mc@virginia.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia (United States)

    2010-11-26

    Semiconductor nanoparticles conjugated to photosensitizers have been shown to increase tumor cell death with ionizing radiation but the mechanism, particularly the role of photodynamic therapy in the process, was unknown. We used a molecular probe to measure production of {sup 1}O{sub 2} to quantify the component of photodynamic cell-killing in an in vitro system. The intracellular distribution of the nanoparticle conjugate (NC) was determined by the co-localization of nanoparticles and the lysotracker. Induction of apoptosis was measured by the TUNEL assay and western blot analysis of the cleaved caspase-3. As a result, dose-dependent {sup 1}O{sub 2} production was observed with 48 nm NC after irradiating with 6 MV x-rays. A high geometrical coincidence between the fluorescence emission of the nanoparticle and lysotracker was observed using confocal microscopy. Finally, apoptosis, as indicated by the TUNEL stain and cleavage of the caspase-3, was observed in cells treated by both the NC and 6 Gy of radiation but not in cells treated with radiation alone. In conclusion, the cell death induced by the NC in combination with radiation is consistent with a supra-additive effect to radiation-or NC-alone-killing and is mediated by an NC-induced photodynamic therapy mechanism, which is distinctly different from that for radiation-killing alone. By providing a second distinct cell-killing mechanism, this nanoparticle conjugate has great promise as a targeted physical radiosensitizer aimed at overcoming radioresistant tumor clonogens or/and reducing normal tissue toxicity by using a lower ionizing radiation dose.

  12. Cytotoxicity of the compounds isolated from Pulsatilla chinensis saponins and apoptosis induced by 23-hydroxybetulinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Zhao, Xingzeng; Xiao, Lin; Liu, Ge; Liu, Haizhou; Wang, Xiangyun; Feng, Xu; Lin, Xiukun

    2015-01-01

    The rizoma of Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel has been used as a traditional Chinese medicinal herb for thousands of years. Total saponins from P. chinensis can induce the apoptosis of solid cancer cells; however, their activity on chronic myeloid leukemia and the mechanisms remains unknown. To study the activity of total saponins and the main active fractions from P. chinensis saponins on chronic myeloid leukemia, and to illustrate the mechanisms underlying the anticancer activities. The cytotoxic activity were assayed by MTT; cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were tested by flow cytometry system; changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential were determined using JC-1; and the apoptosis signaling pathway was determined by western blotting. We demonstrated that total P. chinensis saponin displayed cytotoxic activity against K562 cell line. In addition, we identified 23-hydroxybetulinic acid (HBA), pulchinenoside A (PA), and anemoside B4 (AB4) from the total saponins, with the most cytotoxic compound HBA. Glycosylation at C3 and C28 of HBA significantly reduces its cytotoxicity. HBA could promote cell cycle arrest at S phase and induce apoptosis via intrinsic pathway. HBA disrupts mitochondrial membrane potential significantly (p < 0.01) and selectively downregulates the levels of Bcl-2, survivin and upregulates Bax, cytochrome C, cleaved caspase-9 and -3. Total saponins from P. chinensis may be effective natural products against human chronic myelogenous leukemia; HBA is one of the bioactive components responsible for its anticancer activity, and could be further investigated as an alternative therapeutic drug for leukemia.

  13. Apoptosis induced by boric anhydrite (B2O3) after partial hepatectomy in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, A; Canbek, M

    2016-01-01

    Boron is one of the important elements that have a cell-growth suppressing effect. The apoptotic effects of B(2)O(3) that were investigated in rats on liver regeneration following 70 % partial hepatectomy (PH). Wistar albino male rats were used and divided into 4 groups (n = 7). The Saline control groups were given only a single dose of saline; the B(2)O(3)-treated groups that were only given a single dose of 1800 mg.kg(-1) B(2)O(3) by means of intraperitoneal injections following hepatectomy. Three and 6 hours after surgical procedures, all the groups were dissected and liver tissue samples were taken from the groups for NF-κB for caspase-3 gene and protein levels investigation by RT-PCR and TaqMan Protein Assay and histological analyses by TUNEL assay. B(2)O(3)-treated animals were examined and it was observed that NF-κB levels were decreased; however, caspase-3 gene expression and protein levels were increased significantly. This study demonstrated that B(2)O(3) induces caspase-3 and inhibits NF-κB at the early stage of liver regeneration (Fig. 4, Ref. 26).

  14. Role of endoplasmic reticular stress in aortic endothelial apoptosis induced by intermittent/persistent hypoxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yuan-yuan; SHANG Jin; LIU Hui-guo

    2013-01-01

    Background Accumulated evidence shows that hypoxia can induce endothelial apoptosis,however the mechanism is still unknown.We hypothesized whether intermittent or persistent hypoxia could induce endoplasmic reticular stress,leading to endothelial apoptosis.Methods Twenty-four 8-week male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups:normoxia (NC) group,intermittent hypoxia (IH) group and persistent hypoxia (PH) group.TUNEL staining was performed to detect aortic arch endotheliar apoptosis,and immunohistochemistry for BIP,CHOP and caspase12 to test protein expression;human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) of the line ECV304 were cultured (with or without taurodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) 10 mmol/L,100 mmol/L) and divided into four groups:NC group (20.8% O2 for 4 hours),PH1 group (5% O2 for 4 hours),PH2 group (5% O2 for 12 hours) and IH group (20.8% O2 and 5% O2 alternatively for 8 hours).Annexin V-fluorescein-isothiocyanate/propidium iodide flow cytometry was used to assess apoptosis in each group.The expressions of GRP78,CHOP and caspase12 were detected by real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR.Result Intermittent and persistent hypoxia could increase the rate of endothelium apoptosis and the expressions of GRP78,CHOP and caspase12 compared with the control,induction by intermittent hypoxia was slightly higher than persistent hypoxia.In the HUVEC experiment,TUDCA significantly reduced apoptosis and the expressions of GRP78,CHOP and caspase12.Conclusion Hypoxia,especially intermittent,can induce endothelial cell apoptosis possibly through endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway,which can be attenuated by taurodeoxycholic acid.

  15. [Mechanism of HL-60 cells apoptosis induced by proteasome inhibitor MG132].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong-Ming; Yu, Mei-Xia; Qiu, Yu-Zhen; Xing, Xiao-Lei; Yao, Chun-Hong; Bai, Ru-Jun

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the apoptosis, apoptotic pathway of HL-60 cells induced by proteasome inhibitor MG132 and its effect on allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction. Apoptosis of HL-60 cells was detected by flow cytometry, the expression of P21, P27 and P53 proteins in HL-60 cells treated with MG132 was assayed by Western blot. The HL-60 cells were treated with 1 µmol/L MG132 for 48 h, and irradiated by 75 Gy of (60)Co γ-ray, but their antigenicity was preserved. The effect of irradiated HL-60 cells treated with MG132 on proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) was measured by CCK-8 method. The results showed that the apoptotic rate of MG132-treated HL-60 cells increased in dose-and time-dependent manner. No significant changes in MG132-induced apoptosis were observed after inhibiting caspase-8 and caspase-9 pathway. The expression of P21 and P27 protein increased after treatment of HL-60 cells with MG132. CCK-8 test showed that HL-60 cells induced with low-dose of MG132 displayed the enhancing effect on proliferation of PBMNC. It is concluded that high dose of MG132 can induce the apoptosis of HL-60 cells, and has direct killing effect on HL-60 cells, but this inducing apoptotic effect on HL-60 cells can not be realized through caspase-8 and caspase-9 pathway. The P21 and P27 protein may be involved in MG132 induced HL-60 cell apoptosis. Low dose of MG132 promotes the proliferation of PBMNC in healthy individuals and enhance the immunity of organism.

  16. Study on human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells apoptosis induced by fucosterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yu-Bin; Ji, Chen-Feng; Yue, Lei

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of fucosterol on HL-60 and the molecular mechanism. HL-60 Cells were treated with fucosterol, and 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method was used to study fucosterol anti-tumor activity. Morphology of HL-60 cells was observed. Flow cytometry (FCM) was employed to detect the cell cycle. Laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) was used to analyze mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the expressions of Fas, FasL, Fadd and Caspase-8. Western blot was performed to analyze the expressions of Cyt-C, Pro-Caspase-9 and Pro-Caspase-3. Caspase activity kits were used to determine the activity of Caspase-9, Caspase-8 and Caspase-3. The results showed fucosterol could inhibit the growth of HL-60 cells, and the cell cycle was arrested at G2/M phase. HL-60 cells showed obvious apoptosis morphology. After being treated with fucosterol for 24 h, HL-60 cells decreased MMP, induced Cyt-C release and Caspase-9, Caspase-3 activation. Fucosterol also increased the protein expression of Fas, FasL, Fadd and Caspase-8. Moreover, the activity of Caspase-9, Caspase-8 and Caspase-3 was increased significantly. In conclusion, Fucosterol can induce HL-60 cells apoptosis, suggesting that it may be a potent agent for cancer prevention and treatment.

  17. Corruption Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Polterovich, Victor

    1998-01-01

    Among the factors that give rise to corruption, it is suggested that three groups be distinguished: fundamental factors rooted in the imperfection of economic institutions and economic policy, organizational factors ("weakness of the government"), and societal factors that depend on the prehistory and are connected with the mass culture and norms of bureaucratic behavior. A model in which corruption equilibrium is supported by non-optimum tax policy or by slow technical progress is compared w...

  18. The MDM-2 Antagonist Nutlin-3 Promotes the Maturation of Acute Myeloid Leukemic Blasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Secchiero

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The small-molecule inhibitor of murine double minute (MDM-2, Nutlin-3, induced variable apoptosis in primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML blasts, promoted myeloid maturation of surviving cells, as demonstrated by analysis of CD11 b, CD14 surface antigens, by morphologic examination. Although the best-characterized activity of Nutlin-3 is activation of the p53 pathway, Nutlin-3 induced maturation also in one AML sample characterized by p53 deletion, as well as in the p53-/- human myeloblastic HL-60 cell line. At the molecular level, the maturational activity of Nutlin-3 in HL-60 cells was accompanied by the induction of E2F1 transcription factor, it was significantly counteracted by specific gene knockdown with small interfering RNA for E2F1. Moreover, Nutlin-3, as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF α, potentiated the maturational activity of recombinant TNF-related apoptosis-inducing lig, (TRAIL in HL-60 cells. However, although TNF-α significantly counteracted the proapoptotic activity of TRAIL, Nutlin-3 did not interfere with the proapoptotic activity of TRAIL. Taken together, these data disclose a novel, potentially relevant therapeutic role for Nutlin-3 in the treatment of both p53 wild-type, p53-/- AML, possibly in association with recombinant TRAIL.

  19. Macrophage-expressed IFN-β contributes to apoptotic alveolar epithelial cell injury in severe influenza virus pneumonia.

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    Katrin Högner

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses (IV cause pneumonia in humans with progression to lung failure and fatal outcome. Dysregulated release of cytokines including type I interferons (IFNs has been attributed a crucial role in immune-mediated pulmonary injury during severe IV infection. Using ex vivo and in vivo IV infection models, we demonstrate that alveolar macrophage (AM-expressed IFN-β significantly contributes to IV-induced alveolar epithelial cell (AEC injury by autocrine induction of the pro-apoptotic factor TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL. Of note, TRAIL was highly upregulated in and released from AM of patients with pandemic H1N1 IV-induced acute lung injury. Elucidating the cell-specific underlying signalling pathways revealed that IV infection induced IFN-β release in AM in a protein kinase R- (PKR- and NF-κB-dependent way. Bone marrow chimeric mice lacking these signalling mediators in resident and lung-recruited AM and mice subjected to alveolar neutralization of IFN-β and TRAIL displayed reduced alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis and attenuated lung injury during severe IV pneumonia. Together, we demonstrate that macrophage-released type I IFNs, apart from their well-known anti-viral properties, contribute to IV-induced AEC damage and lung injury by autocrine induction of the pro-apoptotic factor TRAIL. Our data suggest that therapeutic targeting of the macrophage IFN-β-TRAIL axis might represent a promising strategy to attenuate IV-induced acute lung injury.

  20. Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine-Mediated Anemia: Regarding Molecular Mechanisms of Erythropoiesis

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    F. Morceau

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemia of cancer and chronic inflammatory diseases is a frequent complication affecting quality of life. For cancer patients it represents a particularly bad prognostic. Low level of erythropoietin is considered as one of the causes of anemia in these pathologies. The deficiency in erythropoietin production results from pro-inflammatory cytokines effect. However, few data is available concerning molecular mechanisms involved in cytokine-mediated anemia. Some recent publications have demonstrated the direct effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines on cell differentiation towards erythroid pathway, without erythropoietin defect. This suggested that pro-inflammatory cytokine-mediated signaling pathways affect erythropoietin activity. They could interfere with erythropoietin-mediated signaling pathways, inducing early apoptosis and perturbing the expression and regulation of specific transcription factors involved in the control of erythroid differentiation. In this review we summarize the effect of tumor necrosis factor (TNFα, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, and interferon (IFN-γ on erythropoiesis with a particular interest for molecular feature.

  1. NFATc1 regulation of TRAIL expression in human intestinal cells.

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    Qingding Wang

    Full Text Available TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL; Apo2 has been shown to promote intestinal cell differentiation. Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT participates in the regulation of a variety of cellular processes, including differentiation. Here, we examined the role of NFAT in the regulation of TRAIL in human intestinal cells. Treatment with a combination of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA plus the calcium ionophore A23187 (Io increased NFAT activation and TRAIL expression; pretreatment with the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA, an antagonist of NFAT signaling, diminished NFAT activation and TRAIL induction. In addition, knockdown of NFATc1, NFATc2, NFATc3, and NFATc4 blocked PMA/Io increased TRAIL protein expression. Expression of NFATc1 activated TRAIL promoter activity and increased TRAIL mRNA and protein expression. Deletion of NFAT binding sites from the TRAIL promoter did not significantly abrogate NFATc1-increased TRAIL promoter activity, suggesting an indirect regulation of TRAIL expression by NFAT activation. Knockdown of NFATc1 increased Sp1 transcription factor binding to the TRAIL promoter and, importantly, inhibition of Sp1, by chemical inhibition or RNA interference, increased TRAIL expression. These studies identify a novel mechanism for TRAIL regulation by which activation of NFATc1 increases TRAIL expression through negative regulation of Sp1 binding to the TRAIL promoter.

  2. Death receptors: Targets for cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood, Zafar [Proteomics Laboratory, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India); Shukla, Yogeshwer, E-mail: yogeshwer_shukla@hotmail.com [Proteomics Laboratory, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India)

    2010-04-01

    Apoptosis is the cell's intrinsic program to death, which plays an important role in physiologic growth control and homeostasis. Apoptosis can be triggered by death receptors (DRs), without any adverse effects. DRs are the members of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, known to be involved in apoptosis signaling, independent of p53 tumor-supressor gene. Selective triggering of DR-mediated apoptosis in cancer cells is a novel approach in cancer therapy. So far, the best characterized DRs are CD95 (Fas/Apo1), TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor (TRAILR) and tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR). Among these, TRAILR is emerging as most promising agent for cancer therapy, because it induces apoptosis in a variety of tumor and transformed cells without any toxicity to normal cells. TRAIL treatment in combination with chemotherapy or radiotherapy enhances TRAIL sensitivity or reverses TRAIL resistance by regulating downstream effectors. This review covers the current knowledge about the DRs, summarizes main signaling in DRs and also summarizes the preclinical approaches of these DRs in cancer therapy.

  3. Pigment Epithelium Derived Factor Peptide Protects Murine Hepatocytes from Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Injury.

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    Shou-Chuan Shih

    Full Text Available Fibrogenesis is induced by repeated injury to the liver and reactive regeneration and leads eventually to liver cirrhosis. Pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF has been shown to prevent liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. A 44 amino acid domain of PEDF (44-mer was found to have a protective effect against various insults to several cell types. In this study, we investigated the capability of synthetic 44-mer to protect against liver injury in mice and in primary cultured hepatocytes. Acute liver injury, induced by CCl4, was evident from histological changes, such as cell necrosis, inflammation and apoptosis, and a concomitant reduction of glutathione (GSH and GSH redox enzyme activities in the liver. Intraperitoneal injection of the 44-mer into CCl4-treated mice abolished the induction of AST and ALT and markedly reduced histological signs of liver injury. The 44-mer treatment can reduce hepatic oxidative stress as evident from lower levels of lipid hydroperoxide, and higher levels of GSH. CCl4 caused a reduction of Bcl-xL, PEDF and PPARγ, which was markedly restored by the 44-mer treatment. Consequently, the 44-mer suppressed liver fibrosis induced by repeated CCl4 injury. Furthermore, our observations in primary culture of rat hepatocytes showed that PEDF and the 44-mer protected primary rat hepatocytes against apoptosis induced by serum deprivation and TGF-β1. PEDF/44-mer induced cell protective STAT3 phosphorylation. Pharmacological STAT3 inhibition prevented the antiapoptotic action of PEDF/44-mer. Among several PEDF receptor candidates that may be responsible for hepatocyte protection, we demonstrated that PNPLA2 was essential for PEDF/44-mer-mediated STAT3 phosphorylation and antiapoptotic activity by using siRNA to selectively knockdown PNPLA2. In conclusion, the PEDF 44-mer protects hepatocytes from single and repeated CCl4 injury. This protective effect may stem from strengthening the counter oxidative stress

  4. Bm-TFF2, a toad trefoil factor, promotes cell migration, survival and wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Yu, Guoyu; Xiang, Yang; Wu, Jianbo; Jiang, Ping; Lee, Wenhui; Zhang, Yun

    2010-07-30

    Toad skin is naked and continually confronted by various injurious factors. Constant skin renewal and repairs occur frequently. However, the mechanisms of the renewal and repair have not clearly elucidated. In our previous work, a trefoil factor (TFF), Bm-TFF2, has been purified from the Bombina maxima skin and characterized as a platelet agonist. The mRNA of TFFs in toad skin was up-regulated greatly during the metamorphosis, indicating a pivotal role of TFFs in amphibian skin. Here, we presented the effects of Bm-TFF2 on the cell migration, apoptosis and proliferation. Bm-TFF2 bound to epithelial cells and showed strong cell motility activity. At the concentrations of 1-100nM, Bm-TFF2-induced migration of human epithelial AGS and HT-29 cells, and rat intestinal epithelial IEC-6 cell lines. The in vitro wound healing assay also verified the activity of Bm-TFF2. Bm-TFF2 could also inhibit cell apoptosis induced by ceramide and sodium butyrate. The cell migration-promoting activity was abolished by MEK1 inhibitors, U0126 and PD98059, suggesting that ERK1/2 activation is crucial for Bm-TFF2 to stimulate cell migration. Taken together, Bm-TFF2 promoted wound healing by stimulating cell migration via MAPK pathway and preventing cell apoptosis. The potent biological activity of Bm-TFF2 makes it a useful molecular tool for further studies of structure-function relationship of the related human TFFs.

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of CIDE-3, a novel member of the cell-death-inducing DNA-fragmentation-factor (DFF45)-like effector family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang; Zhao, Mujun; Xu, Zhenhua; Yokoyama, Kazunari K; Li, Tsaiping

    2003-02-15

    DNA fragmentation is one of the critical steps in apoptosis, which is induced by DNA fragmentation factor (DFF). DFF is composed of two subunits, a 40 kDa caspase-activated nuclease (DFF40) and a 45 kDa inhibitor (DFF45). Recently a novel family of cell-death-inducing DFF45-like effectors (CIDEs) has been identified. Among CIDEs, two from human (CIDE-A and CIDE-B) and three from mouse (CIDE-A, CIDE-B and FSP27) have been reported. In this study human CIDE-3, a novel member of CIDEs, was identified upon sequence analysis of a previously unidentified cDNA that encoded a protein of 238 amino acids. It was shown to be a human homologue of mouse FSP27, and shared homology with the CIDE-N and CIDE-C domains of CIDEs. Apoptosis-inducing activity was clearly shown by DNA-fragmentation assay of the nuclear DNA of CIDE-3 transfected 293T cells. The expression pattern of CIDE-3 was different from that of CIDE-B. As shown by Northern-blot analysis, CIDE-3 was expressed mainly in human small intestine, heart, colon and stomach, while CIDE-B showed strong expression in liver and small intestine and at a lower level in colon, kidney and spleen. Green-fluorescent-protein-tagged CIDE-3 was revealed in some cytosolic corpuscles. Alternative splicing of the CIDE-3 gene was also identified by reverse transcription PCR, revealing that two transcripts, CIDE-3 and CIDE-3alpha, were present in HepG2 and A375 cells. CIDE-3 comprised a full-length open reading frame with 238 amino acids; in CIDE-3alpha exon 3 was deleted and it encoded a protein of 164 amino acids. Interestingly the CIDE-3alpha isoform still kept the apoptosis-inducing activity and showed the same pattern of subcellular localization as CIDE-3. Consistent with its chromosome localization at 3p25, a region associated with high frequency loss of heterozygosity in many tumours, CIDE-3 may play an important role in prevention of tumorigenesis.

  6. El factoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rosenthal

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El artículo  presenta, una conceptualización general de lo que es el factoring, el origen del mismo, su evolución y hace una clasificación de los distintos tipos de factoring.

  7. Roscovitine sensitizes breast cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through a pleiotropic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Ferrón, Gustavo; Yerbes, Rosario; Eramo, Adriana; López-Pérez, Ana I; De Maria, Ruggero; López-Rivas, Abelardo

    2008-06-01

    The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL/APO2L) is a member of the TNF gene superfamily that induces apoptosis upon engagement of cognate death receptors. While TRAIL is relatively non-toxic to normal cells, it selectively induces apoptosis in many transformed cells. Nevertheless, breast tumor cells are particularly resistant to the effects of TRAIL. Here we report that, in combination with the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor roscovitine, exposure to TRAIL induced marked apoptosis in the majority of TRAIL-resistant breast cancer cell lines examined. Roscovitine facilitated TRAIL death-inducing signaling complex formation and the activation of caspase-8. The cFLIP(L) and cFLIP(S) FLICE-inhibitory proteins were significantly down-regulated following exposure to roscovitine and, indeed, the knockdown of cFLIP isoforms by siRNA sensitized breast tumor cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In addition, we demonstrate that roscovitine strongly suppressed Mcl-1 expression and up-regulated E2F1 protein levels in breast tumor cells. Significantly, the silencing of Mcl-1 by siRNA sensitized breast tumor cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the knockdown of E2F1 protein by siRNA reduced the sensitizing effect of roscovitine in TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In summary, our results reveal a pleitropic mechanism for the pro-apoptotic influence of roscovitine, highlighting its potential as an antitumor agent in breast cancer in combination with TRAIL.

  8. Suppression of casein kinase 2 sensitizes tumor cells to antitumor TRAIL therapy by regulating the phosphorylation and localization of p65 in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Xiaokun; Wang, Yao; Wang, Yingdi; Zhao, Yu; Ding, Liya; Zhao, Jingwen; Sun, Lin; Wang, Guixia

    2015-09-01

    In the United States, prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in males. For PCa at the late hormone-refractory stage, substantial improvement in treatment strategies is critically needed. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising anticancer agent, but both intrinsic and acquired resistance to TRAIL poses a huge problem in establishing clinically effective TRAIL therapies. In the present study, we examined the role played by casein kinase 2 (CK2) in the TRAIL‑induced nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell (NF-κB) pathway in a PCa cell line. Downregulation of CK2 combined with a sub-dose of TRAIL suppressed p65 phosphorylation at serine 536. The combination treatment of TRAIL and the CK2 inhibitor decreased p65 nuclear translocation. Under the treatment of a sub-dose of TRAIL, downregulation of CK2, using both genetic and pharmacological approaches, decreased the transcriptional activity of NF-κB and the expression of NF-κB downstream anti-apoptosis genes. Therefore, we provided novel molecular mechanistic insight reporting that CK2 regulates the sensitivity of PCa cells to the antitumor effect of TRAIL. This is important for understanding how the TRAIL pathway is disrupted in PCa and may help to develop an effective combinatorial therapy for PCa.

  9. Chromomycins A2 and A3 from Marine Actinomycetes with TRAIL Resistance-Overcoming and Wnt Signal Inhibitory Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazufumi Toume

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A biological screening study of an actinomycetes strain assembly was conducted using a cell-based cytotoxicity assay. The CKK1019 strain was isolated from a sea sand sample. Cytotoxicity-guided fractionation of the CKK1019 strain culture broth, which exhibited cytotoxicity, led to the isolation of chromomycins A2 (1 and A3 (2. 1 and 2 showed potent cytotoxicity against the human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS cell line (IC50 1; 1.7 and 2; 22.1 nM, as well as strong inhibitory effects against TCF/β-catenin transcription (IC50 1; 1.8 and 2; 15.9 nM. 2 showed the ability to overcome tumor necrosis factor (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL resistance. To the best of our knowledge, the effects of chromomycins A2 (1 and A3 (2 on TRAIL resistance-overcoming activity, and on the Wnt signaling pathway, have not been reported previously. Thus, 1 and 2 warrant potential drug lead studies in relation to TRAIL-resistant and Wnt signal-related diseases and offer potentially useful chemical probes for investigating TRAIL resistance and the Wnt signaling pathway.

  10. Chromomycins A2 and A3 from marine actinomycetes with TRAIL resistance-overcoming and Wnt signal inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toume, Kazufumi; Tsukahara, Kentaro; Ito, Hanako; Arai, Midori A; Ishibashi, Masami

    2014-06-05

    A biological screening study of an actinomycetes strain assembly was conducted using a cell-based cytotoxicity assay. The CKK1019 strain was isolated from a sea sand sample. Cytotoxicity-guided fractionation of the CKK1019 strain culture broth, which exhibited cytotoxicity, led to the isolation of chromomycins A2 (1) and A3 (2). 1 and 2 showed potent cytotoxicity against the human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cell line (IC50 1; 1.7 and 2; 22.1 nM), as well as strong inhibitory effects against TCF/β-catenin transcription (IC50 1; 1.8 and 2; 15.9 nM). 2 showed the ability to overcome tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) resistance. To the best of our knowledge, the effects of chromomycins A2 (1) and A3 (2) on TRAIL resistance-overcoming activity, and on the Wnt signaling pathway, have not been reported previously. Thus, 1 and 2 warrant potential drug lead studies in relation to TRAIL-resistant and Wnt signal-related diseases and offer potentially useful chemical probes for investigating TRAIL resistance and the Wnt signaling pathway.

  11. Physapubescin selectively induces apoptosis in VHL-null renal cell carcinoma cells through down-regulation of HIF-2α and inhibits tumor growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lixia; Xia, Guiyang; Qiu, Feng; Wu, Chunli; Denmon, Andria P.; Zi, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    We have purified physapubescin, a predominant steroidal lactone, from medicinal plant Physalis pubescens L., commonly named as “hairy groundcherry” in English and “Deng-Long-Cao” in Chinese. Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-null 786-O, RCC4 and A498 Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) cell lines expressing high levels of Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF)-2α are more sensitive to physapubescin-mediated apoptosis and growth inhibitory effect than VHL wild-type Caki-2 and ACHN RCC cell lines. Restoration of VHL in RCC4 cells attenuated the growth inhibitory effect of physapubescin. Physapubescin decreases the expression of HIF-2α and increases the expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologus protein (CHOP), which leads to up-regulation of death receptor 5 (DR5), activation of caspase-8 and -3, cleavage of poly (ADP-Ribose) polymerase (PARP) and apoptosis. Under hypoxia conditions, the apoptotic and growth inhibitory effects of physapubescin are further enhanced. Additionally, physapubescin synergizes with TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) for markedly enhanced induction of apoptosis in VHL-null 786-O cells but not in VHL wild-type Caki-2 cells. Physapubescin significantly inhibited in vivo angiogenesis in the 786-O xenograft. Physapubescin as a novel agent for elimination of VHL-null RCC cells via apoptosis is warranted for further investigation. PMID:27581364

  12. Hypoxia-induced down-modulation of PKCepsilon promotes trail-mediated apoptosis of tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbi, Giuliana; Masselli, Elena; Micheloni, Cristina; Nouvenne, Antonio; Russo, Domenico; Santi, Patrizia; Matteucci, Alessandro; Cocco, Lucio; Vitale, Marco; Mirandola, Prisco

    2010-09-01

    Tumor oxygen status is considered as a prognostic marker that impacts on malignant progression and outcome of tumor therapy. TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) plays a key role in cancer immunity, with potential applications in cancer therapy. Protein kinase C (PKC)epsilon, a transforming oncogene, has a role in the protection of cardiomyocytes and neurons from hypoxia-induced damage while, it can also modulate the susceptibility of tumor cells to TRAIL-induced cell death. Here we demonstrate that hypoxia induces a tumor cell phenotype highly sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of TRAIL. Based on the observation that: i) PKCepsilon expression levels are impaired during hypoxia, ii) the overexpression of PKCepsilon, but not of a kinase-inactive PKCepsilon mutant, is able to revert the hypoxia-induced sensitivity to TRAIL, iii) the down-modulation of PKCepsilon levels by RNA interference, on the contrary, induces the highly TRAIL-sensitive phenotype, iv) the inhibition of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) by specific siRNA blocks both the hypoxia-induced down-modulation of PKCepsilon and the induction of the highly TRAIL-sensitive phenotype; we conclude that the HIF-1alpha upregulation during hypoxia is associated to PKCepsilon down-modulation that likely represents the key molecular event promoting the apoptogenic effects of TRAIL in hypoxic tumor cells.

  13. Triazine-modified dendrimer for efficient TRAIL gene therapy in osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Li, Lei; Shao, Naimin; Hu, Zhiqi; Chen, Hui; Xu, Leqin; Wang, Changping; Cheng, Yiyun; Xiao, Jianru

    2015-04-01

    Osteosarcoma is a high-grade malignant bone tumor that usually develops in the teenagers. Despite improvement in therapy, the five-year survival rate is poor for patients not responding to treatment or with metastases. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) gene therapy is a new strategy in the treatment of cancers, however, the lack of efficient and low toxic vectors remains the major obstacle in TRAIL gene therapy. In this study, a triazine-modified dendrimer G5-DAT66 was synthesized and used as a vector for TRAIL gene therapy in vitro and in vivo. The material shows much higher transfection efficacy on osteosarcoma MG-63 cell line than commercial transfection reagents such as Lipofectamine 2000 and SuperFect. It effectively induces apoptosis in MG-63 cells and three-dimensional MG-63 cell cultures when delivering a TRAIL plasmid. In vivo studies further prove that G5-DAT66 efficiently transfects TRAIL plasmid in tumors and inhibits tumor growth in osteosarcoma-bearing mice. These results suggest that triazine-modified dendrimer has promising potential for TRAIL gene therapy in osteosarcoma. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. GM-CSF Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory Activity on Endothelial Cells Derived from Chronic Venous Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Tisato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty patients affected by chronic venous disease (CVD in tertiary venous network and/or saphenous vein were analyzed before surgical ablation by echo-color-doppler for the hemodynamic parameters reflux time (RT and resistance index (RI, a negative and a positive prognostic factor, respectively. RT and RI were next correlated with relevant in vitro parameters of venous endothelial cells (VEC obtained from surgical specimens, such as cell migration in response to serum gradient, proliferation index, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1 expression, as well as cytokines release. Of interest, ICAM-1 expression in patient-derived VEC cultures correlated positively with RT and negatively with RI. Moreover, RT showed a positive correlation with the baseline osteoprotegerin (OPG expression by VEC and an inverse correlation with VEC proliferation index. On the other hand, RI correlated positively with TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL expression. Among the cytokines released by VEC, GM-CSF showed a positive correlation with VEC proliferation and TRAIL expression and a negative correlation with OPG, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. Since in vitro recombinant GM-CSF induced VEC proliferation and counteracted the induction of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and OPG upon exposure to TNF-α, our data suggest an anti-inflammatory activity of GM-CSF on venous endothelial cells.

  15. Metformin enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis by Mcl-1 degradation via Mule in colorectal cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Lim; Kim, Bo Ram; Na, Yoo Jin; Jo, Min Jee; Jeong, Yoon A.; Lee, Suk-Young; Lee, Sun Il; Lee, Yong Yook; Oh, Sang Cheul

    2016-01-01

    Metformin is an anti-diabetic drug with a promising anti-cancer potential. In this study, we show that subtoxic doses of metformin effectively sensitize human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), which induces apoptosis. Metformin alone did not induce apoptosis, but significantly potentiated TRAIL-induced apoptosis in CRC cells. CRC cells treated with metformin and TRAIL showed activation of the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of caspase activation. We attempted to elucidate the underlying mechanism, and found that metformin significantly reduced the protein levels of myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1) in CRC cells and, the overexpression of Mcl-1 inhibited cell death induced by metformin and/or TRAIL. Further experiments revealed that metformin did not affect mRNA levels, but increased proteasomal degradation and protein stability of Mcl-1. Knockdown of Mule triggered a significant decrease of Mcl-1 polyubiquitination. Metformin caused the dissociation of Noxa from Mcl-1, which allowed the binding of the BH3-containing ubiquitin ligase Mule followed by Mcl-1ubiquitination and degradation. The metformin-induced degradation of Mcl-1 required E3 ligase Mule, which is responsible for the polyubiquitination of Mcl-1. Our study is the first report indicating that metformin enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis through Noxa and favors the interaction between Mcl-1 and Mule, which consequently affects Mcl-1 ubiquitination. PMID:27517746

  16. TNF Superfamily: A Growing Saga of Kidney Injury Modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Sanchez-Niño

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of the TNF superfamily participate in kidney disease. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF and Fas ligand regulate renal cell survival and inflammation, and therapeutic targeting improves the outcome of experimental renal injury. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL and its potential decoy receptor osteoprotegerin are the two most upregulated death-related genes in human diabetic nephropathy. TRAIL activates NF-kappaB in tubular cells and promotes apoptosis in tubular cells and podocytes, especially in a high-glucose environment. By contrast, osteoprotegerin plays a protective role against TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Another family member, TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK induces inflammation and tubular cell death or proliferation, depending on the microenvironment. While TNF only activates canonical NF-kappaB signaling, TWEAK promotes both canonical and noncanonical NF-kappaB activation in tubular cells, regulating different inflammatory responses. TWEAK promotes the secretion of MCP-1 and RANTES through NF-kappaB RelA-containing complexes and upregulates CCl21 and CCL19 expression through NF-kappaB inducing kinase (NIK- dependent RelB/NF-kappaB2 complexes. In vivo TWEAK promotes postnephrectomy compensatory renal cell proliferation in a noninflammatory milieu. However, in the inflammatory milieu of acute kidney injury, TWEAK promotes tubular cell death and inflammation. Therapeutic targeting of TNF superfamily cytokines, including multipronged approaches targeting several cytokines should be further explored.

  17. Transcriptional co-repressor function of the hippo pathway transducers YAP and TAZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minchul; Kim, Taekhoon; Johnson, Randy L; Lim, Dae-Sik

    2015-04-14

    YAP (yes-associated protein) and TAZ are oncogenic transcriptional co-activators downstream of the Hippo tumor-suppressor pathway. However, whether YAP and/or TAZ (YAP/TAZ) engage in transcriptional co-repression remains relatively unexplored. Here, we directly demonstrated that YAP/TAZ represses numerous target genes, including tumor-suppressor genes such as DDIT4 (DNA-damage-inducible transcript 4) and Trail (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand). Mechanistically, the repressor function of YAP/TAZ requires TEAD (TEA domain) transcription factors. A YAP/TAZ-TEAD complex recruits the NuRD complex to deacetylate histones and alters nucleosome occupancy at target genes. Functionally, repression of DDIT4 and Trail by YAP/TAZ is required for mTORC1 (mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1) activation and cell survival, respectively. Our demonstration of the transcriptional co-repressor activity of YAP/TAZ opens a new avenue for understanding the Hippo signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib Sensitizes AML with Myelomonocytic Differentiation to TRAIL Mediated Apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijk, Marianne van; Murphy, Eoin [Apoptosis Research Center, National University of Ireland, University Road, Galway (Ireland); School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Morrell, Ruth [Apoptosis Research Center, National University of Ireland, University Road, Galway (Ireland); School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, University Road, Galway (Ireland); School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Knapper, Steven [Department of Haematology, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Heath Park, CF14 4XN Cardiff (United Kingdom); O' Dwyer, Michael [Apoptosis Research Center, National University of Ireland, University Road, Galway (Ireland); School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Samali, Afshin; Szegezdi, Eva, E-mail: eva.szegezdi@nuigalway.ie [Apoptosis Research Center, National University of Ireland, University Road, Galway (Ireland); School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, University Road, Galway (Ireland)

    2011-03-15

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive stem cell malignancy that is difficult to treat. There are limitations to the current treatment regimes especially after disease relapse, and therefore new therapeutic agents are urgently required which can overcome drug resistance whilst avoiding unnecessary toxicity. Among newer targeted agents, both tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and proteasome inhibitors show particular promise. In this report we show that a combination of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib and TRAIL is effective against AML cell lines, in particular, AML cell lines displaying myelomonocytic/monocytic phenotype (M4/M5 AML based on FAB classification), which account for 20-30% of AML cases. We show that the underlying mechanism of sensitization is at least in part due to bortezomib mediated downregulation of c-FLIP and XIAP, which is likely to be regulated by NF-κB. Blockage of NF-κB activation with BMS-345541 equally sensitized myelomonocytic AML cell lines and primary AML blasts to TRAIL.

  19. The Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib Sensitizes AML with Myelomonocytic Differentiation to TRAIL Mediated Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Szegezdi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute myeloid leukemia (AML is an aggressive stem cell malignancy that is difficult to treat. There are limitations to the current treatment regimes especially after disease relapse, and therefore new therapeutic agents are urgently required which can overcome drug resistance whilst avoiding unnecessary toxicity. Among newer targeted agents, both tumor necrosis factor (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL and proteasome inhibitors show particular promise. In this report we show that a combination of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib and TRAIL is effective against AML cell lines, in particular, AML cell lines displaying myelomonocytic/monocytic phenotype (M4/M5 AML based on FAB classification, which account for 20-30% of AML cases. We show that the underlying mechanism of sensitization is at least in part due to bortezomib mediated downregulation of c-FLIP and XIAP, which is likely to be regulated by NF-κB. Blockage of NF-κB activation with BMS-345541 equally sensitized myelomonocytic AML cell lines and primary AML blasts to TRAIL.

  20. Transcriptional Co-repressor Function of the Hippo Pathway Transducers YAP and TAZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minchul Kim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available YAP (yes-associated protein and TAZ are oncogenic transcriptional co-activators downstream of the Hippo tumor-suppressor pathway. However, whether YAP and/or TAZ (YAP/TAZ engage in transcriptional co-repression remains relatively unexplored. Here, we directly demonstrated that YAP/TAZ represses numerous target genes, including tumor-suppressor genes such as DDIT4 (DNA-damage-inducible transcript 4 and Trail (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. Mechanistically, the repressor function of YAP/TAZ requires TEAD (TEA domain transcription factors. A YAP/TAZ-TEAD complex recruits the NuRD complex to deacetylate histones and alters nucleosome occupancy at target genes. Functionally, repression of DDIT4 and Trail by YAP/TAZ is required for mTORC1 (mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 activation and cell survival, respectively. Our demonstration of the transcriptional co-repressor activity of YAP/TAZ opens a new avenue for understanding the Hippo signaling pathway.

  1. The secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine is a critical mediator of cell death program induced by WIN/TRAIL combined treatment in osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notaro, Antonietta; Sabella, Selenia; Pellerito, Ornella; Vento, Renza; Calvaruso, Giuseppe; Giuliano, Michela

    2016-03-01

    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a multi-functional protein which modulates cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. In cancer cells, SPARC behaves as a tumor promoter in a number of tumors, but it can also act as a tumor suppressor factor. Our previous results showed that the synthetic cannabinoid WIN55,212-2 (WIN), a potent cannabinoid receptor agonist, is able to sensitize osteosarcoma MG63 cells to TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis which is accompanied with endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress induction and the increase in autophagic markers. In the present investigation, we studied the role of SPARC in WIN/TRAIL-induced apoptosis demonstrating that WIN increased the level of SPARC protein and mRNA in a time-dependent manner. This event was functional to WIN/TRAIL-dependent apoptosis as demonstrated by RNA interfering analysis which indicated that SPARC-silenced cells were less sensitive to cytotoxic effects induced by the combined treatment. Our experiments also demonstrate that SPARC interacts with caspase-8 thus probably favoring its translocation to plasma membrane and the activation of extrinsic apoptotic pathway. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, our results are the first to show that WIN-dependent increase in the level of SPARC plays a critical role in sensitizing osteosarcoma cells to TRAIL action.

  2. Modern Radiobiology: Contention Of Concepts: Advanced Technology And Development Of Effective Prophylaxis, Prevention And Treatment Of Biological Consequences After Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Vecheslav; Jones, Jeffrey

    "Alle Ding' sind Gift, und nichts ohn' Gift; allein die Dosis macht, daß ein Ding kein Gift ist." Paracelsus Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim. Key worlds: Apoptosis, Necrosis, Domains associated with Cell Death, Caspase (catalytic) Domains, Death Domains (DDs), Death Effector Domains (DEDs), Caspase-Associated Recruitment Domains (CARDs, BIR Domains (IAPs), Bcl-2 Homology (BH) Domains, death ligands - TRAIL (TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand), FasL (Fas Ligand), TNFalpha (Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha), Toll-like receptors (TLR), Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), Toxic Multiple Organ Injury (TMOI), Toxic Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndromes (TMODS), Toxic Multiple Organ Failure (TMOF), Anaphylatoxins, or complement peptides; membrane attack complex (MAC), ROS - Reactive Oxygen Species; ASMase, acid sphingomyelinase; Neurotoxins, Cytotoxins, Haemotoxins. Introduction: Radiation affects many cell structures, organelles and metabolic pathways. Different doses and types of radiation ( gamma-radiation, neutron, heavy ion radiation) progress to reversible and irreversible forms of cell injury. Consideration: Apoptosis and Necrosis, major forms of post-radiation cell death, can be initiated and modulated by programmed control and proceed by similar or different pathways.[Akadi et al.,1993, Dunlacht J., et al. 1999] Radiation induced cell death by triggering apoptosis pathways was described in many articles and supported by many scientists. [Rio et al. 2002, Rakesh et al. 1997.] However some authors present results that two distinct pathways can initiate or apoptotic or necrotic responses: the death receptors and mitochondrial pathways.

  3. Increased expression of cytokines, soluble cytokine receptors, soluble apoptosis ligand and apoptosis in dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Julia; Valero, Nereida; Mosquera, Jesús; Montiel, Milagros; Reyes, Eduardo; Larreal, Yraima; Alvarez-Mon, Melchor

    2014-03-01

    Several studies have been performed to determine biomarkers that define the risk factors to developing severe forms of dengue. In this study, the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1, IL-17, soluble interleukin-1 receptor like 1 protein (sST2), soluble TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (sTRAIL), IL-12 and soluble receptors for TNF (sTNF-RI and sTNF-RII) were determined by ELISA in dengue patients and monocyte/macrophage cultures. Dengue was classified as dengue without warning symptoms (DNWS), with warning symptoms (DWWS) and severe dengue (SD). High values of IL-6, sTNFRI, sTNFRII and sST2 were observed in DWWS and/or SD and IL-12 and sTRAIL in DNWS. TNF-α and IL-17 were increased not associated to the disease severity. High production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-12, IL-17, sST2 and sTRAIL and apoptosis expression were observed in dengue monocyte/macrophage cultures. This study shows that beneficial or deleterious biomarkers can be present in dengue regardless the disease severity and that monocytes may be in part the source of studied molecules.

  4. Robust factorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Fisker, Rune; Åström, Kalle;

    2002-01-01

    Factorization algorithms for recovering structure and motion from an image stream have many advantages, but they usually require a set of well-tracked features. Such a set is in generally not available in practical applications. There is thus a need for making factorization algorithms deal...... effectively with errors in the tracked features. We propose a new and computationally efficient algorithm for applying an arbitrary error function in the factorization scheme. This algorithm enables the use of robust statistical techniques and arbitrary noise models for the individual features....... These techniques and models enable the factorization scheme to deal effectively with mismatched features, missing features, and noise on the individual features. The proposed approach further includes a new method for Euclidean reconstruction that significantly improves convergence of the factorization algorithms...

  5. The nuclear factor κB family member RelB facilitates apoptosis of renal epithelial cells caused by cisplatin/tumor necrosis factor α synergy by suppressing an epithelial to mesenchymal transition-like phenotypic switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Giulia; Fokkelman, Michiel; Yan, Kuan; Fredriksson, Lisa; Herpers, Bram; Meerman, John; van de Water, Bob; de Graauw, Marjo

    2013-07-01

    Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cisplatin)-induced renal proximal tubular apoptosis is known to be preceded by actin cytoskeleton reorganization, in conjunction with disruption of cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion. In the present study, we show that the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) aggravated these cisplatin-induced F-actin and cell adhesion changes, which was associated with enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis of immortalized proximal tubular epithelial cells. TNF-α-induced RelB expression and lentiviral small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of RelB, but not other nuclear factor κB members, abrogated the synergistic apoptosis observed with cisplatin/TNF-α treatment to the level of cisplatin-induced apoptosis. This protective effect was associated with increased stress fiber formation, cell-matrix, and cell-cell adhesion in the shRNARelB (shRelB) cells during cisplatin/TNF-α treatment, mimicking an epithelial-to-mesenchymal phenotypic switch. Indeed, gene array analysis revealed that knockdown of RelB was associated with upregulation of several actin regulatory genes, including Snai2 and the Rho GTPase proteins Rhophilin and Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 3 (ARHGEF3). Pharmacological inhibition of Rho kinase signaling re-established the synergistic apoptosis induced by combined cisplatin/TNF-α treatment of shRelB cells. In conclusion, our study shows for the first time that RelB is required for the cisplatin/TNF-α-induced cytoskeletal reorganization and apoptosis in renal cells by controlling a Rho kinase-dependent signaling network.

  6. Pinitol targets nuclear factor-kappaB activation pathway leading to inhibition of gene products associated with proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Gautam; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Sung, Bokyung; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2008-06-01

    Pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiroinositol), a component of traditional Ayurvedic medicine (talisapatra), has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities through undefined mechanisms. Because the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) has been linked with inflammatory diseases, including insulin resistance, we hypothesized that pinitol must mediate its effects through modulation of NF-kappaB activation pathway. We found that pinitol suppressed NF-kappaB activation induced by inflammatory stimuli and carcinogens. This suppression was not specific to cell type. Besides inducible, pinitol also abrogated constitutive NF-kappaB activation noted in most tumor cells. The suppression of NF-kappaB activation by pinitol occurred through inhibition of the activation of IkappaBalpha kinase, leading to sequential suppression of IkappaBalpha phosphorylation, IkappaBalpha degradation, p65 phosphorylation, p65 nuclear translocation, and NF-kappaB-dependent reporter gene expression. Pinitol also suppressed the NF-kappaB reporter activity induced by tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-1, TNFR-associated death domain, TNFR-associated factor-2, transforming growth factor-beta-activated kinase-1 (TAK-1)/TAK1-binding protein-1, and IkappaBalpha kinase but not that induced by p65. The inhibition of NF-kappaB activation thereby led to down-regulation of gene products involved in inflammation (cyclooxygenase-2), proliferation (cyclin D1 and c-myc), invasion (matrix metalloproteinase-9), angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor), and cell survival (cIAP1, cIAP2, X-linked inhibitor apoptosis protein, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xL). Suppression of these gene products by pinitol enhanced the apoptosis induced by TNF and chemotherapeutic agents and suppressed TNF-induced cellular invasion. Our results show that pinitol inhibits the NF-kappaB activation pathway, which may explain its ability to suppress inflammatory cellular responses.

  7. El factoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rosenthal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se presenta la segunda parte del artículo aparecido en  el número 6 de la revista EAN. Su contenido es complementario a lo expuesto en dicho número, en está aparecen las ventajas del factoring, conveniencias, limitaciones así como la forma  de efectuar un factor en Colombia,  su necesidad, incidencia económica, etc.

  8. Hepatocyte growth factor-induced proliferation of hepatic stem-like cells depends on activation of NF-κB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PengYao; YiqunZhan; WangxiangXu; ChangyanLi; PeibinYue; ChengwangXu; DarongHU; ChengkuiQu; XiaomingYang

    2005-01-01

    Background/Aims: Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) regulates proliferation of hepatic stem cells. Transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) has been demonstrated as a key mediator for cell growth regulation. We investigated the role of NF-κB in HGF-mediated cellular proliferation responses in a rat liver.derived hepatic stem-like cell line WB.F344. Methods: Cell proliferation was determined by incorporation of [3H]thymidine. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, Akt and IκBα by HGF stimulation was detected by Western blotting. NF-κB activation was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and NF-κB.mediated SEAP reporter assay. NF-κB activation was inhibited by treatment with an IκBα dominant-negative vector or inhibitor BAY-11-7082. Results: We found that stimulation of WB-F344 cells with HGF promoted cell proliferation and effectively protected WB-F344 cells from apoptosis induced by TNF-α. We also observed activation of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, Akt and NF-κB signaling pathways by HGF in WB-F344 cells. HGF-induced cell proliferation was partly blocked by pre-treatment of the cells with inhibitors against MEK1 or p38 MAPK, and completely blocked using an inhibitor for NF-κB activity.Furthermore, it was demonstrated that IκB mutant that suppressed NF-κB activity completely blocked HGF-induced cell proliferation. Conclusions: NF-κB activity is required for HGF-induced proliferation in hepatic stem-like cell line WB-F344, and this activity requires ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways.

  9. Ste20-like kinase, SLK, activates the heat shock factor 1 - Hsp70 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybulsky, Andrey V; Guillemette, Julie; Papillon, Joan

    2016-09-01

    Expression and activation of SLK increases during renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. When highly expressed, SLK signals via c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 to induce apoptosis, and it exacerbates apoptosis induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury. Overexpression of SLK in glomerular epithelial cells (GECs)/podocytes in vivo induces injury and proteinuria. In response to various stresses, cells enhance expression of chaperones or heat shock proteins (e.g. Hsp70), which are involved in the folding and maturation of newly synthesized proteins, and can refold denatured or misfolded proteins. We address the interaction of SLK with the heat shock factor 1 (HSF1)-Hsp70 pathway. Increased expression of SLK in GECs (following transfection) induced HSF1 transcriptional activity. Moreover, HSF1 transcriptional activity was increased by in vitro ischemia-reperfusion injury (chemical anoxia/recovery) and heat shock, and in both instances was amplified further by SLK overexpression. HSF1 binds to promoters of target genes, such as Hsp70 and induces their transcription. By analogy to HSF1, SLK stimulated Hsp70 expression. Hsp70 was also enhanced by anoxia/recovery and was further amplified by SLK overexpression. Induction of HSF1 and Hsp70 was dependent on the kinase activity of SLK, and was mediated via polo-like kinase-1. Transfection of constitutively active HSF1 enhanced Hsp70 expression and inhibited SLK-induced apoptosis. Conversely, the proapoptotic action of SLK was augmented by HSF1 shRNA, or the Hsp70 inhibitor, pifithrin-μ. In conclusion, increased expression/activity of SLK activates the HSF1-Hsp70 pathway. Hsp70 attenuates the primary proapoptotic effect of SLK. Modulation of chaperone expression may potentially be harnessed as cytoprotective therapy in renal cell injury.

  10. Tumor necrosis factor receptors support murine hematopoietic progenitor function in the early stages of engraftment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl-Yafe, Michal; Mizrahi, Keren; Stein, Jerry; Yolcu, Esma S; Kaplan, Ofer; Shirwan, Haval; Yaniv, Isaac; Askenasy, Nadir

    2010-07-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family receptors/ligands are important participants in hematopoietic homeostasis, in particular as essential negative expansion regulators of differentiated clones. As a prominent injury cytokine, TNF-alpha has been traditionally considered to suppress donor hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell function after transplantation. We monitored the involvement of TNF receptors (TNF-R) 1 and 2 in murine hematopoietic cell engraftment and their inter-relationship with Fas. Transplantation of lineage-negative (lin(-)) bone marrow cells (BMC) from TNF receptor-deficient mice into wild-type recipients showed defective early engraftment and loss of durable hematopoietic contribution upon recovery of host hematopoiesis. Consistently, cells deficient in TNF receptors had reduced competitive capacity as compared to wild-type progenitors. The TNF receptors were acutely upregulated in bone marrow (BM)-homed donor cells (wild-type) early after transplantation, being expressed in 60%-75% of the donor cells after 6 days. Both TNF receptors were detected in fast cycling, early differentiating progenitors, and were ubiquitously expressed in the most primitive progenitors with long-term reconstituting potential (lin(-)c-kit(+) stem cell antigen (SCA)-1(+)). BM-homed donor cells were insensitive to apoptosis induced by TNF-alpha and Fas-ligand and their combination, despite reciprocal inductive cross talk between the TNF and Fas receptors. The engraftment supporting effect of TNF-alpha is attributed to stimulation of progenitors through TNF-R1, which involves activation of the caspase cascade. This stimulatory effect was not observed for TNF-R2, and this receptor did not assume redundant stimulatory function in TNFR1-deficient cells. It is concluded that TNF-alpha plays a tropic role early after transplantation, which is essential to successful progenitor engraftment.

  11. Depletion of hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 induces apoptotic sensitization of radioresistant A549 cells via reactive oxygen species-dependent p53 activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Hong Shik; Hong, Eun-Hee [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su-Jae [Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Jeong-Hwa [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Woo [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Ji-Hye; Um, Hong-Duck [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Sang-Gu, E-mail: sgh63@kcch.re.kr [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-27

    Highlights: •HRP-3 is a radiation- and anticancer drug-responsive protein in A549 cells. •Depletion of HRP-3 induces apoptosis of radio- and chemoresistant A549 cells. •Depletion of HRP-3 promotes ROS generation via inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. •Depletion of HRP-3 enhances ROS-dependent p53 activation and PUMA expression. -- Abstract: Biomarkers based on functional signaling have the potential to provide greater insight into the pathogenesis of cancer and may offer additional targets for anticancer therapeutics. Here, we identified hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 (HRP-3) as a radioresistance-related gene and characterized the molecular mechanism by which its encoded protein regulates the radio- and chemoresistant phenotype of lung cancer-derived A549 cells. Knockdown of HRP-3 promoted apoptosis of A549 cells and potentiated the apoptosis-inducing action of radio- and chemotherapy. This increase in apoptosis was associated with a substantial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was attributable to inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway and resulted in enhanced ROS-dependent p53 activation and p53-dependent expression of PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis). Therefore, the HRP-3/Nrf2/HO-1/ROS/p53/PUMA cascade is an essential feature of the A549 cell phenotype and a potential radiotherapy target, extending the range of targets in multimodal therapies against lung cancer.

  12. Targeted brain derived neurotropic factors (BDNF delivery across the blood-brain barrier for neuro-protection using magnetic nano carriers: an in-vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudheesh Pilakka-Kanthikeel

    Full Text Available Parenteral use of drugs; such as opiates exert immunomodulatory effects and serve as a cofactor in the progression of HIV-1 infection, thereby potentiating HIV related neurotoxicity ultimately leading to progression of NeuroAIDS. Morphine exposure is known to induce apoptosis, down regulate cAMP response element-binding (CREB expression and decrease in dendritic branching and spine density in cultured cells. Use of neuroprotective agent; brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF, which protects neurons against these effects, could be of therapeutic benefit in the treatment of opiate addiction. Previous studies have shown that BDNF was not transported through the blood brain barrier (BBB in-vivo.; and hence it is not effective in-vivo. Therefore development of a drug delivery system that can cross BBB may have significant therapeutic advantage. In the present study, we hypothesized that magnetically guided nanocarrier may provide a viable approach for targeting BDNF across the BBB. We developed a magnetic nanoparticle (MNP based carrier bound to BDNF and evaluated its efficacy and ability to transmigrate across the BBB using an in-vitro BBB model. The end point determinations of BDNF that crossed BBB were apoptosis, CREB expression and dendritic spine density measurement. We found that transmigrated BDNF was effective in suppressing the morphine induced apoptosis, inducing CREB expression and restoring the spine density. Our results suggest that the developed nanocarrier will provide a potential therapeutic approach to treat opiate addiction, protect neurotoxicity and synaptic density degeneration.

  13. Inhibition of fibroblast growth factor 2-induced apoptosis involves survivin expression, protein kinase Cα activation and subcellular translocation of Smac in human small cell lung cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Desheng Xiao; Kuansong Wang; Jianhua Zhou; Huiqiu Cao; Zhenghao Deng; Yongbin Hu; Xiahui Qu; Jifang Wen

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism by which fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) inhibits apoptosis in the human small cell lung cancer cell line H446 subjected to serum starvation,apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry, Hoechst 33258 staining, caspase-3 activity, and DNA fragmentation.Survivin expression induced by FGF-2 and protein kinase Cα (PKCα) translocation was detected by subcellular fractionation and Western blot analysis. In addition, FGF-2-induced release of Smac from mitochondria to the cytoplasm was analyzed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence.FGF-2 reduced apoptosis induced by serum starvation and up-regulated survivin expression in H446 cells in a dosedependent and time-dependent manner, and inhibited caspase-3 activity. FGF-2 also inhibited the release of Smac from mitochondria to the cytoplasm induced by serum starvation and increased PKCα translocation from the cytoplasm to the cell membrane. In addition, PKC inhibitor inhibited the expression of survivin. FGF-2 up-regulates the expression of survivin protein in H446 cells and blocks the release of Smac from mitochondria to the cytoplasm. PKCα regulated FGF-2-induced survivin expression. Thus, survivin, Smac,and PKCα might play important roles in the inhibition of apoptosis by FGF-2 in human small cell lung cancer cells.

  14. rAAV-mediated delivery of brain-derived neurotrophic factor promotes neurite outgrowth and protects neurodegeneration in focal ischemic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyu; Yu, Zhigang; Yu, Zhiqiang; Yang, Zichao; Zhao, Hong; Liu, Luran; Zhao, Jiexu

    2011-06-20

    Stroke is one of the neurological diseases which lead to permanently neuronal damage after temporary or long-term occlusion of vessels or after heart attack. However, there are few efficient strategies to prevent or treat this kind of insult in clinical because the consequence is irreversible and could be long-lasting after the onset of stroke. Gene therapy especially using viral system has long been addressed to be of great potential to reduce the damage. Here, we generated recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) carrying brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene. Cells infected with rAAV-BDNF could be able to produce functional BDNF which promoted neurite outgrowth and protected neurons from apoptosis induced by serum deprivation. Further more, single injection of rAAV showed neuroprotection against cell death in focal ischemic model. These results showed that rAAV-mediated gene delivery is functional, which shed light to the future application of viral system-based gene therapy in clinical.

  15. Melatonin ameliorates metabolic risk factors, modulates apoptotic proteins, and protects the rat heart against diabetes-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ali H; El-Missiry, Mohamed A; Othman, Azza I

    2015-01-15

    The present study investigated the ability of melatonin in reducing metabolic risk factors and cardiac apoptosis induced by diabetes. Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected into male rats, and after diabetic induction melatonin (10mg/kg i.g.) was administered orally for 21 days. Diabetic hearts showed increased number of apoptotic cells with downregulation of Bcl-2 and activation of p53 and CD95 as well as the caspases 9, 8 and 3. In addition, there was a significant decrease in insulin level, hyperglycemia, elevated HOMA-IR, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low and very low-density lipoprotein and decreased high-density lipoprotein. These changes were coupled with a significant increase in the activities of creatin kinase-MB (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the serum of the diabetic rats indicating myocardium injury. Oral administration of melatonin for 3 weeks after diabetes induction ameliorated the levels of hyperglycemia, insulin, HbA1c, lipids profile and HOMA-IR. The oral melatonin treatment of diabetic rats significantly decreased the number of apoptotic cells in the heart compared to diabetic rats. It enhanced Bcl-2 expression and blocked the activation of CD95 as well as caspases 9, 8 and 3. These changes were accompanied with significant improvement of CK-MB and LDH in the serum indicating the ameliorative effect of melatonin on myocardium injury. Melatonin effectively ameliorated diabetic myocardium injury, apoptosis, reduced the metabolic risk factors and modulated important steps in both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis. Thus, melatonin may be a promising pharmacological agent for ameliorating potential cardiomyopathy associated with diabetes.

  16. Analysis of Tumor Necrosis Factor Function Using the Resonant Recognition Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosic, Irena; Cosic, Drasko; Lazar, Katarina

    2016-06-01

    The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a complex protein that plays a very important role in a number of biological functions including apoptotic cell death, tumor regression, cachexia, inflammation inhibition of tumorigenesis and viral replication. Its most interesting function is that it is an inhibitor of tumorigenesis and inductor of apoptosis. Thus, the TNF could be a good candidate for cancer therapy. However, the TNF has also inflammatory and toxic effects. Therefore, it would be very important to understand complex functions of the TNF and consequently be able to predict mutations or even design the new TNF-related proteins that will have only a tumor inhibition function, but not other side effects. This can be achieved by applying the resonant recognition model (RRM), a unique computational model of analysing macromolecular sequences of proteins, DNA and RNA. The RRM is based on finding that certain periodicities in distribution of free electron energies along protein, DNA and RNA are strongly correlated to the biological function of these macromolecules. Thus, based on these findings, the RRM has capabilities of protein function identification, prediction of bioactive amino acids and protein design with desired biological function. Using the RRM, we separate different functions of TNF as different periodicities (frequencies) within the distribution of free energy electrons along TNF protein. Interestingly, these characteristic TNF frequencies are related to previously identified characteristics of proto-oncogene and oncogene proteins describing TNF involvement in oncogenesis. Consequently, we identify the key amino acids related to the crucial TNF function, i.e. receptor recognition. We have also designed the peptide which will have the ability to recognise the receptor without side effects.

  17. Behavioral factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero, D T; Lussi, A

    2006-01-01

    During and after an erosive challenge, behavioral factors play a role in modifying the extent of erosive tooth wear. The manner that dietary acids are introduced into the mouth (gulping, sipping, use of a straw) will affect how long the teeth are in contact with the erosive challenge. The frequency and duration of exposure to an erosive agent is of paramount importance. Night-time exposure (e.g. baby bottle-feeding) to erosive agents may be particularly destructive because of the absence of salivary flow. Health-conscious individuals tend to ingest acidic drinks and juices more frequently and tend to have higher than average oral hygiene. While good oral hygiene is of proven value in the prevention of periodontal disease and dental caries, frequent toothbrushing with abrasive oral hygiene products may enhance erosive tooth wear. Unhealthy lifestyles such as consumption of designer drugs, alcopops and alcohol abuse are other important behavioral factors.

  18. Identification and characterization of a membrane-bound cytotoxin of murine cytolytic lymphocytes that is related to tumor necrosis factor/cachectin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chauching; Detmers, P.A.; Jiang, Shibo; Young, J.D.E (Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (USA))

    1989-05-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) kill their targets by a contact-dependent mechanism. The authors investigated the possibility that the CTL membranes themselves could exert direct cytotoxic activity. Murine CTLs that had been fixed with paraformaldehyde retained a slow cytotoxic activity toward various target cells that are also sensitive to another cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)/cachectin. This cytotoxic activity was neutralized by antibodies specific for TNF. Membrane fractions obtained from CTLs were cytotoxic to TNF-sensitive targets but not to several TNF-resistant cell lines. Immunoblot analysis revealed a membrane protein band of 50-60 kDa from CTLs that reacts with anti-TNF antibodies. The surface localization of this cytokine was further ascertained by flow cytometry, indirect immunofluorescence, and immunoelectron microscopy studies using TNF-specific antibodies. Radioiodination of CTL surface proteins followed by immunoprecipitation with anti-TNF antibodies confirmed the presence of a TNF-related cytokine in the plasma membranes of CTLs that migrated with an apparent molecular mass of 50-60 kDa under disulfide-reducing conditions. This cytokine can be removed from membranes by treatment with detergents but not with high-salt buffers, suggesting that it may be an integral membrane protein.

  19. Factor analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gorsuch, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive and comprehensible, this classic covers the basic and advanced topics essential for using factor analysis as a scientific tool in psychology, education, sociology, and related areas. Emphasizing the usefulness of the techniques, it presents sufficient mathematical background for understanding and sufficient discussion of applications for effective use. This includes not only theory but also the empirical evaluations of the importance of mathematical distinctions for applied scientific analysis.

  20. Human Soluble TRAIL Protein Inducing Apoptosis in Osteosarcoma Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shaobo; YU Aixi; ZHANG Zhongning; WU Gang

    2007-01-01

    This study is to examine the effect of human recombinant soluble TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) protein inducing apoptosis in MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells. The inhibitive rates of TRAIL to MG-63 cells were detected by MTT assay. The apoptosis induced by TRAIL in MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells was analyzed with FACS and TUNEL and the apoptotic bodies were observed by transmission electron microscope. MTT assay showed that the inhibitive rates of 500, 1 000,2 000 and 4 000 ng/mL TRAIL for 24 h were 10.1%, 24.3%,50.6% and 97.7% respectively. Flow cytometric analysis showed that after MG-63 cells were treated with 2 μg/mL TRAIL for 6 h,obvious apoptotic peak would immediately appear before diploid peak. Human soluble TRAIL protein can quickly kill MG-63 osteosarcoma cells selectively, and may have potential value for clinical treatment of osteosarcoma.

  1. Reduction of hippocampal apoptosis by intracerebroventricular administration of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and/or p38 inhibitors in amyloid beta rat model of Alzheimer's disease: involvement of nuclear-related factor-2 and nuclear factor-κB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashabi, Ghorbangol; Alamdary, Shabnam Zeighamy; Ramin, Mahmoudreza; Khodagholi, Fariba

    2013-03-01

    In the present study, we examined the effects of intracerebroventricular administration of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase- (ERK) and p38-specific inhibitors, U0126 and PD169316, respectively, on apoptosis induced by amyloid beta (Aβ) in rats. To investigate the effects of these compounds, we evaluated intracellular signalling pathways of apoptosis, as well as inflammatory and antioxidant pathways, 7 and 20 days after Aβ injection. We found that caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, two hallmarks of apoptosis, were significantly decreased in the rats pre-treated with U0126 and PD169316, 7 days after Aβ injection. This observation was in agreement with the results of immunostaining analysis of the hippocampus that showed decreased levels of terminal transferase dUTP nick end labelling positive cells in the hippocampus of U0126 and PD169316 pre-treated rats, compared with the Aβ-injected group. We also chased the changes in the levels of calpain-2 and caspase-12, two ER factors, in the Aβ-injected and treatment groups. Decreased levels of calpain-2 and caspase-12 in U0126 and PD169316 pre-treated rats confirmed the protective effects of these inhibitors. Furthermore, we studied the effect of two stress-sensing transcription factors, nuclear-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and nuclear factor-кB (NF-кB), in Aβ-injected as wells as U0126 and PD169316 pre-treated rats. U0126 and PD169316 activated Nrf2 and suppressed NF-кB pathways, 7 days after Aβ injection. These antioxidant and inflammatory pathways restored to the vehicle level within 20 days. Taken together, our findings reinforce and extend the notion of the potential neuroprotective role of ERK and/or p38 inhibitors against the neuronal toxicity induced by Aβ.

  2. TRAIL系统治疗妇科肿瘤进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚静; 李英勇

    2007-01-01

      肿瘤坏死因子相关凋亡诱导配体(TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand,TRAIL)是Wiley等[1]1995年首次发现并分离合成.TRAIL与肿瘤的发生、发展有着密切的关系,其选择性杀伤肿瘤细胞的特点,使其在肿瘤治疗中的研究成为热点.……

  3. Cell cycle-arrested tumor cells exhibit increased sensitivity towards TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrhardt, H.; Wachter, F; Grunert, M.; Jeremias, I

    2013-01-01

    Resting tumor cells represent a huge challenge during anticancer therapy due to their increased treatment resistance. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a putative future anticancer drug, currently in phases I and II clinical studies. We recently showed that TRAIL is able to target leukemia stem cell surrogates. Here, we tested the ability of TRAIL to target cell cycle-arrested tumor cells. Cell cycle arrest was induced in tumor cell lines and xenografted tumor cells in G0, G1 o...

  4. Proliferative Effect of sTRAIL on Mouse Pancreatic Beta Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Kahraman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Beta cell loss/impairment of function appears as a significant problem in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand was recently correlated with both types of diabetes with a proposed protective effect. TRAIL was also shown to promote survival and proliferation in different cells such as vascular smooth muscle cells and human vascular endothelial cells. Recently, TRAIL was claimed to protect pancreatic beta cells against cytokine-related harm. We hypothesized a proliferative effect for TRAIL on beta cells, and used Min6 mouse pancreatic beta cell line to test our hypothesis.

  5. REST is up-regulated by epidermal growth factor in HeLa cells and inhibits apoptosis by influencing histone H3 acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiula, Monica; Carbonari, Gioia; Dattoli, Samantha D; Calienni, Maria; Bedini, Andrea; Spampinato, Santi

    2012-08-01

    REST (repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor) is a transcription factor that recruits histone deacetylases to silence gene transcription. REST appears to play a paradoxical role in cancer cells: it exhibits tumor suppressor activity or promotes tumorigenesis, depending upon the setting. The extracellular signaling molecules that control REST gene expression in cancer cells remain poorly understood. In this study, we report that REST expression in HeLa cells is elevated in cells exposed to epidermal growth factor or serum, whereas the rate of cell apoptosis is low. Apoptosis induced by serum withdrawal is significantly increased in HeLa cells treated with an antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide (AS ODN) capable of down-regulating REST expression, whereas in HeLa cells transfected with a REST expressing plasmid, REST overexpression reduces the marked apoptosis caused, in absence of serum, by exposure to an anti-Fas receptor antibody imitating the Fas ligand activity plus PD 98059, a blocker of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation. REST knockdown also reduces mRNA levels of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-X(L) whereas in HeLa cells overexpressing REST, the reduction of Bcl-X(L) mRNA caused by the anti-Fas receptor antibody plus PD 98059 is significantly decreased. Finally, we report that acetylation of histone H3 is increased in HeLa cells exposed to AS ODN or anti-Fas receptor antibody, whereas it is reduced in cells transfected with the REST expressing plasmid. Our findings indicate that REST is a novel gene regulated by EGF in HeLa cells that potentially contributes to the modulation of apoptosis via epigenetic mechanisms.

  6. Neuropilin-1 modulates vascular endothelial growth factor-induced poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase leading to reduced cerebrovascular apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mey, Lilli; Hörmann, Mareike; Schleicher, Nadine; Reuter, Peter; Dönges, Simone; Kinscherf, Ralf; Gassmann, Max; Gerriets, Tibo; Al-Fakhri, Nadia

    2013-11-01

    Cerebral ischemia is encompassed by cerebrovascular apoptosis, yet the mechanisms behind apoptosis regulation are not fully understood. We previously demonstrated inhibition of endothelial apoptosis by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) through upregulation of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP) expression. However, PARP overactivation through oxidative stress can lead to necrosis. This study tested the hypothesis that neuropilin-1 (NP-1), an alternative VEGF receptor, regulates the response to cerebral ischemia by modulating PARP expression and, in turn, apoptosis inhibition by VEGF. In endothelial cell culture, NP-1 colocalized with VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and acted as its coreceptor. This significantly enhanced VEGF-induced PARP mRNA and protein expression demonstrated by receptor-specific inhibitors and VEGF-A isoforms. NP-1 augmented the inhibitory effect of VEGF/VEGFR-2 interaction on apoptosis induced by adhesion inhibition through the αV-integrin inhibitor cRGDfV. NP-1/VEGFR-2 signal transduction involved JNK and Akt. In rat models of permanent and temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion, the ischemic cerebral hemispheres displayed endothelial and neuronal apoptosis next to increased endothelial NP-1 and VEGFR-2 expression compared to non-ischemic cerebral hemispheres, sham-operated or untreated controls. Increased vascular superoxide dismutase-1 and catalase expression as well as decreased glycogen reserves indicated oxidative stress in the ischemic brain. Of note, protein levels of intact PARP remained stable despite pro-apoptotic conditions through increased PARP mRNA production during cerebral ischemia. In conclusion, NP-1 is upregulated in conditions of imminent cerebrovascular apoptosis to reinforce apoptosis inhibition and modulate VEGF-dependent PARP expression and activation. We propose that NP-1 is a key modulator of VEGF maintaining cerebrovascular integrity during ischemia. Modulating the function of NP-1 to target PARP could help to

  7. Requirement of catalytically active Tyk2 and accessory signals for the induction of TRAIL mRNA by IFN-beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, M R Sandhya; Pandalai, Sudha; Shrock, Jennifer; Almasan, Alex; Ransohoff, Richard M

    2007-09-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand/Apo2 ligand (TRAIL/Apo2L) mRNA was induced preferentially by interferon (IFN)-beta but not IFN-alpha in human fibrosarcoma and primary fibroblast cells. To characterize the signaling components mediating the IFN subtype-specific induction of this gene, we used mutant cell lines lacking individual components involved in signaling by type I IFNs. TRAIL was not induced by IFN-beta in mutant cell lines U2A, U3A, U4A, U5A, and U6A, which lack, respectively, IFN regulatory factor-9 (IRF-9), Stat1, Jak1, IFNAR-2.2, and Stat2, indicating transcription factor IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) was essential for the induction of this gene. TRAIL was not induced by IFN-beta in U1A (Tyk2 null) or U1A.R930 cells (that express a kinase-deficient point mutant of Tyk2) but was induced in U1A.wt-5 cells (U1A cells expressing wild-type Tyk2), indicating that Tyk2 protein and kinase activity were both required for induction of the gene. Biochemical and genetic analyses revealed the requirement of transcription factor NF-kappa B and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) for the induction of TRAIL by IFN-beta. Furthermore, the antiproliferative but not antiviral effects of IFN-beta required catalytically active Tyk2, suggesting that expression of genes, such as TRAIL, may play an important role in mediating the biologic effects of IFNs.

  8. Global Factor Trade with Differentiated Factor Prices and Factor Intensities

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-kwong Kwok

    2004-01-01

    Relaxing the assumption of internationally identical factor intensity techniques in the HOV model creates two challenges. First, computing actual factor intensity techniques of different countries requires detailed input-output tables and factor usage data, which are not always available. Second, determinants of the factor intensity technique differences across countries need to be identified. This paper explores the role of relative factor price differences in the determination of factor int...

  9. The effects of polymorphisms in 7 candidate genes on resistance to Salmonella Enteritidis in native chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohidi, R; Idris, I B; Malar Panandam, J; Hair Bejo, M

    2013-04-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection is a common concern in poultry production for its negative effects on growth as well as food safety for humans. Identification of molecular markers that are linked to resistance to Salmonella Enteritidis may lead to appropriate solutions to control Salmonella infection in chickens. This study investigated the association of candidate genes with resistance to Salmonella Enteritidis in young chickens. Two native breeds of Malaysian chickens, namely, Village Chickens and Red Junglefowl, were evaluated for bacterial colonization after Salmonella Enteritidis inoculation. Seven candidate genes were selected on the basis of their physiological role in immune response, as determined by prior studies in other genetic lines: natural resistance-associated protein 1 (NRAMP1), transforming growth factor β3 (TGFβ3), transforming growth factor β4 (TGFβ4), inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (IAP1), caspase 1 (CASP1), lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α factor (LITAF), and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Polymerase chain reaction-RFLP was used to identify polymorphisms in the candidate genes; all genes exhibited polymorphisms in at least one breed. The NRAMP1-SacI polymorphism correlated with the differences in Salmonella Enteritidis load in the cecum (P = 0.002) and spleen (P = 0.01) of Village Chickens. Polymorphisms in the restriction sites of TGFβ3-BsrI, TGFβ4-MboII, and TRAIL-StyI were associated with Salmonella Enteritidis burden in the cecum, spleen, and liver of Village Chickens and Red Junglefowl (P Salmonella Enteritidis in native Malaysian chickens.

  10. Cytokines from the tumor microenvironment modulate sirtinol cytotoxicity in A549 lung carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Shyama; Shankar, Bhavani S; Sainis, Krishna B

    2013-10-01

    Cytokines in tumor microenvironment play an important role in the success or failure of molecular targeted therapies. We have chosen tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), TNF related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) as representative pro-inflammatory, pro-apoptotic, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory tumor derived cytokines. Analysis of Oncomine database revealed the differential expression of these cytokines in a subset of cancer patients. The effects of these cytokines on cytotoxicity of FDA approved drugs - cisplatin and taxol and inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor - AG658, Janus kinase - AG490 and SIRT1 - sirtinol were assessed in A549 lung cancer cells. TRAIL augmented cytotoxicity of sirtinol and IGF-1 had a sparing effect. Since TRAIL and IGF-1 differentially modulated sirtinol cytotoxicity, further studies were carried out to identify the mechanisms. Sirtinol or knockdown of SIRT1 increased the expression of death receptors DR4 and DR5 and sensitized A549 cells to TRAIL. Increased cell death in presence of TRAIL and sirtinol was caspase independent and demonstrated classical features of necroptosis. Inhibition of iNOS increased caspase activity and switched the mode of cell death to caspase mediated apoptosis. Interestingly, sirtinol or SIRT1 knockdown did not increase IGF-1R expression. Instead, it abrogated ligand induced downregulation of IGF-1R and increased cell survival through PI3K-AKT pathway. In conclusion, these findings reveal that the tumor microenvironment contributes to modulation of cytotoxicity of drugs and that combination therapy, with agents that increase TRAIL signaling and suppress IGF-1 pathway may potentiate anticancer effect.

  11. Cif (Cytochrome c efflux-inducing factor) activity is regulated by Bcl-2 and caspases and correlates with the activation of Bid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Z; Bhalla, K; Pantazis, P; Hendrickson, E A; Wyche, J H

    1999-02-01

    The cytosolic factor Cif (cytochrome c-efflux inducing factor) was activated by the apoptosis inducers staurosporine and anti-Fas antibodies and rapidly induced the efflux of cytochrome c from purified human mitochondria. HL-60 cells that stably overexpressed a bcl-2 cDNA transgene (Bcl-2:HL-60 cells) contained mitochondria and a cytosol that were resistant to exogenous Cif and that lacked detectable endogenous Cif activity, respectively. Therefore, Bcl-2 overexpression negated Cif activity and suggested that the requirement for Cif resides upstream of Bcl-2 on the apoptotic signal transduction pathway. The addition of purified caspase 3, caspase 7, or caspase 8 to the cytosolic extract from Bcl-2:HL-60 cells, however, restored Cif activity, demonstrating that the inhibition of Cif by Bcl-2 overexpression could be overcome by activated caspases. Moreover, the addition of purified caspases to cytosolic extracts prepared from parental HL-60 cells was also sufficient to cause Cif activation, suggesting that caspases might be required for Cif activa