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Sample records for factor deprivation x-irradiation

  1. Apoptosis in chronic myeloid leukaemia: normal responses by progenitor cells to growth factor deprivation, X-irradiation and glucocorticoids

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    Amos, T.A.S.; Lewis, J.L.; Grand, F.H.; Gooding, R.P.; Goldman, J.M.; Gordon, M.Y. [Royal Postgraduate Medical School, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-10-01

    Inhibition of apoptosis (genetically programmed active cell death) by p210 BCR-ABL expression is a mechanism that might contribute to clonal expansion in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). Since cell death following exposure to ionizing radiation and many chemotherapeutic agents can occur by the apoptotic pathway, inhibition of apoptosis would be expected to confer a relative resistance to these treatments. Similarly, cells deprived of growth factors in vitro die by apoptosis, and inhibition of apoptosis would therefore be expected to allow cells to survive better in growth factor-deprived conditions. We found that the survival of normal and CML myeloid progenitors was the same after in vitro incubation in deprived conditions and after treatment with X-irradiation or glucocorticoids. We also found that mature cells in colonies produced by CML progenitors (CFU-GM) did not survive better than those produced by normal progenitor cells. Flow cytometric analysis of propidium iodide-stained cells provided a direct indication that the degree of apoptosis may correspond to the degree of deprivation. These results suggest that inhibition of apoptosis may not be the primary mechanism whereby BCR-ABL influences the expansion of the malignant clone in CML. (Author).

  2. Apoptosis in chronic myeloid leukaemia: normal responses by progenitor cells to growth factor deprivation, X-irradiation and glucocorticoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, T.A.S.; Lewis, J.L.; Grand, F.H.; Gooding, R.P.; Goldman, J.M.; Gordon, M.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Inhibition of apoptosis (genetically programmed active cell death) by p210 BCR-ABL expression is a mechanism that might contribute to clonal expansion in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). Since cell death following exposure to ionizing radiation and many chemotherapeutic agents can occur by the apoptotic pathway, inhibition of apoptosis would be expected to confer a relative resistance to these treatments. Similarly, cells deprived of growth factors in vitro die by apoptosis, and inhibition of apoptosis would therefore be expected to allow cells to survive better in growth factor-deprived conditions. We found that the survival of normal and CML myeloid progenitors was the same after in vitro incubation in deprived conditions and after treatment with X-irradiation or glucocorticoids. We also found that mature cells in colonies produced by CML progenitors (CFU-GM) did not survive better than those produced by normal progenitor cells. Flow cytometric analysis of propidium iodide-stained cells provided a direct indication that the degree of apoptosis may correspond to the degree of deprivation. These results suggest that inhibition of apoptosis may not be the primary mechanism whereby BCR-ABL influences the expansion of the malignant clone in CML. (Author)

  3. Evidence against a systemic humoral factor controlling the intestinal compensatory response following X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, J.G.; Osborne, J.W.; Iowa Univ., Iowa City

    1981-01-01

    The investigation was devised to determine whether changes noted in the unirradiated duodenum and colon of single rats after X-irradiation of only the exteriorized rat jejunum and ileum are mediated by a systemic humoral factor. Littermate Holtzman male rats were joined in parabiosis and one month later, the temporarily exteriorized jejunum and ileum of one member was exposed to 1.000 R of 250 kVp X-irradiation. Two days after X-irradiation, and 1, 12 and 24 h after 1 μCi/g bodyweight 3 H-thymidine was injected i.p. rats were sacrificed and appropriate tissues removed. Single rats which had the exteriorized jejunum and ileum irradiated were studied from 1-3 days after irradiation. Crypt cell migration rates were determined employing autoradiography. Tritium content and columnar cell migration rate in duodenum and colon of unirradiated rats compared to irradiated rats indicated that irradiation of one member of the pair had no effect on tritium incorporation or epithelial cell migration in the duodenum or colon of the unirradiated partner. Epithelial cell proliferation and crypt cell migration were increased in unirradiated duodenum and colon of single intestine-irradiated rats. Essentially the same changes were seen in the irradiated member of a parabiotic pair, but none of these changes were noted in the unirradiated member. The absence of stimulation in the unirradiated parabiont suggests that either a systemic humoral factor is not present after X-irradiation or is not present in sufficient concentration to be detected by these methods. (orig./MG)

  4. Inductive potential of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor to mature neutrophils from X-irradiated human peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumori, Takeo; Yoshino, Hironori; Hayashi, Masako; Takahashi, Kenji; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2009-01-01

    Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) has been used for treatment of neutropenia. Filgrastim, Nartograstim, and Lenograstim are clinically available in Japan. However, the differences in potential benefit for radiation-induced disorder between these types of rhG-CSFs remain unknown. Therefore, the effects of three different types of rhG-CSFs on granulocyte progenitor cells and expansion of neutrophils from nonirradiated or 2 Gy X-irradiated human CD34 + hematopoietic progenitor cells were examined. For analysis of granulocyte colony-forming units (CFU-G) and a surviving fraction of CFU-G, nonirradiated or X-irradiated CD34 + cells were cultured in methylcellulose containing rhG-CSF. These cells were cultured in serum-free medium supplemented with rhG-CSF, and the expansion and characteristics of neutrophils were analyzed. All three types of rhG-CSFs increased the number of CFU-G in a dose-dependent manner; however, Lenograstim is superior to others because of CFU-G-derived colony formation at relatively low doses. The surviving fraction of CFU-G was independent of the types of rhG-CSFs. Expansion of neutrophils by rhG-CSF was largely attenuated by X-irradiation, though no significant difference in neutrophil number was observed between the three types of rhG-CSFs under both nonirradiation and X-irradiation conditions. In terms of functional characteristics of neutrophils, Lenograstim-induced neutrophils produced high levels of reactive oxygen species compared to Filgrastim, when rhG-CSF was applied to nonirradiated CD34 + cells. In conclusion, different types of rhG-CSFs lead to different effects when rhG-CSF is applied to nonirradiated CD34 + cells, though Filgrastim, Nartograstim, and Lenograstim show equal effects on X-irradiated CD34 + cells. (author)

  5. Interaction between x-irradiated plateau-phase bone marrow stromal cell lines and co-cultivated factor-dependent cell lines leading to leukemogenesis in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naparstek, E.; Anklesaria, P.; FitzGerald, T.J.; Sakakeeny, M.A.; Greenberger, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Plateau-phase mouse clonal bone marrow stromal cell lines D2XRII and C3H cl 11 produce decreasing levels of M-CSF (CSF-1), a specific macrophage progenitor cell humoral regulator, following X-irradiation in vitro. The decrease did not go below 40% of control levels, even after irradiation doses of 50,000 rad (500 Gy). In contrast, a distinct humoral regulator stimulating growth of GM-CSF/IL-3 factor-dependent (FD) hematopoietic progenitor cell lines was detected following radiation to doses above 2000 rad. This humoral factor was not detectable in conditioned medium from irradiated cells, weakly detected using factor-dependent target cell populations in agar overlay, and was prominently detected by liquid co-cultivation of factor-dependent cells with irradiated stromal cell cultures. Subclonal lines of FD cells, derived after co-cultivation revealed karyotypic abnormalities and induced myeloblastic tumors in syngeneic mice. Five-eight weeks co-cultivation was required for induction of factor independence and malignancy and was associated with dense cell to cell contact between FD cells and stromal cells demonstrated by light and electron microscopy. Increases in hematopoietic to stromal cell surface area, total number of adherent cells per flask, total non-adherent cell colonies per flask, and cumulative non-adherent cell production were observed after irradiation. The present data may prove very relevant to an understanding of the cell to cell interactions during X-irradiation-induced leukemia

  6. Axo-somatic synapses in the normal and X-irradiated dendate gyrus; factors affecting the density of afferent innervation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.S.; Gerbrandt, L.; Lynch, G.

    1982-01-01

    The density of synaptic input to the somata of dentate gyrus granule cells was examined utilizing quantitative electron microscopic techniques. In control (non-irradiated) material, greater numbers of axo-somatic synapses were observed in the superficial, earlier-generated cells as compared to the deep, later-generated cells. We further studied the X-irradiated dentate gyrus, in which the majority of granule cells were destroyed during postnatal genesis. The surviving cells displayed a density of innervation on their somata which exceeded that observed in either layer of the control material. These data are discussed in terms of the possible contribution of afferent-target cell interactions to the regulation of the density of synaptic innervation. (Auth.)

  7. Axo-somatic synapses in the normal and X-irradiated dendate gyrus; factors affecting the density of afferent innervation

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    Lee, K S [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Psychiatrie, Muenchen (Germany, F.R.); Gerbrandt, L [Neuroscience Research Program, Boston, MA (USA); Lynch, G [California Univ., Irvine (USA)

    1982-10-07

    The density of synaptic input to the somata of dentate gyrus granule cells was examined utilizing quantitative electron microscopic techniques. In control (non-irradiated) material, greater numbers of axo-somatic synapses were observed in the superficial, earlier-generated cells as compared to the deep, later-generated cells. We further studied the X-irradiated dentate gyrus, in which the majority of granule cells were destroyed during postnatal genesis. The surviving cells displayed a density of innervation on their somata which exceeded that observed in either layer of the control material. These data are discussed in terms of the possible contribution of afferent-target cell interactions to the regulation of the density of synaptic innervation.

  8. Effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide and X-irradiation on the production of colony-stimulating factor and the maintenance of granulopoiesis in bone marrow culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, H.; Miyanomae, T.; Tsurusawa, M.; Fujita, J.; Mori, K.

    1984-01-01

    Effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and X-irradiation on CSF production and granulopoiesis in long-term bone marrow cultures were studied. Levels of colony-stimulating factor (CSF) increased soon after the refeeding of the culture, but the activity was undetectable at day 7. Addition of LPS induced a significant increase in CSF levels in the culture, followed by an elevated granulopoiesis. The increase in CSF levels was suppressed when culture medium that had been harvested at refeeding on day 7 was added. Although irradiation did not increase CSF production, granulopoiesis was markedly stimulated shortly after irradiation. Thus granulopoiesis in long-term bone marrow culture may also be regulated by humoral factors such as CSF, and the culture system may represent the in vivo response to haemopoietic stimuli. (author)

  9. Preliminary studies on factors controlling the rate of regrowth of heavily x-irradiated rat rhabdomyosarcoma tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenforde, T.S.; Curtis, S.B.; Woodruff, H.K.; Parks, D.L.; Daniels, S.J.; Crabtree, K.E.; Schilling, W.A.; DeGuzman, R.J.

    1977-12-01

    Following large single doses of x rays, rat rhabdomyosarcoma tumors exhibit a volume response which characteristically has a swelling phase, a regression phase, a rapid ''initial'' regrowth phase and a slow ''late'' regrowth phase. The preliminary experiments reported here were designed to examine three mechanisms that may underlie the reduction in growth rate occurring in the late regrowth phase; heritable non-lethal cellular damage, host immunity, delayed post-irradiation tissue and vascular damage. Based on retransplantation experiments and studies with immunosuppressed rats, neither heritable non-lethal damage nor host immune factors appear to influence the regrowth rate of tumors receiving radiation doses well below the cure level. After an x-ray dose approaching the cure level, regrowing tumors were observed to have a greatly reduced growth rate, possibly reflecting the presence of heritable non-lethal damage and/or an increased antigenicity of the heavily irradiated tumor cells. Morphometric analysis of histological sections did not reveal statistically significant abnormalities at the cellular level during the late regrowth phase, except for an increase in the percentage of necrotic tissue relative to non-irradiated tumors. The morphological resolution of small blood vessels was not adequate to evaluate delayed vascular damage in regrowing irradiated tumors

  10. Mitochondrial respiratory control is lost during growth factor deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Eyal; Armour, Sean M; Thompson, Craig B

    2002-10-01

    The ability of cells to maintain a bioenergetically favorable ATP/ADP ratio confers a tight balance between cellular events that consume ATP and the rate of ATP production. However, after growth factor withdrawal, the cellular ATP/ADP ratio declines. To investigate these changes, mitochondria from growth factor-deprived cells isolated before the onset of apoptosis were characterized in vitro. Mitochondria from growth factor-deprived cells have lost their ability to undergo matrix condensation in response to ADP, which is accompanied by a failure to perform ADP-coupled respiration. At the time of analysis, mitochondria from growth factor-deprived cells were not depleted of cytochrome c and cytochrome c-dependent respiration was unaffected, demonstrating that the inhibition of the respiratory rate is not due to loss of cytochrome c. Agents that disrupt the mitochondrial outer membrane, such as digitonin, or maintain outer membrane exchange of adenine nucleotide, such as Bcl-x(L), restored ADP-dependent control of mitochondrial respiration. Together, these data suggest that the regulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeability contributes to respiratory control.

  11. Chronic sleep deprivation markedly reduces coagulation factor VII expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinotti, Mirko; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Frigato, Elena; Branchini, Alessio; Cavallari, Nicola; Baba, Kenkichi; Contreras-Alcantara, Susana; Ehlen, J. Christopher; Bernardi, Francesco; Paul, Ketema N.; Tosini, Gianluca

    2010-01-01

    Chronic sleep loss, a common feature of human life in industrialized countries, is associated to cardiovascular disorders. Variations in functional parameters of coagulation might contribute to explain this relationship. By exploiting the mouse model and a specifically designed protocol, we demonstrated that seven days of partial sleep deprivation significantly decreases (−30.5%) the thrombin generation potential in plasma evaluated upon extrinsic (TF/FVIIa pathway) but not intrinsic activation of coagulation. This variation was consistent with a decrease (−49.8%) in the plasma activity levels of factor VII (FVII), the crucial physiologicalal trigger of coagulation, which was even more pronounced at the liver mRNA level (−85.7%). The recovery in normal sleep conditions for three days completely restored thrombin generation and FVII activity in plasma. For the first time, we demonstrate that chronic sleep deprivation on its own reduces, in a reversible manner, the FVII expression levels, thus influencing the TF/FVIIa activation pathway efficiency. PMID:20418241

  12. What Factors Are Important in Smoking Cessation Amongst Deprived Communities?: A Qualitative Study

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    Henderson, Hazel J.; Memon, Anjum; Lawson, Kate; Jacobs, Barbara; Koutsogeorgou, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    Objective: There is limited evidence regarding effective smoking cessation interventions in deprived communities. This study explored what factors are considered most important in smoking cessation, from the perspective of a group of NHS Stop Smoking Service users from a deprived community. Design: A qualitative study. Setting: A deprived…

  13. Aggregation patterns of fetal rat brain cells following exposure to X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, R.; Suzuki, K.; Lee, I.P.

    1980-01-01

    In our search for a simplified in vitro test system to assess the teratogenic effects of physical factors, we studied the effects of total maternal body X-irradiation on aggregation patterns of enzymatically isolated fetal rat brain cells and on ultrastructural aggregate changes. The fetal brain cells were derived from day 14 gestation fetuses of pregnant Sprague-Dawley (CD strain) rats exposed to X-irradiation (25 - 200 R) one hour prior to sacrifice. Notable changes in the cell aggregates following X-irradiation included a reduction in cell aggregate size and an increase in number. The frequency of cell aggregates was higher in the treated than in the control group, and the mean diameter of cell aggregates was inversely related to increasing X-irradiation doses. Transmission electron microscopy revealed in isolated cells features of degenerative process which were similar to those found in intact fetal brain lesions caused by maternal X-irradiation. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy revealed that inhibition of cell aggregation following X-irradiation could probably be attributed to inhibition of membrane filopodia development and a consequent failure of cell aggregates to fuse into a greater cell aggregate mass. These results suggest that the membrane factors which influence cell aggregation may be a useful parameter to assess early effects of X-irradiation-induced brain deformity. Presently, the cell aggregation culture system is being further evaluated as a short term test system for environmental teratogens

  14. Protein synthesis in x-irradiated rabbit lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garadi, R.; Foltyn, A.R.; Giblin, F.J.; Reddy, V.N.

    1984-01-01

    The present study deals with the incorporation of 35 S methionine into lens crystallins as a function of time after x-irradiation. Crystallin synthesis is first affected approximately 4 weeks following x-irradiation. This coincides with the time period at which the ratio of the two cations in the lens is affected, as shown in earlier studies. A greater decrease in 35 S-methionine incorporation into crystallins is observed between 5-7 weeks following x-irradiation in good agreement with a cation imbalance at these time intervals. These studies also revealed for the first time that the change in cation distribution can affect not only crystallin synthesis, but also the synthesis of certain polypeptides of lens membranes. No alteration in protein synthesis could be detected in lens epithelium even after 7 weeks following irradiation. In addition to the effect of Na+ and K+ levels on protein synthesis, an impaired transport of amino acids into the x-rayed lens was also found to be a factor in the observed reduction in synthesis of the crystallin, cytoskeletal and membrane proteins of the fiber cells. It is concluded that Na+/K+ ratio as well as the availability of amino acids in the lens are important factors in protein synthesis of x-ray cataracts

  15. Synergistic Interactions of Neuroprotective and Neurotrophic Factors Against Sleep Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-30

    signals to cerebral cortex , regulation of consciousness, alertness, and sleep Brainstem Nerve connections of motor and sensory systems, maintaining...thalamus functions include sensory and motor signals to the cerebral cortex . In addition, the thalamus is also involved in regulation of...sleep deprivation in cerebral cortex of rats (19). However, in this published study, the authors used only two animals (n=2) in each experimental

  16. Effects of methylandrostenediol and a lymphostimulatory thymic factor (leucotrofin) on the reactivity of adrenal cortex of X-irradiated A2G mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, A.D.; Rusu, V.M.; Borsa, M.; Uray, Z.; Banu, C.

    1982-01-01

    Administration of methylandrostenediol alone or with Leucotrofin to whole-body irradiated A2G mice was associated with the diminuation of some enzymatic reactions in the zona fasciculata of the adrenals after 30 days on irradiation in comparison with the irradiated controls. The incorporation rate of (2- 14 C)acetate into free cholesterol and glucocorticoid, de novo synthesized in the adrenals of the protected mice, was decreased compared to the untreated animals. These data showed that late irradiation damage - caused by enhanced synthesis and secretion of catabolic corticosteroids - could be prevented by administration of anabolic steroids and lymphostimulatory thymic factors, which protect the lymphoid system from lymphotoxic agents. (author)

  17. Effects of methylandrostenediol and a lymphostimulatory thymic factor (leucotrofin) on the reactivity of adrenal cortex of X-irradiated A2G mice

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    Abraham, A.D.; Rusu, V.M.; Borsa, M.; Uray, Z.; Banu, C. (Biological Research Centre, Cluj (Romania))

    1982-03-01

    Administration of methylandrostenediol alone or with Leucotrofin to whole-body irradiated A2G mice was associated with the diminuation of some enzymatic reactions in the zona fasciculata of the adrenals after 30 days on irradiation in comparison with the irradiated controls. The incorporation rate of (2-/sup 14/C)acetate into free cholesterol and glucocorticoid, de novo synthesized in the adrenals of the protected mice, was decreased compared to the untreated animals. These data showed that late irradiation damage - caused by enhanced synthesis and secretion of catabolic corticosteroids - could be prevented by administration of anabolic steroids and lymphostimulatory thymic factors, which protect the lymphoid system from lymphotoxic agents.

  18. Factors contributing to sleep deprivation in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J. Ehlers

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients in intensive care units require rest and sleep to recuperate, but might suffer from sleep deprivation due to ongoing unit activities. The study aimed to identify and describe the factors contributing to sleep deprivation in one multi-disciplinary intensive care unit (MDICU in a private hospital in South Africa. Quantitative, descriptive research was conducted to identify factors contributing to sleep deprivation in the research setting, and to make recommendations to enhance these patients’ abilities to sleep. Structured interviews were conducted with 34 adult non-ventilated patients who had spent at least one night in the MDICU and who gave informed consent. Out of the 34 interviewed patients 70.6% (n = 24 indicated that they suffered from sleep deprivation in the MDICU. The five major factors contributing to sleep deprivation in a MDICU were, (1 not knowing nurses’ names, noise caused by alarms, (2 stress, (3 inability to understand medical terms, and (3 blood pressure cuffs that restricted patients’ movements and smelled badly. Patients’ abilities to sleep were enhanced by reassuring nurses whose names they knew and with whom they could communicate. By attending to the identified five major factors, patients’ abilities to sleep in a MDICU could be enhanced enabling patients to recuperate faster. The implementation of such measures need not incur financial costs for the MDICU concerned.

  19. Factors contributing to sleep deprivation in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J. Ehlers

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients in intensive care units require rest and sleep to recuperate, but might suffer from sleep deprivation due to ongoing unit activities. The study aimed to identify and describe the factors contributing to sleep deprivation in one multi-disciplinary intensive care unit MDICU in a private hospital in South Africa. Quantitative, descriptive research was conducted to identify factors contributing to sleep deprivation in the research setting, and to make recommendations to enhance these patients’ abilities to sleep. Structured interviewswere conducted with 34 adult non-ventilated patients who had spent at least one night in the MDICU and who gave informed consent. Out of the 34 interviewed patients 70.6% n = 24 indicated that they suffered from sleep deprivation in the MDICU. The five major factors contributing to sleep deprivation in a MDICU were, (1 not knowing nurses’ names, noise caused by alarms, (2 stress, (3 inability to understand medical terms, and (3 blood pressure cuffs that restricted patients’ movements and smelled badly. Patients’ abilities to sleep were enhanced by reassuring nurses whose names they knew and with whom they could communicate. By attending to the identified five major factors, patients’ abilities to sleep in a MDICU could be enhanced enabling patients to recuperate faster. The implementation of such measures need not incur financial costs for the MDICU concerned.

  20. Human reliability under sleep deprivation: Derivation of performance shaping factor multipliers from empirical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, Candice D.; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a probabilistic approach that could use empirical data to derive values of performance shaping factor (PSF) multipliers for use in quantitative human reliability analysis (HRA). The proposed approach is illustrated with data on sleep deprivation effects on performance. A review of existing HRA methods reveals that sleep deprivation is not explicitly included at present, and expert opinion is frequently used to inform HRA model multipliers. In this paper, quantitative data from empirical studies regarding the effect of continuous hours of wakefulness on performance measures (reaction time, accuracy, and number of lapses) are used to develop a method to derive PSF multiplier values for sleep deprivation, in the context of the SPAR-H model. Data is extracted from the identified studies according to the meta-analysis research synthesis method and used to investigate performance trends and error probabilities. The error probabilities in test and control conditions are compared, and the resulting probability ratios are suggested for use in informing the selection of PSF multipliers in HRA methods. Although illustrated for sleep deprivation, the proposed methodology is general, and can be applied to other performance shaping factors. - Highlights: • Method proposed to derive performance shaping factor multipliers from empirical data. • Studies reporting the effect of sleep deprivation on performance are analyzed. • Test data using psychomotor vigilance tasks are analyzed. • Error probability multipliers computed for reaction time, lapses, and accuracy measures.

  1. Differential effects of total and partial sleep deprivation on salivary factors in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasisi, Dr T J; Shittu, S T; Meludu, C C; Salami, A A

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on salivary factors in rats. Animals were randomly assigned into three groups of 6 animals each as control, total sleep deprivation (TSD) and partial sleep deprivation (PSD) groups. The multiple platform method was used to induce partial and total sleep deprivation for 7days. On the 8th day, stimulated saliva samples were collected for the analysis of salivary lag time, flow rate, salivary amylase activity, immunoglobulin A secretion rate and corticosterone levels using ELISA and standard kinetic enzyme assay. Data were analyzed using ANOVA with Dunnett T3 post hoc tests. Salivary flow rate reduced significantly in the TSD group compared with the PSD group as well as the control group (p=0.01). The secretion rate of salivary IgA was significantly reduced in the TSD group compared with the control group (p=0.04). Salivary amylase activity was significantly elevated in the TSD group compared with the PSD group as well as control group (psalivary lag time and levels of corticosterone among the groups. These findings suggest that total sleep deprivation is associated with reduced salivary flow rate and secretion rate of IgA as well as elevated levels of salivary amylase activity in rats. However, sleep recovery of four hours in the PSD group produced ameliorative effects on the impaired functions of salivary glands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular system following testicular X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verjans, H.L.; Eik-Nes, K.B.

    1976-01-01

    Testes of adult, male rats were exposed to a total dose of 1500 R of X-irradiation. Testicular weight decreased from day 8 after X-ray treatment. This decrease was, however, precded by an increment of the testis weight on day 4 following treatment. X-ray treatment of testes was associated with significant increase in serum FSH. Testicular irradiation had, however, no effect on ventral prostate and seminal vesicles weights. Serum testosterone increased only on day 1, 2 and 4 after irradiation, while serum LH levels tended to increase from day 8 post-irradiation. These changes were not significant, however, when compared with non-irradiated controls. At 7, 13 and 20 days following 1500 R of bilateral, testicular X-irradiation, the hypothalamic-pituitary unit was still capable of responding to exogenous gonadotrophin releasing factor. Serum FSH may in male rats be regulated at least partly by circulating steroids of testicular origin and partly by an unknown factor of non-interstitial cell nature. (author)

  3. Upregulation of the coagulation factor VII gene during glucose deprivation is mediated by activating transcription factor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Katherine R; Mangan, Thomas P; Carew, Josephine A

    2012-01-01

    Constitutive production of blood coagulation proteins by hepatocytes is necessary for hemostasis. Stressful conditions trigger adaptive cellular responses and delay processing of most proteins, potentially affecting plasma levels of proteins secreted exclusively by hepatocytes. We examined the effect of glucose deprivation on expression of coagulation proteins by the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2. Expression of coagulation factor VII, which is required for initiation of blood coagulation, was elevated by glucose deprivation, while expression of other coagulation proteins decreased. Realtime PCR and ELISA demonstrated that the relative percentage expression +/- SD of steady-state F7 mRNA and secreted factor VII antigen were significantly increased (from 100+/-15% to 188+/-27% and 100+/-8.8% to 176.3+/-17.3% respectively, pfactor ATF4 and of additional stress-responsive genes. Small interfering RNAs directed against ATF4 potently reduced basal F7 expression, and prevented F7 upregulation by glucose deprivation. The response of the endogenous F7 gene was replicated in reporter gene assays, which further indicated that ATF4 effects were mediated via interaction with an amino acid response element in the F7 promoter. Our data indicated that glucose deprivation enhanced F7 expression in a mechanism reliant on prior ATF4 upregulation primarily due to increased transcription from the ATF4 gene. Of five coagulation protein genes examined, only F7 was upregulated, suggesting that its functions may be important in a systemic response to glucose deprivation stress.

  4. Socioeconomic deprivation is an independent risk factor for behavioral problems in children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Joanna; Weir, Andrew; Chin, Richard F; McLellan, Ailsa

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether socioeconomic deprivation in children with epilepsy (CWE) increases risk for behavioral problems independent of seizure factors. A cross-sectional study was done in which parents of children attending a specialist epilepsy clinic were invited to complete a child behavior checklist (CBCL) questionnaire about their child. Medical and sociodemographic data on CWE were obtained through their pediatric neurologists. Home postal code was used to obtain quintiles of Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation 2012 (SIMD2012) scores for individuals. Lower (1-3) quintiles correspond to higher socioeconomic deprivation. Regression analysis was used to investigate whether a lower quintile was an independent risk factor for scores >63 (significant behavioral problem). Parents of 87 children (42 male, mean age of 10.5years) were enrolled. Fifty-nine percent had total scores >63. A higher proportion of children from quintiles 1-3 compared to those from quintiles 4-5 had externalizing (49% vs. 25%, p=0.02) and total (54% vs. 30%, p=0.02) scores >63. Adjusted OR of quintiles 1-3 vs. 4-5 for scores >63=14.8, 95% CI=3.0, 68.0. Fewer children with scores >63 and from quintiles 1-3 were known to the child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS) compared to those in quintiles 4-5 (p=0.01). Socioeconomic deprivation was an independent risk factor for behavioral problems in CWE. Children with epilepsy and behavioral problems who lived in socioeconomically deprived areas received less help. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Gluconeogenesis in lethally X-irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulikova, E.; Ahlers, I.; Praslicka, M.

    1983-01-01

    The in vivo incorporation of U- 14 C-alanine into blood glucose and liver glycogen was measured in rats irradiated with a single whole body lethal dose of X-rays. Changes in gluconeogenic enzyme activities were studied in the liver. Increased incorporation of 14 C-alanine into blood glucose and liver glycogen were found after irradiation. Liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glycogenic activity underwent almost parallel changes and were significantly elevated from the 6th to the 48th hour, with resultant accumulation of glycogen. Glucose-6-phosphatase activity was depressed and there was a negative correlation between it and liver glycogen concentration. Maximum fructose-1,6-diphosphatase activity was found at 48 hours. The results show that glycogen accumulation in the liver and the raised blood glucose level in X-irradiated rats are based on raised gluconeogenesis. (author)

  6. Gluconeogenesis in lethally X-irradiated rats

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    Paulikova, E.; Ahlers, I.; Praslicka, M. (Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Vseobecnej Biologie)

    1983-02-01

    The in vivo incorporation of U-/sup 14/C-alanine into blood glucose and liver glycogen was measured in rats irradiated with a single whole body lethal dose of X-rays. Changes in gluconeogenic enzyme activities were studied in the liver. Increased incorporation of /sup 14/C-alanine into blood glucose and liver glycogen were found after irradiation. Liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glycogenic activity underwent almost parallel changes and were significantly elevated from the 6th to the 48th hour, with resultant accumulation of glycogen. Glucose-6-phosphatase activity was depressed and there was a negative correlation between it and liver glycogen concentration. Maximum fructose-1,6-diphosphatase activity was found at 48 hours. The results show that glycogen accumulation in the liver and the raised blood glucose level in X-irradiated rats are based on raised gluconeogenesis.

  7. Social experiential deprivation in autism spectrum disorders: A possible prognostic factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, Sowmyashree Mayur; Basheer, Salah; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Girimaji, Satish Chandra; Srinath, Shoba

    2017-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are well known to be influenced by various environmental factors. Among these influencers, social experiential deprivation (SED) in infancy is one of them which is not well reported. We explored factors contributing to SED in 11 young children diagnosed to have ASD and compared them to 24 children without SED also having ASD. Intervention mainly addressing factors causing SED for 6 months demonstrated that children with SED had a better outcome at follow up. Could SED be a possible prognostic factor in children with ASD? Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Upregulation of the coagulation factor VII gene during glucose deprivation is mediated by activating transcription factor 4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine R Cronin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Constitutive production of blood coagulation proteins by hepatocytes is necessary for hemostasis. Stressful conditions trigger adaptive cellular responses and delay processing of most proteins, potentially affecting plasma levels of proteins secreted exclusively by hepatocytes. We examined the effect of glucose deprivation on expression of coagulation proteins by the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Expression of coagulation factor VII, which is required for initiation of blood coagulation, was elevated by glucose deprivation, while expression of other coagulation proteins decreased. Realtime PCR and ELISA demonstrated that the relative percentage expression +/- SD of steady-state F7 mRNA and secreted factor VII antigen were significantly increased (from 100+/-15% to 188+/-27% and 100+/-8.8% to 176.3+/-17.3% respectively, p<0.001 at 24 hr of treatment. The integrated stress response was induced, as indicated by upregulation of transcription factor ATF4 and of additional stress-responsive genes. Small interfering RNAs directed against ATF4 potently reduced basal F7 expression, and prevented F7 upregulation by glucose deprivation. The response of the endogenous F7 gene was replicated in reporter gene assays, which further indicated that ATF4 effects were mediated via interaction with an amino acid response element in the F7 promoter. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data indicated that glucose deprivation enhanced F7 expression in a mechanism reliant on prior ATF4 upregulation primarily due to increased transcription from the ATF4 gene. Of five coagulation protein genes examined, only F7 was upregulated, suggesting that its functions may be important in a systemic response to glucose deprivation stress.

  9. X-irradiation-induced emesis in Suncus murinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torii, Yoshifumi; Saito, Hiroshi; Matsuki, Norio; Shikita, Mikio.

    1993-01-01

    X-irradiation-induced emesis was investigated in Suncus murinus, a house musk shrew. Whole body X-irradiation caused emesis, and the calculated ED 50 value that induced emesis in 50% of animals was 429 cGy. At the irradiation dose of 800 cGy all the animals vomited 10.0±2.4 times with a latency of 20.0±2.9 min. The emetogenic effect of X-irradiation was dependent on the part of the body exposed. Abdominal X-irradiation at 1000 cGy caused emesis in all animals studied, whereas the same dose to the head had no emetogenic effect. We investigated several prophylactic methods against X-irradiation-induced emesis. Surgical vagotomy completely inhibited the emesis induced by 800 cGy X-irradiation. Emesis was also prevented by the subcutaneous administration of tropisetron (ICS 205-930, a selective serotonergic 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist) with an ID 50 value of 29 μg/kg. These results suggest that (1) suncus is a useful experimental animal for the study of radiation-induced emesis and the development of prophylactic drugs, (2) serotonin plays an important role in X-irradiation-induced emesis, and (3) X-irradiation-induced emesis is very similar to that caused by cancer chemotherapeutic agents. (author)

  10. Radiation leukemia virus and x-irradiation induce in C57BL/6 mice two distinct T-cell neoplasms: a growth factor-dependent lymphoma and a growth factor-independent lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, Martin; Rothenberg, Ellen; Bogart, M.H.; Jones, O.W.

    1987-01-01

    Two different classes of neoplastic T cells were isolated from radiation leukemia virus (RadLV)-inoculated and from X-ray-treated C57BL/6 mice. One consisted of growth factor-dependent T-cell lymphoma (FD-TCL) lines which were established from the spleens and thymuses of treated mice within a day of lymphoma detection. Non-thymic, factor-dependent TCL cells produced interleukin-2 upon lectin stimulation, and were autostimulatory because they secreted growth factor(s) constitutively. In vivo, FD-TCL cells that were injected intraperitoneally or intravenously homed to the spleen, proliferated in it and killed the injected mice. The isolation and study of FD-TCL cells was facilitated by their cultivation on stromal hematopoietic monolayers in supplemented ''lymphocyte medium'', until an autostimulating, self-sustaining concentration of FD-TCL cells was obtained. FD-TCL cells could not be grown from lymphoid tissue of normal, control mice. In contrast, T-cell lymphoma (TCL) lines, which were established from virus-induced thymomas which had been kept in situ for 4-6 weeks after detection, consisted of factor-independent cells that possessed an aneuploid karyotype. The phenotypic markers of TCL cells differed from those of FD-TCL cells, suggesting heterogeneity in the stages of differentiation at which cells can give rise to growth factor-independent (TCL) and to growth factor-dependent (FD-TCL) lines. (author)

  11. Synergism of X irradiation and radiographic contrast medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, D; Walker, A; Tannahill, A J; White, R G [Glasgow Western Infirmary (UK)

    1981-10-01

    The results indicate that rabbits which had received abdominal x irradiation (750 rad) two hours before RCM (/sup 125/I-labelled meglumine ioglycamate) administration retained a significantly larger amount of RCM in the kidney, liver, spleen and plasma compared with animals which had received RCM with no prior x irradiation. There was no significant difference between the group receiving RCM alone and the group receiving RCM 24 h post-irradiation. With two insignificant exceptions, endotoxin assays were negative.

  12. Variations in risk and protective factors for life satisfaction and mental wellbeing with deprivation: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, Mark A; Lowey, Helen; Hughes, Karen; Deacon, Lynn; Stansfield, Jude; Perkins, Clare

    2012-07-02

    Improving life satisfaction (LS) and mental wellbeing (MWB) is important for better public health. Like other health issues, LS and MWB are closely related to deprivation (i.e. lack of resources). Developing public health measures that reduce inequalities in wellbeing requires an understanding of how factors associated with high and low LS and MWB vary with deprivation. Here, we examine such variations and explore which public health measures are likely to improve wellbeing while reducing related inequalities. A self-administered questionnaire measuring LS and MWB was used with a cross-sectional sample of adults from the North West of England (n = 15,228). Within deprivation tertiles, analyses examined how demographics, health status, employment, relationships and behaviours (alcohol, tobacco, physical exercise) were associated with LS and MWB. Deprivation was strongly related to low LS and MWB with, for instance, 17.1% of the most deprived tertile having low LS compared to 8.9% in the most affluent. After controlling for confounders, across all deprivation tertiles, better self-assessed health status and being in a relationship were protective against low LS and MWB. Unemployment increased risks of low LS across all tertiles but only risks of low MWB in the deprived tertile. For this tertile, South Asian ethnicity and higher levels of exercise were protective against low MWB. In the middle tertile retired individuals had a reduced risk of low MWB and an increased chance of high LS even in comparison to those in employment. Alcohol's impact on LS was limited to the most deprived tertile where heavy drinkers were at most risk of poor outcomes. In this study, positive outcomes for LS and MWB were strongly associated with lower deprivation and good health status. Public health measures already developed to promote these issues are likely to improve LS and MWB. Efforts to increase engagement in exercise are also likely to have positive impacts, particularly in deprived

  13. Variations in risk and protective factors for life satisfaction and mental wellbeing with deprivation: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellis Mark A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving life satisfaction (LS and mental wellbeing (MWB is important for better public health. Like other health issues, LS and MWB are closely related to deprivation (i.e. lack of resources. Developing public health measures that reduce inequalities in wellbeing requires an understanding of how factors associated with high and low LS and MWB vary with deprivation. Here, we examine such variations and explore which public health measures are likely to improve wellbeing while reducing related inequalities. Methods A self-administered questionnaire measuring LS and MWB was used with a cross-sectional sample of adults from the North West of England (n = 15,228. Within deprivation tertiles, analyses examined how demographics, health status, employment, relationships and behaviours (alcohol, tobacco, physical exercise were associated with LS and MWB. Results Deprivation was strongly related to low LS and MWB with, for instance, 17.1 % of the most deprived tertile having low LS compared to 8.9 % in the most affluent. After controlling for confounders, across all deprivation tertiles, better self-assessed health status and being in a relationship were protective against low LS and MWB. Unemployment increased risks of low LS across all tertiles but only risks of low MWB in the deprived tertile. For this tertile, South Asian ethnicity and higher levels of exercise were protective against low MWB. In the middle tertile retired individuals had a reduced risk of low MWB and an increased chance of high LS even in comparison to those in employment. Alcohol’s impact on LS was limited to the most deprived tertile where heavy drinkers were at most risk of poor outcomes. Conclusions In this study, positive outcomes for LS and MWB were strongly associated with lower deprivation and good health status. Public health measures already developed to promote these issues are likely to improve LS and MWB. Efforts to increase engagement in

  14. Quantification of 5-hydroxytryptamine1A receptors in the cerebellum of normal and x-irradiated rats during postnatal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthiessen, L.; Daval, G.; Bailly, Y.; Gozlan, H.; Hamon, M.; Verge, D.

    1992-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine 1A receptors were studied in rats during the first postnatal month in the normal cerebellum and in the granule cell-deprived cerebellum produced by X-irradiation at postnatal day 5. Quantitative autoradiographic studies on sagittal sections of cerebellar vermis, using [ 125 1]BH-8-MeO-N-PAT as radioligand or specific anti-receptor antibodies, revealed that 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A receptors existed in the molecular/Purkinje cell layer but at variable density from one lobule to another. Thus, in both normal and X-irradiated rats, the posterior lobules were more heavily labelled than the anterior ones, and the density of 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A sites decreased progressively in all the cerebellar folia down to hardly detectable levels at postnatal day 21. However, the intensity of labelling remained higher at postnatal day 8 and postnatal day 12 in X-irradiated rats than in age-paired controls. Measurements of [ 3 H]8-OH-DPAT [8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin] specific binding to membranes from whole cerebellum confirmed that the density of 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A sites per mg membrane protein (B max ) was higher in X-irradiated animals than in age-paired controls. However, on a ''per cerebellum'' basis, no significant difference could be detected between the total number of 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A sites, which progressively increased in both control and X-irradiated animals during the first postnatal month. These results therefore show that 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A receptors are not located on developing granule cells. (author)

  15. Obesity is associated with fatal coronary heart disease independently of traditional risk factors and deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, Jennifer; Murray, Heather M; Welsh, Paul; Shepherd, James; Packard, Chris; Macfarlane, Peter; Cobbe, Stuart; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed

    2011-04-01

    The effect of body mass index (BMI) on coronary heart disease (CHD) risk is attenuated when mediators of this risk (such as diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia) are accounted for. However, there is now evidence of a differential effect of risk factors on fatal and non-fatal CHD events, with markers of inflammation more strongly associated with fatal than non-fatal events. To describe the association with BMI separately for both fatal and non-fatal CHD risk after accounting for classical risk factors and to assess any independent effects of obesity on CHD risk. In the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study BMI in 6082 men (mean age 55 years) with hypercholesterolaemia, but no history of diabetes or CVD, was related to the risk of fatal and non-fatal CHD events. After excluding participants with any event in the first 2 years, 1027 non-fatal and 214 fatal CHD events occurred during 14.7 years of follow-up. A minimally adjusted model (age, sex, statin treatment) and a maximally adjusted model (including known CVD risk factors and deprivation) were compared, with BMI 25-27.4 kg/m² as referent. The risk of non-fatal events was similar across all BMI categories in both models. The risk of fatal CHD events was increased in men with BMI 30.0-39.9 kg/m² in both the minimally adjusted model (HR = 1.75 (95% CI 1.12 to 2.74)) and the maximally adjusted model (HR = 1.60 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.53)). These hypothesis generating data suggest that obesity is associated with fatal, but not non-fatal, CHD after accounting for known cardiovascular risk factors and deprivation. Clinical trial registration WOSCOPS was carried out and completed before the requirement for clinical trial registration.

  16. Possible genetic damage from diagnostic x irradiation. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withrow, T.J.; Andersen, F.A.; Yao, K.T.S.; Stratmeyer, M.E.

    1980-08-01

    Although it is known that x irradiation is capable of producing mutations and chromosomal abnormalities in experimental systems, there is little or no direct evidence of such phenomena in humans. This report reviews some human genetic diseases and chromosomal abnormalities as well as the evidence for x-ray induced mutations and chromosomal abnormalities in experimental systems. The examination of these areas reveals that spontaneous chromosomal abnormalities and genetic diseases are associated with the same type of DNA damage that x irradiation produces in experimental systems. Therefore, it is concluded that genetic radiation damage in humans may mainfest itself as an increase in the spontaneous genetic diseases rather than as any unique disease

  17. The protective effect of Royal Jelly against the hemopoiesis dysfunction in X-irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emori, Yutaka; Oka, Hideki; Ohya, Osamu; Tamaki, Hajime; Hayashi, Yoshiro [Zeria Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Konan, Saitama (Japan). Central Research Laboratories; Nomoto, Kikuo

    1998-02-01

    The protective effect of Royal Jelly (RJ) against the hemopoietic dysfunction in whole body X-irradiated C57BL/6 mice was investigated. When RJ (1.0 g/kg, po or 0.5 g/kg, ip) was administered every day beginning two weeks before X-irradiation (10 Gy), a significant increase in the number of leukocytes and erythrocytes was observed in mice treated with RJ, as compared with X-irradiated control. In addition, the number of colony forming units in culture (CFU-C) of bone marrow cells or splenocytes was significantly increased in mice treated with RJ. Therefore, when granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-3 (IL-3) in peripheral blood was measured by ELISA kit, a significant increase in the amount of GM-CSF and IL-3 was observed. These results suggest that the protective effect of RJ against hemopoietic dysfunction could be expressed through an increase in the number of hemopoietic stem cells by the induction of hemopoietic factor such as GM-CSF and IL-3. (author)

  18. Isothermal annealing kinetics of X-irradiated pyrene by EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partiti, C.S.M.; Pontuschka, W.M.; Fazzio, A.; Piccini, A.

    1989-07-01

    The annealing behavior of X-irradiated stable free radicals found in Pyrene (C 16 H 10 ) single crystals was studied by EPR. Two processes of thermal decay kinetics were found, both with the same activation energy (1.9±0.1) ev. (author) [pt

  19. Neuronal damage in chick and rat embryos following X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, B.F.; Norton, S.

    1980-01-01

    Exposure of rat and chick embryos to X-irradiation at the time of development of neurons at the telencephalic-diencephalic border results in prolonged damage to neurons in this area as measured by neuronal nuclear size. A dose of 100 rads to the seven-day-old chick embryo has about the same effect as 125 rads to the 15-day-old rat fetus. The nuclear volume of large, multipolar neurons in the chick paleostriatum primitivum and the rat lateral preoptic area are reduced from 10 to 15%. Larger doses of X-irradiation to the chick (150 and 200 rads) cause progressively greater reductions in nuclear size. The large neurons which were measured in the rat and chick are morphologically similar in the two species. Both contain cytoplasmic acetylcholinesterase and have several branched, spiny dendritic processes. The similarity of response of chick and rat neurons to X-irradiation diminishes the significance of maternal factors as the cause of the effects of fetal irradiation in these experiments

  20. Cardiometabolic and Skeletal Risk Factors in Black Men with Prostate Cancer Starting Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnarsson, Orvar, E-mail: orvar.gunnarsson@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, 16 Penn Tower, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Basaria, Shehzad [Department of Medicine, Section of Men’s Health, Aging and Metabolism, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Gignac, Gretchen A. [Department of Medicine, Section of Hematology and Oncology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118 (United States)

    2015-04-22

    Background: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa) is associated with multiple metabolic complications, previously predominantly evaluated in the white population. Methods: A chart-based retrospective review was conducted on black patients with PCa, considered for ADT, from September 2007 to July 2010. Baseline data were collected on body mass index (BMI), vitamin-D status, bone mineral density (BMD), dyslipidemia and diabetes. Overweight and obesity were classified as BMI ≥ 25 and BMI ≥ 30, respectively. Vitamin-D sufficiency was defined as levels ≥30 ng/mL, insufficiency as <30 ng/mL and deficiency as ≤20 ng/mL. Osteopenia was defined as T scores between −1 to −2.5 and osteoporosis when T scores ≤−2.5. Results: Of the initial cohort of 130 black men, 111 (85.4%) patients underwent ADT. At baseline, average BMI was 28.1 ± 5.9 with 43.3% of men being overweight and 30.8% obese. More than one-third of the patients had pre-existing dyslipidemia while 28.8% were diabetics. 50% were vitamin-D deficient while 41% had low bone mass. Conclusions: Black men with PCa presenting for consideration of ADT have a high prevalence of existing metabolic risk factors. Close monitoring of this patient population is needed during ADT to prevent and treat metabolic complications.

  1. Cardiometabolic and Skeletal Risk Factors in Black Men with Prostate Cancer Starting Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnarsson, Orvar; Basaria, Shehzad; Gignac, Gretchen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa) is associated with multiple metabolic complications, previously predominantly evaluated in the white population. Methods: A chart-based retrospective review was conducted on black patients with PCa, considered for ADT, from September 2007 to July 2010. Baseline data were collected on body mass index (BMI), vitamin-D status, bone mineral density (BMD), dyslipidemia and diabetes. Overweight and obesity were classified as BMI ≥ 25 and BMI ≥ 30, respectively. Vitamin-D sufficiency was defined as levels ≥30 ng/mL, insufficiency as <30 ng/mL and deficiency as ≤20 ng/mL. Osteopenia was defined as T scores between −1 to −2.5 and osteoporosis when T scores ≤−2.5. Results: Of the initial cohort of 130 black men, 111 (85.4%) patients underwent ADT. At baseline, average BMI was 28.1 ± 5.9 with 43.3% of men being overweight and 30.8% obese. More than one-third of the patients had pre-existing dyslipidemia while 28.8% were diabetics. 50% were vitamin-D deficient while 41% had low bone mass. Conclusions: Black men with PCa presenting for consideration of ADT have a high prevalence of existing metabolic risk factors. Close monitoring of this patient population is needed during ADT to prevent and treat metabolic complications

  2. Cardiometabolic and Skeletal Risk Factors in Black Men with Prostate Cancer Starting Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orvar Gunnarsson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT for prostate cancer (PCa is associated with multiple metabolic complications, previously predominantly evaluated in the white population. Methods: A chart-based retrospective review was conducted on black patients with PCa, considered for ADT, from September 2007 to July 2010. Baseline data were collected on body mass index (BMI, vitamin-D status, bone mineral density (BMD, dyslipidemia and diabetes. Overweight and obesity were classified as BMI ≥ 25 and BMI ≥ 30, respectively. Vitamin-D sufficiency was defined as levels ≥30 ng/mL, insufficiency as <30 ng/mL and deficiency as ≤20 ng/mL. Osteopenia was defined as T scores between −1 to −2.5 and osteoporosis when T scores ≤−2.5. Results: Of the initial cohort of 130 black men, 111 (85.4% patients underwent ADT. At baseline, average BMI was 28.1 ± 5.9 with 43.3% of men being overweight and 30.8% obese. More than one-third of the patients had pre-existing dyslipidemia while 28.8% were diabetics. 50% were vitamin-D deficient while 41% had low bone mass. Conclusions: Black men with PCa presenting for consideration of ADT have a high prevalence of existing metabolic risk factors. Close monitoring of this patient population is needed during ADT to prevent and treat metabolic complications.

  3. Sustained Partial Sleep Deprivation: Effects on Immune Modulation and Growth Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullington, Janet M.

    1999-01-01

    The vulnerability to medical emergencies is greatest in space where there are real limits to the availability or effectiveness of ground based assistance. Moreover, astronaut safety and health maintenance will be of increasing importance as we venture out into space for extended periods of time. It is therefore critical to understand the mechanisms of the regulatory physiology of homeostatic systems (sleep, circadian, neuroendocrine, fluid and nutritional balance) and the key roles played in adaptation. This synergy project has combined aims of the "Human Performance Factors, Sleep and Chronobiology Team"; the "Immunology, Infection and Hematology Team"; and the "Muscle Alterations and Atrophy Team", to broadly address the effects of long term sleep reduction, as is frequently encountered in space exploration, on neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and circulating growth factors. Astronaut sleep is frequently curtailed to averages of between 4- 6.5 hours per night. There is evidence that this amount of sleep is inadequate for maintaining optimal daytime functioning. However, there is a lack of information concerning the effects of chronic sleep restriction, or reduction, on regulatory physiology in general, and there have been no controlled studies of the cumulative effects of chronic sleep reduction on neuroendocrine and neuroimmune parameters. This synergy project represents a pilot study designed to characterize the effects of chronic partial sleep deprivation (PSD) on neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and growth factors. This project draws its subjects from two (of 18) conditions of the larger NSBRI project, "Countermeasures to Neurobehavioral Deficits from Cumulative Partial Sleep Deprivation During Space Flight", one of the projects on the "Human Performance Factors, Sleep and Chronobiology Team ". For the purposes of this study, to investigate the effects of chronic sleep loss on neuroendocrine and neuroimmune function, we have focused on the two extreme sleep conditions

  4. Early survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium enhances activity-dependent survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien eFrançois

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The neuronal olfactory epithelium undergoes permanent renewal because of environmental aggression. This renewal is partly regulated by factors modulating the level of neuronal apoptosis. Among them, we had previously characterized endothelin as neuroprotective. In this study, we explored the effect of cell survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium by intranasal delivery of endothelin receptors antagonists to rat pups. This treatment induced an overall increase of apoptosis in the olfactory epithelium. The responses to odorants recorded by electroolfactogram were decreased in treated animal, a result consistent with a loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs. However, the treated animal performed better in an olfactory orientation test based on maternal odor compared to non-treated littermates. This improved performance could be due to activity-dependent neuronal survival of OSNs in the context of increased apoptosis level. In order to demonstrate it, we odorized pups with octanal, a known ligand for the rI7 olfactory receptor (Olr226. We quantified the number of OSN expressing rI7 by RT-qPCR and whole mount in situ hybridization. While this number was reduced by the survival factor removal treatment, this reduction was abolished by the presence of its ligand. This improved survival was optimal for low concentration of odorant and was specific for rI7-expressing OSNs. Meanwhile, the number of rI7-expressing OSNs was not affected by the odorization in non-treated littermates; showing that the activity-dependant survival of OSNs did not affect the OSN population during the 10 days of odorization in control conditions. Overall, our study shows that when apoptosis is promoted in the olfactory mucosa, the activity-dependent neuronal plasticity allows faster tuning of the olfactory sensory neuron population towards detection of environmental odorants.

  5. The effects of X-irradiation on the chondrogensis of mesenchymal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jong Ryeol

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that X-irradiation affects on maturing process of differentiated chondrocytes. Nevertheless, It has been remained elusively whether X-irradiation affects the process of differentiation of mesenchymal cells which differentiate into chondrocyte, fibroblast, or muscle cells. In this study, we examined the effect of X-irradiation (with 1 to 10 Gy) on chondrogenesis using mesenchymal cells of chick limb bud. Our results show that X-irradiation dose-dependently inhibited chondrogenesis. This result suggests that immature chondroblast-like mesenchymal cells are sensitive to X-irradiation, Moreover, X-irradiation affects not only maturing process of chondrocytes, but also inhibits the chondrogenesis. Taken together, we demonstrate that the whole process of differentiation of mature chondrocytes from mesenchymal cells is affected by X-irradiation and undifferentiated cells were more affected by X-irradiation than mature cells

  6. Clinical outcomes of childhood x-irradiation for lymphoid hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottern, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted to explore the relationship between childhood x-irradiation for lymphoid hyperplasia and the subsequent development of thyroid gland and other head and neck disorders. All individuals under 18 years of age who were x-irradiated for lymphoid hyperplasia during the years 1938-69 at Children's Hospital Medical Center, Boston comprised the exposed population. The comparison group consisted of non-exposed, surgically treated individuals. The study included a health questionnaire and a clinical examination component. A history of thyroid cancer was reported by 11 exposed subjects and no non-exposed subjects. Significantly elevated standardized incidence ratios of thyroid cancer were seen for both exposed males and females, 19.9 and 12.1, respectively. The average thyroid radiation dose was 25.8 rads and the mean latency period was 17.3 years

  7. Growth regulation in X-irradiated mouse skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgjo, K.; Devik, F.

    1978-01-01

    Extracts of hairless mouse skin were tested for their content of epidermal G 1 inhibitor and G 2 inhibitor at daily intervals after X-irradiation with 4 500 or 2 250 rad. After either dose the skin extracts lacked G 1 inhibitory activity on days 5 and 6 respectively after irradiation. This coincided with the time when the epidermal mitotic rate again became normal and started a period of over-shoot. The time interval of 5 to 6 days corresponds to the turnover time of the differentiating cells in hairless mouse back epidermis. The findings indicate that the proliferating cells in epidermis can respond to changes in local chalone concentration, even after X-irradiation at the tested doses, and that the irradiated epidermal cell population still retains some important properties inherent in a cybernetically regulated system. The local G 2 -inhibitory activity also varied after irradiation, but these variations could not be directly related to the corresponding mitotic rates. (author)

  8. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, perceived neighborhood factors, and cortisol responses to induced stress among healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Wendy E; Stafford, Mai; Hamer, Mark; Beresford, Shirley A A; Koepsell, Thomas; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Associations between measures of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and health have been identified, yet work is needed to uncover explanatory mechanisms. One hypothesized pathway is through stress, yet the few studies that have evaluated associations between characteristics of deprived neighborhoods and biomarkers of stress are mixed. This study evaluated whether objectively measured neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and individual perceived neighborhood characteristics (i.e. social control and fear of crime) impacted cortisol responses to an induced stressor among older healthy adults. Data from Heart Scan, a sub-study of the Whitehall II cohort, were used to generate multilevel piecewise growth-curve models of cortisol trajectories after a laboratory stressor accounting for neighborhood and demographic characteristics. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was significantly associated with individual perceptions of social control and fear of crime in the neighborhood while an association with blunted cortisol reactivity was only evidence among women. Social control was significantly associated with greater cortisol reactivity and mediation between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and cortisol reactivity was suggested among women. These findings support a gender-dependent role of neighborhood in stress process models of health. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Risk factors for bone loss with prostate cancer in Korean men not receiving androgen deprivation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Ouck Kim

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Preexisting bone loss in men with prostate cancer is an important issue due to the accelerated bone loss during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT. In addition, a high prostate-specific antigen (PSA level has been reported to be related to bone metabolism. This study assessed the factors associated with osteoporosis in Korean men with non-metastatic prostate cancer before undergoing ADT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study enrolled patients admitted for a prostate biopsy because of a high PSA or palpable nodule on a digital rectal examination. We divided the patients (n = 172 according to the results of the biopsy: group I, non-metastatic prostate cancer (n = 42 and group II, benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH; n = 130. The lumbar bone mineral density (BMD was evaluated using quantitative computed tomography. The demographic, health status, lifestyle, body mass index (BMI, serum testosterone concentration, and disease variables in prostate cancer (Gleason score, clinical stage, and PSA were analyzed prospectively to determine their effect on the BMD. RESULTS: The estimated mean T-score was higher in group I than in group II (-1.96 ± 3.35 vs. -2.66 ± 3.20, but without statistic significance (p = 0.235. The significant factors correlated with BMD in group I were a high serum PSA (ß = -0.346, p = 0.010 and low BMI (ß = 0.345, p = 0.014 in the multiple linear regression model. Also old age (r = -0.481, p = 0.001, a high serum PSA (r = -0.571, p < 0.001, low BMI (r = 0.598, p < 0.001, and a high Gleason’s score (r = -0.319, p = 0.040 were the factors related to BMD in the correlation. The significant factors correlated with BMD in group II were old age (ß = -0.324, p = 0.001 and BMI (ß = 0.143, p = 0.014 in the multiple linear regression model. CONCLUSIONS: The risk factors for osteoporosis in men with prostate cancer include a low BMI, and elevated serum PSA. Monitoring BMD from the outset of ADT is a logical first step in the clinical

  10. Morphological profiles of neutron and X-irradiated small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, K.E.; O'Shea, O.; Hazzard, R.A.; McCullough, J.S.; Hume, S.P.; Nelson, A.C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the response of mouse small intestine, at several time points after treatment with neutron or X-irradiation, using doses expected to give similar effects in terms of crypt/microcolony survival. Using resin histology, the effects of radiation on the numbers of duodenal cell types and measurements of tissue areas were assessed. The results for individual parameters and for an estimate of overall damage are given in a data display, which summarises the morphological profile of the organ after both types of radiation. Damage and recovery were seen for many of the parameters studied but there was no standard response pattern applicable for all parameters. In particular, the response of individual crypt cell types could not be predicted from knowledge of the change in crypt numbers. With regard to the holistic response of the gut, neutron irradiation appeared to have caused more damage and produced more early effects than the X-irradiation. More specifically, neutron treatment led to more damage to the neuromuscular components of the wall, while X-irradiation produced early vascular changes. (author)

  11. Significance of pretreatment cardiovascular morbidity as a risk factor during treatment with parenteral oestrogen or combined androgen deprivation of 915 patients with metastasized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Robert; Damber, Jan Erik; Hagerman, Inger

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate prognostic risk factors for cardiovascular events during treatment of metastatic prostate cancer patients with high-dose parenteral polyoestradiol phosphate (PEP, Estradurin®) or combined androgen deprivation (CAD) with special emphasis on pretreatment cardiovascular...

  12. Effect of low dose x-irradiation on alloantigen sensitized and unsensitized lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohi, Kiyohiko; Yahata, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Yasuhiko; Asahara, Toshimasa; Ono, Eiji; Ezaki, Haruo

    1984-12-01

    The effect of local graft irradiation on immune response in allograft in which acute rejection occurs was studied using an in vitro model. Unidirectional mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) was used as the in vitro model of acute rejection. 150 and 300 rad x-irradiation suppressed mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) but did not cell-mediated-lympholysis (CML) of unsensitized lymphocytes. X-irradiated alloantigen sensitized cells (ASC) generated in 6-day MLC suppressed MLR and CML of unsensitized lymphocytes. Suppressive effects of x-irradiated ASC were of the same degree by x-irradiation doses of 150-500 rad. Suppressive effect of x-irradiation was maintained for only a short period after x-irradiation. Potential function of suppressor precursor cells among unsensitized lymphocytes was abolished by x-irradiation of 300 rad. (author).

  13. Effects of x-irradiation on lens reducing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giblin, F.J.; Chakrapani, B.; Reddy, V.N.

    1978-01-01

    Studies have been made of the effects of x ray on various lens reducing systems including the levels of NADPH and glutathione (GSH), the activity of the hexose monophosphate shunt (HMS), and the activities of certain enzymes including glutathion reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD). It was found that during several weeks following x irradiation but prior to cataract formation there was very little change in the number of reduced -SH groups per unit weight of lens protein but that, with the appearance of cataract, there was a sudden loss of protein -SH groups. In contrast, the concentration of GSH in the x-rayed lens decreased throughout the experimental period. Similarly, the concentration of NADPH in the x-rayed lens was found to decrease significantly relative to controls one week prior to cataract formation and the ratio of NADPH to NADP + in the lens shifted at this time period from a value greater than 1.0 in the control lens to less than 1.0 in the x-rayed lens. A corresponding decrease occurred in the activity of the HMS in x-rayed lenses as measured by culture in the presence of 1- 14 C-labelled glucose. G-6-PD was partially inactivated in the x-rayed lens. Of the eight enzymes studied, G-6-PD appeared to be the most sensitive to x-irradiation. The data indicate that x-irradiation results in a steady decrease in the effectiveness of lens reducing systems and that, when these systems reach a critically low point, sudden oxidation of protein -SH groups and formation of high molecular weight protein aggregates may be initiated

  14. Effects of x-irradiation on lens reducing systems. [Rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giblin, F.J.; Chakrapani, B.; Reddy, V.N.

    1978-01-01

    Studies have been made of the effects of x ray on various lens reducing systems including the levels of NADPH and glutathione (GSH), the activity of the hexose monophosphate shunt (HMS), and the activities of certain enzymes including glutathion reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD). It was found that during several weeks following x irradiation but prior to cataract formation there was very little change in the number of reduced -SH groups per unit weight of lens protein but that, with the appearance of cataract, there was a sudden loss of protein -SH groups. In contrast, the concentration of GSH in the x-rayed lens decreased throughout the experimental period. Similarly, the concentration of NADPH in the x-rayed lens was found to decrease significantly relative to controls one week prior to cataract formation and the ratio of NADPH to NADP/sup +/ in the lens shifted at this time period from a value greater than 1.0 in the control lens to less than 1.0 in the x-rayed lens. A corresponding decrease occurred in the activity of the HMS in x-rayed lenses as measured by culture in the presence of 1-/sup 14/C-labelled glucose. G-6-PD was partially inactivated in the x-rayed lens. Of the eight enzymes studied, G-6-PD appeared to be the most sensitive to x-irradiation. The data indicate that x-irradiation results in a steady decrease in the effectiveness of lens reducing systems and that, when these systems reach a critically low point, sudden oxidation of protein -SH groups and formation of high molecular weight protein aggregates may be initiated.

  15. Independent occurence of gastric tumor and intestinal metaplasia by x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Ito, Akihiro

    1986-01-01

    The selective occurence of gastric tumors and intestinal metaplasias in the stomach by X-irradiation were described both in mice and rats. The appearance of both lesions was greatly influenced by animal's strains in both species and also by the sex in rats. A few gastric tumors were observed in the animals given a high does with spilt into low doses of X-irradiation. The adequate dose for gastric tumorigenesis may be around 20 Gy in mice and 15 Gy in rats. A good relationship between X-ray dose and incidence of gastric tumor was observed in ICR mice. Frequency of intestinal metaplasia by X-irradiation was much higher in rats compared to that in mice. X-ray dose requested for moderate and induction of intestinal metaplasia was decreased with a dose which was induced erosion and gastric tumor. It has been empirically clarified that an elevation of pH value in the gastric juice is one of the principal factors responsible for the development of intestinal metaplasia in the gastric mucosa among the conditions thus for introduced. In this article, we have introduced the relevant examples about intestinal metaplasia without carcinogenic insult, and the relationship between gastric tumor and intestinal metaplasia were described. The intestinal metaplasia was not always observed within or adjacent to neoplastic gastric glands. A combined treatment of X-ray and MNNG was not effective for gastric tumor and frequency of intestinal metaplasia was inversely related to the incidence of gastric tumors. In conclusion, occurrence of gastric tumor and intestinal metaplasia may be independent, and intestinal metaplasia might not be a prerequite for the occurrence of gastric tumor. (author)

  16. Effect of x-irradiation in rats bearing walker-256-carcinosarcoma and normal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehara, Kazuhiko

    1978-01-01

    Serum protein fractions and total proteins were studied with bloods obtained from the rats exposed each to the partial-, whole-bodies and the transplanted tumors (Walker-256-carcinosarcoma transplanted in the right hind leg). The electrophoretic variation induced in the sera of tumor-bearing rats (Group II), and the content of total proteins decreased. Early irradiation to the tumor part of rats less induced the variations of the electrophoretic pattern and the decrease of the amount of serum total proteins. When the distant metastasis appeared during irradiation treatment, the electrophoretic patterns and content of total proteins changed proportionally to the variation in sera of Group II. On the other hand, the γ-globulin (G) fraction increased in the long-term survival rat. The separation of the rat serum β-G into two peaks of β 1 - and β 2 -G was shown only in Group IV (late irradiation to the right hind leg). This finding supposed that some factors involve in the sera of rats with transplanted primary tumor grown up to a fixed size and guessed the appearance of the distant metastasis during x-irradiation. The percentages of the albumin and γ-G decreased slightly and those of the α 1 -, α 2 - and β-G increased slightly in the rats with 300 rad partial-body (the right hind leg) x-irradiation daily for 20 days. The remarkable decrease of the albumin and γ-G, the increase of the α 1 - and β-G, the marked increase of the α 2 -G and the decrease of serum total proteins were demonstrated for the sera of rats with 1,000 rad whole-body x-irradiation at a time. These phenomena seem to be related to the destructive and reticuloendothelial injury by the exposure. (auth.)

  17. Radiation effects in x-irradiated hydroxy compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budzinski, E.E.; Potter, W.R.; Box, H.C.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation effects are compared in single crystals of xylitol, sorbitol, and dulcitol x-irradiated at 4.2 0 K. In xylitol and dulcitol, but not in sorbitol, a primary oxidation product is identified as an alkoxy radical. ENDOR measurements detected three proton hyperfine couplings associated with the alkoxy ESR absorption, one of which is attributed to a proton three bond lengths removed from the seat of unpaired spin density. Intermolecular trapping of electrons is observed in all three crystals. ENDOR measurements were made of the hyperfine couplings between the trapped electron and the hydroxy protons forming the trap

  18. Survival of Lymphatic Cells after X-Irradiation in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, O. [Medical Biological Laboratory, National Defense Research Organization TNO, Ruswuk, Z.H. (Netherlands)

    1967-07-15

    Lymphatic tissues are generally classified among the most radiosensitive tissues of the body. The main reason for this is that histologically extensive destruction is found within a few hours after irradiation. We tried to estimate the degree of cellular degeneration by making cell suspensions from lymph nodes and thymus of mice at different times after X-irradiation with 800 R or at 24 h after radiation with different doses. The numbers of normal viable cells we obtained were expressed as percentages of the cells recovered from unirradiated control mice.

  19. Interaction of X-irradiated mouse cells in heterokaryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmanova, J.; Spurna, V.

    1985-01-01

    The frequency of heterokaryon formation and the ability of DNA synthesis in the system of mouse X-irradiated L fibroblasts and non-irradiated or irradiated LS/BL lymphosarcoma cells were studied. The frequency of heterokaryons after fusion of one or both irradiated parental cells was 3 to 6 times higher than in the non-irradiated cell cultures. In these heterokaryons we found 1.5 to 3 times more nuclei of irradiated L cells capable of DNA synthesis than in the population of non-fused irradiated cells. (author)

  20. Effect of head x-irradiation on adrenal medullary secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mieno, Masahiro

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the present experiments was to investigate an immediate effect of head x-irradiation on the secretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline by the adrenal medulla. When the dogs were irradiated with 200 or 800 R of x-rays to their heads under pentobarbital anesthesia, the majority of the animals showed no stimulation of the adrenal medulla but the minority showed a slight but definite increase in the secretion of adrenaline, the peak being attained within 60 min after exposure. (auth.)

  1. Influence of vascular endothelial growth factor stimulation and serum deprivation on gene activation patterns of human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tratwal, Josefine; Mathiasen, Anders Bruun; Juhl, Morten

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stimulation of mesenchymal stromal cells and adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been used in multiple animal studies and clinical trials for regenerative purposes. VEGF stimulation is believed to promote angiogenesis and VEGF...... stimulation is usually performed under serum deprivation. Potential regenerative molecular mechanisms are numerous and the role of contributing factors is uncertain. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of in vitro serum deprivation and VEGF stimulation on gene expression patterns...... of ASCs. METHODS: Gene expressions of ASCs cultured in complete medium, ASCs cultured in serum-deprived medium and ASCs stimulated with VEGF in serum-deprived medium were compared. ASC characteristics according to criteria set by the International Society of Cellular Therapy were confirmed by flow...

  2. Quantification of 5-hydroxytryptamine[sub 1A] receptors in the cerebellum of normal and x-irradiated rats during postnatal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthiessen, L; Daval, G; Bailly, Y [Pierre et Marie Curie Univ., Paris (France). Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UA; Gozlan, H; Hamon, M; Verge, D [INSERM, Paris (France). Lab. de Neurobiologie Cellulaire et Fonctionnelle

    1992-11-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine[sub 1A] receptors were studied in rats during the first postnatal month in the normal cerebellum and in the granule cell-deprived cerebellum produced by X-irradiation at postnatal day 5. Quantitative autoradiographic studies on sagittal sections of cerebellar vermis, using [[sup 125]1]BH-8-MeO-N-PAT as radioligand or specific anti-receptor antibodies, revealed that 5-hydroxytryptamine[sub 1A] receptors existed in the molecular/Purkinje cell layer but at variable density from one lobule to another. Thus, in both normal and X-irradiated rats, the posterior lobules were more heavily labelled than the anterior ones, and the density of 5-hydroxytryptamine[sub 1A] sites decreased progressively in all the cerebellar folia down to hardly detectable levels at postnatal day 21. However, the intensity of labelling remained higher at postnatal day 8 and postnatal day 12 in X-irradiated rats than in age-paired controls. Measurements of [[sup 3]H]8-OH-DPAT [8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin] specific binding to membranes from whole cerebellum confirmed that the density of 5-hydroxytryptamine[sub 1A] sites per mg membrane protein (B[sub max]) was higher in X-irradiated animals than in age-paired controls. However, on a ''per cerebellum'' basis, no significant difference could be detected between the total number of 5-hydroxytryptamine[sub 1A] sites, which progressively increased in both control and X-irradiated animals during the first postnatal month. These results therefore show that 5-hydroxytryptamine[sub 1A] receptors are not located on developing granule cells. (author).

  3. Effects of X-irradiation on membranes of tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonck, K.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to gain more insight into the effect of ionizing radiation on biomembranes, especially the membrane phospholipids. A general outline of the experimental approach is given in the first chapter. The influence of membrane-active agents and hyperthermia on cell survival after irradiation was studied. Phospholipid turnover was followed by measuring the incorporation of radioactive precursors. The second chapter is an introduction to general radiobiology and to phospholipid metabolism. After the presentation of some physico-chemical properties of ionizing radiation, the effects on cells and cellular components are described. In chapters 3 to 6 the experimental part is described. Chapter 3 starts with the determination of the cellular survival of L5178Y lymphoma cells after X-irradiation. In chapter 4 the lipid composition of lymphosarcoma cell nuclei is presented and in chapter 5 studies on the effect of X-irradiation on the incorporation of palmitate and arachidonate into the phospholipids of lymphosarcoma cells are described. Chapter 6 describes experiments in which lymphosarcoma cells isolated from the spleens of tumor-bearing mice were used to study the effect of a low dose of X-rays (5 Gy) on the incorporation of [ 3 H]palmitate and [ 14 C]arachidonate into the lipids of the tumor cells. These fatty acids were rapidly incorporated especially into the phospholipids of the cells. Chapter 7 contains a general discussion on the experimental results. (Auth.)

  4. Early Adolescent Outcomes of Institutionally-Deprived and Non-Deprived Adoptees. II: Language as a Protective Factor and a Vulnerable Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Carla; Beckett, Celia; Rutter, Michael; Castle, Jenny; Colvert, Emma; Groothues, Christine; Hawkins, Amanda; Kreppner, Jana; Stevens, Suzanne E.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

    2007-01-01

    Background: There is uncertainty about the extent to which language skills are part of general intelligence and even more uncertainty on whether deprivation has differential effects on language and non-language skills. Methods: Language and cognitive outcomes at 6 and 11 years of age were compared between a sample of 132 institution-reared…

  5. Hypoxia-Independent Downregulation of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Targets by Androgen Deprivation Therapy in Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragnum, Harald Bull; Røe, Kathrine; Holm, Ruth; Vlatkovic, Ljiljana; Nesland, Jahn Marthin; Aarnes, Eva-Katrine; Ree, Anne Hansen; Flatmark, Kjersti; Seierstad, Therese; Lilleby, Wolfgang; Lyng, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We explored changes in hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1) signaling during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) of androgen-sensitive prostate cancer xenografts under conditions in which no significant change in immunostaining of the hypoxia marker pimonidazole had occurred. Methods and Materials: Gene expression profiles of volume-matched androgen-exposed and androgen-deprived CWR22 xenografts, with similar pimonidazole-positive fractions, were compared. Direct targets of androgen receptor (AR) and HIF1 transcription factors were identified among the differentially expressed genes by using published lists. Biological processes affected by ADT were determined by gene ontology analysis. HIF1α protein expression in xenografts and biopsy samples from 35 patients receiving neoadjuvant ADT was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results: A total of 1344 genes showed more than 2-fold change in expression by ADT, including 35 downregulated and 5 upregulated HIF1 targets. Six genes were shared HIF1 and AR targets, and their downregulation was confirmed with quantitative RT-PCR. Significant suppression of the biological processes proliferation, metabolism, and stress response in androgen-deprived xenografts was found, consistent with tumor regression. Nineteen downregulated HIF1 targets were involved in those significant biological processes, most of them in metabolism. Four of these were shared AR and HIF1 targets, including genes encoding the regulatory glycolytic proteins HK2, PFKFB3, and SLC2A1. Most of the downregulated HIF1 targets were induced by hypoxia in androgen-responsive prostate cancer cell lines, confirming their role as hypoxia-responsive HIF1 targets in prostate cancer. Downregulation of HIF1 targets was consistent with the absence of HIF1α protein in xenografts and downregulation in patients by ADT (P<.001). Conclusions: AR repression by ADT may lead to downregulation of HIF1 signaling independently of hypoxic fraction, and this may contribute to

  6. Hypoxia-Independent Downregulation of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Targets by Androgen Deprivation Therapy in Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragnum, Harald Bull [Department of Radiation Biology, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Røe, Kathrine [Department of Radiation Biology, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Division of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog (Norway); Holm, Ruth; Vlatkovic, Ljiljana [Department of Pathology, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Nesland, Jahn Marthin [Department of Pathology, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Medical Faculty, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Aarnes, Eva-Katrine [Department of Radiation Biology, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Ree, Anne Hansen [Division of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog (Norway); Medical Faculty, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Flatmark, Kjersti [Department of Tumor Biology, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Seierstad, Therese [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Faculty of Health Sciences, Buskerud University College, Drammen (Norway); Lilleby, Wolfgang [Department of Oncology, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Lyng, Heidi, E-mail: heidi.lyng@rr-research.no [Department of Radiation Biology, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: We explored changes in hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1) signaling during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) of androgen-sensitive prostate cancer xenografts under conditions in which no significant change in immunostaining of the hypoxia marker pimonidazole had occurred. Methods and Materials: Gene expression profiles of volume-matched androgen-exposed and androgen-deprived CWR22 xenografts, with similar pimonidazole-positive fractions, were compared. Direct targets of androgen receptor (AR) and HIF1 transcription factors were identified among the differentially expressed genes by using published lists. Biological processes affected by ADT were determined by gene ontology analysis. HIF1α protein expression in xenografts and biopsy samples from 35 patients receiving neoadjuvant ADT was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results: A total of 1344 genes showed more than 2-fold change in expression by ADT, including 35 downregulated and 5 upregulated HIF1 targets. Six genes were shared HIF1 and AR targets, and their downregulation was confirmed with quantitative RT-PCR. Significant suppression of the biological processes proliferation, metabolism, and stress response in androgen-deprived xenografts was found, consistent with tumor regression. Nineteen downregulated HIF1 targets were involved in those significant biological processes, most of them in metabolism. Four of these were shared AR and HIF1 targets, including genes encoding the regulatory glycolytic proteins HK2, PFKFB3, and SLC2A1. Most of the downregulated HIF1 targets were induced by hypoxia in androgen-responsive prostate cancer cell lines, confirming their role as hypoxia-responsive HIF1 targets in prostate cancer. Downregulation of HIF1 targets was consistent with the absence of HIF1α protein in xenografts and downregulation in patients by ADT (P<.001). Conclusions: AR repression by ADT may lead to downregulation of HIF1 signaling independently of hypoxic fraction, and this may contribute to

  7. Hormonal levels after ovarian X-irradiation of ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driancourt, M.A.; Blanc, M.R.; Mariana, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of X-irradiation on ovulation rate, cyclicity and progesterone and FSH levels in Ile-de-France ewes (4 control and 16 irradiated) after they were treated during the breeding season were reported. The doses used (800 and 2400 R) destroyed 50% of all size classes of the follicular population. Ovulation occurred in 87% of the treated ewes (ovulation rate = 1) when they were irradiated 24 h after luteolysis; 78% of the corpora lutea resulting from these ovulations were normal as to length and progesterone production. FSH in treated ewes started to increase 20 h after treatment and remained higher than in the controls until ovulation time. Later, while these levels were similar between groups on the day of ovulation, high ovulatory levels persisted in irradiated ewes. In the next cycles, the length of the follicular phases, ovulation rate and progesterone and FSH levels were similar between groups

  8. Prior regular exercise reverses the decreased effects of sleep deprivation on brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the hippocampus of ovariectomized female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadati, Hakimeh; Sheibani, Vahid; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Darvishzadeh-Mahani, Fatemeh; Mazhari, Shahrzad

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies indicated that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the main candidate to mediate the beneficial effects of exercise on cognitive function in sleep deprived male rats. In addition, our previous findings demonstrate that female rats are more vulnerable to the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance and synaptic plasticity. Therefore, the current study was designed to investigate the effects of treadmill exercise and/or sleep deprivation (SD) on the levels of BDNF mRNA and protein in the hippocampus of female rats. Intact and ovariectomized (OVX) female Wistar rats were used in the present experiment. The exercise protocol was four weeks treadmill running and sleep deprivation was accomplished using the multiple platform method. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunoblot analysis were used to evaluate the level of BDNF mRNA and protein in the rat hippocampus respectively. Our results showed that protein and mRNA expression of BDNF was significantly (psleep deprived OVX rats under exercise conditions had a significant (peffect against hippocampus-related functions and impairments induced by sleep deprivation probably by inducing BDNF expression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Migration inhibition of immune mouse spleen cells by serum from x-irradiated tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroson, H.

    1978-01-01

    Tumor-specific antigens of the chemically induced MC 429 mouse fibrosarcoma were detected in a 3 M KCl extract of tumor by the inhibition of migration of specifically immune spleen cells. Using this assay with serum from tumor-bearing mice no tumor antigen was detected in serum of mice bearing small tumors, unless the tumor was exposed to local x irradiation (3000 R) 1 day prior to collection of serum. It was concluded that local x irradiation of tumor caused increased concentration of tumor antigen in the serum. When the tumor was allowed to grow extremely large, with necrosis, then host serum did cause migration inhibition of both nonimmune and immune spleen cells. This migration-inhibition effect was not associated with tumor antigen, but with a nonspecific serum factor

  10. Economic Deprivation and Its Effects on Childhood Conduct Problems: The Mediating Role of Family Stress and Investment Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward M. Sosu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the mechanisms by which experiences of poverty influence the trajectory of conduct problems among preschool children. Drawing on two theoretical perspectives, we focused on family stress (stress and harsh discipline and investment variables (educational investment, nutrition, and cognitive ability as key mediators. Structural equation modeling techniques with prospective longitudinal data from the Growing Up in Scotland survey (N = 3,375 were used. Economic deprivation measured around the first birthday of the sample children had both direct and indirect effects on conduct problems across time (ages 4, 5, and 6. In line with the family stress hypothesis, higher levels of childhood poverty predicted conduct problems across time through increased parental stress and punitive discipline. Consistent with the investment model, childhood deprivation was associated with higher levels of conduct problems via educational investment and cognitive ability. The study extends previous knowledge on the mechanisms of this effect by demonstrating that cognitive ability is a key mediator between poverty and the trajectory of childhood conduct problems. This suggests that interventions aimed at reducing child conduct problems should be expanded to include factors that compromise parenting as well as improve child cognitive ability.

  11. Effect of 48-h food deprivation on the expressions of myosin heavy-chain isoforms and fiber type-related factors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizunoya, Wataru; Sawano, Shoko; Iwamoto, Yohei; Sato, Yusuke; Tatsumi, Ryuichi; Ikeuchi, Yoshihide

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of 48-h food deprivation on rat skeletal muscle fiber type, according to myosin heavy-chain (MyHC) isoform composition and some metabolism-related factors in both slow-type dominant and fast-type dominant muscle tissues. Male Wistar rats (7 wk old) were treated with 48-h food deprivation or ad libitum feeding as control. After the treatment, the soleus muscle (slow-type dominant) and the extensor digitorum longus (EDL, fast-type dominant) were excised. We found that 48-h food deprivation did not affect MyHC composition in either the soleus or EDL, compared with fed rats by electrophoretic separation of MyHC isoforms. However, 48-h food deprivation significantly increased the mRNA expression of fast-type MyHC2B in the EDL muscle. Moreover, food deprivation increased fatty acid metabolism, as shown by elevated levels of related serum energy substrates and mRNA expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein (UCP) 3 and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in both the soleus and EDL. UCP3 and LPL are generally expressed at higher levels in slow-type fibers. Furthermore, we found that food deprivation significantly decreased the protein amounts of PGC1α and phosphorylated FOXO1, which are known as skeletal muscle fiber type regulators. In conclusion, 48-h food deprivation increased mRNA expression of fast-type MyHC isoform and oxidative metabolism-related factors in EDL, whereas MyHC composition at the protein level did not change in either the soleus or EDL.

  12. The effects of low dose X-irradiation on osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been indicated that moderate or high dose of X-irradiation could delay fracture union and cause osteoradionecrosis, in part, mediated by its effect on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. However, whether low dose irradiation (LDI has similar roles on osteoblasts is still unknown. In this study, we investigated whether and to what extent LDI could affect the proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts in vitro. Methods The MC3T3-E1 cells were exposed to single dose of X-irradiation with 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 Gy respectively. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, and mineralization was evaluated by methylthiazoletetrazolium (MTT and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU assay, flow cytometry, ALP viability kit and von Kossa staining, respectively. Osteocalcin (OCN and core-binding factor α1 (Cbfα1 expressions were measured by real time-PCR and western blot, respectively. Results The proliferation of the cells exposed to 2.0 Gy was significantly lower than those exposed to ≤1.0 Gy (p  Conclusions LDI have different effects on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts from those of high dose of X-irradiation, which might suggest that LDI could lead to promotion of frature healing through enhancing the differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts.

  13. Morphological and behavioral evaluation of central nervous system toxicity after embryonic x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, B.F.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to quantify the effects of embryonic x-irradiation on neuronal development and to describe the behavioral effects of such a treatment. Rats were exposed to 125r x-irradiation on gestational day 15

  14. Effect of X-irradiation on the growth and some antioxidase activity in wheat seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qun; Gu Ruiqi

    1997-01-01

    Wheat seedlings of 48h after germination were irradiated with various dosage of X-rays. High dosage X-irradiation, 8 Gy and 14 Gy can inhibited the growth, decrease the freshness weight of wheat seedlings. The height and weight of wheat seedlings decreased with the development of X-irradiation of dosage. The concentration of protein and activity of some antioxidases include ascorbic acid peroxidase (ASA-POD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione transferase (GSH-Ts) were observed on 2nd and 4th day after irradiation. The concentration of protein in wheat seedlings decreases with the development of X-irradiation of dosage. The concentration of protein on 4th day was higher than that on 2nd day showed that the damage of wheat seedlings induced by X-irradiation was resumed during the culture process. X-irradiation can increase activity of ASA-POD, GSH-Px and GSH-Ts of wheat seedlings, and the increase rate of 14 Gy X-irradiation was higher than that of 8 Gy. The activity of ASA-POD and GSH-Px increased during the culture process and the activity of GSH-Ts decreased. That's show that wheat seedlings can increase the activity of antioxidases to resist the damage induced by high dosage X-irradiation. The results of low dosage X-irradiation, 2 Gy is similar as the control

  15. Influence of x-irradiation on pharyngeal induction in the Planarian, Dugesia japonica japonica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, Etsuo

    1980-01-01

    Pharyngeal formation was examined in cases where normal or X-irradiated head pieces were transplanted into the postpharyngeal region of normal or irradiated worms. Transplantation experiments were carried out in four different combinations of hosts and grafts: (1) normal host and graft (control), (2) normal host and irradiated graft, (3) irradiated host and normal graft, (4) irradiated host and graft. In the first experiment, well developed pharynges were formed in the areas both anterior and posterior to the graft on the 14th day after transplantation. In the second experiment, formation of new pharynges was delayed compared with that in the first group. In the third experiment, only one pharynx developed in the area posterior to each graft in most cases. In the last experiment, no new pharynx appeared at all. From these results, the influence of X-rays on factors participating in pharyngeal induction was discussed. (author)

  16. Acceleration of astrocytic differentiation in neural stem cells surviving X-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Ayumi; Suzuki, Keiji; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Ozawa, Hiroki; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2012-03-28

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are highly susceptible to DNA double-strand breaks; however, little is known about the effects of radiation in cells surviving radiation. Although the nestin-positive NSCs predominantly became glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive in differentiation-permissive medium, little or no cells were GFAP positive in proliferation-permissive medium. We found that more than half of the cells surviving X-rays became GFAP positive in proliferation-permissive medium. Moreover, localized irradiation stimulated differentiation of cells outside the irradiated area. These results indicate for the first time that ionizing radiation is able to stimulate astrocyte-specific differentiation of surviving NSCs, whose process is mediated both by the direct activation of nuclear factor-κB and by the indirect bystander effect induced by X-irradiation.

  17. Repair of membrane damage in X-irradiated E. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillies, N.E.; Ratnajothi, N.H.; Hewamanna, R.; Obioha, F.I.

    1984-01-01

    When E. coli B/r or E. coli K12 AB1157 were X-irradiated in the presence of oxygen and incubated immediately after irradiation in broth containing penicillin in concentration that on its own was not lethal to unirradiated bacteria, substantial additional killing was caused. When treatment with penicillin was delayed for increasing times after irradiation the additional killing became progressively less. These results were interpreted as demonstrating the repair or removal of oxygen-dependent radiation-induced lesions in the bacterial membranes. Removal of these lesions was inhibited by incubation of the irradiated bacteria at low temperature before treatment with penicillin or by exposing the cells to a non-lethal concentration of toluene before irradiation. These observations suggest that an enzymatic repair process may be involved in the removal of the membrane lesions. The fatty acid mutant E. coli K 1060 proved exceptional in that some additional killing by penicillin was detectable after anaerobic as well as aerobic irradiation. This points to the importance of membrane composition in the development of those radiation lesions that are brought to light by penicillin treatment. (author)

  18. Production measurements affected by x irradiation of chicken semen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zartman, D.L.; Urquhart, N.S.; Francis, D.W.

    1976-01-01

    Single Comb White Leghorn (S.C.W.L.) and Dark Cornish semen was x-irradiated with 1000 R and introduced into S.C.W.L. hens to produce S.C.W.L. and crossbred chicks. The irradiation reduced the fertilizing capacity of the semen about 25% and the hatchability of the embryos about 38%. Semen of the two breeds was affected differently since there was much less alteration of embryonic development among purebred, S.C.W.L. chicks than among Cornish-sired crossbreds. As is typical, crossbred chicks gained weight faster than purebred S.C.W.L. irrespective of radiation damage. After irradiation, live weight was 4% less at 16 weeks of age for the crossbreds but no substantial effect on growth was evident for the S.C.W.L., although they were significantly heavier at hatching in the irradiated population. The rate of egg production in the first 30 days declined 15% under pressure from the irradiation damage. The distribution, as well as the frequency, of embryonic mortalities changed after parental semen irradiation. The majority of embryonic deaths occurred during the first 6 days of incubation with a coincidental decrease in the proportion of deaths occurring late during incubation. Posthatching mortalities were not affected for S.C.W.L. but were doubled for Cornish up to 16 weeks old

  19. Late effects of x-irradiation in rats, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankovic-Stejin, V.D.; Kanazir, D.T.

    1978-01-01

    The present cytogenetic study was made on the bone marrow cells of 48 male rats killed after 9 to 17 months following acute whole-body x-irradiation. We found that exposure to a dose of 700 rads of x-rays, delivered to animals at a high dose-rate (100 rads/min) resulted in a widespread karyotype variability. The number of cell types were existing independently in the haemopoietic tissue within the first week after irradiation, decreased with time. The selection process of persisting abnormalities as well a further evolution of the cells with new karyotypes to clones, were evident after a month following irradiation. Consequently, the analysis of haemopoietic tissue revealed, in 92% of the late survivors, a genetically heterogeneous cell population in which the number of normal diploid cells decreased to a considerable extent. Clones increased in size with elapsing time from exposure to radiation. Thus, the mean clone cell frequency for animals killed after 9 to 17 months following irradiation ranged from 20.6 +- 3.42% to 61.6 +- 4.26%. Analysis of the data showed a significant positive correlation between development of clones in vivo and the survival time after irradiation (r = 0.820; P<0.01). For such a finding, the occurrence of large clones especially in the bone marrow of rats with growing tumors was of the great influence. Relationship between the degree of mutagenesis on the chromosome level and the process of tumor advancement is discussed. (auth.)

  20. X irradiation of human epidermis in vitro. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollina, U.; Fueller, J.; Burger, B.; Hipler, C.; Jena Univ.

    1989-01-01

    On the example of the reduction of epidermal adhesion of FITC wheat germ agglutinine (WGA) the direct membrane effect of a single X irradiation (44 kV and 220 kV) was analyzed in vitro. Human normal skin and psoriasis centres were compared. Normal skin showed no alteration of microscopically visible FITC-WGA adhesion on epidermal cells over the whole dose range. Foci of psoriasis responded to doses of ≥ 5 Gy (44 and 220 kV) with a drastic reduction of epidermal lectin binding to lower and medium cell layers. Maximum efficacy was with 5 Gy (44 kV) or 10 Gy (220 kV). A dose elevation up to 20 Gy did not result in an increase of efficacy. Topographically the radiosensitive FITC-WGA adhesion could chiefly be seen in the dermal ridges. The findings support the impression of an increased radiosensitivity of the lesional psoriatic epidermis compared with normal skin. This is connected with an abnormal differentiation of keratinocytes in psoriasis. (author)

  1. Renal effects of renal x irradiation and induced autoallergic glomerulonephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappaport, D.S.

    1977-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine what, if any, influence a single large x-ray exposure of kidney has on the development and course of an experimental autoallergic glomerulonephritis (EAG) in rats. The EAG was induced by immunization with B. pertussis vaccine and homogenate of homologous kidney tissue and Freund's complete adjuvant. Rats were either immunized, sham-immunized, irradiated (1500 R to right kidney temporarily exteriorized), sham-irradiated, or both immunized and irradiated. Immunized-irradiated animals were irradiated either 4 or 2 weeks prior to, concurrently with, or 1 or 2 weeks after immunization, and were sacrificed at 2, 4, 6, 10, or 14 weeks post-immunization. Immunized-only and sham-immunized-only animals were sacrificed at corresponding post-immunization times, and irradiated-only and sham-irradiated-only animals were sacrificed at corresponding post-irradiation times. Progressive arteriolonephrosclerosis (ANA) was observed in right (irradiated) kidneys following x irradiation. The experimental autoallergic glomerulonephritis (EAG) was observed in both kidneys following immunization. The histopathological changes associated with EAG were distinct from those associated with ANS

  2. Which factors engage women in deprived neighbourhoods to participate in exercise referral schemes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nierkens Vera

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise referral schemes (ERS have become a popular way of promoting physical activity. The aim of these schemes is to encourage high risk patients to exercise. In evaluating these schemes, little attention has been paid to lower socio-economic groups in a multi-ethnic urban setting. This study aimed to explore the socio-demographic and psychosocial characteristics of female participants in ERS located in deprived neighbourhoods. The second aim was to determine which elements of the intervention make it appealing to participate in the scheme. Methods A mixed method approach was utilized, combining a cross-sectional descriptive study and a qualitative component. In the quantitative part of the study, all female participants (n = 523 filled out a registration form containing questions about socio-demographic and psychosocial characteristics. Height and weight were also measured. In the qualitative part of the study, 38 of these 523 participants were interviewed. Results The majority of the participants had a migrant background, a low level of education, no paid job and a high body mass index. Although most participants were living sedentary lives, at intake they were quite motivated to start exercising. The ERS appealed to them because of its specific elements: facilitating role of the health professional, supportive environment, financial incentive, supervision and neighbourhood setting. Conclusion This study supports the idea that ERS interventions appeal to women from lower socio-economic groups, including ethnic minorities. The ERS seems to meet their contextual, economic and cultural needs. Since the elements that enabled the women to start exercising are specific to this ERS, we should become aware of whether this population continues to exercise after the end of the scheme.

  3. Protein Oxidation in the Lungs of C57BL/6J Mice Following X-Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshishat-Kupper, Michal; McCart, Elizabeth A.; Freedy, James G.; Tipton, Ashlee J.; Nagy, Vitaly; Kim, Sung-Yop; Landauer, Michael R.; Mueller, Gregory P.; Day, Regina M.

    2015-01-01

    Damage to normal lung tissue is a limiting factor when ionizing radiation is used in clinical applications. In addition, radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis are a major cause of mortality following accidental radiation exposure in humans. Although clinical symptoms may not develop for months after radiation exposure, immediate events induced by radiation are believed to generate molecular and cellular cascades that proceed during a clinical latent period. Oxidative damage to DNA is considered a primary cause of radiation injury to cells. DNA can be repaired by highly efficient mechanisms while repair of oxidized proteins is limited. Oxidized proteins are often destined for degradation. We examined protein oxidation following 17 Gy (0.6 Gy/min) thoracic X-irradiation in C57BL/6J mice. Seventeen Gy thoracic irradiation resulted in 100% mortality of mice within 127–189 days postirradiation. Necropsy findings indicated that pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis were the leading cause of mortality. We investigated the oxidation of lung proteins at 24 h postirradiation following 17 Gy thoracic irradiation using 2-D gel electrophoresis and OxyBlot for the detection of protein carbonylation. Seven carbonylated proteins were identified using mass spectrometry: serum albumin, selenium binding protein-1, alpha antitrypsin, cytoplasmic actin-1, carbonic anhydrase-2, peroxiredoxin-6, and apolipoprotein A1. The carbonylation status of carbonic anhydrase-2, selenium binding protein, and peroxiredoxin-6 was higher in control lung tissue. Apolipoprotein A1 and serum albumin carbonylation were increased following X-irradiation, as confirmed by OxyBlot immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. Our findings indicate that the profile of specific protein oxidation in the lung is altered following radiation exposure. PMID:28248270

  4. The Prevalence of Cardiac Risk Factors in Men with Localized Prostate Cancer Undergoing Androgen Deprivation Therapy in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot K. Davis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. While androgen deprivation therapy (ADT reduces the risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality in high-risk localized prostate cancer, it adversely affects cardiovascular (CV risk factor profiles in treated men. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 100 consecutive men with intermediate- or high-risk localized prostate cancer referred to the British Columbia Cancer Agency for ADT. Data on CV risk factors and disease were collected and Framingham risk scores were calculated. Results. The median age of the study cohort was 73 years. Established cardiovascular disease was present in 25% of patients. Among patients without established CV disease, calculated Framingham risk was high in 65%, intermediate in 33%, and low in 1%. Baseline hypertension was present in 58% of patients, dyslipidemia in 51%, and diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance in 24%. Hypertension was more prevalent in the study cohort than in an age- and sex-matched population sample (OR 1.74, P=0.006; diabetes had a similar prevalence (OR 0.93, P=0.8. Conclusions. Patients receiving ADT have a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease and risk factors and are more likely to be hypertensive than population controls. Low rates of CV risk screening suggest opportunities for improved primary and secondary prevention of CV disease in this population.

  5. The anti-tumor effect of ACNU and x-irradiation on mouse glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Hidemitsu; Hori, Masaharu; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Mogami, Heitaro; Hayakawa, Toru.

    1979-01-01

    Anti-tumor activities of 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU) and x-irradiation on methylcholanthrene induced glioma in C 57 BL mice were studied in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experiments using cultured glioma cells (MGB cells), the synchronization of cell cycle was done by excess addition of thymidine, and the anti-tumor cell effect were investigated by mean of determinations of DNA synthesis, mitotic index and the number of the living cells following the treatments. As the results, it appeared obvious that ACNU was most effective on MGB cells in S phase and x-irradiation in M phase. As to the combined therapy of ACNU and x-irradiation, the anti-tumor effect was most remarkable when the cells were treated by x-irradiation in the G 2 , M phase, which were hervested by addition of ACNU 44 hours before irradiation. However simultaneous treatment of ACNU and x-irradiation on the cells in G 1 phase was not so remarkable. In vivo experiments the anti-tumor effect of ACNU and x-irradiation on subcutaneously or intracranially transplanted glioma in mice was investigated. Either ACNU 10 mg/kg or local x-irradiation 1240 rads showed inhibitory effect on the tumor growth and prolonged the survival time of the tumor bearing mice. The combination therapy was more effective than ACNU or x-irradiation alone, particularly combination therapy of ACNU and repeated small doses irradiation of x-ray was remarkably effective. Evidence obtained indicated that the combination therapy of ACNU and x-irradiation have synergistic anti-tumor effect on experimental mouse glioma. (author)

  6. Intestinal complications following accelerated fractionated X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauer-Jensen, M.; Poulakos, L.; Osborne, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Due to paucity of suitable animal models, it has been difficult to study the development of long-term intestinal complications following fractionated irradiation. We recently developed a model which allows multiple radiation exposures of a short segment of rat ileum without the need for repeated surgery. In the present series, this model was used to study the influence of shortening the total treatment time (accelerated fractionation) on development of radiation enteropathy. Male rats were orchiectomized and a short segment of distal ileum was transposed to the scrotum. Starting 3 weeks after surgery, the scrotum containing the intestinal segment was X-irradiated with 20 fractions of 2.8 Gy (total dose 56 Gy). Two fractionation schedules were compared: one fraction per day (total treatment time 26 days) and 3 fractions per day (total treatment time 7 days). Actuarial survival curves were obtained, and the degree of radiation injury was assessed 2, 8 and 26 weeks after the last radiation exposure using a semiquantitative histopathologic scoring system. There was no mortality from acute radiation injury in either treatment group. All animals of the 1-fraction/day group survived the observation period (26 weeks). In the 3-fraction/day group, there was significant mortality due to intestinal obstruction, and cumulative mortality at 26 weeks was 100%. Radiation injury, as assessed by the histopathologic scoring system, was also more pronounced in this group than in the 1-fraction/day group. We conclude that shortening the total treatment time significantly increases the severity of late intestinal complications. Our data are suggestive of an association between acute mucosal damage and chronic radiation injury of the small intestine. (orig.)

  7. Maternal sleep deprivation, sedentary lifestyle and cooking smoke: Risk factors for miscarriage: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaraweera, Yasindu; Abeysena, Chrishantha

    2010-08-01

    To determine risk factors for miscarriage. A case control study was carried out at the gynaecological wards and antenatal clinics of the De Soysa Maternity Hospital in Sri Lanka. A case was defined as that of mothers with a confirmed diagnosis of partial or full expulsion of the fetus during the first 28 weeks of gestation. Controls comprised ante-natal clinic attendees whose period of gestation was sedentary lifestyle, exposure to cooking smoke and physical trauma during pregnancy were risk factors for miscarriage. Most of the risk factors are therefore modifiable.

  8. Selective survival of β1-adenergic receptors in rat cerebellum following neonatal X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minneman, K.P.; Pittman, R.N.; Wolfe, B.B.; Molinoff, P.B.

    1981-01-01

    To investigate the cellular localization of β 1 - and β 2 -adrenergic receptors, the effects of intermittent neonatal X-irradiation focused on the cerebellum were determined on the densities of the two subtypes of β-adrenergic receptor. This treatment destroys the late-maturing cerebellar interneurons including the granule, basket and stellate cells. The total number of β 2 -adrenergic receptors per cerebellum was reduced by 81-83% in 6- and 12-week-old X-irradiated rats. However, the number of β 1 -adrenergic receptors per cerebellum in 6- and 12-week-old X-irradiated rats was not significantly different from that in control animals. The results suggest that β 2 receptors in the rat cerebellum are primarily associated with the small interneurons destroyed by neonatal X-irradiation. The β 1 receptors may be located on a cell population which is unaffected by this treatment, possibly on cerebellar Purkinje cells. (Auth.)

  9. Effects of whole-body x irradiation on the biogenesis of creatine in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyagarajan, P.; Vakil, U.K.; Sreenivasan, A.

    1977-01-01

    Influences of whole-body x irradiation on various aspects of creatine metabolism have been studied. Exposures to sublethal or lethal doses of x radiation results in excessive urinary excretion as well as higher accumulation of creatine in the skeletal muscle of x-irradiated rats. A sudden fall in CPK activity in muscle with a concomitant rise in serum suggests that changes in serum and tissue CPK activity are of an adaptive nature in rats exposed to sublethal doses of x radiation. In vitro studies on creatine synthesis shows that transaminidase and methyl transferase activities in kidneys and liver, respectively, are decreased on the 5th day in the x-irradiated, are decreased on the 5th day in the x-irradiated rat. However, on the 8th day, the enzyme activities are restored to normal

  10. Nutrient-deprivation autophagy factor-1 (NAF-1: biochemical properties of a novel cellular target for anti-diabetic drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagi Tamir

    Full Text Available Nutrient-deprivation autophagy factor-1 (NAF-1 (synonyms: Cisd2, Eris, Miner1, and Noxp70 is a [2Fe-2S] cluster protein immune-detected both in endoplasmic reticulum (ER and mitochondrial outer membrane. It was implicated in human pathology (Wolfram Syndrome 2 and in BCL-2 mediated antagonization of Beclin 1-dependent autophagy and depression of ER calcium stores. To gain insights about NAF-1 functions, we investigated the biochemical properties of its 2Fe-2S cluster and sensitivity of those properties to small molecules. The structure of the soluble domain of NAF-1 shows that it forms a homodimer with each protomer containing a [2Fe-2S] cluster bound by 3 Cys and one His. NAF-1 has shown the unusual abilities to transfer its 2Fe-2S cluster to an apo-acceptor protein (followed in vitro by spectrophotometry and by native PAGE electrophoresis and to transfer iron to intact mitochondria in cell models (monitored by fluorescence imaging with iron fluorescent sensors targeted to mitochondria. Importantly, the drug pioglitazone abrogates NAF-1's ability to transfer the cluster to acceptor proteins and iron to mitochondria. Similar effects were found for the anti-diabetes and longevity-promoting antioxidant resveratrol. These results reveal NAF-1 as a previously unidentified cell target of anti-diabetes thiazolidinedione drugs like pioglitazone and of the natural product resveratrol, both of which interact with the protein and stabilize its labile [2Fe-2S] cluster.

  11. Contribution of caspase-3 differs by p53 status in apoptosis induced by X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Tokino, Takashi; Watanabe, Naoki

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the effect of p53 status on involvement of caspase-3 activation in cell death induced by X-irradiation, using rat embryonic fibroblasts (REFs) transduced with a temperature-sensitive mutant (mt) p53 gene. Cells with wild-type (wt) p53 showed greater resistance to X-irradiation than cells with mt p53. In cells with wt p53, X-irradiation-induced apoptosis was not inhibited by the caspase-3 inhibitor acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-methionyl-L-glutaminyl-L-aspartyl-aldehyde (Ac-DMQD-CHO) and caspase-3 activity was not elevated following X-irradiation, although induction of p53 and p21/WAF-1 protein was observed. In contrast, irradiated cells with mt p53 showed 89% inhibition of cell death with Ac-DMQD-CHO and 98% inhibition with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). In cells with mt p53, caspase-3 activity was increased approximately 5 times beyond baseline activity at 24 h after irradiation. This increase was almost completely inhibited by NAC. However, inhibition of caspase-3 by Ac-DMQD-CHO failed to decrease production of reactive oxygen species by cells with mt p53. Differential involvement of caspase-3 is a reason for differences in sensitivity to X-irradiation in cells with different p53 status. Caspase-3 activation appears to occur downstream from generation of reactive oxygen species occurring independently of wt p53 during X-irradiation-induced cell death. (author)

  12. Fibroblast growth factor 10 protects neuron against oxygen–glucose deprivation injury through inducing heme oxygenase-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yong-Hua; Yang, Li-Ye; Chen, Wei; Li, Ying-Ke; Yuan, Hong-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • FGF10 attenuates OGD induced injury in cortical neuron. • FGF10 reduces OGD triggered ROS level in cortical neuron. • FGF10 induces HO-1 expression upon OGD stimuli in cortical neuron. • Knockdown of HO-1 impairs the neuroprotection of FGF10 in OGD model. - Abstract: Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are a family of structurally related heparin-binding proteins with diverse biological functions. FGFs participate in mitogenesis, angiogenesis, cell proliferation, development, differentiation and cell migration. Here, we investigated the potential effect of FGF10, a member of FGFs, on neuron survival in oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD) model. In primary cultured mouse cortical neurons upon OGD, FGF10 treatment (100 and 1000 ng/ml) attenuated the decrease of cell viability and rescued the LDH release. Tuj-1 immunocytochemistry assay showed that FGF10 promoted neuronal survival. Apoptosis assay with Annexin V + PI by flow cytometry demonstrated that FGF10 treatment reduced apoptotic cell proportion. Moreover, immunoblotting showed that FGF10 alleviated the cleaved caspase-3 upregulation caused by OGD. FGF10 treatment also depressed the OGD-induced increase of caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities. At last, we found FGF10 triggered heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expression rather than hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling. Knockdown of HO-1 by siRNA partly abolished the neuroprotection of FGF10 in OGD model. In summary, our observations provide the first evidence for the neuroprotective function of FGF10 against ischemic neuronal injury and suggest that FGF10 may be a promising agent for treatment of ischemic stroke

  13. Fibroblast growth factor 10 protects neuron against oxygen–glucose deprivation injury through inducing heme oxygenase-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yong-Hua; Yang, Li-Ye; Chen, Wei; Li, Ying-Ke, E-mail: liyingke6f@126.com; Yuan, Hong-Bin, E-mail: yuanhongbin6f@126.com

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • FGF10 attenuates OGD induced injury in cortical neuron. • FGF10 reduces OGD triggered ROS level in cortical neuron. • FGF10 induces HO-1 expression upon OGD stimuli in cortical neuron. • Knockdown of HO-1 impairs the neuroprotection of FGF10 in OGD model. - Abstract: Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are a family of structurally related heparin-binding proteins with diverse biological functions. FGFs participate in mitogenesis, angiogenesis, cell proliferation, development, differentiation and cell migration. Here, we investigated the potential effect of FGF10, a member of FGFs, on neuron survival in oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD) model. In primary cultured mouse cortical neurons upon OGD, FGF10 treatment (100 and 1000 ng/ml) attenuated the decrease of cell viability and rescued the LDH release. Tuj-1 immunocytochemistry assay showed that FGF10 promoted neuronal survival. Apoptosis assay with Annexin V + PI by flow cytometry demonstrated that FGF10 treatment reduced apoptotic cell proportion. Moreover, immunoblotting showed that FGF10 alleviated the cleaved caspase-3 upregulation caused by OGD. FGF10 treatment also depressed the OGD-induced increase of caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities. At last, we found FGF10 triggered heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expression rather than hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling. Knockdown of HO-1 by siRNA partly abolished the neuroprotection of FGF10 in OGD model. In summary, our observations provide the first evidence for the neuroprotective function of FGF10 against ischemic neuronal injury and suggest that FGF10 may be a promising agent for treatment of ischemic stroke.

  14. Environmental enrichment to alleviate maze performance deficits in rats with microcephaly induced by X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibagaki, M.; Seo, M.; Asano, T.; Kiyono, S.

    1981-01-01

    Pregnant rats received 150 R of X-irradiation on day 17 of gestation. The male offspring were reared under environmentally enriched (EC), standard colony (SC) or impoverished conditions (IC) for 30 days after weaning. Then the Hebb-Williams maze test was carried out. The effects of X-irradiation and environment were both significant in initial, repetitive and total error scores and running time. Further analysis revealed that both EC-SC and EC-IC differences in initial, repetitive and total error scores were significant in X-irradiated animals, whereas only the EC-IC difference in initial and total error scores was significant in sham-irradiated control animals. Total protein, protein/g cortex, total benzodiazepine and muscarine cholinergic receptor bindings, and muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding/mg protein in the cerebral cortex were decreased in X-irradiated groups, compared to controls, but the effect of environment was not significant in these items. The results confirmed that environmental enrichment is a useful tool to alleviate the learning decrements in prenatally X-irradiated microcephalic rats. (author)

  15. Water deprivation increases Fos expression in hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor neurons induced by right atrial distension in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Mauricio; Rorato, Rodrigo; Castro, Margaret; Machado, Benedito H; Antunes-Rodrigues, Jose; Elias, Lucila L K

    2008-11-01

    Atrial mechanoreceptors, sensitive to stretch, contribute in regulating heart rate and intravascular volume. The information from those receptors reaches the nucleus tractus solitarius and then the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), known to have a crucial role in the regulation of cardiovascular function. Neurons in the PVN synthesize CRF, AVP, and oxytocin (OT). Stimulation of atrial mechanoreceptors was performed in awake rats implanted with a balloon at the junction of the superior vena cava and right atrium. Plasma ACTH, AVP, and OT concentrations and Fos, CRF, AVP, and OT immunolabeling in the PVN were determined after balloon inflation in hydrated and water-deprived rats. The distension of the balloon increased the plasma ACTH concentrations, which were higher in water-deprived than in hydrated rats (P neurons in the parvocellular PVN, which was higher in the water-deprived than in the hydrated group (P neurons after distension in hydrated and water-deprived groups, compared with respective controls. In conclusion, parvocellular CRF neurons showed an increase of Fos expression induced by stimulation of right atrial mechanoreceptors, suggesting that CRF participates in the cardiovascular reflex adjustments elicited by volume loading. Activation of CRF neurons in the PVN by cardiovascular reflex is affected by osmotic stimulation.

  16. Effect of whole-body X-irradiation on lysosomal enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' souza, D W; Vakil, U K; Srinivasan, A [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Biochemistry and Food Technology Div.

    1974-06-01

    Effects of whole-body x irradiation with sublethal dose (400 rad) on three intestinal lysosomal enzymes, namely, arylsulphatase, cathepsin and acid phosphatases, have been studied. They are almost equally distributed throughout the entire small intestine region. X irradiation adversely affects the integrity of lysosomal membranes. ''Free'' and ''total'' lysosomal enzyme activities exhibit maxima on 6th day. These activities return to normal level on 14th day when there is rapid generation of villi, indicating that lysosomal activities correlate with the progression of injury and of repair mechanism after sublethal dose of x irradiation. The increase in total lysosomal activity may be due to its decreased breakdown, since the rate of protein synthesis in intestinal mucosa is reduced. This is evidenced by reduced incorporation of orally fed /sup 14/C leucine into acid insoluble proteins. (auth)

  17. Cerebellar malformations in prenatally x-irradiated rats: quantitative analysis and detailed description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inouye, M.

    1979-01-01

    Pregnant WKA/HoK rats were exposed to 100 R or 200 R x-irradiation on one of gestation days 16 through 21. Offspring were killed at 60 days of age and the cerebellum was examined. The cerebellum of animals exposed to 200 R was slightly reduced in weight but not in width. The observed reduction in the dorsoventral length of the cerebellum was more evident when the x-irradiation was early in gestation. The anterior portions of hemispheres were situated anterior to the culmen in every 200 R group. Histologically, ectopic Purkinje cells in the granule cell layer and white matter appeared following x-irradiation on day 20 or 21, but they were not found following earlier treatment. In the cerebellum of animals exposed to 100 R the reduction in size was mild and the folial abnormalities were rare, but the number of sublobules decreased

  18. Regulation of antibody synthesis in the X-irradiated Mexican axolotl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlemagne, J.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of X-irradiation were studied on the Mexican axolotl antibody synthesis. To reduce the anti-horse red blood cell (HRBC) antibody titers, 150 rd and smaller doses are ineffective, 200-450 rd are increasingly effective, and 700 rd are maximally effective (and lethal). A significant enhancement of the anti-HRBC titers was observed in low doses (50-150 rd X-irradiated animals). This enhancement was also observed when a low X-ray dose was applied only on the thymic areas. In whole body, but thymus area-shielded, 100 rd X-irradiated animals, the anti-HRBC titers were similar to those of the nonirradiated, HRBC-immunized control group. To explain these phenomena, it is suggested that a radiosensitive, adult thymectomy-sensitive and hydrocortisone-sensitive suppressor T cell subpopulation regulates the antibody synthesis in the axolotl. (orig.) [de

  19. Regulation of antibody synthesis in the X-irradiated Mexican axolotl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlemagne, J.

    1981-09-01

    The effects of X-irradiation were studied on the Mexican axolotl antibody synthesis. To reduce the anti-horse red blood cell (HRBC) antibody titers, 150 rd and smaller doses are ineffective, 200-450 rd are increasingly effective, and 700 rd are maximally effective (and lethal). A significant enhancement of the anti-HRBC titers was observed in low doses (50-150 rd X-irradiated animals). This enhancement was also observed when a low X-ray dose was applied only on the thymic areas. In whole body, but thymus area-shielded, 100 rd X-irradiated animals, the anti-HRBC titers were similar to those of the nonirradiated, HRBC-immunized control group. To explain these phenomena, it is suggested that a radiosensitive, adult thymectomy-sensitive and hydrocortisone-sensitive suppressor T cell subpopulation regulates the antibody synthesis in the axolotl.

  20. Effects of X-irradiation on axonal sprouting induced by botulinum toxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, S; Duchen, L W [National Hospital, London (UK); Hornsey, S [Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK). M.R.C. Cyclotron Unit

    1982-01-01

    The effect of X-irradiation on axonal sprouting of motor nerves induced by botulinum toxin was examined. Muscles of one leg in the mouse were X-irradiated (15Gy) prior to the injection of a locally paralysing dose of botulinum toxin. It was found that axonal sprouting occurred as expected, but the sprouts remained unmyelinated and many degenerated. Fewer new end-plates were formed, muscles remained more severely atrophied and supersensitive to acetylcholine and recovery of neuromuscular transmission was greatly delayed when compared with the effects of botulinum toxin alone. X-irradiation did not prevent sprouting but, probably by impairing Schwann cell proliferation, altered axon-Schwann cell relationships and prevented the maturation of newly-formed axons and the differentiation of new end-plates.

  1. Effects of electroacupuncture on leukocytes and plasma protein in the X-irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hau, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of electroacupuncture on leukocytes and plasma protein on the X ray-irradiated rats were investigated in the present study. The results showed that X-irradiation had an evident inhibitory effect on the counts of total leukocytes, lymphocytes and neutrocytes, and the concentration of the total plasma protein, plasma albumin, globulin and alpha- and beta-globulin in X-irradiated rats. The electroacupuncture was able to help the X-irradiated rats to recover the counts of the total leukocyte, lymphocyte and neutrocyte. The electroacupuncture had a helpful tendency to recover the concentration of the total plasma protein, albumin, globulin, and alpha- and beta-globulin in the irradiated rats

  2. Effects of electroacupuncture on leukocytes and plasma protein in the X-irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hau, D.M.

    The effects of electroacupuncture on leukocytes and plasma protein on the X ray-irradiated rats were investigated in the present study. The results showed that X-irradiation had an evident inhibitory effect on the counts of total leukocytes, lymphocytes and neutrocytes, and the concentration of the total plasma protein, plasma albumin, globulin and alpha- and beta-globulin in X-irradiated rats. The electroacupuncture was able to help the X-irradiated rats to recover the counts of the total leukocyte, lymphocyte and neutrocyte. The electroacupuncture had a helpful tendency to recover the concentration of the total plasma protein, albumin, globulin, and alpha- and beta-globulin in the irradiated rats.

  3. Stage-specific effects of X-irradiation on Yeast meiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, L.W.; Byers, B.

    1993-01-01

    Previous work has shown that cdc 13 causes meiotic arrest of Saccharomyces cerevisiae following DNA replication by a RAD9-dependent mechanism. In the present work, the authors have further investigated the implicit effects of chromosomal lesions on progression through meiosis by exposing yeast cells to X-irradiation at various times during sporulation. They find that exposure of RAD9 cells to X-irradiation early in meiosis prevents sporulation, arresting the cells at a stage prior to premeiotic DNA replication. rad9 meiotic cells are much less responsive to X-irradiation damage, completing sporulation after treatment with doses sufficient to cause arrest of RAD9 strains. These findings thereby reveal a RAD9-dependent checkpoint function in meiosis that is distinct from the G 2 arrest previously shown to result from cdc 13 dysfunction. Analysis of the spores that continued to be produced by either RAD9 or rad9 cultures that were X-irradiated in later stages of sporulation revealed most spores to be viable, even after exposure to radiation doses sufficient to kill most vegetative cells. This finding demonstrates that the lesions induced by X-irradiation at later times fail to trigger the checkpoint function revealed by cdc 13 arrest and suggests that the lesions may be subject to repair by serving as intermediates in the recombination process. Strains mutant for chromosomal synapsis and recombination, and therefore defective in meiotic disjunction, were tested for evidence that X-ray-induced lesions might alleviate inviability by promoting recombination. Enhancement of spore viability when spo 11 (but not hop 1) diploids were X-irradiated during meiosis indicates that induced lesions may partially substitute for SPO 11-dependent functions that are required for the initiation of recombination. 74 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  4. Impaired cognitive flexibility during sleep deprivation among carriers of the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Val66Met allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Leilah K; Cain, Sean W; Chang, Anne-Marie; Saxena, Richa; Czeisler, Charles A; Anderson, Clare

    2018-02-15

    Accumulating evidence points to a genetic contribution to explain inter-individual vulnerability to sleep deprivation. A functional polymorphism in the BDNF gene, which causes a valine (Val) to methionine (Met) amino acid substitution at Codon 66, has been associated with cognitive impairment, particularly in populations with impaired frontal functioning. We hypothesised that sleep deprivation, which affects frontal function, may lead to cognitive dysfunction in Met allele carriers. To examine this, we investigated, in different BDNF genotypes, the effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive flexibility, as measured by response inhibition using the Stroop Color Naming Task. Thirty healthy, adults of European ancestry, including 12 heterozygous Met allele carriers and 18 Val/Val homozygotes, underwent 30-h of extended wakefulness under constant routine conditions. A computerised Stroop task was administered every 2h. Error rate and reaction times increased with time awake for all individuals. Participants with the Val/Met genotype made more errors on incongruent trials after 20h awake. While Val/Met participants also took significantly longer to respond when inhibiting a prepotent response irrespective of time awake, this was particularly evident during the biological night. Our study shows that carriers of the BDNF Met allele are more vulnerable to the impact of prolonged wakefulness and the biological night on a critical component of executive function, as measured by response inhibition on the Stroop task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Measurement of DNA-protein crosslinks in mammalian cells without X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantt, R.; Stephens, E.V.; Davis, S.R.

    1985-01-01

    To study the mechanisms of formation and repair of DNA-protein crosslinks in mammalian cells, the best general method to assay these lesions is the Kohn membrane alkaline elution procedure. Use of this sensitive technique requires the introduction of random strand breaks in the DNA by X-irradiation to reduce the very high molecular weight so that it elutes off the filter at an appropriate rate. This report describes an alternative method for fragmenting the DNA in the absence of X-irradiation equipment. Convenient reproducible elution rates of DNA from various mouse and human cells in culture without X-irradiation result from elution through polyvinyl chloride filters with 75 mM sodium hydroxide (0.33 ml/min) instead of the standard 20 mM EDTA-tetrapropylammonium hydroxide, pH 12.2 (0.03 to 0.04 ml/min). Dose-dependent retardation of the DNA elution was observed over the range 0 to 30 microM trans-platinum(II)diamminedichloride, and proteinase K treatment during cell lysis restored the elution rate to that of the untreated control cell DNA. In the absence of X-irradiation, this elution method measures DNA-protein crosslinks with higher sensitivity and equivalent reproducibility as the air-burst procedure

  6. Differential effects of fractionated X irradiation on mouse spermatogonial stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Y.; Huiskamp, R.; Davids, J. A.; de rooij, D. G.

    1993-01-01

    The response of spermatogonial stem cells to fractionated X irradiation was studied in the various stages of the spermatogenic cycle of the CBA mouse. Fractionated doses of 2 + 2, 1 + 3, and 3 + 1 Gy with a 24-h interval between the doses were compared with a single dose of 4 Gy. The numbers of

  7. Time-resolved magnetic field effects in exciplex systems under X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anishchik, S.V.; Lavrik, N.L.

    1988-01-01

    The presence of exciplex systems after X-irradiation of pyrene and N,N-diethylaniline in methanol as well as the influence of the applied magnetic field on exciplex fluorescence was registered using a time-resolving method. The experimental results confirmed the hypothesis on exciplex emergence in the system under study. (author)

  8. X-irradiation in the prevention of experimental post-traumatic vitreous proliferations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkin, M.; Avni, I.; Kessler, E.; Hercberg, A.; Spierer, A.; Treister, G.

    1983-01-01

    The authors created double perforating injuries in both eyes of 22 rabbits. One eye of each animal was given a dose of 600 Rad x-irradiation 24 hours after the injury. The irradiated eyes developed significantly less intraocular proliferation than the non-irradiated eyes. (author)

  9. Differential cisplatin responses in human carcinoma cell lines pre-exposed to fractionated X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempke, W.C.M.; Hosking, L.K.; Shellard, S.A.; Hill, B.T.

    1991-01-01

    These results suggest that cells exposed to X-irradiation may respond differently to subsequent cisplatin (CDDP) treatment. Initial studies of possible mechanisms responsible for these differential sensitivities indicate that they may differ according to whether resistance or hypersensitivity is expressed. (author)

  10. Two types of congenital hydrocephalus induced in rats by X-irradiation in utero: electron microscopic study on the telencephalic wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, I.K.; Murakami, U.

    1979-01-01

    Stage-specific incidences of congenital hydrocephalus induced by X-irradiation of pregnant rats showed a bimodal distribution. At a dose level of 200 R, 100% hydrocephalic offspring were obtained by irradiation at embryonic days 11 and 14. When pregnant rats were subjected to 200 R X-irradiation at embryonic day 11, numerous ventricular cells of the telencephalic wall of the embryo became necrotic during the first 2 hours post-irradiation, but the paraventricular cell-to-cell interconnexions made up of zonulae adhaerentes were less affected. Mitosis took place in the surviving paraventricular surface cells throughout subsequent development. The full-term fetus exhibited little change in the cytoarchitectural arrangement of neural cells and neuropils, although it was only about half the thickness of the untreated control. After 200 R X-irradiation at embryonic day 14, most of the ventricular cells became necrotic within 6 hours. The paraventricular cell-to-cell interconnexions were completely destroyed, and never repaired in subsequent development. Mitosis took place either freely in cell clusters, or in rosettes which formed randomly in the telencephalic wall between 48 and 72 hours post-irradiation. The resulting telencephalic wall of the full-term fetus was also about half the thickness of the control. In the outer part of the tissue, the cortical plate made up of differentiating neuroblasts was hypoplastic, but the inner half was filled with numerous heterotopic masses of pleomorphic cells and bundles of primitive axons. The ependymal layer at the paraventricular surface was never formed. Whether the paraventricular zonulae adhaerentes were destroyed or not by X-irradiation was considered to be an important factor in the determination of the subsequent cytoarchitectural organization of the telencephalic wall. (author)

  11. Shielding of the abdominal region during X-irradiation: Effect on haemopoietic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavrova, J.; Petyrek, P.

    1984-01-01

    The shielding of the abdominal region during X-irradiation is important for two reasons: 1) it prevents the development of the gastrointestinal syndrome following higher radiation doses; 2) it prevents the development of the lethal form of the bone marrow syndrome by shielding a portion of the spinal column bone marrow and the spleen. The dose reduction factor in partial irradiated mice compared to whole-body irradiated mice was 2.6. 15 mins after irradiation with the dose of 10 Gy, the number of spleen colony-forming cells (CFU-S) decreased in the femoral bone marrow of both the group receiving whole-body irradiation and the group having the abdominal region shielded. This decrease persisted in both groups for five hours after irradiation. 48 hours after whole-body irradiation, the number of CFU-S in the femoral bone marrow of the unshielded animals decreased almost to zero values. In shielded group, a statistically significant increase in the number of CFU-S in the femur was observed at 48 hours. At 120 hours, the number of CFU-S in so irradiated mice was at the level of the unirradiated group. In the spleen a great decrease in the number of CFU-S was caused by whole-body irradiation of mice as early as 15 mins after irradiation and the low-levels were recorded until the death of animals. In the shielded group, a statistically signifjcant decrease in the number of CFU-S was observed 15 mins after irradiation, which may have been due to the abscopal effect of irradiation. After a transient recovery 2 hours after irradiation, a significant decrease in the number of CFU-S in the spleens was observed in the subsequent interval from five to 120 hours after irradiation. (author)

  12. Protective effects of vitamin E on microcephaly in rats X-irradiated in utero: DNA, lipid peroxide and confronting cisternae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Harumi; Iwasaki, Setsuo; Inomata, Kenichirou; Nasu, Fumio; Nishimura, Shigeru

    1986-06-01

    Fetuses from rats given either water or 0.03% D,L-..cap alpha..-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E) as a drinking fluid and X-irradiated with 100 rad on gestational day 13 were examined on gestational day 21. Mean cerebral weight which was significantly reduced by the X-irradiation was increased by vitamin E supplementation but the level did not reach that in sham-irradiated controls. Administration of vitamin E caused an increase in DNA concentration which was significantly reduced by X-irradiation with water treatment. An increase in the mean level of lipid peroxide formation was observed in the water-treated, X-irradiated group in the sample at zero time but not in the vitamin E-treated, X-irradiated group. In the cytoplasm of fetal cerebral neurons from X-irradiated dams with vitamin E supplementation, confronting cisternae were frequently observed between two nuclear envelopes. Confronting cisternae may be considered as a repair mechanism of vitamin E against X-irradiated neuronal damage in the fetal cerebrum. This study provides evidence of the protection by vitamin E of neuronal development in X-irradiated fetuses, through its antioxidant properties, against attacks by free radicals and/or lipid peroxide. 35 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 table.

  13. A reevaluation of X-irradiation-induced phocomelia and proximodistal limb patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Jenna L; Delgado, Irene; Ros, Maria A; Tabin, Clifford J

    2009-07-16

    Phocomelia is a devastating, rare congenital limb malformation in which the long bones are shorter than normal, with the upper portion of the limb being most severely affected. In extreme cases, the hands or fingers are attached directly to the shoulder and the most proximal elements (those closest to the shoulder) are entirely missing. This disorder, previously known in both autosomal recessive and sporadic forms, showed a marked increase in incidence in the early 1960s due to the tragic toxicological effects of the drug thalidomide, which had been prescribed as a mild sedative. This human birth defect is mimicked in developing chick limb buds exposed to X-irradiation. Both X-irradiation and thalidomide-induced phocomelia have been interpreted as patterning defects in the context of the progress zone model, which states that a cell's proximodistal identity is determined by the length of time spent in a distal limb region termed the 'progress zone'. Indeed, studies of X-irradiation-induced phocomelia have served as one of the two major experimental lines of evidence supporting the validity of the progress zone model. Here, using a combination of molecular analysis and lineage tracing in chick, we show that X-irradiation-induced phocomelia is fundamentally not a patterning defect, but rather results from a time-dependent loss of skeletal progenitors. Because skeletal condensation proceeds from the shoulder to fingers (in a proximal to distal direction), the proximal elements are differentially affected in limb buds exposed to radiation at early stages. This conclusion changes the framework for considering the effect of thalidomide and other forms of phocomelia, suggesting the possibility that the aetiology lies not in a defect in the patterning process, but rather in progenitor cell survival and differentiation. Moreover, molecular evidence that proximodistal patterning is unaffected after X-irradiation does not support the predictions of the progress zone model.

  14. A Reevaluation of X-Irradiation Induced Phocomelia and Proximodistal Limb Patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Jenna L.; Delgado, Irene; Ros, Maria A.; Tabin, Clifford J.

    2009-01-01

    Phocomelia is a devastating, rare congenital limb malformation in which the long bones are shorter than normal, with the upper portion of the limb being most severely affected. In extreme cases, the hands or fingers are attached directly to the shoulder and the most proximal elements (those closest to the shoulder) are entirely missing. This disorder, previously known in both autosomal recessive and sporadic forms, showed a dramatic increase in incidence in the early 1960’s due to the tragic toxicological effects of the drug thalidomide, which had been prescribed as a mild sedative1, 2. This human birth defect is mimicked in developing chick limb buds exposed to X-irradiation3-5. Both X-irradiation5 and thalidomide-induced phocomelia5, 6 have been interpreted as patterning defects in the context of the Progress Zone Model, which states that a cell’s proximodistal (PD) identity is determined by the length of time spent in a distal limb region termed the “Progress Zone” 7. Indeed, studies of X-irradiation induced phocomelia have served as one of the two major experimental lines of evidence supporting the validity of the Progress Zone Model. Here, using a combination of molecular analysis and lineage tracing, we show that X-irradiation-induced phocomelia is fundamentally not a patterning defect, but rather results from a time-dependent loss of skeletal progenitors. As skeletal condensation proceeds from the shoulder to fingers (in a proximal to distal direction), the proximal elements are differentially affected in limb buds exposed to radiation at early stages. This conclusion changes the framework for considering the effect of thalidomide and other forms of phocomelia, suggesting the possibility that the etiology lies not in a defect in the patterning process, but rather in progenitor cell survival and differentiation. Moreover, molecular evidence that PD patterning is unaffected following X-irradiation does not support the predictions of the Progress Zone

  15. Effect of experimental immune atrophic gastritis on the induction of gastric carcinoma by x-irradiation in ICR mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Fumio; Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Takeichi, Nobuo; Naito, Yukiko; Inoue, Shozo

    1976-01-01

    Divided doses of 6,000 or 8,000 rad of x-ray were given to the gastric region of ICR/JCL female mice with immune atrophic gastritis produced by the injection with allogenic stomach antigen. The carcinogenic effect of x-rays for inducing gastric carcinoma was significantly increased by this method. Two points can be presented as its reason. First, the pyloric gland mucosa regenerating from injuries by immunization was exposed to the divided doses of x-rays. Second, the marked requirement of gastrin secretion attributable to severe injuries of parietal cell mass by immunization and local x-irradiation acted as a promoting factor on the induction of gastric carcinoma by x-ray for a long time through the trophic effects on the pyloric gland. (auth.)

  16. Cytogenetic characteristics of soft wheat mutants under x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakaryan, Zh.O.; Avakyan, V.A.; Amirbekyan, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    Radiosensitivity of induced mutants of soft wheat is studied by criteria of frequency and character of changes in 1 and 2 divisions of meiosis. Two constant induced mutant forms of soft wheat were investigated. Mutant lines of squareheads with red ear (re) and erectoids 37/1 were obtained by X-ray irradiating hydride seeds F 1 of hybride combination of Alty-Agach Awnless 1. Seeds of mutants and initial kinds were exposed to X-rays at a dose of 10 kR. A conclusion may be drawn on the basis of studying the meiosis process in mutants and initial kinds of soft wheat on X-ray radiation that the mutants are more radiosensitive. This testifies to that that the induced mutants of soft wheat represent new genotypes in comparison with the initial kinds and differ from the latter not only in morphological characters but in the reaction norm with respect to external medium factors, i.e. the limit of possible changeability of the genotype has been extended [ru

  17. A study of morphogenesis of digital malformation on rat embryo by x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jhai Dhuck; You, Dong Soo

    1981-01-01

    The author studied in the effects of x-irradiation to the development of digital malformation in gestation rats. The time-matings occurred between 6 p.m. and 8 a.m. and females with copulation plugs at 8 a.m. were isolated and properly marked for evidence of copulation. The lower abdomen of mothers were exposed to x-irradiation on the 11 1/2th day of gestation, the critical period developing digital malformation, respectively 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 350 rads. At 18 1/2th day of post-conception total 50 pregnant females were dissected and the incidence of digital malformations were obtained. Rat embryos on the 12, 13, 14, 15, 16th day of gestation irradiated by 250 rads were examined for morphogenesis of digital malformation. Digital radiating lines were examined in water and histologically by H-E stain. Supra vital stain samples by Nile-blue sulfate in 37 .deg. C normal saline were prepared for the observation of cell necrosis regions and morphogenesis of digits. The results obtained were as follows; 1. By x-irradiation on 11th day of gestation, digital malformations of Ectrodactylia, Syndactylia, Polydactylia and Hematodactylia were developed. Ectrodactylia showed the effective relationship to the amount of irradiation, however Syndactylia and Poydactylia did not. 2. By x-irradiation, cell necrosis of digital germ was appeared markedly, but in 48 hours after irradiation was depressed to the periphery of digital germ and in 72 hours after irradiation was disappeared. Digital radiating line showed marked state of malformation in 48 hours after irradiation and continued to show the same amount of physiological cell necrosis as the compared control group in 72 hours after irradiation. But in the Syndactylia, physiological cell necrosis was not able to be recognized. 3. Ectrodactylia induced by x-irradiation was considered as the direct result of cell necrosis of digital origin, however, Polydactylia and Syndactylia were considered as the result of some effect in

  18. Protection of Escherichia coli cells against the lethal effects of ultraviolet and X-irradiation by prior X-irradiation. A genetic and physiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K C; Martignoni, K D [Stanford Univ., Calif. (USA). Dept. of Radiology

    1976-12-01

    When log phase cells of wild-type E.coli K-12 were maintained in growth medium after X-irradiation, they became progressively more resistant to a subsequent exposure to UV or X-radiation. The time to achieve maximum resistance was about 60 min. The uvrB, uvrD, polA and certain exrA strains (W3110 background) also demonstrated this X-ray-induced resistance to subsequent UV or X-irradiation but recA, recB, lex (AB1157 or W3110 backgrounds) and other exrA strains (AB1157 background) did not. The resistance induced in wild-type, uvrB and uvrD cells was characterized by the production or enhancement of a shoulder on the survival curves obtained for the second irradiation, while the resistance induced in the W3110 exrA strains was expressed only as a change in slope. The induction of resistance in the W3110 exrA strain was not inhibited by the presence of chloramphenical, but that in the wild-type cells appeared to be. The production or enhancement of a shoulder on the survival curves of the rec/sup +/ lex/sup +/ exr/sup +/ cells is consistent with the concept of the radiation induction of repair enzymes. Alternative explanations, however, are discussed.

  19. The effects of X-irradiation on ex vivo expansion of cryopreserved human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Naoki; Takahashi, Kenji; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2010-01-01

    In our previous study (Life Sciences 84: 598, 2009), we demonstrated that placental/umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cell-like stromal cells have the effect to support the regeneration of freshly prepared X-irradiated hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). Generally, HSPCs are supplied from companies, institutions, and cell banks that cryopreserve them for clinical and experimental use. In this study, the influence of cryopreservation on the responses of HSPCs to irradiation and co-culture with stromal cells is assessed. After cryopreservation with the optimal procedure, 2 Gy-irradiated HSPCs were cultured with or without stromal cells supplemented with combination of interleukin-3, stem cell factor, and thrombopoietin. The population of relatively immature CD34 + /CD38 - cells in cryopreserved cells was significantly higher than in fresh cells prior to cryopreservation; furthermore, the hematopoietic progenitor populations of CD34 + /CD45RA + cells and CD34 + /CD117 + cells in cryopreserved cells were significantly lower than that in fresh cells. However, the rate of expansion in the cryopreserved HSPCs was lower than in the fresh HSPCs. In the culture of cryopreserved cells irradiated with 2 Gy, the growth rates of CD34 + cells, CD34 + /CD38 - cells, and hematopoietic progenitors were greater than growth rates of their counter parts in the culture of fresh cells. Surprisingly, the effect to support the hematopoiesis in co-culture with stromal cells was never observed in the X-irradiated HSPCs after cryopreservation. The present results demonstrated that cryopreserving process increased the rate of immature and radio-resistant HSPCs but decreased the effects to support the hematopoiesis by stromal cells, thus suggesting that cryopreservation changes the character of HSPCs. (author)

  20. Combined effects of x-irradiation and bleomycin on the proliferation of isoproterenol-stimulated mouse parotid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoju, Masumi

    1977-01-01

    Effects of x-irradiation and bleomycin (BLM) on DNA synthesis in isoproterenol (IPR)-stimulated mouse parotid glands were investigated. The incorporation of thymidine- 3 H into DNA in parotid glands increased remarkably in 16 hours with a peak at 22 hours after the injection of IPR. When x-irradiation (250 rads) was given at 1 hour after IPR (early G 1 phase), the stimulation of DNA synthesis was inhibited by about 50%, and the beginning of DNA synthesis was delayed nearly 6 hours. BLM injected in the early G 1 phase was also effective in inhibiting DNA synthesis. However, the injection of BLM in the late G 1 or S phase did not interfere with DNA synthesis. Combined x-irradiation and BLM inhibited DNA synthesis and delayed the beginning of the S phase far more strikingly than did x-irradiation alone. When BLM was injected at various intervals before and after x-irradiation, the greatest inhibition was found just after irradiation. Therefore, a longer interval between x-irradiation and BLM injection had a tendency to decrease the rate of inhibiting DNA synthesis. These findings were confirmed by measuring the labeling index and the mitotic index in the acinar cells of the mouse parotid gland. These results suggest that simultaneous application of x-irradiation and BLM has the greatest effect. (Evans, J.)

  1. Effects of nutritional status on gastric secretion and composition in X-irradiated rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, D.W.; Vakil, U.K.; Sreenivasan, A.

    1974-01-01

    Whole body x-irradiation of the rat with a sub-lethal (400 r) or lethal (800 r) dose causes a marked depression in secretion and composition of gastric juice with a maximum drop of the 8th day. Similarly, pepsin and gastricsin activities also decline progressively, being lowest on the 8th day post-irradiation. Radiation exposure of the rat also results in a sudden rise in serum and tissue histamine levels which occurs on the 1st day, and returns to normal on the 3rd day post-irradiation. The nutritional status of the animal appears to influence recovery from radiation injury. Rats fed adequate diets with respect to protein and vitamin A prior to irradiation (400 r) recover earlier from radiation injury than deficient animals. The above biochemical changes are associated with gross and severe degeneration of stomach cells in the x-irradiated rat. (author)

  2. Congenital hydrocephalus following X-irradiation of pregnant rats on an early gestational day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, I.K.; Takeuchi, Y.K.

    1986-01-01

    When pregnant rats were X-irradiated at a dose of 100 R on gestational day 9.5, a considerable number of postnatally-viable hydrocephalic offspring resulted, all of which were accompanied with bilateral micro- or anophthalmia. Histological studies revealed that the cerebral aqueduct of the congenital hydrocephalic brain was severely stenosed, and the subcommissural organ was reduced in size and displaced at some distance from the anterior end of the cerebral aqueduct. From embryological studies, it was considered that the maldevelopment of the subcommissural organ in the X-irradiated fetus might cause a reduction in the amount of its secretions which function as a cushion preventing complete closure of the cerebral aqueduct during fetal life, resulting in stenosis of the cerebral aqueduct

  3. Delayed reproductive death as a dominant phenotype in cell clones surviving X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, W.P.; Little, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Residual damage manifested as reduced cloning efficiency was observed in many of the cloned progeny of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and human carcinoma SQ-20B cells surviving X-irradiation. This stable phenotype, which we have termed delayed reproductive death, persisted for >50 generations of cell replication post-irradiation. Clones showing this phenotype were aneuploid, and formed colonies with a high proportion of giant cells. By somatic cell hybridization of CHO clones, the delayed reproductive death phenotype was found to be a dominant trait; the cloning efficiency of hybrid clones was persistently depressed, as compared with that of control hybrid cells. These results suggest that delayed reproductive death represents a specific cellular response that may persist in some of the progeny of mammalian cells for long periods after X-irradiation. (author)

  4. Cartilaginous metaplasia and overgrowth of neurocranium skull after X-irradiation in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmahl, W; Meyer, I; Kriegel, H; Tempel, K H

    1979-01-01

    Prenatal X-irradiation of mice in the late organogenesis stage either with a fractionated or a single exposure dose (3 X 160 R or 200 R) leads to remarkable, previously undescribed malformations of the skull. These malformations range from mild hyperostotic nodule formation in about 90% of the offspring to excessive formation of desmal bony tissues, which extend deep into the forebrain and are thus only detectable in histological sections. Metaplastic and hyperplastic formation of cartilage in all the neurocranial regions is observed in about 10% of the offspring. The pathogenesis of these overgrowth phenomena is presumably related to a growth disturbance of both the mesenchymal skull primordium and the brain. While malformation of the latter leads to a decrease of intracranial pressure and consequently to altered growth activity of the skull sutures, the reparative and proliferative capacities of the mesenchyme are also stimulated, in a hyperplastic direction, by X-irradiation.

  5. Repair and replication of DNA in hereditary (bilateral) retinoblastoma cells after X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleaver, J.E.; Char, D.; Charles, W.C.; Rand, N.

    1982-01-01

    Fibroblasts from patients with hereditary retinoblastoma reportedly exhibit increased sensitivity to killing by X-rays. Although some human syndromes with similar or greater hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents (e.g., X-rays, ultraviolet light, and chemical carcinogens), such as xeroderma pigmentosum, are deficient in DNA repair, most do not have such clearly demonstrable defects in repair. Retinoblastoma cells appear to be normal in repairing single-strand breaks and performing repair replication after X-irradiation and also in synthesizing poly(adenosine diphosphoribose). Semiconservative DNA replication in these cells, however, is slightly more resistant than normal after X-irradiation, suggesting that continued replication of damaged parental DNA could contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. This effect is small, however, and may be a consequence rather than a cause of the fundamental enzymatic abnormality in retinoblastoma that causes the tumorigenesis

  6. X-irradiation improves mdx mouse muscle as a model of myofiber loss in DMD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakeford, S.; Watt, D.J.; Partridge, T.A.

    1991-01-01

    The mdx mouse, although a genetic and biochemical homologue of human Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), presents a comparatively mild histopathological and clinical phenotype. These differences are partially attributable to the greater efficacy of regeneration in the mdx mouse than in DMD muscle. To lessen this disparity, we have used a single dose of X-irradiation (16 Gy) to inhibit regeneration in one leg of mdx mice. The result is an almost complete block of muscle fiber regeneration leading to progressive loss of muscle fibers and their replacement by loose connective tissue. Surviving fibers are mainly peripherally nucleated and, surprisingly, of large diameter. Thus, X-irradiation converts mdx muscle to a model system in which the degenerative process can be studied in isolation from the complicating effect of myofiber regeneration. This system should be of use for testing methods of alleviating the myofiber degeneration which is common to mdx and DMD

  7. X-irradiation improves mdx mouse muscle as a model of myofiber loss in DMD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeford, S.; Watt, D.J.; Partridge, T.A. (Charing Cross and Westminster Medical School, London (England))

    1991-01-01

    The mdx mouse, although a genetic and biochemical homologue of human Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), presents a comparatively mild histopathological and clinical phenotype. These differences are partially attributable to the greater efficacy of regeneration in the mdx mouse than in DMD muscle. To lessen this disparity, we have used a single dose of X-irradiation (16 Gy) to inhibit regeneration in one leg of mdx mice. The result is an almost complete block of muscle fiber regeneration leading to progressive loss of muscle fibers and their replacement by loose connective tissue. Surviving fibers are mainly peripherally nucleated and, surprisingly, of large diameter. Thus, X-irradiation converts mdx muscle to a model system in which the degenerative process can be studied in isolation from the complicating effect of myofiber regeneration. This system should be of use for testing methods of alleviating the myofiber degeneration which is common to mdx and DMD.

  8. Alteration of T cell function in healthy persons with a history of thymic x irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, C.H.L.; Kraft, S.C.; Rothberg, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    The possible late effects of x irradiation to the infantile thymus were investigated by studying immune functions in 12 healthy persons with a history of thymic x irradiation and healthy control subjects. No differences were found in serum immunoglobulin values, humoral antibody levels, lymphocyte counts, and lymphocyte reactivity to phytohemagglutinin, vaccinia virus, purified protein derivative (PPD), and allogeneic cells. The irradiation group exhibited cellular hyperresponsiveness to streptokinase-streptodornase (SK-SD). In contrast, mean skin and in vitro lymphocyte responses to Candida albicans were depressed in the patients with thymic irradiation. A dissociation of these two Candida responses was found in only 1 of 14 healthy control subjects but in 7 of 12 irradiated individuals. While thymic irradiation did not result in impaired immunologic defenses leading to clinical disease, it caused alterations in T cell responses similar to those reported in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis

  9. Selective elimination of intracortically projecting neurons of the rat neocortex by prenatal x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, K.F.

    1981-01-01

    The development of new racing methods has suggested that there are species differences in the extent of the contribution of the different layers of the neocortex to the callosal projection. The present investigation has utilized prenatal x-irradiation to selectively eliminate the late forming neurons of the supragranular layers of the rat neocortex. The reduction in the neuronal population of the supragranular layers closely parallels the reduction in the corpus callosum. These results indicate that the primary source of neurons of the callosal projection, are the late forming neurons of the supragranular layers. Thus, the current results suggest that low dose prenatal x-irradiation may be used to evaluate important developmental events in the formation of neocortical circuitry

  10. Alteration of T cell function in healthy persons with a history of thymic x irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, C.H.L.; Kraft, S.C.; Rothberg, R.M.

    1975-10-01

    The possible late effects of x irradiation to the infantile thymus were investigated by studying immune functions in 12 healthy persons with a history of thymic x irradiation and healthy control subjects. No differences were found in serum immunoglobulin values, humoral antibody levels, lymphocyte counts, and lymphocyte reactivity to phytohemagglutinin, vaccinia virus, purified protein derivative (PPD), and allogeneic cells. The irradiation group exhibited cellular hyperresponsiveness to streptokinase-streptodornase (SK-SD). In contrast, mean skin and in vitro lymphocyte responses to Candida albicans were depressed in the patients with thymic irradiation. A dissociation of these two Candida responses was found in only 1 of 14 healthy control subjects but in 7 of 12 irradiated individuals. While thymic irradiation did not result in impaired immunologic defenses leading to clinical disease, it caused alterations in T cell responses similar to those reported in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis.

  11. Swimming immobility time decreased in prenatally x-irradiated microcephalic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Misako; Kiyono, Sigehiro; Shibagaki, Masamitsu

    1986-01-01

    Pregnant rats were X-irradiated (150 R) on gestation day 17, and the offspring were weaned at 21 days of age. After recording the spontaneous activity for one hour using Animex apparatus at 40 days of age, male offspring were tested for swimming immobility time on two consecutive days at 62 days of age. All X-irradiated pups were microcephalic, and their mean total brain weight was 78.5 % of the control group. Although no difference was found in spontaneous activity between the two groups, swimming immobility time was significantly shortened in the microcephalic group. The results suggest that the swimming immobility time is an indicator of adaptability to novel situation rather than an expression of helplessness, lowered mood or depressed state as originally proposed by Porsolt et al. (author)

  12. Untargeted viral mutagenesis is not found in X-irradiated monkey cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytle, C.D.; Carney, P.G.; Lee, W.; Bushar, H.F.

    1988-01-01

    The existence of untargeted viral mutagenesis in X-irradiated cells was investigated in a mammalian virus/cell system, where a low level of such viral mutagenesis can be demonstrated in UV-irradiated cells. In the positive control experiment UV-elicited mutagenesis was shown with cell exposures of 5, 10 and 15 J/m 2 and a delay of 24 h between cell irradiation and infection with unirradiated herpes simplex virus. Although X-ray doses of 1, 3 and 10 Gy elicit enhanced reactivation of UV-irradiated virus, no untargeted mutagenesis for any X-ray dose at post-irradiation infection times of 0, 24 or 72 h was observed in this study. Thus untargeted mutagenesis of herpes simplex virus was not demonstrated in X-irradiated monkey cells, under conditions where X-ray-enhanced reactivation occurs and where untargeted mutagenesis in UV-irradiated cells occurs. (author)

  13. Effects of X-irradiation on some aspects of protein metabolism in the frog, Rana hexadactyla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajarami Reddy, G.; Sasira Babu, K.

    1980-01-01

    Changes in the level of total proteins and protease in brain, muscle and liver tissues of normal and X-irradiated frogs were determined. Low doses of radiation produced an increment in protein level while high doses produced decrement. However, protease activity at all doses exhibited an elevatory trend. Exposure of frogs to lethal doses resulted in increased protease activity and decreased protein content during post-irradiation periods. The results are discussed on the basis of protein destruction and lysosomal damage. (auth.)

  14. Characterization of Ninjurin and TSC22 induction after X-irradiation of normal human skin cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Manabu; Ninomiya, Yasuharu; Koike, Aki

    2008-01-01

    The skin is an external organ that is most frequently exposed to radiation. It is important to elucidate the influence of radiation exposure on the skin at the molecular level. To identify radiation-responsive genes in human skin cells, we used microarray technology to examine the effects of irradiation on 641 genes in normal human epidermal keratinocytes at 4 h and 8 h postirradiation with a cytotoxic dose of X-ray (10 Gy). We found that 18 genes were upregulated and 35 genes were downregulated in keratinocytes at 4 h and/or 8 h postirradiation. Ninjurin, whose function remains unknown in keratinocytes, was induced most strongly by X-irradiation. Several known apoptosis-related genes, such as TSC22, were also upregulated. We characterized Ninjurin and TSC22 induction after X-irradiation of normal human skin cells. The induction of the expression of Ninjurin and TSC22 mRNA in keratinocytes following high-dose X-irradiation was confirmed by northern blot analysis. In dermal fibroblasts, Ninjurin, but not TSC22, was induced after X-ray irradiation. The dependence of both gene expression on the status of an apoptosis regulator, p53, was found. In addition, the expression of both mRNA was induced upon treatment with an apoptosis inducer, etoposide. On the other hand, TSC22, but not Ninjurin, was induced and accumulated in keratinocytes upon treatment with an apoptosis inducer, anisomycin. However, in transient expression assay, EYFP-TSC22, as well as EYFP-Ninjurin or EYFP alone, did not induce apoptosis in keratinocytes in contrast to EYFP-GADD45. Taken together, these findings have important implications on the understanding of the mechanism underlying the complex response of skin cells following X-irradiation. (author)

  15. Abnormal G1 arrest in the cell lines from LEC strain rats after X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, M.; Uehara, K.; Kirisawa, R.; Endoh, D.; Arai, S.; Okui, T.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of X-irradiation of cell lines from LEC and WKAH strain rats on a progression o cell cycle was investigated. When WKAH rat ells were exposed to 5 Gy of X-rays and their cell cycle distribution was determined by a flow cytometer, the proportion of S-phase cells decrease and that of G2/M-phase cells in creased at 8 hr post-irradiation. At 18 and 24 hr post-irradiation, approximately 80% of the cells appeared in the G1 phase. On the contrary, the proportion of S-phase cells increased and that of G1-phase cells decreased in LEC rats during 8-24 hr post-irradiation, compared with that at 0 hr post-irradiation. Thus, radiation-induced delay in the progression from the G1 phase to S phase (G1 arrest) was observed inWKAH rat cells but not in LEC rat cells. In the case of WKAH rat cells, the intensities of the bands of p53 protein increased at 1 and 2 hr after X-irradiation at 5 Gy, compared with those of un-irradiated cells and at 0 hr post-irradiation. In contrast, the intensities of the bands were faint and did not significantly increase in LEC rat ells during 0-6 hr incubation after X-irradiation. Present results suggested that the radioresistant DNA synthesis in LEC rat cells is thought to be due to the abnormal G1 arrest following X-irradiation

  16. Epithelial regeneration of transposed intestine after high doses of X irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Both, N.J. de; Vermey, M [Erasmus Universiteit, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1976-01-01

    The regeneration capacities of normal and transposed small bowel epithelium were compared in rats after applying high doses of x irradiation. It has been shown that the potency of the mucosa to regenerate was much higher than assumed and that the mucosa could regenerate after single doses varying from 2000 to 5000 R. Even in the villus epithelium and in flat epithelium covering infiltrates of the lamina propria cells survived, which were still able to resume proliferative activity several days after irradiation.

  17. Transient virus expression during murine leukemia induction by x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, M.

    1977-01-01

    Most x-irradiation-induced thymomas in C57BL/6 mice are virus-free when assayed by immunofluorescence for the gs antigen (gsa) of murine leukemia virus (MuLV). Virus was induced transiently in bone marrow cells and later appeared in thymus cells. Six to 7 weeks post irradiation, thymocytes and bone marrow cells were MuLV gsa-negative and remained negative for the lifetime of most animals, whether or not they contracted overt leukemia. During the period when MuLV gsa-positive bone marrow cells were found, XC-positive syncytia-producing bone marrow cells were also found. Virus information was expressed, therefore, for a limited duration, long before any signs of leukemia in the animal were evident. MuLV gsa-positive thymocytes taken from mice 4 weeks after x-irradiation were cocultivated with a series of indicator cells. B-tropic virus, in addition to a xenotropic virus, was isolated from these cells. Ecotropic virus was not found in normal mouse thymocytes, in irradiated thymocytes a few days after termination of the X-irradiation sequence, or in most primary thymomas. All thymocytes produced only xenotropic virus in the cocultivation assays. Expression of the ecotropic virus was, therefore, transient, as assayed by immunofluorescence, XC syncytia formation, and virus isolation from MuLV gsa-positive thymus cells

  18. Effects of x-irradiation on growth of vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzoga, K.F.; Dimitrievich, G.S.; Sutton, H.G.; Griem, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Effects of x-irradiation doses ranging from 0-2000 rads on vascular smooth muscle cells were measured. Explant cultures were from the medial layers of aortas from New Zealand rabbits. X-irradiation was delivered to narrow mediastinal port using a 250 kV Maxitron at a rate of 80 rads/min. and a S-C distance of 60 cm. Explantation was done either immediately following radiation or five days later. Two parameters were used to determine post-irradiation growth potential of these cells: number of outgrowing cells per seeded explant and size and number of cells/culture. Results were expressed as fraction of control. Irradiation immediately before explantation reduced number of cells/ explant 10% for 250 rads and over 50% for 500 rads. Doses of 1000 rads and over resulted in reductions of over 70% in number of growing explants and culture size. When five days were allowed to elapse between x-irradiation and explantation the same parameters were not significantly affected for doses of 500 rads or less. Doses of 1000 rads resulted in a reduction in number of cells of 40% and 2000 rads of over 80%. These results suggest the presence of a population of vascular repair cells five days following irradiation treatment. The nature of these cells is discussed

  19. Persistent genetic instability induced by synergistic interaction between x-irradiation and 6-thioguanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosovsky, A.J.; Nelson, S.L.; Smith, L.E.

    1995-01-01

    Clonal karyotypic analysis was performed using G-banding on four groups of clones derived from TK6 human lymphoblasts: 25 HPRT - total gene deletion mutants induced by exposure to 2 Gy of x-rays; 8 spontaneous HPRT - total gene deletion mutants; 25 clones irradiated with 2 Gy, not selected with 6-thioguanine. Ten to twenty metaphases were examined for each clone. Extensive karyotypic heterogeneity was observed among x-ray induced HPRT - mutants involving translocations, deletions, duplications and aneuploidy; recovery of chromosomal aberrations and karyotypic heterogeneity was greater than the additive effects of clones treated with x-irradiation or 6-thioguanine alone. This synergistic interaction between x-irradiation and 6-thioguanine was observed despite a 7 day phenotypic expression interval between exposure to the two agents. Thus, x-irradiated TK6 cells appear to be persistently hypersensitive to the induction of genetic instability. Several mutants appeared to exhibit evidence of clonal evolution since aberrant chromosomes observed in one metaphase, were found to be further modified in other metaphases. In order to determine if genetic instability, identified by clonal karyotypic heterogeneity, affected specific locus mutation rates, we utilized the heterozygous thymidine kinase (tk) locus as a genetic marker. Four x-ray induced HPRT - mutants with extensive karyotypic heterogeneity, exhibited mutation rates at tk ranging from 5 to 8 fold higher than the parental TK6 cells. Further analysis, using fractionated low dose radiation exposure, is currently in progress

  20. Radiosensitivity of pulmonary alveolar macrophages in rats exposed to local X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Yifen; Fei Lihua; Wu Dechang

    1987-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) in rats exposed to local thoracic X-irradiatoin was studied. The percentages of mitotic and labeling cells were used as biological endpoints. The parameters of radiosensitivity of PAMs obtained on the second day after local exposure are as follows: D 0 = 0.68 Gy, Dq = 0.06 Gy, n = 1.1 for mitotic cells and D 0 = 1.04 Gy, Dq = 0.12 Gy, n = 1.12 for labeling cells. The parameters of radiosensitivity of PAMs in bronchical lavage obtained immediately after X-irradiation are: D 0 = 3.56 Gy, Dq = 0.77 Gy, n = 1.24 for labeling cells and D 0 = 3.69 Gy, Dq = 0.35 Gy, n = 1.1 for mitotic cells. The comparison of thses results indicates that the radiation effect on PAMs obtained immediately after X-irradiation is less severe than that of PAMs obtained 2 days later. It might be caused by the delay of cell cycle within 2 days after X-irradiation

  1. Response of the adrenal medulla to exogenous insulin in head X-irradiated dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, K; Mieno, M; Shimizu, T [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1976-12-01

    The observed results on the secretory response of the adrenal medulla to exogenous insulin in dogs whose heads had been irradiated with 200 rad X-irradiation at a rate of 60.6 rad/min are reported. Approximately 20 h after irradiation 2 i.u. insulin/kg body weight was administered to both irradiated and control (non-irradiated) dogs. The secretion of both adrenaline and noradrenaline in five control dogs which received insulin had increased markedly 30 min after the injection and it was sustained over the first 120 min. Five irradiated dogs also responded to the injection of insulin by secreting appreciable amounts of both adrenaline and noradrenaline, but the responsiveness was considerably lower; adrenaline and noradrenaline secretion 30 and 60 min after the injection was 59 and 33% less than that caused by insulin in control animals respectively, and these differences were significant (P < 0.01). Since insulin induces hypoglycaemia and thereby leads to an increase in the adrenal medullary secretion through the central mechanism, the present results observed 1 day after X-irradiation of the head indicate that the susceptibility of the adrenomedullary activating mechanism in the central nervous system may be diminished considerably after X-irradiation, even at doses as low as 200 rad.

  2. Response of the adrenal medulla to exogenous insulin in head X-irradiated dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, K.; Mieno, M.; Shimizu, T.

    1976-01-01

    The observed results on the secretory response of the adrenal medulla to exogenous insulin in dogs whose heads had been irradiated with 200 rad X-irradiation at a rate of 60.6 rad/min are reported. Approximately 20 h after irradiation 2 i.u. insulin/kg body weight was administered to both irradiated and control (non-irradiated) dogs. The secretion of both adrenaline and noradrenaline in five control dogs which received insulin had increased markedly 30 min after the injection and it was sustained over the first 120 min. Five irradiated dogs also responded to the injection of insulin by secreting appreciable amounts of both adrenaline and noradrenaline, but the responsiveness was considerably lower; adrenaline and noradrenaline secretion 30 and 60 min after the injection was 59 and 33% less than that caused by insulin in control animals respectively, and these differences were significant (P < 0.01). Since insulin induces hypoglycaemia and thereby leads to an increase in the adrenal medullary secretion through the central mechanism, the present results observed 1 day after X-irradiation of the head indicate that the susceptibility of the adrenomedullary activating mechanism in the central nervous system may be diminished considerably after X-irradiation, even at doses as low as 200 rad. (U.K.)

  3. Effect of single x-irradiation on glucocorticoid function of adrenal glands of adult and old rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorban', Je.M.; Topol'nyikova, N.V.

    2001-01-01

    The peculiarities of short-term (1 h, 1 day) adrenal glucocorticoid function in adult and old rats after single x-irradiation at different doses was studied. changes in the glucocorticoid function of the adrenal glands at studied terms after single x-irradiation at used doses were observed in adult but not in old animals. This testifies to an age-related decrease in the range of adaptive possibilities of this link of the organism adaptive system to x-irradiation effects

  4. The effect of low-dose X-irradiation on immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Keiichiro

    1996-01-01

    The hypothesis of radiation hormesis has been proposed. To elucidate the hormetic effect on the immune system, we studied the mitogen-induced proliferation of splenocytes of F344/NSlc rat and BALB/c mouse after low-dose X-irradiation. Con A, PHA or LPS-induced proliferation of rat splenocytes prepared at 4 hr after irradiation was augmented with 5 cGy. This augmentation was observed within a few hours after irradiation, being a temporary effect. In case of mice, the proliferation of splenocytes induced by Con A, PHA or LPS was augmented by irradiation with 2.5 cGy. Thus, some phenomena of hormetic effect on the immune system were observed. However, the mechanism of augmentation of immune splenocytes is uncertainty. Therefore, we examined changes in production of LTB 4 and IL-1 being inflammatory mediators. After 5 cGy irradiation the production of LTB 4 of rat splenocyte showed a significant increase. Furthermore, 2.5 cGy irradiation also enhanced, the biological activity of intracellular IL-1 of LPS-stimulated mouse splenocytes. Additionally, to elucidate the stimulative effect on the antitumor immunity by low-dose X-irradiation, we studied the changes in the incidence of thymic lymphoma using AKR mice and of spontaneous metastasis to lung using tumor bearing mice. The incidence of thymic lymphoma was significantly decreased and the life span was significantly prolonged by periodical low-dose X-irradiation in terms of breeding of AKR mice. By an irradiation with 15 cGy, numbers of lung colony in the tumor bearing mice were decreased by 57% relative to the sham-irradiated controls. Then, IL-6 and TNF-α production of tumor bearing mice splenocytes were enhanced. These findings suggest that the low-dose X-irradiation might have caused a light inflammation and might have induced an augmentation of immune splenocytes. Furthermore, these results indicate that an augmentation of the antitumor immunity was induced by low-dose X-irradiation. (author). 127 refs

  5. The effect of low-dose X-irradiation on immune system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Keiichiro [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab.

    1996-06-01

    The hypothesis of radiation hormesis has been proposed. To elucidate the hormetic effect on the immune system, we studied the mitogen-induced proliferation of splenocytes of F344/NSlc rat and BALB/c mouse after low-dose X-irradiation. Con A, PHA or LPS-induced proliferation of rat splenocytes prepared at 4 hr after irradiation was augmented with 5 cGy. This augmentation was observed within a few hours after irradiation, being a temporary effect. In case of mice, the proliferation of splenocytes induced by Con A, PHA or LPS was augmented by irradiation with 2.5 cGy. Thus, some phenomena of hormetic effect on the immune system were observed. However, the mechanism of augmentation of immune splenocytes is uncertainty. Therefore, we examined changes in production of LTB{sub 4} and IL-1 being inflammatory mediators. After 5 cGy irradiation the production of LTB{sub 4} of rat splenocyte showed a significant increase. Furthermore, 2.5 cGy irradiation also enhanced, the biological activity of intracellular IL-1 of LPS-stimulated mouse splenocytes. Additionally, to elucidate the stimulative effect on the antitumor immunity by low-dose X-irradiation, we studied the changes in the incidence of thymic lymphoma using AKR mice and of spontaneous metastasis to lung using tumor bearing mice. The incidence of thymic lymphoma was significantly decreased and the life span was significantly prolonged by periodical low-dose X-irradiation in terms of breeding of AKR mice. By an irradiation with 15 cGy, numbers of lung colony in the tumor bearing mice were decreased by 57% relative to the sham-irradiated controls. Then, IL-6 and TNF-{alpha} production of tumor bearing mice splenocytes were enhanced. These findings suggest that the low-dose X-irradiation might have caused a light inflammation and might have induced an augmentation of immune splenocytes. Furthermore, these results indicate that an augmentation of the antitumor immunity was induced by low-dose X-irradiation. 127 refs.

  6. Effects of AET, MEA, or 5-HT treatment before X-irradiation of pregnant C57B mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, L.

    1985-01-01

    C57B mice were either whole body X-irradiated with a dose of 200 R or, 15 minutes before X-radiation injected with AET, MEA, or 5-HT, in a dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight, on the first day of gestation. Uterine contents were examined on the nineteenth day of pregnancy. The number of corpora lutea was assumed as 100% and the percentage values of live and dead foetuses, resorptions, and non-implanted embryos were calculated. The percentage ratio of females with live foetuses in the uterus, in relation to the total number of those with a vaginal plug was also determined. X-irradiation of pregnant mice influenced the embryonic survival. As compared with controls, in only X-irradiated mice a lower percentage value of live foetuses and higher percentage values of non-implanted embryos and resorptions were found. One dead foetus was only observed in X-irradiated females. Percentage value of X-irradiated females with live foetuses was lower than that of control ones. High mortality of embryos occurred more often before than after the implantation of blastocysts. The percentage value of non-implanted embryos was higher than that of resorptions. AET, MEA, and 5-HT when injected to mice before their X-irradiation acted as radioprotectors. The strongest radioprotective effect was obtained following AET administration, intermediate after 5-HT treatment and the weakest one when MEA was injected. (orig.) [de

  7. Maternal deprivation and adolescent cannabinoid exposure impact hippocampal astrocytes, CB1 receptors and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in a sexually dimorphic fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gallardo, M; López-Rodríguez, A B; Llorente-Berzal, Á; Rotllant, D; Mackie, K; Armario, A; Nadal, R; Viveros, M-P

    2012-03-01

    We have recently reported that early maternal deprivation (MD) for 24 h [postnatal day (PND) 9-10] and/or an adolescent chronic treatment with the cannabinoid agonist CP-55,940 (CP) [0.4 mg/kg, PND 28-42] in Wistar rats induced, in adulthood, diverse sex-dependent long-term behavioral and physiological modifications. Here we show the results obtained from investigating the immunohistochemical analysis of CB1 cannabinoid receptors, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive (+) cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus of the same animals. MD induced, in males, a significant increase in the number of GFAP+ cells in CA1 and CA3 areas and in the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus (DG), an effect that was attenuated by CP in the two latter regions. Adolescent cannabinoid exposure induced, in control non-deprived males, a significant increase in the number of GFAP+ cells in the polymorphic layer of the DG. MD induced a decrease in CB1 expression in both sexes, and this effect was reversed in males by the cannabinoid treatment. In turn, the drug "per se" induced, in males, a general decrease in CB1 immunoreactivity, and the opposite effect was observed in females. Cannabinoid exposure tended to reduce BDNF expression in CA1 and CA3 of females, whereas MD counteracted this trend and induced an increase of BDNF in females. As a whole, the present results show sex-dependent long-term effects of both MD and juvenile cannabinoid exposure as well as functional interactions between the two treatments. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. MATERNAL DEPRIVATION AND ADOLESCENT CANNABINOID EXPOSURE IMPACT HIPPOCAMPAL ASTROCYTES, CB1 RECEPTORS AND BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR IN A SEXUALLY DIMORPHIC FASHION

    Science.gov (United States)

    LÓPEZ-GALLARDO, M.; LÓPEZ-RODRÍGUEZ, A. B.; LLORENTE-BERZAL, Á.; ROTLLANT, D.; MACKIE, K.; ARMARIO, A.; NADAL, R.; VIVEROS, M.-P.

    2013-01-01

    We have recently reported that early maternal deprivation (MD) for 24 h [postnatal day (PND) 9–10] and/or an adolescent chronic treatment with the cannabinoid agonist CP-55,940 (CP) [0.4 mg/kg, PND 28–42] in Wistar rats induced, in adulthood, diverse sex-dependent long-term behavioral and physiological modifications. Here we show the results obtained from investigating the immunohistochemical analysis of CB1 cannabinoid receptors, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive (+) cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus of the same animals. MD induced, in males, a significant increase in the number of GFAP+ cells in CA1 and CA3 areas and in the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus (DG), an effect that was attenuated by CP in the two latter regions. Adolescent cannabinoid exposure induced, in control non-deprived males, a significant increase in the number of GFAP+ cells in the polymorphic layer of the DG. MD induced a decrease in CB1 expression in both sexes, and this effect was reversed in males by the cannabinoid treatment. In turn, the drug “per se” induced, in males, a general decrease in CB1 immunoreactivity, and the opposite effect was observed in females. Cannabinoid exposure tended to reduce BDNF expression in CA1 and CA3 of females, whereas MD counteracted this trend and induced an increase of BDNF in females. As a whole, the present results show sex-dependent long-term effects of both MD and juvenile cannabinoid exposure as well as functional interactions between the two treatments. PMID:22001306

  9. Effect of low level prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal growth in the Wistar rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Forty-five pregnant Wistar strain rats were exposed to 0.0, 0.4, 0.6, or 0.8 Gy X-radiation on the 9th or 17th day of gestation to determined if prenatal X-irradiation would result in alterations in postnatal growth or growth rate. The mothers delivered their offspring, and the litters were reduced to a maximum of eight per litter on the second postnatal day. The 336 offspring were weighed weekly from day 3 until day 86, at which time they were killed, an autopsy was performed, and selected organs were removed and weighed. Postnatal growth rates did not differ significantly in irradiated offspring compared to sham irradiated animals. Irradiation on the 9th day, at any of the 3 dosage levels, did not result in significant differences in weekly weight. Weekly weight remained significantly lower due to irradiation on the 17th day of gestation. The gonadal weight ratio was significantly reduced in males irradiated on the 9th day. There were not other statistically significant changes in organ weight or organ/body weight ratios due to these levels of prenatal X-irradiation on the 9th or 17th day of pregnancy. These results indicate that low level prenatal X-irradiation, on the 17th day of rat gestation, causes prenatal growth retardation, evident at birth, which is not recuperable postnatally. Exposure to x-radiation at this time, however, does not affect the rate at which offspring grow during postnatal life. Offspring are smaller because they never fully recover from the original radiation-induced prenatal growth retardation

  10. RNA precursor pool metabolism and RNA synthesis in X-irradiated Tetrahymena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, R.E.; Paul, I.J.; Zimmerman, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    The incorporation of a radioactive RNA precursor ( 3 H-uridine) has been used in many studies as an index for measuring the synthesis of RNA, yet there is a distinct possibility that the results so obtained were significantly influenced by radiation-induced effects on the metabolism of this precursor into UTP (the primary immediate precursor of RNA) before its incorporation into RNA. A direct examination was therefore undertaken of the effects of X-irradiation on the metabolism of 3 H-uridine and its relationship to RNA synthesis as determined by incorporation. X-irradiation of logarithmically growing Tetrahymena pyriformis caused a dose-dependent depression of total cellular RNA synthesis. Ribosomal RNA (which comprises about 80 per cent of total cellular RNA) synthesis was also depressed by X-irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. Measurements of the levels of radioactivity present in the UTP precursor pool of both irradiated and unirradiated cells were obtained by means of DEAE-cellulose column chromatography of the extracted free nucleotides. Metabolism of 3 H-uridine into UMP, UDP and UTP was depressed by 40%, 26% and 27% respectively, whereas incorporation of 3 H-uridine into RNA was depressed by 77%. The results show that about one-third of the observed (apparent) depression in RNA synthesis was due to radiation-induced effects on the precursor pool, and the remaining two-thirds due to some definite effect of radiation at the transcription level leading to depressed synthesis of RNA. (U.K.)

  11. Cytotoxic effect of x-irradiation of mouse tumor cells in the presence of Korean ginseng extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyoung Cheol; Kim, Jin Ki; Kim, Jung Soo [College of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Junju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Dong Seong [College of Medicine, Woosuck Univ., Wanju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-01

    We already reported the results that aqueous extract of Korean ginseng roots showed a marked cytotoxicity. In this study, we investigated whether combined ginseng product with X-irradiation increase the cytotoxicity of tumor cells than X-irradiation or not. Fifty gram of Korean ginseng powder mixed with 1 L of distilled water was extracted with reflux flask under condition of 100 .deg. C for 5 hrs. This aqueous ginseng extract was filtered, centrifuged and then was freezed under condition of -90 .deg. C for 16-18 hrs. The freezing extract was dried with freeze drier, and then diluted. X-irradiation was given to tumor cells by 6 MeV linear accelerator. The cytotoxicity of ginseng in vitro was evaluated from its ability to reduce the clonogenecity of fibrosarcoma (FSa ll) cells. In X-irradiation alone group, each 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy was given to tumor cells. In X-irradiation with ginseng group, 0.2 mg/mL or ginseng extract was exposed to tumor cells for 1 hour before X-irradiation. The yield for 50 g of ginseng extract which was treated with freezing drier was 3.13 g(6.3%). Cytotoxicity in vitro was measured as survival fraction which was judged from the curve, at ginseng concentration of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/ml were 0.89{+-}0.04, 0.86{+-}0.06, 0.73{+-}0.01 and 0.09{+-}0.02, respectively. Survival fraction at X-irradiation alone of 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy were 0.81{+-}0.07, 0.42{+-}0.08, 0.15{+-}0.02, 0.03{+-}0.01, respectively. But, survival fraction in combined group of X-irradiation and ginseng (0.2mg/mL) at each same radiation dose were 0.28{+-}0.01, 0.18{+-}0.03, 0.08{+-}0.02, 0.006{+-}0.002, respectively (p<0.05). The yield for ginseng extract which was treated with freezing drier was 6.3%. Cytotoxicity of Fsa II in combined ginseng with X-irradiation group was increased than that at X-irradiation alone group, and its enhancing effect seemed to be added.

  12. Cytotoxic effect of x-irradiation of mouse tumor cells in the presence of Korean ginseng extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyoung Cheol; Kim, Jin Ki; Kim, Jung Soo; Choi, Dong Seong

    2000-01-01

    We already reported the results that aqueous extract of Korean ginseng roots showed a marked cytotoxicity. In this study, we investigated whether combined ginseng product with X-irradiation increase the cytotoxicity of tumor cells than X-irradiation or not. Fifty gram of Korean ginseng powder mixed with 1 L of distilled water was extracted with reflux flask under condition of 100 .deg. C for 5 hrs. This aqueous ginseng extract was filtered, centrifuged and then was freezed under condition of -90 .deg. C for 16-18 hrs. The freezing extract was dried with freeze drier, and then diluted. X-irradiation was given to tumor cells by 6 MeV linear accelerator. The cytotoxicity of ginseng in vitro was evaluated from its ability to reduce the clonogenecity of fibrosarcoma (FSa ll) cells. In X-irradiation alone group, each 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy was given to tumor cells. In X-irradiation with ginseng group, 0.2 mg/mL or ginseng extract was exposed to tumor cells for 1 hour before X-irradiation. The yield for 50 g of ginseng extract which was treated with freezing drier was 3.13 g(6.3%). Cytotoxicity in vitro was measured as survival fraction which was judged from the curve, at ginseng concentration of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/ml were 0.89±0.04, 0.86±0.06, 0.73±0.01 and 0.09±0.02, respectively. Survival fraction at X-irradiation alone of 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy were 0.81±0.07, 0.42±0.08, 0.15±0.02, 0.03±0.01, respectively. But, survival fraction in combined group of X-irradiation and ginseng (0.2mg/mL) at each same radiation dose were 0.28±0.01, 0.18±0.03, 0.08±0.02, 0.006±0.002, respectively (p<0.05). The yield for ginseng extract which was treated with freezing drier was 6.3%. Cytotoxicity of Fsa II in combined ginseng with X-irradiation group was increased than that at X-irradiation alone group, and its enhancing effect seemed to be added

  13. Fine-structural effects of 1200-R abdominal x irradiation on rat intestinal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieb, R.J.; McDonald, T.F.; McKenney, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    Male Charles River CD rats were shielded from the xiphoid process cranially with lead and were exposed to 1200-R abdominal x irradiation. Animals were sacrificed at 1 through 4 days following irradiation and tissues from both ileum and jejunum were prepared for electron microscopic examination. At the fine-structural level early changes were confined to a proliferation and dilation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and to an increase in the number of lysosomes. At 4 days postirradiation, cells covering the villi were cuboidal rather than columnar and appeared to be immature crypt-type cells. The appearance of these cells was coincident with the onset of diarrhea in these animals

  14. Nucleic acid metabolism in sea urchin embryos and its alteration after x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, I.

    1974-01-01

    Nucleic acid metabolism observed during embryogenesis of the sea urchin (Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus) and its alteration after x irradiation were studied on both qualitative and quantitative bases. MAK chromatographic analysis has revealed that the stage-dependent synthesis of RNA occurred during embryogenesis: some RNA families were observed specifically for early cleavage stage, not being observed at stages later than gastrulation. Further, they were modified by irradiation pari passu with delay and inhibition of cleavage. These results were discussed in comparison with our previous results on normal and regenerating rat liver

  15. The effect of vitamin E on cellular survival after X irradiation of lymphoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonck, K.; Kronings, A.W.T.

    1978-01-01

    Asynchronous cultures of a lymphocytic mouse leukaemic cell line L5178Y were X-irradiated under oxic and hypoxic conditions. The survival curves had almost no shoulder when the cells were grown under normal conditions and then irradiated in the presence of vitamin E, whereas a clear shoulder appeared when the cells were grown and irradiated in a medium supplemented with vitamin E (100 μg/ml). There was no change in the final sensitivity to lethal events in the vitamin E enriched cells. The results suggest that the radioprotective effect of vitamin E depends on its incorporation into the cell membranes. (U.K.)

  16. Effects of X-irradiation on gonadotropin secretion in rat anterior pituitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinmin; Liu Shuzheng

    1988-01-01

    The dispersed rat anterior pituitary cells cultured in 3 days was exposed to single doses of X-irradiation in the range of 0.5-8.0 Gy. LH and FSH contents in both the supernatant and the cells were measured. The LH secretion was significantly increased at the doses greater than 0.5 Gy and FSH secretion was also significantly enhanced at the dose of 4.0 Gy. The cellular contents of both LH and FSH remained near the control levels. It is concluded that gonadotropin secretion can be stimulated by single doses of X-rays in the range of 0.5-8.0 Gy

  17. The effect of x-irradiation on the development of Fasciola gigantica (cobbold, 1885) in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi Chandra

    1976-01-01

    The effect of varying doses (1 kr, 3 kr, 5 kr) of x-irradiation on the development of Fasciola gigantica, the common liver fluke of livestock in India has been investigated in goat kids with a view to develop a radiation attenuated vaccine against the pathogen. The growth and development of the flukes recovered from animals infected with irradiated metacercarie is found to be retarded. Metacecariae exposed to 3 kr can develop further, but number of flukes recovered from animals infected with metacecariae exposed to 5 kr is considerably less than the one from animals infected with non-irradiated metacercariae. (M.G.B.)

  18. Effect of local x-irradiation on mice reproduction in two successive generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'nikova, N.K.; Lisenkova, L.N.

    1978-01-01

    For an experimental assessment of the biologic effectiveness of a single exposure to local irradiation exposure in simulating the conditions of exposure in X ray studies, an experiment was carried out on white mice. Mice of two successive generations were exposed to local X irradiation in the eye region. The radiation was found to bring about changes in the reproductive function (such as sterility, reduced litter size and fertility of females); these changes being dose-dependent in a nonlinear manner. The biologic effect of irradiation was greater in the second-generation mice

  19. Alteration in adenylate cyclase response to aminergic stimulation following neonatal x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronister, R.B.; Palmer, G.C.; Gerbrandt, L.

    1980-01-01

    X-irradiation of the rat neonatal hippocampus produces severe alterations in the architectonic features of the mature hippocampus. The most prominent alteration is a marked depletion of the granule cells of the dentate gyrus, with a subsequent realignment of CA 4 cells. The present data also show that norepinephrine (NE), dopamine and histamine stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity is severely attenuated in the hippocampi of irradiated animals. This failure suggests that the NE fibers of irradiated subjects, although normal in content of NE, are not functional in some of their NE-effector actions

  20. Deficit in DNA content relative to histones in X-irradiated HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bases, R.; Mendez, F.; Neubort, S.

    1976-01-01

    The DNA and histone content of HeLa S-3 cell cultures was measured by direct mass assays 21 hours after 1000 rad of X-irradiation, when the cells were arrested in G2 phase. The nuclear DNA content of such cultures was found to be deficient (73 per cent of control values). In contrast, the synthesis of nuclear histones persisted, and the total histone content was close to 100 per cent of control values. When synchronously-growing cultures were irradiated in mid-S phase and examined 3.5 hours later in G2 phase, both DNA and histone content were equal to control values. (author)

  1. X-irradiation affects all DNA replication intermediates when inhibiting replication initiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loenn, U.; Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm

    1982-01-01

    When a human melanoma line was irradiated with 10 Gy, there was, after 30 to 60 min, a gradual reduction in the DNA replication rate. Ten to twelve hours after the irradiation, the DNA replication had returned to near normal rate. The results showed tht low dose-rate X-irradiation inhibits preferentially the formation of small DNA replication intermediates. There is no difference between the inhibition of these replication intermediates formed only in the irradiated cells and those formed also in untreated cells. (U.K.)

  2. Responses to selection for body weight in descendants of x-irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianola, D.; Chapman, A.B.; Rutledge, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    Th effectiveness of selection for high and low body weight at six weeks of age was studied in descendants of x-irradiated (R) and nonirradiated (C) inbred rats. There were two replicates of each of the direction of selection--irradiation treatments. In C lines, there were no consistent responses to selection, probably due to a low level of genetic variability. In R rats, selection was effective only for decreased body weight. The results of this experiment do not suggest the use of irradiation combined with selection as a means of enhancing responses to selection in animals

  3. Epithelial regeneration of transposed intestine after high doses of X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both, N.J. de; Vermey, M.

    1976-01-01

    The regeneration capacities of normal and transposed small bowel epithelium were compared in rats after applying high doses of X-irradiation. It has been shown that the potency of the mucosa to regenerate was much higher than assumed and that the mucosa could regenerate after single doses varying from 2000 to 5000 R. Even in the villus epithelium and in flat epithelium covering infiltrates of the lamina propria cells survived, which were still able to resume proliferative activity several days after irradiation. (author)

  4. X irradiation of human epidermis in vitro. 2. Comparison of single 44 kV and 200 kV X irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollina, U; Fueller, J; Burger, B; Hipler, C

    1989-01-01

    On the example of the reduction of epidermal adhesion of FITC wheat germ agglutinine (WGA) the direct membrane effect of a single X irradiation (44 kV and 220 kV) was analyzed in vitro. Human normal skin and psoriasis centres were compared. Normal skin showed no alteration of microscopically visible FITC-WGA adhesion on epidermal cells over the whole dose range. Foci of psoriasis responded to doses of /ge/ 5 Gy (44 and 220 kV) with a drastic reduction of epidermal lectin binding to lower and medium cell layers. Maximum efficacy was with 5 Gy (44 kV) or 10 Gy (220 kV). A dose elevation up to 20 Gy did not result in an increase of efficacy. Topographically the radiosensitive FITC-WGA adhesion could chiefly be seen in the dermal ridges. The findings support the impression of an increased radiosensitivity of the lesional psoriatic epidermis compared with normal skin. This is connected with an abnormal differentiation of keratinocytes in psoriasis. (author).

  5. Metabolic changes after non-lethal X-irradiation of rats. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlers, I.; Ahlersova, E.; Sedlakova, A.; Praslicka, M.

    1981-01-01

    Male rats of the Wistar strain were subjected to whole-body X-irradiation with 2.39 Gy (250 R) and after irradiation they were pair-fed with the sham-irradiated control group. One, 6 and 24 h, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 38 days after exposure the animals were sacrificed and examined for serum and some tissue lipids. In the first hours an increase in lipolysis in the white adipose tissue and accumulation of non-esterified fatty acids and triacylglycerols (TG) in the liver predominated; phospholipid level increased in serum and liver and decreased in bone marrow and thymus. The later phase was characterized by hypertriacylglycerolaemia and a transient hypercholesterolaemia; accumulation of TG in bone marrow was the most important change, however. Changes in the lipid composition of the serum and tissues, except for an increase in TG level in thymus, returned to normal levels at the end of the observation period. Pair-feeding provided an equivalent nutritional situation in irradiated and sham-irradiated animals and thus eliminated the non-specific changes caused by different levels of food intake in both groups of animals, especially in the initial period. A sufficiently long observation period is necessary for estimating the kinetics of metabolic changes in rats exposed to non-lethal doses of X-irradiation. (author)

  6. Intestinal metaplasia induced by x-irradiation in different strains of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Naito, Masashi; Kawashima, Kengo; Ito, Akihiro

    1985-01-01

    Attempts were made to examine strain differences in the susceptibility of rats to intestinal metaplasia induced by X-irradiation. The gastric regions of 4 inbred male rats (SHR, F344, WKY, and LEW strains) in 5-week-old and 2 random bred male rats (SD, and WIS strains) were irradiated with a total dose of 20 Gy X-ray given in two equal fractions separated by three days. Upon sacrifice at 6 months after the last irradiation, the number of intestinal metaplastic crypts with positive reaction to alkaline phosphatase (ALP) appeared highest in the SHR and lowest in the WIS rats. Morphologically, the number of crypts with intestinal metaplasia in whole glandular stomachs of SHR, WIS, F344, and SD rats were higher than those in WKY and LEW rats. In the pyloric gland, it was highest in WIS rats, while in the fundic gland it was highest in SHR rats. The results show that the appearance and location of intestinal metaplasia by X-irradiation are greatly influenced by the strain of the rat. (author)

  7. BCR-ABL fusion genes are inducible by X-irradiation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takashi; Seyama, Toshio; Mizuno, Terumi; Hayashi, Tomonori; Nakamura, Nori; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Dohi, Kiyohiko.

    1992-01-01

    The Philadelphia chromosome consists of a reciprocal translocation between the ABL oncogene at chromosome 9q34 and the BCR gene at chromosome 22q resulting in the expression of chimeric BCR-ABL mRNAs specific to chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). The presence of the fusion genes can be detected with high specificity and sensitivity by means of reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction. Using this assay, it was possible to detect BCR-ABL fusion genes induced among HL60 cells after 100 Gy of X-irradiation in vitro. A total of five fusion gene transcripts were obtained. These fusion genes contained not only CML-specific BCR-ABL rearrangements, but also other forms of BCR-ABL fusions. These latter genes had junctions of BCR exon 4/ABL exon 2 intervened by a segment of DNA of unknown origin, BCR exon 5/ABL exon 2, and BCR exon 4/ABL exon 2. The results appear to be the first evidence for the induction of the BCR-ABL fusion gene by X-irradiation. In terms of leukemogenesis, it is suggested that only those cells bearing certain CML-related BCR-ABL fusion genes are positively selected by virtue of a growth advantage in vivo. (author)

  8. Ontogenetic changes in the ultrastructure of rat hepatocyte organelles after prenatal x irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chedid, A.; Nair, V.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of prenatal x irradiation on the development of hepatocyte organelles have been studied in Sprague-Dawley rats. Pregnant rats received 50 R to the pelvic region on the 13th gestation day (g.d.). Animals were sacrificed on g.d.'s 15 and 20, day of birth, and 5th postnatal day. The fetal and neonatal livers were obtained and processed for electron-microscopic examination. The most striking discernible change after irradiation involves the appearance of cytoplasmic ''polyribosomal aggregates'' in the hepatocyte specimens of 15th and 20th g.d.'s. In the control rat, smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) appears for the first time on 20th g.d., while no SER could be detected in the hepatocytes from the irradiated animals at this period nor on day of birth. In the irradiated animals, SER was observed on the 5th postnatal day. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that lipid peroxidation membrane alteration, delayed appearance of SER, and ''polyribosomal aggregation'' may be sequentially linked events after prenatal x irradiation. (U.S.)

  9. Adaptive response of the chicken embryo to low doses of x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempel, K.; Schleifer, S.

    1995-01-01

    Chicken embryos were x-irradiated in ovo with 5-30 cGy (=priming dose) at the 13th-15th day of development. After 3-48 h, brain- and liver-cell suspensions were x-irradiated in vitro with (challenge) doses of 4-32 Gy. Significantly less radiation damage was observed when the radiation response was measured by scheduled DNA synthesis, nucleoid sedimentation and viscosity of alkaline cell lysates 12-36 h after the priming exposure. In vivo, pre-irradiation with 10 cGy enhanced regeneration as evidenced by the DNA content of chicken embryo brain and liver 24 h following a challenge dose of 4 Gy. From nucleoid sedimentation analyses in brain and liver cells immediately after irradiation with 16 Gy and after a 30-min repair period in the presence of aphidicolin, dideoxythymidine and 3-aminobenzamide or in the absence of these DNA repair inhibitors, it is concluded that a reduction of the initial radiation damage is the dominant mechanism of the ''radio-adaptive'' response of the chicken embryo. Sedimentation of nucleoids from ethidium bromide (EB) (0.75-400 μg/ml)-treated cells suggests a higher tendency of ''radio-adapted'' cells to undergo positive DNA supercoiling in the presence of high EB concentrations. (orig.)

  10. The effects of x-irradiation in the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, N.G.

    1980-01-01

    Newly emerged mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti (L)) were exposed to doses of 500 to 32,000 rad X-irradiation and the LD 50 and mean survival time determined. Radiation doses between 500 and 8,000 rad had only a slight effect on longevity whereas exposure to 32,000 had an appreciable effect. The midgut structure of newly emerged, X-irradiated female Aedes aegypti imagines was examined at set intervals after irradiation. The cytochemical localization of midgut acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and adenosine triphosphatase, and also quantitative estimates of midgut acid and alkaline phosphatase were carried out on mosquitoes exposed to 32,000 rad. Considerable changes in the structure of the midgut cells were apparent. With 500, 4,000 and 8,000 rad there was evidence of cellular repair and recovery. However, with 32,000 rad cellular damage was most extensive, with considerable loss of cell structure. The ultrastructural changes noted suggest that the primary radiation damage was to the plasma and organelle membranes, which is in agreement with the membrane-damage/enzyme release hypothesis. (author)

  11. Effects of x irradiation on estrogen-induced synthetic processes of the avian liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holshouser, S.J.; Schjeide, O.A.; Briles, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of x irradiation on protein and lipid synthesis were studied, using estrogen-induced yolk protein syntheses by the avian liver as a test model. Female chickens, receiving a single sublethal whole-body exposure of 600 R of x irradiation at 5 wk of age, laid fewer and smaller eggs upon reaching maturity as compared to nonirradiated controls. However, chemical contents and ultracentrifuge patterns of yolk proteins were not found to be qualitatively different. Accordingly, the synthesis of no one major yolk protein appeared to be selectively inhibited by exposure of the bird to irradiation. Injection of Estrogenic Substances into hens over a period of 3 days resulted in a much greater enlargement of livers in control estrogenized birds than in irradiated estrogenized birds. Differences were also ascertained to exist between control and irradiated birds in terms of total liver RNA. This would seem to indicate a greater potential for synthesis of serum yolk protein precursors in nonirradiated estrogenized hens. (U.S.)

  12. Characterization through a data display of the different cellular responses in X-irradiated small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, K.E.; McCullough, J.S.; Nelson, A.C.; Hume, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    Previous work on small intestinal radiation injury has reported changes in epithelial and non-epithelial tissues, but with few quantitative comparisons of different responses by individual cell types. The approach used here quantifies the responses of mouse duodenum to X-irradiation with 6 Gy, 10 Gy and 20 Gy, sampled three days after treatment, and 10 Gy sampled 6 hours, 1 day and 3 days after treatment. Tissue area measurements and counts per circumference for 13 different structural elements are subjected to statistical tests. New data reported here for X-irradiation include the fact that cryptal cells do not respond uniformly, indicating that the crypt/microcolony cannot always be used as a standard unit in assessing radiation injury. Non-epithelial structures, such as submucosal arterioles, are also affected. The data display also includes control-referenced ratios, from which are calculated Tissue Indices and a final Morphological Index, which estimates total structural damage. The Indices are useful in drawing attention to unexpected changes in extent or range of data sets. In addition, the Epithelial Index appears to be a sensitive indicator of radiation damage, even at low doses and early time points. The data display includes a graph of the total Indices and summary tables of data, and encourages close study of the constituent data points. (author)

  13. Vaccination against bovine schistosomiasis japonica with highly X-irradiated schistosomula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.Y.; Hsue, H.F.; Xu, S.T.; Shi, F.H.; He, Y.X.; Clarke, W.R.; Johnson, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    Cercariae of the Chinese mainland strain of Schistosoma japonicum were used. Eighteen cattle, divided into six groups of three each, were immunized with schistosomula transformed from cercariae exposed to three different doses of X-irradiation (24, 36, and 48 kR). The immunization was given either once, twice, or thrice, and the number of immunizing schistosomula was 10,000 or more in each immunization. The immunized cattle were challenged with 500 normal cercariae. Five native cattle were similarly infected with normal cercariae as controls. All cattle were killed 32-33 days after challenge or infection, and the worms were obtained by perfusion. The mean worm reduction in the 18 experimental animals varied from 42.1 to 96.0%. The mean percent worm reduction of the six experimental groups varied from 54.8 to 87.1. The reduction was greater with increasing numbers of immunizations, and was higher in the groups immunized with schistosomula exposed to 36 kR than in those exposed to 24 or 48 kR. Statistical analyses showed that all immunized groups yielded significantly fewer worms than controls. However, the three doses of X-irradiation (24, 36, and 48 kR) had no significant effect for a fixed number of immunizations (1, 2, or 3). The means for both two and three immunizations were significantly different from the mean for one immunization, although they were not significantly different from each other

  14. Changes in nucleoid viscosity following X-irradiation of rat thymic and splenic cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempel, K.

    1990-01-01

    In the present investigations, damage and repair of DNA supercoiling was measured in T- and S-cells following X-irradiation in vitro by using the nucleoid sedimentation technique and a simplified low-shearing viscometric test. - X-irradiation resulted in a dose(0.6-19.2 Gy)-dependent reduction in sedimentation and viscosity of nucleoids. Within a post-irradiation period of 30-45 min after a challenge dose of 19.2 Gy, DNA repair was accompanied by an increase in nucleoid sedimentation and viscosity in T-cells by about 60 and 300, in S-cells by almost 40 and 100%, resp. The increase in nucleoid viscosity within a 30 min repair period could be reduced in a concentration-dependent manner by DNA polymerase-inhibitors and proteinase K. - The higher DNA repair capacity of T-cells as reflected by UDS is confirmed therefore by the nucleoid characteristics. A part from this suggestion, measuring nucleoid viscosity may be considered as a sensitive, simple and rapid device to detect radiation-induced DNA supercoiling phenomena. (orig./MG)

  15. Entire litters developed from transferred eggs in whole body x-irradiated female mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, T.P.

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity of mouse eggs to sublethal x-irradiation was determined in vitro and in vivo with regard to the development of donor litters in foster mothers. One thousand seven hundred fifty-eight unfertilized eggs of agouti dark-eyed donor mice were transferred into 293 unirradiated or x-irradiated, mated female pink-eyed mice. Two hundred thirty-nine recipients became pregnant; of these 35 produced litters containing solely dark-eyed fetuses. Sublethal doses of x-radiation administered to donor eggs in vitro before transferring into unirradiated recipients did not influence significantly the number of litters of exclusively dark-eyed fetuses produced. However, recipients irradiated by 250 roentgens (r) produced more solely dark-eyed litters than did those irradiated with 100 r. In 21 pregnant females irradiated by 100 r, only 3 (14%) developed solely dark-eyed fetuses as compared to 22 pregnant females irradiated by 250 r, of which 13 (59%) developed solely dark-eyed fetuses, all from unirradiated, transferred eggs. Of another group of 22 pregnant females which received 250 r body irradiation and subsequently received eggs also irradiated by 250 r, only 7 (32%) produced litters of dark-eyed fetuses. No one female of these three groups carried native fetuses. Such radiation-induced infertility resulting from damage of native eggs rather than loss of mother's ability to carry a pregnancy, is frequently remedied by egg transfer

  16. Differential induction from X-irradiated human peripheral blood monocytes to dendritic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Hironori; Takahashi, Kenji; Monzen, Satoru; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are a type of antigen-presenting cell which plays an essential role in the immune system. To clarify the influences of ionizing radiation on the differentiation to DCs, we focused on human peripheral blood monocytes and investigated whether X-irradiated monocytes can differentiate into DCs. The non-irradiated monocytes and 5 Gy-irradiated monocytes were induced into immature DCs (iDCs) and mature DCs (mDCs) with appropriate cytokine stimulation, and the induced cells from each monocyte expressed each DC-expressing surface antigen such as CD40, CD86 and HLA-DR. However, the expression levels of CD40 and CD86 on the iDCs derived from the 5 Gy-irradiated monocytes were higher than those of iDCs derived from non-irradiated monocytes. Furthermore, the mDCs derived from 5 Gy-irradiated monocytes had significantly less ability to stimulate allogeneic T cells in comparison to the mDCs derived from non-irradiated monocytes. There were no significant differences in the phagocytotic activity of the iDCs and cytokines detected in the supernatants conditioned by the DCs from the non-irradiated and irradiated monocytes. These results suggest that human monocytes which are exposed to ionizing radiation can thus differentiate into DCs, but there is a tendency that X-irradiation leads to an impairment of the function of DCs. (author)

  17. Post-X-irradiation effects on petunia pollen germinating in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilissen, L.J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The germination of Petunia hybrida L. pollen grains in germination medium, containing 10% sucrose and 0.01 % H 3 BO 3 , was linearly related to relative humidity (RH): being minimal at 0 % RH and maximal at 100 % RH. The low germination at 0 % RH was completely restored after transfer to 100 % RH. Germination in medium decreased with increasing X-ray exposures between O and 400 kR. This decrease was caused by pollen rupture. No in vitro germination occurred at exposures of 400 kR and more. The radiosensitivity of pollen in vitro was minimal at 80 % RH. Transfer of pollen to the stigma post-X-irradiation resulted in resistance to much higher exposures of irradiation (<750 kR). The differences in radiosensitivity of the pollen germinated in vitro and in vivo are due possibly to the differences in composition of the germination medium and the stigmatic exudate. Pollen tube growth of irradiated pollen after compatible or incompatible pollination at first showed retarded then normal tube growth. A conclusion is that X-irradiation of pollen cannot influence the characteristics of pollen tube growth after compatible or incompatible pollination. (author)

  18. Apoptosis in the chicken bursa of fabricius induced by X-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, S; Kowada, T; Takehana, K; Miyoshi, K; Nakanishi, Y H; Hayashi, M

    1996-10-01

    Immature B lymphocytes in the chicken bursa of Fabricius have previously been reported to undergo apoptosis by low doses of ionizing radiation. In the present study, newly hatched chickens were subjected to whole-body X-irradiation, and the bursa of Fabricius was examined at various postirradiation times by light and electron microscopy to obtain information on the change of ultrastructure of irradiated bursal cells as well as on the time course and dose-response for the induction of apoptosis. Histological examination by light microscopy showed that pyknotic cells started to increase in the bursa within a few hours after irradiation and the frequency of occurrence reached a maximum at 6 hr. An evident increase of the pyknotic cells in number was observed at a dose of as little as 1 Gy, and the frequency increased with increases in the dose, reaching over 90% at 15 Gy. Electron microscopy of the irradiated bursa revealed typical apoptotic morphology such as chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, formation of apoptotic bodies and phagocytosis of pyknotic cells. Induction of apoptosis was also confirmed by the appearance of a typical DNA ladder pattern on agarose gel. Thus, the present results demonstrate that the chicken bursal cells are hypersensitive to X-irradiation with regard to induction of apoptosis, and that the apoptotic bursal cells exhibit most of the ultrastructural features known to be typical of apoptosis.

  19. Effects of hyperthermia and x irradiation on sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, G.K.; Dethlefsen, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    The BrdUrd labeling method was used to evaluate the effects of hyperthermia, x irradiation, and the combined treatment on the incidence of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Cells cultured in McCoy's 5A media containing 10 μM 5-bromodeoxyuridine were synchronized after one cell cycle by mitotic shake-off. Early-G 1 cells were heated by submerging culture flasks in a 44 +- 0.05 0 C water bath for periods of 20, 40, and 60 min. By the same method, other cultures were x irradiated at doses of 100, 200, 400, and 600 rad. A third protocol involved combined treatment of 20 min at 44 0 C followed immediately by one of the above radiation doses. A fourth protocol reversed the sequence of the combined treatment applying x irradiation (200 or 400 rad) followed immediately by hyperthermia. The data showed that hyperthermia and x irradiation both elevated the frequency of SCEs significantly whether applied separately or together. The combined treatment (heat: 20 min at 44 0 C plus varying x-radiation doses) produced results suggestive of a synergistic interaction. The sequence of the heat and x irradiation did not appear to have a significant effect on the production of SCE

  20. Neighbourhood Deprivation, Individual-Level Familial and Socio-Demographic Factors and Diagnosed Childhood Obesity: A Nationwide Multilevel Study from Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjun Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine whether there is an association between neighbourhood deprivation and diagnosed childhood obesity, after accounting for family- and individual-level socio-demographic characteristics. Methods: An open cohort of all children aged 0-14 years was followed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. Childhood residential locations were geocoded and classified according to neighbourhood deprivation. Data were analysed by multilevel logistic regression, with family- and individual-level characteristics at the first level and level of neighbourhood deprivation at the second level. Results: During the study period, among a total of 948,062 children, 10,799 were diagnosed with childhood obesity. Age-adjusted cumulative incidence for diagnosed childhood obesity increased with increasing level of neighbourhood deprivation. Incidence of diagnosed childhood obesity increased with increasing neighbourhood-level deprivation across all family and individual-level socio-demographic categories. The odds ratio (OR for diagnosed childhood obesity for those living in high-deprivation neighbourhoods versus those living in low-deprivation neighbourhoods was 2.44 (95% confidence interval (CI = 2.22-2.68. High neighbourhood deprivation remained significantly associated with higher odds of diagnosed childhood obesity after adjustment for family- and individual-level socio-demographic characteristics (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.55-1.89. Age, middle level family income, maternal marital status, low level education, living in large cities, advanced paternal and maternal age, family history of obesity, parental history of diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, alcoholism and personal history of diabetes were all associated with higher odds of diagnosed childhood obesity. Conclusions: Our results suggest that neighbourhood characteristics affect the odds of diagnosed childhood obesity independently of family- and individual-level socio

  1. Was cultural deprivation in fact sensory deprivation? Deprivation, retardation and intervention in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Mical

    2011-01-01

    In the 1950s, the term "deprivation" entered American psychiatric discourse. This article examines how the concept of deprivation permeated the field of mental retardation, and became an accepted theory of etiology. It focuses on sensory deprivation and cultural deprivation, and analyzes the interventions developed, based on these theories. It argues that the controversial theory of cultural deprivation derived its scientific legitimization from the theory of sensory deprivation, and was a highly politicized concept that took part in the nature-nurture debate.

  2. Activated microglia induce bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to produce glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor and protect neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingke Lv

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated interactions among microglia (MG, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs and neurons in cerebral ischemia and the potential mechanisms using an in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD model. Rat BMSCs were incubated with conditioned medium (CM from in vitro cultures of OGD-activated rat MG and murine BV2 MG cells. Effects of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF on rat neuron viability, apoptosis, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH leakage and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP were analyzed in this model. OGD-activated MG promoted GDNF production by BMSCs (P < 0.01. TNFα, but not IL6 or IL1β, promoted GDNF production by BMSCs (P < 0.001. GDNF or CM pre-treated BMSCs elevated neuronal viability and suppressed apoptosis (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01; these effects were inhibited by the RET antibody. GDNF activated MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling but not JNK/c-JUN. Furthermore, GDNF upregulated B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2 and heat shock 60 kDa protein 1 (HSP60 levels, suppressed LDH leakage, and promoted MMP. Thus, activated MG produce TNFα to stimulate GDNF production by BMSCs, which prevents and repairs OGD-induced neuronal injury, possibly via regulating MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling. These findings will facilitate the prevention and treatment of neuronal injury by cerebral ischemia.

  3. Attempts at immunization against Malayan filariasis using X-irradiated infective larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, C.P.

    1975-01-01

    Recent studies on immunity to helminthic infections have shown that some degree of protective immunity may be stimulated by inoculations of attenuated living worms or their metabolites. Although much on these lines has been done with several helminths, little if any has been done with filarial infections in general. Experiments were designed to observe the effects of attempted immunization in the rhesus monkey as well as the domestic cat by the use of attenuated infective larvae of Brugia malayi. The sub-periodic strain of Brugia malayi, the major filarial parasite of man in Malaysia, maintained in the laboratory on experimentally infected cats and rhesus monkeys were used for the preparation of X-irradiated vaccines as well as for challenge inoculations. Third-stage infective larvae of Brugia malayi were obtained from experimentally fed Aedes togoi mosquitoes. Infective larvae were irradiated by X-rays, using a Dermopan X-ray unit at exposures between 10 - 40 kR. Rhesus monkeys and cats were inoculated twice with 100 - 400 attenuated larvae per inoculation at 2 week intervals and challenged about a month later by inoculation of 100 normal larvae. Control animals for each vaccination dose as well as for challenge doses were maintained. In rhesus monkeys persistent immunity to challenge infections (expressed as failure to cause microfilaraemia) were obtained in animals vaccinated with 200 infective larvae attenuated by X-irradiation at 20000 R. Encouraged with the results obtained on rhesus monkeys, similar experiments on an enlarged scale using varying strengths of the vaccines were carried out on the domestic cat, which is a more receptive animal host for Brugia malayi. However, all cats vaccinated when challenged came down with patent infection indicating lack of any definite immunity. In all these experiments, results of vaccine control animals showed that inoculation of irradiated larvae was not followed by the infection of microfilaria in the blood, indicating

  4. Different mechanisms between premitotic apoptosis and postmitotic apoptosis in X-irradiated U937 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Kuno, Yukie; Yamamoto, Fuyumi; Fukasawa, Masashi; Okumura, Atsushi; Uefuji, Megumi; Rokutanda, Makoto

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Apoptosis is currently being evaluated for its importance as a pathway of radiation-induced cell death. However, the difference in the mechanisms between premitotic and postmitotic apoptosis following X-irradiation remains not well understood. We show here that the human monoblastoid cell line U937 can be induced to undergo these two different types of apoptosis. Methods and Materials: U937 cells were irradiated at a dose of 5 or 20 Gy, and the DNA fragmentation rate was measured by both flow cytometric analysis and gel electrophoresis. Activation of caspase-3 was detected by Western blot analysis and fluorogenic assay using acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-7-amino-4-methyl-coumarin (Ac-DEVD-AMC). Detection of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (no. DELTAno. no. PSIno. ) was performed by using Rho123. Chasing of S-phase fraction following X-irradiation was performed after labeling with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Thymidine was used for synchronization of the cells. Inhibition of caspase-3 activity was achieved by Acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-aldehyde (Ac-DEVD-CHO). Results: Time courses of the apoptotic rates, caspase activation, and no. DELTAno. no. PSIno. indicated that two different types of cell death were induced by the different X-ray doses. High-dose X-ray (20 Gy) induced a rapid and strong apoptosis, whereas low-dose X-ray (5 Gy) induced a slow and mild apoptosis. Cell-cycle analyses revealed that there was cell death before cell division in the former apoptosis but the cells must be dying after cell division in the latter apoptosis. By means of cell-cycle synchronization, the S-phase cells proved to be the most sensitive fraction to premitotic apoptosis, but an obvious difference in the susceptibility to cell death among the cell-cycle phases was not observed in postmitotic apoptosis. Ac-DEVD-CHO treatment effectively blocked caspase activity and premitotic apoptosis, but it failed to block postmitotic apoptosis. Conclusions: Irradiation of U937 cells at

  5. Reactivation of UV- and γ-irradiated herpes virus in UV- and X-irradiated CV-1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takimoto, K.; Niwa, O.; Sugahara, T.

    1982-01-01

    Enhanced reactivation of UV- and γ-irradiated herpes virus was investigated by the plaque assay on CV-1 monkey kidney monolayer cells irradiated with UV light or X-rays. Both UV- and X-irradiated CV-1 cells showed enhancement of survival of UV-irradiated virus, while little or no enhancement was detected for γ-irradiated virus assayed on UV- or X-irradiated cells. The enhanced reactivation of UV-irradiated virus was greater when virus infection was delayed 24 or 48 h, than for infection immediately following the irradiation of cells. Thus the UV- or X-irradiated CV-1 cells are able to enhance the repair of UV damaged herpes virus DNA, but not of γ-ray damaged ones. (author)

  6. Effect of low dose x irradiation on the succinate dehydrogenase activity of guinea pig, rat and mouse tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, V C; Bhatavdekar, J M; Aravinda Babu, K [Gujarat Univ., Ahmedabad (India). Dept. of Zoology

    1976-07-01

    The histochemical changes in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) were investigated in pectoralis major muscle of guinea pig, rat and mouse after level X-irradiation (72 R and 240 R) and compared with control animals. Biochemical studies were carried out on liver, kidney, muscle (pectoralis major), adrenal and spleen of these animals after low dose local X-irradiation and compared with control animals. Changes in SDH activity were studied up to 72-h post-irradiation, which shows that low dose local X-irradiation leads to increased enzymic activity. The increase in enzymic activity was remarkable in mouse tissues as compared with guinea pig and rat. Adrenals of all the three animals showed significant activation after all the doses of radiation studied. The significance of these results, with special reference to oxidative metabolism, has been discussed.

  7. Effects of X-irradiation on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced multi-organ carcinogenesis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Yukiko; Tanaka, Takuji; Mori, Hideki; Sasaki, Shunsaku.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of X-irradiation on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced multi-organ carcinogenesis were examined in both sexes of ACI/N rats. At 6 weeks of age, rats in groups 1 (25 males, 25 females) and 3 (24 males, 23 females) received a single intraperitoneal injection of MNU (25 mg/kg body weight), while those in groups 2 (25 males, 26 females) and 4 (25 males, 25 females) were administered the carcinogen at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. At 10 weeks of age, group 3 and group 4 were X-irradiated at dose of 3 Gy. Group 5 (24 males, 24 females) received X-irradiation alone. Group 6 (21 males, 21 females) served as an untreated control. As a result, neoplasms developed mainly in the digestive tract, kidney, uterus, and hematopoietic organ in groups 1-5. The incidences of adenocarcinoma in small and large intestines of male rats of group 4 (50 mg/kg MNU and X-irradiation) (small intestine: 48%, large intestine: 32%) were significantly higher than those of group 2 (50 mg/kg MNU) (small intestine: 17%, p<0.05; large intestine: 8%, p<0.05), and also the frequency of adenocarcinoma in the large intestine of males of group 3 (25 mg/kg MNU and X-irradiation) (22%) was significantly greater than that of group 1 (25 mg/kg MNU) (0%, p<0.05). These results indicated that X-irradiation enhanced the development of intestinal neoplasms induced by MNU in male ACI/N rats. (author)

  8. Effects of X-irradiation on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced multi-organ carcinogenesis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Yukiko; Tanaka, Takuji; Mori, Hideki (Gifu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Sasaki, Shunsaku

    1993-01-01

    The effects of X-irradiation on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced multi-organ carcinogenesis were examined in both sexes of ACI/N rats. At 6 weeks of age, rats in groups 1 (25 males, 25 females) and 3 (24 males, 23 females) received a single intraperitoneal injection of MNU (25 mg/kg body weight), while those in groups 2 (25 males, 26 females) and 4 (25 males, 25 females) were administered the carcinogen at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. At 10 weeks of age, group 3 and group 4 were X-irradiated at dose of 3 Gy. Group 5 (24 males, 24 females) received X-irradiation alone. Group 6 (21 males, 21 females) served as an untreated control. As a result, neoplasms developed mainly in the digestive tract, kidney, uterus, and hematopoietic organ in groups 1-5. The incidences of adenocarcinoma in small and large intestines of male rats of group 4 (50 mg/kg MNU and X-irradiation) (small intestine: 48%, large intestine: 32%) were significantly higher than those of group 2 (50 mg/kg MNU) (small intestine: 17%, p<0.05; large intestine: 8%, p<0.05), and also the frequency of adenocarcinoma in the large intestine of males of group 3 (25 mg/kg MNU and X-irradiation) (22%) was significantly greater than that of group 1 (25 mg/kg MNU) (0%, p<0.05). These results indicated that X-irradiation enhanced the development of intestinal neoplasms induced by MNU in male ACI/N rats. (author).

  9. Effect of X-irradiation on fecundity, fertility and longevity of the red cotton bug Dysdercus koenigii Fabr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, K.P.; Deshpande, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    X-irradiation of the sexes affects reproduction in D. koenigii differently. Irradiation of the male has no effect on the fecundity of the female but that of the female affects it adversely. Fertility shows fluctuations at lower doses and a linear decline at higher ones irrespective of the sex irradiated. But whereas complete sterility (infertility) sets in the female at 2000 rad, the male needs 4000 rad to induce the same in the female, which indicates a greater radiosensitivity of the former, longevity is unaffected by X-irradiation, indicating lack of correlation between sterility and longevity reported to exist in some insects. (author)

  10. Effects of X-irradiation on artificial blood vessel wall degradation by invasive tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisel, M.A.; Laug, W.E.; Stowe, S.M.; Jones, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    Artificial vessel wall cultures, constructed by growing arterial endothelial cells on preformed layers of rat smooth muscle cells, were used to evaluate the effects of X-irradiation on tumor cell-induced tissue degradation. Bovine endothelial cells had radiation sensitivities similar to those of rat smooth muscle cells. Preirradiation of smooth muscle cells, before the addition of human fibrosarcoma (HT 1080) cells, did not increase the rate of degradation and destruction by the invasive cells. However, the degradation rate was decreased if the cultures were irradiated after the addition of HT 1080 cells. The presence of bovine endothelial cells markedly inhibited the destructive abilities of fibrosarcoma cells, but preirradiation of artificial vessel walls substantially decreased their capabilities to resist HT 1080-induced lysis. These findings suggest that the abilities of blood vessels to limit extravasation may be compromised by ionizing radiation

  11. The development of the cholinergic system in rat hippocampus following postnatal X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Barak, J.

    1981-01-01

    Postnatal X-irradiation of the rat hippocampus results in a marked reduction in the number of the postnatally developing granular neurons in the dentate gyrus and also caused a marked increase in the specific activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline acetyltransferase (CAT) and a slight but consistent increase in the activity per whole hippocampus of AChE. The effect of irradiation on the granular neurons and on the cholinergic enzymes was found to be dose and age dependent. Drastic increase in specific enzymatic activities is also observed in the irradiated cerebellum whose granular neurons differentiate postnatally and to a lesser extent in the cerebral cortex in which cell formation is accomplished prior to birth. (Auth.)

  12. Effects of ancestral x irradiation followed by random mating on body weight of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianola, D.; Chapman, A.B.; Rutledge, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    Effects of nine generations of 450R per generation of ancestral spermatogonial x irradiation of inbred rats on body weight were examined. After six generations of random mating (avoiding inbreeding) following the termination of irradiation, descendants of irradiated males (R) were significantly lighter than their controls (C) at 3 and 6 weeks, but not at 10 weeks of age. However, differences in growth between R and C populations were small. Among-litter and within-litter variance estimates were generally larger in the R lines than in the C lines, suggesting that selection responses would be greater in R than in C lines. In conjunction with previous evidence--obtained during the irradiation phase of the experiment--this suggested that more rapid response to selection for 6-week body weight, in particular, might accrue in the R lines

  13. Cerebral malformation induced by prenatal X-irradiation: an autoradiographic and Golgi study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer, I.; Xumetra, A.; Santamaria, J. (Neuropatologia, Depto. Anatomia Patologica, C.S. ' Principes de Espana' , Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain))

    1984-01-01

    Brain malformations are produced after X-irradiation at different post-conceptional ages in the rat. Malformed cortical patterns result from abnormal organisation and capricious orientation of the neurons, while a radical migratory pattern of neuroblasts outwards to the cerebral cortex is preserved in animals irradiated on the fourteenth, sixteenth or eighteenth days of gestation. Migratory disturbances are restricted to the large subcortical ectopic masses found in rats irradiated on the fourteenth gestational day and to pyramidal ectopic nodules in the hippocampus in rats irradiated on the sixteenth gestational day. Subcortical ectopic masses develop from ectopic germinal rosettes and are formed by several types of cortical neuron distributed in a stereotyped pattern. The presence of large numbers of intrinsic, afferent and efferent connections are indicative of integrative functions of the subcortical masses.

  14. Infectivity and development of X-irradiated third-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiu, Yoshinori

    1989-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis third-stage larvae were exposed to less than 10Krad of X-radiation and then given orally to white rats to examine the effects of X-radiation on infectivity and development of the irradiated third-stage larvae and on fecundity of adults developing from the irradiated third-stage larvae. The deleterious effects of X-radiation were observed at relatively lower dosage in the above three parameters. A degree in susceptibility on X-radiation was shown to be radiation-dose-dependent. Comparing to the irradiation of larvae in vitro, the irradiation of larvae in snails caused less deleterious effects at the same dose of X-irradiation. Application of X-radiation to food hygiene was also discussed. (author)

  15. Protective effect of alkali extract of Huangmo (AEHM) on immunological function in X-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Fei; Wu Congmei; Su Shijie; Cao Ruimin

    1996-01-01

    The male mice were given ip AEHM 5 mg/kg, wt/d before irradiation with 2.0 Gy X-rays for 3 days, and the changes of several immunological indexes were observed 24 h after X-irradiation. The results showed that AEHM significantly increased the numbers of splenocytes and thymocytes, the reaction of splenocytes to ConA and the spontaneous proliferation of thymocytes in irradiated mice, and decreased the fall of spleen and thymus. In addition, a tendency of the increases in the above indexes in the intact mice treated with AEHM was observed. Meanwhile, AEHM possessed similar radioprotective effect on immunological functions to polysaccharides of Ginseng. The results suggest that AEHM has not only a radioprotective effect on immunological functions in the irradiated mice, but also an enhancing effect on the defence functions in the intact mice. It is very hopeful that AEHM acted as immune-enhanced drug should be used in the clinic

  16. Cerebral malformation induced by prenatal X-irradiation: an autoradiographic and Golgi study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, I.; Xumetra, A.; Santamaria, J.

    1984-01-01

    Brain malformations are produced after X-irradiation at different post-conceptional ages in the rat. Malformed cortical patterns result from abnormal organisation and capricious orientation of the neurons, while a radical migratory pattern of neuroblasts outwards to the cerebral cortex is preserved in animals irradiated on the fourteenth, sixteenth or eighteenth days of gestation. Migratory disturbances are restricted to the large subcortical ectopic masses found in rats irradiated on the fourteenth gestational day and to pyramidal ectopic nodules in the hippocampus in rats irradiated on the sixteenth gestational day. Subcortical ectopic masses develop from ectopic germinal rosettes and are formed by several types of cortical neuron distributed in a stereotyped pattern. The presence of large numbers of intrinsic, afferent and efferent connections are indicative of integrative functions of the subcortical masses. (author)

  17. The effect of X-irradiation on aqueous media containing traces of oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, N.T.S.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of X-irradiation on small amounts of oxygen dissolved in 1 mM potassium chloride solution, tap water or Eagle's tissue culture medium has been followed with polarographic electrodes. Oxygen is removed from all these solutions down to concentrations corresponding to a few parts per million in the gas phase. Small amounts of hydrogen are also produced by irradiation and can be measured polarographically. Except in Eagle's medium, hydrogen peroxide is formed in the anoxic solutions, and molecular oxygen can be detected after irradiation when catalase is present in the solution. A non-volatile polarographically reducible substance is generated by irradiation of anoxic Eagle's medium. It is not decomposed by catalase but decays spontaneously in solution at a slow rate. (author)

  18. The effect of cyclophosphamide and x-irradiation on experimental influenza in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankova, V.

    1989-01-01

    Mice treated with Cyclophosphamide (Cy) shortly before inoculation of influenza A virus exhibited increased mortality and delayed mean time of death. The extrapulmonary dissemination of the infection was observed more often in Cy-treated animals with the titres of virus in different organs substantially higher than in equally infected immunocompetent controls. Although the humoral antibody response was not impaired in Cy-treated mice, they were more susceptible to challenge with a lethal dose of virus than normal animals. In X-irradiated mice, the increased multiplication of virus in lungs and spread of the infection to other organs was observed, with prolonged persistence of virus in lungs and brains as compared to adequate controls, reminding of previous observation in immunocompromised persons, who died in the course of influenza. (author) 1 fig., 4 tabs., 23 refs

  19. Responses of vibrissa-sensitive cortical neurons in normal and prenatally x-irradiated rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, M.; Kawabata, M.; Shoji, R.

    1979-01-01

    Rats were irradiated by 200 R of x ray on day 17 of gestation through the body wall of the mother. When they underwent the following electrophysiological tests at the age of 3 to 4 month, the somatosensory cortex showed a lack of layers II, III, IV, and Va. Spike responses to quick whisker deflections were recorded from single cells in the somatosenory cortex of normal and prenatally x-irradiated rats. For the irradiated rats the response latency was prolonged when compared to the normal controls. Cortical laminar analysis of field potentials revealed that there was no difference in the latency of these potentials between the two groups, suggesting that vibrissal sensory signals reach the cortical level normally even in the irradiated rats. The prolonged latency of the irradiated cortical neuronal response could thus be ascribed to an abnormal intracortical delay, which was most likely associated with the failure of development of layer IV stellate cells in these preparations

  20. Alternative types of duodenal ulcer induced in mice by partial X irradiation of the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalowski, A.; Uehara, S.; Yin, W.B.; Burgin, J.; Silvester, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The present study extends our earlier observations on gastrointestinal pathology in thorax-irradiated female CFLP mice. It shows that exposure of the lower mediastinum to single doses of 14-30 Gy X rays results in the formation of the proximal duodenal ulcer accompanied frequently by erosion of the antral gastric mucosa. X irradiation of the lateral thoracic fields is responsible for single ulcers in the proximity of duodenal papilla, often associated with a circumscribed area of degeneration of the fundic mucosa of the stomach. In view of the small amount of radiation received by the subdiaphragmatic parts of the alimentary tract, these gastro-duodenal lesions represent abscopal effects of thoracic irradiation

  1. The effects of X irradiation on the metamorphosis and budding of Aurelia aurita

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokopchak, M.J.; Spangenberg, D.B.; Shaeffer, J.

    1990-01-01

    With the aid of the Aurelia metamorphosis test system, the acute and subtle developmental and behavioral effects of X irradiation in the presence and absence of thyroxine on the Norfolk Aurelia aurita were described. Radiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, and 400 Gy. Morphology of the ephyrae, and statolith and rhopalia numbers were recorded using the light microscope. Developmental abnormalities of the polyps and ephyrae were recorded with the scanning electron microscope and light microscope. Major findings from this investigation were the absence of rhopalia and statoliths in ephyrae at 150 and 200 Gy, a reduction in pulses per minute in the ephyrae at 100, 150, and 200 Gy, a reduction in ephyrae released at 150, 200, and 400 Gy, and the development of polyp monsters. There was a significantly higher frequency of polyp monsters in the group exposed to thyroxine prior to radiation than in the thyroxine-free group prior to radiation

  2. [Effects of naloxone on the expression of stem cell factor and C-kit receptor in combined oxygen-glucose deprivation of primary cultured human embryonic neuron in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bo; Li, Lan-ying; Lü, Guo-yi; Xue, Yu-liang; Ye, Tie-hu

    2010-04-01

    To explore the effects of naloxone on the expression of c-kit receptor (c-kit R) and its ligand stem cell factor (SCF) in human embryo neuronal hypoxic injury. Serum-free cerebral cortical cultures prepared from embryonic human brains were deprived of both oxygen and glucose which would set up an environment more likely with that of in vivo ischemic injury. Neurons in 24-well culture plates were randomly divided into four groups: control group, hypoxia group, naloxone 0.5 microg/ml group and naloxone 10 microg/ml group. MTT assay and biological analysis were performed to study the cell death and the changes of extracellular concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) after combined oxygen-glucose deprivation. Neurons in 25 ml culture flasks were also randomly allocated into four groups as previously described. Intracellular total RNA were extracted at different time points: pre-hypoxia, immediately after hypoxia, and 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours after reoxygenation. The changes of SCF/c-kit R mRNA expression in hypoxic neurons treated with different concentrations of naloxone pre and post oxygen-glucose deprivation were determined with RT-PCR. The cell vitality detected by MTT assay decreased significantly in hypoxia group and naloxone 0.5 microg/ml group when compared with control group (Pcontrol group. Extracellular concentration of LDH significantly increased in hypoxia group (Pcontrol group, between naloxone 0.5 microg/ml and hypoxia group, or between naloxone 10 microg/ml and control group (all P>0.05). Immediately after oxygen-glucose deprivation, the expression of SCF/c-kit R mRNA increased significantly (Pcontrol group (Pglucose deprivation. Naloxone 0.5 microg/ml can attenuate cell injuries and regulate the expression of SCF/c-kit R. Naloxone may protect neurons by modulating the expressions of some cytokines.

  3. Influence of x irradiation and diet on pituitary/thyroid function in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qassar, I.G.

    1979-01-01

    Rats were maintained on low iodine diet or treated with T 4 . A significant increase in thyroid weight was observed in rats on low iodine diet whereas among rats on normal diet with thyroxine injections, the thyroid was lower in weight than thyroids of control animals. Pituitary weight increased significantly in rats on low iodine diet or T 4 treatment. Labelling index was significantly higher in the group on low iodine diet. A significantly lower labelling index was observed after thyroxine treatment. Where PTU was administered to rats pretreated with either normal diet, normal diet plus T 4 , or maintained on low iodine diet and then exposed to radiation (100 to 400R) to the neck, it was not possible to distinguish the effect of such local radiation on body growth. The pre-radiation treatment did not have any effect on thyroid weight during two weeks post-radiation, suggesting that a four week post-radiation period is essential to elicit radiation effects on the thyroid. Contrary to low iodine treatment, administration of PTU did not result in any increase in pituitary weight in rats maintained on normal diet prior to radiation or in rats maintained on low iodine diet prior to radiation. There was, however, a significant increase in pituitary weight in rats injected with thyroxine prior to radiation (250R or 400R). A significant increase in serum TSH was observed two weeks after radiation and PTU treatment. A lower TSH level was observed, however, in the 250R sub-group (normal diet or T 4 injection) and in the 400R sub-group (low iodine diet). There was a significant difference among sham-irradiated and the three x-irradiated sub-groups maintained on low iodine diet. The results of these studies indicate that local x irradiation with 100 to 400R to the neck may influence thyroid/pituitary function in the rat

  4. Late effects of X-irradiation in patients treated for metropathia haemorrhagica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P G; Doll, R [Department of Health and Social Security, Cancer Epidemiology and Clinical Trials Unit, 9 Keble Road, Oxford (UK)

    1976-03-01

    The causes of death among 2,068 patients treated with X-irradiation for metropathia haemorrhagica at three Scottish radiotherapy centres between 1940 and 1960 have previously been reported. (Dol, R., and Smith, P.G., 1968, Br. J. Radiol., vol. 41, 362). This cohort of women has now been followed up for a further seven years. 500 (24 per cent) women have now died, 78 (3.8 per cent) have emigrated and 25 (1.2 per cent) could not be traced. The numbers of deaths from different causes have been compared with the numbers expected in a population of similar age and sex exposed to the Scottish national mortality rates over the same period. An excess of deaths from leukaemia (7 observed, 2.3 expected) and of cancers of the heavily irradiated sites (59 observed, 40.1 expected) continues to be observed five or more years after treatment. There is no indication of any change in the excess death rate, due to cancers of sites in the radiation field, with time since treatment up to at least 20 years after the radiation exposure. Over the same period the number of deaths from cancer of the breast was below expectation (10 observed, 22.3 expected) and no increased mortality from coronary disease was seen (102 observed, 100.9 expected). The mean dose of radiaton to the bone marrow has been determined for each woman and it is estimated that the excess rate of leukaemia in the first 20 years after treatment in about 1.1 per million women per year per rad. This figure is in accord with the estimates derived from the survivors of the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and among patients with ankylosing spondylitis treated with X-irradiation. However, the simple assumption of a linear dose response relationship for leukaemia is probably incorrect, at least when high doses of radiation are delivered to a small volume of marrow.

  5. X-irradiation of mice in the early fetal period. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriegel, H.; Weber, L.; Schmahl, W.

    1979-01-01

    Pregnant NMRI mice were X-irradiated with 50, 100 and 200 R, respectively, on the twelfth gestational day. The brains of their offspring were weighed and examined for acetylcholinesterase and Na,K-ATPase activities from birth until the 64th postnatal day. The postnatal brain weights were influenced by the prenatal irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. At birth the brains of the treated animals weighed less than those of the controls. After a limited period of restitution (postnatal days 3 to 10), weights fell again, as compared to the controls, and persisted at subnormal levels. This was assumed to be a sequel of surplus neuron cell formation and their speedy degradation as soon as neuronal function had been established. The curves of the activites (per gram of brain tissue) of acetylcholinesterase as well as Na,K-ATPase showed oscillating compensatory responses to the prenatal irradiation. Activities were preferentially found at supernormal levels, the oscillation lasting as long as the restitution period of the brain weights. With the 50 R and 100 R groups, enzyme activities were steadily above the control levels from the 16th until the 48th day after birth. On the 64th postnatal day all enzyme activities but one (200 R, Na,K-ATPase) had returned to the control levels. Oscillating responses to prenatal X-irradiation have been described for the DNA-synthesis in livers and brains of mice during the first three postnatal weeks. From this perspective, our results are discussed as the outcome of radiation-induced alterations in genome activity. (orig.) [de

  6. Relative deprivation and disordered gambling in youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgar, Frank J; Canale, Natale; Wohl, Michael J A; Lenzi, Michela; Vieno, Alessio

    2018-03-07

    Previous research has found that area-level income inequality and individual-level relative deprivation both contribute to disordered gambling in adults. However, the socioeconomic factors that contribute to disordered gambling in youths and protective factors in their social environment have not been fully explored. This study examined the association between relative deprivation and youth disordered gambling and the potential moderating role of social support in this association. We used data on family material assets and self-reported symptoms of disordered gambling symptoms in 19 321 participants of the 2013/2014 Italian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. Relative deprivation was measured using the Yitzhaki index and classmates as a social reference group. Its association with disordered gambling was tested using multilevel negative binomial regression analyses. We also tested moderated effects of relative deprivation on disordered gambling by four sources of social support: families, peers, teachers and classmates. Relative deprivation related to a fourfold increase in the rate of disordered gambling symptoms (incidence rate ratio=4.18) after differences in absolute family wealth and other variables were statistically controlled. Symptoms were also more prevalent in males, first-generation immigrants and less supported youth. Peer support moderated the association between relative deprivation and symptoms, suggesting that high deprivation and low peer support have interactive links to disordered gambling. Relative deprivation among classmates relate to youth symptoms of disordered gambling. Youth who live in economically unequal settings and perceive a lack of social support may be at greatest risk. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Hypoxic cell radiosensitization by moderate hyperthermia and glucose deprivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Kim, S.H.; Hahn, E.W.

    1983-01-01

    Cell culture studies were carried out to determine whether moderate hyperthermia reduces the oxygen enhancement ratio of cells under well-defined cultural conditions. Using asynchronously growing HeLa cells, the OER of cells with and without glucose was determined following exposure of cells to moderate hyperthermia, 40.5omicronC for 1 hr, immediately after X irradiation. The OER of cells with 5 mM glucose was 3.2, whereas the OER of glucose-deprived cells was reduced to 2.0. The pH of the cell culture medium was kept at 7.4 throughtout the experiments. The present finding may provide a clue toward further enhancing the radiosensitization of hypoxic cells by heat

  8. Hypoxic cell radiosensitization by moderate hyperthermia and glucose deprivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Kim, S.H.; Hahn, E.W.

    1983-01-01

    Cell culture studies were carried out to determine whether moderate hyperthermia reduces the oxygen enhancement ratio of cells under well-defined cultural conditions. Using asynchronously growing HeLa cells, the OER of cells with and without glucose was determined following exposure of cells to moderate hyperthermia, 40.5 degrees C for 1 hr, immediately after X irradiation. The OER of cells with 5 mM glucose was 3.2, whereas the OER of glucose-deprived cells was reduced to 2.0. The pH of the cell culture medium was kept at 7.4 throughout the experiments. The present finding may provide a clue toward further enhancing the radiosensitization of hypoxic cells by heat

  9. Upregulation of cystathionine beta-synthetase expression by nuclear factor-kappa B activation contributes to visceral hypersensitivity in adult rats with neonatal maternal deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is characterized by chronic visceral hyperalgesia (CVH that manifested with persistent or recurrent abdominal pain and altered bowel movement. However, the pathogenesis of the CVH remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate roles of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S producing enzyme cystathionine beta-synthetase (CBS and p65 nuclear factor-kappa B subunits in CVH. Results CVH was induced by neonatal maternal deprivation (NMD in male rats on postnatal days 2–15 and behavioral experiments were conducted at the age of 7–15 weeks. NMD significantly increased expression of CBS in colon-innervating DRGs from the 7th to 12th week. This change in CBS express is well correlated with the time course of enhanced visceromoter responses to colorectal distention (CRD, an indicator of visceral pain. Administration of AOAA, an inhibitor of CBS, produced a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect on NMD rats while it had no effect on age-matched healthy control rats. AOAA also reversed the enhanced neuronal excitability seen in colon-innervating DRGs. Application of NaHS, a donor of H2S, increased excitability of colon-innervating DRG neurons acutely dissociated from healthy control rats. Intrathecal injection of NaHS produced an acute visceral hyperalgesia. In addition, the content of p65 in nucleus was remarkably higher in NMD rats than that in age-matched controls. Intrathecal administration of PDTC, an inhibitor of p65, markedly reduced expression of CBS and attenuated nociceptive responses to CRD. Conclusion The present results suggested that upregulation of CBS expression, which is mediated by activation of p65, contributes to NMD-induced CVH. This pathway might be a potential target for relieving CVH in patients with IBS.

  10. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) kinetic as a prognostic factor in metastatic prostate cancer receiving androgen deprivation therapy: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afriansyah, Andika; Hamid, Agus Rizal Ardy Hariandy; Mochtar, Chaidir Arif; Umbas, Rainy

    2018-01-01

    Aim: Metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa) has a poor outcome with median survival of two to five years. The use of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a gold standard in management of this stage.  Aim of this study is to analyze the prognostic value of PSA kinetics of patient treated with hormonal therapy related to survival from several published studies Method: Systematic review and meta-analysis was performed using literature searching in the electronic databases of MEDLINE, Science Direct, and Cochrane Library. Inclusion criteria were mPCa receiving ADT, a study analyzing Progression Free Survival (PFS), Overall Survival (OS), or Cancer Specific Survival (CSS) and prognostic factor of survival related to PSA kinetics (initial PSA, PSA nadir, and time to achieve nadir (TTN)). The exclusion criteria were metastatic castration resistant of prostate cancer (mCRPC) and non-metastatic disease. Generic inverse variance method was used to combine hazard ratio (HR) within the studies. Meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.2 and a p-value PSA and PFS. In addition, there was no association between initial PSA and CSS/ OS. We found association of reduced PFS (HR 2.22; 95% CI 1.82 to 2.70) and OS/ CSS (HR 3.31; 95% CI 2.01-5.43) of patient with high PSA nadir. Shorter TTN was correlated with poor result of survival either PFS (HR 2.41; 95% CI 1.19 - 4.86) or CSS/ OS (HR 1.80; 95%CI  1.42 - 2.30) Conclusion: Initial PSA before starting ADT do not associated with survival in mPCa.  There is association of PSA nadir and TTN with survival.

  11. DNA-membrane complex restoration in Micrococcus radiodurans after X-irradiation: relation to repair, DNA synthesis and DNA degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dardalhon-Samsonoff, M; Averbeck, D [Institut du Radium, 75 - Paris (France). Lab. Curie

    1980-07-01

    The DNA-membrane complex in Micrococcus radiodurans was shown to be essentially constituted of proteins, lipids and DNA. The complex was dissociated immediately after X-irradiation of cells and restored during post-incubation in complete medium. In X-irradiated protoplasts some DNA remained associated with the complex. Restoration of the complex during post-incubation was only seen in a medium favouring DNA polymerase and ligase activities. Under this condition no DNA synthesis occurred, suggesting that complex restoration may involve ligase activity. The complex restoration in the wild type and the X-ray sensitive mutant UV17 of M. radiodurans was strictly dependent on the X-ray dose. It was correlated with survival and DNA degradation but always preceded the onset of DNA synthesis after X-irradiation. At the same dose the complex restoration was about 2 fold lower in mutant than in wild type cells indicating that the restoration of the complex is related to repair capacity. The results are consistent with the idea that the complex protects X-irradiated DNA of M. radiodurans from further breakdown and, subsequently, permits DNA synthesis and repair to occur.

  12. Enhancement of the effect of X-irradiation against cultured human glioblastoma cells by pretreatment with ACNU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashiyama, Shoji; Katakura, Ryuichi; Takahashi, Kou; Kitahara, Masakazu; Suzuki, Jiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Brain Diseases; Sasaki, Takehito

    1989-12-01

    Human glioblastoma A-7 (GB A-7) cells can apparently recover from potentially lethal X-irradiation. The authors, using a colony-forming assay, studied the influence of pretreatment with 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl-3- (2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU) on the effectiveness of X-irradiation against GB A-7 cells grown in monolayers and as multicellular spheroids. Pre-exposure to ACNU inhibited the recovery of irradiated GB A-7 cells. In monolayer cells, the combination treatment was most effective when ACNU was applied 2 to 8 hours prior to irradiation, and the larger the X-ray dose, the more potent the effect. ACNU pretreatment was more effective against large spheroids (enhancement ratio 1.86) than against small ones (1.34). Large spheroids showed necrosis, whereas small ones did not. Isobolographic analysis disclosed that the effect of combining X-irradiation and ACNU is within an additive envelope at the surviving fraction of 10{sup -2}, while supra-additive at the surviving fraction of 10{sup -3}. These results suggest that the potency of X-irradiation is augmented by ACNU pretreatment through an interactive mechanism. Further, suppression of recovery from X-ray induced potentially lethal damage was influenced by the presence of necrosis. (author).

  13. Sedimentation of nucleoids from thymus and spleen cells of rats after X-irradiation in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzelmann, R.

    1987-01-01

    The reaction to irradiation of thymocytes was tested immediately and 6 hours after whole body X-irradiation of rats with doses from 190 cGy up to 1520 cGy by nucleoid sedimentation. For comparison, examinations of thymus and spleen cells after X-irradiation in vitro were done. Preliminary analyses should find a possible coergism between X-rays on one side and hyperthermia and inhibitors of DNA-synthesis or DNA-repair (cytosinearabinoside, dideoxythymidine, 3-amino-benzamide, ethidiumbromide, and novobiocine) on the other side. From the results the following conclusions may be drawn: 1) With respect to the detection of in vivo effects of X-irradiation, the nucleoid sedimentation is less sensitive than biochemical methods. 2) Some hours after sublethal X-irradiation in vivo, free DNA and/or polydesoxyribonucleotides appear. At the same time cross-links can be detected in the chromatin fraction. 3) The reduction of the nucleoid sedimentation immediately after high doses of whole-body irradiation is the result of primary DNA lesions. The changes detectable some hours after are due to the secondary enzymatic changes, that are connected with the interphase death of thymocytes, and coincide with the present opinions about the irradiation induced apoptosis of cells. (orig./ECB) [de

  14. Enhancement of the effect of X-irradiation against cultured human glioblastoma cells by pretreatment with ACNU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashiyama, Shoji; Katakura, Ryuichi; Takahashi, Kou; Kitahara, Masakazu; Suzuki, Jiro; Sasaki, Takehito.

    1989-01-01

    Human glioblastoma A-7 (GB A-7) cells can apparently recover from potentially lethal X-irradiation. The authors, using a colony-forming assay, studied the influence of pretreatment with 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl-3- (2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU) on the effectiveness of X-irradiation against GB A-7 cells grown in monolayers and as multicellular spheroids. Pre-exposure to ACNU inhibited the recovery of irradiated GB A-7 cells. In monolayer cells, the combination treatment was most effective when ACNU was applied 2 to 8 hours prior to irradiation, and the larger the X-ray dose, the more potent the effect. ACNU pretreatment was more effective against large spheroids (enhancement ratio 1.86) than against small ones (1.34). Large spheroids showed necrosis, whereas small ones did not. Isobolographic analysis disclosed that the effect of combining X-irradiation and ACNU is within an additive envelope at the surviving fraction of 10 -2 , while supra-additive at the surviving fraction of 10 -3 . These results suggest that the potency of X-irradiation is augmented by ACNU pretreatment through an interactive mechanism. Further, suppression of recovery from X-ray induced potentially lethal damage was influenced by the presence of necrosis. (author)

  15. The proliferative activity of testicular cell types and the effect of postnatal X-irradiation in the developing mouse testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergouwen, R.P.F.A.; Huiskamp, R.; Davids, J.A.G.; Rooij, D.G. de

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe the effects of x-irradiation on the developing mouse testis, particularly in relation to A spermatogonia, Sertoli cells, Leydig cells and mesenchymal cells commonly regarded as Leydig precursors. It was concluded that radiosensitivity is highest during the first week after birth and decreases thereafter, with the exception of A spermatogonia which are radiosensitive at all ages. (UK)

  16. The protective effects of vitamin E on microcephaly in rats X-irradiated in utero: DNA, lipid peroxide and confronting cisternae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Harumi; Iwasaki, Setsuo; Inomata, Kenichirou; Nasu, Fumio; Nishimura, Shigeru

    1986-01-01

    Fetuses from rats given either water or 0.03% D,L-α-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E) as a drinking fluid and X-irradiated with 100 rad on gestational day 13 were examined on gestational day 21. Mean cerebral weight which was significantly reduced by the X-irradiation was increased by vitamin E supplementation but the level did not reach that in sham-irradiated controls. Administration of vitamin E caused an increase in DNA concentration which was significantly reduced by X-irradiation with water treatment. An increase in the mean level of lipid peroxide formation was observed in the water-treated, X-irradiated group in the sample at zero time but not in the vitamin E-treated, X-irradiated group. In the cytoplasm of fetal cerebral neurons from X-irradiated dams with vitamin E supplementation, confronting cisternae were frequently observed between two nuclear envelopes. Confronting cisternae may be considered as a repair mechanism of vitamin E against X-irradiated neuronal damage in the fetal cerebrum. This study provides evidence of the protection by vitamin E of neuronal development in X-irradiated fetuses, through its antioxidant properties, against attacks by free radicals and/or lipid peroxide. (orig.)

  17. Fibroblast growth factor 21 levels in young healthy females display day and night variations and are increased in response to short-term energy deprivation through a leptin-independent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Joo-Pin; Aronis, Konstantinos N; Chamberland, John P; Paruthi, Jason; Moon, Hyun-Seuk; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2013-04-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 is an endocrine factor with potent metabolic effects. Its day-night patterns of secretion and/or its physiological response to energy deprivation and relationship to free fatty acids (FFAs) and/or leptin remain to be fully elucidated. We aim to elucidate day-night pattern of FGF-21 levels and its relationship to FFA, to assess whether energy deprivation alters its circulating patterns, and to examine whether leptin may mediate these changes. Six healthy lean females were studied for 72 h in a cross-over interventional study under three different conditions: on isocaloric diet and in a fasting state with administration of either placebo or metreleptin in physiological replacement doses. Blood samples were obtained hourly from 8:00 a.m. on day 4 until 8:00 a.m. on day 5. FGF-21 exhibited day-night variation pattern during the isocaloric fed state. Fasting significantly increased FGF-21 levels (P Day-night variation pattern in the fed state was lost on fasting. Leptin replacement in the hypoleptinemic state restored approximate entropy of FGF-21 time series but did not alter circulating levels. FGF-21 levels were closely cross-correlated with FFA levels in all three states. A day-night variation in the levels of FGF-21 exists in young lean females in the fed state. Energy deprivation increases FGF-21 levels via a leptin-independent pathway. The interaction between FGF-21 and starvation-induced lipolysis, as indicated by its close cross-correlations with FFA in both fed state and energy deprivation, needs to be studied further.

  18. Effect of water deprivation, desmopressin (DDAVP) infusion, and oral loads of water, Na+ and NH4+ on urinary excretion of epidermal growth factor in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, P E; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1993-01-01

    for urinary EGF we examined the effects of changes in the oral loads of water, Na+ and NH4+ as well as the effect of infusion of the vasopressin analogue, desmopressin (DDAVP) on the endogenous urinary EGF excretion in the rat. Water deprivation for 48 h reduced the urinary excretion of EGF by 25...

  19. Effects of early postnatal X-irradiation of the hippocampus on discrimination learning in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazzara, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Rats with x-irradiation-produced degranulation of the hippocampal dentate gyrus were trained in the acquisition and reversal of simultaneous visual and tactile discriminations in a T-maze. These experiments employed the same treatment, apparatus, and procedure, but varied in task difficulty. In the brightness and roughness discriminations, the irradiated rats were not handicapped in acquiring or reversing discriminations of low or low-moderate task-difficulty. However, these rats were handicapped in acquiring and reversing discriminations of moderate and high task-difficulty. In a Black/White discrimination, in which the stimuli were restricted to the goal-arm walls, the irradiated rats were handicapped in the acquisition (low task-difficulty) and reversal (moderate task-difficulty) phases of the task. These results suggest that the irradiated rats were not handicapped when the noticeability of the stimuli was high, irrespective of modality used, but were handicapped when the noticeability of the stimuli was low. In addition, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that hippocampal-damaged rats are inattentive due to hyperactivity

  20. Effects of neonatal thymic exposure to high doses of X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bains, G.S.; Sundaram, K.

    1979-01-01

    The thymic region of neonatal Swiss mice was exposed to doses varying from 1000 R to 2000 R of X-irradiation. The animals did not show any signs of wasting syndrome up to 6 months after irradiation. At this time hyperplasia of the thymus with an associated lymphocytosis was evident in irradiated animals. Antibody production to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was not affected. However, at 12 months post-irradiation the animals showed signs of wasting disease with a progressive increase in their numbers at 18 and 24 months of age. The percentage incidence of animals with wasting disease was dose dependent. At this stage in the majority of the animals with the disease the thymus showed varying degrees of atrophy along with splenomegaly. There were no significant differences in the number of lymphocytes but the number of granulocytes showed a substantial increase. This was more evident in animals exposed to 2000 R to the thymic region. Though one observed a lowered ability to form antibodies to bovine serum albumin (BSA) with advancing age, the thymic irradiation did not affect the immune response to BSA even in animals manifesting wasting disease. An interesting observation has been the development of a severe loss of muscle power and tone in the hind limbs in a large majority of animals. (author)

  1. Early postnatal x-irradiation of the hippocampus and discrimination learning in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazzara, R.A.; Altman, J.

    1981-01-01

    Rats with X-irradiation-produced degranulation of the hippocampal dentate gyrus were trained in the acquisition and reversal of simultaneous visual and tactile discriminations in a T-maze. These experiments employed the same treatment, apparatus, and procedure but varied in task difficulty. In the brightness and roughness discriminations, the irradiated rats were not handicapped in acquiring or reversing discriminations of low or low-moderate task difficulty. However, these rats were handicapped in acquiring and reversing discriminations of moderate and high task difficulty. In a Black/White discrimination, in which the stimuli were restricted to the goal-arm walls, the irradiated rats were handicapped in the acquisition (low task difficulty) and reversal (moderate task difficulty) phases of the task. These results suggest that the irradiated rats were not handicapped when the noticeability of the stimuli was high, irrespective of modality used, but were handicapped when the noticeability of the stimuli was low. In addition, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that rats with hippocampal damage are inattentive due to hyperactivity

  2. ENDOR-Induced EPR of Disordered Systems: Application to X-Irradiated Alanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusakovskij, Jevgenij; Maes, Kwinten; Callens, Freddy; Vrielinck, Henk

    2018-02-15

    The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of radiation-induced radicals in organic solids are generally composed of multiple components that largely overlap due to their similar weak g anisotropy and a large number of hyperfine (HF) interactions. Such properties make these systems difficult to study using standard cw EPR spectroscopy even in single crystals. Electron-nuclear double-resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a powerful and widely used complementary technique. In particular, ENDOR-induced EPR (EIE) experiments are useful for separating the overlapping contributions. In the present work, these techniques were employed to study the EPR spectrum of stable radicals in X-irradiated alanine, which is widely used in dosimetric applications. The principal values of all major proton HF interactions of the dominant radicals were determined by analyzing the magnetic field dependence of the ENDOR spectrum at 50 K, where the rotation of methyl groups is frozen. Accurate simulations of the EPR spectrum were performed after the major components were separated using an EIE analysis. As a result, new evidence in favor of the model of the second dominant radical was obtained.

  3. DNA strand breaks, repair, and survival in x-irradiated mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugle, D.L.; Gillespie, C.J.; Chapman, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    The yields of unrepairable single- and double-strand breaks in the DNA of x-irradiated Chinese hamster cells were measured by low-speed neutral and alkaline sucrose density gradient sedimentation in order to investigate the relation between these lesions and reproductive death. After maximal single-strand rejoining, at all doses, the number of residual single-strand breaks was twice the number of residual double-strand breaks. Both double-strand and unrepairable single-strand breaks were proportional to the square of absorbed dose, in the range 10-50 krad. No rejoining of double-strand breaks was observed. These observations suggest that, in mammalian cells, most double-strand breaks are not repairable, while all single-strand breaks are repaired except those that are sufficiently close on complementary strands to constitute double-strand breaks. Comparison with cell survival measurements at much lower doses suggests that loss of reproductive capacity corresponds to induction of approximately one double-strand break

  4. The analysis of the defense mechanism against indigenous bacterial translocation in X-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Toshiya; Ohmori, Toshihiro; Yanai, Minoru; Kawanishi, Gosei; Mitsuyama, Masao; Nomoto, Kikuo.

    1991-01-01

    The defense mechanism against indigenous bacterial translocation was studied using a model of endogenous infection in X-irradiated mice. All mice irradiated with 9 Gy died from day 8 to day 15 after irradiation. The death of mice was observed in parallel with the appearance of bacteria from day 7 in various organs, and the causative agent was identified to be Escherichia coli, an indigenous bacterium translocating from the intestine. Decrease in the number of blood leukocytes, peritoneal cells and lymphocytes in Peyer's patches or mesenteric lymph nodes was observed as early as 1 day after irradiation with 6 or 9 Gy. The mitogenic response of lymphocytes from various lymphoid tissues was severely affected as well. The impairment of these parameters for host defense reached the peak 3 days after irradiation and there was no recovery. However, in vivo bacterial activity of Kupffer cells in mice irradiated with 9 Gy was maintained in a normal level for a longer period. It was suggested that Kupffer cells play an important role in the defense against indigenous bacteria translocating from the intenstine in mice. (author)

  5. Changes with age in swimming performance of X-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norimura, T.; Yoshikawa, I.; Okajima, S.

    1980-01-01

    The time required to swim 250 cm was determined once weekly for the entire life of fifteen pairs of male dd/K mice. The irradiated group was exposed to a single 224 rad of X-rays at 20 weeks of age. Median survival time (ST 50 ) for the control was 88.9 weeks and that for the irradiated group was 77.4 weeks, and both regression lines relating to death rate and age were parallel. The swimming ability of control mice began to decrease when the mice were 40 weeks of age, after which there was a gradual reduction with age at 0.00646/day. In the irradiated group, the swimming ability decreased from seven weeks after irradiation. The time of 50% reduction of swimming speed (TRS 50 ) for the control was 78.9 weeks and that for the irradiated group was 66.3 weeks, and the slopes of the regression lines relating reduction rate and age were similar. Differences between ST 50 and TRS 50 were 10 weeks in the control and 11 weeks in the irradiated group, respectively. These results indicate that there is no basic difference in the reduction in swimming ability between control and irradiated mice. The X-irradiation may simply mean that the reduction in the swimming ability is displaced to an earlier time with no alteration in the rate of reduction, and that the earlier appearance in the irradiated group is related to premature aging as induced by irradiation. (author)

  6. Sister chromatid exchange induced by X-irradiation of retinoblastoma lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramovsky-Kaplan, I.; Jones, I.S.

    1984-01-01

    Lymphocyte cultures were employed to assess the degree of spontaneous and induced chromosomal fragility in retinoblastoma. Sister chromatid exchange (SCEs) were scored in metaphases. Three unilateral, three bilateral, eleven family members and controls were studied. Retinoblastoma (RB) lymphocytes did not exhibit increased spontaneous fragility. X-irradiation (25-200 rad) did not significantly increase SCE in unilateral retinoblastoma lymphocytes when compared with controls (P greater than 0.50). However, bilaterally affected subjects and three unaffected relatives demonstrated a statistically significant increase in SCE (P less than 0.01). In conclusion, hereditary retinoblastoma lymphocytes appear more radiosensitive than sporadic retinoblastoma, perhaps, reflecting the increased second malignancies in germinal mutation retinoblastoma. In addition, the analysis of radiation-induced SCE in peripheral blood lymphocytes of RB patients and family members may provide a valuable tool increasing the accuracy of genetic counseling for this disorder. Additional studies of RB patients and families are needed to assess the relevance of this approach to genetic counseling

  7. Go/no-go discriminated avoidance learning in prenatally x-irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Y.; Inouye, M.

    1988-01-01

    Male Fischer344 rats were exposed to x-irradiation at a dose of 200 rad on Day 17 of gestation. Irradiated and control rats were tested at 10-13 weeks of age with the paradigm of go/no-go (active-passive) discriminated avoidance conditioning for three consecutive daily sessions. During the first conditioning session, they learned only active avoidance responses to two different warning signals. During the second and third sessions, they learned active and passive avoidance responses: in response to one warning signal, rats were required to make an active response to avoid a shock, but not to run in response to the other signal in order to avoid a shock. Prenatally irradiated rats made more active avoidance responses to both warning signals than controls (first session). In the early training phase of the go/no-go task, irradiated rats performed significantly higher active and lower passive avoidance responses than controls. Irradiated rats established a strong tendency to respond actively to the no-go signal, but eventually learned to respond to it

  8. Estimates of genetic parameters of body weight in descendants of x-irradiated rat spermatogonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianola, D.; Chapman, A.B.; Rutledge, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    Effects of nine generations of 450 R per generation of ancestral spermatogonial x irradiation of inbred rats on genetic parameters of body weight at 3, 6 and 10 weeks of age and of weight gains between these periods were studied. Covariances among relatives were estimated by mixed model and regression techniques in randomly selected lines with (R) and without (C) radiation history. Analyses of the data were based on five linear genetic models combining additive direct, additive indirect (maternal), dominance and environmental effects. Parameters in these models were estimated by generalized least-squares. A model including direct and indirect genetic effects fit more closely to the data in both R and C lines. Overdominance of induced mutations did not seem to be present. Ancestral irradiation increased maternal additive genetic variances of body weights and gains but not direct genetic variances. Theoretically, due to a negative direct-maternal genetic correlation, within full-sib family selection would be ineffective in increasing body weight at six weeks in both R and C lines. However, progress from mass selection would be expected to be faster in the R lines

  9. Changes in activities of adaptive liver enzymes in rats after non-lethal x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropila, M.; Ahlersova, E.; Ahlers, I.; Benova, K.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of a single dose of whole-body X-irradiation of 2.39 Gy (250 R) on the activities of selected adaptive rat liver enzymes and blood serum corticosterone concentrations was followed for a period of 28 days. Rats of Wistar strain SPF breeding (VELAZ Prague) were used. Both irradiated and control animals were fed in pairs with the same amount of feed as was consumed by irradiated animals in the pilot experiment. The feed intake of irradiated animals decreased significantly until the fourth day. During the rest of the experimental period no significant differences were recorded in feed intake between the experimental and control groups. The activity of tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) in the liver of irradiated animals increased, with the exception of the initial period. Similar changes were recorded in the activity of tryptophane-2-3 dioxygenase (TO). A significant increase on the third day and a significant decrease from the seventh day after irradiation was recorded in the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Similar changes were observed with alanine aminotransferase (ALT). It is necessary to stress that the activity of this enzyme decreased also on the first day after irradiation. Until the third day there was a marked increase of serum corticosterone in the irradiated animals. The results point not only towards significant changes to the parameters observed, caused by a non-lethal irradiation dose, but also towards the importance of the nutritional regime, so-called paired feeding

  10. Functional and structural alterations of epithelial barrier properties of rat ileum following X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dublineau, I.; Lebrun, F.; Grison, S.; Griffiths, N.M.

    2004-01-01

    Irradiation of the digestive system leads to alterations of the small intestine. We have characterized the disruption of the barrier integrity in rat ileum from 1 to 14 days following irradiation ranging from 6 to 12 Gy. The intestinal permeability to 14 C-mannitol and 3 H-dextran 70,000 was measured in vitro in Ussing chambers. In parallel to these functional studies, immunohistochemical analyses of junctional proteins (ZO-1 and β-catenin) of ileal epithelium were performed by confocal microscopy. Irradiation with 10 Gy induced a marked decrease in epithelial tissue resistance at three days and a fivefold increase in mannitol permeability, without modifications of dextran permeability. A disorganization of the localization for ZO-1 and β-catenin was also observed. At 7 days after irradiation, we observed a recovery of the organization of junctional proteins in parallel to a return of intestinal permeability to control value. In addition to these time-dependent effects, a gradual effect on epithelial integrity of the radiation doses was observed 3 days after irradiation. This study shows a disruption of the integrity of the intestinal barrier in rat ileum following abdominal X-irradiation, depending on the time postirradiation and on the delivered dose. The loss of barrier integrity was characterized by a disorganization of proteins of tight and adherent junctions, leading to increased intestinal permeability to mannitol. (author)

  11. Brightness discrimination learning in a Skinner box in prenatally X-irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Y.; Inouye, M.

    1976-01-01

    Male MP 1 albino rats were exposed to x-irradiation in utero at a single dose of 200 R on day 17 of gestation. The light-dark discrimination training in a Skinner box was continued until the animals attained a learning criterion of 0.80 correct response ratio for 3 consecutive days. Although during the unreinforced baseline sessions the total number of bar pressings in the irradiated animals was superior to that in the controls, performance between the control and the irradiated animals did not differ significantly in (a) the number of training days required to attain the learning criterion, (b) the total number of days on which the animals produced a correct response ratio more than 0.80, and (c) the number of consecutive days during which the correct response ratio was more than 0.75. The results obtained suggest that the irradiated animals were able to discriminate in brightness cues as well, or nearly as well, as the controls. The cortical-subcortical system mediating brightness discrimination in the irradiated animals is discussed. (author)

  12. X-irradiation-induced nuclear lesions in cultured mammaliam cells: an ultrastructural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barham, S.S.; Walters, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    Electron-dense chromatin aggregates, hereafter referred to as lesions, have been characterized morphologically within interphase nuclei of Chinese hamster cells (line CHO) after a single acute exposure to 400, 800, 1200, or 2000 rad of x irradiation. At all doses studied, lesions were observed only after termination of radiation-induced division delay. Cell profiles were scored by electron microscopy for the presence or absence of nuclear lesions at various times after irradiation. The mitotic fraction from each irradiated population was also scored for each sample by light and electron microscopy. From these data and from simultaneous cell-density counts for each sample, it is apparent that postirradiation cell division is a prerequisite to formation of interphase nuclear lesions. Irradiated cell populations blocked in mitosis by Colcemid beyond the normal period of postirradiation division-delay failed to display nuclear lesions until after Colcemid was removed and cell division was completed. Enzyme digestions of isolated nuclei from irradiated cells with DNase I, RNase A, and Pronase suggest that the nuclear lesions are comprised primarily of chromatin. Nucleolar lesions, as well as various aberrant morphological forms of nucleoli, were also observed in cell populations after the onset of postirradiation cell division during the first 72 hr following exposure to irradiation. Delayed radiation-induced ultrastructural alterations of the nucleus included the formation of cytoplasmic invaginations into the nuclear space and inclusions of membranes within nuclei

  13. Reactivation of Immunological Response in Lethally X-Irradiated Mice Treated with Isogeneic Bone Marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankovic, V.; Slijepcevic, M.; Hrsak, I. [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Zagreb, Yugoslavia (Croatia)

    1968-08-15

    Male and female C57BL/H and CBA/H mice aged 10-12 weeks were used as recipients and donors, respectively. All recipient mice were given a lethal whole-body X-irradiation dose (850 R for C57BL and 950 R for CBA mice) followed by iv injection of 10 x 106 isogeneic eosin-negative bone-marrow cells suspended in 0.5 ml of Hank's solution. The number of eosin-positive cells was less than 10%. The state of immunological responsiveness of irradiated recipients was measured at different time intervals up to 86 days after irradiation. The immune response to bacterial antigen was measured with the titre of agglutinating antibodies in serum six days after iv antigenic stimulation with a suspension of 2 x 10{sup 7} killed Salmonella typhimurium cells. The immune response to tissue antigens was evaluated by: (a) the effectiveness of the spleen cells from isologous radiation chimeric parental mice in preventing bone marrow from F{sub 1} (C57BL x CBA) hybrid donor from therapeutically affecting lethally irradiated F j recipient mice; (b) the effectiveness of the spleen cells in inducing splenom egaly in recipient F{sub 1} hybrid mice (Simonsen test). It was found that the responsiveness to bacterial antigens reappears much earlier and increases much faster than the immunological responsiveness to tissue antigens. (author)

  14. Immunomodulatory Properties and Molecular Effects in Inflammatory Diseases of Low-Dose X-Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rödel, Franz; Frey, Benjamin; Manda, Katrin; Hildebrandt, Guido; Hehlgans, Stephanie; Keilholz, Ludwig; Seegenschmiedt, M. Heinrich; Gaipl, Udo S.; Rödel, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory diseases are the result of complex and pathologically unbalanced multicellular interactions. For decades, low-dose X-irradiation therapy (LD-RT) has been clinically documented to exert an anti-inflammatory effect on benign diseases and chronic degenerative disorders. By contrast, experimental studies to confirm the effectiveness and to reveal underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are still at their early stages. During the last decade, however, the modulation of a multitude of immunological processes by LD-RT has been explored in vitro and in vivo. These include leukocyte/endothelial cell adhesion, adhesion molecule and cytokine/chemokine expression, apoptosis induction, and mononuclear/polymorphonuclear cell metabolism and activity. Interestingly, these mechanisms display comparable dose dependences and dose-effect relationships with a maximum effect in the range between 0.3 and 0.7 Gy, already empirically identified to be most effective in the clinical routine. This review summarizes data and models exploring the mechanisms underlying the immunomodulatory properties of LD-RT that may serve as a prerequisite for further systematic analyses to optimize low-dose irradiation procedures in future clinical practice.

  15. Immunomodulatory Properties and Molecular Effects in Inflammatory Diseases of Low-Dose X-Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rödel, Franz [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University Hospital of Frankfurt, Johann Wolfgang-Goethe Universität, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frey, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Manda, Katrin; Hildebrandt, Guido [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, University of Rostock, Rostock (Germany); Hehlgans, Stephanie [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University Hospital of Frankfurt, Johann Wolfgang-Goethe Universität, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Keilholz, Ludwig [Department of Radiotherapy, Clinical Center Bayreuth, Bayreuth (Germany); Seegenschmiedt, M. Heinrich [Strahlenzentrum Hamburg Medizinisches Versorgungszentrum, Hamburg (Germany); Gaipl, Udo S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Rödel, Claus, E-mail: franz.roedel@kgu.de [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University Hospital of Frankfurt, Johann Wolfgang-Goethe Universität, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2012-09-25

    Inflammatory diseases are the result of complex and pathologically unbalanced multicellular interactions. For decades, low-dose X-irradiation therapy (LD-RT) has been clinically documented to exert an anti-inflammatory effect on benign diseases and chronic degenerative disorders. By contrast, experimental studies to confirm the effectiveness and to reveal underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are still at their early stages. During the last decade, however, the modulation of a multitude of immunological processes by LD-RT has been explored in vitro and in vivo. These include leukocyte/endothelial cell adhesion, adhesion molecule and cytokine/chemokine expression, apoptosis induction, and mononuclear/polymorphonuclear cell metabolism and activity. Interestingly, these mechanisms display comparable dose dependences and dose-effect relationships with a maximum effect in the range between 0.3 and 0.7 Gy, already empirically identified to be most effective in the clinical routine. This review summarizes data and models exploring the mechanisms underlying the immunomodulatory properties of LD-RT that may serve as a prerequisite for further systematic analyses to optimize low-dose irradiation procedures in future clinical practice.

  16. Kinetically directed combination therapy with adriamycin and x-irradiation in a mammary tumor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunschweiger, P.G.; Schenken, L.L.; Schiffer, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    In the present studies, the interaction of adriamycin (A) and x-irradiation (X) in T1699 mouse mammary tumors was evaluated. Mitotic indices and thymidine labeling indices were determined at various intervals after A or X alone, and after A + X given in combination. The results with A (1.0 mg/kg) and X(200 R) alone suggest that those quantities of each agent induce a G 2 progression delay of 9 to 12 h. The kinetic results after A + X in combination indicated increased S phase transit time and G 2 progression delay. Recovery kinetics after A + X were used to predict optimum sequence intervals for subsequent A + X fractions. Sequential A + X treatment schedules, up to 4 fractions, were designed and evaluated by regrowth delay measurements. The results indicated that the interaction was additive when A and X were given together in combination. Fractionation of A + X to minimize proliferative recovery between fractions resulted in an enhanced antitumor effect

  17. Effect of x-irradiation on cell kinetics of esophageal membrane cells in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Koichi; Tsunemoto, Hiroshi; Urano, Muneyasu; Koike, Sachiko

    1977-01-01

    Effect of x-irradiation on the cell kinetics of esophageal membrane cells was studied in C3Hf/He male mice. Experimental methods include; counting the number of basal and superficial cells, and pulse or continuous labelling by tritiated thymidine. Esophageal area was irradiated with 1000 rad of 200 kVp x-rays and cell kinetics were studied on the 5th post-irradiation day. Autoradiography revealed the shortening of the cell cycle time, specifically in G- and G- phases. Numbers of basal cells and of superficial cells were found to increase for 5 days after irradiation. Continuous labelling experiments using infusion technique demonstrated than growth fraction of irradiated basal cells was 1.0 as well as that of non-irradiated cells. It was of interest that the migration time, i.e., the time required for labelled cells to migrate from basal cell layer to superficial cell layer, was shortened approximately 1/3 of that of non-irradiated control after irradiation. Diurnal variation was observed not only in normal basal cells but also in irradiated ones, and the rate of increase of labelling index after continuous labelling was independent of the time when the labelling was started. (auth.)

  18. Effects of x-irradiation of young female beagles on life span and tumor incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenblatt, L.S.; Book, S.A.; Goldman, M.

    1986-01-01

    Causes of death and the occurrence of neoplasia in female beagle dogs were evaluated retrospectively for 57 unexposed and 296 exposed dogs given single or fractionated whole-body x-irradiation exposures of 100 or 300 R. Some dogs subsequently were bred, and all were observed for the duration of their lives. The pathology for these dogs was derived from clinical records, gross-necropsy reports, tissue slides, and Formalin-fixed tissues. The results of this study indicated dose-related shortening of life span was clearly evident; causes of death due to either neoplasia (50%) or nonneoplastic disease (50%), with few exceptions, were similar in control and irradiated dogs; the incidences of neoplasms were not significantly greater for irradiated dogs than for controls, but the latency period decreased as dose increased; protraction increased survival in dogs given 300 R but not 100 R, which is attributable solely to amelioration of incidence rates of nonmammary neoplasia; and the cumulative rates of death due to mammary tumors were the same in dogs exposed to 100 R and 300 R. 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Ferritin-iron increases killing of Chinese hamster ovary cells by X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.M.; Stevens, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Stationary-phase Chinese hamster ovary cells were cultured in medium containing ferritin (∼19% iron by weight) added at concentrations ranging from 0 to 128 μg/ml. One set of cultures was unirradiated, another set exposed to 4.0 Gy of X-ray. Clonogenic cell survival was assessed in each set of cultures. In the absence of added ferritin, 4.0 Gy killed approximately 50% of the cells. In the absence of radiation, ferritin was not toxic at less than 48 μg/ml; above 48 μg/ml, toxicity increased with concentration. Apoferritin was not toxic at any concentration tested (up to 1000 μg/ml). Although 32 μg/ml ferritin, reflecting only a 3-6 fold increase in iron concentration over normal serum, was not toxic, it reduced survival of X-irradiated cells by an additional 75%. These results indicate that a sublethal concentration of ferritin can be a potent radiosensitizer. (Author)

  20. Response of irradiated diet fed rats to whole body X irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.S.; Kushwaha, A.K.S.

    1985-01-01

    The response to whole body X irradiation has been studied in the brain of rats fed both on a normal diet (consisting of equal parts of wheat and gram flour) and on a low protein irradiated diet (consisting of a part of normal diet and three parts of wheat). The activity of enzymes related to the glucose metabolism (glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and fructose diphosphate aldolase) is reduced, while that of peroxidant enzymes (catalase and lipid peroxidase) increased in the brain of rats that received a diet poor in proteins and irradiated diets (normal or hypoproteic). DNA and RNA levels and protein content show a significant reduction in the brain of rats with hypoproteic and irradiated diets. The total body irradiation causes serious alterations in the brain in animals with a hypoproteic malnutritions due both to a low protein and an irradiated diet. The brain of rats fed on a low protein and irradiated diet exhibits after whole body irradiation damages more severe than those in rats fed on a normal irradiated diet

  1. Effects of sex hormones on induction of intestinal metaplasia by X-irradiation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Okamoto, Taro; Matsuda, Masahiro; Takahashi, Tadateru; Ogundigie, P.S.; Ito, Akihiro

    1993-01-01

    The influence of sex hormones on induction of intestinal metaplasia was examined in 5 week old Crj:CD (SD) rats of both sexes. At the age of 4 weeks, the animals were gonadectomized and given testosterone or dimethyl estradiol (DES). One week after operation, they were irradiated with two 10 Gy doses of X-rays to the gastric region at a 3 day interval for a total of 20 Gy. At the termination of the experiment, 6 months after the X-irradiation, the incidence of intestinal metaplasia with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) positive foci in males was significantly higher than in females, in orchidectomized males or orchidectomized plus DES treated rats (P<0.01). On the other hand, the incidence of intestinal metaplasia with ALP-positive foci in normal females appeared lower than in ovariectomized females (P<0.01), and was increased in rats by treatment with testosterone or decreased by DES. Numbers of foci of intestinal metaplasias with Paneth cells and total numbers appeared to increase in males treated with DES. The results suggested a promising role for testosterone in the development of ALP positive lesions and indicated considerable heterogeneity between intestinal metaplasia subtypes. (author)

  2. N-ethylmaleimide sensitization of x-irradiated hypoxic Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimler, B.F.; Sinclair, W.K.; Elkind, M.M.

    1977-01-01

    Chinese hamster cells were x irradiated either aerobically or hypoxically, after flushing with nitrogen plus carbon dioxide. In agreement with earlier data, for asynchronous cells, the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) was approximately three. If the sulfhydryl-binding agent N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) was present during or immediately after irradiation, the principal effect was a pronounced decrease in the extrapolation number of the survival curve of NEM-treated cells compared to nontreated cells. This was observed with hypoxic as well as aerobic cells and the OER for NEM-treated cells was also about three. For NEM treatments which were essentially nontoxic, NEM acts synergistically with X rays, suggestive of an inhibition by NEM of a cell's ability to repair sublethal damage. For synchronous cells obtained by mitotic selection, a result consistent with the above was obtained; a dose three times as large was necessary to reduce survival to the same level for hypoxic cells as for aerobic cells, whether or not the cells were treated with NEM. Thus the OER was independent of NEM treatment throughout the cell cycle, with the possible exception of mitosis which could not be studied with the methods used. It is concluded that the action of NEM at low concentrations (0.75 μM) is largely independent of oxygen tension. Oxygen acts to produce more damage per unit dose in the cell while NEM sensitizes apparently by preventing the repair of sublethal damage

  3. Oscillations of serum and tissue lipids in rats X-irradiated at different times of day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlers, I.; Ahlersova, E.; Toropila, M.; Smajda, B.; Praslicka, M.

    1983-01-01

    Young male Wistar rats (mean body mass 200 g) adapted to a 12:12 h light:dark regimen (7 a.m. to 7 p.m., 7 p.m. to 7 a.m.) were X-irradiated at 3-h intervals during one day with doses of 2.39 or 14.25 Gy and were killed 48 or 24 h afterwards. Nonesterified fatty acids were determined in their serum and white and brown adipose tissue, and triacylglycerols, phospholipids and total cholesterol in their serum and liver. The reaction of serum and tissue lipids during the day varied after both non-lethal and lethal irradiation. After non-lethal exposure, most of the curves, as regards their course, the presence of rhythm and their oscillation properties, concurred with the lipid indicator curves in the control series and indicated that the organism's response is dependent on the time of day. Circadian variation of serum and adipose tissue nonesterified fatty acid levels, the liver triacylglycerol concentration and the adrenal cholesterol concentration in lethally irradiated animals showed no significant dependence on the time of application of the stimulus. An analysis of circadian variation of the effectiveness of a stimulus facilitates understanding of the organism's reactivity better than a single examination in the morning. (author)

  4. An unexpected response of torulopsis glabrata fusion products to x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeotti, C.L.; Sriprakash, K.S.; Batum, C.M.; Clark-Walker, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    Intra-species fusion products of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces unisporus and Torulopsis glabrata have been isolated following polyethylene glycol-induced fusion of protoplasts and selection for prototrophic colonies. Staining with lomofungin showed that all fusion products were uninucleate. Measurement of DNA content mostly gave values between haploid and diploid levels indicating that the majority of fusion products were aneuploid. Nevertheless fusion products of S. cerevisiae and S. unisporus were, as expected, more resistant to X-irradiation than their haploid parents. By contrast, the X-ray doze-response curve of all T. glabrata fusion products was indistinguishable from their progenitors despite the fact that mitotic segregants could be recovered amongst the survivors to X-rays. A possible explanation for the behaviour towards X-rays of T. glabrata fusion products is that this species lacks a DNA repair pathway involving recombination between homologous chromosomes. We conclude from this study that the shape of the X-ray dose-response curve should not be taken to indicate the ploidy of new yeast isolates without supporting data. (orig.)

  5. Sertoli cell death by apoptosis in the immature rat testis following x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, D.J.; Gobe, G.C.; Harmon, B.V.

    1988-01-01

    The importance of the morphological study of cell death has recently been emphasized by the recognition that the ultrastructural features of dying cells allow categorization of the death as either apoptosis or necrosis. This classification enables inferences to be drawn about the mechanism and biological significance of the death occurring in a particular set of circumstances. In this study, Sertoli cell death induced in the immature testis of three and four day old rats by 5 Gy (500 rads) x-irradiation was described by light and transmission electron microscopy with the objective of categorizing the death as apoptosis or necrosis. The testes were examined 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 24 h after irradiation. Following irradiation, there was a wave of apoptosis of the Sertoli cells starting in three to four hours and reaching a peak between four and eight hours. At 24 hours, only 61% of the expected number of Sertoli cells remained. These findings are in accord with recent ultrastructural reports that ionizing radiation induces cell death by apoptosis in rapidly proliferating cell populations. New insights into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cell death might thus be expected to stem from future elucidation of the general molecular events involved in triggering apoptosis

  6. Differential Effects of Alpha-Particle Radiation and X-Irradiation on Genes Associated with Apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, V.; Howland, M.; Chen, J.; Kutzner, B.; Wilkins, R.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined differential effects of alpha-(α) particle radiation and X-rays on apoptosis and associated changes in gene expression. Human monocytic cells were exposed to a-particle radiation and X-rays from 0 to 1.5 Gy. Four days postexposure, cell death was measured by flow cytometry and 84 genes related to apoptosis were analyzed using real-time PCR. On average, 33% of the cells were apoptotic at 1.5 Gy of a-particle radiation. Transcript profiling showed statistical expression of 15 genes at all three doses tested. Cells exposed to X-rays were <5% apoptotic at ∼1.5 Gy and induced less than a 2-fold expression in 6 apoptotic genes at the higher doses of radiation. Among these 6 genes, Fas and TNF-α were common to the α-irradiated cells. This data suggests that α-particle radiation initiates cell death by TNF-a and Fas activation and through intermediate signalling mediators that are distinct from X-irradiated cells

  7. Physiological and pharmacological properties of Purkinje cells in rat cerebellum degranulated by postnatal x irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, D.J.; Hoffer, B.J.; Altman, J.

    1974-01-01

    Elimination of most granule, basket, and stellate interneurons in the rat cerebellum was achieved by repeated doses of low level x irradiation applied during the first two weeks of postnatal life. Purkinje neurons in these rats, studied when adults, exhibited sustained spiking activity in Halothane anesthetized preparations. Mean firing rates were 35 to 40/sec, no different from normal. Spontaneous bursts presumed to be generated by climbing fiber synaptic activity differed from normal by often consisting of full sized spikes rather than characteristic inactivation responses. Intracellularly observed correlates of bursts consisted of epsp's of several discretely different amplitudes appearing independently in time. Stimulation of white matter revealed evidence for, a) graded synaptic excitation of Purkinje cells indicating more than one converging excitatory synapse, and b) inhibitory actions on Purkinje cells either through a few remaining inhibitory interneurons or through Purkinje cell recurrent collaterals. Iontophoretic drug application studies showed normal chemosensitivity of the Purkinje cell membrane, i.e., excitation by flutamate and inhibition by gamma-amino butyric acid, serotonin, norepinephrine, and 3'5' cyclic AMP. These studies indicate considerable autonomy of Purkinje cell ontogenesis in the absence of normal interneuronal input. A unique synaptic relation only rarely found in normal cerebellum is the innervation of single Purkinje cells by more than one climbing fiber. (U.S.)

  8. Effect of x irradiation on cell kinetics of esophageal membrane cells in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, K; Tsunemoto, H; Urano, M; Koike, S [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1977-05-01

    Effect of x irradiation on the cell kinetics of esophageal membrane cells was studied in C3Hf/He male mice. Experimental methods include; counting the number of basal and superficial cells, and pulse or continuous labelling by tritiated thymidine. Esophageal area was irradiated with 1000 rad of 200 kVp x rays and cell kinetics were studied on the 5th post-irradiation day. Autoradiography revealed the shortening of the cell cycle time, specifically in G- and G- phases. Numbers of basal cells and of superficial cells were found to increase for 5 days after irradiation. Continuous labelling experiments using infusion technique demonstrated than growth fraction of irradiated basal cells was 1.0 as well as that of non-irradiated cells. It was of interest that the migration time, i.e., the time required for labelled cells to migrate from basal cell layer to superficial cell layer, was shortened approximately 1/3 of that of non-irradiated control after irradiation. Diurnal variation was observed not only in normal basal cells but also in irradiated ones, and the rate of increase of labelling index after continuous labelling was independent of the time when the labelling was started.

  9. Proliferation and Differentiation of Autologic and Allogenic Stem Cells in Supralethally X-Irradiated Dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, I. L. [Department of Radiobiology, Central Institute of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Moscow, USSR (Russian Federation)

    1967-07-15

    Full text: Allogenic bone marrow after transplantation into dogs irradiated with 1000 R X-rays differentiates in the normal way only for 3-4 days, afterwards transforming into lymphoid cells. This transformation is due to the antigen stimulus of the host on the grafted stem cells. The lymphoid cells, obtained from the host's blood on the 7-8th day after grafting, showed specific, immune activity under the Immune Lymphocyte Transfer test. Within a short duration of the immune response immunoblasts and immunocytes Undergo degenerative changes: destroyed mitochondria, formation of autophagic vacuoles and, finally, lysis of the cells. These changes are suggested to be the result of overloading of immune cells with antigen. Preliminary sensitization of the donor with prospective host's haemopoietic tissue does not hasten the immune transformation of haemopoiesis. Injections of bacterial pyrogen, cortisone or 6-mercaptopurine into recipients, as well as incubation of bone marrow at 37 Degree-Sign C for 2 hours, do not prevent the immune transformation. Preliminary thymectomy of the prospective recipients prevents in some of the cases immune transformation of the bone-marrow graft. The delay of allogenic bone-marrow transplantation for 5-6 days prevents in some dogs (X-irradiated with 1000 R, but not with 1200 R) the immune transformation. Transplantation of autologic bone marrow or shielding of the legs during irradiation is accompanied with good restoration of normal haemopoiesis without lymphoid transformation. (author)

  10. Types of structural chromosome aberrations and their incidences in human spermatozoa X-irradiated in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiguchi, Yujiroh; Tateno, Hiroyuki; Mikamo, Kazuya (Asahikawa Medical College (Japan). Department of Biological Sciences)

    1990-02-01

    The authors studied the effects of in vitro X-irradiation on human sperm chromosomes, using our interspecific in vitro fertilization system between human spermatozoa and zona-free hamster oocytes. 28 semen samples from 5 healthy men were exposed to 0.23, 0.45, 0.91 and 1.82 Gy of X-rays. Totals of 2098 and 2862 spermatozoa were karyotyped in the control and the irradiated groups, respectively. The indicence of spermatozoa with X-ray-induced structural chromosome aberrations (Y) increased linearly with increasing dosage (D), being best expressed by the equation, Y = 0.08 + 34.52 D. The incidence of breakage-type aberrations was moe than 9 times higher than that of exchange-type aberrations. Both of them showed linear dose-dependent increases, which were expressed by the regression lines, Y = -0.014 + 0.478 D and Y -0.010 + 0.057 D, respectively. The incidence of chromosome-ltype aberrations was about 6 times higher than that of chromatid-type aberrations. Their dose-dependent increases were expressed by the regression lines, Y = -0.015 + 0.462 D and Y = -0.006 + 0.079 D, respectively. These results are discussed in relation to the previous data obtained with {gamma}-rays. The repair mechanism of X-ray-induced sperm DNA lesions is also discussed. (author). 21 refs.; 4 figs.; 4 tabs.

  11. Skin response to X-irradiation in the guinea-pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, R J; Mole, R H; Barnes, D W.H. [Medical Research Council, Harwell (UK). Radiobiological Research Unit

    1976-12-01

    Skin reaction to X-irradiation has been studied in the albino quinea-pig; early response in limited-field irradiations of the flank was comparable to that commonly seen in rodents, swine and man, and was dose-dependent with a dynamic range from mild erythema to moist desquamation. The peak early skin reaction was seen between 14 and 21 days after irradiation, and declined before 30 days except at the highest doses used. Fractionation of the X-ray dose at 24 hours resulted in a 'sparing' of about 340 rad. Permanent partial epilation was detectable at doses in excess of 1400 rad, and complete epilation at 1 year occurred in 50 per cent of irradiated fields at 1740 rad. Twenty-four hour two-dose fractionation resulted in a 'sparing' of about 500 rad for epilation. Palpable dermal 'fibrosis' was detectable at 3 months after irradiation in fields given more than 2070 rad, and at 1 year after irradiation in fields given more than 1800 rad; 50 per cent of fields showed palpable 'fibrosis' at 1 year at 1930 rad. Unlike domestic swine and man, skin fields in the quinea-pig showed no dimensional contraction after X-ray doses which produced gross early skin damage.

  12. Enzyme release in the skin of mice as an effect of soft X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltesz, L.

    1976-01-01

    The shaved skin of 7-8 week old male mice was irradiated locally on the back by doses of 100, 500, 1000, 2000 or 4000 R of soft X-ray. The enzyme activity of the washing solution and of the homogenate of the removed skin, the nitrogen content and the incorporation of 3 H-thymidine were measured immediately after irradiation or 1,2,4,8,16 hours later. The activity of lysosomal enzymes (acid phosphatase, beta-glucuronidase, cathepsine D) increased in the washing solution, whereas in the homogenate no significant change was observed. The maximal values were measured on the second day after irradiation with 1000 R. Tha activity of alkaline phosphatase and leucinaminopeptidase (non-lysosomal enzymes) did not change. Neither was any change observed in the nitrogen content of the skin. The incorporation of 3 H-thymidine considerably decreased. It can be concluded that small doses (500-1000 R) of local X-irradiation damage the membrane of lysosoms and lead to a release of cell destructing enzymes. (L.E.)

  13. Study of homing patterns of x-irradiated murine lymphoid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouse, D.A.

    1974-01-01

    Effects of in vitro x-ray exposure of murine lymphoid cells on their subsequent in vivo homing patterns were studied. The homing of lymphoid cells to various tissues and organs was followed by using radio-labeled cell preparations or by following the distribution of cells with a specific immunological memory. X irradiation of 51 Cr-labeled spleen, lymph node, bone marrow, or thymus cells was found to significantly alter their subsequent in vivo distribution. Irradiated cells demonstrated an increased distribution to the liver and a significantly lower retention in the lungs. Cells going to the lymph nodes of Peyer's patches showed a significant exposure dependent decrease in homing following irradiation. Irradiated lymph node cells homed in greater numbers to the spleen and bone marrow, while irradiated cells from other sources showed a decrease or no change indistribution to the same tissues. Lymph node cell suspensions from dinitrophenyl-bovine gamma globulin (DNP-BGG) immune LBN rats were prepared, irradiated (0 and 200 R) and injected into intermediate (LBN) hosts and controls. Irradiated memory cells provided a secondary antibody response, which was delayed but not suppressed when compared to unirradiated cells. Alteration in homing of lymphocytes caused by various physical and chemical agents was a result of effects on cell membrane characteristics which controlled some aspects of the phenomenon. Radiation (100 to 200 R) may have had a similar effect or it may have resulted in the selective elimination of a population of cells. (U.S.)

  14. The induction of micronuclei in X-irradiated Beagle dog lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rithidech, K.; Lozano, D.; Brooks, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    We developed a simple, sensitive, and reproducible method using the micronucleus assay in dog blood lymphocytes for detecting genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation. Micronuclei (MM) are expressed in cells that have undergone 1 cell division. Thus, it was important to determine the optimum culture condition and sampling time to obtain a maximum number of such cells. To identify cells that have divided, cytochalasin B was added to block cytokinesis. Cells were harvested at 72, 76, or 94 h after incubation with different concentrations of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) 15 or 16. After optimizing the culture time and PHA concentration, the system was calibrated by evaluating the dose response for the induction of MN by X rays. Blood samples were drawn, X-irradiated (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 Gy), grown in optimum culture medium, harvested at 94 h after incubation, and the frequency of MN analyzed in binucleated cells. The dose-response relationship was fit by a quadratic model; micronuclei/binucleated cell = 0.017 + 0.046D + 0.0093D 2 , where D = dose. The MN assay in dog blood lymphocytes provides a sensitive and reliable technique for measuring genotoxic damage in a large animal model. The MN assay will be very useful for evaluating genotoxic effects of hazardous agents after both chronic and acute exposures and for estimating radiation dose. (author)

  15. W-reactivation of phage lambda in X-irradiated mutants of Escherichia coli K-12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martignoni, K D; Haselbacher, I [Muenchen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Strahlenbiologisches Inst.

    1980-07-01

    The survival of UV irradiated phage lambda was increased on X-irradiated E.coli K-12 host cells over that on unirradiated cells. The frequency of c mutants among the surviving phages was increased to a similar extent by the X-ray exposure of the host cells as by UV light. This W-reactivation of phage lambda occurred in uvrA, polA, and recB mutants besides the wild type at about equal X-ray doses, but at a reduced reactivation efficiency compared with the wild type. W-reactivation was undetectable in recA mutants. While maximal UV induced W-reactivation occured 30 min after irradiation, the maximal X-ray induced reactivation was found immediately after irradiation. Chloramphenicol (100 ..mu..g/ml) and nitrofurantoin (50 ..mu..g/ml) inhibited W-reactivation of phage lambda if added before irradiation of the host cells, indicating the necessity of protein synthesis for W-reactivation.

  16. Growth hormone and somatomedin effects on calcification following X-irradiation, glucocorticoid treatment or fasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearden, L.C.; Mosier, H.D. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is thought to activate the liver to produce a peptide called somatomedin (SM) and this substance putatively stimulates linear growth in long bones by its action on cartilagenous epiphyseal plates. These actions include stimulating chondrocytes to synthesize the carbohydrate and protein components of proteoglycan and of collagen, enhancing the synthesis of ribo and desoxyribonucleic acids, and possibly to increase cell division. In GH deficiencies there is a narrowing of the epiphyseal growth plate and cartilage calcification is enhanced concurrent with proteoglycan and collagen alterations in the extracellular matrix. Calcium and phosphate ions accumulate in mitochondria followed by their release as the calcification zone is approached, and matrix vesicles, which possess the chemical machinery necessary to induce the format0344of apatite crystals within them, increase. Therefore, if GH and/or SM levels are altered, there should be corresponding alterations in growth or in cartilage calcification. In the present study we have investigated rats after head X-irradiation, fasting, and corticosteroid treatment, and all of these treatments reduce GH and SM. (Auth.)

  17. Physiological properties of afferents to the rat cerebellum during normal development and after postnatal x irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puro, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    The consequences of an altered cerebellar cortical development on afferent transmission and terminal organization were analyzed in adult rats which had received x irradiation to the cerebellum postnatally. Rats, anesthetized with 0.5 percent halothane, were studied in various ages from day 3 to adult. The ascending mossy and climbing fiber systems were activated by electrical stimulation of the limbs with needle electrodes. Stimulation of the motor cortex activated the descending climbing fiber pathways. Extracellular responses from cerebellar Purkinje cells were observed on an oscilloscope as poststimulus time histograms were constructed ''on-line''. Conclusions and assertions include: (1) Synaptogenesis between incoming afferent fibers and target neurons takes place early in cerebellar cortical development. (2) Mossy fiber transmission is mature before the bulk of cerebellar synaptogenesis occurs. (3) The ascending and descending components of the climbing fiber system mature, with respect to latency, in synchrony. (4) The terminal synaptic organization has little effect on the development of transmission characteristics in these afferent systems. (5) One possible mechanism by which an adult neural structure can have an abnormal synaptic organization is to maintain immature synaptic relationships due to the neonatal loss of interneurons

  18. Deprivation, HIV and AIDS in Northern Uganda | Atekyereza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significantly, with resettlement after the war, most people are still deprived of basic source of livelihood, which still continues as a factor in the spread of HIV infection. Key Words: HIV & AIDS, Deprivation, Susceptibility, Vulnerability, Deaths, IDP camps, Northern Uganda, Paimol, Pader. Résumé. Cette étude se concentre ...

  19. Effect of RNAi p21 gene on uncoupling of EL-4 cells induced by X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Guizhi; Yan Fengqin; Fu Shibo; Shen Bo; Sun Shilong; Yang Ying; Li Pengwu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of RNAi p21 gene on uncoupling of EL-4 cells induced by X-irradiation. Methods: Construction of RNAi p21 plasmid of pSileneer3.1-H1 neo-p21 was performed. Lipofectamine transfection assay was used to transfer the p21siBNA into EL-4 cells. Fluorescent staining and flow cytometry (FCM) analysis were employed for measurement of protein expression. Fluorescent staining of propidium iodide (PI) and FCM were used for measurement of potyploid cells. Results: In dose-effect experiment it was found that the expression of P21 protein of EL-4 cells increased significantly 24 h after X- irradiation with different doses compared with sham-inadiated control. In time course experiment it was found that the expression of P21 protein of EL-4 cells increased significantly at 8 h to 72 h after 4.0 Gy X-irradiation compared with sham-irradiated control. The results showed that the number of polyploid cells in EL-4 cells was not changed markedly after X-irradiation with doses of 0.5-6.0 Gy. After RNA interference with p21 gene, the expression of P21 protein of EL-4 cells decreased significantly 24 h and 48 h after 4.0 Gy X-irradiation in transfection of plasmid of pSilencer3.1-H1 neo-p21 compared with transfection of plasmid of pSilencer3.1-H1 nco control. And at the same time, the number of polyploid cells in EL-4 cells was increased significantly in transfection of plasmid of pSilencer3.1-H1 neo-p21 compared with transfection of plasmid of pSilencer3.1-H1 nco control. Conclusions: Uncoupling could be induced by X-irradiation in EL-4 cells following BNAi p21 gene, suggesting that P21 protein may play an important role in uncoupling induced by X-rays. (authors)

  20. Similarity between the effects of carbon-ion irradiation and X-irradiation on the development of rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inouye, Minoru; Hayasaka, Shizu; Murata, Yoshiharu; Takahashi, Sentaro; Kubota, Yoshihisa

    2000-01-01

    The effects of carbon-ion irradiation and X-irradiation on the development of rat brain were compared. Twenty pregnant rats were injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) at 9 pm on day 18 pregnancy and divided into five groups. Three hours after injection (day 19.0) one group was exposed to 290 MeV/u carbon-ion radiation by a single dose of 1.5 Gy. Other groups were exposed to X-radiation by 1.5, 2.0 or 2.5 Gy, or sham-treated, respectively. Fetuses were removed from one dam in each group 8 h after exposure and examined histologically. Extensive cell death was observed in the brain mantle from the irradiated groups. The cell death after 1.5 Gy carbon-ion irradiation was remarkably more extensive than that after 1.5 Gy X-irradiation, but comparable to that after 2.0 Gy or 2.5 Gy X-irradiation. The remaining rats were allowed to give birth and the offspring were sacrificed at 6 weeks of age. All of the irradiated offspring manifested microcephaly. The size of the brain mantle exposed to 1.5 Gy carbon-ion radiation was significantly smaller than that exposed to 1.5 Gy X-radiation and larger than that exposed to 2.5 Gy X-radiation. A histological examination of the cerebral cortex revealed that cortical layers II-IV were malformed. The defect by 1.5 Gy carbon-ion irradiation was more severe than that by the same dose of X-irradiation. Although the BrdU-incorporated neurons were greatly reduced in number in all irradiated groups, these cells reached the superficial area of the cortex. These findings indicated that the effects of both carbon-ion irradiation and X-irradiation on the development of rat brain are similar in character, and the effect of 1.5 Gy carbon-ion irradiation compares to that of 2.0-2.5 Gy X-irradiation. (author)

  1. Relative deprivation and intergroup prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pettigrew, T.F.; Christ, O.; Wagner, U.; Meertens, R.W.; van Dick, R.; Zick, A.

    2008-01-01

    Using three diverse European surveys, we test the relationship between relative deprivation (RD) and anti-immigrant prejudice. We find that both group relative deprivation (GRD) and individual relative deprivation (IRD) are found primarily among working-class respondents who are politically

  2. Are You Sleep Deprived?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Sleep Disorders Are You Sleep Deprived? Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents ... even if you think you've had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. There are ...

  3. Sleep deprivation and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsenga, Simon

    1992-01-01

    The association between depression and sleep disturbances is perhaps as old as makind. In view of the longstanding experience with this association it is amazing that only some 20 years ago, a few depressed patients attracted attention to the fact that Total Sleep Deprivation (TSD) had

  4. The effect of X-irradiation on vitamin E deficient rat liver mitochondrial ATPase and cytochrome c oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkut, S.

    1978-01-01

    Male albino rats were fed for 3 weeks on standard diets or on diets either deficient in or supplemented by vitamin E, whole-body X-irradiated and then immediately decapitated. Liver mitochondrial ATPase activity was stimulated and cytochrome c oxidase inhibited in the irradiated vitamin E deficient group. These activities were not influenced by irradiation in the rats fed on vitamin E supplemented and standard diets. The live mitochondrial vitamin E level was decreased in rats fed on the deficient diet. No differences in liver mitochondrial vitamin E levels were observed after X-irradiation of rats fed on any of the diets. The results suggest that the liver mitochondrial inner-membrane structure may be altered by a diet deficient in vitamin E. (U.K.)

  5. Effect of thoracic x-irradiation on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity of the pectoral muscle of guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatavdekar, J.M.; Shah, V.C.

    1981-01-01

    The histochemical distribution of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) was observed in the major pectoral muscle of a guinea pig that had received 240 R thoracic X-irradiation. The irradiation effects were studied at 24, 48 and 72 hrs after X-irradiation. Type I fibres of the pectoral muscle were deeply stained showing high activity whereas type II fibres demonstrated minimum enzyme activity. The intermediate fibres had medium levels of G6PD activity. Type II fibres showed more staining at 24 and 48 hrs as compared with control muscle. However, at 72 hrs all three fibre types showed a marked inhibition of G6PD activity. The significance of these changes suggests that muscle G6PD metabolism generally altered after irradiation, but the specific nature of these changes and their causes still remain unclear. (author)

  6. Effects of caffeine on protein phosphorylation and cell cycle progression in X-irradiated two-cell mouse embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Th.; Streffer, C.

    1992-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of the caffeine-induced uncoupling of mitosis and the cellular reactions to DNA-damaging agents, the authors studied the effects of caffeine treatment on cell cycle progression and protein phosphorylation in two-cell mouse embryos after X-irradiation. Caffeine alone had no effect on timing of and changes in phosphorylation associated with the embryonic cell cycle. In combination with X-rays, caffeine was able to override the radiation induced G 2 block and restored normal timing of these phosphorylation changes after X-irradiation. New additional changes in protein phosphorylation appeared after the combined treatment. Isobutyl-methylxanthine (IBMX), a substance chemically related to caffeine but a more specific inhibitor of the phosphodiesterase that breaks down cyclic AMP, reduced radiation induced G 2 block from 4 to 5 h to about 1 h and restored the cell cycle associated changes in protein phosphorylation. (author)

  7. Effect of X-irradiation and vitamin C on DNA degradation and endogenous DNAase in embryonic chick lens cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevithick, J.R.; Chaudun, E.; Muel, A.S.; Courtois, Y.; Counis, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    The lens is an organ in which epithelial cells become elongated fibers. During this process, nuclei are transformed and the DNA is degraded. In previous studies, we described an autodigestion of the chromatin in isolated fiber nuclei but not in epithelial nuclei, but the level of DNAase activity was found to be identical in both epithelial and fiber nuclei of lenses at 11 days of development. In this study, we have investigated the possibility that x-irradiation might stimulate the nuclear endogenous activity responsible for chromatin breakdown or epithelial cells to a level comparable to that observed in fiber cells. We have observed that x-irradiation does not increase the nuclear epithelial DNAase activity. Conversely, vitamin C, suspected to prevent cataract formation by protecting DNA against free radical formation, has a damaging effect on the DNA of the lens of chick embryo in vitro. (author)

  8. Effects of caffeine on protein phosphorylation and cell cycle progression in X-irradiated two-cell mouse embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Th. (AFRC Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics Research, Babraham (United Kingdom)); Streffer, C. (Essen Univ (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Strahlenbiolgie)

    1992-08-01

    To understand the mechanism of the caffeine-induced uncoupling of mitosis and the cellular reactions to DNA-damaging agents, the authors studied the effects of caffeine treatment on cell cycle progression and protein phosphorylation in two-cell mouse embryos after X-irradiation. Caffeine alone had no effect on timing of and changes in phosphorylation associated with the embryonic cell cycle. In combination with X-rays, caffeine was able to override the radiation induced G[sub 2] block and restored normal timing of these phosphorylation changes after X-irradiation. New additional changes in protein phosphorylation appeared after the combined treatment. Isobutyl-methylxanthine (IBMX), a substance chemically related to caffeine but a more specific inhibitor of the phosphodiesterase that breaks down cyclic AMP, reduced radiation induced G[sub 2] block from 4 to 5 h to about 1 h and restored the cell cycle associated changes in protein phosphorylation. (author).

  9. Double Trouble? The Effects of Sleep Deprivation and Chronotype on Adolescent Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagys, Natasha; McGlinchey, Eleanor L.; Talbot, Lisa S.; Kaplan, Katherine A.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Harvey, Allison G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Two understudied risk factors that have been linked to emotional difficulties in adolescence are chronotype and sleep deprivation. This study extended past research by using an experimental design to investigate the role of sleep deprivation and chronotype on emotion in adolescents. It was hypothesized that sleep deprivation and an…

  10. Morphoquantitative changes in central and intermediate sections of visual analyzer after whole-body x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logvinov, S.V.; Ryzhov, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    Morphoquantitative estimation of changes in 4 and 5 layers of visual cortex and outer geniculated bodies of the brain of guinea pigs subjected to whole-body X-irradiation with a median lethal doses shows that neurons from the visual analyzer sections under study are differently damaged. The morphogenesis of changes is connected with the original variations in the quantitative structure of a neuron-glial complex displaying and selective alterative and productive reaction of the perivascular glia

  11. Levels of glutamate, aspartate, GABA, and taurine in different regions of the cerebellum after x-irradiation-induced neuronal loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rea, M.A.; McBride, W.J.; Rohde, B.H.

    1981-01-01

    The levels of glutamate (Glu), aspartate (Asp), gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (GABA), and taurine (Tau) were determined in the cortex, molecular layer, and deep nuclei of cerebella of adult rats exposed to X-irradiation at 12-15 days following birth (to prevent the acquisition of late-forming granule cells; 12-15x group) and 8-15 days following birth (to prevent the acquisition of granule and stellate cells; 8-15x group). Also, the levels of the four amino acids were measured in the crude synaptosomal fraction (P2) isolated from the whole cerebella of the control, 12-15x, and 8-15x groups. The level of Glu was significantly decreased by (1) 6-20% in the cerebellar cortex; (2) 15-20% in the molecular layer; and (3) 25-50% in the P2 fraction of the X-irradiated groups relative to control values. The content of Glu in the deep nuclei was not changed by X-irradiation treatment. Regional levels of Asp were unchanged by X-irradiation, while its level in P2 decreased by 15-30% after treatment. The levels of GABA and Tau in the molecular layer, deep nuclei, or P2 were not changed in the experimental groups. However, there was a 15% increase in the levels of GABA and Tau in the cerebellar cortex of the 8-15x group relative to control values. The data support the proposed role of glutamate as the excitatory transmitter released from the cerebellar granule cells but are inconclusive regarding a transmitter role for either Tau or GABA from cerebellar stellate cells

  12. Destruction and regeneration of seminiferous tubules after local x-irradiation of testes of the adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnosova, T.R.; Rajtsina, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    It was established that the local X-irradiation (1000 R) of testes of the adult rats results in a total destruction of seminiferous tubules. The restitution of the organ structure proceeds via formation of new seminiferous tubules in which spermatogenic epithelium later develops. Rete testis and germ cells preserved in its epithelium from embryogenesis are a source of regeneration material. The results obtained favour the suggestion about the dynamic structure of mammalian testis

  13. The effect of the timing of prenatal exposure to x-irradiation on Purkinje cell numbers in rat cerebellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, T.; Satriotomo, I.; Matsumoto, Y.; Kuma, H.; Takeuchi, Y.; Gu

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Prenatal exposure of the developing brain to X-irradiation is known to cause various deleterious consequences. We have examined the effects of prenatal X-irradiation on the development of the cerebellum. Wistar rats were exposed to 1.5 Gy X-irradiation either on the 14, 15 or 16th day of gestation (E14, E15, E16). Sham-irradiated animals were used as controls. At seven postnatal weeks of age, male rats were deeply anesthetized and killed by intracardiac perfusion with 2.5 % glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate buffer. The unbiased stereological procedure known as the fractionator method was used to estimate the total number of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. Body and cerebellar weights from E14 and E15, but not E16 irradiated rats showed significant deficits compared to control animals. Rats irradiated on E16 and control rats had about 285,100 - 304,800 Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. There was no significant difference between these values. However, E14 and E15 irradiated animals had about 117,500 and 196,300 Purkinje cells, respectively. These estimates were significantly different from those observed in both control and E16 irradiated rats. Given that the phase of division of Purkinje cell progenitors is mainly between E14-E15 and the phase of differentiation and migration is between E16-E20, it is concluded that the vulnerable period of the Purkinje cells to X-irradiation closely overlaps the phase of division of progenitors

  14. Enhancement of the efficacy of x-irradiation by pentobarbital in a rodent brain-tumor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, J.J.; Friedman, R.; Orr, K.; Delaney, T.; Oldfield, E.H.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation therapy is an important component of brain tumor treatment, but its efficacy is limited by its toxicity to the surrounding normal tissue. Pentobarbital acts as a cerebral radioprotectant, but the selectivity of its protection for the central nervous system has not been demonstrated. To determine if pentobarbital also protects tumor against ionizing radiation, five groups of Fischer 344 rats were observed after exposure to varying combinations of the presence or absence of implanted tumor, pentobarbital, and radiation treatment. The first three groups underwent cerebral implantations of a suspension of 9L gliosarcoma cells. Group 1 was left untreated and served as tumor-bearing controls. Group 2 received 30 Gy of whole-brain x-irradiation without anesthesia 8 days after tumor implantation. Group 3 received the same radiation treatment 15 minutes after pretreatment with 60 mg/kg of pentobarbital intraperitoneally. Groups 4 and 5 served as radiation controls, receiving 30 Gy of x-irradiation while awake and 30 Gy of x-irradiation after pentobarbital administration, respectively. Survival was calculated from the death of the last tumor-bearing rat. The mean survival time in tumor-bearing control rats was 20.8 +/- 2.6 days (+/- standard deviation). X-irradiation alone significantly enhanced the period of survival in rats implanted with the 9L tumor (29.7 +/- 5.6 days, p less than 0.03). Further significant prolongation of survival was seen with the addition of pentobarbital to the treatment regimen (39.9 +/- 13.5 days, p less than 0.01). Nontumor-bearing rats irradiated while awake (Group 4) survived 30.9 +/- 2.3 days. All of their pentobarbital-anesthetized counterparts in Group 5 survived. If pentobarbital had offered radioprotection to the tumor, then Group 3 would have had a shorter survival period than Group 2

  15. Interplay of thymus and bone marrow regeneration in x-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiesche, K.-D.

    1975-01-01

    aim of the prepresent investigation was to study the modifying effects of bone marrow cells on regeneration, after X-irradiation, of thymus and bone marrow cell populations. Data are presented which indicate that the cellular composition of the thymus and, in particular, the frequency of the stem cells in the organ at the time of radiation exposure determines thymic regeneration for about two weeks after irradiation. After this period, regeneration depends on new precursors from the bone marrow which have previously seeded the thymus. In contrast to the thymus, cellular restoration of the bone marrow is already initially dependent on the number of protected or transplanted marrow cells. Two phases in the recovery of thymic PHA-reactivity after irradiation were observed: one initial phase which is independent on the number of the available bone marrow cells, and a subsequent phase during which PHA-reactivity is slightly increased in mice irradiated with partly protected bone marrow in comparison to in total body irradiated animals. During the entire observation period, PHA-reactivity remains at a low level not exeeding 50 % of that in untreated mice. In contrast the thymus is fully repopulated with regard to the number of nonreactive cells. Alternative pathways of thymocyte development within the thymus are discussed. Bone marrow X cells were shown to be as sensitive to in vitro treatment with a specific H-2 antiserum as were lymphocytes from normal bone marrow. This finding was teken to indicate that the X cells represent a particular lymphoid cell type. A xenogeneic rabbit-anti-mouse embryo antiserum was more toxic to pre-irradiated bone marrow, with high proportion of X cells, than to bone marrow from untreated mice, using in vitro cytotoxicity test. A possible embryonic character of the X cells is discussed. (author)

  16. Late vascular effects of whole brain X-irradiation in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshii, Y [Tsukuba Univ., Sakma, Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Phillips, T L [California Univ., San Francisco (USA). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    1982-01-01

    The whole brains of mice were irradiated with 250kVp X-rays at 120 rads min/sup -1/ (1.6 mm Cu HVL, TSD 50 cm), and a histological study was carried out. The dose range of X-irradiation was from 1,300 to 2,500 rads, i.e., 1,300, 1,500, 1,750, 2,000, and 2,500 rads. Eighty-six mice were used for histological examination. For microscopic examination, the mice were killed at regular postirradiation intervals between 15 and 20, 31 and 40, 41 and 50, 51 and 60, 61 and 70, 71 and 80, 81 and 90, 139 and 177 weeks. The brains were removed immediately thereafter, fixed in Bouin's solution, and embedded in paraffin. A histological examination was performed by a morphometric estimation of vascular lesions, in which the degree of the damage to the arterial system was scored in whole serial brain section. Necrosis (encephalomalacia), atrophy, cell infiltration, and telangiectactic vascular change of the brain, caused as a result of the fibrinoid necrosis of the large arteries, were observed. Dose-dependent incidence of the fibrinoid necrosis increased between 41 and 87 weeks after irradiation. Mean score of fibrinoid necrosis increased dose dependently approximately 60 weeks after irradiation. It is suggested that scores of large vessel damage do relate to dose at 41 to 87 weeks, and can be used to quantify the vessel injury, and that fibrinoid necrosis of the large vessels may relate to the incidence of radionecrosis.

  17. Late vascular effects of whole brain X-irradiation in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Y.; Phillips, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    The whole brains of mice were irradiated with 250kVp X-rays at 120 rads min -1 (1.6 mm Cu HVL, TSD 50 cm), and a histological study was carried out. The dose range of X-irradiation was from 1,300 to 2,500 rads, i.e., 1,300, 1,500, 1,750, 2,000, and 2,500 rads. Eighty-six mice were used for histological examination. For microscopic examination, the mice were killed at regular postirradiation intervals between 15 and 20, 31 and 40, 41 and 50, 51 and 60, 61 and 70, 71 and 80, 81 and 90, 139 and 177 weeks. The brains were removed immediately thereafter, fixed in Bouin's solution, and embedded in paraffin. A histological examination was performed by a morphometric estimation of vascular lesions, in which the degree of the damage to the arterial system was scored in whole serial brain section. Necrosis (encephalomalacia), atrophy, cell infiltration, and telangiectactic vascular change of the brain, caused as a result of the fibrinoid necrosis of the large arteries, were observed. Dose-dependent incidence of the fibrinoid necrosis increased between 41 and 87 weeks after irradiation. Mean score of fibrinoid necrosis increased dose dependently approximately 60 weeks after irradiation. It is suggested that scores of large vessel damage do relate to dose at 41 to 87 weeks, and can be used to quantify the vessel injury, and that fibrinoid necrosis of the large vessels may relate to the incidence of radionecrosis. (Author)

  18. Mechanism of derivation of radioresistance in HeLa cell population after repeated x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Kihei; Koiwai, Soichiro; Morita, Kazuo

    1982-01-01

    The Radioresistant strain (X-8-5) was obtained from HeLa-SC population X-irradiated repeatedly for five times with 800 rad. The mean lethal dose (D 0 ) was 196 rad for X-8-5 cells, while it was 166 rad for control HeLa-SC cells. The fraction of cells containing an unusually long acrocentric chromosome (LA 2) exclusively increased with increasing number of irradiation of HeLa-SC population. A clonal strain with LA 2 marker was isolated from X-8-5 population and named RC-355. Since the RC-355 cells were more resistant (D 0 = 220 rad)than parental X-8-5 cells (D 0 = 196 rad), it was suggested that the cells with LA 2 were responsible for the radioresistance of X-8-5 population. The RC-355 cells were further subjected to the analysis of Q-banded karyotypes and it was observed that 18 types of specific markers (rm 1-17 and LA 2) were included in RC-355 cells in addition to 12 types of markers observed in most of HeLa-SC cells. Since the analysis of Q-banded karyotypes of RC-355 cells showed that RC-355 specific markers were not produced by radiation-induced rearrangements of HeLa-SC chromosomes, because twelve kinds of HeLa-SC markers were presented in RC-355 cells without any change, it was concluded that a small number of cells with LA 2 marker were originally presented in the control population and the relative fraction of them occupied increased after irradiation. (author)

  19. Interplay of thymus and bone marrow regeneration in x-irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiesche, K D

    1975-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the modifying effects of bone marrow cells on regeneration, after X-irradiation, of thymus and bone marrow cell populations. Data are presented which indicate that the cellular composition of the thymus and, in particular, the frequency of the stem cells in the organ at the time of radiation exposure determines thymic regeneration for about two weeks after irradiation. After this period, regeneration depends on new precursors from the bone marrow which have previously seeded the thymus. In contrast to the thymus, cellular restoration of the bone marrow is already initially dependent on the number of protected or transplanted marrow cells. Two phases in the recovery of thymic PHA-reactivity after irradiation were observed: one initial phase which is independent on the number of the available bone marrow cells, and a subsequent phase during which PHA-reactivity is slightly increased in mice irradiated with partly protected bone marrow in comparison to in total body irradiated animals. During the entire observation period, PHA-reactivity remains at a low level not exeeding 50 % of that in untreated mice. In contrast the thymus is fully repopulated with regard to the number of nonreactive cells. Alternative pathways of thymocyte development within the thymus are discussed. Bone marrow X cells were shown to be as sensitive to in vitro treatment with a specific H-2 antiserum as were lymphocytes from normal bone marrow. This finding was teken to indicate that the X cells represent a particular lymphoid cell type. A xenogeneic rabbit-anti-mouse embryo antiserum was more toxic to pre-irradiated bone marrow, with high proportion of X cells, than to bone marrow from untreated mice, using in vitro cytotoxicity test. A possible embryonic character of the X cells is discussed.

  20. The effect of whole body or total-head x irradiation of the metallophilic cells in the mice spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Osamu; Matsueda, Yasutoshi; Mizuguchi, Hiroshi; Moriguchi, Kenzo; Ogata, Kunitoshi; Sugie, Tsuneto

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify morphological changes of the reticuloendothelial cells in the spleen following X-irradiation by Katsura's silver impregnation method. The animals used in this experiment were ddN female mice weighing 20 to 25g. The mice were given X-irradiation to the total-head (1,500R) or whole body (300R). The metallophilic cells in the spleen of control mice were of the small foamy type in the follicle, the large stellate type in the marginal metallophils, the small branching type in the marginal zone and the small foamy or round type in the red pulp, respectively. The metallophilic cells decreased immediately after whole body irradiation and the number of cells returned to normal in from 10 to 14 days. On the other hand, the number of the metallophilic cells in the follicle and the perifollicular region increased immediately after total-head X-irradiation. This state continued for several days. In the marginal zone and red pulp, the number of amoebian type cells appeared from 24 hours after irradiation and the number of cells in total-head irradiation group were more clearly distinguishable than in the whole body irradiated group. (author)

  1. Delayed cell death, giant cell formation and chromosome instability induced by X-irradiation in human embryo cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, K.; Kodama, Seiji; Suzuki, Keiji; Watanabe, Masami

    1999-01-01

    We studied X-ray-induced delayed cell death, delayed giant cell formation and delayed chromosome aberrations in normal human embryo cells to explore the relationship between initial radiation damage and delayed effect appeared at 14 to 55 population doubling numbers (PDNs) after X-irradiation. The delayed effect was induced in the progeny of X-ray survivors in a dose-dependent manner and recovered with increasing PDNs after X-irradiation. Delayed plating for 24 h post-irradiation reduced both acute and delayed lethal damage, suggesting that potentially lethal damage repair (PLDR) can be effective for relieving the delayed cell death. The chromosome analysis revealed that most of the dicentrics (more than 90%) observed in the progeny of X-ray survivors were not accompanied with fragments, in contrast with those observed in the first mitosis after X-irradiation. The present results indicate that the potentiality of genetic instability is determined during the repair process of initial radiation damage and suggest that the mechanism for formation of delayed chromosome aberrations by radiation might be different from that of direct radiation-induced chromosome aberrations. (author)

  2. Effect of whole body X-irradiation on the NP-SH level of blood in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Soo Jhi; Woo, Won Hyung

    1972-01-01

    In hope to elucidate possible changes in blood NP-SH levels when X-irradiation is made in single or fractionate dose, a whole body X-irradiation was done to rabbits either in single dose of 900 r or in fractionated dose of 300 r per day for three days. The NP-SH was measured at 1, 3, 5, 24 and 48 post-irradiation hours, and the results were compared with the normal value of the blood NP-SH. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The normal value of blood NP-SH in the rabbit was 2.11 ± 0.40 μmol/ml. 2. In the single X-irradiation group, the blood NP-SH decreased most prominently at five hours after-irradiation, and a tendency of recovery to the normal level was observed thereafter. 3. In the fractionated group, the blood NP-SH levels were higher, than in the single irradiation group throughout the experiment, and the levels were also higher than the normal in general

  3. A comparison of effects between accelerated heavy ion irradiation and X-irradiation on the development of rat cerebellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inouye, Minoru; Hayasaka, Shizu; Murata, Yoshiharu; Takahashi, Sentaro; Kubota, Yoshihisa

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to compare the effects of 290 MeV/u carbon-ion irradiation and X-irradiation on the development of rat cerebellum. Pregnant rats were exposed to carbon-ion beams at a single dose of 1.5 Gy on day 19.0 of gestation. Other groups of pregnant rats were exposed to X-rays on day 19.0 at single doses of 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 Gy. Their fetuses were removed 8 hr after exposure, and an acute effect examined microscopically for cell death in the external granular layer of the cerebellum. Other dams were allowed to give birth and rear their litters. The offspring were sacrificed at 6 weeks of age, and their cerebella were examined for foliar malformation. The results showed that the effect of 1.5 Gy carbon-ion irradiation on the development of cerebellum was stronger than that of 1.5 Gy X-irradiation and similar to 2.0-2.5 Gy X-irradiation. (author)

  4. Ultrastructural and cytochemical study of membrane alterations in x-irradiated liver tissue from normal and vitamin E-deficient ducklings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijbers, W.A.R.; Oosterbaan, J.A.; Meskendorp-Haarsma, T.J.; Hardonk, M.J.; Molenaar, I.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation into the differential susceptibility of liver cellular membranes to peroxidative processes has been performed, using x irradiation on the liver surface, resulting in a a 3-mm penetrating gradient of membrane damage. Ultrastructural, cytochemical, and histochemical findings in this area point to a differential sensitivity of cellular membranes to x irradiation. The plasma membrane and the lysosomal membrane, containing much lipid and cholesterol and little membrane and the lysosomal membrane, containing much lipid and cholesterol and little vitamin E, are highly susceptible to x irradiation. Less sensitive are the membranes of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, containing relatively much vitamin E and proteins and a lower amount of lipids and cholesterol

  5. Transgenerational developmental effects and genomic instability after X-irradiation of preimplantation embryos: Studies on two mouse strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet, P.; Buset, J.; Neefs, M.; Vankerkom, J.; Benotmane, M.A.; Derradji, H.; Hildebrandt, G.; Baatout, S.

    2010-01-01

    Recent results have shown that irradiation of a single cell, the zygote or 1-cell embryo of various mouse strains, could lead to congenital anomalies in the fetuses. In the Heiligenberger strain, a link between the radiation-induced congenital anomalies and the development of a genomic instability was also suggested. Moreover, further studies showed that in that strain, both congenital anomalies and genomic instability could be transmitted to the next generation. The aim of the experiments described in this paper was to investigate whether such non-targeted transgenerational effects could also be observed in two other radiosensitive mouse strains (CF1 and ICR), using lower radiation doses. Irradiation of the CF1 and ICR female zygotes with 0.2 or 0.4 Gy did not result in a decrease of their fertility after birth, when they had reached sexual maturity. Moreover, females of both strains that had been X-irradiated with 0.2 Gy exhibited higher rates of pregnancy, less resorptions and more living fetuses. Additionally, the mean weight of living fetuses in these groups had significantly increased. Exencephaly and dwarfism were observed in CF1 fetuses issued from control and X-irradiated females. In the control group of that strain, polydactyly and limb deformity were also found. The yields of abnormal fetuses did not differ significantly between the control and X-irradiated groups. Polydactyly, exencephaly and dwarfism were observed in fetuses issued from ICR control females. In addition to these anomalies, gastroschisis, curly tail and open eye were observed at low frequencies in ICR fetuses issued from X-irradiated females. Again, the frequencies of abnormal fetuses found in the different groups did not differ significantly. In both CF1 and ICR mouse strains, irradiation of female zygotes did not result in the development of a genomic instability in the next generation embryos. Overall, our results suggest that, at the moderate doses used, developmental defects

  6. Transgenerational developmental effects and genomic instability after X-irradiation of preimplantation embryos: Studies on two mouse strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet, P., E-mail: pjacquet@sckcen.be [Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Buset, J.; Neefs, M. [Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Vankerkom, J. [Division of Environmental Research, VITO, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Benotmane, M.A.; Derradji, H. [Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Hildebrandt, G. [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, University of Leipzig, Stephanstrasse 9a, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Radiotherapy, University of Rostock, Suedring 75, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Baatout, S. [Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2010-05-01

    Recent results have shown that irradiation of a single cell, the zygote or 1-cell embryo of various mouse strains, could lead to congenital anomalies in the fetuses. In the Heiligenberger strain, a link between the radiation-induced congenital anomalies and the development of a genomic instability was also suggested. Moreover, further studies showed that in that strain, both congenital anomalies and genomic instability could be transmitted to the next generation. The aim of the experiments described in this paper was to investigate whether such non-targeted transgenerational effects could also be observed in two other radiosensitive mouse strains (CF1 and ICR), using lower radiation doses. Irradiation of the CF1 and ICR female zygotes with 0.2 or 0.4 Gy did not result in a decrease of their fertility after birth, when they had reached sexual maturity. Moreover, females of both strains that had been X-irradiated with 0.2 Gy exhibited higher rates of pregnancy, less resorptions and more living fetuses. Additionally, the mean weight of living fetuses in these groups had significantly increased. Exencephaly and dwarfism were observed in CF1 fetuses issued from control and X-irradiated females. In the control group of that strain, polydactyly and limb deformity were also found. The yields of abnormal fetuses did not differ significantly between the control and X-irradiated groups. Polydactyly, exencephaly and dwarfism were observed in fetuses issued from ICR control females. In addition to these anomalies, gastroschisis, curly tail and open eye were observed at low frequencies in ICR fetuses issued from X-irradiated females. Again, the frequencies of abnormal fetuses found in the different groups did not differ significantly. In both CF1 and ICR mouse strains, irradiation of female zygotes did not result in the development of a genomic instability in the next generation embryos. Overall, our results suggest that, at the moderate doses used, developmental defects

  7. Low-level x-irradiation of the brain during development morphological, physiological, and behavioral consequences. Final report, September 1, 1976--August 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, J.

    1977-01-01

    Morphological research was continued in the following areas: glial recovery patterns in the rat corpus callosum after x-irradiation during infancy; the prenatal development of the deep nuclei and cortex of the cerebellum; the prenatal development of the inferior olive, pontine gray and the precerebellar reticular nuclei; and the postnatal development of the olfactory bulb. In these studies autoradiography and x-irradiation were among the experimental techniques utilized. The behavioral studies, all of which are still in progress, are concerned with the effects of different schedules of postnatal x-irradiation of the cerebellum, and the effects of x-irradiation of the olfactory bulb. A list is included of 14 publications that report results in detail

  8. Sleep deprived and sweating it out: the effects of total sleep deprivation on skin conductance reactivity to psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jean C J; Verhulst, Silvan; Massar, Stijn A A; Chee, Michael W L

    2015-01-01

    We examined how sleep deprivation alters physiological responses to psychosocial stress by evaluating changes in skin conductance. Between-subjects design with one group allocated to 24 h of total sleep deprivation and the other to rested wakefulness. The study took place in a research laboratory. Participants were 40 healthy young adults recruited from a university. Sleep deprivation and feedback. Electrodermal activity was monitored while participants completed a difficult perceptual task with false feedback. All participants showed increased skin conductance levels following stress. However, compared to well-rested participants, sleep deprived participants showed higher skin conductance reactivity with increasing stress levels. Our results suggest that sleep deprivation augments allostatic responses to increasing psychosocial stress. Consequentially, we propose sleep loss as a risk factor that can influence the pathogenic effects of stress. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  9. X irradiation combined with TNF alpha-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) reduces hypoxic regions of human gastric adenocarcinoma xenografts in SCID mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Momoko; Yasui, Hironobu; Ogura, Aki; Asanuma, Taketoshi; Inanami, Osamu; Kubota, Nobuo; Tsujitani, Michihiko; Kuwabara, Mikinori

    2008-01-01

    Our previous study showed that X irradiation induced the expression of death receptor DR5 on the cell surface in tumor cell lines under not only normoxia but also hypoxia. X irradiation combined with TNF α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), which is the ligand of DR5, induced apoptosis in vitro (Takahashi et al., (2007) Journal of Radiation Research, 48: 461-468). In this report, we examined the in vivo antitumor efficacy of X irradiation combined with TRAIL treatment in tumor xenograft models derived from human gastric adenocarcinoma MKN45 and MKN28 cells in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. X irradiation combined with TRAIL synergistically suppressed the tumor growth rates in the xenograft models derived from MKN45 and MKN28 cells, which have wild type Tp53 and mutated Tp53, respectively, indicating that the antitumor effects occurred in a Tp53-independent manner. Histological analysis showed that the combination of X irradiation and TRAIL induced caspase-3-dependent apoptotic cell death. Moreover, the immunohistochemical detection of hypoxic regions using the hypoxic marker pimonidazole revealed that caspase-3-dependent apoptosis occurred in the hypoxic regions in the tumors. These results indicated that X irradiation combined with TRAIL may be a useful treatment to reduce tumor growth in not only normoxic but also hypoxic regions. (author)

  10. Development of resistance to coccidiosis in the absence of merogonic development using X-irradiated Eimeria acervulina oocysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, M.C.; Augustine, P.C.; Barta, J.R.; Castle, M.D.; Danforth, H.D.

    1991-01-01

    Sporulated oocysts of the protozoan Eimeria acervulina were subjected to 0, 10, 15, 20, or 30 krad of X-irradiation and inoculated into susceptible outbred chickens to determine if radioattenuated coccidia could induce protection against parasite challenge. Irradiation treatment had an appreciable dose-dependent effect on parasite development. Insignificant numbers of oocysts were produced by chickens inoculated with parasites that had been exposed to greater than 10 krad X-irradiation. Sporozoites exposed to 15 or 20 krad irradiation conferred significant protection against the appearance of intestinal lesions after parasite challenge. Sporozoites subjected to the highest dose level (30 krad) did not produce any significant level of protection. To investigate this phenomenon further and assess intracellular parasite development, susceptible outbred strains of chickens were administered either nonirradiated (0 krad) oocysts or oocysts that were exposed to an optimal dose (15 krad) or a high dose (30 krad) of X-irradiation. Immunofluorescence staining of tissue sections from each treatment group at various intervals after the initial administration of irradiated parasites indicated that sporozoites exposed to 15 krad irradiation were as capable of invading the host intestinal epithelium as nonirradiated sporozoites. However, at 48, 60, 72, and 96 hr, there was a marked reduction in merogonic development in groups receiving irradiated sporozoites compared to those inoculated with nonirradiated parasites. The latter parasites underwent profuse merogonic development; in contrast, irradiated parasites demonstrated little (15 krad) or no (30 krad) merogonic development. These results suggest that induction of a protective immune response occurs during a critical period early in intracellular development of E. acervulina

  11. Perceived deprivation in active duty military nurse anesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Julie A; Fallacaro, Michael D; Pellegrini, Joseph E

    2009-02-01

    There is a shortage of military Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNAs). Relative deprivation is a perception of unfairness due to discrepancies between what one has and what one could or should have that is dependent on feelings (subjective data) and facts (objective data). Feelings of relative deprivation could contribute to the military CRNA shortage. The purposes of this study were to measure relative deprivation in active-duty military CRNAs and explore variables that correlate with relative deprivation. The descriptive, correlational study was conducted using a self-administered survey sent to 435 active-duty Army, Navy, and Air Force CRNAs. Surveys were distributed to subjects by mail and could be answered by mail or by secured website. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Analysis of the data revealed a calculated response rate of 57.7%. There was no significant correlation (P pay, promotion opportunity, or scope of practice/autonomy and relative deprivation. Correlations of the psychological factors "wanting" and "deserving" with relative deprivation were significant (P < .001). Further research is indicated to identify definitive factors that can be modified to improve feelings of deprivation as they relate to retention and recruitment of military CRNAs.

  12. Histological aspects of arterial abnormalities produced by X-irradiation of the aortic and branchial arches in the chick embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.-L.

    1976-01-01

    Low dose X irradiations centred on one or two aortic and branchial arches of 3-day chick embryos result in teratogenic effects on the arteries (21-92%) and in low mortality (4-12%). Histological studies of abnormal arteries show different structural malformations of the arterial wall: inorganized arterial fibres, abnormal intima, newly formed arterial tissue in arterial lumen, coalescence of two arteries. It is suggested that a disturbance at the aortic differentiation level results under experimental conditions in the observed arterial abnormalities

  13. Radioprotective properties of some heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds against changes in hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit value in x-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousdhy, H.; Pierotti, T.; Polverelli, M.

    1969-01-01

    Radioprotective properties of imidazole and benzimidazole have been proved in previous works. In this study, authors try to demonstrate radioprotective action of these compounds in comparison with cysteamine upon the hematopoietic system after lethal X-irradiation. Results show: no drastic variations of hematologic constants (hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit value) after intraperitoneal injection of radioprotective compounds apart certain apparent reactions with the heterocyclic compounds; the better radioprotective action of benzimidazole. Twenty five days after irradiation, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit of radio protected mice return to normal values. (author) [fr

  14. The UV-light and X-irradiation induced conversion of p-phenoxyphenol in aqueous solution at 250C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrl, A.

    1975-01-01

    UV-photolysis and X-radiolysis of p-phenoxyphenol was expected to yield products analogous to those of thyronine, after aromatic structures being equivalent. When exposed to UV-light, p-phenoxyphenol was found being selectively converted into phenylhydroquinone in consequence of intramolecular rearrangement. The reaction heat was estimated applying bond energies to the conversion and comparing the result with differences in the combustion heat of homologous compounds. After X-irradiation, phenylhydroquinone however was not present. Formation of the irradiation products phenol, hydroquinone, p-benzoquinone and pyrocatechol presumed breakage of substrate molecules in consequence of intermolecular interaction with transient water radiolysis species. (orig.) [de

  15. Accumulation of lipid peroxidation products in eye structures of mice subjected to whole-body X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakina, N.L.; Dontsov, A.E.; Afanas'ev, G.G.; Ostrovskij, M.A.; Pelevina, I.I.

    1990-01-01

    In studying the effect of whole-body X-irradiation on the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products (conjugated dienes, TBA-active products, and Sciff bases) in retina and retinal pigmented epithelium of pigmented and nonpigmented mice it was shown that irradiation of dark-pigmented mice does not cause even a slight accumulation of lipid peroxidation products as compared to that in the controls. Albino mice exhibited a marked increase in the level of lipid peroxidation products which was manifested soon after irradiation and persisted for at least 3 months after irradiation. Melanine is suggested to participate in protecting eye structures against pro-oxidizing action of ionizing radiation

  16. Studies on c-AMP contents in sea urchin eggs fertilized with normal and x-irradiated sperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hiroshi

    1975-01-01

    Intracellular levels of cyclic 3', 5'-adenosine monophosphate (c-AMP) seemed to remain constant through the first cleavage cycle of sea urchin eggs. X-irradiation to the sperm, which induced the first cleavage delay, did not change this level. Although it was shown in the previous paper that X-ray-induced cleavage delay was reduced by caffeine but not by aminophyline, both caffeine and aminophyline caused an increase in c-AMP levels. These results indicated the possibility that c-AMP does not mediate this caffeine effect on cleavage delay. (auth.)

  17. Binucleate cell formation correlates to loss of colony-forming ability in X-irradiated cultured mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, H.; Yoshinaga, H.; Kura, S.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between binucleate cell formation and the loss of colony-forming ability was examined in several cultured mammalian cell lines irradiated with X rays. The maximum fraction of binucleate cells after X irradiation increased dose-dependently within the range in which reproductive cell death might predominate over interphase cell death. When the logarithm of percentage survival was plotted against the percentage binucleate cells, a similar correlation was found for all cell lines tested, with the exception of mouse leukemia L5178Y cells, the most radiosensitive cells used. These observations suggest that the fraction of binucleate cells in the cell population can serve as a measure of cellular radiation damage

  18. Rapid decrease in brain enkephalin content after low-dose whole-body X-irradiation of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyachi, Yukihisa (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab.); Ogawa, Norio; Mori, Akitane

    1992-03-01

    Methionine-eckephalin (ME) contents in the hypothalamus and other rat brain structures were measured immediately after 10 or 20 cGy whole-body X-irradiation. The ME contents of homogenates of the striatum, hypothalamus, midbrain + thalamus, hindbrain and pituitary were assayed radioimmunologically with {sup 125}I. The contents of all the structure, except the pituitary, decreased significantly after 20 cGy irradiation. The reduction in the hypothalamus was transient, ME content gradually recovering with time. These results suggest that the central nervous system of mammals is one of the most radiosensitive organs as judged by changes in stress-induced mediators such as ME. (author).

  19. Effect of X-irradiation on the alanine- and aspartate aminotransferase activity in the liver, kidney and spleen of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungowska-Klin, B; Lozinska, M; Wojtaszek, J [Wroclaw Univ. (Poland)

    1975-01-01

    The alanine- and aspartate aminotransferase (GOT and GPT) activities and the protein content were measured in the liver, kidney and spleen homogenates of mice exposed to a single whole body X-irradiation with a 900 R dose. The assays were performed in 6 h intervals during the first day and 24 h intervals from the 2nd until the 6th day after the exposure. Significant differences in the enzymatic activity were found in the course of 24 h in control animals and a marked increase of this activity was found after irradiation. This may be explained by changes in the permeability of the mitochondrial membrane for enzyme molecules.

  20. The inhibition of DNA repair by aphidicolin or cytosine arabinoside in X-irradiated normal and xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.; Crocombe, K.; Mirzayans, R.

    1981-01-01

    Normal and excision-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts were X-irradiated and the influence on DNA repair of either the repair inhibitor cytosine arabinoside or the specific inhibitor of DNA polymerase α, aphidicolin, investigated. The data indicated that the repair of a certain fraction of X-ray-induced lesions can be inhibited in both cell lines by both compounds. Thus, as aphidicolin blocks the operation of polymerase α, this enzyme must be involved in an excision repair pathway operating in both normal and excision-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum cells. (orig.)

  1. Effects of sleep deprivation on cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D S

    2010-01-01

    Sleep deprivation is commonplace in modern society, but its far-reaching effects on cognitive performance are only beginning to be understood from a scientific perspective. While there is broad consensus that insufficient sleep leads to a general slowing of response speed and increased variability in performance, particularly for simple measures of alertness, attention and vigilance, there is much less agreement about the effects of sleep deprivation on many higher level cognitive capacities, including perception, memory and executive functions. Central to this debate has been the question of whether sleep deprivation affects nearly all cognitive capacities in a global manner through degraded alertness and attention, or whether sleep loss specifically impairs some aspects of cognition more than others. Neuroimaging evidence has implicated the prefrontal cortex as a brain region that may be particularly susceptible to the effects of sleep loss, but perplexingly, executive function tasks that putatively measure prefrontal functioning have yielded inconsistent findings within the context of sleep deprivation. Whereas many convergent and rule-based reasoning, decision making and planning tasks are relatively unaffected by sleep loss, more creative, divergent and innovative aspects of cognition do appear to be degraded by lack of sleep. Emerging evidence suggests that some aspects of higher level cognitive capacities remain degraded by sleep deprivation despite restoration of alertness and vigilance with stimulant countermeasures, suggesting that sleep loss may affect specific cognitive systems above and beyond the effects produced by global cognitive declines or impaired attentional processes. Finally, the role of emotion as a critical facet of cognition has received increasing attention in recent years and mounting evidence suggests that sleep deprivation may particularly affect cognitive systems that rely on emotional data. Thus, the extent to which sleep deprivation

  2. Development of a new mouse palate organ culture system and effect of X-irradiation on palatogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiranuma, Hiroko; Jikko, Akitoshi; Maeda, Takashi; Furukawa, Souhei

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of an already established suspension system of organ culture for mouse palate explants, we developed a new culture system, which has several advantages over the previous methods. We used a 48-well culture plate in which the explants can be cultured individually, and only 300 μl of medium is needed for each well. In order to optimize the culture results, we systematically studied the influence of main ''culture conditions'' such as tilt degree of the culturing palate, rotation speed, and addition of ascorbic acid to the medium. This system allows culturing of palates from day 13.5 of gestation to day 16.5 under serum-free conditions using a chemically defined medium, which resulted in 78% of the palates growing fused. Utilizing this culture system, the direct effect of X-irradiation on palataogesis was analyzed. A 4 Gy dose of X-irradiation was administrated at the beginning of culture period. The incidence of palatal fusion was not significantly different from that of the non-irradiated group. (author)

  3. X-irradiation effects on growth and metamorphosis of gastropod larvae (Crepidula fornicata): A model for environmental radiation teratogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, L.; Lord, A.; Pechenik, J.; Kase, K.; Fitzgerald, T.J.; Greenberger, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    Little information is available on the effects of x-irradiation on multicellular marine organisms. C. fornicata larvae were irradiated at 200 rad/min, 250 kVp x-rays to doses between 50 and 20,000 rad in a single fraction. Shell length, biomass, metamorphosis to the next stage of development, and mortality were measured. The results demonstrated a dose-dependent decrease in 20 day shell length at doses above 2000 rad (control 850 +- 110 μm length, 820 +- 100μm for 50 rad, 750 +- 30 μm for 2000 rad, 710 +- 30 μm for 5000 rad, 620 +- 30 μm for 10,000 rad, 580 +- 15 μm for 20,000 rad). There was a dose dependent decrease in shell length growth between days 1 and 20. Biomass was significantly decreased per 100μm shell length for doses above 10,000 rad. A significant increase in larvae mortality was detected with doses above 2000 rad. Most significantly, the cumulative percent of larval metamorphosis was significantly decreased by doses as low as 500 rad and was detectable as early as 18 days after irradiation. C. fornicata may provide a very sensitive system in which to study teratogenic effects of x-irradiation on multicellular organisms

  4. X-irradiation effects on growth and metamorphosis of gastropod larvae (Crepidula fornicata): a model for environmental radiation teratogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberger, J S; Pechenik, J; Lord, A; Gould, L; Naparstek, E; Kase, K; FitzGerald, T J

    1986-02-01

    Little information is available on the effects of x-irradiation on the development of multicellular marine organisms. Larvae of the marine gastropod Crepidula fornicata were irradiated at 200 rad/min, 250 kVp X-rays, to doses between 500 and 20,000 rad in a single fraction. During the weeks following exposure, changes in shell length and biomass, incidence of metamorphosis to the juvenile stage of development, and mortality were measured. The results over a 20-day period demonstrated a dose-dependent decrease in growth rate of larval shells following doses above 2000 rad (control at day 20 = 850 +/- 110 ..mu..m length, 820 +/- 11 ..mu..m for 500 rad, 750 +/- 30 ..mu..m for 2000 rad, 710 +/- 30 ..mu..m for 5000 rad, 620 +/- 30 ..mu..m for 10,000 rad, and 580 +/- 15 ..mu..m for 20,000 rad). Shell length-specific biomass was significantly decreased for doses above 10,000 rad. A significant increase in larval mortality was detected with doses above 2000 rad. The cumulative percent of larval metamorphosis was decreased by exposures to 5000 rad and was detectable as early as 18 days after irradiation; however, metamorphosis of larvae after 5000 rad occurred faster by day 21 while other groups metamorphosis required 34-35 days for completion. Crepidula fornicata may provide a very sensitive and convenient system in which to study teratogenic effects of x-irradiation on multicellular organisms.

  5. Ataxia-telangiectasia cells are not uniformly deficient in poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis following X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwelling, L.A.; Kerrigan, D.; Mattern, M.R.

    1983-01-01

    The synthesis of poly(adenosine diphosphoribose [poly(ADP-R)] follows the DNA strand breakage produced by a number of physical and chemical agents, including X-radiation, and may be important for repair of several types of DNA damage. The reduction or abolition of its synthesis following X-irradiation might explain the enhanced sensitivity of ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) cells to X-ray. We have examined 8 lines of human fibroblasts (including 4 A-T lines) for stimulation of the synthesis of poly(ADP-R) by X-irradiation. Similar amounts of X-ray-stimulated synthesis of poly(ADP-R) were detected in 4 lines of A-T fibroblasts, and in fibrolasts from a xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patient, a Fanconi's anemia (FA) patient and 2 normal patients. 6 lines of human lymphoblastoid lines were also examined for X-ray-stimulated poly(ADP-R) synthesis. 4 A-T lines displayed an unusually high synthesis of poly(ADP-R) in unirradiated cells compared with 2 normal lines. (orig./AJ)

  6. Ataxia-telangiectasia cells are not uniformly deficient in poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis following X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwelling, L.A.; Kerrigan, D. (National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (USA). Lab. of Molecular Pharmacology); Mattern, M.R. (National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (USA). Lab. of Molecular Carcinogenesis)

    1983-04-01

    The synthesis of poly(adenosine diphosphoribose (poly(ADP-R)) follows the DNA strand breakage produced by a number of physical and chemical agents, including X-radiation, and may be important for repair of several types of DNA damage. The reduction or abolition of its synthesis following X-irradiation might explain the enhanced sensitivity of ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) cells to X-ray. We have examined 8 lines of human fibroblasts (including 4 A-T lines) for stimulation of the synthesis of poly(ADP-R) by X-irradiation. Similar amounts of X-ray-stimulated synthesis of poly(ADP-R) were detected in 4 lines of A-T fibroblasts, and in fibrolasts from a xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patient, a Fanconi's anemia (FA) patient and 2 normal patients. 6 lines of human lymphoblastoid lines were also examined for X-ray-stimulated poly(ADP-R) synthesis. 4 A-T lines displayed an unusually high synthesis of poly(ADP-R) in unirradiated cells compared with 2 normal lines.

  7. Effects of bleomycin and x irradiation on the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in selected connective tissue diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, W.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Whole blood lymphocytes from 28 patients with selected connective tissue disorders (6 progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), 6 anti-nuclear antibody positive rheumatoid arthritis, 6 anti-nuclear antibody negative rheumatoid arthritis, 6 systemic lupus erythematosus, and 4 mixed connective tissue disease) and 17 controls matched for sex, age, and race were studied to determine the frequency of spontaneous as well as bleomycin and/or x-irradiation induced chromosomal aberrations. The effects of bleomycin on cultured lymphocytes were tested, but differential susceptibilities to this clastogen were not demonstrated among the disease groups and controls investigated. However, the combined effect of bleomycin and x irradiation were found to be additive in control lymphocytes, nearly additive in PSS, RA+, and SLE cultures, but reduced considerably from the expected additive value in Ra- cultures. This study indicated that peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with connective tissue disease, as a whole, possess greater frequencies of spontaneous chromosomal aberrations than matched controls and that x rays can produce greater frequencies of chromosomal aberrations in whole blood lymphocytes of PSS patients than in suitably matched control individuals

  8. Effect of ethyl methanesulphonate and X-irradiation on the spermatocyte chromosomes of the grasshopper, Gesonula punctifrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Mita; Majumdar, K.C.; Duttagupta, A.K.

    1977-01-01

    Present investigation was performed to find out the effect of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and X-irradiation on the meiotic cells of the grasshopper Gesonula punctifrons. Adult male grasshoppers were administered EMS (intraperitoneal injection) with one of the following concentration : 0.05%, 0.05% + 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%. Only 0.002 ml of required concentration were injected/animal and irradiated with 200R of X-ray in one acute dose/animal as per experimental schedule. Controls were injected with distilled water with a quantity 0.002 ml/animal. Treated and control animals were sacrificed 24 hours and 48 hours after treatment and the dividing spermatocytes were analysed for chromosomal aberrations. It was shown that EMS had stage spcificity as compared to the 200R of X-ray on the production of chromosome aberrations. Combined treatment of X-ray and EMS showed an additive effect compared to the individual effect of X-irradiation or EMS. (author)

  9. Procaine-mediated modification of membranes and of the response to x irradiation and hyperthermia in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yau, T.M.

    1979-01-01

    Procaine, a membrane-specific agent, was found to protect the response of oxygenated mammalian cells toward x irradiation in vitro. In addition, the drug also potentiates hyperthermic killing of cells. In an effort to gain further insights into the mechanisms underlying the action of procaine as a modifier of cell injury in x-irradiated and heated cells, the effects of procaine on cellular morphology, membrane fluidity, and cellular electrokinetic properties were studied. It was found that procaine can reversibly influence the cellular morphology. Using scanning electron microscopy, we were able to demonstrate the presence of numerous smooth blebs on the cell surface of either normal or SV40-transformed 3T3 mouse fibroblasts treated with procaine. When 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene was used as a membrane probe, the overall fluidity of cell membranes from 3T3 cells grown as monolayers or L5178Y lymphoma cells grown in suspensions was not significantly changed by procaine; however, when perylene was used as a probe, the overall fluidity of cell membranes of procaine-treated cells was found to increase significantly. Lastly, procaine was found to alter the electrophoretic mobility of cells. These results indicate that procaine may exert its modification of radiation- and heat-induced effects via a still elusive membrane-mediated mechanism(s). It is anticipated that membrane-active agents with different specificities may be employed as tools to probe the role of membranes in the radiation or heat response of cells

  10. Types and three-dimensional distribution of neuronal ectopias in the brain of mice prenatally subjected to X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xue-Zhi; Takahashi, Sentaro; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Sato, Hiroshi [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Cui, Chun; Fukui, Yoshihiro [Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Inouye, Minoru [Shin Nippon Biomedical Lab., Ltd., Miyanoura, Kagoshima (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    The types and three-dimensional distribution of neocortical ectopias following prenatal exposure to X-irradiation were studied by a histological examination and computer reconstruction techniques. Pregnant ICR mice were subjected to X-irradiation at a dose of 1.5 Gy on embryonic day 13. The brains from 30-day-old mice were serially sectioned on the frontal plane at 15 {mu}m, stained with HE and observed with a microscope. The image data for the sections were input to a computer, and then reconstructed to three-dimensional brain structures using the Magellan 3.6 program. Sectional images were then drawn on a computer display at 240 {mu}m intervals, and the positions of the different types of neocortical ectopias were marked using color coding. Three types of neocortical ectopias were recognized in the irradiated brains. Neocortical Lay I ectopias were identified as small patches in the caudal occipital cortex, and were located more laterally in the neocortex in caudal sections than in the rostral sections. Periventricular ectopias were located more rostrally than Lay I ectopias, and were found from the most caudal extent of the presumed motor cortex to the most caudal extent of the lateral ventricle. Hippocampal ectopias appeared as continuous linear bands, and were frequently associated with the anterior parts of the periventricular ectopias. (author)

  11. G2 block in Chinese hamster cells induced by x-irradiation, hyperthermia, cycloheximide, or actinomycin-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewey, W.C.; Highfield, D.P.

    1976-01-01

    The entry of cells into mitosis was monitored by shaking off mitotic cells from monolayer cultures. The location in G 2 of the x-ray transition point (TP), beyond which the cells were not delayed by x irradiation moved closer to mitosis as the dose was increased, i.e., at 10 min before prophase for 100 to 200 rad, and at 19 min for 30 to 60 rad. Treatment with cycloheximide (CH, 20 μg/ml) at the time of irradiation (50 to 100 rad) shifted the TP for x irradiation by 5 to 9 min toward mitosis. Calculations from these shifts in TP with radiation dose indicated that the logarithm of both the fraction of cells in G 2 not delayed by irradiation and the fraction beyond the TP for CH (located at 26 min before phophase for 5 to 50 μg/ml) not delayed by irradiation decreased linearly with dose (anti D 0 of 30 rad). Furthermore, inhibition of protein synthesis by CH, with or without a simultaneous treatment with actinomycin D (AMD), prevented repair of damage causing mitotic delay for a period of time equal to the duration of the CH treatment

  12. Effects of X-irradiation and thymectomy on the immune response of the marine teleost, Sebastiscus marmoratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, T.

    1986-01-01

    Effects of X-irradiation and thymectomy on the immune response of the rock fish, S. marmoratus were studied. Animals were thymectomized and irradiated at the dose of 2000 R. In non-thymectomized and irradiated fish, injected with SRBC one week after irradiation, antibody production was completely suppressed and they required twice the time for rejection of scales allografted three days after irradiation. On the other hand, fish which were irradiated four days after thymectomy and injected one week after irradiation, showed a fairly high level of antibody, although, in the allograft rejection, no significant difference was observed when compared to the irradiated fish. Furthermore, animals thymectomized, irradiated and autoimplanted showed higher production of antibody when immunized three months after irradiation compared to matched controls. In the same manner, in the allograft rejection, a slight restoration was found in fish reconstituted with a non-irradiated thymus. From these results, it is considered that, as in mammals, the adult thymus of fish plays an important role in recovery from the damage to the immune system caused by irradiation. Furthermore, a combination of X-irradiation and thymectomy suggests that suppressor T-cells which are resistant to X-rays exist in the fish thymus

  13. The effect of X-irradiation on Na-K ATPase and cation distribution in rabbit lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, H.; Giblin, F.J.; Reddy, V.N.

    1982-01-01

    The Na-K ATPase activity of rabbit lens was measured at various times after exposure to a single dose of 2000 rads of X-ray and was compared with that in contralateral control eyes. A decrease in enzyme activity in both whole lens and in isolated capsule-epithelium was first observed 3 to 4 weeks after irradiation and became increasingly marked at 7.5 weeks after X-ray. These findings are consistent with our earlier observations that active transport of cations is reduced in these lenses and support the view that loss of membrane ATPase is responsible for the impairment of the cation pump in X-irradiated lenses. Despite a significant loss of the enzyme, X-irradiated lenses were able to maintain near normal levels of total cations (Na+ + K+), thus accounting for their normal hydration. The results of the changes in lens Na+ and K+ levels revealed that between 4 and 7.5 weeks after X-ray, the gain in Na+ was compensated by an equivalent loss of K+. A breakdown of this relationship of 1:1 exchange of Na+ for K+ is accompanied by a disproportionate increase in Na+ and water

  14. Characterization of the multiple drug resistance phenotype expressed by tumour cells following in vitro exposure to fractionated X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, B.T.; McClean, S.; Hosking, L.; Shellard, S.; Dempke, W.; Whelan, R.

    1992-01-01

    The major clinical problem of the emergence of drug resistant tumor cell populations is recognized in patients previously treated with antitumor drugs and with radiotherapy. It is proposed that, although radiation-induced vascular fibrosis may limit drug delivery to the tumor, exposure to radiation may 'induce' or 'select for' drug resistance. This hypothesis was examined by establishing in vitro model systems to investigate the resistance phenotype of tumor cells following exposure to X-rays. Characteristically tumor cells surviving exposure to a series of fractions of X-irradiation are shown to have consistently expressed resistance to multiple drugs, including the Vinca alkaloids and the epipodophyllotoxins. Currently this research is aimed at determining whether distinctive resistance mechanisms operate depending on whether resistance results following drug or X-ray exposure. Initial results indicate that whilst some common mechanisms operate, drug resistant tumor cells identified following exposure to X-irradiation appear to exhibit a novel multidrug resistance phenotype. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab

  15. Low-dose X-irradiation of adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Efficacy of different fractionation schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebmann, A.; Hindemith, M.; Jahns, J.; Kamprad, F.; Hildebrandt, G.; Madaj-Sterba, P.; Weisheit, S.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: low-dose radiotherapy is widely accepted as a very effective treatment option for inflammatory symptoms associated with painful degenerative joint disorders. Radiation doses and fractionation schedules in practical use are empirical and mainly based on clinical observations. Experimental data are rare. The efficacy of low-dose X-irradiation on adjuvant induced arthritis in rats using different fractionation schemes was investigated in vivo, in order to explore whether there is a dose and fractionation dependence. Material and methods: adjuvant arthritis in female lewis rats (n = 128) was induced by intradermal injection of heat-inactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis on day 0. Both arthritic hind paws were sham-irradiated (group 1: days 10-14; group 2: days 15-19; group 3: days 22-26) or X-irradiated with either 5 x 1.0 Gy (group 4: days 10-14; group 6: days 15-19; group 8: days 22-26; group 10: days 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18) or 5 x 0.5 Gy (group 5: days 10-14; group 7: days 15-19; group 9: days 22-26; group 11: days 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18; group 12: days 10-14 and 22-26). The clinical parameters arthritis score (AS), hind paw volume (HPV), and body weight were determined. Results: a significant decrease of the clinical arthritis parameters was observed following 5 x 0.5 Gy or 5 x 1.0 Gy during the acute maximum of the inflammatory response (days 15-19). The most pronounced treatment effect was reached after two daily fractionated series of 5 x 0.5 Gy with an early treatment onset (days 10-14) and repetition in interval (days 22-26). After the application of 5 x 1.0 Gy on days 10-14 or in a protracted scheme (days 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18), only a nonsignificant positive trend could be detected. Daily fractionated X-irradiation in the chronic phase of adjuvant arthritis (days 22-26) did not show any positive clinical effect. Conclusion: low-dose radiotherapy is able to prevent a full-blown arthritic reaction if given during the florid phase of

  16. Increase of survival of x-irradiated mice by postirradiation injections of a splenic extract prepared from vaccine or endotoxin-treated syngeneic animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuneoka, K; Takagi, Y; Shikita, M [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1977-05-01

    Spleens of mice which had been treated with E. coli endotoxin or typhoid-paratyphoid vaccine were extracted with isotonic saline. The extract was filtered through an asbestos filter and chromatographed on a Sephadex G-200 column. The fraction which was excluded at around 2.5-void volume (molecular weight, about 20,000) was significantly effective in increasing survival of animals when it was repeatedly injected in mice after x irradiation (600 R). The injection caused an increase of the weight of spleen of the animals with an increased number of endogenous spleen colonies. The result suggests that the life-saving effect of the spleen extract is based on its effect of stimulating repopulation of autochthonous hematopoietic cells in the x-irradiated animals. A similar splenic extract prepared from normal mice had an ambiguous effect on the survival of x-irradiated animals.

  17. Effect of Whole-Body X-Irradiation of the Synthesis of Individual Fatty Acids in Liver Slices from Normal and Fasted Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Hansen, Lisbeth Grænge; Faber, M.

    1965-01-01

    (1) Using (2-14C) acetate and (1-14C) butyrate as precursors, rat-liver fatty acids were synthesized in vitro and assayed by paper chromatography. (2) Whole-body x-irradiation induced a change in the synthetic pattern of hepatic fatty acids towards a relatively enhanced synthesis of palmitic acid....... (3) X-irradiation and fasting seem to have opposite effects on fatty-acid synthesis. X-irradiation counteracts the drop in total synthesis and the relatively enhanced synthesis of palmitoleic acid induced by fasting. The relative enhancement of palmitic-acid synthesis mentioned under (2) stands...... in contrast to the effect of fasting, which specifically decreases the hepatic synthesis of palmitic acid. (4) There is a general similarity between corresponding fatty-acid patterns based on synthesis from (2-14C) acetate and (1-14C) butyrate, respectively....

  18. Is Entrepreneurship a Route Out of Deprivation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankish, Julian S.; Roberts, Richard G.; Coad, Alexander Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Frankish J. S., Roberts R. G., Coad A. and Storey D. J. Is entrepreneurship a route out of deprivation?, Regional Studies. This paper investigates whether entrepreneurship constitutes a route out of deprivation for those living in deprived areas. The measure of income/wealth used is based...... the wealth distribution. Hence, entrepreneurship can be a route out of deprivation....

  19. A high frequency of induction of chromosome aberrations in the bone marrow cells of LEC strain rats by X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okui, Toyo (Hokkaido Inst. of Public Health, Sapporo (Japan)); Hayashi, Masanobu; Watanabe, Tomomasa; Namioka, Shigeo (Dept. of Lab. Animal Science, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)); Endoh, Daiji; Sato, Fumiaki (Dept. of Radiation Biology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)); Kasai, Noriyuki (Inst. for Animal Experimentation, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan))

    1994-08-01

    LEC strain rats, which have been known to develop hereditarily spontaneous fulminant hepatitis 4 to 5 months after birth, are highly sensitive to whole-body X-irradiation when compared to WKAH strain rats. The present results showed that the frequencies of all types of chromosome aberrations induced by X-irradiation in the bone marrow cells of LEC rats were approximately 2- to 3-fold higher than those of WKAH rats, though no significant difference was observed in the frequency of spontaneous chromosome aberrations between LEC and WKAH rats.

  20. Thermo-radiosensitivity of the granulocyte and macrophage precursor cells of mice. II. - X irradiation effects and influence of hyperthermia on the radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueren, J.A.; Nieto, M.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of the X-irradiation on the viability of the granulocyte-macrophage precursors, has been determined by means of the agar diffusion chamber culture technique. The results show the high radiosensitivity of these cells, with survival parameter similar to those previously reported in the literature about different granulocyte-macrophage precursors. When a hyperthermic treatment is performed prior to the X-irradiation, a radiosensitization phenomenon is observed due to the synergism existent between hyperthermia and X rays on the lethality of the precursors. (Authors) 37 refs

  1. Molecular events associated with increased regenerative capacity of the goldfish retinal ganglion cells following X-irradiation: decreased level of axonal growth inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachailovich, I.; Schwartz, M.

    1984-01-01

    In our previous work we established conditions to study the contribution of non-neuronal cells to the process of goldfish optic nerve regeneration. This issue has been studied successfully by adapting the use of X-irradiation to manipulate division of non-neuronal cells associated with the injured nerve. The regenerative capacity of the goldfish retinal ganglion cells was determined subsequent to the X-ray treatment. The authors present an analysis of the molecular events associated with regeneration and enhanced regenerative capacity which follows X-irradiation. (Auth.)

  2. Molecular events associated with increased regenerative capacity of the goldfish retinal ganglion cells following X-irradiation: decreased level of axonal growth inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachailovich, I.; Schwartz, M. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Neurobiology)

    1984-07-23

    In our previous work we established conditions to study the contribution of non-neuronal cells to the process of goldfish optic nerve regeneration. This issue has been studied successfully by adapting the use of X-irradiation to manipulate division of non-neuronal cells associated with the injured nerve. The regenerative capacity of the goldfish retinal ganglion cells was determined subsequent to the X-ray treatment. The authors present an analysis of the molecular events associated with regeneration and enhanced regenerative capacity which follows X-irradiation.

  3. Lack of effect on the chromosomal non-disjunction in aged female mice after low dose x-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strausmanis, R; Hendrikson, I B; Holmberg, M; Roennbaeck, C [Research Inst. of National Defence, Sundbyberg (Sweden). Dept. 4

    1978-02-01

    Karyotypes were determined in 1064 embryos of aged C57/BL mothers. The virgin female mice were irradiated with 0, 4, 8 or 16 R of X-rays, respectively, and placed with young untreated males 5 days after irradiation. 10.5-days old embryos were recovered from the uterus. Aneuploid embryos classified as alive (heart beats observed at the dissection) were 1 monosomic in the control group (496 embryos) and 2 trisomics in the irradiated group (568 embryos). The number of aneuploid embryos classified as dead was 4 trisomic cases in the control group and 3 trisomics in the irradiated group. The data indicate that trisomic embryos are not uncommon in the mouse but are eliminated in post-implantation death. In contrast to the results of Yamamoto et al. the present data do not demonstrate an increased frequency of chromosome abnormalities in embryos of aged mice X-irradiated before mating as compared to non-irradiated ones.

  4. Hypothyroidism after x irradiation to the neck: three case reports and a brief review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, R.A.; Corrigan, D.F.; Wartofsky, L.

    1976-01-01

    Three patients who developed hypothyroidism after x irradiation to the neck are presented. The first two cases demonstrate that patients can develop clinical and chemical hypothyroidism after a very short interval following radiotherapy. Hypothyroidism developed in the first patient in the absence of surgical manipulation of the neck, or a large iodine load 4 months after receiving 6800 rad of x-ray therapy to his neck for carcinoma of the larynx. The second patient developed hypothyroidism approximately 6 months after his radiotherapy for carcinoma of the esophagus. Both of these patients demonstrated high titers of serum antithyroid antibodies. A third patient with Hodgkin's disease did not manifest clinical symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism until 6 years after radiation therapy. These cases demonstrate the variability of onset of hypothyroidism after radiotherapy and emphasize the need for careful evaluation of thyroid function before and after neck irradiation

  5. Effects of X-irradiation alone and in combination with ACNU on human glioblastoma cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashiyama, Shoji; Katakura, Ryuichi; Takahashi, Kou; Kitahara, Masakazu; Suzuki, Jiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine; Sasaki, Takehito

    1990-05-01

    The combined effects of x-irradiation and 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl) methyl-3-(2-chloro-ethyl)-3-nitrosourea (ACNU) on multicellular glioblastoma A-7 spheroids were analyzed by means of cell survival and dose-response curves. The actual dose-response curve for small spheroids was almost identical to that estimated from the cell survival curve. It was strongly suggested that a small number of radiation-resistant cells, which were not detected in the cell survival curve, were present in large spheroids with central necrosis. The enhancing effect of ACNU was greater with large spheroids than with monolayer cells or small spheroids. A possible explanation for this is that ACNU is higher effective against the few radiation-resistant cells that may be present in larger spheroids. (author).

  6. Observations on the interactions of Schwann cells and astrocytes following x irradiation of neonatal rat spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakemore, W F; Patterson, R C

    1975-10-01

    Myelination was inhibited in the spinal cord of three day-old rats with 2000 rads of x irradiation. Myelination subsequently occurred as a result of caudal migration of oligodendrocytes and extensive invasion of the cord by Schwann cells. Although oligodendrocytes were present in areas containing Schwann cells, astrocytes were absent. The presence of Schwann cells in the neuropil of the spinal cord did not stimulate production of basement membrane by astrocytes, so no new glial limiting membrane was formed. Evidence is presented which suggests that if astrocytes do not form a glial limiting membrane when opposed by large numbers of Schwann cells they are destroyed by the invading cells. It is suggested that the glial limiting membrane normally inhibits entry of Schwann cells into the central nervous system; if this is destroyed and not reconstituted, Schwann cells can migrate freely into the neuropil.

  7. Effects of x-irradiation on steroid biotransformations by testicular tissue. Final report, May 1, 1966--July 31, 1976. [Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, L.C.

    1976-08-01

    A number of parameters of testicular and body function were investigated after various dosages of x-irradiation to ascertain: what relationship they have to the radiation syndrome and testicular repression and regeneration of the rat; and how sensitive these parameters are to radiation. Changes in androgen synthesis were not well correlated with either body or gonad weights, hematocrit values or testicular histology. Lipid peroxidation, catalase activity, metabolism of testosterone, prostaglandins, cyclic nucleotides and serotonin metabolism were all related to the direct effects of radiation on the male gonad. Indirect effects on the testis appear to be mediated by serotonin and the pineal gland. The pineal gland appeared to be responsible for variations in androgen synthesis and radiosensitivity of the testis through its secretory products-melatonin and arginine vasopressin. These compounds have the capacity of inducing endocrine rhythms by affecting: the hypothalamus-pituitary axis; the liver; and/or the gonad directly.

  8. G/sub 2/ arrest in mouse zygotes after X-irradiation: reversion by caffeine and influence of chromosome abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinfeld, S.; Jacquet, P.

    1988-08-01

    The effect of caffeine was studied on mouse zygotes blocked in the G/sub 2/ phase of the first cell cycle after X-irradiation. Caffeine (2 mM) effectively reversed the G/sub 2/ arrest when zygotes were incubated in its presence at the time when first mitosis normally takes place. This effect of caffeine was inhibited by cycloheximide (5 ..mu..g ml/sup -1/). In embryos escaping the G/sub 2/ arrest the frequencies of chromosome aberrations varied as a function of the time of irradiation, showing a clear relationship with the varying rates of lethality occurring from the morula stage. Blocked zygotes suffered major chromosome damage: however, this did not appear to be the only cause of the G/sub 2/ arrest. Triploid zygotes were preferentially blocked, suggesting that nuclei contain the target for this X-ray effect.

  9. Effects of x-irradiation on steroid biotransformations by testicular tissue. Final report, May 1, 1966--July 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, L.C.

    1976-08-01

    A number of parameters of testicular and body function were investigated after various dosages of x-irradiation to ascertain: what relationship they have to the radiation syndrome and testicular repression and regeneration of the rat; and how sensitive these parameters are to radiation. Changes in androgen synthesis were not well correlated with either body or gonad weights, hematocrit values or testicular histology. Lipid peroxidation, catalase activity, metabolism of testosterone, prostaglandins, cyclic nucleotides and serotonin metabolism were all related to the direct effects of radiation on the male gonad. Indirect effects on the testis appear to be mediated by serotonin and the pineal gland. The pineal gland appeared to be responsible for variations in androgen synthesis and radiosensitivity of the testis through its secretory products-melatonin and arginine vasopressin. These compounds have the capacity of inducing endocrine rhythms by affecting: the hypothalamus-pituitary axis; the liver; and/or the gonad directly

  10. Optical bleaching of F-centers in BaFCl crystals after X-irradiation at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inabe, K.; Nakamura, S.; Takeuchi, N.

    1988-01-01

    The optical bleaching behaviour of the F-band formed by X-irradiation in BaFCl crystals is investigated paying attention to the difference between two types of F-centers. Optical absorption spectra, decay curves of the F-band under excitation with F light and excitation spectra of the bleaching are given and discussed. The bleaching of the F-bands is achieved by light in the absorption band irrespective of the component. Energy transfer among excited states of F-centers is responsible for the bleaching of F-centers in BaFCl crystals, involving energy transfer between F(Cl - ) and F(F - ) centers in their optical bleaching process

  11. The contribution of late-generated neurons to the callosal projection in rat: a study with prenatal x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, K.F.; Altman, J.

    1982-01-01

    Studies utilizing horseradish peroxidase tracing methods have suggested that there are species differences in the relative contribution of the different neocortical layers to the callosal projection. The present investigation utilized x-irradiation at different gestational ages to eliminate the late-generated neurons in the rat neocortex. The caudorostral gradient of reduction in the neuronal population of the supragranular layers is closely correlated with the gradient of reduction in the size of the corpus callosum. Furthermore, the callosal projection is absent in anteroposterior cortical segments in which the development of the supragranular layers was prevented without a reduction of the number of neurons in the infragranular layers of the neocortex. These results indicate that late-generated neurons residing primarily in the supragranular layers are essential for the formation of the corpus callosum

  12. Lack of effect on the chromosomal non-disjunction in aged female mice after low dose x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strausmanis, R.; Hendrikson, I.-B.; Holmberg, M.; Roennbaeck, C.

    1978-01-01

    Karyotypes were determined in 1064 embryos of aged C57/BL mothers. The virgin female mice were irradiated with 0, 4, 8 or 16 R of X-rays, respectively, and placed with young untreated males 5 days after irradiation. 10.5-days old embryos were recovered from the uterus. Aneuploid embryos classified as alive (heart beats observed at the dissection) were 1 monosomic in the control group (496 embryos) and 2 trisomics in the irradiated group (568 embryos). The number of aneuploid embryos classified as dead was 4 trisomic cases in the control group and 3 trisomics in the irradiated group. The data indicate that trisomic embryos are not uncommon in the mouse but are eliminated in post-implantation death. In contrast to the results of Yamamoto et al. the present data do not demonstrate an increased frequency of chromosome abnormalities in embryos of aged mice X-irradiated before mating as compared to non-irradiated ones

  13. Effects of X-irradiation alone and in combination with ACNU on human glioblastoma cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashiyama, Shoji; Katakura, Ryuichi; Takahashi, Kou; Kitahara, Masakazu; Suzuki, Jiro; Sasaki, Takehito.

    1990-01-01

    The combined effects of x-irradiation and 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl) methyl-3-(2-chloro-ethyl)-3-nitrosourea (ACNU) on multicellular glioblastoma A-7 spheroids were analyzed by means of cell survival and dose-response curves. The actual dose-response curve for small spheroids was almost identical to that estimated from the cell survival curve. It was strongly suggested that a small number of radiation-resistant cells, which were not detected in the cell survival curve, were present in large spheroids with central necrosis. The enhancing effect of ACNU was greater with large spheroids than with monolayer cells or small spheroids. A possible explanation for this is that ACNU is higher effective against the few radiation-resistant cells that may be present in larger spheroids. (author)

  14. Effects of x-irradiation on steroid biotransformations by testicular tissue. Progress report, August 1, 1974--July 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, L.C.

    1975-01-01

    X irradiation of rat testicular tissue either in vivo or in vitro labilized the lysosomal membranes with a release of both acid phosphatase and phospholipase A 2 resulting in an increased lipid peroxidation. The results from these investigations suggest that the lipid endoperoxides and malonaldehyde are responsible for mediating the effects of radiation on steroid biotransformations. Estradiol, testosterone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, prolactin, acetylcholine, cGMP, H 2 O 2 , PUFA, ethanol and vitamin A increased lysosomal fragility and initiated enzyme release while ATP, cAMP, vitamin E, theophylline, indomethacin, caffeine, cortisol, epinephrine, NADPH, NDGA, FSH and Zn ++ decreased both phenomena. An increase in catalase activity was consistently observed after irradiation and by cAMP indicative of an increase in testicular cAMP content following irradiation. Seminiferous tubules were found to be dependent on prostaglandins for their contractions. (U.S.)

  15. Myelin repair by Schwann cells in the regenerating goldfish visual pathway: regional patterns revealed by X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nona, S.N.; Stafford, C.A.; Cronly-Dillon, J.R. (Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Science and Technology); Duncan, A. (Guy' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Anatomy); Scholes, J. (University Coll., London (United Kingdom))

    1994-07-01

    In the regenerating goldfish optic nerves, Schwann cells of unknown origin reliably infiltrate the lesion site forming a band of peripheral-type myelinating tissue by 1-2 months, sharply demarcated form the adjacent new CNS myelin. To investigate this effect, we have interfered with cell proliferation by locally X-irradiating the fish visual pathway 24 h after the lesion. As assayed by immunohistochemistry and EM, irradiation retards until 6 months formation of new myelin by Schwann cells at the lesion site, and virtually abolishes oligodendrocyte myelination distally, but has little or no effect on nerve fibre regrowth. Optic nerve astrocyte processes normally fail to re-infiltrate the lesion, but re-occupy it after irradiation, suggesting that they are normally excluded by early cell proliferation at this site. Moreover, scattered myelinating Schwann cells also appear in the oligodendrocyte-depleted distal optic nerve after irradiation, although only as far as the optic tract. (Author).

  16. Characteristics of histocompatibility barriers in congenis strains of mice. III. Passive enhancement of skin allografts in x-irradiated hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrell, J.L.; Kaliss, N.; Hildemann, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    Passive immunological enhancement of skin allografts was investigated in three donor-host combinations of congenic mice disparate at non-H-2 loci. Serum against the graft donor was derived from mice that had received donor strain lymphoid cells as neonates, and thereby were rendered specifically tolerant of a skin allograft. We refer to this serum as ''allograft-tolerant'' serum. Each strain combination was chosen to provide only two non-H-2 histoincompatibilities present in the donor and absent in the host. The differences are categorized as immunogenetically strong, moderate, or weak, on the basis of skin allograft survival times. With passively administered allograft-tolerant serum, significantly prolonged graft survivals were noted for the weakest combination only. Combined treatment with sublethal x-irradiation and allograft-tolerant serum significantly prolonged graft survival in both the moderate and weak combinations, with the largest effect present in the weakest disparity. A hyperimmune alloantiserum (produced in adults) directed against the graft donor prolonged allograft survival in the strongest disparity when given in combination with irradiation. In this combination, graft survival time was increased in hosts exposed to x-ray alone, but joint treatment with x-ray and the alloantiserum gave the largest increment. In contrast, combined treatment with the serum and an antithymocyte alloantiserum did not affect graft survival times. Treatment with both radiation and antithymocyte serum did not prolong graft survival beyond that in mice given only x-radiation. Immunological enhancement with central inhibition is assumed as the mechanism underlying prolonged graft survival, and it is suggested that a population of thymus-derived killer cells, sensitive to x-irradiation, is required for normal graft rejection. (U.S.)

  17. Fruit and seed characteristics of diploid seedless watermelon (citrullus lanatas) cultivars produced by soft-X-irradiated pollen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Keita; Morishita, Masami [National Research Insti. of Vegetables, Ornamental Plants and Tea, Fukuoka (Japan). Kurume Branch

    2000-11-01

    We compared the differences in number of seeds, size of normal and empty seeds, and fruit quality of seedless fruit induced by soft- X- irradiated pollen to determine which cultivars are best suited for breeding and producing high quality seedless watermelon. Two wild types, eleven Japanese, one Chinese, and three American watermelon cultivars were studied. We also observed the effect of soft- X- rays on pollen germination and elongation of the pollen tube. The germination rates of pollen treated with 1000 to 2000 Gy of soft-X-ray were almost the same as those of the control, whereas the rate was significantly reduced at 3000 Gy. Soft-X- irradiated pollen germinated on a stigma, and the pollen tube elongated in the embryo sac. Watermelon fruit pollinated with pollen irradiated with 800 Gy of soft-X-ray had no normal seeds but only empty ones. To delineate the varietal differences by the number of empty seeds and seed size in seedless fruit, wild types, Japanese, Chinese, and American watermelon cultivars were investigated. The number and size of empty seeds varied among cultivars. A low correlation (r=0.272) existed between the total number of seeds in the control fruit and the number of empty seeds in the seedless fruit. Whereas, a high correlation (seed length: r=0.943, P<0.001, seed width: r=0.883, P < 0.001) was found between the size of normal seeds in control fruit and empty seeds in seedless fruit. Diploid seedless fruit was similar to control fruit in size, shape, color, rind thickness, sugar content, and days from pollination to maturity. (author)

  18. Relation between histamine release and dye permeability of pulmonary blood-air barrier in x-irradiated rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, H [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1976-04-01

    The histamine-release kinetics and the influence of released histamine on the permeability of the pulmonary blood-air(BA) barrier during the early period after either whole-body or thoracic x irradiation of the rat were studied. Histamine contents of skin and lung of the irradiated rat decreased rapidly, reaching a minimum at 5 h, and this histamine depletion continued for at least 7 days. Conversely, in circulating blood histamine increased during the early period of 5 h and then decreased gradually. This early increase was linear up to 500R and then became saturated between 500 and 1,000R. Administration of polymixine B (5mg/100g body weight) to rats liberated histamine similarly. Rat sera containg histamine released soon after irradiation enhanced the capillary permeability of Evans blue(EB) in the guinea pig skin reaction, which was effectively countered by pretreatment of the guinea pig with anti-histaminic pyribenzamine (29..mu..g/100g body weight), but not by anti-serotonic chlorpromazine (0.3mg/100g body weight). Similarly, perhaps only the EB-bound serum albumin (EB-albumin), that was seen in alveolar perfusate, penetrated more through the pulmonary BA-barrier with increasing x-ray dose, in parallel with the increase in blood histamine. Pyribenzamine inhibited this effect effectively, but cysteamine (a radical scavenger) did so only partially. Thus, it seems possible that at soon after x irradiation the enhanced permeability of EB-albumin through the BA barrier of rat lung is due preferentially to the pharmacologic action of released histamine and subsidiarily to radiation damage to pulmonary cells.

  19. Fruit and seed characteristics of diploid seedless watermelon (citrullus lanatas) cultivars produced by soft-X-irradiated pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Keita; Morishita, Masami

    2000-01-01

    We compared the differences in number of seeds, size of normal and empty seeds, and fruit quality of seedless fruit induced by soft- X- irradiated pollen to determine which cultivars are best suited for breeding and producing high quality seedless watermelon. Two wild types, eleven Japanese, one Chinese, and three American watermelon cultivars were studied. We also observed the effect of soft- X- rays on pollen germination and elongation of the pollen tube. The germination rates of pollen treated with 1000 to 2000 Gy of soft-X-ray were almost the same as those of the control, whereas the rate was significantly reduced at 3000 Gy. Soft-X- irradiated pollen germinated on a stigma, and the pollen tube elongated in the embryo sac. Watermelon fruit pollinated with pollen irradiated with 800 Gy of soft-X-ray had no normal seeds but only empty ones. To delineate the varietal differences by the number of empty seeds and seed size in seedless fruit, wild types, Japanese, Chinese, and American watermelon cultivars were investigated. The number and size of empty seeds varied among cultivars. A low correlation (r=0.272) existed between the total number of seeds in the control fruit and the number of empty seeds in the seedless fruit. Whereas, a high correlation (seed length: r=0.943, P<0.001, seed width: r=0.883, P < 0.001) was found between the size of normal seeds in control fruit and empty seeds in seedless fruit. Diploid seedless fruit was similar to control fruit in size, shape, color, rind thickness, sugar content, and days from pollination to maturity. (author)

  20. POVERTY AND CALORIE DEPRIVATION ACROSS SOCIO-ECONOMIC GROUPS IN RURAL INDIA: A DISAGGREGATED ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Abha; Mishra, Deepak K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the linkages between calorie deprivation and poverty in rural India at a disaggregated level. It aims to explore the trends and pattern in levels of nutrient intake across social and economic groups. A spatial analysis at the state and NSS-region level unravels the spatial distribution of calorie deprivation in rural India. The gap between incidence of poverty and calorie deprivation has also been investigated. The paper also estimates the factors influencing calorie depri...

  1. Relative Deprivation and Sickness Absence in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Helgertz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. Methods: 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absence during a year. Based on the complete Swedish population, an individual’s degree of relative deprivation is measured through income compared to individuals of the same age, sex, educational level and type. In accounting for the possibility that sickness absence and socioeconomic status are determined by common factors, discrete-time duration models were estimated, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity through random effects. Results: The results confirm that the failure to account for the dynamics of the individual’s career biases the influence from socioeconomic characteristics. Results consistently suggest a major influence from relative deprivation, with a consistently lower risk of sickness absence among the highly educated. Conclusions: Altering individual’s health behavior through education appears more efficient in reducing the reliance on sickness absence, rather than redistributive policies.

  2. Relative deprivation and sickness absence in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgertz, Jonas; Hess, Wolfgang; Scott, Kirk

    2013-08-29

    A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absence during a year. Based on the complete Swedish population, an individual's degree of relative deprivation is measured through income compared to individuals of the same age, sex, educational level and type. In accounting for the possibility that sickness absence and socioeconomic status are determined by common factors, discrete-time duration models were estimated, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity through random effects. The results confirm that the failure to account for the dynamics of the individual's career biases the influence from socioeconomic characteristics. Results consistently suggest a major influence from relative deprivation, with a consistently lower risk of sickness absence among the highly educated. Altering individual's health behavior through education appears more efficient in reducing the reliance on sickness absence, rather than redistributive policies.

  3. Sequence-dependent toxicity and small bowel mucosal injury in neonatal mice treated with low doses of 5-azacytidine and X-irradiation at the late organogenesis stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmahl, W.

    1983-01-01

    A combined treatment of pregnant mice on day 12 of gestation with both azacytidine and X-irradiation in low doses induces sequence-dependent histological effects. These effects, in turn, induce different symptomatic signs if evaluated either prenatally or neonatally. In the azacytidine treatment/X-irradiation sequence the malformations of the fetal forebrain are predominant. Consequently, these dams show a high incidence in the stillbirth rate. Conversely, the X-irradiation/azacytidine treatment schedule leads only to a mild brain hypoplasia, and does not cause an increased stillbirth rate. In these offspring, however, a severe impairment of small bowel epithelial proliferation capacity was found. This is linked to an outstanding neonatal mortality within 48 h after birth. The pathogenesis of these sequence-dependent effects can be attributed to a selective vulnerability of cells in different stages of the generation cycle. This comprises a high degree of cytolethality affecting the S/G 2 -stage cells in azacytidine/X-irradiation treatment and the G 1 /S-stage cells in the reverse combinations (Schmahl 1979). The present observations show the validity of a teratological assay in providing a detailed analysis of the cell kinetic responses after combined noxious influences. (orig.)

  4. Effects of x-irradiation induced loss of cerebellar granule cells on the synaptosomal levels and the high affinity uptake of amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohde, B.H.; Rea, M.A.; Simon, J.R.; McBride, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    Crude synaptosomal (P 2 ) preparations were obtained from the cerebella of rats in which the granule cell population had been selectively reduced by X-irradiation treatment and from the cerebella of control animals. In the P 2 fraction form control cerebella, the level of glutamate was greater than any other of the 5 amino acids measured and was 2-fold higher than taurine. The content of taurine, GABA, glycine, and alanine were not changed by the X-irradiation treatment. The uptake of 1.0 micrometers-L-[ 3 H]glutamate and L-[ 3 H]aspartate was reduced approx 20% by X-irradiation treatment, whereas the uptake of 1.0 micrometers-[ 3 H]GABA and [ 3 H]taurine was unchanged. In a second study, the uptake of L-[ 3 H]glutamate, L-[ 3 H]aspartate and [ 3 H]GABA was measured using P 2 fractions obtained from the cerebella of rats in which the population of granule, stellate and basket cells had been reduced by X-irradiation treatment. The uptake of 1.0 micrometers-L-[ 3 H]glutamate, L-[ 3 H]aspartate and [ 3 H]GABA was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced to 57.68 and 59% respectively, of control values. The data are discussed in terms of glutamate being the excitatory neurotransmitter released from granule cells and GABA being the inhibitory neurotransmitter released from basket cells. (author)

  5. Synergistic induction of tumors in NMRI mice by combined fetal X-irradiation with low doses and ethylnitrosourea administered to juvenile offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmahl, W.

    1988-08-01

    Mice were X-irradiated on day 15 of gestation with 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 or 1.6 Gy. Offspring were reared by their mothers and divided into two subgroups at an age of 21 days, one subgroup receiving a single dose (45 mg/kg) of ethylnitrosourea (ENU). All animals were kept ultimately until 22 months to register the long-term tumor pattern. The carcinogenic effects of ENU alone were also studied in two separate experiments. Prenatal X-irradiation with 1.6 Gy mostly abolished the carcinogenic late effects of ENU, with the exception of an almost constant leucosis incidence and an unchanged lung tumor frequency. Lowering the prenatal X-ray dose to 0.8 Gy resulted in a significantly increased rate of liver tumors and ovary tumors. Synergistic effects on various tissues were observed after both 0.4- and 0.2-Gy fetal X-irradiation treatment in combination with postnatal application of ENU. These effects mainly involved a significant increase in the frequency of leucosis and of tumors of the liver, intestine, uterus and ovaries. The greater-than-additive effect in the case of these tumors suggests that low-level prenatal X-irradiation leads to a lasting sensitivity of some tissues towards a subsequent carcinogenic stimulus.

  6. Low-level x-irradiation of the brain during development: morphological, physiological, and behavioral consequences. Progress report, September 1, 1974--August 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, J.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on studies on the effects of exposure to low-dose x radiation on the developing brain of rats. Brief summaries of results of morphological, physiological, and behavioral studies on rats exposed using various x-irradiation schedules are included. A list of papers published and submitted for publication during the period is included. (U.S.)

  7. Luminescence emission in NaCl:Cu X-irradiated at LNT and RT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herreros, J.M.; Jaque, F.

    1979-01-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) and photostimulated thermoluminescence (PTL) in NaCl:Cu in the range of temperatures 77-400 K have been studied. For the five peaks found, the order kinetics of recombination, the pre-exponential factor activation energy and role of F and F' centres have been analyzed. (Auth.)

  8. Effects of sleep deprivation on serum cortisol level and mental health in servicemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hong-Tao; Sun, Xin-Yang; Yang, Ting-Shu; Zhang, Li-Yi; Yang, Jia-Lin; Bai, Jing

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on serum cortisol level and mental health and explore the correlations between them in servicemen. A total of 149 out of the 207 Chinese servicemen were randomly selected to go through 24hour sleep deprivation, leaving the rest (58) as the control group, before and after which their blood samples were drawn for cortisol measurement. Following the procedure, all the participants were administered the Military Personnel Mental Disorder Prediction Scale, taking the military norm as baseline. The results revealed that the post-deprivation serum cortisol level was positively correlated with the factor score of mania in the sleep deprivation group (rSp=0.415, pSleep deprivation could significantly increase serum cortisol level and may affect mental health in servicemen. The increase of serum cortisol level is significantly related to mania disorder during sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A socioeconomic deprivation index for small areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Mathias; Engholm, Gerda; Grittner, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To describe the development of a deprivation index for Danish parishes and to investigate its association with all-cause mortality compared with the Townsend index and individual-level factors. Methods: Nine socioeconomic factors were aggregated to the parish level from individual-level reg...... to the geographic areas where they are most needed....

  10. Serial transmission of human T-cell leukemia virus type I by blood transfusion in rabbits and its prevention by use of X-irradiated stored blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotani, S.; Yoshimoto, S.; Yamato, K.; Fujishita, M.; Yamashita, M.; Ohtsuki, Y.; Taguchi, H.; Miyoshi, I.

    1986-06-15

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) was serially transmitted for 5 passages from rabbit to rabbit by blood transfusion. The virus could be transmitted with 20 ml of whole blood or washed blood cell suspension (fresh or stored for 1-2 weeks at 4 degrees C) but not with cell-free plasma from seroconverted rabbits. Seroconversion occurred 2-4 weeks after blood transfusion and serum anti-HTLV-I titers ranged from 1:20 to 1:640 with the immunofluorescence assay. From transfusion recipients of the 1st to 4th passages, virus-producing cell lines were established by culturing lymphocytes in the presence of T-cell growth factor (TCGF). Three of the 4 cell lines became TCGF-independent after 2-12 months of continuous culture. Blood was transfused between rabbits of opposite sexes and the recipient origin of each cell line was determined by chromosome analysis. We also investigated the effect of X-irradiation (6,000 rad) on blood from seropositive rabbits. Seroconversion likewise occurred in rabbits transfused with blood that had been irradiated immediately before transfusion but not in rabbits transfused with blood that had been irradiated and stored for 1-2 weeks at 4 degrees C. Thus, our rabbit model shows that HTLV-I is serially transmissible by blood transfusion and that this can be prevented by irradiation of blood. The same procedure, therefore, may be useful for the prevention of transfusion-related transmission of HTLV-I in humans.

  11. Immunization against Capillaria hepatica: The effects of primary infections, X-irradiated stages, non-embryonated eggs and soluble egg extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahner, H.; Schmidt, H.; Laemmler, G.; Geyer, E.

    1980-01-01

    The worm reproductivity was significantly suppressed in a sublethal challenge infection given 11 days after a primary infection of Mastomys natalensis with 50, 150, 400, and 800 eggs per animal. The administration of 600 X-irradiated (2.2 Krd) embryonated eggs 36 days before challenge as well as an intraperitoneal injection of non-embryonated eggs 12, 10, 8, 6, 4, and 2 days before challenge also reduced significantly the egg production of a weak (50 eggs/animal) infection. No effect was observed on a moderate challenge (300 eggs/animal). The effect was not markedly enhanced by the repeated administration of X-irradiated eggs or by the combination of X-irradiated infective eggs and non-embryonated eggs. Immunization of mice with soluble egg extracts resulted in significant reduction of egg production determined 60 days after challenge. Two hundred and thirty eggs of C. hepatica/g bodyweight proved to be a lethal infection dose for M. natalensis. The animals died between 20 and 35 days after infection. After single infections with 50, 150, 400, or 800 eggs per animal the mortality of Mastomys challenged 36 or 52 days later was reduced to 0-30%. Using X-irradiated embryonated eggs for immunization only repeated administration led to protection in 70 to 80%, of the animals. About 40% of the animals could be protected by the intraperitoneal injection of non-embryonated eggs. If death occurred it was delayed. The combination of X-irradiated stages and eggs did not enhance the protection.

  12. Treatment Combining X-Irradiation and a Ribonucleoside Anticancer Drug, TAS106, Effectively Suppresses the Growth of Tumor Cells Transplanted in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Hironobu; Inanami, Osamu; Asanuma, Taketoshi; Iizuka, Daisuke; Nakajima, Takayuki; Kon, Yasuhiro; Matsuda, Akira; Kuwabara, Mikinori

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the in vivo antitumor efficacy of X-irradiation combined with administration of a ribonucleoside anticancer drug, 1-(3-C-ethynyl-β-D-ribo-pentofuranosyl)cytosine (TAS106, ECyd), to tumor cell-transplanted mice. Methods and Materials: Colon26 murine rectum adenocarcinoma cells and MKN45 human gastric adenocarcinoma cells were inoculated into the footpad in BALB/c mice and severe combined immunodeficient mice, respectively. They were treated with a relatively low dose of X-irradiation (2 Gy) and low amounts of TAS106 (0.1 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg). The tumor growth was monitored by measuring the tumor volume from Day 5 to Day 16 for Colon26 and from Day 7 to Day 20 for MKN45. Histologic analyses for proliferative and apoptotic cells in the tumors were performed using Ki-67 immunohistochemical and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling staining. The expression of survivin, a key molecule related to tumor survival, was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis. Results: When X-irradiation and TAS106 treatment were combined, significant inhibition of tumor growth was observed in both types of tumors compared with mice treated with X-irradiation or TAS106 alone. Marked inhibition of tumor growth was observed in half of the mice that received the combined treatment three times at 2-day intervals. Parallel to these phenomena, the suppression of survivin expression and appearance of Ki-67-negative and apoptotic cells were observed. Conclusions: X-irradiation and TAS106 effectively suppress tumor growth in mice. The inhibition of survivin expression by TAS106 is thought to mainly contribute to the suppression of the tumor growth

  13. Whole body X-irradiation and impact of dietary factors on brain and testes of albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.S.; Chaturvedi, P.K.

    1988-01-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate the radioprotective effect of protein diet on the irradiated brain and testes. The study indicated that the less availability of protein in the diet caused a marked reduction in the protein and nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) contents of brain after irradiation. Further, the protein deficiency in diet brought about an increased deamination of protein in the brain of irradiated rats. It was noted that in response to irradiation the testes of protein deficient diet fed rats got adversely affected as compared to high protein diet fed animals. This paper gives evidence that feeding of protein enriched diet provides protection against ionizing radiation. (orig.) [de

  14. Prenatal deaths and external malformations caused by x-irradiation during the preimplantation period of ddy mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Hee Jeong; Choi, Ihl Bhong; Gu, Yeun Wha

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of x-irradiation on prenatal deaths, i.e., preimplantation deaths. embryonic deaths, and fetal deaths, and on external malformations in precompacted preimplantation ddy mice. Pregnant mice (n=85), obtained by limiting the mating time to from 6 to 9 A.M., were segregated into 11 groups, The first five groups (n=26) were irradiated with X-ray doses of 0.1, 0.5, 0.75, 1.5, and 3 Gy, respectively, at 24 h post conception (p.c.) of the preimplantation period. The second five (n=27) groups were irradiated at the same X-ray doses, respectively, but at 48 h p.c. of the preimplantation period. The last group (n=32) was the control group. The uterine contents were examined on the 18th day of gestation for prenatal deaths and external malformations. 1) A statistically significant increase in preimplantation deaths with increasing dose was observed in the experimental groups irradiated at 24 h p.c. and in the groups irradiated at 48 h p.c., as compared to the control group. The threshold dose was close to 0.05 Gy and 0.075 Gy for the irradiations at 24 h p.c. and 48 h p.c. respectively. 2) A statistically significant increase in embryonic deaths with increasing dose was observed in all irradiation groups, except the group irradiated with a dose of 0,1 Gy at 48 h p.c.. 3) No fetal deaths were found in any experimental group. 4) In the experimental groups irradiated at 24 h p.c., anomalies increased with statistical significance, as compared with the control group: 2 exencephalies, 2 open eyelids,' 3 anophthalmias, 2 cleft palates. 2 gastroschisis, 1 abdominal wall defect. 1 leg defect, and 2 short tail anomalies; the threshold dose for external malformations was close to 0.2 Gy at 24 h p.c.. In the groups irradiated at 48 h p.c., 1 open eyelid and 2 short tail anomalies were observed, but there was no statistical significance in those malformations. The results of this study reveal that x-irradiation of precompacted preimplantation ddy mice causes not

  15. Influence of intracellular adenosine-triphosphate concentration of yeast cells on survival following X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhard, R.D.; Pohlit, W.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of D-glucose, 2-deoxy-D-glucose and starvation in buffer on the ATP-concentration of yeast cells has been studied. In both the wild-type and a respiratory-deficient mutant strain 2-deoxy-D-glucose decreases the value for ATP, while it is enhanced by glucose only in the mutant strain. Populations with different ATP-concentrations have been irradiated. The results suggest that ATP may be an essential factor in the system that determines the length of the shoulder of the dose effect curves. (orig.) [de

  16. Early paternal deprivation alters levels of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glucocorticoid receptor and serum corticosterone and adrenocorticotropin in a sex-specific way in socially monogamous mandarin voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruiyong; Song, Zhenzhen; Wang, Siyang; Shui, Li; Tai, Fadao; Qiao, Xufeng; He, Fengqin

    2014-01-01

    In monogamous mammals, fathers play an important role in the development of the brain and typical behavior in offspring, but the exact nature of this process is not well understood. In particular, little research has addressed whether the presence or absence of paternal care alters levels of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and basal levels of serum corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH). Here, we explored this concept using socially monogamous mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus), a species in which fathers display high levels of paternal care toward their pups. Our immunohistochemical study shows that paternal deprivation (PD) significantly decreased levels of GR and BDNF protein in the CA1 and CA2/3 of the hippocampus. In the dental gyrus, decreases in GR and BDNF induced by PD were evident in females but not in males. Additionally, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results show that PD significantly upregulated levels of serum CORT and ACTH in females, but not males. These findings demonstrate that PD alters HPA axis activity in a sex-specific way. The changes in stress hormones documented here may be associated with alteration in hippocampal BDNF and GR levels. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Survival of human diploid skin fibroblasts from normal individuals after X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, J.B.; Nove, J.; Strong, L.C.; Nichols, W.W.

    1988-01-01

    The cytotoxic effect of X-rays was measured by a colony formation assay in multiple experiments with fibroblast cell strains derived from 24 presumably normal individuals, received as 65 different coded and blinded samples. Each strain was received on two or more occasions at different times and bearing different codes. The means and standard deviations of the survival curve parameters for the 24 strains were: D 0 = 123 +- 23; D 10 = 273 +- 42 cGy. The D 0 ranged from 89 to 175 and the D 10 from 196 to 372 cGy. The degree of interexperimental variation, though generally minimal, differed considerably among cell strains. There was no systematic effect of passage level, cloning efficiency, serum lot, age or sex of the donor on X-ray survival. These results confirm that the intrinsic radiosensitivity varies significantly among skin fibroblasts isolated from clinically normal individuals, apparently owing to as yet unidentified genetic factors. (Author)

  18. Effects of X-irradiation on glial cells in the developing rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, I.; Borras, D.

    1994-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single dose of 2Gy X-rays when 1 or 3 days of age. Dying cells in the germinal layer of the telencephalon reached peak values 6h after irradiation; dead cells were cleared 48h later. These effects were almost abolished with the injection of cyclohexamide (1 μg/g body weight) given at the time of irradiation. PCNA-immunoreactive cells (cells in late G 1 and S phases of the cell cycle) and PCNA-negative cells were sensitive to X-rays. Long-term effects on glial cell populations in the subcortical white matter of the cingulum were examined in irradiated rats, killed at postnatal day 30 (P30), by means of glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin and S-100 immunohistochemistry, as well as with anti-TGF-α (transformerly growth factor) antibodies that are used as putative oligodendrogial cell markers in the white matter of rat. (author)

  19. Use of high dose X-irradiation to block back stimulation in the MLC reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasazuki, T.; McMichael, A.; Radvany, R.; Payne, R.; McDevitt, H.

    1976-01-01

    Paradoxical stimulation, ''back stimulation'' was observed in MLR (mixed lymphocyte culture reaction) in both family and population studies. This is one of the major problems in obtaining clear cut-off points for stimulation and non-stimulation in MLR using LD (lymphocyte defined) homozygous typing cells. The ability to provoke back stimulation was found to be different among LD homozygous typing cells. The presence of nonspecific blastogenic factors in supernatant from mixed culture of LD homozygous and heterozygous cells, which might be responsible for back stimulation, was confirmed. It was clearly shown that irradiation of LD homozygous typing cells with 6,000 rads instead of the widely used 3,000 rads can greatly reduce or eliminate this back stimulation without introducing any false non-stimulation. (author)

  20. Prognostic factors in Chinese patients with prostate cancer receiving primary androgen deprivation therapy: validation of Japan Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (J-CAPRA) score and impacts of pre-existing obesity and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Meng-Bo; Yang, Tian; Hu, Ji-Meng; Zhu, Wen-Hui; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Ding, Qiang

    2018-06-01

    Our aim was to determine the prognostic factors in Chinese patients with prostate cancer receiving primary androgen deprivation therapy (PADT), validate the Japan Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (J-CAPRA) score, and investigate the impacts of pre-existing obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM). The study enrolled Chinese patients diagnosed with prostatic adenocarcinoma and treated with bilateral orchiectomy as PADT at Huashan Hospital, Fudan University (Shanghai, China), from January 2003 to December 2015. The overall survival (OS) and prognostic value of J-CAPRA score, pre-existing obesity, DM, and various clinicopathological variables were analyzed. Of the 435 patients enrolled, 174 (40.0%) deaths occurred during follow-up; 3- and 5-year OS were 74.0 and 58.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified that higher Gleason score and metastasis were both correlated with worse OS and that higher J-CAPRA score was correlated with worse OS [hazard ratio (HR) 1.110, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.035-1.190, P = 0.003). Different risk categories based on J-CAPRA score showed good stratification in OS (log-rank P = 0.015). In subgroup analysis, pre-existing obesity as a protective factor in younger patients (age ≤ 65, HR 0.271, 95% CI 0.075-0.980, P = 0.046) and pre-existing DM as a risk factor in older patients (> 75, HR 1.854, 95% CI 1.026-3.351, P = 0.041) for OS were recognized, and the prediction accuracy of J-CAPRA was elevated after incorporating pre-existing obesity and DM. The J-CAPRA score presented with good OS differentiation among Chinese patients under PADT. Younger patients (age ≤ 65) had better OS with pre-existing obesity, while older patients (age > 75) had worse OS with pre-existing DM.

  1. High incidence of acute myeloid leukemia in SJL/J mice after X-irradiation and corticosteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnitzky, P.; Estrov, Z.; Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem; Haran-Ghera, N.

    1985-01-01

    SJL/J mice which developed a high incidence of spontaneous reticulum cell neoplasms, developed a low rate incidence (20-25%) of myeloid leukemia (ML) after X-irradiation. The possible effect of adrenal steroid imbalance to radiation-induced ML in SJL/J mice was tested. Intact and thymectomized animals were exposed to a single dose of 300 r whole body irradiation and treated with either hydrocortisone acetate, prednisone, metyrapone and adrenocorticotropin as coleukemogenic agents. Hydrocortisone and prednisone exerted a marked coleukemogenic effect, increasing the ML incidence to a similar rate of about 50-70%, at a mean latent period of 300 days. Prominent leukemic infiltration were observed in the bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes and liver of the leukemic animals. Results of cytological and histological studies, including cytochemistry and ultrastructure, were all consistent with the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Since AML is the type of human secondary leukemia which appears increasingly in patients treat with alkylating drugs and/or irradiation and corticosteroids for Hodgkin's disease or other neoplastic diseases, the experimental model of AML induced in SJL/J mice could be used for elucidation of mechanisms of leukemogenesis in secondary leukemia. (author)

  2. High incidence of acute myeloid leukemia in SJL/J mice after X-irradiation and corticosteroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnitzky, P; Estrov, Z; Haran-Ghera, N

    1985-01-01

    SJL/J mice which developed a high incidence of spontaneous reticulum cell neoplasms, developed a low rate incidence (20-25%) of myeloid leukemia (ML) after X-irradiation. The possible effect of adrenal steroid imbalance to radiation-induced ML in SJL/J mice was tested. Intact and thymectomized animals were exposed to a single dose of 300 r whole body irradiation and treated with either hydrocortisone acetate, prednisone, metyrapone and adrenocorticotropin as coleukemogenic agents. Hydrocortisone and prednisone exerted a marked coleukemogenic effect, increasing the ML incidence to a similar rate of about 50-70%, at a mean latent period of 300 days. Prominent leukemic infiltration were observed in the bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes and liver of the leukemic animals. Results of cytological and histological studies, including cytochemistry and ultrastructure, were all consistent with the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Since AML is the type of human secondary leukemia which appears increasingly in patients treat with alkylating drugs and/or irradiation and corticosteroids for Hodgkin's disease or other neoplastic diseases, the experimental model of AML induced in SJL/J mice could be used for elucidation of mechanisms of leukemogenesis in secondary leukemia.

  3. Induction and repair of DNA base damage studied in X-irradiated CHO cells using the M. luteus extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foehe, C.; Dikomey, E.

    1994-01-01

    DNA base damage was measured in Chinese hamster ovary cells X-irradiated under aerobic conditions using an extract of the bacterium Micrococcus luteus. The glycosylases and endonucleases present in this extract recognize damaged bases and convert them into strand breaks (termed endonuclease-sensitive sites, enss). Strand breaks were detected by the alkaline unwinding technique. The induction of enss was measured for X-ray doses ranging up to 45 Gy. The relative frequency of all enss related to all radiation induced strand breaks was 1.7 ± 0.4. Repair of enss was studied for a radiation dose of 45 Gy. The number of enss was found to decrease exponentially with time after irradiation with a half-time of τ enss = 37 ± 8 min. The repair kinetics that were also measured for all X-ray-induced DNA strand breaks were found to consist of three phases: fast, intermediate and slow. The intermediate phase was fitted under the assumption that this phase results from the information and repair of secondary single-strand breaks generated by enzymatic incision at the sites of base damage repair. (author)

  4. Hippocampal development in the rat: cytogenesis and morphogenesis examined with autoradiography and low-level x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, S.A.; Altman, J.

    1974-01-01

    The cytogenesis and morphogenesis of the rat hippocampus was examined with the techniques of 3 H-thymidine autoradiography, cell pyknosis produced by low-level x-irradiation, and quantitative histology. The procedure of progressively delayed cumulative labelling was used for autoradiography. Groups of rats were injected with four successive daily doses of 3 H-thymidine during non-overlapping periods ranging from birth to day 19. They were killed at 60 days of age, and the percentage of labelled cells was determined. Cell pyknosis in Ammon's horn reaches a maximal level prenatally and declines rapidly during the early postnatal period. Cell pyknosis in the dentate gyrus reaches its highest level during the second postnatal week and declines gradually with some radiosensitive cells still present in the adult. Immature granule cells are also at their highest level during the second postnatal week, while mature granule cells gradually accumulate to attain asymptotic levels at around two months of age. The alignment of the pyramidal cells to form the characteristic curvature of Ammon's horn occurs shortly after pyramidal cell cytogenesis is completed. Mechanisms for the morphological development of the dentate gyrus along with a consideration of the possible migratory route of granule cell precursors are discussed. (U.S.)

  5. Molecular and genetic approach to understanding the mechanisms by which fractionated X-irradiation induces leukemia in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meruelo, D; Rossomando, A

    1986-01-01

    The authors laboratory's approach to try to shed light on the question of a viral etiology for radiation-induced leukemia has focused on defining, localizing and understanding the mode of action of genes involved in susceptibility to fractionated x-irradiation-(FXI) induced disease. These studies have indicated that multiple genes control the process of leukemogenesis. Not every mouse strain which shows some susceptibility to FXI-induced leukemia carries the susceptible gene at each of the multiple loci involved in the disease process. It is plausible to conclude that more than one mechanism of leukemogenesis can be triggered by FXI. Studies have focused on the mode of action of one such locus Ril-1. Several reagents have been developed to help clone and characterize this locus. Currently chromosomal ''walking'' and ''hopping'' techniques are being used in conjunction with an RFLP molecular probe which is adjacent to Ril-1. In addition a cDNA library has been prepared from a radiation-induced thymoma and substraction hybridization analysis is being used in the search for Ril-1.

  6. Long-term effect of whole-body X-irradiation on cell-mediated immune reaction in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norimura, Toshiyuki; Tsuchiya, Takehiko

    1989-01-01

    Age-related change in immunological activity was examined at 10 to 91 weeks following whole-body irradiation by determining the specific anti-tumor cell-mediated immunity in host mice induced and/or enhanced by local irradiation to transplanted tumor. Median survival time of the non-irradiated C3H/He female mice was 98.6 weeks while the median life-span of the mice exposed to two and four Gy of 250 kVp X-rays at the age of 10-12 weeks was shortened by 14.9 and 23.4 weeks, respectively. The rate of tumor reduction within two weeks after local irradiation to tumor and the growth inhibitory activitiy of spleen cells from tumor irradiated mice were reduced in a dose-dependent manner when assessed 10 weeks after whole-body irradiation, but recovered to the near-complete level of the non-irradiated controls within a few months, then gradually decreased with normal aging. These results suggest that the age-dependent decline of this immunological activity apears earlier in the irradiated mice as a result of whole-body X-irradiation at a young age, suggesting accelerated aging of the immune system. (author)

  7. A longitudinal analysis of regional brain volumes in macaques exposed to X-irradiation in early gestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Aldridge

    Full Text Available Early gestation represents a period of vulnerability to environmental insult that has been associated with adult psychiatric disease. However, little is known about how prenatal perturbation translates into adult brain dysfunction. Here, we use a longitudinal study design to examine the effects of disruption of early gestational neurogenesis on brain volume in the non-human primate.Five Rhesus macaques were exposed to x-irradiation in early gestation (E30-E41, and four control monkeys were sham-irradiated at comparable ages. Whole brain magnetic resonance imaging was performed at 6 months, 12 months, and 3 and 5 years of age. Volumes of whole cerebrum, cortical gray matter, caudate, putamen, and thalamus were estimated using semi-automated segmentation methods and high dimensional brain mapping. Volume reductions spanning all ages were observed in irradiated monkeys in the putamen (15-24%, p = 0.01 and in cortical gray matter (6-15%, p = 0.01. Upon covarying for whole cerebral volume, group differences were reduced to trend levels (putamen: p = 0.07; cortical gray matter: p = 0.08. No group-by-age effects were significant.Due to the small number of observations, the conclusions drawn from this study must be viewed as tentative. Early gestational irradiation may result in non-uniform reduction of gray matter, mainly affecting the putamen and cerebral cortex. This may be relevant to understanding how early prenatal environmental insult could lead to brain morphological differences in neurodevelopmental diseases.

  8. Schistosoma mansoni: is acquired immunity induced by highly x-irradiated cercariae dependent on the size of the challenging dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.Y.; Hsue, H.F.; Osborne, J.W.; Johnson, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    A high degree of immunity, as shown by a 91% reduction of the number of worms recovered was found in five groups of mice that were immunized five times with highly X-irradiated cercariae and then challenged with 10, 20, 50, 100, or 500 normal Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in worm reduction in immunized mice challenged with different numbers of cercariae; consequently the immunity induced by this immunization method did not appear to be challenge-dose-dependent. However, the results also showed that when immunized mice were challenged with 500, 100, 50, 20, and 10 cercariae, 0, 13, 26, 56, and 68%, respectively, of the experimental animals were free of worms. Thus, the percentage of worm-negative cases increased as the number of challenge cercariae decreased. When viewed in this manner, the acquired immunity may be considered challenge-dose-dependent as well. If this method of vaccination is used for schistosomiasis control, we may anticipate that in both hypo- and hyperendemic areas, the intensity of infection and the severity of the disease will be reduced owing to a reduction in worms burdens, and in hypoendemic areas, there will be a number of worm-free cases

  9. Stage specificity and dose-response relationships for chromosome aberrations induced in mouse primary spermatocytes following X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Y.; Tobari, I.; Utsugi, T.

    1986-05-01

    In this study, dose-response relationships were examined for chromosome aberrations observed at diakinesis-metaphase I of spermatocytes with X-irradiation at various stages of meiosis (diplotene, mid-pachytene, zygotene and leptotene). The frequencies of cells with X-ray-induced chromosome aberrations increased with dose at all stages in the applied range of 0.5-3.0 Gy and tended to increase as the irradiated stages descended after leptotene stage. In three stages, the frequencies increased exponentially with dose, but the rates of induction of chromosome breaks were markedly different depending on the stages at which spermatocytes were irradiated with X-rays. The rate of induction was the highest at diplotene and the lowest at leptotene, suggesting that diplotene spermatocytes had the highest radiosensitivity to the induction of chromosome breaks, followed by pachytene, zygotene and leptotene spermatocytes in that order. The dose-response relationships fitted well to linear equations for deletion-type aberrations at each stage, and to linear-quadratic equations for exchange-type aberrations at all stages except for leptotene. At leptotene, the chromatid exchanges were hardly observed, the aberrations being mainly consisted of iso-chromatid fragments. On the contrary, chromatid exchanges and iso-chromatide deletions were mainly observed at later stages (zygotene-diplotene).

  10. Immunoglobulins and complement in the skin of Rhesus monkeys immunized with X-irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li-Hsue, S.Y.; Hsue, H.F.; Hanson, H.O.

    1981-01-01

    Skin sections of Rhesus monkeys immunized with X-irradiated Schistosoma japonicum cercariae were stained by an unlabeled antibody enzyme method for the detection of IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, and C3. While all of them could be found in the skin lesions, their distribution patterns varied with time and reactions. In whealing reaginic reactions, IgE appeared prominent, having an affinity to the mast cells. In Arthus-like reactions, IgG was predominant. IgG complexes were found on the schistosomula, on the walls of blood vessels, and in granulocytes near the schistosomula. In the late stage of Arthus-like reactions and in delayed hypersensitive reactions, IgA was predominant in granulocytes, mononuclear cells, and macrophages. Characteristics of each immunoglobulin pattern seemed to reflect its function in the effector mechanism. It may be speculated that these immunoglobulins and C3, together with effector cells, synergistically and sequentially destroy schistosomula in the skin.

  11. Delayed expression of apoptosis in X-irradiated human leukemic MOLT-4 cells transfected with mutant p53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Hisako; Yonekawa, Hiromichi; Shinohara, Kunio

    2003-01-01

    The effects of X-rays on cell survival, apoptosis, and long-term response in the development of cell death as measured by the dye exclusion test were studied in human leukemic MOLT-4 cells (p53 wild-type) stably transfected with a mutant p53 cDNA expression vector. Cell survival, as determined from colony-forming ability, was increased in an expression level dependent manner, but the increase was partial even with the highest-expressing clone (B3). This contrasts with the prior observation that cell death and apoptosis in B3 are completely inhibited at 24 h after irradiation with 1.8 Gy of X-rays. The examination of B3 cells incubated for longer than 24 h after X-irradiation showed a delay in the induction of cell death and apoptosis. Western blot analysis revealed that the time required to reach the highest level of wild-type p53 protein in B3 was longer than the time in MOLT-4 and that the p53 may be stabilized by the phosphorylation at Ser-15. These results suggest that the introduction of mutant p53 into MOLT-4 merely delays the development of apoptosis, during which the cells could repair the damage induced by X-rays, and results in the partial increase in cell survival. (author)

  12. Influence of immunization on serum γ-globulin levels of calves following whole-body X irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, F.; Mehlhorn, G.; Neumeister, K.; Johannsen, U.; Panndorf, H.

    1980-01-01

    Calves aged 2.5 to 4 months were whole-body X irradiated with mean lethal doses between 1.2 and 1.7 Gy. The effect of different immunization procedures on the irradiation-induced reaction of the serum gamma globulin levels was studied. Immunization 14 and 21 days before irradiation resulted in obvious stimulation gamma globulin production. After parenteral antigen administration the nearly 2 weeks lasting increase of the gamma globulin level rose in the irradiated animals but declined in the sham-irradiated calves. After a lethal dosis of 1.7 Gy there was a decrease of the gamma globulins 3 weeks post irradiation, at the climax of the radiation syndrome. When 1.5 Gy were used the increase of the gamma globulin concentration was observed also after oral administration of the antigen. The response of the irradiated animals in the secondary reaction of the antibody production was most lear after boosting with homologous bacteria. The stimulating effect of the irradiation on the serum globulin levels after immunization prior to irradiation has been attributed to the reaction of the immunoglobulin-producing system to the release of tissue proteins and antigens, respectively

  13. Immunoglobulins and complement in the skin of Rhesus monkeys immunized with X-irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li-Hsue, S.Y.; Hsue, H.F.; Hanson, H.O.

    1981-01-01

    Skin sections of Rhesus monkeys immunized with X-irradiated Schistosoma japonicum cercariae were stained by an unlabeled antibody enzyme method for the detection of IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, and C3. While all of them could be found in the skin lesions, their distribution patterns varied with time and reactions. In whealing reaginic reactions, IgE appeared prominent, having an affinity to the mast cells. In Arthus-like reactions, IgG was predominant. IgG complexes were found on the schistosomula, on the walls of blood vessels, and in granulocytes near the schistosomula. In the late stage of Arthus-like reactions and in delayed hypersensitive reactions, IgA was predominant in granulocytes, mononuclear cells, and macrophages. Characteristics of each immunoglobulin pattern seemed to reflect its function in the effector mechanism. It may be speculated that these immunoglobulins and C3, together with effector cells, synergistically and sequentially destroy schistosomula in the skin. (orig.)

  14. The rate of DNA synthesis in normal human and ataxia telangiectasia cells after exposure to X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wit, J. de; Bootsma, D.; Jaspers, N.G.J.; Rijksverdedigingsorganisatie TNO, Rijswijk

    1981-01-01

    The rate of DNA synthesis was studied in normal cell strains and in strains from patients suffering from the inherited disorder ataxia telangiectasia (AT). After exposure to relatively low doses of oxic X-rays (0- 4 krad) DNA synthesis was depressed in AT cell strains to a significantly lesser extent than in normal cells. This response was observed in both an excision-deficient and an excision-proficient strain. In contrast, there was no difference in DNA-synthesis inhibition between AT and normal cells after UV exposure. After X-irradiation of cells from patients with xeroderma pigmentosum, both complementation group A and XP variants, the observed rate of DNA synthesis was equal to that in normal cells. An exception was the strain XP3BR which has been shown to be X-ray-sensitive. This strain exhibited diminished DNA synthesis inhibition after X-ray doses below 1 krad. These data suggest a relationship between hypersensitivity to X-rays and diminished depression of DNA synthesis. (orig.)

  15. High incidence of hydrocephalus following prenatal exposure to X-irradiation at early gestational stage in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aolad, H.; Inouye, Minoru; Hayasaka, Shizu; Darmanto, W.; Murata, Yoshiharu

    1998-01-01

    Hydrocephalus is one of the severe brain anomalies. Several causes of congenital hydrocephalus have been reported and, it is known that radiation is one of those. The current study was designed to obtain postnatally viable hydrocephalic offspring at a high incidence following X-radiation. This finding will be helpful to elucidate the mechanism of congenital hydrocephalus caused by X-radiation. Twenty pregnant Slc:ICR mice, 5 in each group, were exposed to X-irradiation at a dose of 1.0 Gy on gestational days 7 (G7), G8, G9 or G10. The incidence of hydrocephalus was high in the group exposed on G7. An additional 21 pregnant mice were then exposed to a dose of 1.2 Gy, 1.3 Gy, 1.4 Gy or 1.5 Gy X-radiation on G7. The highest incidence of hydrocephalic offspring was found following exposure to 1.4 Gy X-radiation. (author)

  16. Identification of low-dose responsive metabolites in X-irradiated human B lymphoblastoid cells and fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuyama, Naohiro; Katafuchi, Atsushi; Abe, Yu; Kurosu, Yumiko; Yoshida, Mitsuaki; Kamiya, Kenji; Sakai, Akira; Mizuno, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) induces cellular stress responses, such as signal transduction, gene expression, protein modification, and metabolite change that affect cellular behavior. We analyzed X-irradiated human Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B lymphoblastoid cells and normal fibroblasts to search for metabolites that would be suitable IR-responsive markers by Liquid Chromotography–Mass spectrometry (LC–MS). Mass spectra, as analyzed with principal component analysis, showed that the proportion of peaks with IR-induced change was relatively small compared with the influence of culture time. Dozens of peaks that had either been upregulated or downregulated by IR were extracted as candidate IR markers. The IR-changed peaks were identified by comparing mock-treated groups to 100 mGy-irradiated groups that had recovered after 10 h, and the results indicated that the metabolites involved in nucleoside synthesis increased and that some acylcarnitine levels decreased in B lymphoblastoids. Some peaks changed by as much as 20 mGy, indicating the presence of an IR-sensitive signal transduction/metabolism control mechanism in these cells. On the other hand, we could not find common IR-changed peaks in fibroblasts of different origin. These data suggest that cell phenotype-specific pathways exist, even in low-dose responses, and could determine cell behavior. (author)

  17. Poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism in X-irradiated Chinese hamster cells: its relation to repair of potentially lethal damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Hur, E.; Elkind, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) is the substrate used by cells in poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis. X-irradiation of log-phase Chinese hamster cells caused a rapid decrease in NAD + levels which was linearly dependent on radiation dose. The activity of ADP-ribosyl transferase (ADPRT) also increased linearly with radiation dose. The decrease of NAD + was slower, and the increase in ADPRT activity was less pronounced, in a radiation sensitive line, V79-AL162/S-10. An inhibitor of ADPRT, m-aminobenzamide, largely prevented the depletion of cellular NAD + and reduced the rate at which ADPRT activity disappeared during post-irradiation incubation. Post-irradiation treatment with hypertonic buffer or with medium containing D 2 O-which inhibit repair of radiation-induced potentially lethal damage-enhanced the depletion of NAD + and prevented the reduction in ADPRT activity following irradiation. The characteristics of the effects of treatment with hypertonic buffer on NAD + metabolism were qualitatively similar to the effects that such treatment has on radiation-induced cell killing. These results suggest that poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis after irradiation plays a role in the repair of potentially lethal damage. (author)

  18. A molecular and genetic approach to understanding the mechanisms by which fractionated X-irradiation induces leukemia in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meruelo, D.; Rossomando, A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors laboratory's approach to try to shed light on the question of a viral etiology for radiation-induced leukemia has focused on defining, localizing and understanding the mode of action of genes involved in susceptibility to fractionated x-irradiation-(FXI) induced disease. These studies have indicated that multiple genes control the process of leukemogenesis. Not every mouse strain which shows some susceptibility to FXI-induced leukemia carries the susceptible gene at each of the multiple loci involved in the disease process. It is plausible to conclude that more than one mechanism of leukemogenesis can be triggered by FXI. Studies have focused on the mode of action of one such locus Ril-1. Several reagents have been developed to help clone and characterize this locus. Currently chromosomal ''walking'' and ''hopping'' techniques are being used in conjunction with an RFLP molecular probe which is adjacent to Ril-1. In addition a cDNA library has been prepared from a radiation-induced thymoma and substraction hybridization analysis is being used in the search for Ril-1. (author)

  19. Autologous monoclonal antibodies recognize tumour-associated antigens in X-irradiated C57BL/6 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artus, A; Guillemain, B; Legrand, E; Astier-Gin, T; Mamoun, R; Duplan, J -F

    1986-09-01

    X-irradiation of C57BL/6 mice induces thymic lymphosarcomas which sometimes contain retroviruses which upon injection into normal mice mimic the effect of the irradiation. We examined whether specific antigenicities, viral or cellular, were expressed by tumour cells that could be recognized by antibodies from the irradiated animals. We developed monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) using splenocytes of the diseased animal. The reactivity of such MAbs towards thymoma cell lines established in vitro was investigated by means of an ELISA. At least 10 antibody specificities were detected on the 13 tumours investigated, allowing separation of the MAbs into three classes: (i) those recognizing the autologous tumour, heterologous tumours as well as normal thymic tissue, (ii) those specific for the autologous tumour, and (iii) those specific for one tumour, but not ones of autologous origin. The last two classes corresponded to specific tumour-associated antigens. Our panel of MAbs defined each tumour by the particular pattern of antigens harboured. It is striking that most of the antigens were present in the normal thymus and that only two tumours had additional antigenicities. Additionally, quantitative variations were observed in the levels of expression of these antigens.

  20. Dose response relationship of disturbed migration of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum due to X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmanto, W.; Inouye, Minoru; Hayasaka, Shizu; Takagishi, Yoshiko; Aolad, H.; Murata, Yoshiharu

    1998-01-01

    Pregnant rats were exposed to 2.0, 2.25 or 2.5 Gy X-irradiation on gestation day 21. Pups were sacrificed 12 hr after exposure, and on postnatal day 5 (P5), P7 and P9. Their cerebella were observed immunohistochemically using anti-inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate (IP3) receptor antibody to identify Purkinje cells. These cells were disturbed to migrate and remained in the internal granular layer and white matter of the cerebellum. They had short dendrites, and some showed an abnormal direction of dendrites in rats exposed to 2.25 or 2.5 Gy. Alignment of Purkinje cells was also disturbed when examined either on P5, P7 or P9 especially by doses of 2.25 and 2.5 Gy. There was a relationship between X-ray doses and the number of cells piling up in the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum. The dose-response relationship with the number of ectopic Purkinje cells was noted in the anterior lobes of the cerebellum. (author)

  1. The formation of tigroid substance during postnatal maturation of the brain of mice after pre- and perinatal X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konermann, G.; Schwald, I.

    1980-01-01

    Using Nissl stained slices of postnatal brain, tigroid formation in neurons of the cortex, thalamus, cerebellum, hippocampus, gyrus dentatus and nucleus mot. trigemini was examined in X-irradiated mice. Following exposure on days 13, 16, 18,5 or 22 post conception with doses ranging grom 0.5 Gy to 3.0 Gy tigroid formation was studied by means of a selective microphotometrical measurement technique. After irradiation, a fluctuating diminution in the tigroid density was observed in relation to the controls. It was dependent both on the dose and on the stage of development during exposure. In several brain regions fluctuating tigroid responses, being most pronounced during the critical periods of postnatal brain maturation, resulted in a longterm compensation of a deficit in the tigroid density after irradiation with 0.5 Gy. After the higher doses the density diminution was either not compensated or was progressive. The late tigroid responses decrease from irradiation on day 13 p.c. to irradiation day 22 p.c. Hence, this type of late maturation impairment was either extended through several cell generations or it was induced to a lesser degree in the early postmitotic neurons. Changes in the total RNA-content of the brain are concomitant with the third week after birth. The tigroid reactions were interpreted as a chain of interdependent processes of retardation and stabilization. Accordingly, to obtain a better understanding of long-term maturation defects, a comprehensive evaluation of the whole chain of events will be required. (orig.) [de

  2. The evaluation of protective effect of lycopene against genotoxic influence of X-irradiation in human blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajowik, Aneta; Dobrzynska, Malgorzata M.

    2017-01-01

    Many studies suggest that exogenous antioxidants may protect cells against DNA damage caused with ionizing radiation. One of the most powerful antioxidants is lycopene (LYC), a carotenoid derived from tomatoes. The aim of this study was to investigate, using the comet assay, whether LYC can act as protectors/modifiers and prevent DNA damage induced in human blood lymphocytes, as well as to mitigate the effects of radiation exposure. In this project, LYC, dissolved in DMSO at a concentration of 10, 20 or 40 μM/ml of cell suspension, was added to the isolated lymphocytes from human blood at appropriate intervals before or after the X-irradiation at doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 Gy. Cell viability in all groups was maintained at above 70%. The results showed the decrease of DNA damage in cells treated with various concentrations of LYC directly and 1 h before exposure to X-rays compared to the control group exposed to irradiation alone. Contrary results were observed in cells exposed to LYC immediately after exposure to ionizing radiation. The studies confirmed the protective effect of LYC against DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation, but after irradiation the carotenoid did not stimulate of DNA repair and cannot act as modifier. However, supplementation with LYC, especially at lower doses, may be useful in protection from radiation-induced oxidative damage. (orig.)

  3. Ascertainment of the effect of differential growth rates of mutants on observed mutant frequencies in X-irradiated mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knaap, A.G.A.C.; Simons, J.W.I.M.

    1983-01-01

    As it is not known to what extent differential growth rates of induced mutants lead to over- and under-representation of mutants in treated populations and thereby affect the determination of mutant frequencies, the mutation induction in X-irradiated L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells was determined via two methods. The first method involves the standard protocol which may suffer from the effect of differential growth rates, while the second method is based upon the fluctuation test in which the differential growth rates can be actually measured. It appeared that the standard protocol led to a mutant frequency that was similar to the mutant frequency determined in the fluctuation test. Therefore, the standard protocol appears to lead to only a minor under-estimation if any. Substantial heterogeneity in growth rates of induced mutants was observed, but the mutants with a selective advantage appear largely to compensate for the mutants that are lost because of selective disadvantage. It was calculated that the chance for isolating the same mutant twice from a treated population had been increased 2.2-fold because of the observed differential growth rates. (orig./AJ)

  4. The evaluation of protective effect of lycopene against genotoxic influence of X-irradiation in human blood lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajowik, Aneta; Dobrzynska, Malgorzata M. [National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene, Department of Radiation Protection and Radiobiology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-11-15

    Many studies suggest that exogenous antioxidants may protect cells against DNA damage caused with ionizing radiation. One of the most powerful antioxidants is lycopene (LYC), a carotenoid derived from tomatoes. The aim of this study was to investigate, using the comet assay, whether LYC can act as protectors/modifiers and prevent DNA damage induced in human blood lymphocytes, as well as to mitigate the effects of radiation exposure. In this project, LYC, dissolved in DMSO at a concentration of 10, 20 or 40 μM/ml of cell suspension, was added to the isolated lymphocytes from human blood at appropriate intervals before or after the X-irradiation at doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 Gy. Cell viability in all groups was maintained at above 70%. The results showed the decrease of DNA damage in cells treated with various concentrations of LYC directly and 1 h before exposure to X-rays compared to the control group exposed to irradiation alone. Contrary results were observed in cells exposed to LYC immediately after exposure to ionizing radiation. The studies confirmed the protective effect of LYC against DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation, but after irradiation the carotenoid did not stimulate of DNA repair and cannot act as modifier. However, supplementation with LYC, especially at lower doses, may be useful in protection from radiation-induced oxidative damage. (orig.)

  5. Histopathologic changes induced in rats by localized x-irradiation of an exteriorized segment of the small intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebes, J I; Zaldivar, R; Vogel, Jr, H H [Tennessee Univ., Memphis (USA). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Tennessee Univ., Memphis (USA). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology)

    1975-10-01

    The sequence of histopathological changes was described after X-irradiation of the exteriorized segment (3 cm) of the rat ileum with a single dose of 2,200 R. A one-year follow-up was provided in rats whose exteriorized intestinal segments were irradiated. Comparisons were made between one group of animals in which the superior mesenteric artery and vein were clamped during irradiation and a second group in which these vessels were not clamped. A third group of sham-irradiated controls was used for comparisons. There was a delay in the onset and progression of the radiation damage to the mucosa of the hypoxic animals in the acute post-irradiation phase. In addition, prolongation of survival in the rats with the superior mesenteric vessels clamped was observed. Mucosal regeneration was noted, occurring at 52 days post-exposure. No adenocarcinomas were found up to 354 days after irradiation. An angiofibroma and a highly differentiated osteoid lesion were described.

  6. Protective effect of hypoxia in the ram testis during single and split-dose X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliet, J. van; Wensing, C.J.G.; Bootsma, A.L.; Peperzeel, H.A. van; Schipper, J.

    1988-01-01

    Spertogonial stem-cell survival in the ram was studied after single (6Gy) and split-dose X-irradiation both under normal and hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia was induced by inflation of an occluder implanted around the testicular artery. The occluders were inflated about 10 min before irradiation and deflated immediately after. Stem-cell survival was measured at 5 or 7 weeks after irradiation by determination of the Repopulation Index (RI) in histological testis sections. The RI-values after fractionated irradiation were only half those after single dose irradiation. Hypoxia had a protective effect on the stem-cell survival. After split-dose irradiation under hypoxic conditions two times more stem cells survived than under normal oxic conditions; the RI-values increased from 34% (oxic) to 68% (hypoxic). This effect of hypoxia was also found after single dose irradiation where the RI-values increased from 68% (oxic) to 84% (hypoxic). The development of the epithelium in repopulated tubules was also studied. Under hypoxia, a significantly higher fraction of tubules with complete epithelium was found after single (38 vs. 4%) as well as after split-dose irradiation (12 vs. 0%)

  7. Effect of single-dose x irradiation on the growth curves of a human malignant melanoma transplanted into nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spang-Thomsen, M.; Visfeldt, J.; Nielsen, A.

    1981-01-01

    A human malignant melanoma transplanted into nude mice was exposed to single-dose x irradiation. Experimental growth data described mathematically according to a transformed Gompertz function were used to determine the effect of irradiation on growth delay, growth rate, and tumor shrinkage. The radiation-induced changes in the histology of the tumors were also described. The results showed that irradiation induced a dose-dependent growth delay; this parameter was therefore found suitable for the assessment of relative therapeutic effect. The treatment also induced a dose-dependent reduction in growth rate during regrowth. As a result of this effect on growth rate, extrapolation of tumor shrinkage to the time of treatment became directly misleading as a measure of the effect of the treatment. From this it can be deduced that in therapeutic studies where treatment induces nonparallel posttherapeutic growth curves, growth delay for various tumors and therapies cannot be compared directly. The transformed Gompertz function proved to be extremely well suited for evaluating these conditions

  8. BDNF in sleep, insomnia, and sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Karen; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Eckert, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors involved in plasticity of neurons in several brain regions. There are numerous evidence that BDNF expression is decreased by experiencing psychological stress and that, accordingly, a lack of neurotrophic support causes major depression. Furthermore, disruption in sleep homeostatic processes results in higher stress vulnerability and is often associated with stress-related mental disorders. Recently, we reported, for the first time, a relationship between BDNF and insomnia and sleep deprivation (SD). Using a biphasic stress model as explanation approach, we discuss here the hypothesis that chronic stress might induce a deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. In the long-term it leads to sleep disturbance and depression as well as decreased BDNF levels, whereas acute stress like SD can be used as therapeutic intervention in some insomniac or depressed patients as compensatory process to normalize BDNF levels. Indeed, partial SD (PSD) induced a fast increase in BDNF serum levels within hours after PSD which is similar to effects seen after ketamine infusion, another fast-acting antidepressant intervention, while traditional antidepressants are characterized by a major delay until treatment response as well as delayed BDNF level increase. Key messages Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of stress-related mood disorders. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts on BDNF level. Partial sleep deprivation (PSD) shows a fast action on BDNF level increase.

  9. Repair of potentially lethal and sublethal radiation damage in x-irradiated ascites tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuboi, Atsushi; Okamoto, Mieko; Tsuchiya, Takehiko.

    1985-01-01

    The ability of cells to repair cellular radiation damage during the growth of TMT-3 ascites tumor and the effect of host reaction on the repair ability were examined by using an in vitro assay of cell clonogenicity after in situ irradiation of tumor cells. In single-dose experiments, the repair of potentially lethal radiation damage (PLD) was observed in stationary phase cells (12-day tumor) of the unirradiated host, but not in exponential phase cells (3-day tumor) of the unirradiated host animals. However, if previously irradiated host animals were used, even the exponentially growing tumor cells showed repair of PLD. In two-dose experiments, the ability to repair sublethal radiation damage (SLD) in exponential phase tumor cells was less than that of stationary phase cells in the unirradiated host. In the pre-irradiated host, the extent of the repair in exponential phase cells was somewhat enhanced. These results suggest that irradiation of host animals might suppress a factor that inhibits repair, resulting in enhancement of the repair capability of tumor cells. (author)

  10. Quantifying the impact of deprivation on preterm births: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Robinson, David; Agarwal, Umber; Diggle, Peter J; Platt, Mary Jane; Yoxall, Bill; Alfirevic, Zarko

    2011-01-01

    Social deprivation is associated with higher rates of preterm birth and subsequent infant mortality. Our objective was to identify risk factors for preterm birth in the UK's largest maternity unit, with a particular focus on social deprivation, and related factors. Retrospective cohort study of 39,873 women in Liverpool, UK, from 2002-2008. Singleton pregnancies were stratified into uncomplicated low risk pregnancies and a high risk group complicated by medical problems. Multiple logistic regression, and generalized additive models were used to explore the effect of covariates including area deprivation, smoking status, BMI, parity and ethnicity on the risk of preterm birth (34⁺⁰ weeks). In the low risk group, preterm birth rates increased with deprivation, reaching 1.6% (CI₉₅ 1.4 to 1.8) in the most deprived quintile; the unadjusted odds ratio comparing an individual in the most deprived quintile, to one in the least deprived quintile was 1.5 (CI₉₅ 1.2 to 1.9). Being underweight and smoking were both independently associated with preterm birth in the low risk group, and adjusting for these factors explained the association between deprivation and preterm birth. Preterm birth was five times more likely in the high risk group (RR 4.8 CI₉₅ 4.3 to 5.4), and there was no significant relationship with deprivation. Deprivation has significant impact on preterm birth rates in low risk women. The relationship between low socio-economic status and preterm births appears to be related to low maternal weight and smoking in more deprived groups.

  11. Quantifying the impact of deprivation on preterm births: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Taylor-Robinson

    Full Text Available Social deprivation is associated with higher rates of preterm birth and subsequent infant mortality. Our objective was to identify risk factors for preterm birth in the UK's largest maternity unit, with a particular focus on social deprivation, and related factors.Retrospective cohort study of 39,873 women in Liverpool, UK, from 2002-2008. Singleton pregnancies were stratified into uncomplicated low risk pregnancies and a high risk group complicated by medical problems. Multiple logistic regression, and generalized additive models were used to explore the effect of covariates including area deprivation, smoking status, BMI, parity and ethnicity on the risk of preterm birth (34⁺⁰ weeks. In the low risk group, preterm birth rates increased with deprivation, reaching 1.6% (CI₉₅ 1.4 to 1.8 in the most deprived quintile; the unadjusted odds ratio comparing an individual in the most deprived quintile, to one in the least deprived quintile was 1.5 (CI₉₅ 1.2 to 1.9. Being underweight and smoking were both independently associated with preterm birth in the low risk group, and adjusting for these factors explained the association between deprivation and preterm birth. Preterm birth was five times more likely in the high risk group (RR 4.8 CI₉₅ 4.3 to 5.4, and there was no significant relationship with deprivation.Deprivation has significant impact on preterm birth rates in low risk women. The relationship between low socio-economic status and preterm births appears to be related to low maternal weight and smoking in more deprived groups.

  12. Patterns of Subjective Deprivation in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortner, Rayman, W.; Hultsch, David F.

    1974-01-01

    Investigated the number and characteristics of adults experiencing different types of subjective deprivation, and evaluated Cantril's assertion that some of these types of deprivation are ontogenetic in nature. (DP)

  13. Circadian modulation of consolidated memory retrieval following sleep deprivation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Glou, Eric; Seugnet, Laurent; Shaw, Paul J; Preat, Thomas; Goguel, Valérie

    2012-10-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that sleep plays a critical role in learning and memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate anesthesia resistant memory following sleep deprivation in Drosophila. Four to 16 h after aversive olfactory training, flies were sleep deprived for 4 h. Memory was assessed 24 h after training. Training, sleep deprivation, and memory tests were performed at different times during the day to evaluate the importance of the time of day for memory formation. The role of circadian rhythms was further evaluated using circadian clock mutants. Memory was disrupted when flies were exposed to 4 h of sleep deprivation during the consolidation phase. Interestingly, normal memory was observed following sleep deprivation when the memory test was performed during the 2 h preceding lights-off, a period characterized by maximum wake in flies. We also show that anesthesia resistant memory was less sensitive to sleep deprivation in flies with disrupted circadian rhythms. Our results indicate that anesthesia resistant memory, a consolidated memory less costly than long-term memory, is sensitive to sleep deprivation. In addition, we provide evidence that circadian factors influence memory vulnerability to sleep deprivation and memory retrieval. Taken together, the data show that memories weakened by sleep deprivation can be retrieved if the animals are tested at the optimal circadian time.

  14. Electron spin resonance study of x-irradiated single crystals of ammonium chloroacetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshihara, M.

    1978-01-01

    The quadrupole interaction was considered to be a second order perturbation. Using perturbation theory, formulas were derived for the positions and relative intensities of both allowed (Δm = 0) and forbidden (Δm = +- 1, +- 2) transitions. Using this information, expected spectral patterns were constructed for comparison with observed spectra. It has also been possible to determine the signs of chlorine hyperfine coupling parameters. In this way the complete chlorine coupling tensors were obtained for both the magnetic and quadrupole interactions in the CClHCOONH 4 radical. The chlorine magnetic hyperfine couplings are A/sub x/ = 20.5 G perpendicular to the radical plane, A/sub y/ = -5.2 G perpendicular to the C-Cl bond (in the radical plane) and A/sub z/ = -6.3 G in the direction of the C-Cl bond. The quadrupole couplings are P/sub x/ = 2.3 G perpendicular to the radical plane, P/sub y/ = 2.1 G perpendicular to the C-Cl bond (in the plane) and P/sub z/ = -4.4 G in the direction of the C-Cl bond. The hydrogen hyperfine tensor components are A/sub x//sup H/ = -21.8 G perpendicular to the radical plane, A/sub y//sup H/ = -9.3 G in the direction of the C-H bond and A/sub z//sup H/ = -32.5 G perpendicular to the C-H bond (in the radical plane). The g-factor has the values g/sub x/ = 2.0021 perpendicular to the radical plane, g/sub y/ = 2.0080 perpendicular to the C-Cl bond (in the radical plane) and g/sub z/ = 2.0081 in the C-Cl bond. The direction of the C-Cl bond of the radical was inferred. Evaluation of the hydrogen hyperfine couplings has led to the determination of the direction of the C-H bond. From this information the radical was determined to be a planar π-radical. A determination was made of the spin densities of the unpaired electron in the various orbitals: C 2 p/sub x/ = +0.76, Cl 3s = +0.0017, Cl 3p/sub x/ = +0.175, and Cl 3p/sub z/ = -0.012

  15. Prazosin Prevents Increased Anxiety Behavior That Occurs in Response to Stress During Alcohol Deprivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Dennis D; Kincaid, Carrie L; Froehlich, Janice C

    2017-01-01

    Stress-induced anxiety is a risk factor for relapse to alcohol drinking. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the central nervous system (CNS)-active α 1 -adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin, would block the stress-induced increase in anxiety that occurs during alcohol deprivations. Selectively bred male alcohol-preferring (P) rats were given three cycles of 5 days of ad libitum voluntary alcohol drinking interrupted by 2 days of alcohol deprivation, with or without 1 h of restraint stress 4 h after the start of each of the first two alcohol deprivation cycles. Prazosin (1.0 or 1.5 mg/kg, IP) or vehicle was administered before each restraint stress. Anxiety-like behavior during alcohol deprivation following the third 5-day cycle of alcohol drinking (7 days after the most recent restraint stress ± prazosin treatment) was measured by performance in an elevated plus-maze and in social approach/avoidance testing. Rats that received constant alcohol access, or alcohol access and deprivations without stress or prazosin treatments in the first two alcohol deprivations did not exhibit augmented anxiety-like behavior during the third deprivation. In contrast, rats that had been stressed during the first two alcohol deprivations exhibited increased anxiety-like behavior (compared with control rats) in both anxiety tests during the third deprivation. Prazosin given before stresses in the first two cycles of alcohol withdrawal prevented increased anxiety-like behavior during the third alcohol deprivation. Prazosin treatment before stresses experienced during alcohol deprivations may prevent the increased anxiety during subsequent deprivation/abstinence that is a risk factor for relapse to alcohol drinking. Administration of prazosin before stresses during repetitive alcohol deprivations in male alcohol-preferring (P) rats prevents increased anxiety during a subsequent deprivation without further prazosin treatment. Prazosin treatment during repeated

  16. Infantile nystagmus and visual deprivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Jensen, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate whether effects of early foveal motor instability due to infantile nystagmus might compare to those of experimental visual deprivation on refraction in a childhood series. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of data from the Danish Register for Blind and Weaksighted Ch...

  17. Health Effects of Sleep Deprivation,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    of an inordinate sleep loss (as hunger and thirst prevent us from going too long without food and water). Because of this, it takes great personal...drug-refractory depression. Neuropsychology 13:111-116, 1985. 82. Dowd PJ: Sleep deprivation effects on the vestibular habituation process. J Apply

  18. Crime: social disorganization and relative deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawachi, I; Kennedy, B P; Wilkinson, R G

    1999-03-01

    Crime is seldom considered as an outcome in public health research. Yet major theoretical and empirical developments in the field of criminology during the past 50 years suggest that the same social environmental factors which predict geographic variation in crime rates may also be relevant for explaining community variations in health and wellbeing. Understanding the causes of variability in crime across countries and across regions within a country will help us to solve one of the enduring puzzles in public health, viz. why some communities are healthier than others. The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual framework for investigating the influence of the social context on community health, using crime as the indicator of collective wellbeing. We argue that two sets of societal characteristics influence the level of crime: the degree of relative deprivation in society (for instance, measured by the extent of income inequality), and the degree of cohesiveness in social relations among citizens (measured, for instance, by indicators of 'social capital' and 'collective efficacy'). We provided a test of our conceptual framework using state-level ecologic data on violent crimes and property crimes within the USA. Violent crimes (homicide, assault, robbery) were consistently associated with relative deprivation (income inequality) and indicators of low social capital. Among property crimes, burglary was also associated with deprivation and low social capital. Areas with high crime rates tend also to exhibit higher mortality rates from all causes, suggesting that crime and population health share the same social origins. Crime is thus a mirror of the quality of the social environment.

  19. Psychological wellbeing of Dutch incarcerated women: importation or deprivation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slotboom, A.; Kruttschnitt, C.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; Menting, B.

    2011-01-01

    In light of the dramatic increase over the past decade in the number of women incarcerated in the Netherlands, we examined 251 female inmates' psychological reactions to imprisonment with a survey that taps importation and deprivation factors and related life experiences. While depressive

  20. Reaction of blood pressure and mesenteric blood flow to infusion of biogenic amines in normal and supralethally x-irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmermans, R.; Gerber, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    The responss of blood pressure and mesenteric blood flow were recorded during infusion of biogenic amines (noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, and histamine) to control and x-irradiated rats (first and third days after 2 kR x irradiation). Responses to different doses of the amines were evaluated, and the results obtained correspond to those seen in other species (e.g., an increase in pressure and a decrease in flow after dopamine, an increase in pressure and a decrease in flow after serotonin, a decrease in pressure and flow after acetylcholine, and a decrease in flow after serotonin, a decrease in pressure and flow after acetylcholine, and a decrease in pressure and an increase in flow after histamine). Irradiated animals are more responsive to pressure-raising agents, in particular to noradrenaline. They also have an altered dose-pressure response curve for dopamine

  1. The enhancing effect of fractionated whole-body x-irradiation on replication of endogenous leukemia viruses in BALB/c mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamori, Yasuhiko; Okumoto, Masaaki; Iwai, Mineko; Iwai, Yoshiaki

    1976-01-01

    The incidence of leukemia, changes in the tissue weight of spleen and thymus, and the expression of endogenous viruses were examined with BALB/c mice following 4 weekly fractionated whole-body x-irradiation of 170 R each, starting at 4 weeks of age. The leukemia incidence was quite low for the unirradiated controls, while 60% of the irradiated male mice developed thymic lymphoma. The virus-positive cells appeared earlier in the spleen than in the thymus and bone marrow, and increased with aging. The time of appearance of virus-positive cells in these tissues was remarkably promoted by the fractionated x-irradiation, and its frequency was also enhanced. (auth.)

  2. Materialistic Cues Boosts Personal Relative Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Three studies investigated whether exposure to materialistic cues would increase perceptions of personal relative deprivation and related emotional reactions. In Study 1, individuals who were surveyed in front of a luxury store reported higher levels of personal relative deprivation than those surveyed in front of an ordinary building. In Study 2, participants who viewed pictures of luxurious goods experienced greater personal relative deprivation than those viewed pictures of neutral scenes. Study 3 replicated the results from Study 2, with a larger sample size and a more refined assessment of relative deprivation. Implications of these findings for future studies on relative deprivation and materialism are discussed.

  3. Materialistic Cues Boosts Personal Relative Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Three studies investigated whether exposure to materialistic cues would increase perceptions of personal relative deprivation and related emotional reactions. In Study 1, individuals who were surveyed in front of a luxury store reported higher levels of personal relative deprivation than those surveyed in front of an ordinary building. In Study 2, participants who viewed pictures of luxurious goods experienced greater personal relative deprivation than those viewed pictures of neutral scenes. Study 3 replicated the results from Study 2, with a larger sample size and a more refined assessment of relative deprivation. Implications of these findings for future studies on relative deprivation and materialism are discussed.

  4. Reduction in sperm count and increase in abnormal sperm in the mouse following x-irradiation or injection of 22Na

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, A.; Moore, P.C.

    1980-01-01

    The accumulated reduction in sperm count and increase in the number of aberrant sperm in the mouse were used to compare acute X-irradiation with protracted radiation from an injection of 22 Na. The effects per unit of absorbed dose of acute and protracted radiation were similar on sperm count, but in respect of numbers of abnormal sperm the 22 Na induced a significantly greater maximum than X-rays. (author)

  5. Protective action of DNA preparations on the survival of cells and yield of 8-azaguanine resistant mutations in X-irradiated cell culture of chinese hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsova, N.N.; Feoktistova, T.P.

    1976-01-01

    A DNA preparation (molecular weight 19.6-21.0x1O 6 daltons) administered to cell culture of Chinese hamsters in concentrations of 100 to 122 μg/ml 60 minutes before and in the course of 3 days after X-irradiation (600 R) decreased the lethality of irradiated cells and reduced induction of 8-azaguanine resistant genic mutations. DNA preparations with the concentrations under study had no toxic action on cells and were not mutagenous

  6. Relationship between chromosomal aberration of germ cells and dominant lethal mutation in male mice after low dosage of X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingdong, Wang; Baochen, Yang; Yuke, Jin [Bethune (N.) Medical Univ., Changchun, JL (China). Dept. of Gentics

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between chromosomal aberration adn dominant mutation in spermatocytes of late pachytene phase in male mice after a single X-irridiation was reported. It was found that the frequency of aberrant cells was correlative to the rate of fetal death, the latter was being about 2.5 times as high as the former. The frequency of dominant lethal mutation induced by X-irradiation is 2.1995x10{sup -3} gamete {center dot} 10 mGy.

  7. Social deprivation and prognosis in Scottish patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellino, Katherine; Kerridge, Simon; Church, Colin; Peacock, Andrew J; Crowe, Timothy; Jayasekera, Geeshath; Johnson, Martin K; MacKenzie, Alison M

    2018-02-01

    Several demographic and clinical factors have prognostic significance in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Studies in China and the USA have suggested an association between low socioeconomic status and reduced survival. The impact of social deprivation on IPAH survival in the UK is not known.280 patients with IPAH and hereditary PAH (HPAH) attending the Scottish Pulmonary Vascular Unit (Glasgow, UK) were assigned to social deprivation quintiles using the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation database. The association between survival and social deprivation quintile was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis.The distribution of IPAH/HPAH patients was more socially deprived than would be expected based on Scottish citizenry as a whole (Chi-squared 16.16, p=0.003), suggesting referral and access to care is not impeded by socioeconomic status. Univariate analysis demonstrated no significant association between social deprivation and survival (p=0.81), and this association failed to reach significance with inclusion of time, sex and age as covariates in the model (p=0.23). There were no statistically significant correlations between social deprivation and baseline clinical variables of prognostic importance except for age, sex and quality of life.Social deprivation is not a significant referral barrier or prognostic factor for IPAH and HPAH in Scotland. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  8. Sites of production of sex steroids: secretion of steroids from x-irradiated and polycystic ovaries of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, T.; Ichikawa, S.

    1978-01-01

    Ovaries of immature rats and PMS-induced pregnant rats were unilaterally x-irradiated. Ten days later, the concentrations of pregnane compounds in the ovarian venous plasma were measured. LH (2 μg) was injected iv 30 min before bleeding. A comparison of steroid levels in the ovarian venous effluent of rats with and without destruction of selected tissue components by irradiation of the ovaries suggests that the follicles contribute to the secretion of 5α-pregnane-3,20-dione and 3α-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one in the presence of interstitial gland tissue. Because it is known that follicular tissue is involved in the production of estrogens, we studied the interrelationship between the secretion of the two progesterone metabolites and estrogens in follicular polycystic ovaries of androgen-sterilized rats. Normal ovaries of diestrus-2 rats were used as controls for the polycystic ovaries. The injection of LH greatly increased the secretion of 5α-pregnane-3,20-dione and 3α-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one within 1 h in normal ovaries, but the response of polycystic ovaries was low, suggesting low 5α-reductase activity in the cystic ovary. The polycystic ovaries exhibited a marked increase in the secretion of estrogens in response to LH, whereas normal ovaries showed no significant change. These results suggest that low 5α-reductase activity may be causally related to the high level of estrogen secretion in polycystic ovaries of androgen-sterilized rats

  9. A chimera embryo assay reveals a decrease in embryonic cellular proliferation induced by sperm from X-irradiated male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obasaju, M.F.; Wiley, L.M.; Oudiz, D.J.; Raabe, O.; Overstreet, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Male mice were divided into three experimental groups and a control group. Mice in the experimental groups received one of three doses of acute X irradiation (1.73, 0.29, and 0.05 Gy) and together with the control unirradiated mice were then mated weekly to unirradiated female mice for a 9-week experimental period. Embryos were recovered from the weekly matings at the four-cell stage and examined by the chimera assay for proliferative disadvantage. Aggregation chimeras were constructed of embryos from female mice mated to irradiated males (experimental embryos) and embryos from females mated to unexposed males (control embryos) and contained either one experimental embryo and one control embryo (heterologous chimera) or two control embryos (control chimera). The control embryo in heterologous chimeras and either embryo in control chimeras were prelabeled with the vital dye fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), and the chimeras were cultured for 40 h and viewed under phase-contrast and epifluorescence microscopy to obtain total embryo cell number and the cellular contribution from the FITC-labeled embryo. Experimental and control embryos that were cultured singly were also examined for embryo cell number at the end of the 40-h culture period. In control chimeras, the mean ratio of the unlabeled cells:total chimera cell number (henceforth referred to as ''mean ratio'') was 0.50 with little or no weekly variation over the 9-week experimental period. During Weeks 4-7, the mean ratios of heterologous chimeras differed significantly from the mean ratio of control chimeras with the greatest differences occurring during Week 7 (0.41 for chimeras of 0.05 Gy dose group, 0.40 for chimeras of the 0.29 Gy dose group, and 0.17 for chimeras of the 1.73 Gy dose group)

  10. Assay using embryo aggregation chimeras for the detection of nonlethal changes in X-irradiated mouse preimplantation embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obasaju, M.F.; Wiley, L.M.; Oudiz, D.J.; Miller, L.; Samuels, S.J.; Chang, R.J.; Overstreet, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    We have developed a short-term in vitro assay for the detection of sublethal effects produced by very low levels of ionizing radiation. The assay utilizes mouse embryo aggregation chimeras consisting of one irradiated embryo paired with an unirradiated embryo whose blastomeres have been labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). X irradiation (from 0.05 to 2 Gy) and chimera construction were performed with four-cell stage embryos, and the chimeras were cultured for 40 h to the morula stage. The morulae were partially dissociated with calcium-free culture medium and viewed under phase contrast and epifluorescence microscopy to obtain total embryo cell number and the cellular contribution of irradiated (unlabeled) and control (FITC labeled) embryos per chimera. In chimeras where neither embryo was irradiated, the ratio of the unlabeled blastomeres to the total number of blastomeres per chimera embryo was 0.50 (17.8 +/- 5.6 cells per unlabeled embryo and 17.4 +/- 5.5 cells per FITC-labeled partner embryo). However, in chimeras formed after the unlabeled embryos were irradiated with as little as 0.05 Gy, the ratio of unlabeled blastomeres to the total number of blastomeres per chimera embryo was 0.43 (P less than 0.01). The apparent decreases in cell proliferation were not observed in irradiated embryos that were merely cocultured with control embryos, regardless of whether the embryos were zona enclosed or zona free. We conclude that very low levels of radiation induce sublethal changes in cleaving embryos that are expressed as a proliferative disadvantage within two cell cycles when irradiated embryos are in direct cell-to-cell contact with unirradiated embryos

  11. Method for the cultivation of dispersed epithelial cells from mouse palatal mucosa and the effects of X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, K.W.

    1976-01-01

    Cultivation of adult oral epithelium in vitro has been previously reported for limited periods of time. The present research work describes a method for establishing pure cultures of adult palatal epithelial cells which were viable for extended periods of time. In contrast with most published work, we utilized a cell dispersion technique to obtain suspensions consisting of epithelial cells grown in monolayers. Cultures were maintained by subculturing for continuous periods up to 72 days. The fibroblastic overgrowth which has been previously reported by others in their attempts to culture oral epithelium was prevented in the present culture system as shown by phase microscopy and preliminary electron microscopy studies. The cells in vitro mainly displayed the normal morphologic characteristics of cultured epithelial cells. As demonstrated by labelling with tritiated thymidine, the monolayers of palatal epithelial cells possessed a high rate of DNA synthesis. Karyotypes of the cultured cells showed a high percentage of normal displays of chromosomal morphology. The number of spontaneous aberrations observed in our in vitro system were most likely the result of labilities induced by the conditions of cell culture rather than a reflection of the situation in vivo. Another part of the research dealt with the effects of exposure levels of 1R, 5R, and 10R of X-irradiation (within the clinical range for the dental patient) on the palatal epithelial cells grown in vitro over a short period of time. Our studies reveal that higher percentages of heteroploidy occur in comparison to normal non-irradiated cultures. A significant increase in the number of induced chromosomal aberrations as a result of low level exposure to X-rays was also observed in such cultures in comparison to those seen in non-irradiated control samples

  12. Structure of Radicals from X-irradiated Guanine Derivatives: An Experimental and Computational Study of Sodium Guanosine Dihydrate Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilaka, Nayana; Nelson, William H.

    2008-01-01

    In sodium guanosine dihydrate single crystals, the guanine moiety is deprotonated at N1 due to growth from high-pH (>12) solutions. EPR and ENDOR study of crystals x-irradiated at 10 K detected evidence for three radical forms. Radical R1,characterized by two proton and two nitrogen hyperfine interactions, was identified as the product of net hydrogenation at N7 of the N1-deprotonated guanine unit. R1 exhibited an unusually distorted structure leading to net positive isotropic components of the hydrogen couplings. Radical R2, characterized by one proton and one nitrogen hyperfine coupling was identified as the primary electron loss product. This product is equivalent to that of deprotonation at N1 by the guanine cation and represents the first ENDOR characterization of that product. Radical R3, characterized by a single hydrogen hyperfine coupling, was identified as the product of net dehydrogenation at C1 of the ribose moiety. The identification of radicals R1-R3 was supported by DFT calculations on several possible structures using the B3LYP/6-311G(2df,p)//6-31G(d,p) approach. Radical R4, detected after warming the crystals to room temperature, was identified as the well-known product of net hydrogenation of C8 of the (N1-deprotonated) guanine component. Radical R1, evidently formed by protonation of the primary electron addition product, was present as roughly 60% of the total radicals detected at 10 K. Radical R2 was present as roughly 27% of the total yield, and the concentration of R3 contributed the remaining 13%. R3 is evidently the product of oneelectron oxidation followed by deprotonation; thus, the balance of oxidation and reduction products is approximately equal within experimental uncertainty. PMID:17249824

  13. Scheduled and unscheduled DNA synthesis in chick embryo liver following X-irradiation and treatment with DNA repair inhibitors in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stammberger, I.; Tempel, K. (Muenchen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Pharmakologie und Toxikologie); Schmahl, W. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung m.b.H. Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Pathologie)

    1989-09-01

    Three hours following X-irradiation of chick embryos with doses of 4 and 8 Gy the in vitro incorporation of tritiated thymidine (({sup 3}H)dT) into DNA (scheduled DNA synthesis, ss) of hepatocytes was reduced to about one-third. Within 24 h after the exposure, ss returned to control values. The return of ss to a normal rate could be strongly inhibited by 2', 3'-dideoxythymidine (ddT), and to a lesser extent by 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (araC). In strong contrast to ss, the hydroxyurea (hu)-resistant ({sup 3)H}dT incorporation (unscheduled DNA synthesis, us) showed a highly significant increase 24 h after treatment of the embryos with araC and/or X-irradiation. Autoradiographic studies revealed no change of total ({sup 3}H)dT labelling frequency in the whole chick embryo liver 24 h after treatment with araC and/or X-irradiation, but a persistent depression of ss and a simultaneous increase of us. (author).

  14. Kinetics of telencephalic neural cell proliferation during the fetal regeneration period following a single X-irradiation at the late organogenesis stage. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmahl, W.

    1983-01-01

    Autoradiographic studies were conducted at the cerebral hemispheres of mouse embryos X-irradiated on day 12 of gestation and of normal litter mates during the subsequent developmental period. By counting the percentage of labeled mitoses the generation time, the potential doubling time, the growth fraction, as well as the length of the individuall cell cycle stages of the neuroblast cells were determined. A continuous increase of generation time was found in the normal brains, concomitant with a latero-medial gradient in telencephalic wall differentiation progress. After X-irradiation this normal differentiation pattern still prevails, but with some marked topographical pecularities. The most important finding was a significant lengthening of the generation time at the medially situated rudiments of the ventricular zone and, similarly at the heterotopic cell islets located within the intermediary zone. Concomitant with this effect, which was seen mainly on days 15 and 17 of gestation, there was a marked increase of mitotic time of these special neuroblasts. The latter finding was regarded as a random event only, which has no causal relationship to the pathogenesis of the heterotopic islets or similar overgrowth anomalies after X-irradiation. In spite of the long generation time of these histological pecularities, they make a considerable contribution to the regeneration of the injured telencephalic wall: up to day 15 gestation the heterotopias had a growth fraction of nearly 1.0(=100 %), whereas the percentage of proliferating cells within the orthotopic remainders of the ventricular zone was only 44%. (orig.)

  15. Sensitivity difference between anterior and posterior lobes of rat cerebellum to prenatal exposure to 2.5 Gy X-irradiation. A histological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmanto, W.; Hayasaka, Shizu; Takagishi, Yoshiko; Aolad, H.M.; Inouye, Minoru

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the histological differences in abnormality between anterior lobes (vermian lobules II, III and culmen IV, V) and posterior lobes (lobules IX, X) of the rat cerebellum following prenatal exposure to X-irradiation. Pregnant rats were exposed to 2.5 Gy X-irradiation at gestation day-21 (GD-21), and pups were sacrificed from birth through 15 days of age. Their cerebella were examined histologically and immunohistochemically for glial fibrillary acidic protein in Bergmann fibers. Extensive cell death was found in the external granular layer (EGL) of the cerebellum on the day of birth. In the anterior lobes, the number of cell deaths was higher than in the posterior lobes. During 5 days after birth, the recovery of EGL was earlier in the posterior lobes than in the anterior lobes. Seven days after birth, Bergmann fibers were more irregular in the anterior lobes than in the posterior lobes. The number of Purkinje cells in ectopic locations was higher in the anterior lobes than in the posterior lobes. The EGL and migrating Purkinje cells showed different responses to X-irradiation in the anterior than in the posterior lobes of the cerebellum. (author)

  16. Effects of chronic postnatal opioid receptor blockade by naltrexone upon proliferation capacity in the prenatally x-irradiated brain of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmahl, W.; Miaskowski, U. (Department of Pathology, Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen-und Umweltforschung mbh Muechen, Neuherberg (West Germany))

    1991-01-01

    We recently reported that in rats prenatally x-irradiated on gestation day 14 with 1 Gy, postnatal chronic application of the opioid antagonist naltrexone (Nx) led to a remarkable growth spurt of the microencephalic brain. In the present study we present histological and autoradiographic results found in the subependymal layer (SEL) of the forebrain lateral ventricles. Nx led to an intermittent augmentation of the mitotic index of the x-irradiated brains within a postnatal observation period of 24 weeks. The most conspicuous finding was transient hyperplasia of the SEL at 4-6 weeks of age which occurred in close proximity to an intact ependymal lining. Districts of the lateral ventricles which were denuded from ependyme and where the rest of the ependymal layer (EL) was dislocated peripherally showed upon Nx treatment a long-lasting SEL hyperplasia with a tendency towards dysplasia. These results revealed that repair proliferation of embryotoxic x-irradiation is normally under strong control by the opioid system. If that system, which exerts a suppressing effect upon glial growth, is blocked by Nx, prominent hyperplastic reactions occur which may be useful for repairing the lesion pattern.

  17. Effects of chronic postnatal opioid receptor blockade by naltrexone upon proliferation capacity in the prenatally x-irradiated brain of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmahl, W.; Miaskowski, U.

    1991-01-01

    We recently reported that in rats prenatally x-irradiated on gestation day 14 with 1 Gy, postnatal chronic application of the opioid antagonist naltrexone (Nx) led to a remarkable growth spurt of the microencephalic brain. In the present study we present histological and autoradiographic results found in the subependymal layer (SEL) of the forebrain lateral ventricles. Nx led to an intermittent augmentation of the mitotic index of the x-irradiated brains within a postnatal observation period of 24 weeks. The most conspicuous finding was transient hyperplasia of the SEL at 4-6 weeks of age which occurred in close proximity to an intact ependymal lining. Districts of the lateral ventricles which were denuded from ependyme and where the rest of the ependymal layer (EL) was dislocated peripherally showed upon Nx treatment a long-lasting SEL hyperplasia with a tendency towards dysplasia. These results revealed that repair proliferation of embryotoxic x-irradiation is normally under strong control by the opioid system. If that system, which exerts a suppressing effect upon glial growth, is blocked by Nx, prominent hyperplastic reactions occur which may be useful for repairing the lesion pattern

  18. Effect of X-irradiation on the protein expression of P57kip2 and TGF-β1 in lung cancer cell stain A549

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Huawei; Tan Yonggang; Zhang Heying

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the effect of X-irradiation on the proteins expression of p57 kip2 and TGF-β1 in lung cancer cell stain A549 and its clinical significance. Methods: Lung cancer cell stain A549 was cultivated and cell, protein was extracted at 6,12,24,36 and 48 hours after X-irradiation by different doses(2,4, 8 and 12 Gy). The expression of p57 kip2 and TGF-β1 proteins were examined by Western blot. Results: The expression of p57 kip2 in lung cancer cell stain A549 was very low before X-irradiation, and increased significantly after irradiation with different doses and reached the peak level at 12 hours after irradiation (P kip2 and TGF-β1 proteins which increased with certain doses, p57 kip2 and TGF-β1 could be used to predict the damage degree of cancer cells by X-ray. (authors)

  19. Mechanisms associated with the expression of cisplatin resistance in a human ovarian tumor cell line following exposure to fractionated x-irradiation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempke, W.C.M.; Shellard, S.A.; Hosking, L.K.; Hill, B.T.

    1992-01-01

    Interactions between cisplatin (CDDP) and irradiation are of potential significance for the combined modality treatment of cancer. To identify parameters associated with CDDP resistance, the human ovarian carcinoma cell line SK-OV-3/P was pre-exposed to fractionated X-irradiation in vitro. The resultant subline (SK-OV-3/DXR-10) proved 2-fold resistant to CDDP, but not to acute X-irradiation. Consistent with unaltered dihydrofolate reductase and thymidylate synthase activities, SK-OV-3/DXR-10 cells were neither cross-resistant to methotrexate nor to 5-fluorouracil. Verapamil significantly enhanced CDDP-induced cytotoxicity in the resistant DXR-10 subline, but not in the parental cells. Resistance in the SK-OV-3/DXR-10 cells was associated with significantly decreased cisplatin uptake. After an 18 h post-treatment incubation the parental cell line appeared proficient in the removal of the intrastrand adduct Pt-AG, but deficient in removing the major adduct Pt-GG and the difunctional Pt-(GMP) 2 lesion, whilst the DXR-10 resistant subline appeared proficient in removal of all four Pt-DNA adducts. DNA polymerases α and β activities, however, were comparable in both cell lines. These data implicate both enhanced repair and increased tolerance of DNA damage as mechanisms of resistance to CDDP resulting from in vitro exposure of a human ovarian carcinoma cell line to fractionated X-irradiation. (author)

  20. [Validation of Hungarian Smartphone Deprivation Inventory (HSDI) with school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csibi, Sándor; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Szabo, Attila

    2017-01-01

    The widespread use of smartphones generates new habits and behaviors among the users, including schoolchildren. Advance technology-based applications, capturing interest and attention, influence cognitive focus and time spent with the device. Examination of these factors points toward the risk of addiction, as well as the deprivations sensations associated with the latter, that call for scholastic attention. The aim of this study was to validate a Hungarian Smartphone Deprivation Inventory (HSDI), to gauge the deprivation feelings and their severity in schoolchildren when they cannot access their device. A 9-item, 7-point, agree-disagree inventory was developed on the basis of an earlier exercise deprivation scale (Robbins and Joseph, 1985). The inventory was completed by 258 Hungarian schoolchildren (mean age=12.4 ± SD = 1.71 years). The participants also completed the Hungarian version of the Brief Addiction to Smartphone Scale (BASS). An exploratory factor analysis of the HSDI yielded a single factor that accounted for 55.84 % of the variance. The internal consistency of the inventory was excellent (Cronbach's α = 0.90). Content validity of the HSDI was checked by comparing the scores of those scoring above and below the median on the BASS that yielded statistically significant differences (p smartphone access in schoolchildren.

  1. Deprival value: information utility analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article contributes to the perception that the users’ learning process plays a key role in order to apply an accounting concept and this involves a presentation that fits its informative potential, free of previous accounting fixations. Deprival value is a useful measure for managerial and corporate purposes, it may be applied to the current Conceptual Framework of the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB. This study analyzes its utility, taking into account cognitive aspects. Also known as value to the business, deprival value is a measurement system that followed a path where it was misunderstood, confused with another one, it faced resistance to be implemented and fell into disuse; everything that a standardized measurement method tries to avoid. In contrast, deprival value has found support in the academy and in specific applications, such as those related to the public service regulation. The accounting area has been impacted by sophistication of the measurement methods that increasingly require the ability to analyze accounting facts on an economic basis, at the risk of loss of their information content. This development becomes possible only when the potential of a measurement system is known and it is feasible to be achieved. This study consists in a theoretical essay based on literature review to discuss its origin, presentation, and application. Considering the concept’s cognitive difficulties, deprival value was analyzed, as well as its corresponding heteronym, value to the business, in order to explain some of these changes. The concept’s utility was also explored through cross-analysis with impairment and the scheme developed was applied to actual economic situations faced by a company listed on stock exchange.

  2. Sleep Deprivation and the Epigenome

    OpenAIRE

    Marie E. Gaine; Snehajyoti Chatterjee; Ted Abel

    2018-01-01

    Sleep deprivation disrupts the lives of millions of people every day and has a profound impact on the molecular biology of the brain. These effects begin as changes within a neuron, at the DNA and RNA level, and result in alterations in neuronal plasticity and dysregulation of many cognitive functions including learning and memory. The epigenome plays a critical role in regulating gene expression in the context of memory storage. In this review article, we begin by describing the effects of e...

  3. Deprival value: information utility analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Marco Antonio; Pinto, Alexandre Evaristo; Barbosa Neto, João Estevão; Martins, Eliseu

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article contributes to the perception that the users’ learning process plays a key role in order to apply an accounting concept and this involves a presentation that fits its informative potential, free of previous accounting fixations. Deprival value is a useful measure for managerial and corporate purposes, it may be applied to the current Conceptual Framework of the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). This study analyzes its utility, taking into account cognitive...

  4. Effect of Area-Level Socioeconomic Deprivation on Risk of Cognitive Dysfunction in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Adrian; McNulty, Helene; Rigby, Jan; Hughes, Catherine F; Hoey, Leane; Molloy, Anne M; Cunningham, Conal J; Casey, Miriam C; Tracey, Fergal; O'Kane, Maurice J; McCarroll, Kevin; Ward, Mary; Moore, Katie; Strain, J J; Moore, Adrian

    2018-02-12

    To investigate the relationship between area-level deprivation and risk of cognitive dysfunction. Cross-sectional analysis. The Trinity, Ulster, and Department of Agriculture (TUDA) study from 2008 to 2012. Community-dwelling adults aged 74.0 ± 8.3 without dementia (N = 5,186; 67% female). Adopting a cross-jurisdictional approach, geo-referenced address-based information was used to map and link participants to official socioeconomic indicators of deprivation within the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. Participants were assigned an individual deprivation score related to the smallest administrative area in which they lived. These scores were categorized into comparable quintiles, that were then used to integrate the datasets from both countries. Cognitive health was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); cognitive dysfunction was defined as a MMSE score of 24 or less. Approximately one-quarter of the cohort resided within the most-deprived districts in both countries. Greater area-level deprivation was associated with significantly lower MMSE scores; fewer years of formal education; greater anxiety, depression, smoking and alcohol use, and obesity; and more adverse outcomes, including higher blood pressure and diabetes risk. After adjustment for relevant covariates, area deprivation was associated with significantly higher risk of cognitive dysfunction (odds ratio =1.40, 95% confidence interval = 1.05-1.87, P = .02, for most vs least deprived). This analysis combining data from two health systems shows that area deprivation is an independent risk factor for cognitive dysfunction in older adults. Adults living in areas of greatest socioeconomic deprivation may benefit from targeted strategies aimed at improving modifiable risk factors for dementia. Further cross-national analysis investigating the impact of area-level deprivation is needed to address socioeconomic disparities and shape future policy to improve health outcomes in older

  5. Isocaloric carbohydrate deprivation induces protein catabolism despite a low T3-syndrome in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, P. H.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Endert, E.; Romijn, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    Dietary carbohydrate content is a major factor determining endocrine and metabolic regulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between thyroid hormone levels and metabolic parameters during eucaloric carbohydrate deprivation. We measured thyroid hormone levels, resting energy

  6. Study on the induction of thyroid tumors in rats using x irradiation in conjunction with a goitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahler, P.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of acute localized thyroid x irradiation and chronic goitrogen administration, separately or combined, on thyroid tumor formation in mature female rats was studied. In the first experiment, the radiation doses were 0, 80, 160, 320, or 640 rads, and the dosages of goitrogen were 0, 4, or 40 parts per million (ppM) of 1 methyl - 2 mercaptoimidazole (MMI). The incidence of rats with thyroid tumors in any treated group receiving 0 or 4 ppM MMI was not significantly greater than the incidence in the nontreated control group. However, the incidence in any of the 40 ppM MMI groups was significantly greater than that in the nontreated control group. At all the radiation doses other than 80 rads, the incidence was significantly greater than that in the non-irradiated group. No significant difference was seen in the incidence of rats with thyroid tumors on the basis of radiation dose. The incidence was so high at 80 rads that there was little margin for further increase by increasing the radiation dose. The mean serum thyroxine levels at 40 ppM MMI, 4 ppM MMI, and 0 ppM MMI were 1.9, 3.5, and 3.7 μg/100 ml, respectively. No markedeffect of thyroid irradiation on mean serum thyroxine levels was seen. In the second experiment, rats receiving 200 ppM MMI and thyroid irradiation were sacrificed at 7-1/2 months after treatment. Nearly all rats in the 0 and 80 rad groups and all in the 160, the 320, and the 640 rad groups had thyroid tumors. In the third experiment, serum T 4 levels were measured in treated rats. Rats receiving 640 rads + 0 ppM MMI showed a slight decrease in serum T 4 , while no change in serum T 4 levels was seen in rats receiving 0 rads + 4 ppM MMI or 640 rads + 4 ppM MMI. All rats receiving 40 ppM MMI, regardless of radiation dose, showed decreased serum T 4 levels

  7. Occlusion for stimulus deprivation amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio-Santos, Aileen; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; Hatt, Sarah R; Powell, Christine

    2014-02-06

    Stimulus deprivation amblyopia (SDA) develops due to an obstruction to the passage of light secondary to a condition such as cataract. The obstruction prevents formation of a clear image on the retina. SDA can be resistant to treatment, leading to poor visual prognosis. SDA probably constitutes less than 3% of all amblyopia cases, although precise estimates of prevalence are unknown. In developed countries, most patients present under the age of one year; in less developed parts of the world patients are likely to be older at the time of presentation. The mainstay of treatment is removal of the cataract and then occlusion of the better-seeing eye, but regimens vary, can be difficult to execute, and traditionally are believed to lead to disappointing results. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of occlusion therapy for SDA in an attempt to establish realistic treatment outcomes. Where data were available, we also planned to examine evidence of any dose response effect and to assess the effect of the duration, severity, and causative factor on the size and direction of the treatment effect. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 9), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to October 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2013), the Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to October 2013), PubMed (January 1946 to October 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com ), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 28 October 2013. We planned to include randomized and quasi-randomized controlled

  8. The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Kundermann

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain syndromes are associated with alterations in sleep continuity and sleep architecture. One perspective of this relationship, which has not received much attention to date, is that disturbances of sleep affect pain. To fathom this direction of cause, experimental human and animal studies on the effects of sleep deprivation on pain processing were reviewed. According to the majority of the studies, sleep deprivation produces hyperalgesic changes. Furthermore, sleep deprivation can counteract analgesic effects of pharmacological treatments involving opioidergic and serotoninergic mechanisms of action. The heterogeneity of the human data and the exclusive interest in rapid eye movement sleep deprivation in animals so far do not allow us to draw firm conclusions as to whether the hyperalgesic effects are due to the deprivation of specific sleep stages or whether they result from a generalized disruption of sleep continuity. The significance of opioidergic and serotoninergic processes as mediating mechanisms of the hyperalgesic changes produced by sleep deprivation are discussed.

  9. Recovery of neurofilament following early monocular deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P O'Leary

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A brief period of monocular deprivation in early postnatal life can alter the structure of neurons within deprived-eye-receiving layers of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. The modification of structure is accompanied by a marked reduction in labeling for neurofilament, a protein that composes the stable cytoskeleton and that supports neuron structure. This study examined the extent of neurofilament recovery in monocularly deprived cats that either had their deprived eye opened (binocular recovery, or had the deprivation reversed to the fellow eye (reverse occlusion. The degree to which recovery was dependent on visually-driven activity was examined by placing monocularly deprived animals in complete darkness (dark rearing. The loss of neurofilament and the reduction of soma size caused by monocular deprivation were both ameliorated equally following either binocular recovery or reverse occlusion for 8 days. Though monocularly deprived animals placed in complete darkness showed recovery of soma size, there was a generalized loss of neurofilament labeling that extended to originally non-deprived layers. Overall, these results indicate that recovery of soma size is achieved by removal of the competitive disadvantage of the deprived eye, and occurred even in the absence of visually-driven activity. Recovery of neurofilament occurred when the competitive disadvantage of the deprived eye was removed, but unlike the recovery of soma size, was dependent upon visually-driven activity. The role of neurofilament in providing stable neural structure raises the intriguing possibility that dark rearing, which reduced overall neurofilament levels, could be used to reset the deprived visual system so as to make it more ameliorable with treatment by experiential manipulations.

  10. The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Kundermann, Bernd; Krieg, Jürgen-Christian; Schreiber, Wolfgang; Lautenbacher, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Chronic pain syndromes are associated with alterations in sleep continuity and sleep architecture. One perspective of this relationship, which has not received much attention to date, is that disturbances of sleep affect pain. To fathom this direction of cause, experimental human and animal studies on the effects of sleep deprivation on pain processing were reviewed. According to the majority of the studies, sleep deprivation produces hyperalgesic changes. Furthermore, sleep deprivation can c...

  11. In surgeons performing cardiothoracic surgery is sleep deprivation significant in its impact on morbidity or mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfour, Leila; Asfour, Victoria; McCormack, David; Attia, Rizwan

    2014-09-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: is there a difference in cardiothoracic surgery outcomes in terms of morbidity or mortality of patients operated on by a sleep-deprived surgeon compared with those operated by a non-sleep-deprived surgeon? Reported search criteria yielded 77 papers, of which 15 were deemed to represent the best evidence on the topic. Three studies directly related to cardiothoracic surgery and 12 studies related to non-cardiothoracic surgery. Recommendations are based on 18 121 cardiothoracic patients and 214 666 non-cardiothoracic surgical patients. Different definitions of sleep deprivation were used in the studies, either reviewing surgeon's sleeping hours or out-of-hours operating. Surgical outcomes reviewed included: mortality rate, neurological, renal, pulmonary, infectious complications, length of stay, length of intensive care stay, cardiopulmonary bypass times and aortic-cross-clamp times. There were no significant differences in mortality or intraoperative complications in the groups of patients operated on by sleep-deprived versus non-sleep-deprived surgeons in cardiothoracic studies. One study showed a significant increase in the rate of septicaemia in patients operated on by severely sleep-deprived surgeons (3.6%) compared with the moderately sleep-deprived (0.9%) and non-sleep-deprived groups (0.8%) (P = 0.03). In the non-cardiothoracic studies, 7 of the 12 studies demonstrated statistically significant higher reoperation rate in trauma cases (P sleep deprivation in cardiothoracic surgeons on morbidity or mortality. However, overall the non-cardiothoracic studies have demonstrated that operative time and sleep deprivation can have a significant impact on overall morbidity and mortality. It is likely that other confounding factors concomitantly affect outcomes in out-of-hours surgery. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  12. Relative deprivation and political protest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Kliuchnyk

    2017-03-01

    Examples of anti-system political parties and movements have been given. Many of them have changed the political disposition in Europe. Lega Nord (Italy, PEGIDA (Germany, Movimento 5 Stelle (Italy, Front National (France, Ataka (Bulgaria, etc are between them. These parties and movements influence increasingly on the European political process. Nativism and populism are marked as main peculiarities of such right parties. According to the author, Anti-Trump protests in the USA are the examples of the relative deprivation of numerous groups of people that feel their rights and freedoms being threatened.

  13. Effects of naltrexone in postnatal rats on the recovery of disturbed brain and lymphatic tissues after X-irradiation or ethylnitrosourea treatment in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmahl, W.G.; Plendl, J.; Reinoehl-Kompa, S.

    1987-01-01

    The role of endogenous opioid systems in preweaning development after intrauterine exposure to X-irradiation or ethylnitrosourea (ENU) was explored in rats using naltrexone, a potent antagonist of beta-endorphin. After daily s.c. injections of 50 mg/kg naltrexone only the prenatally untreated controls had body weights increased by 11% from control level on day 28 (weaning). In the X-irradiated as well as the ENU-treated pups no significant effects of naltrexone on body weight gain were observed. However, brain weight increased in all animals under the influence of naltrexone, irrespective of prenatal treatment or the severity of brain lesions: 9.5% above control values in untreated offspring and 14% after X-irradiation (1 Gy) on gestation day 14. The brain weight of ENU-treated rats (50 mg/kg on gest. day 14) was 13% higher after postnatal naltrexone application than that of their postnatally untreated counterparts. ENU (80 mg/kg) effects on the brain when given on gestation day 18 were ameliorated to 9.2% by naltrexone in the weaning period. Naltrexone significantly increased the thymus weight in controls. Prenatally treated animals also showed an increased thymus weight at weaning, presumably due to compensatory growth. In these cases naltrexone revealed a suppressive effect on the thymus, whereas spleen weight was apparently not influenced by naltrexone treatment. These results provide compelling evidence that endogenous opioid systems play a crucial role not only in normal development, but also in reparative growth events of the brain after prenatal injuries. The thymus, predominantly containing T-lymphocytes, seems to represent another sensitive system which is regulated under the influence of opioids

  14. Effects of naltrexone in postnatal rats on the recovery of disturbed brain and lymphatic tissues after X-irradiation or ethylnitrosourea treatment in utero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmahl, W.G.; Plendl, J.; Reinoehl-Kompa, S.

    1987-01-01

    The role of endogenous opioid systems in preweaning development after intrauterine exposure to X-irradiation or ethylnitrosourea (ENU) was explored in rats using naltrexone, a potent antagonist of beta-endorphin. After daily s.c. injections of 50 mg/kg naltrexone only the prenatally untreated controls had body weights increased by 11% from control level on day 28 (weaning). In the X-irradiated as well as the ENU-treated pups no significant effects of naltrexone on body weight gain were observed. However, brain weight increased in all animals under the influence of naltrexone, irrespective of prenatal treatment or the severity of brain lesions: 9.5% above control values in untreated offspring and 14% after X-irradiation (1 Gy) on gestation day 14. The brain weight of ENU-treated rats (50 mg/kg on gest. day 14) was 13% higher after postnatal naltrexone application than that of their postnatally untreated counterparts. ENU (80 mg/kg) effects on the brain when given on gestation day 18 were ameliorated to 9.2% by naltrexone in the weaning period. Naltrexone significantly increased the thymus weight in controls. Prenatally treated animals also showed an increased thymus weight at weaning, presumably due to compensatory growth. In these cases naltrexone revealed a suppressive effect on the thymus, whereas spleen weight was apparently not influenced by naltrexone treatment. These results provide compelling evidence that endogenous opioid systems play a crucial role not only in normal development, but also in reparative growth events of the brain after prenatal injuries. The thymus, predominantly containing T-lymphocytes, seems to represent another sensitive system which is regulated under the influence of opioids.

  15. The lethal interaction of x ray and penicillin induced lesions following x-irradiation of Escherichia coli B/r in the presence of hypoxic cell sensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillies, N.E.; Obioha, F.I.

    1982-01-01

    When Escherichia coli B/r were x-irradiated under anoxia in the presence of different electron-affinic sensitizers and then incubated in broth containing penicillin (at a concentration that did not kill unirradiated cells) additional killing of the bacteria occurred provided the sensitizers were of relatively high lipophilicity. The overall effect was to increase the efficiency of these sensitizers. It is concluded that sensitizer-dependent latent radiation lesions(s) are produced in membrane components of the cell envelope that interact with damage caused by penicillin in the peptidoglycan layer and this causes the additional lethality

  16. Induction of intestinal metaplasia in the glandular stomach of rats by x-irradiation prior to oral administration of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, I; Watanabe, H; Terada, Y; Naito, Y; Naito, M [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology

    1980-12-01

    CD/CRJ rats were subjected to localized X-irradiation of the stomach and given N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in the drinking water. Rats given MNNG alone and non-treated rats were used as controls. Upon sacrifice at 15 months after the initial MNNG administration, intestinal metaplasia was observed; the histology was of complete type and the incidence was 100% in rats treated with X-rays and MNNG, whereas in rats treated with MNNG alone the intestinal metaplasia was of incomplete type and its incidence was 80%. However, the incidence of gastric cancer in rats treated with MNNG alone was 25%.

  17. Abnormal sensitivity of diploid skin fibroblasts from a family with Gardner's syndrome to the lethal effects of X-irradiation, ultraviolet light and mitomycin-C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, J.B.; Nove, J.; Weichselbaum, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    Skin fibroblasts isolated from two members of the same family with the cancer-prone disease Gardner's Syndrome (intestinal polyposis, colon cancer, bone and soft tissue tumors) showed enhanced sensitivity to the lethal effects of X-irradiation, ultraviolet light and mitomycin-C. These cells showed no liquid-holding type recovery following UV-irradiation of confluent cultures, but were normal in their capacity for UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis. UV survival was not influenced by post-irradiation incubation with caffeine. (orig.)

  18. Depletion of Primordial Germ Cells (PGCs) by X-irradiation to Extraembryonic Region of Chicken Embryos and Expression of Xenotransplanted Quail PGCs

    OpenAIRE

    Atsumi, Yusuke; Yazawa, Shigenobu; Usui, Fumitake; Nakamura, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Tagami, Takahiro; Hiramatsu, Kohzy; Kagami, Hiroshi; Ono, Tamao

    2009-01-01

    The generation of germline chimeras by the transfer of primordial germ cells (PGCs) requires incorporation of the PGCs of the donor into the gonadal tissue of the recipient embryo. We investigated the utility of soft x-irradiation with application of a lead (12-3 x 0.25 mm, similar to 0.1 g) shield to the embryo proper for the production of chicken-quail germline chimeras. Chicken embryos shielded during irradiation for 120 s (similar to 7.2 Gy) at stages 13 to 17 showed a hatchability of 35%...

  19. Frequency of reciprocal translocations and dicentrics induced in human blood lymphocytes by X-irradiation as determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, M.; Nakashima, E.; Pawel, D.; Kodama, Y.; Awa, A.

    1993-01-01

    This study was designed to test the scoring efficiency of reciprocal translocations and dicentrics induced by X-irradiation in vitro using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. An excess was found in the frequencies of reciprocal translocations relative to those of dicentrics by measurement with FISH at the first cell division after irradiation (translocation:dicentric ≅ 60:40). However, when the same metaphases were also evaluated sequentially by a conventional staining method, the ratio of about 50:50 was restored. This was due in part to misclassification of certain dicentrics as reciprocal translocations by the FISH technique. (author)

  20. Effect of monocular deprivation on rabbit neural retinal cell densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Maseghe Mwachaka

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In this rabbit model, monocular deprivation resulted in activity-dependent changes in cell densities of the neural retina in favour of the non-deprived eye along with reduced cell densities in the deprived eye.

  1. Proving tumour cells by acute nutritional/energy deprivation as a survival threat: a task for microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janečková, H.; Veselý, Pavel; Chmelík, R.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 6 (2009), s. 2339-2345 ISSN 0250-7005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : tumour cell * nutritional deprivation * energy deprivation * cell survival * cell death * digital holographic microscopy * dynamic phase difference Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.428, year: 2009

  2. Sleep Deprivation and the Epigenome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie E. Gaine

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation disrupts the lives of millions of people every day and has a profound impact on the molecular biology of the brain. These effects begin as changes within a neuron, at the DNA and RNA level, and result in alterations in neuronal plasticity and dysregulation of many cognitive functions including learning and memory. The epigenome plays a critical role in regulating gene expression in the context of memory storage. In this review article, we begin by describing the effects of epigenetic alterations on the regulation of gene expression, focusing on the most common epigenetic mechanisms: (i DNA methylation; (ii histone modifications; and (iii non-coding RNAs. We then discuss evidence suggesting that sleep loss impacts the epigenome and that these epigenetic alterations might mediate the changes in cognition seen following disruption of sleep. The link between sleep and the epigenome is only beginning to be elucidated, but clear evidence exists that epigenetic alterations occur following sleep deprivation. In the future, these changes to the epigenome could be utilized as biomarkers of sleep loss or as therapeutic targets for sleep-related disorders.

  3. Sleep Deprivation and the Epigenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaine, Marie E; Chatterjee, Snehajyoti; Abel, Ted

    2018-01-01

    Sleep deprivation disrupts the lives of millions of people every day and has a profound impact on the molecular biology of the brain. These effects begin as changes within a neuron, at the DNA and RNA level, and result in alterations in neuronal plasticity and dysregulation of many cognitive functions including learning and memory. The epigenome plays a critical role in regulating gene expression in the context of memory storage. In this review article, we begin by describing the effects of epigenetic alterations on the regulation of gene expression, focusing on the most common epigenetic mechanisms: (i) DNA methylation; (ii) histone modifications; and (iii) non-coding RNAs. We then discuss evidence suggesting that sleep loss impacts the epigenome and that these epigenetic alterations might mediate the changes in cognition seen following disruption of sleep. The link between sleep and the epigenome is only beginning to be elucidated, but clear evidence exists that epigenetic alterations occur following sleep deprivation. In the future, these changes to the epigenome could be utilized as biomarkers of sleep loss or as therapeutic targets for sleep-related disorders.

  4. Cardiovascular reactivity to acute psychological stress following sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Peter L; Gianaros, Peter J; Marsland, Anna L; Hall, Martica H; Siegle, Greg J; Dahl, Ronald E; Buysse, Daniel J

    2011-10-01

    Psychological stress and sleep disturbances are highly prevalent and are both implicated in the etiology of cardiovascular diseases. Given the common co-occurrence of psychological distress and sleep disturbances including short sleep duration, this study examined the combined effects of these two factors on blood pressure reactivity to immediate mental challenge tasks after well-rested and sleep-deprived experimental conditions. Participants (n = 20) were healthy young adults free from current or past sleep, psychiatric, or major medical disorders. Using a within-subjects crossover design, we examined acute stress reactivity under two experimental conditions: after a night of normal sleep in the laboratory and after a night of total sleep deprivation. Two standardized psychological stress tasks were administered, a Stroop color-word naming interference task and a speech task, which were preceded by a prestress baseline period and followed by a poststress recovery period. Each period was 10 minutes in duration, and blood pressure recordings were collected every 2.5 minutes throughout each period. Mean blood pressure responses during stress and recovery periods were examined with a mixed-effects analysis of covariance, controlling for baseline blood pressure. There was a significant interaction between sleep deprivation and stress on systolic blood pressure (F(2,82.7) = 4.05, p = .02). Systolic blood pressure was higher in the sleep deprivation condition compared with the normal sleep condition during the speech task and during the two baseline periods. Sleep deprivation amplified systolic blood pressure increases to psychological stress. Sleep loss may increase cardiovascular risk by dysregulating stress physiology.

  5. Deprivation Index for Small Areas in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Cantalejo, Carmen; Ocana-Riola, Ricardo; Fernandez-Ajuria, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The term deprivation is often used to refer to economic or social shortages in a given geographical area. This concept of deprivation has been identified for years using simple indicators such as income level, education and social class. One of the advantages of using simple indicators is the availability of data, since they come directly from…

  6. Health-risk behaviour in deprived neighbourhoods compared with non-deprived neighbourhoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Algren, Maria Holst; Bak, Carsten Kronborg; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    in deprived neighbourhoods compared with those who live in non-deprived neighbourhoods and to summarise what kind of operationalisations of neighbourhood deprivation that were used in the studies. METHODS: PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews were followed. Systematic searches were performed in Pub......Med, Embase, Web of Science and Sociological Abstracts using relevant search terms, Boolean operators, and truncation, and reference lists were scanned. Quantitative observational studies that examined health-risk behaviour in deprived neighbourhoods compared with non-deprived neighbourhoods were eligible...... for inclusion. RESULTS: The inclusion criteria were met by 22 studies. The available literature showed a positive association between smoking and physical inactivity and living in deprived neighbourhoods compared with non-deprived neighbourhoods. In regard to low fruit and vegetable consumption and alcohol...

  7. Effects of mental resilience on neuroendocrine hormones level changes induced by sleep deprivation in servicemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinyang; Dai, Xuyan; Yang, Tingshu; Song, Hongtao; Yang, Jialin; Bai, Jing; Zhang, Liyi

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mental resilience on the changes of serum rennin, angiotensin, and cortisol level induced by sleep deprivation in servicemen. By random cluster sampling, a total of 160 servicemen, aged from 18 to 30, were selected to undergo 24-hour total sleep deprivation and administered the military personnel mental resilience scale after the deprivation procedure. The sleep deprivation procedure started at 8 a.m. on Day 8 and ended at 8 a.m. on Day 9 after 7 days of normal sleep for baseline preparation. Blood samples were drawn from the 160 participants at 8 a.m. respectively on Day 8 and Day 9 for hormonal measurements. All blood samples were analyzed using radioimmunoassay. As hypothesized, serum rennin, angiotensin II, and cortisol level of the participants after sleep deprivation were significantly higher than those before (P problem-solving skill and willpower were the leading influence factors for the increases of serum rennin and cortisol respectively induced by sleep deprivation. We conclude that mental resilience plays a significant role in alleviating the changes of neurohormones level induced by sleep deprivation in servicemen.

  8. Social deprivation and population density are not associated with small area risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, James P K; Tobin, Katy; Crampsie, Arlene; Vajda, Alice; Heverin, Mark; McLaughlin, Russell; Staines, Anthony; Hardiman, Orla

    2015-10-01

    Evidence of an association between areal ALS risk and population density has been previously reported. We aim to examine ALS spatial incidence in Ireland using small areas, to compare this analysis with our previous analysis of larger areas and to examine the associations between population density, social deprivation and ALS incidence. Residential area social deprivation has not been previously investigated as a risk factor for ALS. Using the Irish ALS register, we included all cases of ALS diagnosed in Ireland from 1995-2013. 2006 census data was used to calculate age and sex standardised expected cases per small area. Social deprivation was assessed using the pobalHP deprivation index. Bayesian smoothing was used to calculate small area relative risk for ALS, whilst cluster analysis was performed using SaTScan. The effects of population density and social deprivation were tested in two ways: (1) as covariates in the Bayesian spatial model; (2) via post-Bayesian regression. 1701 cases were included. Bayesian smoothed maps of relative risk at small area resolution matched closely to our previous analysis at a larger area resolution. Cluster analysis identified two areas of significant low risk. These areas did not correlate with population density or social deprivation indices. Two areas showing low frequency of ALS have been identified in the Republic of Ireland. These areas do not correlate with population density or residential area social deprivation, indicating that other reasons, such as genetic admixture may account for the observed findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The influence of deprivation on malnutrition risk in outpatients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, P F; Elia, M; Kurukulaaratchy, R J; Stratton, R J

    2018-02-01

    The social gradient in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is considerable, but the influence of deprivation on common clinical risk factors such as malnutrition is unclear. This study aimed to explore the relationship between COPD disease-severity, deprivation and malnutrition. 424 outpatients with a confirmed diagnosis of COPD were routinely screened for malnutrition risk using the 'Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool' ('MUST') while attending respiratory clinics across two hospitals; a large city hospital (site A) and a smaller community hospital (site B). Deprivation was assessed for each outpatient according to their address (postcode) using the English governments' index of multiple deprivation (IMD) and related to malnutrition risk. Each postcode was attributed to both an IMD score and IMD rank, where a higher IMD score and a lower IMD ranking indicated increased deprivation. Overall prevalence of malnutrition was 22% (95% CI 18-26%; 9% medium risk, 13% high risk). It was significantly higher at site A (28% vs 17%; p = 0.004) where patients were also significantly more likely to reside in areas of more deprivation than those at site B (IMD rank: 15,510 SD 8137 vs 22,877 SD 6827; p COPD disease-severity was positively associated with malnutrition (p COPD. Consideration of deprivation is important in the identification of malnutrition and the nutritional management of patients with COPD. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07643.001 PMID:26216041

  11. Lifestyle intervention program in deprived obese adult patients and their non-deprived counterparts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Loddo

    Full Text Available Although it is known that the prevalence of obesity is high in deprived patients, the link between deprivation and obesity, and the impact of deprivation on compliance and efficacy of a lifestyle intervention program are not known.Deprivation was assessed in 40 patients (23 Females, mean±SD age: 49±17 years from the diabetology department and 140 patients (101 Females, age: 50±15 years from the nutrition department of Bordeaux University hospital. Eighty-seven patients suffering from obesity were evaluated before and after a tailored, multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention. Deprivation was assessed using EPICES scores. Deprivation was defined with an EPICES score > 30.Deprived patients suffering from obesity had significantly higher current (43.8 ±8.4 versus 40.9 ± 5.5 kg/m2, p = 0,02 and maximal BMI (46.1± 8.6 versus 42.3± 5.2 kg/m2, p = 0.002 compared to non-deprived obese. Percentage of body weight loss was not different according to deprivation (4.74 ± 0.75 versus 4.65 ± 1.04%, p = 0.9. EPICES scores were not different according to adherence to lifestyle intervention program (20.5 ± 8.5 versus 29.9 ± 3.9 versus 29.0 ±2.5, no follow up versus partial follow up versus total follow up, p = 0,58.Deprived patients suffering from obesity have a more serious disease than non-deprived patients. However, neither compliance to the lifestyle intervention program nor body weight loss differed between deprived patients with obesity and non-deprived ones. Deprivation should not be a limitation when enrolling patients with obesity in lifestyle intervention programs.

  12. Lifestyle intervention program in deprived obese adult patients and their non-deprived counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loddo, Celine; Pupier, Emilie; Amour, Rémy; Monsaingeon-Henry, Maud; Mohammedi, Kamel; Gatta-Cherifi, Blandine

    2017-01-01

    Although it is known that the prevalence of obesity is high in deprived patients, the link between deprivation and obesity, and the impact of deprivation on compliance and efficacy of a lifestyle intervention program are not known. Deprivation was assessed in 40 patients (23 Females, mean±SD age: 49±17 years) from the diabetology department and 140 patients (101 Females, age: 50±15 years) from the nutrition department of Bordeaux University hospital. Eighty-seven patients suffering from obesity were evaluated before and after a tailored, multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention. Deprivation was assessed using EPICES scores. Deprivation was defined with an EPICES score > 30. Deprived patients suffering from obesity had significantly higher current (43.8 ±8.4 versus 40.9 ± 5.5 kg/m2, p = 0,02) and maximal BMI (46.1± 8.6 versus 42.3± 5.2 kg/m2, p = 0.002) compared to non-deprived obese. Percentage of body weight loss was not different according to deprivation (4.74 ± 0.75 versus 4.65 ± 1.04%, p = 0.9). EPICES scores were not different according to adherence to lifestyle intervention program (20.5 ± 8.5 versus 29.9 ± 3.9 versus 29.0 ±2.5, no follow up versus partial follow up versus total follow up, p = 0,58). Deprived patients suffering from obesity have a more serious disease than non-deprived patients. However, neither compliance to the lifestyle intervention program nor body weight loss differed between deprived patients with obesity and non-deprived ones. Deprivation should not be a limitation when enrolling patients with obesity in lifestyle intervention programs.

  13. Studies concerning the effects of low level prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal growth and adult behaviour in the Wistar rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.; Vogel, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Fifty-nine pregnant Wistar strain rats were sham irradiated or given a 0.1 or 0.2 Gy exposure of X-radiation on the 9th or 17th day of gestation. Twenty-seven were killed at term for teratologic analysis. The remaining mothers raised their young. At 60 days of age the 252 offspring were randomly assigned three of six tests: open field, swimming, hanging, activity wheel, water T-maze, or conditioned avoidance response. Male offspring exposed at the 0.2 Gy level exhibited retarded growth only during the first few weeks of postnatal life. Female offspring exposed on the 17th day to 0.2 Gy X-radiation were growth retarded throughout the test period. Postnatal growth rates were not significantly different between the irradiated and control groups. There were no significant alterations in adult behaviour due to prenatal X-irradiation. There were sex differences in activity wheel and forelimb hanging performance, unrelated to radiation exposure. These results indicate that prenatal low level X-irradiation on the 9th or 17th day of gestation dose not result in significant alterations in rat adult behavioural performance but prenatal growth retardation persists postnatally. Growth may be a more sensitive indicator of the effects of prenatal exposure than postnatal behaviour. (author)

  14. Participation of intracellular signal transduction in the radio-adaptive response induced by low-dose X-irradiation in human embryonic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Keiichiro; Hoshi, Yuko; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Watanabe, Masami.

    1996-01-01

    To elucidate the induction mechanism of radio-adaptive response in normal cells, we searched the literatures of the intracellular signal transduction. Furthermore, we examined the induction of radio-adaptive response with or without inhibitors of several kinds of protein kinase. The major results obtained were as follows; (1) According to the literature survey it is revealed that there are 4 intracellular signal transduction pathways which are possibly involved in the induction of radio-adaptive response: pathways depending on cAMP, calcium, cGMP, or protein-tyrosine kinase. (2) Addition of either inhibitor of protein-tyrosine kinase or protein kinase C to the cell culture medium during the low-dose X-irradiation inhibited the induction of radio-adaptive response. However, the addition of inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, cGMP-dependent protein kinase, or Ca 2+ -calmodulin kinase II failed to inhibit the induction of radio-adaptive response. (3) These results suggest that the signal induced in cells by low-dose X-irradiation was transduced from protein-tyrosine kinase to protein kinase C via either pathway of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or splitting of profilin binding phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. (author)

  15. Uptake of carbon monoxide by C3H mice following X irradiation of lung only or total-body irradiation with 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappaport, D.S.; Niewoehner, D.E.; Kim, T.H.; Song, C.W.; Levitt, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    Carbon monoxide uptake (V/sub co/) and ventilation rate (VR) of C3H mice were determined at 14 weeks following either X irradiation of lungs only or total-body irradiation with 60 Co at different dose rates. Following localized X irradiation of lung at 97 /sub c/Gy/min there was a reduction in V/sub co/, which was inversely related to radiation dose, with a small reduction below control levels being detected at 7 Gy, the lowest dose tested. An increase in VR could be detected only at doses of 11 Gy, or more. Another group of animals received 11.5 Gy total-body irradiation at either 26.2 or 4.85 /sub c/Gy/min fllowed by transplantation with syngeneic bone marrow. Following total-body irradiation, V/sub co/ was significantly reduced by about 37% at the higher dose rate and 23% at the lower dose rate. In contrast, a trend toward elevated VR was detected only at the higher dose rate.The results indicate that V/sub co/ is a sensitive indicator of radiation-induced lung injury and that under the experimental conditions used V/sub co/ is a more sensitive indicator of radiation-induced lung injury in C3H mice than VR

  16. Dendritic and axonic fields of Purkinje cells in developing and X-irradiated rat cerebellum. A comparative study using intracellular staining with horseradish peroxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crepel, F.; Delhaye-Bouchaud, N.; Dupont, J.L.; Sotelo, C.

    1980-01-01

    Intracellular staining of cerebellar Purkinje cells with horseradish peroxidase was achieved in normal developing rats (8-13 days old), in normal adult rats and in adult rats in which the cerebellum had been degranulated by X-ray treatment. The mono- and multiple innervation of Purkinje cells by climbing fibres was electrophysiologically determined and correlated with their dendritic pattern and axonal field. In immature rats, considerable variations in dendritic arborization were observed between cells at the same age, according to their position in the vermis. In adult X-irradiated animals, a large variety of dendritic shapes was found, confirming previous anatomical data, but no obvious correlation was found between the morphology of the dendrites of Purkinje cells and their synaptic investment by climbing fibres. As regards the axonal field, the adult branching pattern of recurrent axon collaterals was almost established by postnatal day 8, except for some cells which exhibited richer recurrent collaterals. On the other hand, in X-irradiated animals, profuse plexuses were the rule and they originated either from one collateral stem, or from several collaterals, also independently of the number of afferent climbing fibres. The existence of these enlarged recurrent collateral plexuses can be explained by the persistence of an immature stage, and certainly also by the collateral sprouting following the largely impaired innervation of the terminal field during development. These results emphasize the role of the cellular interactions that occur during Purkinje cell growth in the formation of both its axonal and dendritic fields. (author)

  17. Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on open-field behavior in rats: application of randomized fostering technique and mapping results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, T.

    1986-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were given X-irradiation (150 R) on Day 17 of gestation. After birth, all male pups were pooled once and then assigned randomly to irradiated mothers and control mothers. Offspring were administered an open-field test at about 7 weeks of age. The analysis was performed on the basis of two approaches: In the per subject approach, individual subject data (aggregation across Day 2 through Day 4) were treated as the basic unit of statistical analysis. In the per litter approach, double aggregation (aggregation across Day 2 through Day 4 for each subject and aggregation across subjects within each litter) was used. The per subject approach was slightly more sensitive as to the treatment effect, but it induced a reduction in the magnitude of eta squared. A principal component analysis was performed using eta squared together with those of several reference groups. Results were plotted on a map constructed from component scores. The characteristics of behavior in X-irradiated rats were very similar to those of the earlier stage of trials in terms of the location on the map. The postnatal maternal effect on open-field behavior was not serious and was adequately negligible in practice. A new fostering procedure was proposed and its advantages discussed

  18. Neuronal death and synapse elimination in the olivocerebellar system: III. Cell counts in the inferior olive of developing rats X-irradiated from birth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geoffroy, B.; Shojaeian, H.; Delhaye-Bouchaud, N.; Mariani, J.

    1988-01-01

    The change with age of cell number in the developing inferior olivary nucleus (ION) of the normal rat, compared to the time course of the regression of the polyneuronal innervation of Purkinje cells by olivary axons (i.e., the climbing fibers), suggests that the involution of the redundant olivocerebellar contacts is caused by a reduction of axonal branching rather than by degeneration of the parent cells, this being also suggested by the normal size of the olivary population in adult rodents whose Purkinje cells retain polyneuronal innervation. However, the similar size of the adult ION population does not necessarily imply that the development history is the same in normal and multiply innervated adult rodents. Therefore, cell counts were performed in developing rats which had been repeatedly X-irradiated from birth until postnatal day 14 and which retained polyneuronal innervation. The results show that, although less marked than during normal development, the evolution of the ION population is also characterized by a phase of cell loss followed by a slow increase. However, the number of cells in X-irradiated rats is higher than in their controls from birth to postnatal day 15 but becomes identical at 20 days and later. These data confirm that cell death in the ION does not play a major role in the shaping of olivocerebellar connections

  19. Neuronal death and synapse elimination in the olivocerebellar system. II. Cell counts in the inferior olive of adult x-irradiated rats and weaver and reeler mutant mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shojaeian, H.; Delhaye-Bouchaud, N.; Mariani, J.

    1985-01-01

    Cell death in the developing rat inferior olive precedes the regression of the polyneuronal innervation of Purkinje cells by olivary axons (i.e., climbing fibers), suggesting that the involution of the redundant olivocerebellar contacts is caused by a withdrawal of supernumerary axonal collaterals rather than by degeneration of the parent cell. However, a subsequent apparent increase of the olivary population occurs, which could eventually mask a residual presynaptic cell death taking place at the same time. Therefore, cell counts were performed in the inferior olive of adult rodents in which the multiple innervation of Purkinje cells by olivary axons is maintained, with the idea that if cell death plays a role in the regression of supernumerary climbing fibers, the number of olivary cells should be higher in these animals than in their controls. The results show that the size of the cell population in the inferior olive of weaver and reeler mutant mice and rats degranulated by early postnatal x-irradiation does not differ significantly from that of their controls. Similarly, the distribution of the cells in the four main olivary subnuclei is not modified in weaver mice and x-irradiated rats. The present data further support the assumption that the regression of the polyneuronal innervation of Purkinje cells occurs independently of cell death in the presynaptic population

  20. Cellular radiation effects and hyperthermia cell cycle kinetics of radiation sensitive mutants of saccharomyces cerevisiae after x-irradiation and hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingerhut, R.; Kiefer, J.; Otto, F.

    1983-01-01

    Radiosensitive mutants rad2, rad9, and rad51 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were X-irradiated with 120 Gy or 60 Gy, heated at 50 0 C for 30 min or treated with a combination of both and incubated in nutrient medium at 30 0 C. Cell number, percentage of budding cells, and cell cycle progression were determined in 45-min intervals. Cell cycle kinetics were investigated by flow cytofluorometry. Hyperthermia leads mainly to a lengthening of G1, whereas X-rays arrest cells of the rad2 and rad9 mutant in G2 and the rad51 - mutant additionaly in a state with DNA contents above G2. Cell division dealy is influenced by oxygen in all strains but to a lesser extent in the rad2 mutant. The effect of the combined treatment appears to be merely additive in the rad2 and rad9 mutant while the rad51 mutant is sensitized to X-irradiation by hyperthermia. No selective action of hyperthermia on hypoxic cells was found. (orig.)

  1. Dendritic and axonic fields of Purkinje cells in developing and X-irradiated rat cerebellum. A comparative study using intracellular staining with horseradish peroxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crepel, F; Delhaye-Bouchaud, N; Dupont, J L [Paris-5 Univ., 75 (France); Sotelo, C [Hopital Foch, 92 - Suresnes (France). Centre Medico-Chirurgical

    1980-01-01

    Intracellular staining of cerebellar Purkinje cells with horseradish peroxidase was achieved in normal developing rats (8-13 days old), in normal adult rats and in adult rats in which the cerebellum had been degranulated by X-ray treatment. The mono- and multiple innervation of Purkinje cells by climbing fibres was electrophysiologically determined and correlated with their dendritic pattern and axonal field. In immature rats, considerable variations in dendritic arborization were observed between cells at the same age, according to their position in the vermis. In adult X-irradiated animals, a large variety of dendritic shapes was found, confirming previous anatomical data, but no obvious correlation was found between the morphology of the dendrites of Purkinje cells and their synaptic investment by climbing fibres. As regards the axonal field, the adult branching pattern of recurrent axon collaterals was almost established by postnatal day 8, except for some cells which exhibited richer recurrent collaterals. On the other hand, in X-irradiated animals, profuse plexuses were the rule and they originated either from one collateral stem, or from several collaterals, also independently of the number of afferent climbing fibres. The existence of these enlarged recurrent collateral plexuses can be explained by the persistence of an immature stage, and certainly also by the collateral sprouting following the largely impaired innervation of the terminal field during development. These results emphasize the role of the cellular interactions that occur during Purkinje cell growth in the formation of both its axonal and dendritic fields.

  2. Repair of chromosome damage induced by X-irradiation during G2 phase in a line of normal human fibroblasts and its malignant derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parshad, R.; Gantt, R.; Sanford, K.K.; Jones, G.M.; Tarone, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A line of normal human skin fibroblasts (KD) differed from its malignant derivative (HUT-14) in the extent of cytogenetic damage induced by X-irradiation during G2 phase. Malignant cells had significantly more chromatid breaks and gaps after exposure to 25, 50, or 100 rad. The gaps may represent single-strand breaks. Results from alkaline elution of cellular DNA immediately after irradiation showed that the normal and malignant cells in asynchronous population were equally sensitive to DNA single-strand breakage by X-irradiation. Caffeine or beta-cytosine arabinoside (ara-C), inhibitors of DNA repair, when added directly following G2 phase exposure, significantly increased the incidence of radiation-induced chromatid damage in the normal cells. In contrast, similar treatment of the malignant cells had little influence. Ara-C differed from caffeine in its effects; whereas both agents increased the frequency of chromatid breaks and gaps, only ara-C increased the frequency of gaps to the level observed in the irradiated malignant cells. Addition of catalase, a scavenger of the derivative free hydroxyl radical (.OH), to the cultures of malignant cells before, during, and following irradiation significantly reduced the chromatid damage; and catalase prevented formation of chromatid gaps. The DNA damage induced by X-ray during G2 phase in the normal KD cells was apparently repaired by a caffeine- and ara-C-sensitive mechanism(s) that was deficient or absent in their malignant derivatives

  3. Repair of chromosome damage induced by X-irradiation during G2 phase in a line of normal human fibroblasts and its malignant derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parshad, R.; Gantt, R.; Sanford, K.K.; Jones, G.M.; Tarone, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A line of normal human skin fibroblasts (KD) differed from its malignant derivative (HUT-14) in the extent of cytogenetic damage induced by X-irradiation during G 2 phase. Malignant cells had significantly more chromatid breaks and gaps after exposure to 25, 50, or 100 rad. Results from alkaline elution of cellular DNA immediately after irradiation showed that the normal and malignant cells in asynchronous population were equally sensitive to DNA single-strand breakage by X-irradiation. Caffeine or #betta#-cytosine arabinoside (ara-C), inhibitors of DNA repair, when added directly following G 2 phase exposure, significantly increased the incidence of radiation-induced chromatid damage in the normal cells. In contrast, similar treatment of the malignant cells had little influence. Ara-C differed from caffeine in its effects; whereas both agents increased the frequency of chromatid breaks and gaps, only ara-C increased the frequency of gaps to the level observed in the irradiated malignant cells. Addition of catalase, which destroys H 2 O 2 , or mannitol, a scavenger of the derivative free hydroxyl radical (.OH), to the cultures of malignant cells before, during, and following irradiation significantly reduced the chromatid damage; and catalase prevented formation of chromatid gaps. The DNA damage induced by X-ray during G 2 phase in the normal KD cells was apparently repaired by a caffeine- and ara-C-sensitive mechanism(s) that was deficient or absent in their malignant derivatives

  4. Induction of transcription from the long terminal repeat of Moloney murine sarcoma provirus by UV-irradiation, x-irradiation, and phorbol ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.S.; Goldthwait, D.A.; Samols, D.

    1990-01-01

    The long terminal repeat (LTR) of Moloney murine sarcoma virus (Mo-MuSV) was used as a model system to study the stress response of mammalian cells to physical carcinogens. The chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene was inserted between two Mo-MuSV LTRs, and the LTR-CAT-LTR construct was used for virus production and was integrated into the genome of NIH 3T3 cells in the proviral form. This construct was used to assure that the integrated CAT gene was driven by the promoter of the LTR. Expression of the CAT gene was stimulated 4-fold by UV irradiation, and the peak of activity was observed at 18 hr. In contrast, stimulation of the CAT expression after x-irradiation was 2-fold and occurred at 6 hr. Phorbol myristate acetate also stimulated CAT activity 4-fold with a peak at 6 hr. Down-regulation of protein kinase C blocked totally the response to x-irradiation but only partially the response to UV. The protein kinase inhibitor H7 blocked the response to treatment by UV, x-ray, and phorbol ester

  5. Free amino acids in synaptic vesicles isolated from the cerebellum and cerebral hemispheres of control and neonatally X-irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcana, T.; Hudson, D.B.; Timiras, P.S.

    1984-01-01

    X-irradiation of the rat brain (1000R, at two days of age), suppresses the normal age-related increase in the weight of the cerebellum and cerebral hemispheres and influences amino acid levels. The decrease in glutamic acid concentration, particularly in the cerebellum, supports the previously advanced proposition that this amino acid may be associated with or may be the transmitter of, the rat cerebellar granule cells. Subfractionation of the cerebellar tissue reveals that the decrease in the glutamic acid level consequent to the loss of granule cells, is reflected in the cytoplasmic fraction but not in the synaptic vesicle subfraction, where glutamic acid was increased. The reduced weight gain in the cerebral hemispheres after irradiation, is accompanied by a significant decrease of aspartate in the cytoplasmic fraction, changes which suggest that a specific cell type, with aspartic acid as its neurotransmitter (possibly in the hippocampus), may also be radiosensitive in the early postnatal period. In contrast, in the synaptic vesicle fraction from cerebral hemispheres, all free amino acids, with the exception of glutamine, increased significantly. Overall, the changes in free amino acid concentration induced by X-irradiation in the cytoplasmic fraction in both brain regions studied are opposite to those found in the synaptic vesicle fraction and although they may indicate changes in specific cell populations, as proposed above, they could also reflect changes in cellular compartmentalization and metabolism or changes in the relative axonal arborization of the affected regions

  6. Effects of X-irradiation on cell-cycle progression, induction of chromosomal aberrations and cell killing in ataxia telangiectasia (AT) fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, H.; Little, J.B.; Latt, S.A.; Lalande, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Survival, cumulative labeling indices, chromosomal aberrations and cell-cycle distribution by flow microfluorometry (FMF) were studied in fibroblasts from normal and three ataxia telangiectasia (AT) families after X-irradiation during density-inhibition of growth and immediate release by subculture to low density. Homozygotic AT (proband) fibroblasts were very hypersensitive to cell killing by X-irradiation. Fibroblasts from AT heterozygotes (parents) were minimally hypersensitive, with D 0 's slightly lower than those for normal fibroblasts. There were three different response groups for a G 1 phase block induced by 400 rad of X-rays: (1) minimal or no G 1 block was observed in AT homozygote cell strains; (2) 10-20% of the cells were blocked in G 1 in normal cell strains; and (3) 50% or more of the cells were blocked in AT heterozygote strains. FMF profiles and cumulative labeling indices showed that homozygotic AT cells irradiated in plateau phase moved into the S-phase following subculture with no additional delay over non-irradiated controls. Homozygotic AT cells showed not only a 4-5 times higher frequency of X-ray-induced chromosomal aberrations than normal strains, but approximately 30% of these were of the chromatid-type. There were no differences in the frequency or type of X-ray-induced chromosomal aberrations between normal and heterozygotic AT cells. (orig.)

  7. Late division kinetics in relation to modification of protein synthesis in mouse eggs blocked in the G2 phase after X-irradiation; and comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinfeld, S.; Gilles, J.; Jacquet, P.; Baugnet-Mahieu, L.; Rowley, R.

    1987-01-01

    Mouse zygotes (BALB/c blocked in the G 2 phase of the first cell cycle after X-irradiation were allowed to develop in culture medium. Delayed cleavage occurred at the same time in embryos exposed to 1 or 2 Gy and late division coincided with the second division in controls. Two dimensional electrophoresis showed that blocked irradiated embryos underwent the same modifications in protein synthesis as control embryos of the same age, except during first mitosis, for three polypeptide sets of 30, 35 and 45 kilodaltons molecular weight. The most remarkable difference between them was the appearance in cleaving controls of three spots at 35 kilodaltons that were absent in blocked irradiated embryos. It is assumed that blocked embryos 'missed' some signal necessary for cell division, but remained ready to cleave when a second signal occurred. Eggs from the BALB/c strain were particularly susceptible to this effect of X-irradiation but it was also found in eggs from other strains, irradiated with much higher doses. The accompanying comment by Rowley discusses the point of interruption of the control mechanism and the nature of the lesions involved. (author)

  8. Effects of chromosomal breaks induced by X-irradiation on the number of mesosomes and the cytoplasmic organization of Streptococcus faecalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, L.C.; Dicker, D.T.; Conger, A.D.; Daneo-Moore, L.; Higgins, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    A model which explains mesosome formation via a contraction of the cytoplasm and nucleoid when bacteria are physiologically disturbed was tested by 1) X-irradiation of unfixed cells of Streptococcus faecalis to produce chromosomal breaks and to remove DNA attached to the cell membrane; 2) subsequent determination of the number of irradiated cells in which mesosomes and central density changes could be visualised after fixative was added. The results obtained by exposure of cells to a) doses up to 1100 krads before fixation and b) doses greater than 1100 krads before fixation suggested that mesosomes are formed when localized sites on the cell membrane are pulled from close contact with the cell wall into the cytoplasm by the action of a cross-linking fixative via the aggregation of intracytoplasmic components such as DNA. This model considers the attachment of DNA and/or other cytoplasmic components to the membrane as an intrinsic part of its mechanism. The formation of central and peripheral mesosomes in unirradiated and X-irradiated cells are contrasted. (author)

  9. Sleep deprivation: consequences for students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhefka, Julie King

    2011-09-01

    During the adolescent years, a delayed pattern of the sleep-wake cycle occurs. Many parents and health care providers are not aware that once established, these poor sleep habits can continue into adulthood. Early school hours start a pattern of sleep loss that begins a cycle of daytime sleepiness, which may affect mood, behavior, and increase risk for accidents or injury. These sleep-deprived habits established in adolescence can often lead to problems during college years. Sleep hygiene can be initiated to help break the cycle, along with education and implementation of a strict regimen. Monitoring all adolescents and college-aged students for sleep insufficiency is imperative to improve both academic and emotional well-being. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. The household-based socio-economic deprivation index in Setiu Wetlands, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Syerrina; May, Chin Sin; Rahman, Nuzlinda Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Deprivation index usually used in public health study. At the same time, deprivation index can also use to measure the level of deprivation in an area or a village. These indices are also referred as the index of inequalities or disadvantage. Even though, there are many indices that have been built before. But it is believed to be less appropriate to use the existing indices to be applied in other countries or areas which had different socio-economic conditions and different geographical characteristics. The objective of this study is to construct the index based on the socio-economic factors in Setiu Wetlands (Jajaran Merang, Jajaran Setiu and Jajaran Kuala Besut) in Terengganu Malaysia which is defined as weighted household-based socioeconomic deprivation index. This study has employed the variables based on income level, education level and employment rate obtained from questionnaire which are acquired from 64 villages included 1024 respondents. The factor analysis is used to extract the latent variables or observed variables into smaller amount of components or factors. By using factor analysis, one factor is extracted from 3 latent variables. This factor known as socioeconomic deprivation index. Based on the result, the areas with a lower index values until high index values were identified.

  11. Sleep deprivation impairs memory by attenuating mTORC1-dependent protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Jennifer C; Davis, Emily J; Peixoto, Lucia; Wimmer, Mathieu E; van Tilborg, Erik; Park, Alan J; Poplawski, Shane G; Chung, Caroline W; Havekes, Robbert; Huang, Jiayan; Gatti, Evelina; Pierre, Philippe; Abel, Ted

    2016-04-26

    Sleep deprivation is a public health epidemic that causes wide-ranging deleterious consequences, including impaired memory and cognition. Protein synthesis in hippocampal neurons promotes memory and cognition. The kinase complex mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) stimulates protein synthesis by phosphorylating and inhibiting the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 2 (4EBP2). We investigated the involvement of the mTORC1-4EBP2 axis in the molecular mechanisms mediating the cognitive deficits caused by sleep deprivation in mice. Using an in vivo protein translation assay, we found that loss of sleep impaired protein synthesis in the hippocampus. Five hours of sleep loss attenuated both mTORC1-mediated phosphorylation of 4EBP2 and the interaction between eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and eIF4G in the hippocampi of sleep-deprived mice. Increasing the abundance of 4EBP2 in hippocampal excitatory neurons before sleep deprivation increased the abundance of phosphorylated 4EBP2, restored the amount of eIF4E-eIF4G interaction and hippocampal protein synthesis to that seen in mice that were not sleep-deprived, and prevented the hippocampus-dependent memory deficits associated with sleep loss. These findings collectively demonstrate that 4EBP2-regulated protein synthesis is a critical mediator of the memory deficits caused by sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Sleep deprivation affects reactivity to positive but not negative stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, June J; Callan, Christina; Posey, J Laura

    2015-12-01

    The current study examined the effects of partial and total sleep deprivation on emotional reactivity. Twenty-eight partially sleep-deprived participants and 31 totally sleep-deprived participants rated their valence and arousal responses to positive and negative pictures across four testing sessions during the day following partial sleep deprivation or during the night under total sleep deprivation. The results suggest that valence and arousal ratings decreased under both sleep deprivation conditions. In addition, partial and total sleep deprivation had a greater negative effect on positive events than negative events. These results suggest that sleep-deprived persons are more likely to respond less to positive events than negative events. One explanation for the current findings is that negative events could elicit more attentive behavior and thus stable responding under sleep deprivation conditions. As such, sleep deprivation could impact reactivity to emotional stimuli through automated attentional and self-regulatory processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Urban density, deprivation and road safety

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kirstam

    The findings on deprivation provide new insights to rural-urban variations in ... 2000 and 2030 (World Health Organization, WHO & United Nations HABITAT, UN- ... The authors used negative binomial count models to control for a range of.

  14. Bearding the Capability Deprivation Machine: The Pedagogical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bearding the Capability Deprivation Machine: The Pedagogical Deal for ... Africa are managing the task of higher education in an environment marked by poverty. ... are valuable in the full range of social spaces young South Africans inhabit.

  15. Use of /sup 59/Fe uptake in estimating the marrow dose in normal and splenectomized rats exposed to 1000 kVp x irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maillie, H D; Baxter, R C; Lisman, H [Rochester Univ., N.Y. (USA). School of Medicine and Dentistry

    1977-11-01

    The /sup 59/Fe uptake system was used to estimate the dose distribution throughout sham-operated and splenectomized rats exposed to whole-body 1000 kVp x irradiation. The marrow in the splenectomized animals was found to be slightly more radiosensitive. However, the difference between the two groups of rats was not significant. The dose distributions throughout the marrow of both groups were the same. It was concluded that splenectomy had no effect on the usefulness of this method. The method of measuring /sup 59/Fe uptake in this study used the uptake of radioiron at 6 hr post-injection and the deduction of the activity due to circulating iron. This resulted in a technique capable of measuring changes in iron uptake with midline-air-exposures of 25 R.

  16. Effects of ionizing radiation in cocrystals of DNA model compounds: ESR-ENDOR studies of X-irradiated imidazole:barbital and adenosine:5-bromouracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, L.

    1982-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) and electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) techniques have been used to study radiation induced damage in cocrystalline complexes X-irradiated at 12 K. The study addresses the following questions: (1) whether radiation induced damage is stabilized preferentially on one of the components of the cocrystalline system; and (2) whether charge transfer occurs between purine and pyrimidine bases in hydrogen bonded or stacked configurations. The cocrystals used in this study are imidazole:5,5-diethylbarbituric acid (barbital) and adenosine:5-bromouracil (AR:BU). Results indicate that (1) preferential stability of radiation damage may be observed in a cocrystal even in the absence of stacking interactions; (2) in the presence of purine:pyrimidine stacking electron transfer may occur, but hole transfer is not likely to be the mechanism of redistribution of radiation damage in cocrystalline systems. The radiation chemistry of AR:BU is used as a model to predict the effects of ionizing radiation on DNA

  17. Analysis of structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations at the first and second mitosis after X irradiation of two-cell mouse embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissenborn, U.; Streffer, C.

    1989-01-01

    Two-cell mouse embryos were X-irradiated in the late G2 phase in vivo. The first and second postradiation mitoses were analyzed for chromosomal anomalies. The majority of structural aberrations visible at the first mitosis after irradiation were chromatid breaks and chromatid gaps; only a few interchanges and dicentrics were observed. The aberration frequency resulted in a dose-effect relationship which was well described by a linear model. At the second mitosis 29% of the structural aberrations of the first mitosis were counted; the aberration quality changed only slightly. It is discussed whether these aberrations are to be considered new, derived, or unchanged transmitted aberrations. Contrary to the results obtained after irradiation of one-cell embryos, little chromosome loss was induced by radiation in two-cell embryos

  18. Oxygen consumption and cytochrome exidase activity of axolotl limbs muscle tissue in restoration of regenerative ability suprressed by X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teplits, N.A.

    1975-01-01

    The rate of oxygen use and activity of cytochrome oxidase in a homogenate of mitochondria and nuclei of muscle tissue of axolotl limbs after suppression of their regenerative capability by x irradiation and their restoration was studied experimentally. With suppression of the regenative capability the use of oxygen was depressed. Cytochrome oxidase activity in the homogenate and mitochondria decreased compared to that of the intact limb, in the nuclei of muscle tissue it was the same or greater. With restoration of the regenerative capability of the limbs the respiration rate of the homogenate and the mitochondria increased, accompanied by increased cytochrome oxidase activity. In the nuclei the cytochrome oxidase activity did not change in the blastema stage and sharply decreased in the limb formation state. (E.T.)

  19. Oxygen consumption and cytochrome exidase activity of axolotl limbs muscle tissue in restoration of regenerative ability suppressed by X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teplits, N A [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Biologii Razvitiya

    1975-01-01

    The rate of oxygen use and activity of cytochrome oxidase in a homogenate of mitochondria and nuclei of muscle tissue of axolotl limbs after suppression of their regenerative capability by x irradiation and their restoration was studied experimentally. With suppression of the regenative capability the use of oxygen was depressed. Cytochrome oxidase activity in the homogenate and mitochondria decreased compared to that of the intact limb, in the nuclei of muscle tissue it was the same or greater. With restoration of the regenerative capability of the limbs the respiration rate of the homogenate and the mitochondria increased, accompanied by increased cytochrome oxidase activity. In the nuclei the cytochrome oxidase activity did not change in the blastema stage and sharply decreased in the limb formation state.

  20. Highly efficient exciplex formation via radical ion pair recombination in X-irradiated alkane solutions for luminophores with short fluorescence lifetimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Anatoly R; Kalneus, Evgeny V; Korolev, Valeri V; Dranov, Igor G; Kruppa, Alexander I; Stass, Dmitri V

    2014-08-01

    X-irradiation of alkane solutions of N,N-dimethylaniline with various organic luminophores produces characteristic emission bands ascribed to the corresponding exciplexes. In contrast to optical generation, which requires diffusion-controlled quenching of excited states, an additional channel of exciplex formation via irreversible recombination of radical ion pairs is operative here, which produces exciplexes in solution with high efficiency even for p-terphenyl and diphenylacetylene having fluorescence decay times of 0.95 ns and 8 ps, respectively. The exciplex emission band is sensitive to an external magnetic field and exerts a very large observed magnetic field effect of up to 20%, the maximum possible value under the conditions of the described experiment.

  1. Relationship between chromosomal aberration of bone marrow cells and dosage of irradiation after 46Sc internal pollution and external low dose X-irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guofu; Li Zhang; Wu Yin

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between chromosomal aberration of bone marrow cells and dosage in mice 24 h after 46 Sc internal pollution combined with external low dose whole body X-irradiation was quantiatively studied. The results showed that the relationship between chromosomal aberration and dosage was expressed in a linear regression equation. The chromosomal aberration rate was lower in the combined exposure than that of the sum of internal and external exposures, but higher than that of either the internal or external exposure singly. The relationship between chromosomal aberration and time was expressed in the following three phase exponential function: Y(t) = 2.9078 exp 0.27668t + 2.9371 exp -0.0778t + 2.3786 -0.01788t . By means of fit test, there was no significant difference between the determined and the theoretical values. The 90% theoretical values got from all the equations distributed over the determined values

  2. Sensory deprivation leading to late onset psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnajeet Sahoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensory deprivation is understood as diminution or absence of perceptual experiences to the usual external stimuli. Sensory deprivation in elderly is reported to be associated with depression, anxiety, psychosis, dementia, etc. In this report, we present the case of an 84-year- elderly man who developed auditory hallucination and after 1 year of onset of hearing difficulties. He was managed with quetiapine, with which he showed significant improvement.

  3. Induction of mouse mammary tumor virus RNA in mammary tumors of BALB/c mice treated with urethane, x-irradiation, and hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalides, R.; van Deemter, L.; Nusse, R.; Hageman, P.

    1979-01-01

    The involvement of mouse mammary tumor virus (MTV) in the development of mammary tumors of nonviral etiology in BALB/c mice was studied by measuring the levels of MTV RNA, MTV DNA, and MTV proteins in spontaneously arising and hormally, chemically, and/or physically induced mammary tumors of BALB/c females. The following results were obtained: (1) spontaneous mammary tumors contained very low levels of MTV RNA; 4 x 10 -6 % of the cytoplasmic RNA was MTV RNA. No MTV proteins could be demonstrated by using sensitive radioimmunoassays for MTV proteins p27 and gp52. (2) Mammary tumors induced by treatments with urethane or x-irradiation alone contained higher levels of MTV RNA; these tumors contained 3- and 19-fold more MTV RNA, respectively, compared with spontaneous mammary tumors. (3) Mammary tumors induced by combined treatment with urethane and x-irradiation expressed high levels of MTV RNA in the mammary tumors; a 1,724-fold increase in MTV RNA content compared with spontaneous mammary tumors was observed. However, very low levels of MTV proteins gp52 and p27 were detected, suggesting some kind of impairment at the translation of MTV RNA. MTV RNA was also induced by this treatment in mammary glands and spleens, but not in the livers of tumor-bearing animals. (4) BALB/c females continuously exposed to prolactin contained high levels of MTV RNA and MTV proteins in stimulated mammary glands and in the hormonally induced mammary tumors. These findings suggest that MTV is not responsible for the maintenance and probably also not for the development of all murine mammary cancers

  4. Studies of the effect of 0.4-Gy and 0.6-Gy prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal adult behavior in the Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensh, R P; Brent, R L; Vogel, W H

    1987-02-01

    Thirty-four pregnant Wistar rats were X-irradiated on the 9th or 17th day of gestation at a dosage level 0.4 Gy or 0.6 Gy or were sham-irradiated. All mothers were allowed to deliver their offspring, and litters were limited to a maximum of eight on day 2. On day 30, 224 offspring were weaned and raised until 60 days of age, at which time testing began. Each rat randomly received, in random order, three of the following six behavioral tests: Water T-maze, Conditioned Avoidance Response, Forelimb Hanging, Activity Wheel, Swimming, and Open Field. There were no statistically significant differences between the irradiated and control groups for maternal weight or weight gain or mean litter size, although the litter size of the 17th day 0.6-Gy group was slightly lower. Among offspring irradiated with 0.6 Gy on the 17th day, 3-day-old neonates' weights were significantly reduced. Offspring irradiated on the 17th day with 0.6 Gy exhibited higher Conditioned Avoidance Response 5th-day and retest avoidance scores than did the controls. There were also significant sex differences in responses within the irradiated and control groups for several tests, which were unrelated to radiation exposure. The results of this study indicate that low-level X-irradiation during the fetal period of rat gestation results in neonatal growth retardation and subtle behavioral alterations that may be manifested in adult life. Growth retardation may be the most sensitive indicator of subtle effects that result from low-level prenatal exposure to X-rays.

  5. Studies of the effect of 0.4-Gy and 0.6-Gy prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal adult behavior in the Wistar rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.; Vogel, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Thirty-four pregnant Wistar rats were X-irradiated on the 9th or 17th day of gestation at a dosage level 0.4 Gy or 0.6 Gy or were sham-irradiated. All mothers were allowed to deliver their offspring, and litters were limited to a maximum of eight on day 2. On day 30, 224 offspring were weaned and raised until 60 days of age, at which time testing began. Each rat randomly received, in random order, three of the following six behavioral tests: Water T-maze, Conditioned Avoidance Response, Forelimb Hanging, Activity Wheel, Swimming, and Open Field. There were no statistically significant differences between the irradiated and control groups for maternal weight or weight gain or mean litter size, although the litter size of the 17th day 0.6-Gy group was slightly lower. Among offspring irradiated with 0.6 Gy on the 17th day, 3-day-old neonates' weights were significantly reduced. Offspring irradiated on the 17th day with 0.6 Gy exhibited higher Conditioned Avoidance Response 5th-day and retest avoidance scores than did the controls. There were also significant sex differences in responses within the irradiated and control groups for several tests, which were unrelated to radiation exposure. The results of this study indicate that low-level X-irradiation during the fetal period of rat gestation results in neonatal growth retardation and subtle behavioral alterations that may be manifested in adult life. Growth retardation may be the most sensitive indicator of subtle effects that result from low-level prenatal exposure to X-rays

  6. Neighborhood Economic Deprivation and Social Fragmentation: Associations With Children's Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Erika J; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Saini, Ekjyot K; Philbrook, Lauren E; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2016-12-09

    A growing body of work indicates that experiences of neighborhood disadvantage place children at risk for poor sleep. This study aimed to examine how both neighborhood economic deprivation (a measure of poverty) and social fragmentation (an index of instability) are associated with objective measures of the length and quality of children's sleep. Participants were 210 children (54.3% boys) living predominantly in small towns and semirural communities in Alabama. On average children were 11.3 years old (SD = .63); 66.7% of the children were European American and 33.3% were African American. The sample was socioeconomically diverse with 67.9% of the participants living at or below the poverty line and 32.1% from lower-middle-class or middle-class families. Indicators of neighborhood characteristics were derived from the 2012 American Community Survey and composited to create two variables representing neighborhood economic deprivation and social fragmentation. Child sleep period, actual sleep minutes, and efficiency were examined using actigraphy. Higher levels of neighborhood economic deprivation were associated with fewer sleep minutes and poorer sleep efficiency. More neighborhood social fragmentation was also linked with poorer sleep efficiency. Analyses controlled for demographic characteristics, child health, and family socioeconomic status. Findings indicate that living in economically and socially disadvantaged neighborhoods predicts risk for shorter and lower-quality sleep in children. Examination of community context in addition to family and individual characteristics may provide a more comprehensive understanding of the factors shaping child sleep.

  7. HEALTH EFFECTS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION ON NURSES WORKING SHIFTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanojevic, Cedomirka; Simic, Svetlana; Milutinovic, Dragana

    2016-10-01

    Atypical work schedules cause reduced sleep, leading to drowsiness, fatigue, decline of cognitive performance and health problems among the members of the nursing staff. The study was aimed at reviewing current knowledge and attitudes concerning the impact of sleep disorders on health and cognitive functions among the members of the nursing staff. Sleep and Interpersonal Relations in Modern Society. The modern 24-hour society involves more and more employees (health services, police departments, public transport) in non-standard forms of work. In European Union countries, over 50% of the nursing staff work night shifts, while in the United States of America 55% of nursing staff work more than 40 hours a week, and 30-70% of nurses sleep less than six hours before their shift. Cognitive Effects of Sleep Deprivation. Sleep deprivation impairs the performance of tasks that require intensive and prolonged attention which increases the number of errors in patients care, and nurses are subject to incre- ased risk of traffic accidents. Sleep Deprivation and Health Disorders. Sleep deprived members of the nursing staff are at risk of obesity, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders and cardiovascular disease. The risk factors for breast cancer are increased by 1.79 times. and there is a significantly higher risk for colorectal carcinoma. Too long or repeated shifts reduce the opportunity for sleep, shorten recovery time in nurses, thus endangering their safety and health as well as the quality of care and patients' safety. Bearing in mind the significance of the problerm it is necessary to conduct the surveys of sleep quality and health of nurses in the Republic of Serbia as well in order to tackle this issue which is insufficiently recognized.

  8. Chronic sleep deprivation differentially affects short and long-term operant memory in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Harini C; Noakes, Eric J; Lyons, Lisa C

    2016-10-01

    The induction, formation and maintenance of memory represent dynamic processes modulated by multiple factors including the circadian clock and sleep. Chronic sleep restriction has become common in modern society due to occupational and social demands. Given the impact of cognitive impairments associated with sleep deprivation, there is a vital need for a simple animal model in which to study the interactions between chronic sleep deprivation and memory. We used the marine mollusk Aplysia californica, with its simple nervous system, nocturnal sleep pattern and well-characterized learning paradigms, to assess the effects of two chronic sleep restriction paradigms on short-term (STM) and long-term (LTM) associative memory. The effects of sleep deprivation on memory were evaluated using the operant learning paradigm, learning that food is inedible, in which the animal associates a specific netted seaweed with failed swallowing attempts. We found that two nights of 6h sleep deprivation occurring during the first or last half of the night inhibited both STM and LTM. Moreover, the impairment in STM persisted for more than 24h. A milder, prolonged sleep deprivation paradigm consisting of 3 consecutive nights of 4h sleep deprivation also blocked STM, but had no effect on LTM. These experiments highlight differences in the sensitivity of STM and LTM to chronic sleep deprivation. Moreover, these results establish Aplysia as a valid model for studying the interactions between chronic sleep deprivation and associative memory paving the way for future studies delineating the mechanisms through which sleep restriction affects memory formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sleep extension increases IGF-I concentrations before and during sleep deprivation in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennaoui, Mounir; Arnal, Pierrick J; Drogou, Catherine; Sauvet, Fabien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle

    2016-09-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to suppress circulating trophic factors such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This experiment examined the effect of an intervention involving 6 nights of extended sleep before total sleep deprivation on this catabolic profile. In a randomized crossover design, 14 young men (age range: 26-37 years) were either in an extended (EXT; time in bed: 2100-0700 h) or habitual (HAB: 2230-0700 h) sleep condition, followed by 3 days in the laboratory with blood sampling at baseline (B), after 24 h of sleep deprivation (24h-SD), and after 1 night of recovery sleep (R). In the EXT condition compared with the HAB condition, free IGF-I levels were significantly higher at B, 24h-SD, and R (P sleep deprivation was for insulin levels, which were significantly higher after R compared with B. In a healthy adult, additional sleep over 1 week increased blood concentrations of the anabolic factor IGF-I before and during 24 h of sleep deprivation and after the subsequent recovery night without effects on BDNF. With further research, these findings may prove to be important in guiding effective lifestyle modifications to limit physical or cognitive deficits associated with IGF-I decrease with age.

  10. Executive Functions are not Affected by 24 Hours of Sleep Deprivation: A Color-Word Stroop Task Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Abhinav; Mittal, Tushar

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is an important factor affecting cognitive performance. Sleep deprivation results in fatigue, lack of concentration, confusion and sleepiness along with anxiety, depression and irritability. Sleep deprivation can have serious consequences in professions like armed forces and medicine where quick decisions and actions need to be taken. Color-Word Stroop task is one of the reliable tests to assess attention and it analyzes the processing of information in two dimensions i.e., reading of words and naming of colour. The evidence regarding the effect of sleep deprivation on Stroop interference is conflicting. The present study evaluated the effect of 24 hours of sleep deprivation on reaction time and interference in Stroop task. The present study was done on 30 healthy male medical student volunteers in the age group of 18-25 years after taking their consent and clearance from Institute Ethics Committee. Recordings of Stroop task were at three times: baseline (between 7-9 am), after 12 hours (7-9 pm) and after 24 hours (7-9 am, next day). The subjects were allowed to perform normal daily activities. The study revealed a significant increase in reaction time after 24 hours of sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline and after 12 hours of sleep deprivation. There was no significant change in interference and facilitation after sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline. The number of errors also did not show any significant change after sleep deprivation. The study indicated that there was slowing of responses without change in executive functions after 24 hours of sleep deprivation. It is probable that 24 hours of sleep deprivation does not bring about change in areas of brain affecting executive functions in healthy individuals who have normal sleep cycle. The present study indicated that in professions like armed forces and medicine working 24 hours at a stretch can lead to decrease in motor responses without affecting information processing and judgment

  11. Interocular suppression in children with deprivation amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Lisa; Chen, Zidong; Li, Jinrong; Black, Joanna; Dai, Shuan; Yuan, Junpeng; Yu, Minbin; Thompson, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    In patients with anisometropic or strabismic amblyopia, interocular suppression can be minimized by presenting high contrast stimulus elements to the amblyopic eye and lower contrast elements to the fellow eye. This suggests a structurally intact binocular visual system that is functionally suppressed. We investigated whether suppression can also be overcome by contrast balancing in children with deprivation amblyopia due to childhood cataracts. To quantify interocular contrast balance, contrast interference thresholds were measured using an established dichoptic global motion technique for 21 children with deprivation amblyopia, 14 with anisometropic or mixed strabismic/anisometropic amblyopia and 10 visually normal children (mean age mean=9.9years, range 5-16years). We found that interocular suppression could be overcome by contrast balancing in most children with deprivation amblyopia, at least intermittently, and all children with anisometropic or mixed anisometropic/strabismic amblyopia. However, children with deprivation amblyopia due to early unilateral or bilateral cataracts could tolerate only very low contrast levels to the stronger eye indicating strong suppression. Our results suggest that treatment options reliant on contrast balanced dichoptic presentation could be attempted in a subset of children with deprivation amblyopia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A non-linear detection of phospho-histone H2AX in EA.hy926 endothelial cells following low-dose X-irradiation is modulated by reactive oxygen species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large, Martin; Reichert, Sebastian; Hehlgans, Stephanie; Fournier, Claudia; Rödel, Claus; Rödel, Franz

    2014-01-01

    A discontinuous dose response relationship is a major characteristic of the anti-inflammatory effects of low-dose X-irradiation therapy. Although recent data indicate an involvement of a variety of molecular mechanisms in these characteristics, the impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production to give rise or contribute to these phenomena in endothelial cells (EC) remains elusive. HUVEC derived immortalized EA.hy926 cells were stimulated by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, 20 ng/ml) 4 h before irradiation with doses ranging from 0.3 to 1 Gy. To analyse DNA repair capacity, phospho-histone H2AX foci were assayed at 1 h, 4 h and 24 h after irradiation. ROS production and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were analysed by fluorometric 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein-diacetate (H2DCFDA) and colorimetric assays. A functional impact of ROS on γH2AX production was analysed by treatment with the scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Irrespective of stimulation by TNF-α, EA.hy926 cells revealed a linear dose response characteristic of γH2AX foci detection at 1 h and 4 h after irradiation. By contrast, we observed a discontinuity in residual γH2AX foci detection at 24 h after irradiation with locally elevated values following a 0.5 Gy exposure that was abolished by inhibition of ROS by NAC. Moreover, SOD protein expression was significantly decreased at doses of 0.5 Gy and 0.7 Gy concomitant with a reduced SOD activity. These data implicate a non-linear regulation of ROS production and SOD activity in EA.hy926 EC following irradiation with doses < 1 Gy that may contribute to a discontinuous dose-response relationship of residual γH2AX foci detection

  13. Sleep Deficiency and Deprivation Leading to Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Kohansieh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep plays a vital role in an individual’s mental, emotional, and physiological well-being. Not only does sleep deficiency lead to neurological and psychological disorders, but also the literature has explored the adverse effects of sleep deficiency on the cardiovascular system. Decreased quantity and quality of sleep have been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, such as hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. We explore the literature correlating primary sleep deficiency and deprivation as a cause for cardiovascular disease and cite endothelial dysfunction as a common underlying mechanism.

  14. Deprivation amblyopia and congenital hereditary cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Behzad; Stacy, Rebecca C; Kruger, Joshua; Cestari, Dean M

    2013-01-01

    Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder of vision associated with decreased visual acuity, poor or absent stereopsis, and suppression of information from one eye.(1,2) Amblyopia may be caused by strabismus (strabismic amblyopia), refractive error (anisometropic amblyopia), or deprivation from obstructed vision (deprivation amblyopia). 1 In the developed world, amblyopia is the most common cause of childhood visual impairment, 3 which reduces quality of life 4 and also almost doubles the lifetime risk of legal blindness.(5, 6) Successful treatment of amblyopia greatly depends on early detection and treatment of predisposing disorders such as congenital cataract, which is the most common cause of deprivational amblyopia. Understanding the genetic causes of congenital cataract leads to more effective screening tests, early detection and treatment of infants and children who are at high risk for hereditary congenital cataract.

  15. Social Deprivation, Community Cohesion, Denominational Education and Freedom of Choice: A Marxist Perspective on Poverty and Exclusion in the District of Thanet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Thanet suffers from severe deprivation, mainly driven by socio-economic factors. Efforts to remediate this through economic regeneration plans have largely been unsuccessful, while a combination of selective and denominational education creates and maintains a gradient of disadvantage that mainly impacts upon already-deprived young people. Some of…

  16. Deprivation of Dignity in Nursing Home Residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente

    2016-01-01

    deepened knowledge in how to maintain and promote dignity in nursing home residents. The purpose of this paper is to present results concerning the question: How is nursing home residents’ dignity maintained or deprived from the perspective of close family caregivers? In this presentation we only focus...... on deprivation of dignity. Methodology: The overall design of this study is modified clinical application research. The study took place at six different nursing home residences in Sweden, Denmark and Norway. Data collection methods were individual research interviews. All together the sample consisted of 28...

  17. Sleep deprivation: cardiovascular effects for anesthesiologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dabbagh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sleep and anesthesia have some common or "overlapping" neural pathways. Both involve wakefulness; while they are not the same; anesthesia is an iatrogenic, reversible, pharmacologic-based coma; which could affect the CNS neural pathways at many levels. In the current era of modern anesthesiology, the practice and science of anesthesia is composed of 4 basic elements; (1: 1. hypnosis (i.e. iatrogenic pharmacologicinduced coma 2. amnesia (not to remember the events of the operation 3. analgesia (being painless 4. akinesia (lack of movements to stimuli The first two ingredients of anesthesia could have common points with sleep. Thalamic nuclei are involved both in sleep and anesthesia (2, 3; though, they are not the same phenomena (4. However, could there be any clinical concern if some of our patients have abnormalities in sleep? In fact, the effects of sleep deprivation have long been studied in patients undergoing anesthesia for surgical operations (4, 5. Sleep deprivation causes altered neurohumoral activity, neuroendocrine dysregulations, abnormalities in the immune system and impairments in cardiac autonomic function (6, 7. Sleep deprivation may affect the clinical effects of the anesthetics or it may create unpredicted changes in the clinical response to a determined dose of anesthetic drugs (8. In this volume of the Journal, Choopani et al have published their results regarding sleep deprivation; they have demonstrated that in rats, if sleep deprivation is induced prior to an ischemia/reperfusion event, it can increase the chance for ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation; also, they have shown that this untoward effect could be eliminated using chemical sympathectomy (9. In clinical practice, the main message from this study could be that when anesthesiologists perform anesthesia for their patients, they should be aware of effects of acute or chronic sleep deprivation. Undoubtedly, sleep deprivation could occur during the

  18. Association among individual deprivation, glycemic control, and diabetes complications: the EPICES score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihan, Hélène; Laurent, Silvana; Sass, Catherine; Nguyen, Gérard; Huot, Caroline; Moulin, Jean Jacques; Guegen, René; Le Toumelin, Philippe; Le Clésiau, Hervé; La Rosa, Emilio; Reach, Gérard; Cohen, Régis

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies have related poor glycemic control and/or some diabetes complications to low socioeconomic status. Some aspects of socioeconomic status have not been assessed in these studies. In the present study, we used an individual index of deprivation, the Evaluation de la Précarité et des Inégalités de santé dans les Centres d'Examens de Santé (Evaluation of Precarity and Inequalities in Health Examination Centers [EPICES]) score, to determine the relationship among glycemic control, diabetes complications, and individual conditions of deprivation. We conducted a cross-sectional prevalence study in 135 consecutive diabetic patients (age 59.41 +/- 13.2 years [mean +/- SD]) admitted in the hospitalization unit of a French endocrine department. Individual deprivation was assessed by the EPICES score, calculated from 11 socioeconomic questions. Glycemic control, lipid levels, blood pressure, retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy were assessed. HbA(1c) level was significantly correlated with the EPICES score (r = 0.366, P < 0.001). The more deprived patients were more likely than the less deprived patients to have poor glycemic control (beta = 1.984 [SE 0.477], P < 0.001), neuropathy (odds ratio 2.39 [95% CI 1.05-5.43], P = 0.037), retinopathy (3.66 [1.39-9.64], P = 0.009), and being less often admitted for 1-day hospitalization (0.32 [0.14-0.74], P = 0.008). No significant relationship was observed with either nephropathy or cardiovascular risk factors. Deprivation status is associated with poor metabolic control and more frequent microvascular complications, i.e., retinopathy and neuropathy. The medical and economic burden of deprived patients is high.

  19. Regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane of the planarian Dugesia japonica after total-body x irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, I.

    1979-03-01

    Fresh-water planarians were studied to examine effects of x rays on regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane. During early stages of regeneration, free rhabdite-forming cells were associated with the wound epidermis and recruited it. In later stages, however, a gradual degeneration occurred in the epidermis and cells undergoing epithelization decreased in number. Eventually epidermal cells on the wound surface appeared necrotic as evidenced by pyknotic nuclei and vacuolized dense cytoplasm. The entire basement membrane could not be reconstituted in any stage after wounding though its precursor-like material was secreted in the interspace between epidermis and parenchyma. Morphological changes in extracellular products and in the cells surrounding the products suggest that epidermal cells which have covered the wound surface synthesize precursors of the basement membrane. Possible factors of a characteristic perturbation in epithelization and basement membrane formation after total-body irradiation are discussed.

  20. Thermal evolution of low-temperature manganese centers in X-irradiated CaF2:Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahan, M.S.; Cooke, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    Thermal evolution of the radiation-induced defects in CaF 2 :Mn (0.1% by weight) are investigated by ESR techniques. The Mn + resonance is found to decay at 200 K with an activation energy of 0.44 eV and frequency factor 2.8 x 10 8 s -1 which agree with previous luminescence and optical absorption measurements. This activation energy and decay temperature also agree with that of the previously described H center. It is concluded that the luminescence in CaF 2 :Mn results from thermal release of holes at H centers with ultimate recombination at Mn + ions producing excited state Mn 2+ (*). Relaxation yields the observed 500 nm emission characteristic of Mn 2+ . A second defect which decays at 150 K is observed but not identified. (author)