WorldWideScience

Sample records for factor approach shows

  1. Factor analysis shows association between family activity environment and children's health behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Gilly A; Coveney, John; Cox, David N

    2011-12-01

    To characterise the family activity environment in a questionnaire format, assess the questionnaire's reliability and describe its predictive ability by examining the relationships between the family activity environment and children's health behaviours - physical activity, screen time and fruit and vegetable intake. This paper describes the creation of a tool, based on previously validated scales, adapted from the food domain. Data are from 106 children and their parents (Adelaide, South Australia). Factor analysis was used to characterise factors within the family activity environment. Pearson-Product Moment correlations between the family environment and child outcomes, controlling for demographic variation, were examined. Three factors described the family activity environment - parental activity involvement, opportunity for role modelling and parental support for physical activity - and explained 37.6% of the variance. Controlling for demographic factors, the scale was significantly correlated with children's health behaviour - physical activity (r=0.27), screen time (r=-0.24) and fruit and vegetable intake (r=0.34). The family activity environment questionnaire shows high internal consistency and moderate predictive ability. This study has built on previous research by taking a more comprehensive approach to measuring the family activity environment. This research suggests the family activity environment should be considered in family-based health promotion interventions. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  2. Blood donor show behaviour after an invitation to donate : The influence of collection site factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, E.-M.; Zijlstra, B.J.H.; de Kort, W.L.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Show behaviour after invitation to donate varies considerably across donors. More insight into this variation is important for blood banks in achieving stable stocks. This study examined individual factors determining intended show behaviour. Most importantly, however, this

  3. Blood donor show behavior after an invitation to donate: The influence of collection site factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, E.M.; Zijlstra, Bonne; De Kort, Wim L.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Show behaviour after invitation to donate varies considerably across donors. More insight into this variation is important for blood banks in achieving stable stocks. This study examined individual factors determining intended show behaviour. Most importantly, however, this

  4. A Bayesian Nonparametric Approach to Factor Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piatek, Rémi; Papaspiliopoulos, Omiros

    2018-01-01

    This paper introduces a new approach for the inference of non-Gaussian factor models based on Bayesian nonparametric methods. It relaxes the usual normality assumption on the latent factors, widely used in practice, which is too restrictive in many settings. Our approach, on the contrary, does no...

  5. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy: A Long Term Follow-up Shows Benefit with Risk Factor Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koroush Khalighi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Only sparse data was available on long-term of Takotusbo Cardiomyopathy (TC. Previous studies suggested prognosis is not necessarily benign. We report the long-term follow-up of 12 TC patients actively managed with risk factor reduction. Retrospective analysis of all patients diagnosed with TC at our hospital between 1998 and 2010. We identified 12 patients with TC among 1651 cases of emergent left heart catheterization over 12 years. Mean follow-up time was 8.3 ± 3.6 years. All were female, 87% had hypertension, 25% had history of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD, 67% had hyperlipidemia, 44% had some preceding emotional trauma, and 44% had some physical/physiological stress. Previous studies have shown that over 50% of TC patients experience future cardiac events, and 10% have a recurrence of TC. Patients were prescribed therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLC and guideline directed medical therapy (GDMT for aggressive risk factor reduction. TLC included diet, exercise, and cardiac rehabilitation. GDMT often included aspirin, beta-blockers, ACE-inhibitors, and statins. Follow-up echocardiograms showed recovery and maintenance of the ejection fraction. There was no cardiac mortality and no recurrences of TC. Aggressive risk factor reduction with TLC and GDMT may be effective in improving the long term outcomes of patients with TC.

  6. Mortality risk factors show similar trends in modern and historic populations exposed to plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Mauro; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Manzon, Vanessa S; Rinaldo, Natascia; Bianucci, Raffaella

    2016-05-31

    Plague has been responsible for two major historic pandemics (6th-8th century CE; 14th-19th century CE) and a modern one. The recent Malagasy plague outbreaks raised new concerns on the deadly potential of the plague-causing bacteria Yersinia pestis. Between September 2014 and April 2015, outbreaks of bubonic and pneumonic plague hit the Malagasy population. Two hundred and sixty-three cases, including 71 deaths, have been reported in 16 different districts with a case fatality rate of 27%. The scope of our study was to ascertain whether the risk factors for health in modern-day populations exposed to plague and in ancient populations that faced the two historic pandemics varied or remained substantially unaltered. The risk of mortality of the Malagasy population with those obtained from the reconstruction of three samples of European populations exposed to the historic pandemics was contrasted. The evidence shows that the risks of death are not uniform across age neither in modern nor in historic populations exposed to plague and shows precise concentrations in specific age groups (children between five and nine years of age and young adults). Although in the post-antibiotic era, the fatality rates have drastically reduced, both modern and historic populations were exposed to the same risk factors that are essentially represented by a low standard of environmental hygiene, poor nutrition, and weak health systems.

  7. Ensemble refinement shows conformational flexibility in crystal structures of human complement factor D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forneris, Federico; Burnley, B. Tom; Gros, Piet

    2014-01-01

    Ensemble-refinement analysis of native and mutant factor D (FD) crystal structures indicates a dynamical transition in FD from a self-inhibited inactive conformation to a substrate-bound active conformation that is reminiscent of the allostery in thrombin. Comparison with previously observed dynamics in thrombin using NMR data supports the crystallographic ensembles. Human factor D (FD) is a self-inhibited thrombin-like serine proteinase that is critical for amplification of the complement immune response. FD is activated by its substrate through interactions outside the active site. The substrate-binding, or ‘exosite’, region displays a well defined and rigid conformation in FD. In contrast, remarkable flexibility is observed in thrombin and related proteinases, in which Na + and ligand binding is implied in allosteric regulation of enzymatic activity through protein dynamics. Here, ensemble refinement (ER) of FD and thrombin crystal structures is used to evaluate structure and dynamics simultaneously. A comparison with previously published NMR data for thrombin supports the ER analysis. The R202A FD variant has enhanced activity towards artificial peptides and simultaneously displays active and inactive conformations of the active site. ER revealed pronounced disorder in the exosite loops for this FD variant, reminiscent of thrombin in the absence of the stabilizing Na + ion. These data indicate that FD exhibits conformational dynamics like thrombin, but unlike in thrombin a mechanism has evolved in FD that locks the unbound native state into an ordered inactive conformation via the self-inhibitory loop. Thus, ensemble refinement of X-ray crystal structures may represent an approach alternative to spectroscopy to explore protein dynamics in atomic detail

  8. Interdisciplinarity, Debate And Movie Clips As Highly Motivating Factors In Live Shows - Five Years Of Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengler, E.; Sirera, J. M.

    2011-09-01

    A live show on any subject that includes experiments and continuous interaction with the audience is a well known approach for EPO activities that many are carrying out all over. We present such an initiative with some added ingredients such as interdisciplinarity, the use of movie clips, and especially the debate between the two presenters, a debate that is all the more attractive to the public if it not fully staged but closely represents their actual points of view. José Montesinos, from the "Orotava" Canarian Foundation for the History of Science, is and plays the role of the more mature math professor who has grown weary of the overrated value given in science to mathematics and its consequences. This poses a constant challenge to his colleague, Erik Stengler, from the Science Museum of Tenerife, the young down-to-earth hands-on scientist, who defends the usual view that science and technology are to be judged by their achievements, which have brought about the advancement of modern society. With this approach and as a collaboration between our institutions, we have produced and toured highly successful activities on: Einstein and Relativity (from 2005 to 2008, "Einstein Goes To School," including a theatre play); circularity, the number π, forces of inertia and the Newtonian revolution (in 2008/2009, "The Tension Between Circularity and The Straight Line"); and the foundations of modern astronomy (in 2009/2010 "Kepler and Galileo, Messengers of the Stars"). Audiences were very varied - students, adult students, general public, prison inmates, teachers - and all appreciated the presentations as fun, thought-provoking and highly motivating, and valued especially the interdisciplinary character of the activity. Movie clips have shown to be especially useful to recover the attention of the young when they lose the thread due to the short attention spans they presently have.

  9. Risk factors for delusion of theft in patients with Alzheimer's disease showing mild dementia in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, N; Iseki, E; Endo, T; Nagashima, K; Yamamoto, R; Ichimiya, Y; Arai, H; Sato, K

    2009-07-01

    The mechanism underlying delusion in Alzheimer's disease patients has not been fully clarified; however, the occurrence of delusion is a critical issue for dementia patients and their caregivers. In Japan, delusion of theft is the most frequent delusion in AD patients. We examined the risk factors for delusion of theft in AD patients showing mild dementia. Fifty-six AD patients were administered HDS-R, MMSE and COGNISTAT, including the 'speech sample', to assess their neuropsychological and social cognitive functions. The age, years of education, presence of cohabiting family members and premorbid personality traits were obtained from family members. About 25.0% of AD patients showed delusion of theft (D-group), and 75% did not (non-D-group). About 33.3% of female patients and 5.9% of male patients were included in the D-group (p theft in AD patients was related to female gender, absence of cohabiting family members, neurotic personality and retained social cognitive function.

  10. The human factors approach at EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colas, A.

    2004-01-01

    At the dawn of the 21st century, French electricity utility EDF is facing a number of major changes, in particular the liberalisation of European energy markets and the restructuring needed to cope with this development. EDF's approach to human factors (HF) aspects is also undergoing major changes, since people obviously play a predominant role in any organisational structure. (author)

  11. Title: Studies on drug switchability showed heterogeneity in methodological approaches: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belleudi, Valeria; Trotta, Francesco; Vecchi, Simona; Amato, Laura; Addis, Antonio; Davoli, Marina

    2018-05-16

    Several drugs share the same therapeutic indication, including those undergoing patent expiration. Concerns on the interchangeability are frequent in clinical practice, challenging the evaluation of switchability through observational research. To conduct a scoping review of observational studies on drug switchability to identify methodological strategies adopted to deal with bias and confounding. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science (updated 1/31/2017) to identify studies evaluating switchability in terms of effectiveness/safety outcomes or compliance. Three reviewers independently screened studies extracting all characteristics. Strategies to address confounding, particularly, previous drug use and switching reasons were considered. All findings were summarized in descriptive analyses. Thirty-two studies, published in the last 10 years, met the inclusion criteria. Epilepsy, cardiovascular and rheumatology were the most frequently represented clinical areas. 75% of the studies reported data on effectiveness/safety outcomes. The most frequent study design was cohort (65.6%) followed by case-control (21.9%) and self-controlled (12.5%). Case-control and case-crossover studies showed homogeneous methodological strategies to deal with bias and confounding. Among cohort studies, the confounding associated with previous drug use was addressed introducing variables in multivariate model (47.3%) or selecting only adherent patients (14.3%). Around 30% of cohort studies did not report reasons for switching. In the remaining 70%, clinical parameters or previous occurrence of outcomes were measured to identify switching connected with lack of effectiveness or adverse events. This study represents a starting point for researchers and administrators who are approaching the investigation and assessment of issues related to interchangeability of drugs. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Factors secreted from dental pulp stem cells show multifaceted benefits for treating experimental rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Jun; Takahashi, Nobunori; Matsumoto, Takuya; Yoshioka, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Nishikawa, Masaya; Hibi, Hideharu; Ishigro, Naoki; Ueda, Minoru; Furukawa, Koichi; Yamamoto, Akihito

    2016-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by synovial hyperplasia and chronic inflammation, which lead to the progressive destruction of cartilage and bone in the joints. Numerous studies have reported that administrations of various types of MSCs improve arthritis symptoms in animal models, by paracrine mechanisms. However, the therapeutic effects of the secreted factors alone, without the cell graft, have been uncertain. Here, we show that a single intravenous administration of serum-free conditioned medium (CM) from human deciduous dental pulp stem cells (SHED-CM) into anti-collagen type II antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA), a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), markedly improved the arthritis symptoms and joint destruction. The therapeutic efficacy of SHED-CM was associated with an induction of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages in the CAIA joints and the abrogation of RANKL expression. SHED-CM specifically depleted of an M2 macrophage inducer, the secreted ectodomain of sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin-9 (ED-Siglec-9), exhibited a reduced ability to induce M2-related gene expression and attenuate CAIA. SHED-CM also inhibited the RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Collectively, our findings suggest that SHED-CM provides multifaceted therapeutic effects for treating CAIA, including the ED-Siglec-9-dependent induction of M2 macrophage polarization and inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. Thus, SHED-CM may represent a novel anti-inflammatory and reparative therapy for RA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Showing the Unsayable: Participatory Visual Approaches and the Constitution of 'Patient Experience' in Healthcare Quality Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, Constantina

    2018-06-01

    This article considers the strengths and potential contributions of participatory visual methods for healthcare quality improvement research. It argues that such approaches may enable us to expand our understanding of 'patient experience' and of its potential for generating new knowledge for health systems. In particular, they may open up dimensions of people's engagement with services and treatments which exceed both the declarative nature of responses to questionnaires and the narrative sequencing of self reports gathered through qualitative interviewing. I will suggest that working with such methods may necessitate a more reflexive approach to the constitution of evidence in quality improvement work. To this end, the article will first consider the emerging rationale for the use of visual participatory methods in improvement before outlining the implications of two related approaches-photo-elicitation and PhotoVoice-for the constitution of 'experience'. It will then move to a participatory model for healthcare improvement work, Experience Based Co-Design (EBCD). It will argue that EBCD exemplifies both the strengths and the limitations of adequating visual participatory approaches to quality improvement ends. The article will conclude with a critical reflection on a small photographic study, in which the author participated, and which sought to harness service user perspectives for the design of psychiatric facilities, as a way of considering the potential contribution of visual participatory methods for quality improvement.

  14. Show Me the Way: Future Faculty Prefer Directive Feedback When Trying Active Learning Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Jessica D.; Battle, David C.; Gormally, Cara L.; Brickman, Peggy

    2017-01-01

    Early training opportunities for future faculty, namely graduate students and postdoctoral researchers, can better prepare them to use active learning approaches. We know that instructional feedback supports sustained change and motivates instructors to improve teaching practices. Here, we incorporate feedback as a key component of a pedagogical…

  15. No-show at a forensic psychiatric outpatient clinic : risk factors and reasons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feitsma, W. Nathalie; Popping, Roel; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.

    Nonattendance for and late cancellations of scheduled appointments, that is no-show, is a well-known phenomenon in psychiatric outpatient clinics. Research on the topic of no-show for initial and consecutive appointments in the field of forensic psychiatry is scarce. This study therefore aims to

  16. Sagittal abdominal diameter shows better correlation with cardiovascular risk factors than waist circumference and BMI

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza, Natalia Cavalheri; de Oliveira, Erick Prado

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity (abdominal adiposity) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and the most used methods to measure the adiposity are body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD). Objective To correlate BMI, WC, and SAD with biochemical parameters and blood pressure in adults. Methods A non-experimental exploratory/descriptive and cross sectional study was developed and it was assessed 133 subjects (59 men and 74 women) aging between 18 and 87?...

  17. A novel statistical approach shows evidence for multi-system physiological dysregulation during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alan A; Milot, Emmanuel; Yong, Jian; Seplaki, Christopher L; Fülöp, Tamàs; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Fried, Linda P

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have identified many biomarkers that are associated with aging and related outcomes, but the relevance of these markers for underlying processes and their relationship to hypothesized systemic dysregulation is not clear. We address this gap by presenting a novel method for measuring dysregulation via the joint distribution of multiple biomarkers and assessing associations of dysregulation with age and mortality. Using longitudinal data from the Women's Health and Aging Study, we selected a 14-marker subset from 63 blood measures: those that diverged from the baseline population mean with age. For the 14 markers and all combinatorial sub-subsets we calculated a multivariate distance called the Mahalanobis distance (MHBD) for all observations, indicating how "strange" each individual's biomarker profile was relative to the baseline population mean. In most models, MHBD correlated positively with age, MHBD increased within individuals over time, and higher MHBD predicted higher risk of subsequent mortality. Predictive power increased as more variables were incorporated into the calculation of MHBD. Biomarkers from multiple systems were implicated. These results support hypotheses of simultaneous dysregulation in multiple systems and confirm the need for longitudinal, multivariate approaches to understanding biomarkers in aging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Show Me the Money: Importance of Crowdfunding Factors on Backers’ Decisions to Financially Support Kickstarter Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Colistra

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Through the use of an online survey and supporting interviews of funders, this study explores which factors are most influential in people’s decisions to financially back Kickstarter projects. Findings suggest that Kickstarter has several distinct benefits for those who support its projects and offers them an experience that traditional production channels cannot. The results also indicate that backers typically feel involved in the process of creating the projects they support, and they are willing to take risks to see projects that are important to them come to fruition. This research helps to improve our understanding of the attitudes that drive Kickstarter funding, and it helps project creators know what aspects of their campaigns prospective supporters find most important.

  19. Chin Shan analyses show advantages of whole pool multi-rack approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.P.; Soler, A.I.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear fuel storage racks are essentially thin-walled, cellular structures of prismatic cross-section. Although the details of design vary from one supplier to another, certain key physical attributes are common to all designs. For example, all racks feature square cells of sufficient opening size and height to enable insertion and withdrawal of the fuel assembly. The array of cells is positioned in a vertical orientation and is supported off the pool slab surface by four or more support legs. The spent fuel pool is filled with the individual fuel racks. The plenum created by the support legs is essential for proper cooling of the fuel assemblies stored in the rack, which relies on natural convective cooling to extract the heat emitted by the spent fuel. However, it has the insalutary effect of making it kinematically less stable. Regulatory authorities require careful and comprehensive analysis of the response of the racks under the seismic motions postulated for the pool slab. Results from whole pool multi-rack (WPMR) analyses at the Chin Shan and Oyster Creek nuclear plants point up the potential inadequacies of single rack 3D analyses, and show just how important it is to carry out WPMR simulations, despite their abstruseness and high cost. (author)

  20. Sagittal abdominal diameter shows better correlation with cardiovascular risk factors than waist circumference and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Natalia Cavalheri; de Oliveira, Erick Prado

    2013-01-01

    Obesity (abdominal adiposity) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and the most used methods to measure the adiposity are body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD). To correlate BMI, WC, and SAD with biochemical parameters and blood pressure in adults. A non-experimental exploratory/descriptive and cross sectional study was developed and it was assessed 133 subjects (59 men and 74 women) aging between 18 and 87 years. It was registered the patients' weight (kg), height (m), BMI (kg/m(2)), WC (cm) and SAD (cm), and these parameters were correlated with glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c and blood pressure. After adjustment for gender and age, it was observed a positive correlation between SAD and systolic arterial blood pressure (r = 0.20), glycemia (r = 0.20), triglycerides (r = 0.32), LDL (r = 0.26), total cholesterol (TC) (r = 0.33), and a negative correlation with HDL-c (r = -0.21) (p correlation between WC and systolic arterial blood pressure (r = 0.14), triglycerides (r = 0.31), total cholesterol (r = 0.21), and a negative correlation with HDL-c (r = -0.24) (p correlation with systolic arterial blood pressure (r = 0.22), total cholesterol (r = 0.20), and triglycerides (r = 0.23) (p correlated with almost all the cardiovascular risk factors analyzed and it might be considered the best predictor of abdominal fat and cardiovascular risk.

  1. Live Reporting in a News / Current Affairs TV Show as a Factor of (Non Credibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tena Perišin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Only a perfunctory glance at the content of current aff airs/news programs makes it clear that in just a few years time, live reporting on Croatian TV news shows has increased dramatically. Technologicaladvancements, the equipping of TV stations with mobile satellite vans, and the pressure of competition have all resulted in increased instances of live reporting. When investigating news values, pictureand sound, as well as the possibility of immediate, timely reporting represent the key characteristics of TV journalism. In this context, live reports, as part of a news segment, should add to the authenticity and credibility of the program. Currently, however, TV broadcasting houses attempt to best one another in the number of live broadcasts as a means to purport a higher quality of their program. The direct address to the camera turns a reporter from an anonymous bearer of information into the “main star”. The figures accumulated on the extent of this form used in a news show do not determine the professional level of the editorial policy. Live reporting cannot be regarded as news value if other news values are neglected in the process. Recent research shows that live reports, in most cases, have been stripped of the initial notion of reporting on important and recent events. As such, they are becoming less of a justifi ed element in the creation of news.

  2. A human factors approach to effective maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penington, J.; Shakeri, S.

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally in the field of Human Factors within the nuclear industry, the focus has been to identify the potential for human errors in operating tasks, and develop strategies to prevent their occurrence, provide recovery mechanisms, and mitigate the consequences of error as appropriate. Past experience has demonstrated however a significant number of human errors within the nuclear industry occur during maintenance tasks. It is for this reason, and the fact that our nuclear power plants are ageing and increasingly in need of maintenance, that the industry must pay more attention to maintenance tasks. The purpose of this paper is to present a framework for effective maintenance programs, and based upon this framework discuss an approach (an audit tool) that can be used to both design such a program, and to assess existing programs. In addition, this tool can form the basis of cost benefit decisions relating to priorities for improvements to existing programs. (author)

  3. Sea level rise and the geoid: factor analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Sadovski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sea levels are rising around the world, and this is a particular concern along most of the coasts of the United States. A 1989 EPA report shows that sea levels rose 5-6 inches more than the global average along the Mid-Atlantic and Gulf Coasts in the last century. The main reason for this is coastal land subsidence. This sea level rise is considered more as relative sea level rise than global sea level rise. Thus, instead of studying sea level rise globally, this paper describes a statistical approach by using factor analysis of regional sea level rates of change. Unlike physical models and semi-empirical models that attempt to approach how much and how fast sea levels are changing, this methodology allows for a discussion of the factor(s that statistically affects sea level rates of change, and seeks patterns to explain spatial correlations.

  4. FACTORES INDIVIDUALES, FAMILIARES Y SOCIALES ASOCIADOS AL EMBARAZO EN ADOLESCENTES EN EL CENTRO DE SALUD CARLOS SHOWING FERRARI 2014 - 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Luyo Marcellini, Delci Fiorella

    2017-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Determinar los factores individuales, familiares y sociales asociados al embarazo en adolescentes en el Centro de Salud Carlos Showing Ferrari del periodo de enero del 2014 a diciembre del 2015. METODOS Y TECNICA: El estudio fue observacional, longitudinal, retrospectivo. Con un diseño caso y control. La técnica utilizada fue el fichaje en base a la recolección de datos de fuentes secundarias. RESULTADOS: Dentro de los Factores individuales de riesgo asociados al embarazo en ...

  5. Metasystem approach to increase the load factor FMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pishchukhin Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to increasing the efficiency of using flexible manufacture systems (FMS by increasing the load factor. Unlike the well-known multi-agent approach to production management, we are investigating the addition of a metasystem level allowing flexible combination of the decentralized control method with centralization. The metasystem approach allows to reduce management to flexible switching of functioning technologies on the basis of the replacement rule, while describing FMS as a metasystem consisting of classification of the system analyst J. Klir from structured data systems. Production events are simulated in virtual space with the help of a multi-agent approach. At the same time, the number of requests from the waiting queue is chosen such that it becomes possible to optimize the loading of the FMS in the simplest case by the full-scan method, if the queue is not available, then the initiative of choice is provided to communications of agents-technologies and agents-equipments. Experimental studies were carried out on the FMS model including six pieces of equipment divided into three groups with a stream of six applications, each of which has a technological route of six operations each‥ The experimental results showed the consistency of the developed approach by increasing the load factor of the FMS.

  6. g-factor calculations from the generalized seniority approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Bhoomika; Jain, Ashok Kumar

    2018-05-01

    The generalized seniority approach proposed by us to understand the B(E1)/B(E2)/B(E3) properties of semi-magic nuclei has been widely successful in the explanation of the same and has led to an expansion in the scope of seniority isomers. In the present paper, we apply the generalized seniority scheme to understand the behavior of g-factors in semi-magic nuclei. We find that the magnetic moment and the gfactors do show a particle number independent behavior as expected and the understanding is consistent with the explanation of transition probabilities.

  7. A ChIP-Seq benchmark shows that sequence conservation mainly improves detection of strong transcription factor binding sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Håndstad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transcription factors are important controllers of gene expression and mapping transcription factor binding sites (TFBS is key to inferring transcription factor regulatory networks. Several methods for predicting TFBS exist, but there are no standard genome-wide datasets on which to assess the performance of these prediction methods. Also, it is believed that information about sequence conservation across different genomes can generally improve accuracy of motif-based predictors, but it is not clear under what circumstances use of conservation is most beneficial. RESULTS: Here we use published ChIP-seq data and an improved peak detection method to create comprehensive benchmark datasets for prediction methods which use known descriptors or binding motifs to detect TFBS in genomic sequences. We use this benchmark to assess the performance of five different prediction methods and find that the methods that use information about sequence conservation generally perform better than simpler motif-scanning methods. The difference is greater on high-affinity peaks and when using short and information-poor motifs. However, if the motifs are specific and information-rich, we find that simple motif-scanning methods can perform better than conservation-based methods. CONCLUSIONS: Our benchmark provides a comprehensive test that can be used to rank the relative performance of transcription factor binding site prediction methods. Moreover, our results show that, contrary to previous reports, sequence conservation is better suited for predicting strong than weak transcription factor binding sites.

  8. A Pilot Study of Reasons and Risk Factors for "No-Shows" in a Pediatric Neurology Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzek, Lindsay M; Fadel, William F; Golomb, Meredith R

    2015-09-01

    Missed clinic appointments lead to decreased patient access, worse patient outcomes, and increased healthcare costs. The goal of this pilot study was to identify reasons for and risk factors associated with missed pediatric neurology outpatient appointments ("no-shows"). This was a prospective cohort study of patients scheduled for 1 week of clinic. Data on patient clinical and demographic information were collected by record review; data on reasons for missed appointments were collected by phone interviews. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression to assess risk factors for missed appointments. Fifty-nine (25%) of 236 scheduled patients were no-shows. Scheduling conflicts (25.9%) and forgetting (20.4%) were the most common reasons for missed appointments. When controlling for confounding factors in the logistic regression, Medicaid (odds ratio 2.36), distance from clinic, and time since appointment was scheduled were associated with missed appointments. Further work in this area is needed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Performance of non-conventional factorization approaches for neutron kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulla, S.; Nervo, M.

    2013-01-01

    The use of factorization techniques provides a interesting option for the simulation of the time-dependent behavior of nuclear systems with a reduced computational effort. While point kinetics neglects all spatial and spectral effects, quasi-statics and multipoint kinetics allow to produce results with a higher accuracy for transients involving relevant modifications of the neutron distribution. However, in some conditions these methods can not work efficiently. In this paper, we discuss some possible alternative formulations for the factorization process for neutron kinetics, leading to mathematical models of reduced complications that can allow an accurate simulation of transients involving spatial and spectral effects. The performance of these innovative approaches are compared to standard techniques for some test cases, showing the benefits and shortcomings of the method proposed. (authors)

  10. A Sensitivity Analysis Approach to Identify Key Environmental Performance Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle assessment (LCA is widely used in design phase to reduce the product’s environmental impacts through the whole product life cycle (PLC during the last two decades. The traditional LCA is restricted to assessing the environmental impacts of a product and the results cannot reflect the effects of changes within the life cycle. In order to improve the quality of ecodesign, it is a growing need to develop an approach which can reflect the changes between the design parameters and product’s environmental impacts. A sensitivity analysis approach based on LCA and ecodesign is proposed in this paper. The key environmental performance factors which have significant influence on the products’ environmental impacts can be identified by analyzing the relationship between environmental impacts and the design parameters. Users without much environmental knowledge can use this approach to determine which design parameter should be first considered when (redesigning a product. A printed circuit board (PCB case study is conducted; eight design parameters are chosen to be analyzed by our approach. The result shows that the carbon dioxide emission during the PCB manufacture is highly sensitive to the area of PCB panel.

  11. One Size Does Not Fit All: Contextualising Family Physical Activity Using a Write, Draw, Show and Tell Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Robert J; Fairclough, Stuart J; Knowles, Zoe R; Boddy, Lynne M

    2017-07-14

    Understanding family physical activity (PA) behaviour is essential for designing effective family-based PA interventions. However, effective approaches to capture the perceptions and "lived experiences" of families are not yet well established. The aims of the study were to: (1) demonstrate how a "write, draw, show and tell" (WDST) methodological approach can be appropriate to family-based PA research, and (2) present two distinct family case studies to provide insights into the habitual PA behaviour and experiences of a nuclear and single-parent family. Six participants (including two "target" children aged 9-11 years, two mothers and two siblings aged 6-8 years) from two families were purposefully selected to take part in the study, based on their family structure. Participants completed a paper-based PA diary and wore an ActiGraph GT9X accelerometer on their left wrist for up to 10 weekdays and 16 weekend days. A range of WDST tasks were then undertaken by each family to offer contextual insight into their family-based PA. The selected families participated in different levels and modes of PA, and reported contrasting leisure opportunities and experiences. These novel findings encourage researchers to tailor family-based PA intervention programmes to the characteristics of the family.

  12. Structural factoring approach for analyzing stochastic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Shier, Douglas R.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of finding the distribution of the shortest path length through a stochastic network is investigated. A general algorithm for determining the exact distribution of the shortest path length is developed based on the concept of conditional factoring, in which a directed, stochastic network is decomposed into an equivalent set of smaller, generally less complex subnetworks. Several network constructs are identified and exploited to reduce significantly the computational effort required to solve a network problem relative to complete enumeration. This algorithm can be applied to two important classes of stochastic path problems: determining the critical path distribution for acyclic networks and the exact two-terminal reliability for probabilistic networks. Computational experience with the algorithm was encouraging and allowed the exact solution of networks that have been previously analyzed only by approximation techniques.

  13. Phylogenetic Reconstruction Shows Independent Evolutionary Origins of Mitochondrial Transcription Factors from an Ancient Family of RNA Methyltransferase Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aj Harris; Goldman, Aaron David

    2018-04-25

    Here, we generate a robust phylogenetic framework for the rRNA adenine N(6)-methyltransferase (RAMTase) protein family that shows a more ancient and complex evolutionary history within the family than previously reported. RAMTases occur universally by descent across the three domains of life, and typical orthologs within the family perform methylation of the small subunits of ribosomal RNA (rRNA). However, within the RAMTase family, two different groups of mitochondrial transcription factors, mtTFB1 and mtTFB2, have evolved in eukaryotes through neofunctionalization. Previous phylogenetic analyses have suggested that mtTFB1 and mtTFB2 comprise sister clades that arose via gene duplication, which occurred sometime following the endosymbiosis event that produced the mitochondrion. Through dense and taxonomically broad sampling of RAMTase family members especially within bacteria, we found that these eukaryotic mitochondrial transcription factors, mtTFB1 and mtTFB2, have independent origins in phylogenetically distant clades such that their divergence most likely predates the last universal common ancestor of life. The clade of mtTFB2s comprises orthologs in Opisthokonts and the clade of mtTFB1s includes orthologs in Amoebozoa and Metazoa. Thus, we clearly demonstrate that the neofunctionalization producing the transcription factor function evolved twice independently within the RAMTase family. These results are consistent with and help to elucidate outcomes from prior experimental studies, which found that some members of mtTFB1 still perform the ancestral rRNA methylation function, and the results have broader implications for understanding the evolution of new protein functions. Our phylogenetic reconstruction is also in agreement with prior studies showing two independent origins of plastid RAMTases in Viridiplantae and other photosynthetic autotrophs. We believe that this updated phylogeny of RAMTases should provide a robust evolutionary framework for ongoing

  14. Factors influencing crime rates: an econometric analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothos, John M. A.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2016-05-01

    The scope of the present study is to research the dynamics that determine the commission of crimes in the US society. Our study is part of a model we are developing to understand urban crime dynamics and to enhance citizens' "perception of security" in large urban environments. The main targets of our research are to highlight dependence of crime rates on certain social and economic factors and basic elements of state anticrime policies. In conducting our research, we use as guides previous relevant studies on crime dependence, that have been performed with similar quantitative analyses in mind, regarding the dependence of crime on certain social and economic factors using statistics and econometric modelling. Our first approach consists of conceptual state space dynamic cross-sectional econometric models that incorporate a feedback loop that describes crime as a feedback process. In order to define dynamically the model variables, we use statistical analysis on crime records and on records about social and economic conditions and policing characteristics (like police force and policing results - crime arrests), to determine their influence as independent variables on crime, as the dependent variable of our model. The econometric models we apply in this first approach are an exponential log linear model and a logit model. In a second approach, we try to study the evolvement of violent crime through time in the US, independently as an autonomous social phenomenon, using autoregressive and moving average time-series econometric models. Our findings show that there are certain social and economic characteristics that affect the formation of crime rates in the US, either positively or negatively. Furthermore, the results of our time-series econometric modelling show that violent crime, viewed solely and independently as a social phenomenon, correlates with previous years crime rates and depends on the social and economic environment's conditions during previous years.

  15. An integrated approach shows different use of water resources from Mediterranean maquis species in a coastal dune ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereu, S.; Salvatori, E.; Fusaro, L.; Gerosa, G.; Muys, B.; Manes, F.

    2009-11-01

    An integrated approach has been used to analyse the dependence of three Mediterranean species, A. unedo L., Q. ilex L., and P. latifolia L. co-occurring in a coastal dune ecosystem on two different water resources: groundwater and rainfed upper soil layers. The approach included leaf level gas exchanges, sap flow measurements and structural adaptations between 15 May and 31 July 2007. During this period it was possible to capture different species-specific response patterns to an environment characterized by a sandy soil, with a low water retention capacity, and the presence of a water table. The latter did not completely prevent the development of a drought response and, combined with previous studies in the same area, response differences between species have been partially attributed to different root distributions. Sap flow of A. unedo decreased rapidly with the decline of soil water content, while that of Q. ilex decreased only moderately. Midday leaf water potential of P. latifolia and A. unedo ranged between -2.2 and -2.7 MPa throughout the measuring period, while in Q. ilex it decreased down to -3.4 MPa at the end of the season. A. unedo was the only species that responded to drought with a decrease of its leaf area to sapwood area ratio from 23.9±1.2 (May) to 15.2±1.5 (July). While A. unedo also underwent an almost stepwise loss on hydraulic conductivity, such a loss did not occur for Q. ilex, whereas P. latifolia was able to slightly increase its hydraulic conducitivity. These differences show how different plant compartments coordinate differently between species in their responses to drought. The different responses appear to be mediated by different root distributions of the species and their relative resistances to drought are likely to depend on the duration of the periods in which water remains extractable in the upper soil layers.

  16. An Evaluation on Factors Influencing Decision making for Malaysia Disaster Management: The Confirmatory Factor Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubir, S. N. A.; Thiruchelvam, S.; Mustapha, K. N. M.; Che Muda, Z.; Ghazali, A.; Hakimie, H.

    2017-12-01

    For the past few years, natural disaster has been the subject of debate in disaster management especially in flood disaster. Each year, natural disaster results in significant loss of life, destruction of homes and public infrastructure, and economic hardship. Hence, an effective and efficient flood disaster management would assure non-futile efforts for life saving. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between approach, decision maker, influence factor, result, and ethic to decision making for flood disaster management in Malaysia. The key elements of decision making in the disaster management were studied based on the literature. Questionnaire surveys were administered among lead agencies at East Coast of Malaysia in the state of Kelantan and Pahang. A total of 307 valid responses had been obtained for further analysis. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were carried out to analyse the measurement model involved in the study. The CFA for second-order reflective and first-order reflective measurement model indicates that approach, decision maker, influence factor, result, and ethic have a significant and direct effect on decision making during disaster. The results from this study showed that decision- making during disaster is an important element for disaster management to necessitate a successful collaborative decision making. The measurement model is accepted to proceed with further analysis known as Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and can be assessed for the future research.

  17. An integrated approach shows different use of water resources from Mediterranean maquis species in a coastal dune ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Manes

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available An integrated approach has been used to analyse the dependence of three Mediterranean species, A. unedo L., Q. ilex L., and P. latifolia L. co-occurring in a coastal dune ecosystem on two different water resources: groundwater and rainfed upper soil layers. The approach included leaf level gas exchanges, sap flow measurements and structural adaptations between 15 May and 31 July 2007. During this period it was possible to capture different species-specific response patterns to an environment characterized by a sandy soil, with a low water retention capacity, and the presence of a water table. The latter did not completely prevent the development of a drought response and, combined with previous studies in the same area, response differences between species have been partially attributed to different root distributions. Sap flow of A. unedo decreased rapidly with the decline of soil water content, while that of Q. ilex decreased only moderately. Midday leaf water potential of P. latifolia and A. unedo ranged between −2.2 and −2.7 MPa throughout the measuring period, while in Q. ilex it decreased down to −3.4 MPa at the end of the season. A. unedo was the only species that responded to drought with a decrease of its leaf area to sapwood area ratio from 23.9±1.2 (May to 15.2±1.5 (July. While A. unedo also underwent an almost stepwise loss on hydraulic conductivity, such a loss did not occur for Q. ilex, whereas P. latifolia was able to slightly increase its hydraulic conducitivity. These differences show how different plant compartments coordinate differently between species in their responses to drought. The different responses appear to be mediated by different root distributions of the species and their relative resistances to drought are likely to depend on the duration of the periods in which water remains extractable in the upper soil layers.

  18. Factorization approach to superintegrable systems: Formalism and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, Á., E-mail: angelb@ubu.es; Herranz, F. J., E-mail: fjherranz@ubu.es [Universidad de Burgos, Departamento de Física (Spain); Kuru, Ş., E-mail: kuru@science.ankara.edu.tr [Ankara University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science (Turkey); Negro, J., E-mail: jnegro@fta.uva.es [Universidad de Valladolid, Departamento de Física Teórica, Atómica y Óptica (Spain)

    2017-03-15

    The factorization technique for superintegrable Hamiltonian systems is revisited and applied in order to obtain additional (higher-order) constants of the motion. In particular, the factorization approach to the classical anisotropic oscillator on the Euclidean plane is reviewed, and new classical (super) integrable anisotropic oscillators on the sphere are constructed. The Tremblay–Turbiner–Winternitz system on the Euclidean plane is also studied from this viewpoint.

  19. Bc→BP,BV Decays with the QCD Factorization Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Qin; Wang, Na; Sun, Junfeng; Yang, Yueling

    2015-01-01

    We studied the nonleptonic B c →BP, BV decays with the QCD factorization approach. It is found that the Cabibbo favored processes of B c →B s π, B s ρ, B u K - are the promising decay channels with branching ratio larger than 1%, which should be observed earlier by the LHCb collaboration

  20. A Transformational Approach to Slip-Slide Factoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckroth, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    In this "Delving Deeper" article, the author introduces the slip-slide method for solving Algebra 1 mathematics problems. This article compares the traditional method approach of trial and error to the slip-slide method of factoring. Tools that used to be taken for granted now make it possible to investigate relationships visually,…

  1. A Systemic Approach to Implementing a Protective Factors Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Beverly; Jessup, Patricia; Moore, Marah

    2014-01-01

    The leadership team of the national Quality Improvement Center on early Childhood ventured into the frontiers of deep change in social systems by funding four research projects. The purpose of the research projects was to learn about implementing a protective factors approach with the goal of reducing the likelihood of child abuse and neglect. In…

  2. Age, sex, and climate factors show different effects on survival of three different bat species in a woodland bat community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antica Culina

    2017-10-01

    5. Our study provides, for the first time, a robust estimate of annual survival in bats. We advocate careful attention to possible sources of biases when studying survival rates in the wild, considering species-specific life-history and population-specific features. Considering these factors that influence wider community responses to environmental conditions is important for the effective conservation management of an area.

  3. Factors determining early internationalization of entrepreneurial SMEs: Theoretical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agne Matiusinaite

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This study extends the scientific discussion of early internationalization of SMEs. The main purpose of this paper – to develop a theoretical framework to investigate factors determining early internationalization of international new ventures. Design/methodology/approach – The conceptual framework is built on the analysis and synthesis of scientific literature. Findings – This paper presents different factors, which determine early internationalization of international new ventures. These factors are divided to entrepreneurial, organizational and contextual factors. We argue that early internationalization of international new ventures is defined by entrepreneurial characteristics and previous experience of the entrepreneur, opportunities recognition and exploitation, risk tolerance, specific of the organization, involvement into networks and contextual factors. Study proved that only interaction between factors and categories has an effect for business development and successful implementation of early internationalization. Research limitations/implications – The research was conducted on the theoretical basis of scientific literature. The future studies could include a practical confirmation or denial of such allocation of factors. Originality/value – The originality of this study lies in the finding that factor itself has limited effect to early internationalization. Only the interoperability of categories and factors gives a positive impact on early internationalization of entrepreneurial SMEs.

  4. Standardized approach for developing probabilistic exposure factor distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy L.; McKone, Thomas E.; Sohn, Michael D.

    2003-03-01

    The effectiveness of a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) depends critically on the quality of input information that is available to the risk assessor and specifically on the probabilistic exposure factor distributions that are developed and used in the exposure and risk models. Deriving probabilistic distributions for model inputs can be time consuming and subjective. The absence of a standard approach for developing these distributions can result in PRAs that are inconsistent and difficult to review by regulatory agencies. We present an approach that reduces subjectivity in the distribution development process without limiting the flexibility needed to prepare relevant PRAs. The approach requires two steps. First, we analyze data pooled at a population scale to (1) identify the most robust demographic variables within the population for a given exposure factor, (2) partition the population data into subsets based on these variables, and (3) construct archetypal distributions for each subpopulation. Second, we sample from these archetypal distributions according to site- or scenario-specific conditions to simulate exposure factor values and use these values to construct the scenario-specific input distribution. It is envisaged that the archetypal distributions from step 1 will be generally applicable so risk assessors will not have to repeatedly collect and analyze raw data for each new assessment. We demonstrate the approach for two commonly used exposure factors--body weight (BW) and exposure duration (ED)--using data for the U.S. population. For these factors we provide a first set of subpopulation based archetypal distributions along with methodology for using these distributions to construct relevant scenario-specific probabilistic exposure factor distributions.

  5. Advanced imaging techniques show progressive arthropathy following experimentally induced knee bleeding in a factor VIII-/- rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, K. R.; Roepstorff, K.; Petersen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Joint pathology is most commonly assessed by radiogra-phy, but ultrasonography (US) is increasingly recognized for its acces-sibility, safety and ability to show soft tissue changes, the earliestindicators of haemophilic arthropathy (HA). US, however, lacks theability to visualize...

  6. Factors secreted from dental pulp stem cells show multifaceted benefits for treating acute lung injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakayama, Hirotaka; Hashimoto, Naozumi; Matsushita, Yoshihiro; Matsubara, Kohki; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Ueda, Minoru; Yamamoto, Akihito

    2015-08-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe inflammatory disorder characterized by acute respiratory failure, resulting from severe, destructive lung inflammation and irreversible lung fibrosis. We evaluated the use of stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) or SHED-derived serum-free conditioned medium (SHED-CM) as treatments for bleomycin (BLM)-induced mice acute lung injury (ALI), exhibiting several pathogenic features associated with the human disease ARDS. Mice with BLM-induced ALI with or without SHED or SHED-CM treatment were examined for weight loss and survival. The lung tissue was characterized by histological and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. The effects of SHED-CM on macrophage differentiation in vitro were also assessed. A single intravenous administration of either SHEDs or SHED-CM attenuated the lung injury and weight loss in BLM-treated mice and improved their survival rate. Similar recovery levels were seen in the SHEDs and SHED-CM treatment groups, suggesting that SHED improves ALI by paracrine mechanisms. SHED-CM contained multiple therapeutic factors involved in lung-regenerative mechanisms. Importantly, SHED-CM attenuated the BLM-induced pro-inflammatory response and generated an anti-inflammatory/tissue-regenerating environment, accompanied by the induction of anti-inflammatory M2-like lung macrophages. Furthermore, SHED-CM promoted the in vitro differentiation of bone marrow-derived macrophages into M2-like cells, which expressed high levels of Arginase1, CD206 and Ym-1. Our results suggest that SHED-secreted factors provide multifaceted therapeutic effects, including a strong M2-inducing activity, for treating BLM-induced ALI. This work may open new avenues for research on stem cell-based ARDS therapies. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Theoretical Approach to Norm Ecosystems: Two Adaptive Architectures of Indirect Reciprocity Show Different Paths to the Evolution of Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Uchida

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity is one of the basic mechanisms to sustain mutual cooperation, by which beneficial acts are returned, not by the recipient, but by third parties. This mechanism relies on the ability of individuals to know the past actions of others, and to assess those actions. There are many different systems of assessing others, which can be interpreted as rudimentary social norms (i.e., views on what is “good” or “bad”. In this paper, impacts of different adaptive architectures, i.e., ways for individuals to adapt to environments, on indirect reciprocity are investigated. We examine two representative architectures: one based on replicator dynamics and the other on genetic algorithm. Different from the replicator dynamics, the genetic algorithm requires describing the mixture of all possible norms in the norm space under consideration. Therefore, we also propose an analytic method to study norm ecosystems in which all possible second order social norms potentially exist and compete. The analysis reveals that the different adaptive architectures show different paths to the evolution of cooperation. Especially we find that so called Stern-Judging, one of the best studied norms in the literature, exhibits distinct behaviors in both architectures. On one hand, in the replicator dynamics, Stern-Judging remains alive and gets a majority steadily when the population reaches a cooperative state. On the other hand, in the genetic algorithm, it gets a majority only temporarily and becomes extinct in the end.

  8. A Theoretical Approach to Norm Ecosystems: Two Adaptive Architectures of Indirect Reciprocity Show Different Paths to the Evolution of Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Okada, Isamu; Sasaki, Tatsuya

    2018-02-01

    Indirect reciprocity is one of the basic mechanisms to sustain mutual cooperation, by which beneficial acts are returned, not by the recipient, but by third parties. This mechanism relies on the ability of individuals to know the past actions of others, and to assess those actions. There are many different systems of assessing others, which can be interpreted as rudimentary social norms (i.e., views on what is “good” or “bad”). In this paper, impacts of different adaptive architectures, i.e., ways for individuals to adapt to environments, on indirect reciprocity are investigated. We examine two representative architectures: one based on replicator dynamics and the other on genetic algorithm. Different from the replicator dynamics, the genetic algorithm requires describing the mixture of all possible norms in the norm space under consideration. Therefore, we also propose an analytic method to study norm ecosystems in which all possible second order social norms potentially exist and compete. The analysis reveals that the different adaptive architectures show different paths to the evolution of cooperation. Especially we find that so called Stern-Judging, one of the best studied norms in the literature, exhibits distinct behaviors in both architectures. On one hand, in the replicator dynamics, Stern-Judging remains alive and gets a majority steadily when the population reaches a cooperative state. On the other hand, in the genetic algorithm, it gets a majority only temporarily and becomes extinct in the end.

  9. Approaches to Working with Children, Young People and Families for Traveller, Irish Traveller, Gypsy, Roma and Show People Communities. Annotated Bibliography for the Children's Workforce Development Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark; Martin, Kerry; Wilkin, Carol

    2008-01-01

    This annoted bibliography relays a range of issues and approaches to working with Travellers, Irish Travellers, Gypsies, Roma and Show People. This is an accompanying document to the literature review report, ED501860.

  10. Quantitative Analysis of the Contributing Factors Affecting Specialty Care No-Show Rates at Brooke Army Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-30

    PHYSICAL THERAPY ,TMC 53 9 14.52% AUDIOLOGY,BAMC 133 22 14.19% OPHTH PEDS,BAMC 28 4 12.50% OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY ,BAMC 135 18 11.76% ALLERGY CLINIC,BAMC...for physical therapy and have a total of 4 appointments set up with that clinic. For this study, only the first referral was counted and not the follow...Nephrology. Some of the other low no-show rate clinics were: Pain Management (1.27%), Endocrinology (1.52%), General Surgery (1.83%), Rheumatology (1.89

  11. Determining organizational information needs: the Critical Success Factors approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Reports on a series of investigations in the UK and Finland, in both academic and business institutions. The Critical Success Factors approach is defined and explored as a means of determining the information needs of organizations, rather than of individuals. Concludes that such use is appropriate and productive, enabling the identification of types of information that may aid the organization in its strategic policy making to achieve competitive advantage.

  12. FACTORS DECREASING HOUSEHOLD ELECTRICITY DEMAND – A QUALITATIVE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimon ELBAZ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Reducing energy consumption through changes in individual consumers’ behaviors is one of the most important challenges of the present society and near future. Our qualitative study, based on semi-structured interviews, deals with the investigation of household consumer behavior, in order to explore ways for reducing the electricity demand, in the particular cultural context of a country with high levels of energy consumption in both summer and winter times – Israel. Various approaches, coming from economics, sociology, psychology or education were tested, for limiting the use of a particular, invisible and intangible merchandise - electricity. The main objective of the present study was to determine consumers’ perceptions about the various approaches that could be used to decrease the domestic demand and consumption of electricity. A secondary objective was to identify, based on consumers’ perceptions, the factors of influence that could be used in future quantitative researches and governance strategies. We found out that investigated families have a high level of education in the field of electricity consumption and marketing campaigns, which would make the classic energy educational approach less efficient. Household electricity consumers in Israel have awareness and willingness not to waste or consume electricity beyond what is necessary, but the necessary level is positioned quite high. The social comparison approach appears to be ineffective, as well, even if it proved its efficiency in other cultures. The psychological and the economic approach could be partially efficient, if certain influence factors are widely used. These factors include mainly the magnitude of the savings, the perceived behavioral control, the personal thermal comfort and the pro-environmental attitude. The most important managerial implication concerns the strategies that could be conceived by electricity companies and national authorities – based on un

  13. "A cigarette a day keeps the goodies away": smokers show automatic approach tendencies for smoking--but not for food-related stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Machulska

    Full Text Available Smoking leads to the development of automatic tendencies that promote approach behavior toward smoking-related stimuli which in turn may maintain addictive behavior. The present study examined whether automatic approach tendencies toward smoking-related stimuli can be measured by using an adapted version of the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT. Given that progression of addictive behavior has been associated with a decreased reactivity of the brain reward system for stimuli signaling natural rewards, we also used the AAT to measure approach behavior toward natural rewarding stimuli in smokers. During the AAT, 92 smokers and 51 non-smokers viewed smoking-related vs. non-smoking-related pictures and pictures of natural rewards (i.e. highly palatable food vs. neutral pictures. They were instructed to ignore image content and to respond to picture orientation by either pulling or pushing a joystick. Within-group comparisons revealed that smokers showed an automatic approach bias exclusively for smoking-related pictures. Contrary to our expectations, there was no difference in smokers' and non-smokers' approach bias for nicotine-related stimuli, indicating that non-smokers also showed approach tendencies for this picture category. Yet, in contrast to non-smokers, smokers did not show an approach bias for food-related pictures. Moreover, self-reported smoking attitude could not predict approach-avoidance behavior toward nicotine-related pictures in smokers or non-smokers. Our findings indicate that the AAT is suited for measuring smoking-related approach tendencies in smokers. Furthermore, we provide evidence for a diminished approach tendency toward food-related stimuli in smokers, suggesting a decreased sensitivity to natural rewards in the course of nicotine addiction. Our results indicate that in contrast to similar studies conducted in alcohol, cannabis and heroin users, the AAT might only be partially suited for measuring smoking-related approach

  14. "A cigarette a day keeps the goodies away": smokers show automatic approach tendencies for smoking--but not for food-related stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machulska, Alla; Zlomuzica, Armin; Adolph, Dirk; Rinck, Mike; Margraf, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Smoking leads to the development of automatic tendencies that promote approach behavior toward smoking-related stimuli which in turn may maintain addictive behavior. The present study examined whether automatic approach tendencies toward smoking-related stimuli can be measured by using an adapted version of the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT). Given that progression of addictive behavior has been associated with a decreased reactivity of the brain reward system for stimuli signaling natural rewards, we also used the AAT to measure approach behavior toward natural rewarding stimuli in smokers. During the AAT, 92 smokers and 51 non-smokers viewed smoking-related vs. non-smoking-related pictures and pictures of natural rewards (i.e. highly palatable food) vs. neutral pictures. They were instructed to ignore image content and to respond to picture orientation by either pulling or pushing a joystick. Within-group comparisons revealed that smokers showed an automatic approach bias exclusively for smoking-related pictures. Contrary to our expectations, there was no difference in smokers' and non-smokers' approach bias for nicotine-related stimuli, indicating that non-smokers also showed approach tendencies for this picture category. Yet, in contrast to non-smokers, smokers did not show an approach bias for food-related pictures. Moreover, self-reported smoking attitude could not predict approach-avoidance behavior toward nicotine-related pictures in smokers or non-smokers. Our findings indicate that the AAT is suited for measuring smoking-related approach tendencies in smokers. Furthermore, we provide evidence for a diminished approach tendency toward food-related stimuli in smokers, suggesting a decreased sensitivity to natural rewards in the course of nicotine addiction. Our results indicate that in contrast to similar studies conducted in alcohol, cannabis and heroin users, the AAT might only be partially suited for measuring smoking-related approach tendencies in

  15. “A Cigarette a Day Keeps the Goodies Away”: Smokers Show Automatic Approach Tendencies for Smoking—But Not for Food-Related Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Dirk; Rinck, Mike; Margraf, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Smoking leads to the development of automatic tendencies that promote approach behavior toward smoking-related stimuli which in turn may maintain addictive behavior. The present study examined whether automatic approach tendencies toward smoking-related stimuli can be measured by using an adapted version of the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT). Given that progression of addictive behavior has been associated with a decreased reactivity of the brain reward system for stimuli signaling natural rewards, we also used the AAT to measure approach behavior toward natural rewarding stimuli in smokers. During the AAT, 92 smokers and 51 non-smokers viewed smoking-related vs. non-smoking-related pictures and pictures of natural rewards (i.e. highly palatable food) vs. neutral pictures. They were instructed to ignore image content and to respond to picture orientation by either pulling or pushing a joystick. Within-group comparisons revealed that smokers showed an automatic approach bias exclusively for smoking-related pictures. Contrary to our expectations, there was no difference in smokers’ and non-smokers’ approach bias for nicotine-related stimuli, indicating that non-smokers also showed approach tendencies for this picture category. Yet, in contrast to non-smokers, smokers did not show an approach bias for food-related pictures. Moreover, self-reported smoking attitude could not predict approach-avoidance behavior toward nicotine-related pictures in smokers or non-smokers. Our findings indicate that the AAT is suited for measuring smoking-related approach tendencies in smokers. Furthermore, we provide evidence for a diminished approach tendency toward food-related stimuli in smokers, suggesting a decreased sensitivity to natural rewards in the course of nicotine addiction. Our results indicate that in contrast to similar studies conducted in alcohol, cannabis and heroin users, the AAT might only be partially suited for measuring smoking-related approach tendencies in

  16. Factors associated with escalation and problematic approaches toward public figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, J Reid; James, David V; Mullen, Paul E; Pathé, Michele T; Farnham, Frank R; Preston, Lulu F; Darnley, Brian J

    2011-01-01

    Detailed comparison of factors associated with abnormal approach to the prominent and with escalation from communication to approach has not hitherto been undertaken. This partially reflects the failure of individual studies to adopt compatible terminologies. This study involves a careful dissection of six public figure studies, three involving U.S. politicians, two Hollywood celebrities, and one the British Royal Family. Common findings were unearthed across six headings. Approachers were significantly more likely to exhibit serious mental illness, engage in multiple means of communication, involve multiple contacts/targets, and to incorporate into their communication requests for help. They were significantly less likely to use threatening or antagonistic language in their communications, except in those cases involving security breaches. These results emphasize the importance of integrating mental health findings and preventive measures into risk management. Approach should not be regarded as a single behavioral category and has multiple motivations. Future studies should adopt standard terminology, preferably taken from the general stalking research. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Factors That Modulate Neurogenesis: A Top-Down Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDage, Lara D

    2016-08-24

    Although hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult brain has been conserved across the vertebrate lineage, laboratory studies have primarily examined this phenomenon in rodent models. This approach has been successful in elucidating important factors and mechanisms that can modulate rates of hippocampal neurogenesis, including hormones, environmental complexity, learning and memory, motor stimulation, and stress. However, recent studies have found that neurobiological research on neurogenesis in rodents may not easily translate to, or explain, neurogenesis patterns in nonrodent systems, particularly in species examined in the field. This review examines some of the evolutionary and ecological variables that may also modulate neurogenesis patterns. This 'top-down' and more naturalistic approach, which incorporates ecology and natural history, particularly of nonmodel species, may allow for a more comprehensive understanding of the functional significance of neurogenesis. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Liquidity indicator for the Croatian economy – Factor analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Čižmešija

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Croatian business surveys (BS are conducted in the manufacturing industry, retail trade and construction sector. In all of these sectors, manager´s assessments of liquidity are measured. The aim of the paper was to form a new composite liquidity indicator by including business survey liquidity measures from all three covered economic sectors in the Croatian economy mentioned above. In calculating the leading indicator, a factor analysis approach was used. However, this kind of indicator does not exist in a Croatia or in any other European economy. Furthermore, the issue of Croatian companies´ illiquidity is highly neglected in the literature. The empirical analysis consists of two parts. In the first part the new liquidity indicator was formed using factor analysis. One factor (representing the new liquidity indicator; LI was extracted out of the three liquidity variables in three economic sectors. This factor represents the new liquidity indicator. In the second part, econometric models were applied in order to investigate the forecasting properties of the new business survey liquidity indicator, when predicting the direction of changes in Croatian industrial production. The quarterly data used in the research covered the period from January 2000 to April 2013. Based on econometric analysis, it can be concluded that the LI is a leading indicator of Croatia’s industrial production with better forecasting properties then the standard liquidity indicators (formed in a manufacturing industry.

  19. U.S. Civil Air Show Crashes, 1993 to 2013: Burden, Fatal Risk Factors, and Evaluation of a Risk Index for Aviation Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Sarah-Blythe; Osorio, Victor B

    2015-01-01

    This study provides new public health data about U.S. civil air shows. Risk factors for fatalities in civil air show crashes were analyzed. The value of the FIA score in predicting fatal outcomes was evaluated. With the use of the FAA's General Aviation and Air Taxi Survey and the National Transportation Safety Board's data, the incidence of civil air show crashes from 1993 to 2013 was calculated. Fatality risk factors for crashes were analyzed by means of regression methods. The FIA index was validated to predict fatal outcomes by using the factors of fire, instrument conditions, and away-from-airport location, and was evaluated through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The civil air show crash rate was 31 crashes per 1,000 civil air events. Of the 174 civil air show crashes that occurred during the study period, 91 (52%) involved at least one fatality; on average, 1.1 people died per fatal crash. Fatalities were associated with four major risk factors: fire [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 7.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.4 to 20.6, P Civil air show crashes were marked by a high risk of fatal outcomes to pilots in aerobatic performances but rare mass casualties. The FIA score was not a valid measurement of fatal risk in civil air show crashes.

  20. Mathematical approach for the assessment of similarity factor using a new scheme for calculating weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohel, M C; Sarvaiya, K G; Shah, A R; Brahmbhatt, B K

    2009-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to propose a method for calculating weight in the Moore and Flanner Equation. The percentage coefficient of variation in reference and test formulations at each time point was considered for calculating weight. The literature reported data are used to demonstrate applicability of the method. The advantages and applications of new approach are narrated. The results show a drop in the value of similarity factor as compared to the approach proposed in earlier work. The scientists who need high accuracy in calculation may use this approach.

  1. Identifying perinatal risk factors for infant maltreatment: an ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallisey Elaine J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child maltreatment and its consequences are a persistent problem throughout the world. Public health workers, human services officials, and others are interested in new and efficient ways to determine which geographic areas to target for intervention programs and resources. To improve assessment efforts, selected perinatal factors were examined, both individually and in various combinations, to determine if they are associated with increased risk of infant maltreatment. State of Georgia birth records and abuse and neglect data were analyzed using an area-based, ecological approach with the census tract as a surrogate for the community. Cartographic visualization suggested some correlation exists between risk factors and child maltreatment, so bivariate and multivariate regression were performed. The presence of spatial autocorrelation precluded the use of traditional ordinary least squares regression, therefore a spatial regression model coupled with maximum likelihood estimation was employed. Results Results indicate that all individual factors or their combinations are significantly associated with increased risk of infant maltreatment. The set of perinatal risk factors that best predicts infant maltreatment rates are: mother smoked during pregnancy, families with three or more siblings, maternal age less than 20 years, births to unmarried mothers, Medicaid beneficiaries, and inadequate prenatal care. Conclusion This model enables public health to take a proactive stance, to reasonably predict areas where poor outcomes are likely to occur, and to therefore more efficiently allocate resources. U.S. states that routinely collect the variables the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS defines for birth certificates can easily identify areas that are at high risk for infant maltreatment. The authors recommend that agencies charged with reducing child maltreatment target communities that demonstrate the perinatal risks

  2. Factors influencing groundwater quality: towards an integrated management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giglio, O; Quaranta, A; Barbuti, G; Napoli, C; Caggiano, G; Montagna, M T

    2015-01-01

    The safety of groundwater resources is a serious issue, particularly when these resources are the main source of water for drinking, irrigation and industrial use in coastal areas. In Italy, 85% of the water used by the public is of underground origin. The aim of this report is to analyze the main factors that make groundwater vulnerable. Soil characteristics and filtration capacity can promote or hinder the diffusion of environmental contaminants. Global climate change influences the prevalence and degree of groundwater contamination. Anthropic pressure causes considerable exploitation of water resources, leading to reduced water availability and the progressive deterioration of water quality. Management of water quality will require a multidisciplinary, dynamic and practical approach focused on identifying the measures necessary to reduce contamination and mitigate the risks associated with the use of contaminated water resources.

  3. A holistic approach to factors affecting depression in haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerogianni, Georgia; Kouzoupis, Anastasios; Grapsa, Eirini

    2018-05-19

    Depression in dialysis populations is affected by co-morbid diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and immune dysfunction, and it also includes high suicide risk and frequent hospitalizations. Depressive disorders have a close association with malnutrition and chronic inflammation, as well as with cognitive impairment. Impaired cognitive function may be manifested as low adherence to dialysis treatment, leading to malnutrition. Additionally, chronic pain and low quality of sleep lead to high rates of depressive symptoms in haemodialysis patients, while an untreated depression can cause sleep disturbances and increased mortality risk. Depression can also lead to sexual dysfunction and non-adherence, while unemployment can cause depressive disorders, due to patients' feelings of being a financial burden on their family. The present review provides a holistic approach to the factors affecting depression in haemodialysis, offering significant knowledge to renal professionals.

  4. Analytical and unitary approach in mesons electromagnetic form factor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liptaj, A.

    2010-07-01

    related to a very different type of experiment, a direct lifetime measurement, that was predominantly used to get the Γ_π_"0_→_γ_γ value (unlike in the case of our evaluation or in the case of the PDG values for Γ_η_→_γ_γ and Γ_η_"'_→_γ_γ. We are looking forward to analyze this issue and contribute to the solution. We finally study the behavior of the elastic pion EM form factor in the space-like domain. In this case we aimed to minimize the model dependence and based our approach only on the analytic properties of the form factor and the precise data in the time-like region. Our motivation was the data in the space-like region that, we believe, cannot be fully trusted. Further, we wanted to compare our prediction to other QCD inspired model. We have shown, that the prediction we obtain has only small model dependence. By making a prediction in the time-like region we have also shown that our approach is self-consistent, the prediction describes well the data points that were initially used to get it. Eventually we observed that our prediction is close tho the most recent result obtained in the framework of the AdS/CFT theory. The obtained results allow us to conclude that the unitary and analytic model and approach as such are correct tools to study meson form factors and we have shown, that they have big potential to give important results in several domains of particle physics. (author)

  5. A systems biology approach to transcription factor binding site prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhou

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The elucidation of mammalian transcriptional regulatory networks holds great promise for both basic and translational research and remains one the greatest challenges to systems biology. Recent reverse engineering methods deduce regulatory interactions from large-scale mRNA expression profiles and cross-species conserved regulatory regions in DNA. Technical challenges faced by these methods include distinguishing between direct and indirect interactions, associating transcription regulators with predicted transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs, identifying non-linearly conserved binding sites across species, and providing realistic accuracy estimates.We address these challenges by closely integrating proven methods for regulatory network reverse engineering from mRNA expression data, linearly and non-linearly conserved regulatory region discovery, and TFBS evaluation and discovery. Using an extensive test set of high-likelihood interactions, which we collected in order to provide realistic prediction-accuracy estimates, we show that a careful integration of these methods leads to significant improvements in prediction accuracy. To verify our methods, we biochemically validated TFBS predictions made for both transcription factors (TFs and co-factors; we validated binding site predictions made using a known E2F1 DNA-binding motif on E2F1 predicted promoter targets, known E2F1 and JUND motifs on JUND predicted promoter targets, and a de novo discovered motif for BCL6 on BCL6 predicted promoter targets. Finally, to demonstrate accuracy of prediction using an external dataset, we showed that sites matching predicted motifs for ZNF263 are significantly enriched in recent ZNF263 ChIP-seq data.Using an integrative framework, we were able to address technical challenges faced by state of the art network reverse engineering methods, leading to significant improvement in direct-interaction detection and TFBS-discovery accuracy. We estimated the accuracy

  6. Generational Approach to Factors Influencing Career Choice in Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jony Hsiao

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research aims to grasp which factors influence the generation Y to choose accounting as its career. A significant decline in the number of candidates willing to pursue a career as accountant has been observed abroad - USA, Australia, and Japan. However, in other countries - Brazil, Singapore, and Hong Kong - the opposite has been observed. Another issue is the decline in educational qualification of those pursuing an accounting career, contributing in a way that many talented students change their career choice. This may be explained by the fact that people tend to believe accounting is an exact science, full of calculations, boring, and not very creative, bringing an unbalance between the traits an individual should have according to the job market and those perceived by society. In order to give a contribution to literature concerning the factors that influence the generation Y in its career choice, a goal of this research was conducting an exploratory study where some hypotheses were formulated to support the discussion. We used Mannheim's Generational Theory and the literature on career choice. Data collection was carried out using a questionnaire, based on Schwartz's Portrait Value Questionnaire and Germeijs and Verschueren's Student Choice Task Inventory, adapted through focus group interview. Data were fully collected online and the sample consisted of 665 subjects. The results showed that people who chose accounting as their career were influenced by factors such as creativity, independence, challenging and dynamic environment, job security, money-making, job availability, and other significant people - friends and teachers. The subjects were not influenced by social factors, such as working with people and making contributions to society and family. They wish for more autonomy, creativity, and flexibility at work, and people still care about job security and money-making.

  7. A computational intelligent approach to multi-factor analysis of violent crime information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongbo; Yang, Chao; Zhang, Meng; McLoone, Seán; Sun, Yeqing

    2017-02-01

    Various scientific studies have explored the causes of violent behaviour from different perspectives, with psychological tests, in particular, applied to the analysis of crime factors. The relationship between bi-factors has also been extensively studied including the link between age and crime. In reality, many factors interact to contribute to criminal behaviour and as such there is a need to have a greater level of insight into its complex nature. In this article we analyse violent crime information systems containing data on psychological, environmental and genetic factors. Our approach combines elements of rough set theory with fuzzy logic and particle swarm optimisation to yield an algorithm and methodology that can effectively extract multi-knowledge from information systems. The experimental results show that our approach outperforms alternative genetic algorithm and dynamic reduct-based techniques for reduct identification and has the added advantage of identifying multiple reducts and hence multi-knowledge (rules). Identified rules are consistent with classical statistical analysis of violent crime data and also reveal new insights into the interaction between several factors. As such, the results are helpful in improving our understanding of the factors contributing to violent crime and in highlighting the existence of hidden and intangible relationships between crime factors.

  8. Members of the barley NAC transcription factor gene family show differential co-regulation with senescence-associated genes during senescence of flag leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Michael W; Gregersen, Per L.

    2014-01-01

    -expressed with members of the NAC gene family. In conclusion, a list of up to 15 NAC genes from barley that are strong candidates for being regulatory factors of importance for senescence and biotic stress-related traits affecting the productivity of cereal crop plants has been generated. Furthermore, a list of 71...... in the NAC transcription factor family during senescence of barley flag leaves was studied. Several members of the NAC transcription factor gene family were up-regulated during senescence in a microarray experiment, together with a large range of senescence-associated genes, reflecting the coordinated...... activation of degradation processes in senescing barley leaf tissues. This picture was confirmed in a detailed quantitative reverse transcription–PCR (qRT–PCR) experiment, which also showed distinct gene expression patterns for different members of the NAC gene family, suggesting a group of ~15 out of the 47...

  9. Organization of accounting for factoring companies: risk-oriented approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vygivska I.M.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of rational organization of accounting factoring activity the current research identifies the types of factoring operations typical for the accounting system of factoring company, and their place in this system. The recommended provisions, which must be fixed in the accounting policy of the enterprise-factor, are presented. Based on the identification of the most significant provisions of the factoring agreement, it is proposed to limit the amount of funding depending on the type of factoring. The risk factor matrix for factoring business is developed to improve the efficiency of their management and the accounting of operations due to risk management methods. The accounting of the factoring company is proposed taking into account the following components: 1 the moment of acceptance of the sold (deferred receivable to the accounting; 2 the features of factoring depending on its type; 3 the peculiarities of accounting registration of charges in factoring operations; 4 the procedure for inventorying factoring transactions.

  10. A theoretical approach to the re-suspension factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnoni M.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric re-suspension of radionuclides is a well-known phenomenon that consists in the re-injection into the atmosphere of previously deposited radioactivity. The process is driven by the action of wind on surfaces and can act as an additional source of radiation exposure by inhalation, after the deposition has finished. It is thus defined as the re-suspension factor, a parameter K generally considered as a time depending function and defined as the ratio of Ca, the volumetric air activity concentration (Bq m−3 and I0 (Bq m−2, the radioactivity deposition at time zero. The re-suspension factor concept is very useful in radioprotection in order to estimate the inhalation of radionuclides re-suspended from contaminated surfaces when direct atmospheric measurements are lacking or difficult to perform. However, the choice of the proper values of K is usually not a simple task, being quite site-specific and related to the meteorological, géomorphologie and environmental characteristics of the area to be studied. Moreover, several investigations showed clearly that the values of K are a decreasing function of time. For that reason, K values span several orders of magnitude: typical values in the range 10−5–10−10 m−1 are reported in literature for different environmental conditions and time elapsed since the deposition event. The current available models for the re-suspension factor are based on empirical formulas whose parameters are highly site dependent and cannot easily be related to some physical quantity. In this paper a simple physical model for the re-suspension factor is proposed and tested with available environmental radioactivity data (137Cs, collected since 1986 (Chernobyl fallout. The new model not only allows a satisfactory description of the experimental data like even the current empirical models do, but it is also able to connect the K values to quantities with a physical meaning (such as, for example a diffusion

  11. Resective surgical approach shows a high performance in the management of advanced cases of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws: a retrospective survey of 347 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Filippo; Vescovi, Paolo; Campisi, Giuseppina; Favia, Gianfranco; Gabriele, Mario; Gaeta, Giovanni Maria; Gennai, Stefano; Goia, Franco; Miccoli, Mario; Peluso, Franco; Scoletta, Matteo; Solazzo, Luigi; Colella, Giuseppe

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of the surgical treatment of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) in a large cohort. A retrospective cohort multicenter study was designed. Patients were enrolled if they were diagnosed with BRONJ and received operative treatment. Data on demographic, health status, perioperative, and surgical factors were collected retrospectively. The primary outcome variable was a change in BRONJ staging (improvement, worsening, or no change). Interventions were grouped by local debridement and resective surgery. Data were collected for other variables as cofactors. Univariate analysis and logistic regressions were then performed. Of the 347 BRONJ-affected subjects, 59% showed improvement, 30% showed no change, and 11% showed worsening. Improvement was observed in 49% of cases treated with local debridement and 68% of cases treated with resective surgery. Multivariate analysis indicated that maxillary location, resective surgery, and no additional corticosteroid treatment were associated with a positive outcome. Surgical treatment of BRONJ appeared to be more effective when resective procedures were performed. Nonetheless, other factors, such as the absence of symptoms and the types of drug administration, should be taken into account before clinical decisions are made. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of motivational factors on car use: a multidisciplinary modelling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steg, L.; Ras, M. [University of Groningen (Netherlands). Centre for Environmental and Traffic Psychology; Geurs, K. [National Institute of Public Health and Environment, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2001-11-01

    Current transport models usually do not take motivational factors into account, and if they do, it is only implicitly. This paper presents a modelling approach aimed at explicitly examining the effects of motivational factors on present and future car use in the Netherlands. A car-use forecasting model for the years 2010 and 2020 was constructed on the basis of (i) a multinominal regression analysis, which revealed the importance of a motivational variable (viz., problem awareness) in explaining current car-use behavior separate from socio-demographic and socio-economic variables, and (ii) a population model constructed to forecast the size and composition of the Dutch population. The results show that car use could be better explained by taking motivational factors explicitly into account, and that the level of car use forecast might change significantly if changes in motivations are assumed. The question on how motivational factors could be incorporated into current (Dutch) national transport models was also addressed. (author)

  13. The nonenzymatic subunit of pseutarin C, a prothrombin activator from eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) venom, shows structural similarity to mammalian coagulation factor V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Veena S; Swarup, Sanjay; Kini, R Manjunatha

    2003-08-15

    Pseutarin C is a group C prothrombin activator from the venom of the eastern brown snake Pseudonaja textilis. It is a multi-subunit protein complex consisting of catalytic and nonenzymatic subunits similar to coagulation factor Xa and factor Va, respectively. Here we describe the complete sequence of the nonenzymatic subunit. Based on the partial amino acid sequence of the nonenzymatic subunit, degenerate primers were designed. Using a "walking" strategy based on sequentially designed primers, we determined the complete cDNA sequence of the nonenzymatic subunit. The cDNA encodes a protein of 1461 amino acid residues, which includes a 30-residue signal peptide, a mature protein of 1430 amino acid residues, and a stop codon. cDNA blot analysis showed a single transcript of approximately 4.6 kb. The deduced amino acid sequence shows approximately 50% identity to mammalian factor V and by homology has a similar domain structure consisting of domains A1-A2-B-A3-C1-C2. Interestingly, the B domain of pseutarin C is shorter than that of mammalian factor V (FV). Although most of the proteolytic activation sites are conserved, 2 of 3 proteolytic sites cleaved by activated protein C are mutated, and thus activated protein C is not able to inactivate this procoagulant toxin. The predicted posttranslational modifications, including disulfide bonds, N-glycosylation, phosphorylation, and sulfation, in pseutarin C are significantly different compared with bovine factor V. Thus, our data demonstrate that the nonenzymatic subunit of group C prothrombin activators is structurally similar to mammalian FV.

  14. Barley plants over-expressing the NAC transcription factor gene HvNAC005 show stunting and delay in development combined with early senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Michael W; Matthewman, Colette; Podzimska-Sroka, Dagmara

    2016-01-01

    -expressing plants showed up-regulation of genes involved with secondary metabolism, hormone metabolism, stress, signalling, development, and transport. Up-regulation of senescence markers and hormone metabolism and signalling genes supports a role of HvNAC005 in the cross field of different hormone and signalling......The plant-specific NAC transcription factors have attracted particular attention because of their involvement in stress responses, senescence, and nutrient remobilization. The HvNAC005 gene of barley encodes a protein belonging to subgroup NAC-a6 of the NAC family. This study shows that HvNAC005...... pathways. Binding of HvNAC005 to promoter sequences of putative target genes containing the T[G/A]CGT core motif was shown by direct protein-DNA interactions of HvNAC005 with promoters for two of the up-regulated genes. In conclusion, HvNAC005 was shown to be a strong positive regulator of senescence...

  15. Integrative Analysis of Transcription Factor Combinatorial Interactions Using a Bayesian Tensor Factorization Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yusen; Gao, Lin; Zhang, Shihua

    2017-01-01

    Transcription factors play a key role in transcriptional regulation of genes and determination of cellular identity through combinatorial interactions. However, current studies about combinatorial regulation is deficient due to lack of experimental data in the same cellular environment and extensive existence of data noise. Here, we adopt a Bayesian CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP) factorization approach (BCPF) to integrate multiple datasets in a network paradigm for determining precise TF interaction landscapes. In our first application, we apply BCPF to integrate three networks built based on diverse datasets of multiple cell lines from ENCODE respectively to predict a global and precise TF interaction network. This network gives 38 novel TF interactions with distinct biological functions. In our second application, we apply BCPF to seven types of cell type TF regulatory networks and predict seven cell lineage TF interaction networks, respectively. By further exploring the dynamics and modularity of them, we find cell lineage-specific hub TFs participate in cell type or lineage-specific regulation by interacting with non-specific TFs. Furthermore, we illustrate the biological function of hub TFs by taking those of cancer lineage and blood lineage as examples. Taken together, our integrative analysis can reveal more precise and extensive description about human TF combinatorial interactions. PMID:29033978

  16. Pre-announcement of symbiotic guests: transcriptional reprogramming by mycorrhizal lipochitooligosaccharides shows a strict co-dependency on the GRAS transcription factors NSP1 and RAM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohnjec, Natalija; Czaja-Hasse, Lisa F; Hogekamp, Claudia; Küster, Helge

    2015-11-23

    More than 80 % of all terrestrial plant species establish an arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) symbiosis with Glomeromycota fungi. This plant-microbe interaction primarily improves phosphate uptake, but also supports nitrogen, mineral, and water aquisition. During the pre-contact stage, the AM symbiosis is controled by an exchange of diffusible factors from either partner. Amongst others, fungal signals were identified as a mix of sulfated and non-sulfated lipochitooligosaccharides (LCOs), being structurally related to rhizobial nodulation (Nod)-factor LCOs that in legumes induce the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. LCO signals are transduced via a common symbiotic signaling pathway (CSSP) that activates a group of GRAS transcription factors (TFs). Using complex gene expression fingerprints as molecular phenotypes, this study primarily intended to shed light on the importance of the GRAS TFs NSP1 and RAM1 for LCO-activated gene expression during pre-symbiotic signaling. We investigated the genome-wide transcriptional responses in 5 days old primary roots of the Medicago truncatula wild type and four symbiotic mutants to a 6 h challenge with LCO signals supplied at 10(-7/-8) M. We were able to show that during the pre-symbiotic stage, sulfated Myc-, non-sulfated Myc-, and Nod-LCO-activated gene expression almost exclusively depends on the LysM receptor kinase NFP and is largely controled by the CSSP, although responses independent of this pathway exist. Our results show that downstream of the CSSP, gene expression activation by Myc-LCOs supplied at 10(-7/-8) M strictly required both the GRAS transcription factors RAM1 and NSP1, whereas those genes either co- or specifically activated by Nod-LCOs displayed a preferential NSP1-dependency. RAM1, a central regulator of root colonization by AM fungi, controled genes activated by non-sulfated Myc-LCOs during the pre-symbiotic stage that are also up-regulated in areas with early physical contact, e.g. hyphopodia and

  17. Modelling individual differences in the form of Pavlovian conditioned approach responses: a dual learning systems approach with factored representations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Lesaint

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement Learning has greatly influenced models of conditioning, providing powerful explanations of acquired behaviour and underlying physiological observations. However, in recent autoshaping experiments in rats, variation in the form of Pavlovian conditioned responses (CRs and associated dopamine activity, have questioned the classical hypothesis that phasic dopamine activity corresponds to a reward prediction error-like signal arising from a classical Model-Free system, necessary for Pavlovian conditioning. Over the course of Pavlovian conditioning using food as the unconditioned stimulus (US, some rats (sign-trackers come to approach and engage the conditioned stimulus (CS itself - a lever - more and more avidly, whereas other rats (goal-trackers learn to approach the location of food delivery upon CS presentation. Importantly, although both sign-trackers and goal-trackers learn the CS-US association equally well, only in sign-trackers does phasic dopamine activity show classical reward prediction error-like bursts. Furthermore, neither the acquisition nor the expression of a goal-tracking CR is dopamine-dependent. Here we present a computational model that can account for such individual variations. We show that a combination of a Model-Based system and a revised Model-Free system can account for the development of distinct CRs in rats. Moreover, we show that revising a classical Model-Free system to individually process stimuli by using factored representations can explain why classical dopaminergic patterns may be observed for some rats and not for others depending on the CR they develop. In addition, the model can account for other behavioural and pharmacological results obtained using the same, or similar, autoshaping procedures. Finally, the model makes it possible to draw a set of experimental predictions that may be verified in a modified experimental protocol. We suggest that further investigation of factored representations in

  18. Modelling Individual Differences in the Form of Pavlovian Conditioned Approach Responses: A Dual Learning Systems Approach with Factored Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesaint, Florian; Sigaud, Olivier; Flagel, Shelly B.; Robinson, Terry E.; Khamassi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Reinforcement Learning has greatly influenced models of conditioning, providing powerful explanations of acquired behaviour and underlying physiological observations. However, in recent autoshaping experiments in rats, variation in the form of Pavlovian conditioned responses (CRs) and associated dopamine activity, have questioned the classical hypothesis that phasic dopamine activity corresponds to a reward prediction error-like signal arising from a classical Model-Free system, necessary for Pavlovian conditioning. Over the course of Pavlovian conditioning using food as the unconditioned stimulus (US), some rats (sign-trackers) come to approach and engage the conditioned stimulus (CS) itself – a lever – more and more avidly, whereas other rats (goal-trackers) learn to approach the location of food delivery upon CS presentation. Importantly, although both sign-trackers and goal-trackers learn the CS-US association equally well, only in sign-trackers does phasic dopamine activity show classical reward prediction error-like bursts. Furthermore, neither the acquisition nor the expression of a goal-tracking CR is dopamine-dependent. Here we present a computational model that can account for such individual variations. We show that a combination of a Model-Based system and a revised Model-Free system can account for the development of distinct CRs in rats. Moreover, we show that revising a classical Model-Free system to individually process stimuli by using factored representations can explain why classical dopaminergic patterns may be observed for some rats and not for others depending on the CR they develop. In addition, the model can account for other behavioural and pharmacological results obtained using the same, or similar, autoshaping procedures. Finally, the model makes it possible to draw a set of experimental predictions that may be verified in a modified experimental protocol. We suggest that further investigation of factored representations in

  19. Modelling individual differences in the form of Pavlovian conditioned approach responses: a dual learning systems approach with factored representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesaint, Florian; Sigaud, Olivier; Flagel, Shelly B; Robinson, Terry E; Khamassi, Mehdi

    2014-02-01

    Reinforcement Learning has greatly influenced models of conditioning, providing powerful explanations of acquired behaviour and underlying physiological observations. However, in recent autoshaping experiments in rats, variation in the form of Pavlovian conditioned responses (CRs) and associated dopamine activity, have questioned the classical hypothesis that phasic dopamine activity corresponds to a reward prediction error-like signal arising from a classical Model-Free system, necessary for Pavlovian conditioning. Over the course of Pavlovian conditioning using food as the unconditioned stimulus (US), some rats (sign-trackers) come to approach and engage the conditioned stimulus (CS) itself - a lever - more and more avidly, whereas other rats (goal-trackers) learn to approach the location of food delivery upon CS presentation. Importantly, although both sign-trackers and goal-trackers learn the CS-US association equally well, only in sign-trackers does phasic dopamine activity show classical reward prediction error-like bursts. Furthermore, neither the acquisition nor the expression of a goal-tracking CR is dopamine-dependent. Here we present a computational model that can account for such individual variations. We show that a combination of a Model-Based system and a revised Model-Free system can account for the development of distinct CRs in rats. Moreover, we show that revising a classical Model-Free system to individually process stimuli by using factored representations can explain why classical dopaminergic patterns may be observed for some rats and not for others depending on the CR they develop. In addition, the model can account for other behavioural and pharmacological results obtained using the same, or similar, autoshaping procedures. Finally, the model makes it possible to draw a set of experimental predictions that may be verified in a modified experimental protocol. We suggest that further investigation of factored representations in computational

  20. Lessons learned from different approaches towards classifying personal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Rachel; Geyh, Szilvia

    2015-01-01

    To examine and compare existing suggestions towards a classification of Personal Factors (PF) of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Qualitative and quantitative content analyses of available categorizations of PF are conducted. While the eight categorizations greatly differ in their background and structure, the broad content areas covered seem to be similar and reflect the ICF definition of PF. They cover to various degrees 12 broad content areas: socio-demographic factors, behavioral and lifestyle factors, cognitive psychological factors, social relationships, experiences and biography, coping, emotional factors, satisfaction, other health conditions, biological/physiological factors, personality, motives/motivation. In comparing these categorizations, a common core of content issues for a potential ICF PF classification could be identified and valuable lessons learned. This can contribute to future classification development activities in relation to PF.

  1. Factor analytical approaches for evaluating groundwater trace element chemistry data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnham, I.M.; Johannesson, K.H.; Singh, A.K.; Hodge, V.F.; Stetzenbach, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    The multivariate statistical techniques principal component analysis (PCA), Q-mode factor analysis (QFA), and correspondence analysis (CA) were applied to a dataset containing trace element concentrations in groundwater samples collected from a number of wells located downgradient from the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. PCA results reflect the similarities in the concentrations of trace elements in the water samples resulting from different geochemical processes. QFA results reflect similarities in the trace element compositions, whereas CA reflects similarities in the trace elements that are dominant in the waters relative to all other groundwater samples included in the dataset. These differences are mainly due to the ways in which data are preprocessed by each of the three methods. The highly concentrated, and thus possibly more mature (i.e. older), groundwaters are separated from the more dilute waters using principal component 1 (PC 1). PC 2, as well as dimension 1 of the CA results, describe differences in the trace element chemistry of the groundwaters resulting from the different aquifer materials through which they have flowed. Groundwaters thought to be representative of those flowing through an aquifer composed dominantly of volcanic rocks are characterized by elevated concentrations of Li, Be, Ge, Rb, Cs, and Ba, whereas those associated with an aquifer dominated by carbonate rocks exhibit greater concentrations of Ti, Ni, Sr, Rh, and Bi. PC 3, and to a lesser extent dimension 2 of the CA results, show a strong monotonic relationship with the percentage of As(III) in the groundwater suggesting that these multivariate statistical results reflect, in a qualitative sense, the oxidizing/reducing conditions within the groundwater. Groundwaters that are relatively more reducing exhibit greater concentrations of Mn, Cs, Co, Ba, Rb, and Be, and those that are more oxidizing are characterized by greater concentrations of V, Cr, Ga

  2. A socio-ecological approach promoting physical activity and limiting sedentary behavior in adolescence showed weight benefits maintained 2.5 years after intervention cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, C; Kellou, N; Dugas, J; Platat, C; Copin, N; Schweitzer, B; Hausser, F; Bergouignan, A; Lefai, E; Blanc, S

    2014-07-01

    Obesity in youth remains a major public health issue. Yet no effective long-term preventive strategy exists. We previously showed that a school-based socio-ecological approach targeting behavior and social/environmental influences on physical activity (PA) prevented 4-year excessive weight gain in 12-year olds. In this study, we investigated if this efficacy persists 30 months after intervention cessation. The program targeted students, family, school and the living environment to promote/support PA and prevent sedentary behavior (SB). A total of 732 students from eight randomized middle schools completed the 4-year trial. At the 30-month post-trial follow-up, body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI), leisure PA (LPA), home/school/workplace active commuting, TV/video time (TVT), and attitudes toward PA were measured in 531 adolescents. The beneficial effects of the intervention on the excess BMI increase (+0.01 vs +0.34 kg m(-2) in the intervention and control groups, respectively) and on the overweight incidence in initially non-overweight students (4.3% vs 8.6%; odds ratio=0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.23-1.01)) were maintained at the post-trial follow-up. LPA was not maintained at the level achieved during the trial. However, we still observed a prevention of the age-related decrease of the adolescents' percentage reporting regular LPA (-14.4% vs -26.5%) and a higher intention to exercise in the intervention group. The intervention promoted lower TVT (-14.0 vs +13.6 min per day) and higher active commuting changes (+11.7% vs -4.8%). Trends in higher BMI reduction in students with high initial TVT and in the least wealthy group were noted. TVT changes throughout the follow-up predicted excess BMI and FMI changes. Long-term multilevel approach targeting PA and SB prevents excessive weight gain up to 30 months after intervention cessation. The efficacy may be higher in the most sedentary and least wealthy adolescents. Healthy PA-related behavior

  3. Prognostic factors in invasive bladder carcinoma treated by combined modality protocol (organ-sparing approach)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, Tadeja; Cufer, Tanja; Cervek, Jozica; Borstnar, Simona; Kragelj, Borut; Zumer-Pregelj, Mirjana

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The results of bladder sparing approach for the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer, using a combination of transurethral resection (TUR), chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, are encouraging. The survival of patients treated by this method is similar to the survival of patients treated by radical cystectomy. The aim of our study was to find out which pretreatment characteristics influence the survival of patients treated by organ sparing approach that would enable us to identify the patients most suitable for this type of treatment. Methods and Materials: The prognostic value of different factors, such as age, gender, performance status, hemoglobin level, clinical stage, histologic grade, presence of obstructive uropathy, and completeness of TUR, has been studied in 105 patients with invasive bladder cancer, who received a bladder sparing treatment in the period from 1988 to 1995. They were treated with a combination of TUR, followed by 2-4 cycles of methotrexate, cisplatinum, and vinblastine polychemotherapy. In complete responders the treatment was completed by radiotherapy (50 Gy to the bladder and 40 Gy to the regional lymph nodes), whereas nonresponders underwent cystectomy whenever feasible. Results: Our study has confirmed an independent prognostic value of performance status, histologic grade, and obstructive uropathy, for the disease-specific survival (DSS) of bladder cancer patients treated by a conservative approach. We believe that performance status best reflects the extent of disease and exerts significant influence on the extent and course of treatment, while obstructive uropathy is a good indicator of local spread of the disease, better than clinical T-stage. Our finding that histologic grade is one of the strongest prognostic factors shows that tumor biology also is a very important prognostic factor in patients treated by conservative approach. Conclusion: Patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer who are most likely to benefit

  4. Predictive and Prognostic Factors in Colorectal Cancer: A Personalized Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy A. Rockall

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is an exciting time for all those engaged in the treatment of colorectal cancer. The advent of new therapies presents the opportunity for a personalized approach to the patient. This approach considers the complex genetic mechanisms involved in tumorigenesis in addition to classical clinicopathological staging. The potential predictive and prognostic biomarkers which have stemmed from the study of the genetic basis of colorectal cancer and therapeutics are discussed with a focus on mismatch repair status, KRAS, BRAF, 18qLOH, CIMP and TGF-β.

  5. An ISM approach for analyzing the factors in technology transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdavi Mazdeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Technology transfer, from research and technology organizations (RTOs toward local industries, is considered as one of important and significant strategies for countries' industrial development. In addition to recover the enormous costs of research and development for RTOs, successful technology transfer from RTOs toward local firms forms technological foundations and develops the ability to enhance the competitiveness of firms. Better understanding of factors influencing process of technology transfer helps RTOs and local firms prioritize and manage their resources in an effective and efficient way to maximize the success of technology transfer. This paper aims to identify important effective factors in technology transfer from Iranian RTOs and provides a comprehensive model, which indicate the interactions of these factors. In this regard, first, research background is reviewed and Cummings and Teng’s model (2003 [Cummings, J. L., & Teng, B.-S. (2003. Transferring R&D knowledge: The key factors affecting knowledge transfer success. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 20(1-2, 39-68.] was selected as the basic model in this study and it was modified through suggesting new factors identified from literature of inter-organizational knowledge and technology transfer and finally a Delphi method was applied for validation of modified model. Then, research conducted used Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM to evaluate the relationship between the factors of final proposed model. Results indicate that there were twelve factors influencing on technology transfer process from Iranian RTOs to local firms and also the intensity of absorption capability in transferee could influence on the intensity of desorption capability in transferor.

  6. Transgenic mice overexpressing glia maturation factor-β, an oxidative stress inducible gene, show premature aging due to Zmpste24 down-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Rika; Asai, Kanae; Hanai, Jun-ichi; Takenaka, Masaru

    2015-07-01

    Glia Maturation Factor-β (GMF), a brain specific protein, is induced by proteinuria in renal tubules. Ectopic GMF overexpression causes apoptosisin vitro via cellular vulnerability to oxidative stress. In order to examine the roles of GMF in non-brain tissue, we constructed transgenic mice overexpressing GMF (GMF-TG). The GMF-TG mice exhibited appearance phenotypes associated with premature aging. The GMF-TG mice also demonstrated short lifespans and reduced hair regrowth, suggesting an accelerated aging process. The production of an abnormal lamin A, a nuclear envelope protein, plays a causal role in both normal aging and accelerated aging diseases, known as laminopathies. Importantly, we identified the abnormal lamin A (prelamin A), accompanied by a down-regulation of a lamin A processing enzyme (Zmpste24) in the kidney of the GMF-TG mice. The GMF-TG mice showed accelerated aging in the kidney, compared with wild-type mice, showing increased TGF-β1, CTGF gene and serum creatinine. The gene expression of p21/waf1 was increased at an earlier stage of life, at 10 weeks, which was in turn down-regulated at a later stage, at 60 weeks. In conclusion, we propose that GMF-TG mice might be a novel mouse model of accelerated aging, due to the abnormal lamin A.

  7. Metabolic and molecular analyses of white mutant Vaccinium berries show down-regulation of MYBPA1-type R2R3 MYB regulatory factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primetta, Anja K; Karppinen, Katja; Riihinen, Kaisu R; Jaakola, Laura

    2015-09-01

    MYBPA1-type R2R3 MYB transcription factor shows down-regulation in white mutant berries of Vaccinium uliginosum deficient in anthocyanins but not proanthocyanidins suggesting a role in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Berries of the genus Vaccinium are among the best natural sources of flavonoids. In this study, the expression of structural and regulatory flavonoid biosynthetic genes and the accumulation of flavonoids in white mutant and blue-colored wild-type bog bilberry (V. uliginosum) fruits were measured at different stages of berry development. In contrast to high contents of anthocyanins in ripe blue-colored berries, only traces were detected by HPLC-ESI-MS in ripe white mutant berries. However, similar profile and high levels of flavonol glycosides and proanthocyanidins were quantified in both ripe white and ripe wild-type berries. Analysis with qRT-PCR showed strong down-regulation of structural genes chalcone synthase (VuCHS), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (VuDFR) and anthocyanidin synthase (VuANS) as well as MYBPA1-type transcription factor VuMYBPA1 in white berries during ripening compared to wild-type berries. The profiles of transcript accumulation of chalcone isomerase (VuCHI), anthocyanidin reductase (VuANR), leucoanthocyanidin reductase (VuLAR) and flavonoid 3'5' hydroxylase (VuF3'5'H) were more similar between the white and the wild-type berries during fruit development, while expression of UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (VuUFGT) showed similar trend but fourfold lower level in white mutant. VuMYBPA1, the R2R3 MYB family member, is a homologue of VmMYB2 of V. myrtillus and VcMYBPA1 of V. corymbosum and belongs to MYBPA1-type MYB family which members are shown in some species to be related with proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in fruits. Our results combined with earlier data of the role of VmMYB2 in white mutant berries of V. myrtillus suggest that the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Vaccinium species could differ

  8. Design of psychosocial factors questionnaires: a systematic measurement approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Angélica; Felknor, Sarah A

    2012-01-01

    Background Evaluation of psychosocial factors requires instruments that measure dynamic complexities. This study explains the design of a set of questionnaires to evaluate work and non-work psychosocial risk factors for stress-related illnesses. Methods The measurement model was based on a review of literature. Content validity was performed by experts and cognitive interviews. Pilot testing was carried out with a convenience sample of 132 workers. Cronbach’s alpha evaluated internal consistency and concurrent validity was estimated by Spearman correlation coefficients. Results Three questionnaires were constructed to evaluate exposure to work and non-work risk factors. Content validity improved the questionnaires coherence with the measurement model. Internal consistency was adequate (α=0.85–0.95). Concurrent validity resulted in moderate correlations of psychosocial factors with stress symptoms. Conclusions Questionnaires´ content reflected a wide spectrum of psychosocial factors sources. Cognitive interviews improved understanding of questions and dimensions. The structure of the measurement model was confirmed. PMID:22628068

  9. A Parzen window-based approach for the detection of locally enriched transcription factor binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbon, Alexis; Kumagai, Yutaro; Teraguchi, Shunsuke; Amada, Karlou Mar; Akira, Shizuo; Standley, Daron M

    2013-01-21

    Identification of cis- and trans-acting factors regulating gene expression remains an important problem in biology. Bioinformatics analyses of regulatory regions are hampered by several difficulties. One is that binding sites for regulatory proteins are often not significantly over-represented in the set of DNA sequences of interest, because of high levels of false positive predictions, and because of positional restrictions on functional binding sites with regard to the transcription start site. We have developed a novel method for the detection of regulatory motifs based on their local over-representation in sets of regulatory regions. The method makes use of a Parzen window-based approach for scoring local enrichment, and during evaluation of significance it takes into account GC content of sequences. We show that the accuracy of our method compares favourably to that of other methods, and that our method is capable of detecting not only generally over-represented regulatory motifs, but also locally over-represented motifs that are often missed by standard motif detection approaches. Using a number of examples we illustrate the validity of our approach and suggest applications, such as the analysis of weaker binding sites. Our approach can be used to suggest testable hypotheses for wet-lab experiments. It has potential for future analyses, such as the prediction of weaker binding sites. An online application of our approach, called LocaMo Finder (Local Motif Finder), is available at http://sysimm.ifrec.osaka-u.ac.jp/tfbs/locamo/.

  10. A new peptide (Ruviprase) purified from the venom of Daboia russelii russelii shows potent anticoagulant activity via non-enzymatic inhibition of thrombin and factor Xa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Rupamoni; Kumar, Ashok; Bose, Biplab; Panda, Dulal; Saikia, Debashree; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2014-10-01

    Compounds showing dual inhibition of thrombin and factor Xa (FXa) are the subject of great interest owing to their broader specificity for effective anticoagulation therapy against cardiovascular disorders. This is the first report on the functional characterization and assessment of therapeutic potential of a 4423.6 Da inhibitory peptide (Ruviprase) purified from Daboia russelii russelii venom. The secondary structure of Ruviprase is composed of α-helices (61.9%) and random coils (38.1%). The partial N-terminal sequence (E(1)-V(2)-X(3)-W(4)-W(5)-W(6)-A(7)-Q(8)-L(9)-S(10)) of Ruviprase demonstrated significant similarity (80.0%) with an internal sequence of apoptosis-stimulating protein reported from the venom of Ophiophagus hannah and Python bivittatus; albeit Ruviprase did not show sequence similarity with existing thrombin/FXa inhibitors, suggesting its uniqueness. Ruviprase demonstrated a potent in vitro anticoagulant property and inhibited both thrombin and FXa following slow binding kinetics. Ruviprase inhibited thrombin by binding to its active site via an uncompetitive mechanism with a Ki value and dissociation constant (KD) of 0.42 μM and 0.46 μM, respectively. Conversely, Ruviprase demonstrated mixed inhibition (Ki = 0.16 μM) of FXa towards its physiological substrate prothrombin. Furthermore, the biological properties of Ruviprase could not be neutralized by commercial polyvalent or monovalent antivenom. Ruviprase at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg was non-toxic and showed potent in vivo anticoagulant activity after 6 h of intraperitoneal treatment in mice. Because of the potent anticoagulant property as well as non-toxic nature of Ruviprase, the possible application of the peptide as an antithrombotic agent for combating thrombosis-associated ailments appears promising. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploring the Interactions of the Dietary Plant Flavonoids Fisetin and Naringenin with G-Quadruplex and Duplex DNA, Showing Contrasting Binding Behavior: Spectroscopic and Molecular Modeling Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Snehasish; Chakraborty, Sandipan; Sengupta, Pradeep K; Bhowmik, Sudipta

    2016-09-01

    Guanine-rich sequences have the propensity to fold into a four-stranded DNA structure known as a G-quadruplex (G4). G4 forming sequences are abundant in the promoter region of several oncogenes and become a key target for anticancer drug binding. Here we have studied the interactions of two structurally similar dietary plant flavonoids fisetin and naringenin with G4 as well as double stranded (duplex) DNA by using different spectroscopic and modeling techniques. Our study demonstrates the differential binding ability of the two flavonoids with G4 and duplex DNA. Fisetin more strongly interacts with parallel G4 structure than duplex DNA, whereas naringenin shows stronger binding affinity to duplex rather than G4 DNA. Molecular docking results also corroborate our spectroscopic results, and it was found that both of the ligands are stacked externally in the G4 DNA structure. C-ring planarity of the flavonoid structure appears to be a crucial factor for preferential G4 DNA recognition of flavonoids. The goal of this study is to explore the critical effects of small differences in the structure of closely similar chemical classes of such small molecules (flavonoids) which lead to the contrasting binding properties with the two different forms of DNA. The resulting insights may be expected to facilitate the designing of the highly selective G4 DNA binders based on flavonoid scaffolds.

  12. An immunologic approach to induction of epidermal growth factor deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaberg, Lasse; Nexø, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1995-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) in pharmacologic doses is able to induce growth and development in the fetus and the newborn. To investigate the opposite situation, the effects of insufficient amounts of EGF during development, we wanted to establish an in vivo model with a state of EGF deficiency....

  13. In Vitro Approaches to Evaluation of Sun Protectin Factor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bendová, H.; Akrman, J.; Krejčí, A.; Kubáč, L.; Jírová, D.; Kejlová, K.; Kolářová, H.; Brabec, Marek; Malý, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 7 (2007), s. 1268-1275 ISSN 0887-2333 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : sunscreens * in vitro * SPF * nonparametric model Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.193, year: 2007

  14. The Relative Importance of Job Factors: A New Measurement Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealey, Stanley M.

    This paper reports on a new two-phase measurement technique that permits a direct comparison of the perceived relative importance of economic vs. non-economic factors in a job situation in accounting for personnel retention, the willingness to produce, and job satisfaction. The paired comparison method was used to measure the preferences of 91…

  15. The Status of Cognitive Psychology Journals: An Impact Factor Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togia, Aspasia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact factor of cognitive psychology journals indexed in the Science and Social Sciences edition of "Journal Citation Reports" ("JCR") database over a period of 10 consecutive years. Cognitive psychology journals were indexed in 11 different subject categories of the database. Their mean impact factor…

  16. "A cigarette a day keeps the goodies away": Smokers show automatic approach tendencies for smoking - but not for food-related stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machulska, A.; Zlomuzica, A.; Adolph, D.; Rinck, M.; Margraf, J.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking leads to the development of automatic tendencies that promote approach behavior toward smoking-related stimuli which in turn may maintain addictive behavior. The present study examined whether automatic approach tendencies toward smoking-related stimuli can be measured by using an adapted

  17. DETERMINANT EROSION FACTORS FOR PENSION ROMANIAN SYSTEM - A STATISTICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Gabriela BABUCEA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The demographical evolutions of the last 20 years, the changes in the Romanian economy and society influenced one special category which is the retired people. As inactive population, retired people represents an important category, their numbers being rather big in comparison with the employed population, practical the contributors at the pensions fund. In 2010, the stat has serious problems with paying pensions. The evolution of this category of people is the subject of this paper. We try to identify the factors that had negative influence upon the pension Romanian system. The reference years that we considered are 1990-2009.

  18. Mathematical evaluation of similarity factor using various weighing approaches on aceclofenac marketed formulations by model-independent method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, T G; Desai, J U; Nagda, C D; Gandhi, T R; Chotai, N P

    2008-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) guidance for industry on dissolution testing of immediate-release solid oral dosage forms describes that drug dissolution may be the rate limiting step for drug absorption in the case of low solubility/high permeability drugs (BCS class II drugs). US FDA Guidance describes the model-independent mathematical approach proposed by Moore and Flanner for calculating a similarity factor (f2) of dissolution across a suitable time interval. In the present study, the similarity factor was calculated on dissolution data of two marketed aceclofenac tablets (a BCS class II drug) using various weighing approaches proposed by Gohel et al. The proposed approaches were compared with a conventional approach (W = 1). On the basis of consideration of variability, preference is given in the order of approach 3 > approach 2 > approach 1 as approach 3 considers batch-to-batch as well as within-samples variability and shows best similarity profile. Approach 2 considers batch-to batch variability with higher specificity than approach 1.

  19. Moving Aerospace Structural Design Practice to a Load and Resistance Factor Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Curtis E.; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2016-01-01

    Aerospace structures are traditionally designed using the factor of safety (FOS) approach. The limit load on the structure is determined and the structure is then designed for FOS times the limit load - the ultimate load. Probabilistic approaches utilize distributions for loads and strengths. Failures are predicted to occur in the region of intersection of the two distributions. The load and resistance factor design (LRFD) approach judiciously combines these two approaches by intensive calibration studies on loads and strength to result in structures that are efficient and reliable. This paper discusses these three approaches.

  20. A Research of Critical Factors in the Cloud Service Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Nevala

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to find out how to manage knowhowin an old company with a new service. There are many differentmatters of concern when launching a new service on the market.That is why the aim of this study was to give priority to areas inmanaging the knowhow and thus support the management to aimin the right direction from the very beginning. This can also workas a competitive advantage for the new service. The point of viewhas been gained from management students who are experiencedin business life. The group members had a realistic basis fromtheir experiences to compare the existing systems to this newone. The chosen view can also help an existing company to seeits own functions and processes in a new way, which tends to becomedifficult after years of operation. This leads to another positiveaspect – improvement and developing. The study is based onthe Critical Factor Index method which had here a different functionthan it usually does. Basically all the other results given bythe Critical Factor Index are based on a questionnaire inside thecompanies. In this case, the study was carried out by using externalexperts. The aim of the study was also to find out the differencespointed out between different answering groups: managers,sales personnel and experts.

  1. Omics Approach to Identify Factors Involved in Brassica Disease Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Marta; Soengas, Pilar; Velasco, Pablo; Bhadauria, Vijai; Cartea, Maria E; Rodríguez, Victor M

    2016-01-01

    Understanding plant's defense mechanisms and their response to biotic stresses is of fundamental meaning for the development of resistant crop varieties and more productive agriculture. The Brassica genus involves a large variety of economically important species and cultivars used as vegetable source, oilseeds, forage and ornamental. Damage caused by pathogens attack affects negatively various aspects of plant growth, development, and crop productivity. Over the last few decades, advances in plant physiology, genetics, and molecular biology have greatly improved our understanding of plant responses to biotic stress conditions. In this regard, various 'omics' technologies enable qualitative and quantitative monitoring of the abundance of various biological molecules in a high-throughput manner, and thus allow determination of their variation between different biological states on a genomic scale. In this review, we have described advances in 'omic' tools (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) in the view of conventional and modern approaches being used to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that underlie Brassica disease resistance.

  2. Individual Cell Based Traits Obtained by Scanning Flow-Cytometry Show Selection by Biotic and Abiotic Environmental Factors during a Phytoplankton Spring Bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomati, Francesco; Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Posch, Thomas; Eugster, Bettina; Jokela, Jukka; Ibelings, Bas W.

    2013-01-01

    In ecology and evolution, the primary challenge in understanding the processes that shape biodiversity is to assess the relationship between the phenotypic traits of organisms and the environment. Here we tested for selection on physio-morphological traits measured by scanning flow-cytometry at the individual level in phytoplankton communities under a temporally changing biotic and abiotic environment. Our aim was to study how high-frequency temporal changes in the environment influence biodiversity dynamics in a natural community. We focused on a spring bloom in Lake Zurich (Switzerland), characterized by rapid changes in phytoplankton, water conditions, nutrients and grazing (mainly mediated by herbivore ciliates). We described bloom dynamics in terms of taxonomic and trait-based diversity and found that diversity dynamics of trait-based groups were more pronounced than those of identified phytoplankton taxa. We characterized the linkage between measured phytoplankton traits, abiotic environmental factors and abundance of the main grazers and observed weak but significant correlations between changing abiotic and biotic conditions and measured size-related and fluorescence-related traits. We tested for deviations in observed community-wide distributions of focal traits from random patterns and found evidence for both clustering and even spacing of traits, occurring sporadically over the time series. Patterns were consistent with environmental filtering and phenotypic divergence under herbivore pressure, respectively. Size-related traits showed significant even spacing during the peak of herbivore abundance, suggesting that morphology-related traits were under selection from grazing. Pigment distribution within cells and colonies appeared instead to be associated with acclimation to temperature and water chemistry. We found support for trade-offs among grazing resistance and environmental tolerance traits, as well as for substantial periods of dynamics in which

  3. A generalized linear factor model approach to the hierarchical framework for responses and response times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Dylan; Tuerlinckx, Francis; van der Maas, Han L J

    2015-05-01

    We show how the hierarchical model for responses and response times as developed by van der Linden (2007), Fox, Klein Entink, and van der Linden (2007), Klein Entink, Fox, and van der Linden (2009), and Glas and van der Linden (2010) can be simplified to a generalized linear factor model with only the mild restriction that there is no hierarchical model at the item side. This result is valuable as it enables all well-developed modelling tools and extensions that come with these methods. We show that the restriction we impose on the hierarchical model does not influence parameter recovery under realistic circumstances. In addition, we present two illustrative real data analyses to demonstrate the practical benefits of our approach. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Factors in the fail safe approach to pressure vessel assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connors, D.C.; Darlaston, B.J.L.; Hellen, R.A.J.

    1978-01-01

    The 'leak before break' concept is described in the context of pressure vessel assessment. The factors which determine whether a pipe containing an axial flaw will leak or break under pressure loading are discussed using a post-yield fracture mechanics method. A model is used in which it is assumed that initially the ligament beneath the flaw fails to form a full thickness defect in the pipe. The stability of the full thickness defect at the pressure causing ligament failure is then examined to ascertain whether it would remain at the snap through length or would propagate by fast fracture, to form a leak or a break. The method is used to analyse the results of a series of pipe rupture tests, and it is found that a distinction between leaks and breaks is achieved. (author)

  5. Motivational factors as predictors of student approach to learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassesen, Berit

    , little research exploring the possible influences of self-efficacy and test anxiety on study behavior in higher education, and current research stresses the importance of considering both cognitive and motivational factors in higher educational contexts (Dinther et.al., 2010) Increasing our knowledge....... Whether students react with anxiety or with enthusiasm is largely determined by the beliefs that they hold about their own ability. Students are not likely to be drawn towards an active discussion of new meanings if they have little confidence in their own abilities as thinkers. Teachers may think...... that they have no power to influence or enhance the value of a task to the students, but educators naturally play an important role in this process. Presenting the syllabus, setting the stage, and discussing it with the students are fundamental activities that help clarify the objectives and the means...

  6. Assessing a five factor model of PTSD: is dysphoric arousal a unique PTSD construct showing differential relationships with anxiety and depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Elhai, Jon D; Richardson, Don; Ractliffe, Kendra; Wang, Li; Elklit, Ask

    2012-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder's (PTSD) latent structure has been widely debated. To date, two four-factor models (Numbing and Dysphoria) have received the majority of factor analytic support. Recently, Elhai et al. (2011) proposed and supported a revised (five-factor) Dysphoric Arousal model. Data were gathered from two separate samples; War veterans and Primary Care medical patients. The three models were compared and the resultant factors of the Dysphoric Arousal model were validated against external constructs of depression and anxiety. The Dysphoric Arousal model provided significantly better fit than the Numbing and Dysphoria models across both samples. When differentiating between factors, the current results support the idea that Dysphoric Arousal can be differentiated from Anxious Arousal but not from Emotional Numbing when correlated with depression. In conclusion, the Dysphoria model may be a more parsimonious representation of PTSD's latent structure in these trauma populations despite superior fit of the Dysphoric Arousal model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. "I just had to be flexible and show good patience": management of interactional approaches to enact mentoring roles by peer mentors with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ariel E; Kramer, Jessica M

    2017-06-08

    Peer mentoring may be an effective approach for fostering skill development for mentors and mentees with developmental disabilities. However, little is known about how mentors with developmental disabilities perceive and enact their roles. (1) How do young adults with developmental disabilities describe their role as a peer mentor in the context of instrumental peer mentoring? (2) How do they enact their perceived roles? Thematic analysis of semi-structured reflections completed by six mentors with developmental disabilities (ages 17-35) with multiple mentoring experiences. Mentors perceived themselves as professionals with a primary role of teaching, and for some mentoring relationships, a secondary role of developing an interpersonal relationship. To enact these roles, mentors used a supportive interactional approach characterized by actions such as encouragement and sharing examples and dispositions, such as flexibility and patience. Mentors monitored mentee learning and engagement within the mentoring session and, as needed, adjusted their approach to optimize mentee learning and engagement. To successfully manage their interactional approach, mentors used supports such as peer mentoring scripts, tip sheets, and supervisors. While mentors reported several actions for teaching, they may benefit from training to learn approaches to facilitate more consistent development of interpersonal relationships. Implications for Rehabilitation Peer mentoring may be an effective approach for fostering skill development for young adult mentors and mentees with developmental disabilities. In this study, young adult peer mentors with developmental disabilities perceived themselves as professionals with a primary role of teaching and a secondary role of developing an interpersonal relationship. Peer mentors used actions and dispositions that matched their perceived roles and supported mentees with developmental disabilities to engage in instrumental mentoring. With supports and

  8. Factors Mediating the Interactions between Adviser and Advisee during the Master's Thesis Project: A Quantitative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Jr., Jose Florencio; Lehmann, Angela Valeria Levay; Fleith, Denise De Souza

    2005-01-01

    Building on previous studies centred on the interaction between adviser and advisee in masters thesis projects, in which a qualitative approach was used, the present study uses factor analysis to identify the factors that determine either a successful or unsuccessful outcome for the masters thesis project. There were five factors relating to the…

  9. Sea level rise and the geoid: factor analysis approach

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Hongzhi; Sadovski, Alexey; Jeffress, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Sea levels are rising around the world, and this is a particular concern along most of the coasts of the United States. A 1989 EPA report shows that sea levels rose 5-6 inches more than the global average along the Mid-Atlantic and Gulf Coasts in the last century. The main reason for this is coastal land subsidence. This sea level rise is considered more as relative sea level rise than global sea level rise. Thus, instead of studying sea level rise globally, this paper describes a statistical...

  10. What factors influence healthy aging? A person-centered approach among older adults in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Fan; Su, Pei-Fang

    2017-05-01

    The present study aimed to identify the health profiles of older adults by using latent class analysis to investigate health heterogeneity and to determine what factors predicted healthy aging among an oldest-old sample cohort that was followed up for 14 years in Taiwan. Data were drawn from five waves (carried out in 1993, 1996, 1999, 2003 and 2007) of the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging to examine the changes in health heterogeneity in a nationally representative oldest-old cohort of Taiwanese. Overall, data from a total of 11 145 observations of 3155 older adults were considered. The influential factors predicting health changes were analyzed by using a generalized estimating equation. The results showed that four health profiles were identified among the aging population observed in the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging. With increasing age, the combined effects of the physical functioning, cognitive and emotional health, and comorbidities of older adults significantly impact their health changes. Apart from health deteriorating with age and sex disparities, educational and economic status, health behaviors, and social participation at the individual level were found to be the robust factors in predicting healthy aging. In considering what factors impact healthy aging, we suggest that a person-centered approach would be useful and critical for policy makers to understand the compositions of health profiles and the influencing factors in view of a life-course perspective. Based on the factors identified as influencing healthy aging at the individual level, it is imperative from a policy-making perspective to maximize opportunities for healthy aging. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 697-707. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  11. UNC Nuclear Industries' human-factored approach to the operating or maintenance procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, A.A.; Clark, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    The development of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) and UNC Nuclear Industries' (UNC) commitment to minimizing the potential for human error in the performance of operating or maintenance procedures have lead to a procedure upgrade program. Human-factored procedures were developed using information from many sources including, but not limited to, operators, a human factors specialist, engineers and supervisors. This has resulted in the Job Performance Aid (JPA). This paper presents UNC's approach to providing human-factored operating and maintenance procedures

  12. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  13. How often do German children and adolescents show signs of common mental health problems? Results from different methodological approaches – a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Sauer, Kristin; Barkmann, Claus; Klasen, Fionna; Bullinger, Monika; Glaeske, Gerd; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Background Child and adolescent mental health problems are ubiquitous and burdensome. Their impact on functional disability, the high rates of accompanying medical illnesses and the potential to last until adulthood make them a major public health issue. While methodological factors cause variability of the results from epidemiological studies, there is a lack of prevalence rates of mental health problems in children and adolescents according to ICD-10 criteria from nationally representative ...

  14. A systematic review and meta-Analyses show that carbapenem use and medical devices are the leading risk factors for carbapenem- resistant pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. Voor (Anne); J.A. Severin (Juliëtte); E.M.E.H. Lesaffre (Emmanuel); M.C. Vos (Margreet)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractA systematic review and meta-Analyses were performed to identify the risk factors associated with carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and to identify sources and reservoirs for the pathogen. A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases from 1 January 1987 until 27 January

  15. Intelligence Tests with Higher G-Loadings Show Higher Correlations with Body Symmetry: Evidence for a General Fitness Factor Mediated by Developmental Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokosch, M.D.; Yeo, R.A.; Miller, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    Just as body symmetry reveals developmental stability at the morphological level, general intelligence may reveal developmental stability at the level of brain development and cognitive functioning. These two forms of developmental stability may overlap by tapping into a ''general fitness factor.'' If so, then intellectual tests with higher…

  16. Caregiving and Developmental Factors Differentiating Young At-Risk Urban Children Showing Resilient Versus Stress-Affected Outcomes: A Replication and Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Peter A.; And Others

    1999-01-01

    Tested hypotheses from an organizational-developmental model for childhood resilience among 7- to 9-year olds. Found that caregiving factors and early development differentiated children with resilient and stress-affected adaptations. Variables reflecting emotionally responsive, competent parenting were direct, proximal predictors of resilience…

  17. The constellation of dietary factors in adolescent acne: a semantic connectivity map approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, E; Cazzaniga, S; Crotti, S; Naldi, L; Di Landro, A; Ingordo, V; Cusano, F; Atzori, L; Tripodi Cutrì, F; Musumeci, M L; Pezzarossa, E; Bettoli, V; Caproni, M; Bonci, A

    2016-01-01

    Different lifestyle and dietetic factors have been linked with the onset and severity of acne. To assess the complex interconnection between dietetic variables and acne. This was a reanalysis of data from a case-control study by using a semantic connectivity map approach. 563 subjects, aged 10-24 years, involved in a case-control study of acne between March 2009 and February 2010, were considered in this study. The analysis evaluated the link between a moderate to severe acne and anthropometric variables, family history and dietetic factors. Analyses were conducted by relying on an artificial adaptive system, the Auto Semantic Connectivity Map (AutoCM). The AutoCM map showed that moderate-severe acne was closely associated with family history of acne in first degree relatives, obesity (BMI ≥ 30), and high consumption of milk, in particular skim milk, cheese/yogurt, sweets/cakes, chocolate, and a low consumption of fish, and limited intake of fruits/vegetables. Our analyses confirm the link between several dietetic items and acne. When providing care, dermatologists should also be aware of the complex interconnection between dietetic factors and acne. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  18. ERP system implementation costs and selection factors of an implementation approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Björn; Sudzina, Frantisek; Newman, Mike

    2011-01-01

    , which influence the implementation approach in an ERP project, cause also an increase of the project cost in a European context? Our survey was conducted in Denmark, Slovakia and Slovenia and focused on this issue. Our main findings are that: 1) the number of implemented modules influences selection......Different approaches on implementation of enterprise resource planning (ERPs) systems exist. In this article, we investigate relationship between factors influencing selection of implementation approach and companies' ability to stay within budget when implementing ERPs. The question is: do factors...... of an implementation approach; 2) companies with information strategies are more likely to stay within budget regarding ERP systems implementation. However, we also found that: 3) implementation approach does not significantly influence ability to stay within budget; 4) a clear relationship between factors influencing...

  19. Do we need sustainability as a new approach in human factors and ergonomics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Klaus J; Fischer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The International Ergonomics Association Technical Committee 'Human Factors and Sustainable Development' was established to contribute to a broad discourse about opportunities and risks resulting from current societal 'mega-trends' and their impacts on the interactions among humans and other elements of a system, e.g. in work systems. This paper focuses on the underlying key issues: how do the sustainability paradigm and human factors/ergonomics interplay and interact, and is sustainability necessary as a new approach for our discipline? Based on a discussion of the sustainability concept, some general principles for designing new and enhancing existent approaches of human factors and ergonomics regarding their orientation towards sustainability are proposed. The increasing profile of sustainability on the international stage presents new opportunities for human factors/ergonomics. Positioning of the sustainability paradigm within human factors/ergonomics is discussed. Approaches to incorporating sustainability in the design of work systems are considered.

  20. An office-based approach to emotional and behavioral risk factor reduction for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Daniel M; Feinstein, Robert E; Stauter, Erinn C

    2013-01-01

    There are many psychological risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and the ability to reduce mortality depends on an ability to integrate care of these risk factors with traditional Framingham cardiovascular risk and use them both in routine practice. The aim of this article is to provide an update of all the major emotional and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors along with a practical treatment model for implementation. First, we provide a review of major emotional and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors, the associated primary effect, and proposed mechanism of action. Second, we provide an office-based approach to cardiovascular risk factor reduction and methods of reducing barriers to implementation, called Prevention Oriented Primary Care-Abridged. The approach integrates several forms of detection, assessment using the 3As (ask, assess, assist), and Stages of Change approaches, and subsequent efficient and targeted treatment with either Motivational Interviewing or further office intervention. A case example is provided to help illustrate this process.

  1. Factors Affecting the Adoption of Gamified Smart Tourism Applications: An Integrative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsok Yoo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the core concerns in sustainability are threats to the survival of humankind and the ecosystems that humans depend on, changing the consumption and production behaviors of individuals and society is inevitable. However, people are reluctant to change their own behavior in support of sustainability goals. This tendency seems to be especially strong in tourism because the main value of tourism is hedonic utility. Thus, the tourism industry is now introducing gamification and smart tourism to shift tourist behavior toward sustainability, but most of studies and practices only focus on the performance and application of gamification without considering customer adoption patterns and perceptions during the process. This study empirically investigated what factors affect the adoption of smart tourism applications that incorporate game elements, using the Google Maps tourist guide program. As an initial approach, we incorporated diverse theoretical approaches: perceived usefulness; perceived ease of use; perceived enjoyment from technology acceptance model; information and interaction motivations from the uses and gratifications theory; the network effect; distributive justice; flow as responses to the game characteristics of smart tourism applications; and information privacy concerns as a negative factor for diffusion. The result showed that hedonic characteristics of the gamified smart tourism application (GSTA are strong in adoption. Perceived enjoyment had a significant influence on the intention to use, but information quality, related to cognitive experience, did not. The flow and perceived distributive justice associated with the game content were not significant, but the interaction motivation was significant in the research model. The results of this study show that individuals regard a GSTA as a low-level game tool. Also, it is important to preoccupy the smart tourism application market in terms of marketing strategy because

  2. Stochastic Discount Factor Approach to International Risk-Sharing:A Robustness Check of the Bilateral Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadzi-Vaskov, M.; Kool, C.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a robustness check of the stochastic discount factor approach to international (bilateral) risk-sharing given in Brandt, Cochrane, and Santa-Clara (2006). We demonstrate two main inherent limitations of the bilateral SDF approach to international risk-sharing. First, the discount

  3. Factors Contributing to Changes in a Deep Approach to Learning in Different Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postareff, Liisa; Parpala, Anna; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari

    2015-01-01

    The study explored factors explaining changes in a deep approach to learning. The data consisted of interviews with 12 students from four Bachelor-level courses representing different disciplines. We analysed and compared descriptions of students whose deep approach either increased, decreased or remained relatively unchanged during their courses.…

  4. A Confirmatory Approach to Examining the Factor Structure of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Janni; Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the factor structure of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) using a Structural Confirmatory Factor Analytic approach. The Danish translation of the SDQ was distributed to 71,840 parents and teachers of 5-7 and 10-12-year-old boys and girls from ...

  5. The effects of motivational factors on car use : a multidisciplinary modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, L; Geurs, K; Ras, M

    Current transport models usually do not take motivational factors into account, and if they do, it is only implicitly. This paper presents a modelling approach aimed at explicitly examining the effects of motivational factors on present and future car use in the Netherlands. A car-use forecasting

  6. Selective expression of a splice variant of decay-accelerating factor in c-erbB-2-positive mammary carcinoma cells showing increased transendothelial invasiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Burkhard; Mikesch, Jan-Hendrik; Simon, Ronald; Roetger, Antje; Kemming, Dirk; Schier, Katrin; Sauter, Guido; Buerger, Horst

    2005-01-01

    By differential-display-PCR a subclone of the SK-BR-3 cell line with high in vitro transendothelial invasiveness was identified to express increased levels of a new alternative splice variant of decay-accelerating factor (DAF). DAF seems to play an important role in some malignant tumours since on the one hand the expression of complement inhibitors on the surface of tumour cells prevents the accumulation of complement factors and in consequence cell lysis. On the other hand, DAF has been identified as a ligand for the CD97 surface receptor which induces cell migration. Immunofluorescence procedures, Western blot analyses, and cDNA clone sequencing were employed to confirm the expression of DAF restricted to invasive tumour cells. Using a radioactive RNA-in situ hybridisation on freshly frozen tissue microarrays and RT-PCR on native tumour tissue, the expression of alternative spliced DAF mRNA was demonstrated in invasive breast cancer. Due to the fact that it could thereby not be detected in normal mammary tissues, it has to be confirmed in larger studies that the DAF splice variant might be a specific tumour marker for invasive breast cancer

  7. Variant in CAPN10 gene and environmental factors show evidence of association with excess weight among young people in a Colombian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Ana C; Muñoz, Angélica M; Velásquez, Claudia M; Uscátegui, Rosa M; Parra, María V; Patiño, Fredy A; Manjarrés, Luz M; Parra, Beatriz E; Estrada, Alejandro; Agudelo, Gloria M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction : Obesity results from interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors. To evaluate the effect of three gene variants and environmental factors on obesity and overweight in young people aged 10 to 18 years in a Colombian population. A total of 424 subjects were selected and separated into three groups for a cross-sectional study; 100 obese and 112 overweight subjects were matched with 212 normal-weight controls. Associations were evaluated between excess weight and three genetic polymorphisms ( UCP3- rs1800849, FTO -rs17817449, and CAPN10 -rs3842570), as well as the family history, the time spent watching television and playing video games, and the diet. A family history of obesity, the time spent watching television and playing video games, the lack of breastfeeding, a low consumption of cereals, legumes, fruits, vegetables, and a high consumption of fast foods were characteristics typically found in obese individuals compared to controls. A significant association between genotype I/I (SNP19 of CAPN10 ) and excess weight was found even with an active lifestyle. In addition, significant associations between the C/C genotype of the UCP3 gene and the G/G and T/T genotypes of the FTO gene and excess weight were found only in young sedentary individuals. In this population, inadequate diet and sedentary lifestyle increased the risk of excess weight. Genotype I/I of SNP19 in CAPN10 was significantly associated with excess weight. In contrast, FTO and UCP3 variants exhibited effects only in sedentary environments.

  8. Assessing Saudi medical students learning approach using the revised two-factor study process questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Shaffi Ahamed; Almarzuqi, Ahmed; Almogheer, Rakan; Alharbi, Omar; Jalal, Abdulaziz; Alorainy, Majed

    2017-08-17

    To assess learning approaches of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd-year medical students by using revised two-factor study process questionnaire, and to assess reliability and validity of the questionnaire. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in 2014. The revised two-factor study process questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) was completed by 610 medical students of both genders, from foundation (first year), central nervous system (second year), medicine and surgery (third year) courses. The study process was evaluated by computing mean scores of two research study approaches (deep & surface) using student's t-test and one-way analysis of variance. The internal consistency and construct validity of the questionnaire were assessed using Cronbach's α and factor analysis. The mean score of deep approach was significantly higher than the surface approach among participants(t (770) =7.83, p= 0.000) for the four courses. The mean scores of deep approach were significantly higher among participants with higher grade point average (F (2,768) =13.31, p=0.001) along with more number of study hours by participants (F (2,768) =20.08, p=0.001). The Cronbach's α-values of items at 0.70 indicate the good internal consistency of questionnaire used. Factor analysis confirms two factors (deep and surface approaches) of R-SPQ-2F. The deep approach to learning was the primary approach among 1st, 2nd and 3rd-year King Saud University medical students. This study confirms reliability and validity of the revised two-factor study process questionnaire. Medical educators could use the results of such studies to make required changes in the curriculum.

  9. [The Common Risk Factor Approach - An Integrated Population- and Evidence-Based Approach for Reducing Social Inequalities in Oral Health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, A; Sheiham, A; Watt, R G; Jordan, R A

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide, non-communicable diseases including dental caries and periodontal diseases, remain a major public health problem. Moreover, there is a social gradient in health across society that runs from the top to the bottom in a linear, stepwise fashion. Health promoting behaviours become more difficult to sustain further down the social ladder. Oral health inequalities also exist in Germany. Earlier explanations of social inequalities have mainly focused on individual lifestyle factors, ignoring the broader social determinants of health and disease. Until recently, the dominant approaches to general health promotion focused on actions to reduce specific diseases, separating oral health from general health. An alternative approach is the common risk factor approach (CRFA) where risk factors common to a number of major chronic diseases, including diseases of the mouth and teeth, are tackled. The CRFA focuses on the common underlying determinants of health to improve the overall health of populations, thereby reducing social inequalities. The main implication of the CRFA for oral health policies is to work in partnership with a range of other sectors and disciplines. Oral health issues need to be integrated with recommendations to promote general health. Improvements in oral health and a reduction in oral health inequalities are more likely by working in partnership across sectors and disciplines using strategies that focus upstream on the underlying determinants of oral diseases. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. PRISM offers a comprehensive genomic approach to transcription factor function prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Wenger, A. M.; Clarke, S. L.; Guturu, H.; Chen, J.; Schaar, B. T.; McLean, C. Y.; Bejerano, G.

    2013-01-01

    The human genome encodes 1500-2000 different transcription factors (TFs). ChIP-seq is revealing the global binding profiles of a fraction of TFs in a fraction of their biological contexts. These data show that the majority of TFs bind directly next to a large number of context-relevant target genes, that most binding is distal, and that binding is context specific. Because of the effort and cost involved, ChIP-seq is seldom used in search of novel TF function. Such exploration is instead done using expression perturbation and genetic screens. Here we propose a comprehensive computational framework for transcription factor function prediction. We curate 332 high-quality nonredundant TF binding motifs that represent all major DNA binding domains, and improve cross-species conserved binding site prediction to obtain 3.3 million conserved, mostly distal, binding site predictions. We combine these with 2.4 million facts about all human and mouse gene functions, in a novel statistical framework, in search of enrichments of particular motifs next to groups of target genes of particular functions. Rigorous parameter tuning and a harsh null are used to minimize false positives. Our novel PRISM (predicting regulatory information from single motifs) approach obtains 2543 TF function predictions in a large variety of contexts, at a false discovery rate of 16%. The predictions are highly enriched for validated TF roles, and 45 of 67 (67%) tested binding site regions in five different contexts act as enhancers in functionally matched cells.

  12. Unraveling the WRKY transcription factors network in Arabidopsis Thaliana by integrative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Choura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The WRKY transcription factors superfamily are involved in diverse biological processes in plants including response to biotic and abiotic stresses and plant immunity. Protein-protein interaction network is a useful approach for understanding these complex processes. The availability of Arabidopsis Thaliana interactome offers a good opportunity to do get a global view of protein network. In this work, we have constructed the WRKY transcription factor network by combining different sources of evidence and we characterized its topological features using computational tools. We found that WRKY network is a hub-based network involving multifunctional proteins denoted as hubs such as WRKY 70, WRKY40, WRKY 53, WRKY 60, WRKY 33 and WRKY 51. Functional annotation showed seven functional modules particularly involved in biotic stress and defense responses. Furthermore, the gene ontology and pathway enrichment analysis revealed that WRKY proteins are mainly involved in plant-pathogen interaction pathways and their functions are directly related to the stress response and immune system process.

  13. MMOSA – A new approach of the human and organizational factor analysis in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farcasiu, M.; Prisecaru, I.

    2014-01-01

    The results of many Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) studies show a very significant contribution of human errors to nuclear installations failure. This paper is intended to analyze both the human performance importance in PSA studies and the elements that influence it. Starting from Man–Machine–Organization System (MMOS) concept a new approach (MMOSA) was developed to allow an explicit incorporation of the human and organizational factor in PSA studies. This method uses old techniques from Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) methods (THERP, SPAR-H) and new techniques to analyze human performance. The main novelty included in MMOSA is the identification of the machine–organization interfaces (maintenance, modification and aging management plan and state of man–machine interface) and the human performance evaluation based on them. A detailed result of the Human Performance Analysis (HPA) using the MMOSA methodology can identify any serious deficiencies of human performance which can usually be corrected through the improvement of the related MMOS interfaces. - Highlights: • MMOSA allows the incorporation of the human and organizational factor in PSA. • The method uses old techniques and new techniques to analyze human performance. • The main novelty is the identification of the machine–organization interfaces. • The MMOSA methodology identifies any serious deficiencies which can be corrected

  14. PRISM offers a comprehensive genomic approach to transcription factor function prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Wenger, A. M.

    2013-02-04

    The human genome encodes 1500-2000 different transcription factors (TFs). ChIP-seq is revealing the global binding profiles of a fraction of TFs in a fraction of their biological contexts. These data show that the majority of TFs bind directly next to a large number of context-relevant target genes, that most binding is distal, and that binding is context specific. Because of the effort and cost involved, ChIP-seq is seldom used in search of novel TF function. Such exploration is instead done using expression perturbation and genetic screens. Here we propose a comprehensive computational framework for transcription factor function prediction. We curate 332 high-quality nonredundant TF binding motifs that represent all major DNA binding domains, and improve cross-species conserved binding site prediction to obtain 3.3 million conserved, mostly distal, binding site predictions. We combine these with 2.4 million facts about all human and mouse gene functions, in a novel statistical framework, in search of enrichments of particular motifs next to groups of target genes of particular functions. Rigorous parameter tuning and a harsh null are used to minimize false positives. Our novel PRISM (predicting regulatory information from single motifs) approach obtains 2543 TF function predictions in a large variety of contexts, at a false discovery rate of 16%. The predictions are highly enriched for validated TF roles, and 45 of 67 (67%) tested binding site regions in five different contexts act as enhancers in functionally matched cells.

  15. Innovative Approaches for Immune Tolerance to Factor VIII in the Treatment of Hemophilia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Alexandra; Biswas, Moanaro; Herzog, Roland W.

    2017-01-01

    Hemophilia A (coagulation factor VIII deficiency) is a debilitating genetic disorder that is primarily treated with intravenous replacement therapy. Despite a variety of factor VIII protein formulations available, the risk of developing anti-dug antibodies (“inhibitors”) remains. Overall, 20–30% of patients with severe disease develop inhibitors. Current clinical immune tolerance induction protocols to eliminate inhibitors are not effective in all patients, and there are no prophylactic protocols to prevent the immune response. New experimental therapies, such as gene and cell therapies, show promising results in pre-clinical studies in animal models of hemophilia. Examples include hepatic gene transfer with viral vectors, genetically engineered regulatory T cells (Treg), in vivo Treg induction using immune modulatory drugs, and maternal antigen transfer. Furthermore, an oral tolerance protocol is being developed based on transgenic lettuce plants, which suppressed inhibitor formation in hemophilic mice and dogs. Hopefully, some of these innovative approaches will reduce the risk of and/or more effectively eliminate inhibitor formation in future treatment of hemophilia A. PMID:29225598

  16. Protective factors in patients aged over 65 with stroke treated by physiotherapy, showing cognitive impairment, in the Valencia Community. Protection Study in Older People (EPACV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil-Guillen Vicente

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family function may have an influence on the mental health deterioration of the caregivers of dependent family members and it could have a varying importance on the care of dependents. Little attention has been paid to the preparation of minor stroke survivors for the recovery trajectory or the spouse for the caregiving role. Therefore, this study protocol intends to analyze the influence of family function on the protection of patients with stroke sequels needing physiotherapy in the family environment. Methods/Design This is an analytical observational design, prospective cohort study and using a qualitative methodology by means of data collected in the “interviews of life”. The study will be carried out by the Rehabilitation Service at Hospital of Elda in the Valencia Community. All patients that have been diagnosed with stroke and need physiotherapy treatment, having a dependency grade assigned and consent to participate in the study, will undergo a monitoring of one year in order to assess the predictive factors depending on the dependence of the people affected. Discussion Our research aims to analyze the perception of caregivers, their difficulties to work, and the influence of family function. Moreover, it aims to register the perception of the patients with stroke sequel over the care received and whether they feel protected in their family environment.

  17. Transgenic wheat expressing Thinopyrum intermedium MYB transcription factor TiMYB2R-1 shows enhanced resistance to the take-all disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Yang, Lihua; Zhou, Xianyao; Zhou, Miaoping; Lu, Yan; Ma, Lingjian; Ma, Hongxiang; Zhang, Zengyan

    2013-05-01

    The disease take-all, caused by the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis, is one of the most destructive root diseases of wheat worldwide. Breeding resistant cultivars is an effective way to protect wheat from take-all. However, little progress has been made in improving the disease resistance level in commercial wheat cultivars. MYB transcription factors play important roles in plant responses to environmental stresses. In this study, an R2R3-MYB gene in Thinopyrum intermedium, TiMYB2R-1, was cloned and characterized. The gene sequence includes two exons and an intron. The expression of TiMYB2R-1 was significantly induced following G. graminis infection. An in vitro DNA binding assay proved that TiMYB2R-1 protein could bind to the MYB-binding site cis-element ACI. Subcellular localization assays revealed that TiMYB2R-1 was localized in the nucleus. TiMYB2R-1 transgenic wheat plants were generated, characterized molecularly, and evaluated for take-all resistance. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed that TiMYB2R-1 was integrated into the genomes of three independent transgenic wheat lines by distinct patterns and the transgene was heritable. Reverse transcription-PCR and western blot analyses revealed that TiMYB2R-1 was highly expressed in the transgenic wheat lines. Based on disease response assessments for three successive generations, the significantly enhanced resistance to take-all was observed in the three TiMYB2R-1-overexpressing transgenic wheat lines. Furthermore, the transcript levels of at least six wheat defence-related genes were significantly elevated in the TiMYB2R-1 transgenic wheat lines. These results suggest that engineering and overexpression of TiMYB2R-1 may be used for improving take-all resistance of wheat and other cereal crops.

  18. Sex matters: females in proestrus show greater diazepam anxiolysis and brain-derived neurotrophin factor- and parvalbumin-positive neurons than males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenelle, Rebecca; Berman, Ariel K; La, Jeffrey; Mason, Briana; Asumadu, Evans; Yelleswarapu, Chandra; Donaldson, S Tiffany

    2018-04-01

    In humans and animal models, sex differences are reported for anxiety-like behavior and response to anxiogenic stimuli. In the current work, we studied anxiety-like behavior and response to the prototypical anti-anxiety drug, diazepam. We used 6th generation outbred lines of adult Long Evans rats with high and low anxiety-like behavior phenotypes to investigate the impact of proestrus on the baseline and diazepam-induced behavior. At three doses of diazepam (0, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), we measured anxiogenic responses on the elevated plus maze of adult male and female rats. We assessed parvalbumin and brain-derived neurotrophin protein levels in forebrain and limbic structures implicated in anxiety/stress using immunohistochemistry. At baseline, we saw significant differences between anxiety lines, with high anxiety lines displaying less time on the open arms of the elevated plus maze, and less open arm entries, regardless of sex. During proestrus, high anxiety females showed less anxiety-like behavior at 0.1 mg/kg, while low anxiety females displayed less anxiety-like behavior at 0.1 and 1.0 doses, relative to males. Brain-derived neurotrophin protein was elevated in females in the medial prefrontal cortex and central amygdala, while parvalbumin-immunoreactive cells were greater in males in the medial prefrontal cortex. Parvalbumin-positive cells in high anxiety females were higher in CA2 and dentate gyrus relative to males from the same line. In sum, when tested in proestrus, females showed greater anxiolytic effects of diazepam relative to males, and this correlated with increases in neurotrophin and parvalbumin neuron density in corticolimbic structures. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Post-mortem analysis of suicide victims shows ABCB1 haplotype 1236T-2677T-3435T as a candidate predisposing factor behind adverse drug reactions in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahikainen, Anna-Liina; Palo, Jukka U; Haukka, Jari; Sajantila, Antti

    2018-04-01

    Genetic variation in efflux transporter, permeability glycoprotein (P-gp), has recently been associated with completed violent suicides and also violent suicide attempts. As depression is known to be a risk factor for suicide and many antidepressants are P-gp substrates, it has been speculated that inadequate antidepressant treatment response or adverse side effects could be involved. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between the P-gp coding ABCB1 gene and completed suicides in citalopram users. Also, the effect of sex and suicide method used (violent vs. non-violent) was evaluated. All cases included in the study population, 349 completed suicide victims and 284 controls, were shown to be positive for antidepressant citalopram in a post-mortem toxicological drug screen. ABCB1 1236C>T, 2677G>T/A and 3435C>T polymorphisms were determined by TaqMan genotyping assays. Haplotypes were constructed from genotype data using the PHASE software. The association between the manner of death and the ABCB1 haplotype was tested with logistic regression analysis. No statistically significant differences were observed in the ABCB1 allele or genotype frequencies between the suicide and control groups. However, the ABCB1 1236T-2677T-3435T haplotype was associated with completed suicides of female citalopram users (odds ratio: 2.23; 95% confidence interval: 1.22-4.07; P=0.009). After stratification by the method used for suicide, the association emerged in fatal intoxications (odds ratio: 2.51; 95% confidence interval: 1.29-4.87; P=0.007). In other groups, no statistically significant associations were observed. Our results suggest that female citalopram users with ABCB1 1236T-2677T-3435T are more vulnerable to adverse effects of the drugs as this haplotype was enriched in non-violent suicides of female citalopram users. Even though the biological mechanism behind this observation is unknown, the results provide another example of the importance

  20. Psychometric properties of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale: A factor analysis and item-response theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, June J; Switzer, Fred S; Munc, Alec; Donnelly, Janet; Jellen, Julia C; Lamm, Claus

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the psychometric properties of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) in two languages, German and English. Students from a university in Austria (N = 292; 55 males; mean age = 18.71 ± 1.71 years; 237 females; mean age = 18.24 ± 0.88 years) and a university in the US (N = 329; 128 males; mean age = 18.71 ± 0.88 years; 201 females; mean age = 21.59 ± 2.27 years) completed the ESS. An exploratory-factor analysis was completed to examine dimensionality of the ESS. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were used to provide information about the response rates on the items on the ESS and provide differential item functioning (DIF) analyses to examine whether the items were interpreted differently between the two languages. The factor analyses suggest that the ESS measures two distinct sleepiness constructs. These constructs indicate that the ESS is probing sleepiness in settings requiring active versus passive responding. The IRT analyses found that overall, the items on the ESS perform well as a measure of sleepiness. However, Item 8 and to a lesser extent Item 6 were being interpreted differently by respondents in comparison to the other items. In addition, the DIF analyses showed that the responses between German and English were very similar indicating that there are only minor measurement differences between the two language versions of the ESS. These findings suggest that the ESS provides a reliable measure of propensity to sleepiness; however, it does convey a two-factor approach to sleepiness. Researchers and clinicians can use the German and English versions of the ESS but may wish to exclude Item 8 when calculating a total sleepiness score.

  1. An integrated graphic–taxonomic–associative approach to analyze human factors in aviation accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Lei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human factors are critical causes of modern aviation accidents. However, existing accident analysis methods encounter limitations in addressing aviation human factors, especially in complex accident scenarios. The existing graphic approaches are effective for describing accident mechanisms within various categories of human factors, but cannot simultaneously describe inadequate human–aircraft–environment interactions and organizational deficiencies effectively, and highly depend on analysts’ skills and experiences. Moreover, the existing methods do not emphasize latent unsafe factors outside accidents. This paper focuses on the above three limitations and proposes an integrated graphic–taxonomic–associative approach. A new graphic model named accident tree (AcciTree, with a two-mode structure and a reaction-based concept, is developed for accident modeling and safety defense identification. The AcciTree model is then integrated with the well-established human factors analysis and classification system (HFACS to enhance both reliability of the graphic part and logicality of the taxonomic part for improving completeness of analysis. An associative hazard analysis technique is further put forward to extend analysis to factors outside accidents, to form extended safety requirements for proactive accident prevention. Two crash examples, a research flight demonstrator by our team and an industrial unmanned aircraft, illustrate that the integrated approach is effective for identifying more unsafe factors and safety requirements.

  2. Socially disadvantaged city districts show a higher incidence of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarctions with elevated cardiovascular risk factors and worse prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmucker, J; Seide, S; Wienbergen, H; Fiehn, E; Stehmeier, J; Günther, K; Ahrens, W; Hambrecht, R; Pohlabeln, H; Fach, A

    2017-09-22

    The importance of socioeconomic status (SES) for coronary heart disease (CHD)-morbidity is subject of ongoing scientific investigations. This study was to explore the association between SES in different city-districts of Bremen/Germany and incidence, severity, treatment modalities and prognosis for patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI). Since 2006 all STEMI-patients from the metropolitan area of Bremen are documented in the Bremen STEMI-registry. Utilizing postal codes of their home address they were assigned to four groups in accordance to the Bremen social deprivation-index (G1: high, G2: intermediate high, G3: intermediate low, G4: low socioeconomic status). Three thousand four hundred sixty-two consecutive patients with STEMI admitted between 2006 and 2015 entered analysis. City areas with low SES showed higher adjusted STEMI-incidence-rates (IR-ratio 1.56, G4 vs. G1). This elevation could be observed in both sexes (women IRR 1.63, men IRR 1.54) and was most prominent in inhabitants  3000 U/l, OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.4-2.8) and severe impairment of LV-function post-STEMI (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.4). Long term follow-up revealed that lower SES was associated with higher major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular event (MACCE)-rates after 5 years: G1 30.8%, G2 35.7%, G3 36.0%, G4 41.1%, p (for trend) = 0.02. This worse prognosis could especially be shown for young STEMI-patients (<50 yrs. of age) 5-yr. mortality-rates(G4 vs. G1) 18.4 vs. 3.1%, p = 0.03 and 5-year-MACCE-rates (G4 vs. G1) 32 vs. 6.3%, p = 0.02. This registry-data confirms the negative association of low socioeconomic status and STEMI-incidence, with higher rates of smoking and obesity, more extensive infarctions and worse prognosis for the socio-economically deprived.

  3. What Factors Affect Doctors' Hours Decisions: Comparing Structural Discrete Choice and Reduced-Form Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Kalb, Guyonne; Kühnle, Daniel; Scott, Anthony; Cheng, Terence Chai; Jeon, Sung-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Few papers examine the pecuniary and non-pecuniary determinants of doctors' labour supply despite substantial predicted shortages in many OECD countries. We contribute to the literature by applying both a structural discrete choice and a reduced-form approach. Using detailed survey data for Australian physicians, we examine how these different modelling approaches affect estimated wage elasticities at the intensive margin. We show that all modelling approaches predict small negative wage elas...

  4. Factors influencing the approaches to studying of preclinical and clinical students and postgraduate trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarasekera Dharmabandu N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Students can be classified into three categories depending on their approaches to studying; namely, deep approach (DA, strategic approach (SA and surface apathetic or superficial approach (SAA. The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting the approaches to studying among Sri Lankan medical undergraduates and post graduate trainees and to analyze the change in the pattern of study skills with time and experience. Method Pre-clinical and clinical students of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo and postgraduate trainees in Surgery at the National Hospital of Sri Lanka were invited to complete the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST questionnaire. Results A total of 187 pre clinical (M: F = 96:91, 124 clinical (M: F = 61:63 and 53 post graduate trainees (M: F = 50:3 participated in the study. Approaches of male and female students were similar. SA was significantly affected by age among the preclinical students (p = 0.01, but not in other groups. Among pre-clinical students, males preferred a teacher who supported understanding (p = 0.04 but females preferred a passive transmission of information (p Conclusion Different factors affect the approach to studying in different groups but these explain only a small fraction of the variance observed.

  5. Analysis of factors affecting satisfaction level on problem based learning approach using structural equation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Nur Farahin Mee; Zahid, Zalina

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, in the job market demand, graduates are expected not only to have higher performance in academic but they must also be excellent in soft skill. Problem-Based Learning (PBL) has a number of distinct advantages as a learning method as it can deliver graduates that will be highly prized by industry. This study attempts to determine the satisfaction level of engineering students on the PBL Approach and to evaluate their determinant factors. The Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to investigate how the factors of Good Teaching Scale, Clear Goals, Student Assessment and Levels of Workload affected the student satisfaction towards PBL approach.

  6. Evaluation of Approaches to Monitor Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Factor Expression during Human Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rozemeijer, Wouter; Fink, Pamela; Rojas, Eduardo; Jones, C. Hal; Pavliakova, Danka; Giardina, Peter; Murphy, Ellen; Liberator, Paul; Jiang, Qin; Girgenti, Douglas; Peters, Remco P. H.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.; Jansen, Kathrin U.; Anderson, Annaliesa S.; Kluytmans, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile pathogen of medical significance, using multiple virulence factors to cause disease. A prophylactic S. aureus 4-antigen (SA4Ag) vaccine comprising capsular polysaccharide (types 5 and 8) conjugates, clumping factor A (ClfA) and manganese transporter C (MntC) is under development. This study was designed to characterize S. aureus isolates recovered from infected patients and also to investigate approaches for examining expression of S. aureus vaccine candid...

  7. Factor-Analytic and Individualized Approaches to Constructing Brief Measures of ADHD Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Robert J.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Blom-Hoffman, Jessica; Feinberg, Adam B.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies were performed to examine a factor-analytic and an individualized approach to creating short progress-monitoring measures from the longer "ADHD-Symptom Checklist-4" (ADHD-SC4). In Study 1, teacher ratings on items of the ADHD:Inattentive (IA) and ADHD:Hyperactive-Impulsive (HI) scales of the ADHD-SC4 were factor analyzed in a normative…

  8. A pragmatic approach to estimate alpha factors for common cause failure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassija, Varun; Senthil Kumar, C.; Velusamy, K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Estimation of coefficients in alpha factor model for common cause analysis. • A derivation of plant specific alpha factors is demonstrated. • We examine sensitivity of common cause contribution to total system failure. • We compare beta factor and alpha factor models for various redundant configurations. • The use of alpha factors is preferable, especially for large redundant systems. - Abstract: Most of the modern technological systems are deployed with high redundancy but still they fail mainly on account of common cause failures (CCF). Various models such as Beta Factor, Multiple Greek Letter, Binomial Failure Rate and Alpha Factor exists for estimation of risk from common cause failures. Amongst all, alpha factor model is considered most suitable for high redundant systems as it arrives at common cause failure probabilities from a set of ratios of failures and the total component failure probability Q T . In the present study, alpha factor model is applied for the assessment of CCF of safety systems deployed at two nuclear power plants. A method to overcome the difficulties in estimation of the coefficients viz., alpha factors in the model, importance of deriving plant specific alpha factors and sensitivity of common cause contribution to the total system failure probability with respect to hazard imposed by various CCF events is highlighted. An approach described in NUREG/CR-5500 is extended in this study to provide more explicit guidance for a statistical approach to derive plant specific coefficients for CCF analysis especially for high redundant systems. The procedure is expected to aid regulators for independent safety assessment

  9. Cafeteria factors that influence milk-drinking behaviors of elementary school children: grounded theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, P; Bednar, C; Klammer, S

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify factors that influenced milk-drinking behaviors of elementary school children in North Texas. Ten focus groups with a total of 41 children aged 6 to 11 years were conducted using a grounded theory approach. Based on the principles of Social Learning Theory, milk preferences and health beliefs were identified as personal factors that influenced drinking. Cafeteria rules, milk flavor, product packaging, modeling by adults, and shared experiences were environmental factors. The data suggest that school cafeterias can capitalize on their unique position to offer milk-drinking opportunities that children can share to combine nutrition education with sensory experience.

  10. A combined structural dynamics approach identifies a putative switch in factor VIIa employed by tissue factor to initiate blood coagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole H; Rand, Kasper D; Østergaard, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) requires tissue factor (TF) to attain full catalytic competency and to initiate blood coagulation. In this study, the mechanism by which TF allosterically activates FVIIa is investigated by a structural dynamics approach that combines molecular dynamics (MD......) simulations and hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HX) mass spectrometry on free and TF-bound FVIIa. The differences in conformational dynamics from MD simulations are shown to be confined to regions of FVIIa observed to undergo structural stabilization as judged by HX experiments, especially implicating activation...... in the presence of TF or an active-site inhibitor. Based on MD simulations, a key switch of the TF-induced structural changes is identified as the interacting pair Leu305{163} and Phe374{225} in FVIIa, whose mutual conformations are guided by the presence of TF and observed to be closely linked to the structural...

  11. Interpersonal Tension: A Two-Factor Approach to the POX Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mahesh

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical explanation, in terms of a two-factor approach to a Person-Other-Issue (POX) Situation is offered, in an attempt to fill the void that exists in the face of the Heider-Newcomb controversy about POX balance. Validity and parsimony is demonstrated by applying it to some of the POX data reported in earlier studies. (Author/BL)

  12. The common risk factor approach: a rational basis for promoting oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheiham, A; Watt, R G

    2000-12-01

    Conventional oral health education is not effective nor efficient. Many oral health programmes are developed and implemented in isolation from other health programmes. This often leads, at best to a duplication of effort, or worse, conflicting messages being delivered to the public. In addition, oral health programmes tend to concentrate on individual behaviour change and largely ignore the influence of socio-political factors as the key determinants of health. Based upon the general principles of health promotion this paper presents a rationale for an alternative approach for oral health policy. The common risk factor approach addresses risk factors common to many chronic conditions within the context of the wider socio-environmental milieu. Oral health is determined by diet, hygiene, smoking, alcohol use, stress and trauma. As these causes are common to a number of other chronic diseases, adopting a collaborative approach is more rational than one that is disease specific. The common risk factor approach can be implemented in a variety of ways. Food policy development and the Health Promoting Schools initiative are used as examples of effective ways of promoting oral health.

  13. 75 FR 8937 - Development of a Relative Potency Factor (RPF) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Relative Potency Factor (RPF) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Mixtures AGENCY... Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Mixtures'' (EPA/635/R-08/012A). The draft document was prepared by the National... 27, 2010. The listening session on the draft document for PAH mixtures will be held on April 7, 2010...

  14. Stochastic Discount Factor Approach to International Risk-Sharing: Evidence from Fixed Exchange Rate Episodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadzi-Vaskov, M.; Kool, C.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents evidence of the stochastic discount factor approach to international risk-sharing applied to fixed exchange rate regimes. We calculate risk-sharing indices for two episodes of fixed or very rigid exchange rates: the Eurozone before and after the introduction of the Euro, and

  15. Two Experiments to Approach the Boltzmann Factor: Chemical Reaction and Viscous Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Claudio; Battaglia, Onofrio R.; Guastella, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a pedagogical approach aimed at pointing out the role played by the Boltzmann factor in describing phenomena usually perceived as regulated by different mechanisms of functioning. Experimental results regarding some aspects of a chemical reaction and of the viscous flow of some liquids are analysed and described in terms…

  16. A Mixed-Methods Approach to Demotivating Factors among Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonsooly, Behzad; Hassanzadeh, Tahereh; Samavarchi, Laila; Hamedi, Seyyedeh Mina

    2017-01-01

    This study used a mixed-methods approach to investigate Iranian EFL learners' attitudes towards demotivating factors which may hinder their success in a language learning course. In the quantitative phase, a sample of 337 undergraduate students from universities in Mashhad, Yazd and Gonabad completed a 34-item questionnaire. They also completed…

  17. E-Learning Personalization Using Triple-Factor Approach in Standard-Based Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksitowening, K. A.; Santoso, H. B.; Hasibuan, Z. A.

    2017-01-01

    E-Learning can be a tool in monitoring learning process and progress towards the targeted competency. Process and progress on every learner can be different one to another, since every learner may have different learning type. Learning type itself can be identified by taking into account learning style, motivation, and knowledge ability. This study explores personalization for learning type based on Triple-Factor Approach. Considering that factors in Triple-Factor Approach are dynamic, the personalization system needs to accommodate the changes that may occurs. Originated from the issue, this study proposed personalization that guides learner progression dynamically towards stages of their learning process. The personalization is implemented in the form of interventions that trigger learner to access learning contents and discussion forums more often as well as improve their level of knowledge ability based on their state of learning type.

  18. Dissecting the critical factors for thermodynamic stability of modular proteins using molecular modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuno Lee

    Full Text Available Repeat proteins have recently attracted much attention as alternative scaffolds to immunoglobulin antibodies due to their unique structural and biophysical features. In particular, repeat proteins show high stability against temperature and chaotic agents. Despite many studies, structural features for the stability of repeat proteins remain poorly understood. Here we present an interesting result from in silico analyses pursuing the factors which affect the stability of repeat proteins. Previously developed repebody structure based on variable lymphocytes receptors (VLRs which consists of leucine-rich repeat (LRR modules was used as initial structure for the present study. We constructed extra six repebody structures with varying numbers of repeat modules and those structures were used for molecular dynamics simulations. For the structures, the intramolecular interactions including backbone H-bonds, van der Waals energy, and hydrophobicity were investigated and then the radius of gyration, solvent-accessible surface area, ratio of secondary structure, and hydration free energy were also calculated to find out the relationship between the number of LRR modules and stability of the protein. Our results show that the intramolecular interactions lead to more compact structure and smaller surface area of the repebodies, which are critical for the stability of repeat proteins. The other features were also well compatible with the experimental results. Based on our observations, the repebody-5 was proposed as the best structure from the all repebodies in structure optimization process. The present study successfully demonstrated that our computer-based molecular modeling approach can significantly contribute to the experiment-based protein engineering challenge.

  19. How acquainting shows verbally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    A central tenet of the integrational view of language and communication is an anchoring in the acting and integrating behaviour of the communicants themselves. In this way the integrational approach has a certain phenomenological slant. What happens when this approach is combined with a ¿psycholo...... to some of William James' classical psychological observations. 16...... of linguistic exertion¿ based upon the descriptions of the  stream of thought, and of conception (>acquainting) by William James? Text-examples taken from an internet site for dieters illustrate the combined James'ian & integrational approach in practice. Some of the examples are also specifically related......A central tenet of the integrational view of language and communication is an anchoring in the acting and integrating behaviour of the communicants themselves. In this way the integrational approach has a certain phenomenological slant. What happens when this approach is combined with a ¿psychology...

  20. A decision support system prototype including human factors based on the TOGA meta-theory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappelli, M.; Memmi, F.; Gadomski, A. M.; Sepielli, M.

    2012-01-01

    The human contribution to the risk of operation of complex technological systems is often not negligible and sometimes tends to become significant, as shown by many reports on incidents and accidents occurred in the past inside Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). An error of a human operator of a NPP can derive by both omission and commission. For instance, complex commission errors can also lead to significant catastrophic technological accidents, as for the case of the Three Mile Island accident. Typically, the problem is analyzed by focusing on the single event chain that has provoked the incident or accident. What is needed is a general framework able to include as many parameters as possible, i.e. both technological and human factors. Such a general model could allow to envisage an omission or commission error before it can happen or, alternatively, suggest preferred actions to do in order to take countermeasures to neutralize the effect of the error before it becomes critical. In this paper, a preliminary Decision Support System (DSS) based on the so-called (-) TOGA meta-theory approach is presented. The application of such a theory to the management of nuclear power plants has been presented in the previous ICAPP 2011. Here, a human factor simulator prototype is proposed in order to include the effect of human errors in the decision path. The DSS has been developed using a TRIGA research reactor as reference plant, and implemented using the LabVIEW programming environment and the Finite State Machine (FSM) model The proposed DSS shows how to apply the Universal Reasoning Paradigm (URP) and the Universal Management Paradigm (UMP) to a real plant context. The DSS receives inputs from instrumentation data and gives as output a suggested decision. It is obtained as the result of an internal elaborating process based on a performance function. The latter, describes the degree of satisfaction and efficiency, which are dependent on the level of responsibility related to

  1. An Augmented Incomplete Factorization Approach for Computing the Schur Complement in Stochastic Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Petra, Cosmin G.; Schenk, Olaf; Lubin, Miles; Gä ertner, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    We present a scalable approach and implementation for solving stochastic optimization problems on high-performance computers. In this work we revisit the sparse linear algebra computations of the parallel solver PIPS with the goal of improving the shared-memory performance and decreasing the time to solution. These computations consist of solving sparse linear systems with multiple sparse right-hand sides and are needed in our Schur-complement decomposition approach to compute the contribution of each scenario to the Schur matrix. Our novel approach uses an incomplete augmented factorization implemented within the PARDISO linear solver and an outer BiCGStab iteration to efficiently absorb pivot perturbations occurring during factorization. This approach is capable of both efficiently using the cores inside a computational node and exploiting sparsity of the right-hand sides. We report on the performance of the approach on highperformance computers when solving stochastic unit commitment problems of unprecedented size (billions of variables and constraints) that arise in the optimization and control of electrical power grids. Our numerical experiments suggest that supercomputers can be efficiently used to solve power grid stochastic optimization problems with thousands of scenarios under the strict "real-time" requirements of power grid operators. To our knowledge, this has not been possible prior to the present work. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  2. Factors associated with a primary surgical approach for sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cracchiolo, Jennifer R; Patel, Krupa; Migliacci, Jocelyn C; Morris, Luc T; Ganly, Ian; Roman, Benjamin R; McBride, Sean M; Tabar, Viviane S; Cohen, Marc A

    2018-03-01

    Primary surgery is the preferred treatment of T1-T4a sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SNSCC). Patients with SNSCC in the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) were analyzed. Factors that contributed to selecting primary surgical treatment were examined. Overall survival (OS) in surgical patients was analyzed. Four-thousand seven hundred and seventy patients with SNSCC were included. In T1-T4a tumors, lymph node metastases, maxillary sinus location, and treatment at high-volume centers were associated with selecting primary surgery. When primary surgery was utilized, tumor factors and positive margin guided worse OS. Adjuvant therapy improved OS in positive margin resection and advanced T stage cases. Tumor and non-tumor factors are associated with selecting surgery for the treatment of SNSCC. When surgery is selected, tumor factors drive OS. Negative margin resection should be the goal of a primary surgical approach. When a positive margin resection ensues, adjuvant therapy may improve OS. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. EXPOSURE TO MASS MEDIA AS A DOMINANT FACTOR INFLUENCING PUBLIC STIGMA TOWARD MENTAL ILLNESS BASED ON SUNRISE MODEL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Sintha Pratiwi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The person suffering mental disorders is not only burdened by his condition but also by the stigma. The impact of stigma extremely influences society that it is considered to be the obstacle in mental disorders therapy. Stigma as the society adverse view toward severe mental disorders is related with the cultural aspect. The interaction appeared from each component of nursing model namely sunrise model, which a model developed by Madeleine Leininger is connected with the wide society views about severe mental disorders condition in society. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the factors related to public stigma and to find out the dominant factors related to public stigma about severe mental illness through sunrise model approach in Sukonolo Village, Malang Regency. Methods: This study using observational analytical design with cross sectional approach. There were 150 respondents contributed in this study. The respondents were obtained using purposive sampling technique. Results: The results showed a significant relationship between mass media exposure, spiritual well-being, interpersonal contact, attitude, and knowledge with public stigma about mental illness. The result from multiple logistic regression shows the low exposure of mass media has the highest OR value at 26.744. Conclusion: There were significant correlation between mass media exposure, spiritual well-being, interpersonal contact, attitude, and knowledge with public stigma toward mental illness. Mass media exposure as a dominant factor influencing public stigma toward mental illness.

  4. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis on the Attitude Scale of Constructivist Approach for Science Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Evrekli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Underlining the importance of teachers for the constructivist approach, the present study attempts to develop “Attitude Scale of Construc¬tivist Approach for Science Teachers (ASCAST”. The pre-applications of the scale were administered to a total of 210 science teachers; however, the data obtained from 5 teachers were excluded from the analysis. As a result of the analysis of the data obtained from the pre-applications, it was found that the scale could have a single factor structure, which was tested using the confir¬matory factor analysis. As a result of the initial confirmatory factor analysis, the values of fit were examined and found to be low. Subsequently, by exam¬ining the modification indices, error covariance was added between items 23 and 24 and the model was tested once again. The added error covariance led to a significant improvement in the model, producing values of fit suitable for limit values. Thus, it was concluded that the scale could be employed with a single factor. The explained variance value for the scale developed with a sin¬gle factor structure was calculated to be 50.43% and its reliability was found to be .93. The results obtained suggest that the scale possesses reliable-valid characteristics and could be used in further studies.

  5. Human factors and systems engineering approach to patient safety for radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A Joy; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2008-01-01

    The traditional approach to solving patient safety problems in healthcare is to blame the last person to touch the patient. But since the publication of To Err is Human, the call has been instead to use human factors and systems engineering methods and principles to solve patient safety problems. However, an understanding of the human factors and systems engineering is lacking, and confusion remains about what it means to apply their principles. This paper provides a primer on them and their applications to patient safety.

  6. Fundamentals, financial factors and firm investment in India: A Panel VAR approach

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Pranab Kumar

    2008-01-01

    This study analyses the role of fundamentals and financial factors in determining firm investment in India with imperfect capital market in a panel VAR framework. Previous research in this area is based on the test of significance (or some variant of this) of the cash flow variable in the investment equation. In this strand of research, cash flow is considered to be a financial factor. The major theoretical problem of this approach is that in a forward-looking model cash flow might be cor...

  7. Human Factors and Systems Engineering Approach to Patient Safety for Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, A. Joy; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2008-01-01

    The traditional approach to solving patient safety problems in healthcare is to blame the last person to touch the patient. But since the publication of To Err is Human, the call has been instead to use human factors and systems engineering methods and principles to solve patient safety problems. However, an understanding of the human factors and systems engineering is lacking, and confusion remains about what it means to apply their principles. This paper provides a primer on them and their applications to patient safety

  8. Risk factor investigation for cardiovascular health through WHO STEPS approach in Ardabil, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashadi-Abdollahi H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available H Sadeghi-Bazargani1,2, H Jafarzadeh3, M Fallah4, S Hekmat3, J Bashiri3, GH Hosseingolizadeh3, MS Soltanmohammadzadeh3, A Mortezazadeh3, A Shaker3, M Danehzan3, A Zohouri3, O Khosravi3, R Nasimidoust3, N Malekpour3, E Kharazmi4, M Babaei3, M Nadirmohammadi3, H Mashhadi-Abdollahi51Neuroscience Research Center, 2Statistics and Epidemiology Department, Faculty of Health and Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3Public Health Department, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran; 4Tampere School of Public Health, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland; 5National Public Health Management Center (NPMC, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranObjectives: Reliable evidence is the keystone for any noncommunicable disease (NCD prevention plan to be initiated. In this study we carried out a risk factor investigation based on the WHO Stepwise approach to Surveillance (STEPS.Methods: The study was conducted out on 1000 adults between 15 and 64 years of age living in Ardabil province, north-west Iran during 2006, based on the WHO STEPS approach to surveillance of risk factors for NCD. At this stage only the first and second steps were carried out. Data were collected through standard questionnaires and methods analyzed using STATA version 8 statistical software package.Results: 29.0% of men and 2.6% of women were current daily tobacco smokers. The mean number of manufactured cigarettes smoked per day was 18.9 among current daily smokers. Smoking was most prevalent among men of low-income families and those of lower education. The mean body mass index (BMI was 26.6 kg/m2, and was significantly correlated with systolic blood pressure. 58.9% were overweight or obese; 18.0% had raised blood pressure and 3.7% had isolated systolic hypertension. The mean number of servings of fruit consumed per day was 1.1; 33.1% had low levels of activity. Combined risk factor analysis showed that 4.1% of participants were in the

  9. Combination of Evidence with Different Weighting Factors: A Novel Probabilistic-Based Dissimilarity Measure Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the invalidation problem of Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence (DS with high conflict in multisensor data fusion, this paper presents a novel combination approach of conflict evidence with different weighting factors using a new probabilistic dissimilarity measure. Firstly, an improved probabilistic transformation function is proposed to map basic belief assignments (BBAs to probabilities. Then, a new dissimilarity measure integrating fuzzy nearness and introduced correlation coefficient is proposed to characterize not only the difference between basic belief functions (BBAs but also the divergence degree of the hypothesis that two BBAs support. Finally, the weighting factors used to reassign conflicts on BBAs are developed and Dempster’s rule is chosen to combine the discounted sources. Simple numerical examples are employed to demonstrate the merit of the proposed method. Through analysis and comparison of the results, the new combination approach can effectively solve the problem of conflict management with better convergence performance and robustness.

  10. Sustainable Competitive Advantage (SCA Analysis of Furniture Manufacturers in Malaysia: Normalized Scaled Critical Factor Index (NSCFI Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasmin Rosmaini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate Malaysian furniture industry via Sustainable competitive advantages (SCA approach. In this case study, sense and respond method and Normalized Scaled Critical Factor Index (NSCFI are used to specify the distribution of companies’ resources for different criteria and detect the attributes which are critical based on expectation and experience of companies’ employs. Moreover, this study evaluates Malaysian furniture business strategy according to manufacturing strategy in terms of analyzer, prospector and defender. Finally, SCA risk levels are presented to show how much company’s resource allocations support their business strategy.

  11. Heavy-quark hadroproduction in kT-factorization approach with unintegrated gluon distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabelski, Yu.M.; Shuvaev, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    The processes of heavy-quark production using the unintegrated gluon distributions are considered. The numerical predictions for high-energy nucleon-nucleon and photon-nucleon collisions of the k T -factorization approach (semihard theory) are compared with the experimental data from Tevatron collider and HERA. The total production cross sections and p T distributions are considered and they are in reasonable agreement with the data for reasonable values of QCD scale [ru

  12. Investigation of various factors influencing Raman spectra interpretation with the use of likelihood ratio approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Aleksandra; Martyna, Agnieszka; Zadora, Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to verify whether selected analytical parameters may affect solving the comparison problem of Raman spectra with the use of the likelihood ratio (LR) approach. Firstly the LR methodologies developed for Raman spectra of blue automotive paints obtained with the use of 785nm laser source (results published by the authors previously) were implemented for good quality spectra recorded for these paints with the use of 514.5nm laser source. For LR models construction two types of variables were used i.e. areas under selected pigments bands and coefficients derived from discrete wavelet transform procedure (DWT). Few experiments were designed for 785nm and 514.5nm Raman spectra databases after constructing well performing LR models (low rates of false positive and false negative answers and acceptable results of empirical cross entropy approach). In order to verify whether objective magnification described by its numerical aperture affects spectra interpretation, three objective magnifications -20×(N.A.=0.4.), 50×(N.A.=0.75) and 100×(N.A.=0.85) within each of the applied laser sources (514.5nm and 785nm) were tested for a group of blue solid and metallic automotive paints having the same sets of pigments depending on the applied laser source. The findings obtained by two types of LR models indicate the importance of this parameter for solving the comparison problem of both solid and metallic automotive paints regardless of the laser source used for measuring Raman signal. Hence, the same objective magnification, preferably 50× (established based on the analysis of within- and between-samples variability and F-factor value), should be used when focusing the laser on samples during Raman measurements. Then the influence of parameters (laser power and time of irradiation) of one of the recommended fluorescence suppression techniques, namely photobleaching, was under investigation. Analysis performed on a group of solid automotive paint

  13. Simplified probabilistic approach to determine safety factors in deterministic flaw acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelet, B.; Ardillon, E.

    1997-01-01

    The flaw acceptance rules in nuclear components rely on deterministic criteria supposed to ensure the safe operating of plants. The interest of having a reliable method of evaluating the safety margins and the integrity of components led Electricite de France to launch a study to link safety factors with requested reliability. A simplified analytical probabilistic approach is developed to analyse the failure risk in Fracture Mechanics. Assuming lognormal distributions of the main random variables, it is possible considering a simple Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics model, to determine the failure probability as a function of mean values and logarithmic standard deviations. The 'design' failure point can be analytically calculated. Partial safety factors on the main variables (stress, crack size, material toughness) are obtained in relation with reliability target values. The approach is generalized to elastic plastic Fracture Mechanics (piping) by fitting J as a power law function of stress, crack size and yield strength. The simplified approach is validated by detailed probabilistic computations with PROBAN computer program. Assuming reasonable coefficients of variations (logarithmic standard deviations), the method helps to calibrate safety factors for different components taking into account reliability target values in normal, emergency and faulted conditions. Statistical data for the mechanical properties of the main basic materials complement the study. The work involves laboratory results and manufacture data. The results of this study are discussed within a working group of the French in service inspection code RSE-M. (authors)

  14. Environmental factor approach to account for water effects in pressure vessel and piping fatigue evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, H.S.; Gosselin, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes past and current studies of the environmental fatigue effects in light water reactor (LWR) applications. Current Argonne and Japanese research efforts are reviewed and an approach to calculate an environmental correction factor is described. A description of how the proposed approach can be implemented in section III, NB-3600 and NB-3200-type fatigue evaluations is presented along with examples of applying the approach to piping (NB-3600) and safe end fatigue evaluations. These procedures were applied to several BWR and pressurized water reactor (PWR) example cases. The results of these case studies indicated that there is a modest increase in calculated fatigue usage, which is considerably less than the results obtained when the NUREG/CR-5999 curves are applied directly. (orig.)

  15. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  16. Risk factors for suicidal behaviors among Filipino Americans: a data mining approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    Filipino Americans have lower suicide rates than other Asian ethnic groups. The present study examined risk factors for suicide ideation and attempt among Filipino Americans with random forest. The data were from the Filipino American Community Epidemiological Study (Takeuchi, 2011). The results showed that the important predictors for suicide ideation were depressive disorder, substance use disorder, and years in the United States. The important predictors for suicide attempt were the number of family relatives and family conflict. Clinicians are advised to investigate familial and cultural factors among Filipino Americans. How family and cultural factors may affect suicidal behaviors were further discussed.

  17. Bridging the gap between biologic, individual, and macroenvironmental factors in cancer: a multilevel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Shannon M; Rebbeck, Timothy R

    2013-04-01

    To address the complex nature of cancer occurrence and outcomes, approaches have been developed to simultaneously assess the role of two or more etiologic agents within hierarchical levels including the: (i) macroenvironment level (e.g., health care policy, neighborhood, or family structure); (ii) individual level (e.g., behaviors, carcinogenic exposures, socioeconomic factors, and psychologic responses); and (iii) biologic level (e.g., cellular biomarkers and inherited susceptibility variants). Prior multilevel approaches tend to focus on social and environmental hypotheses, and are thus limited in their ability to integrate biologic factors into a multilevel framework. This limited integration may be related to the limited translation of research findings into the clinic. We propose a "Multi-level Biologic and Social Integrative Construct" (MBASIC) to integrate macroenvironment and individual factors with biology. The goal of this framework is to help researchers identify relationships among factors that may be involved in the multifactorial, complex nature of cancer etiology, to aid in appropriate study design, to guide the development of statistical or mechanistic models to study these relationships, and to position the results of these studies for improved intervention, translation, and implementation. MBASIC allows researchers from diverse fields to develop hypotheses of interest under a common conceptual framework, to guide transdisciplinary collaborations, and to optimize the value of multilevel studies for clinical and public health activities.

  18. Assessment of successful smoking cessation by psychological factors using the Bayesian network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaorong; Li, Suyun; Pan, Lulu; Wang, Qiang; Li, Huijie; Han, Mingkui; Zhang, Nan; Jiang, Fan; Jia, Chongqi

    2016-07-01

    The association between psychological factors and smoking cessation is complicated and inconsistent in published researches, and the joint effect of psychological factors on smoking cessation is unclear. This study explored how psychological factors jointly affect the success of smoking cessation using a Bayesian network approach. A community-based case control study was designed with 642 adult male successful smoking quitters as the cases, and 700 adult male failed smoking quitters as the controls. General self-efficacy (GSE), trait coping style (positive-trait coping style (PTCS) and negative-trait coping style (NTCS)) and self-rating anxiety (SA) were evaluated by GSE Scale, Trait Coping Style Questionnaire and SA Scale, respectively. Bayesian network was applied to evaluate the relationship between psychological factors and successful smoking cessation. The local conditional probability table of smoking cessation indicated that different joint conditions of psychological factors led to different outcomes for smoking cessation. Among smokers with high PTCS, high NTCS and low SA, only 36.40% successfully quitted smoking. However, among smokers with low pack-years of smoking, high GSE, high PTCS and high SA, 63.64% successfully quitted smoking. Our study indicates psychological factors jointly influence smoking cessation outcome. According to different joint situations, different solutions should be developed to control tobacco in practical intervention.

  19. Partial Least Square Approach to Second Order Factor in Behavioural Study of Accounting Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mohd Tarmizi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Theories are developed to explain an observed phenomenon in an effort to understand why and how things happen. Theories thus, use latent variables to estimate conceptual parameters. The level of abstraction depends, partly on the complexity of the theoretical model explaining the phenomenon. The conjugation of directly-measured variables leads to a formation of a first-order factor. A combination of theoretical underpinnings supporting an existence of a higher-order components, and statistical evidence pointing to such presence adds advantage for the researchers to investigate a phenomenon both at an aggregated and disjointed dimensions. As partial least square (PLS gains its tractions in theory development, behavioural accounting discipline in general should exploit the flexibility of PLS to work with the higher-order factors. However, technical guides are scarcely available. Therefore, this article presents a PLS approach to validate a higher-order factor on a statistical ground using accounting information system dataset.

  20. Combined action of ionizing radiation with another factor: common rules and theoretical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Roh, Changhyun; Komarova, Ludmila N.; Petin, Vladislav G.

    2013-01-01

    Two or more factors can simultaneously make their combined effects on the biological objects. This study has focused on theoretical approach to synergistic interaction due to the combined action of radiation and another factor on cell inactivation. A mathematical model for the synergistic interaction of different environmental agents was suggested for quantitative prediction of irreversibly damaged cells after combined exposures. The model takes into account the synergistic interaction of agents and based on the supposition that additional effective damages responsible for the synergy are irreversible and originated from an interaction of ineffective sub lesions. The experimental results regarding the irreversible component of radiation damage of diploid yeast cells simultaneous exposed to heat with ionizing radiation or UV light are presented. A good agreement of experimental results with model predictions was demonstrated. The importance of the results obtained for the interpretation of the mechanism of synergistic interaction of various environmental factors is discussed. (author)

  1. Combined action of ionizing radiation with another factor: common rules and theoretical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Roh, Changhyun, E-mail: jkkim@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Komarova, Ludmila N.; Petin, Vladislav G., E-mail: vgpetin@yahoo.com [Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Two or more factors can simultaneously make their combined effects on the biological objects. This study has focused on theoretical approach to synergistic interaction due to the combined action of radiation and another factor on cell inactivation. A mathematical model for the synergistic interaction of different environmental agents was suggested for quantitative prediction of irreversibly damaged cells after combined exposures. The model takes into account the synergistic interaction of agents and based on the supposition that additional effective damages responsible for the synergy are irreversible and originated from an interaction of ineffective sub lesions. The experimental results regarding the irreversible component of radiation damage of diploid yeast cells simultaneous exposed to heat with ionizing radiation or UV light are presented. A good agreement of experimental results with model predictions was demonstrated. The importance of the results obtained for the interpretation of the mechanism of synergistic interaction of various environmental factors is discussed. (author)

  2. Electrically Small Magnetic Dipole Antennas With Quality Factors Approaching the Chu Lower Bound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav; Yaghjian, Arthur D.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the quality factor Q for electrically small current distributions and practical antenna designs radiating the TE10 magnetic dipole field. The current distributions and the antenna designs employ electric currents on a spherical surface enclosing a magneto-dielectric material...... numerically. It is found that for a given antenna size and permittivity there is an optimum permeability that ensures the lowest possible Q, and this optimum permeability is inversely proportional to the square of the antenna electrical radius. When the relative permittivity is equal to 1, the optimum...... permeability yields the quality factor Q that constitutes the lower bound for a magnetic dipole antenna with a magneto-dielectric core. Furthermore, the smaller the antenna the closer its quality factor Q can approach the Chu lower bound. Simulated results for the TE10-mode multiarm spherical helix antenna...

  3. Precipitation areal-reduction factor estimation using an annual-maxima centered approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, W.H.; Famiglietti, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    The adjustment of precipitation depth of a point storm to an effective (mean) depth over a watershed is important for characterizing rainfall-runoff relations and for cost-effective designs of hydraulic structures when design storms are considered. A design storm is the precipitation point depth having a specified duration and frequency (recurrence interval). Effective depths are often computed by multiplying point depths by areal-reduction factors (ARF). ARF range from 0 to 1, vary according to storm characteristics, such as recurrence interval; and are a function of watershed characteristics, such as watershed size, shape, and geographic location. This paper presents a new approach for estimating ARF and includes applications for the 1-day design storm in Austin, Dallas, and Houston, Texas. The approach, termed 'annual-maxima centered,' specifically considers the distribution of concurrent precipitation surrounding an annual-precipitation maxima, which is a feature not seen in other approaches. The approach does not require the prior spatial averaging of precipitation, explicit determination of spatial correlation coefficients, nor explicit definition of a representative area of a particular storm in the analysis. The annual-maxima centered approach was designed to exploit the wide availability of dense precipitation gauge data in many regions of the world. The approach produces ARF that decrease more rapidly than those from TP-29. Furthermore, the ARF from the approach decay rapidly with increasing recurrence interval of the annual-precipitation maxima. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.The adjustment of precipitation depth of a point storm to an effective (mean) depth over a watershed is important for characterizing rainfall-runoff relations and for cost-effective designs of hydraulic structures when design storms are considered. A design storm is the precipitation point depth having a specified duration and frequency (recurrence interval). Effective depths are

  4. Estimating reliability coefficients with heterogeneous item weightings using Stata: A factor based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boermans, M.A.; Kattenberg, M.A.C.

    2011-01-01

    We show how to estimate a Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient in Stata after running a principal component or factor analysis. Alpha evaluates to what extent items measure the same underlying content when the items are combined into a scale or used for latent variable. Stata allows for testing

  5. A Transfer Learning Approach for Applying Matrix Factorization to Small ITS Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voß, Lydia; Schatten, Carlotta; Mazziotti, Claudia; Schmidt-Thieme, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Machine Learning methods for Performance Prediction in Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) have proven their efficacy; specific methods, e.g. Matrix Factorization (MF), however suffer from the lack of available information about new tasks or new students. In this paper we show how this problem could be solved by applying Transfer Learning (TL),…

  6. Factors Influencing Implementation of OHSAS 18001 in Indian Construction Organizations: Interpretive Structural Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaprasad, Sunku Venkata Siva; Chalapathi, Pasupulati Venkata

    2015-09-01

    Construction activity has made considerable breakthroughs in the past two decades on the back of increases in development activities, government policies, and public demand. At the same time, occupational health and safety issues have become a major concern to construction organizations. The unsatisfactory safety performance of the construction industry has always been highlighted since the safety management system is neglected area and not implemented systematically in Indian construction organizations. Due to a lack of enforcement of the applicable legislation, most of the construction organizations are forced to opt for the implementation of Occupational Health Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS) 18001 to improve safety performance. In order to better understand factors influencing the implementation of OHSAS 18001, an interpretive structural modeling approach has been applied and the factors have been classified using matrice d'impacts croises-multiplication appliqué a un classement (MICMAC) analysis. The study proposes the underlying theoretical framework to identify factors and to help management of Indian construction organizations to understand the interaction among factors influencing in implementation of OHSAS 18001. Safety culture, continual improvement, morale of employees, and safety training have been identified as dependent variables. Safety performance, sustainable construction, and conducive working environment have been identified as linkage variables. Management commitment and safety policy have been identified as the driver variables. Management commitment has the maximum driving power and the most influential factor is safety policy, which states clearly the commitment of top management towards occupational safety and health.

  7. The Analysis of Theoretical Approaches to Identification of Factors of Regional Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosyrieva Olena V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the investigation of current approaches to identification of factors of economic growth in the regions. The theory of new economic geography based on works and studies of P. Krugman has been considered. There highlighted the key issues of regional economic growth requiring an in-depth studying and consideration in the elaboration of strategies for sustainable development of the regions. The views of leading domestic and foreign scholars as well as the OECD experts, the World Bank, the National Statistics Service of the United Kingdom and others on the main drivers of economic growth have been analyzed. On the basis of the study the factors of regional economic growth most commonly encountered in theory and practice have been generalized. It is proved that scientists and analysts most often classify as the factors of regional economic growth the following ones: those characterizing human potential, scientific-technical and innovative activity, management and institutional capacity. The factors less frequently correlated by specialists and scientists with the regional economic growth include: those characterizing the environment, business and sociopolitical factors, which is associated with difficulty of their quantification, but in any case does not diminish their importance.

  8. Factors that influence the approach to leadership: directors of nursing working in rural health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bish, Melanie; Kenny, Amanda; Nay, Rhonda

    2015-04-01

    To identify factors that influence directors of nursing in their approach to leadership when working in rural Victoria, Australia. In rural areas, nurses account for the largest component of the health workforce and must be equipped with leadership knowledge and skills to lead reform at a service level. A qualitative descriptive design was used. In-depth semi-structured interviews were undertaken with directors of nursing from rural Victoria. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and a thematic network was developed. Empowerment emerged as the highest order category in the thematic network. This was derived from three organising themes: influence, capital and contextual understanding and the respective basic themes: formal power, informal power, self-knowledge; information, support, resources; and situational factors, career trajectory, connectedness. Rural nurse leaders contend with several issues that influence their approach to leadership. This study provides a platform for further research to foster nurse leadership in rural healthcare services. Acknowledgement of what influences the rural nurse leaders' approach to leadership may assist in the implementation of initiatives designed to develop leadership in a manner that is contextually sensitive. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Designing medical technology for resilience: integrating health economics and human factors approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsci, Simone; Uchegbu, Ijeoma; Buckle, Peter; Ni, Zhifang; Walne, Simon; Hanna, George B

    2018-01-01

    The slow adoption of innovation into healthcare calls into question the manner of evidence generation for medical technology. This paper identifies potential reasons for this including a lack of attention to human factors, poor evaluation of economic benefits, lack of understanding of the existing healthcare system and a failure to recognise the need to generate resilient products. Areas covered: Recognising a cross-disciplinary need to enhance evidence generation early in a technology's life cycle, the present paper proposes a new approach that integrates human factors and health economic evaluation as part of a wider systems approach to the design of technology. This approach (Human and Economic Resilience Design for Medical Technology or HERD MedTech) supports early stages of product development and is based on the recent experiences of the National Institute for Health Research London Diagnostic Evidence Co-operative in the UK. Expert commentary: HERD MedTech i) proposes a shift from design for usability to design for resilience, ii) aspires to reduce the need for service adaptation to technological constraints iii) ensures value of innovation at the time of product development, and iv) aims to stimulate discussion around the integration of pre- and post-market methods of assessment of medical technology.

  10. Integrating Human Factors Engineering and Information Processing Approaches to Facilitate Evaluations in Criminal Justice Technology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvemini, Anthony V; Piza, Eric L; Carter, Jeremy G; Grommon, Eric L; Merritt, Nancy

    2015-06-01

    Evaluations are routinely conducted by government agencies and research organizations to assess the effectiveness of technology in criminal justice. Interdisciplinary research methods are salient to this effort. Technology evaluations are faced with a number of challenges including (1) the need to facilitate effective communication between social science researchers, technology specialists, and practitioners, (2) the need to better understand procedural and contextual aspects of a given technology, and (3) the need to generate findings that can be readily used for decision making and policy recommendations. Process and outcome evaluations of technology can be enhanced by integrating concepts from human factors engineering and information processing. This systemic approach, which focuses on the interaction between humans, technology, and information, enables researchers to better assess how a given technology is used in practice. Examples are drawn from complex technologies currently deployed within the criminal justice system where traditional evaluations have primarily focused on outcome metrics. Although this evidence-based approach has significant value, it is vulnerable to fully account for human and structural complexities that compose technology operations. Guiding principles for technology evaluations are described for identifying and defining key study metrics, facilitating communication within an interdisciplinary research team, and for understanding the interaction between users, technology, and information. The approach posited here can also enable researchers to better assess factors that may facilitate or degrade the operational impact of the technology and answer fundamental questions concerning whether the technology works as intended, at what level, and cost. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. A Human Factors Approach to Bridging Systems and Introducing New Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    The application of human factors in aviation has grown to cover a wide range of disciplines and methods capable of assessing human-systems integration at many levels. For example, at the individual level, pilot workload may be studied while at the team level, coordinated workload distribution may be the focal point. At the organizational level, the way in which individuals and teams are supported by training and standards, policies and procedures may introduce additional, relevant topics. A consideration of human factors at each level contributes to our understanding of successes and failures in pilot performance, but this system focused on the flight deck alone -- is only one part of the airspace system. In the FAA's NextGen plan to overhaul the National Airspace System (NAS), new capabilities will enhance flightdeck systems (pilots), flight operations centers (dispatchers) and air traffic control systems (controllers and air traffic managers). At a minimum, the current roles and responsibilities of these three systems are likely to change. Since increased automation will be central to many of the enhancements, the role of automation is also likely to change. Using NextGen examples, a human factors approach for bridging complex airspace systems will be the main focus of this presentation. It is still crucial to consider the human factors within each system, but the successful implementation of new technologies in the NAS requires an understanding of the collaborations that occur when these systems intersect. This human factors approach to studying collaborative systems begins with detailed task descriptions within each system to establish a baseline of the current operations. The collaborative content and context are delineated through the review of regulatory and advisory materials, letters of agreement, policies, procedures and documented practices. Field observations and interviews also help to fill out the picture. Key collaborative functions across systems

  12. First-Year Students' Approaches to Learning, and Factors Related to Change or Stability in Their Deep Approach during a Pharmacy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varunki, Maaret; Katajavuori, Nina; Postareff, Liisa

    2017-01-01

    Research shows that a surface approach to learning is more common among students in the natural sciences, while students representing the "soft" sciences are more likely to apply a deep approach. However, findings conflict concerning the stability of approaches to learning in general. This study explores the variation in students'…

  13. Temporal changes of spatial soil moisture patterns: controlling factors explained with a multidisciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Edoardo; Wollschläger, Ute; Kögler, Simon; Behrens, Thorsten; Dietrich, Peter; Reinstorf, Frido; Schmidt, Karsten; Weiler, Markus; Werban, Ulrike; Zacharias, Steffen

    2016-04-01

    different hydrologic conditions and the factors controlling the temporal variability of the ECa-soil moisture relationship. The approach provided valuable insight into the time-varying contribution of local and nonlocal factors to the characteristic spatial patterns of soil moisture and the transition mechanisms. The spatial organization of soil moisture was controlled by different processes in different soil horizons, and the topsoil's moisture did not mirror processes that take place within the soil profile. Results show that, for the Schäfertal hillslope site which is presumed to be representative for non-intensively managed soils with moderate clay content, local soil properties (e.g., soil texture and porosity) are the major control on the spatial pattern of ECa. In contrast, the ECa-soil moisture relationship is small and varies over time indicating that ECa is not a good proxy for soil moisture estimation at the investigated site.Occasionally observed stronger correlations between ECa and soil moisture may be explained by background dependencies of ECa to other state variables such as pore water electrical conductivity. The results will help to improve conceptual understanding for hydrological model studies at similar or smaller scales, and to transfer observation concepts and process understanding to larger or less instrumented sites, as well as to constrain the use of EMI-based ECa data for hydrological applications.

  14. Charmless B{sub (s)} → VV decays in factorization-assisted topological-amplitude approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Qi-An [CAS, Institute of High Energy Physics, P.O. Box 918, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physics, Beijing (China); Li, Ying [Yantai University, Department of Physics, Yantai (China); CAS, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); Lue, Cai-Dian [CAS, Institute of High Energy Physics, P.O. Box 918, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physics, Beijing (China); CAS, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)

    2017-05-15

    Within the factorization-assisted topological-amplitude approach, we studied the 33 charmless B{sub (s)} → VV decays, where V stands for a light vector meson. According to the flavor flows, the amplitude of each process can be decomposed into eight different topologies. In contrast to the conventional flavor diagrammatic approach, we further factorize each topological amplitude into decay constant, form factors and unknown universal parameters. By χ{sup 2} fitting 46 experimental observables, we extracted 10 theoretical parameters with χ{sup 2} per degree of freedom around 2. Using the fitted parameters, we calculated the branching fractions, polarization fractions, CP asymmetries and relative phases between polarization amplitudes of each decay mode. The decay channels dominated by tree diagram have large branching fractions and large longitudinal polarization fraction. The branching fractions and longitudinal polarization fractions of color-suppressed decays become smaller. Current experimental data of large transverse polarization fractions in the penguin dominant decay channels can be explained by only one transverse amplitude of penguin annihilation diagram. Our predictions of the not yet measured channels can be tested in the ongoing LHCb experiment and the Belle-II experiment in the future. (orig.)

  15. Safety, reliability, risk management and human factors: an integrated engineering approach applied to nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Silva, Eliane Magalhaes Pereira da; Costa, Antonio Carlos Lopes da; Reis, Sergio Carneiro dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: vasconv@cdtn.br, e-mail: silvaem@cdtn.br, e-mail: aclc@cdtn.br, e-mail: reissc@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear energy has an important engineering legacy to share with the conventional industry. Much of the development of the tools related to safety, reliability, risk management, and human factors are associated with nuclear plant processes, mainly because the public concern about nuclear power generation. Despite the close association between these subjects, there are some important different approaches. The reliability engineering approach uses several techniques to minimize the component failures that cause the failure of the complex systems. These techniques include, for instance, redundancy, diversity, standby sparing, safety factors, and reliability centered maintenance. On the other hand system safety is primarily concerned with hazard management, that is, the identification, evaluation and control of hazards. Rather than just look at failure rates or engineering strengths, system safety would examine the interactions among system components. The events that cause accidents may be complex combinations of component failures, faulty maintenance, design errors, human actions, or actuation of instrumentation and control. Then, system safety deals with a broader spectrum of risk management, including: ergonomics, legal requirements, quality control, public acceptance, political considerations, and many other non-technical influences. Taking care of these subjects individually can compromise the completeness of the analysis and the measures associated with both risk reduction, and safety and reliability increasing. Analyzing together the engineering systems and controls of a nuclear facility, their management systems and operational procedures, and the human factors engineering, many benefits can be realized. This paper proposes an integration of these issues based on the application of systems theory. (author)

  16. Safety, reliability, risk management and human factors: an integrated engineering approach applied to nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Silva, Eliane Magalhaes Pereira da; Costa, Antonio Carlos Lopes da; Reis, Sergio Carneiro dos

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear energy has an important engineering legacy to share with the conventional industry. Much of the development of the tools related to safety, reliability, risk management, and human factors are associated with nuclear plant processes, mainly because the public concern about nuclear power generation. Despite the close association between these subjects, there are some important different approaches. The reliability engineering approach uses several techniques to minimize the component failures that cause the failure of the complex systems. These techniques include, for instance, redundancy, diversity, standby sparing, safety factors, and reliability centered maintenance. On the other hand system safety is primarily concerned with hazard management, that is, the identification, evaluation and control of hazards. Rather than just look at failure rates or engineering strengths, system safety would examine the interactions among system components. The events that cause accidents may be complex combinations of component failures, faulty maintenance, design errors, human actions, or actuation of instrumentation and control. Then, system safety deals with a broader spectrum of risk management, including: ergonomics, legal requirements, quality control, public acceptance, political considerations, and many other non-technical influences. Taking care of these subjects individually can compromise the completeness of the analysis and the measures associated with both risk reduction, and safety and reliability increasing. Analyzing together the engineering systems and controls of a nuclear facility, their management systems and operational procedures, and the human factors engineering, many benefits can be realized. This paper proposes an integration of these issues based on the application of systems theory. (author)

  17. Approaches for the integration of human factors into the upgrading and refurbishment of control rooms - Summary and conclusions - Principal Working Group 1 on Operating Experience and Human Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    a broad range of interested parties, in relation to the upgrading and refurbishing of control rooms. The workshop attracted 16 contributions from 13 different countries and provided a range of insights and lessons based on design experience, practical experience, research and regulatory needs, and an opportunity for the exchange of experiences and approaches on a range of important topics. The workshop also sought to identify and prioritize areas meriting further consideration and research. The 34 participants shared their experiences and perceptions on a broad number of aspects including: - The identification of human factors issues from the utility, vendor, and regulatory perspectives. - Ensuring the inclusion and implementation of human factors issues within the upgrade or refurbishment process. - How this change process should be managed. - Feedback from practical experience and real concerns. - Meeting modern human factors requirements. This report presents a summary of the conclusions and recommendations from the workshop. five main points were considered by the participants in the workshop as important areas for future work or research: - There is a need to collate a 'lessons learnt' database relating to human factors and control room upgrades; - There is a need to co-ordinate the method/tool development and use in order to better support evaluations and comparisons; - there is a need to show how to establish a performance baseline before change in order to demonstrate that performance is at least as good, or better, that prior to the change; - It is important to support the use of a 'control room philosophy' prior to, during, and after the upgrade; - There is a need to have a better-shared understanding of the design process and how the different disciplines involved contribute to it

  18. Population-genetic approach to standardization of radiation and non-radiation factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telnov, I.

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies demonstrate the importance of genetic predisposition in the development of wide range of pathologies and unfavorable effects caused by different factors. This prompts to account for genetic factors in the risk assessment of unfavorable effects. Current approaches used to solve this problem are far from perfect. On the one hand, recommendations on occupational selection bas ed on genetic signs are presently considered as human rights violation. On the other hand, to medically inform an individual with certain genetic characteristics about possible unfavorable health effects due to occupational hazard has little effect. Finally, a vast number of polymorphic genes in human genome (at least 30%) hampers accounting for all possible factors of genetic predisposition to the increasing number of environmental factors. Therefore, the current situation proves it appropriate to develop the new approach to account for genetic predisposition of individuals that would be free of flaws considered above. A possible basis for such an approach is the assessment of genotype specific relative risk (G.S.R.R.) that accounts for genetic predisposition (susceptibility) of individuals to the effects of unfavorable factors. The study used results from 65 studies. This effort was undertaken to study the association between 32 diseases and unfavorable effects and 17 genetic polymorphic systems. Data analysis included calculation of relative risk (R.R.) of specific diseases or effects development in individuals with different genotypes. Genotype-specific relative risk (G.S.R.R.) of diseases and unfavorable effects in individuals with 'sensitive' genotypes was calculated. Since about the third of genes in human genome are polymorphic, and therefore, a considerable number of genes can be involved in genetic predisposition of an individual to a specific unfavorable effect, an averaged G.S.R.R. of diseases and unfavorable effects was calculated for integral characteristics on

  19. Limitations of the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach for risk assessment of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safe, S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology

    1995-12-31

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) are present as complex mixtures of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and biphenyls (PCBs) in most environmental matrices. Risk management of these mixtures utilize the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach in which the TCDD (dioxin) or toxic equivalents of a mixture is a summation of the congener concentration (Ci) times TEF{sub i} (potency relative to TCDD) where. TEQ{sub mixture} = {Sigma}[Cil] {times} TEF{sub i}. TEQs are determined only for those HAHs which are aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor agonists and this approach assumes that the toxic or biochemical effects of individual compounds in a mixture are additive. Several in vivo and in vitro laboratory and field studies with different HAH mixtures have been utilized to validate the TEF approach. For some responses, the calculated toxicities of PCDD/PCDF and PCB mixtures predict the observed toxic potencies. However, for fetal cleft palate and immunotoxicity in mice, nonadditive (antagonistic) responses are observed using complex PCB mixtures or binary mixtures containing an Ah receptor agonist with 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime}-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153). The potential interactive effects of PCBs and other dietary Ah receptor antagonist suggest that the TEF approach for risk management of HAHs requires further refinement and should be used selectively.

  20. Human and Organisational Factors in the Licensing Process for New NPPs: The Swiss Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryser, Cornelia

    2011-01-01

    Past and recent construction as well as operating experience has shown the importance of giving due attention to human and organisational factors (HOF) in the design and construction of new NPPs. The present paper primarily deals with the development of regulatory requirements by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) concerning HOF engineering aspects, i.e. the design of the work systems of the new NPP (technical systems, work tasks, operating organisation). The requirements concerning quality and project management or the management system in general are not in the main focus of this paper. The approach and requirements presented are not yet fully implemented in the Swiss regulatory framework and are still being worked on. Therefore the issues described in the paper have to be considered as provisional and might still be subject to some change in the next months as the approach and requirements are being further developed and finalised. (author)

  1. Total Factor Productivity Growth, Technical Progress & Efficiency Change in Vietnam Coal Industry - Nonparametric Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, Vu Hung

    2018-03-01

    This research applies Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach to analyze Total Factor Productivity (TFP) and efficiency changes in Vietnam coal mining industry from 2007 to 2013. The TFP of Vietnam coal mining companies decreased due to slow technological progress and unimproved efficiency. The decadence of technical efficiency in many enterprises proved that the coal mining industry has a large potential to increase productivity through technical efficiency improvement. Enhancing human resource training, technology and research & development investment could help the industry to improve efficiency and productivity in Vietnam coal mining industry.

  2. Enterprise Factors Contributing to The Success of Malaysian Biotechnology SMEs: A Grounded Theory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saridan Abu Bakar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available While numerous empirical studies have been conducted in Western countries on biotechnology enterprises, little empirical research has been done in Malaysia especially in respect to the factors that contribute to the success of biotechnology small and medium enterprises (SMEs. In view of this, a study was undertaken recently in Malaysia to address this gap in the existing body of biotechnology knowledge. Using a grounded theory approach, this qualitative study managed to develop a conceptual framework that sheds useful information on the enterprise factors that significantly impact the success of Malaysian biotechnology SMEs. Specifically, this study found that organizational structure, innovation activities, linkages with academic research institutions, linkages with other private enterprises, personal linkages with academic researchers, access to financial capital, the procuring of government assistances, vertical integration, enterprise image, GMP compliance and halal certification, strongly influence enterprise success.Keywords: biotechnology, SMEs, Malaysia, success, qualitative study, grounded theory

  3. Integrated approach to knowledge acquisition and safety management of complex plants with emphasis on human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosmowski, K.T.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper an integrated approach to the knowledge acquisition and safety management of complex industrial plants is proposed and outlined. The plant is considered within a man-technology-environment (MTE) system. The knowledge acquisition is aimed at the consequent reliability evaluation of human factor and probabilistic modeling of the plant. Properly structured initial knowledge is updated in life-time of the plant. The data and knowledge concerning the topology of safety related systems and their functions are created in a graphical CAD system and are object oriented. Safety oriented monitoring of the plant includes abnormal situations due to external and internal disturbances, failures of hard/software components and failures of human factor. The operation and safety related evidence is accumulated in special data bases. Data/knowledge bases are designed in such a way to support effectively the reliability and safety management of the plant. (author)

  4. A pedagogical approach to the Boltzmann factor through experiments and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, O R; Bonura, A; Sperandeo-Mineo, R M

    2009-01-01

    The Boltzmann factor is the basis of a huge amount of thermodynamic and statistical physics, both classical and quantum. It governs the behaviour of all systems in nature that are exchanging energy with their environment. To understand why the expression has this specific form involves a deep mathematical analysis, whose flow of logic is hard to see and is not at the level of high school or college students' preparation. We here present some experiments and simulations aimed at directly deriving its mathematical expression and illustrating the fundamental concepts on which it is grounded. Experiments use easily available apparatuses, and simulations are developed in the Net-Logo environment that, besides having a user-friendly interface, allows an easy interaction with the algorithm. The approach supplies pedagogical support for the introduction of the Boltzmann factor at the undergraduate level to students without a background in statistical mechanics.

  5. Enterprise Factors Contributing to The Success of Malaysian Biotechnology SMEs: A Grounded Theory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saridan Abu Bakar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available While numerous empirical studies have been conducted in Western countries on biotechnology enterprises, little empirical research has been done in Malaysia especially in respect to the factors that contribute to the success of biotechnology small and medium enterprises (SMEs. In view of this, a study was undertaken recently in Malaysia to address this gap in the existing body of biotechnology knowledge. Using a grounded theory approach, this qualitative study managed to develop a conceptual framework that sheds useful information on the enterprise factors that significantly impact the success of Malaysian biotechnology SMEs. Specifically, this study found that organizational structure, innovation activities, linkages with academic research institutions, linkages with other private enterprises, personal linkages with academic researchers, access to financial capital, the procuring of government assistances, vertical integration, enterprise image, GMP compliance and halal certification, strongly influence enterprise success.

  6. A pedagogical approach to the Boltzmann factor through experiments and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, O R; Bonura, A; Sperandeo-Mineo, R M [University of Palermo Physics Education Research Group, Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative, Universita di Palermo (Italy)], E-mail: sperandeo@difter.unipa.it

    2009-09-15

    The Boltzmann factor is the basis of a huge amount of thermodynamic and statistical physics, both classical and quantum. It governs the behaviour of all systems in nature that are exchanging energy with their environment. To understand why the expression has this specific form involves a deep mathematical analysis, whose flow of logic is hard to see and is not at the level of high school or college students' preparation. We here present some experiments and simulations aimed at directly deriving its mathematical expression and illustrating the fundamental concepts on which it is grounded. Experiments use easily available apparatuses, and simulations are developed in the Net-Logo environment that, besides having a user-friendly interface, allows an easy interaction with the algorithm. The approach supplies pedagogical support for the introduction of the Boltzmann factor at the undergraduate level to students without a background in statistical mechanics.

  7. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  8. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  9. The Approach to Defining Gravity Factors of Influence on the Foreign Trade Relations of Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyuzhna Nataliya G.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to determine the gravity factors of influence on the foreign trade relations of countries on the basis of the results of the comparative analysis of the classical specifications of the gravity model of foreign trade and the domestic experience in gravity modeling. It is substantiated that a gravity model is one of the tools of economic and mathematical modeling, the use of which is characterized by a high level of adequacy and ensures prediction of foreign trade conditions. The main approaches to the definition of explanatory variables in the gravity equation of foreign trade are analyzed, and the author’s approach to the selection of the factors of the gravity model is proposed. As the first explanatory variable in the specification of the gravity model of foreign trade and the characteristics of the importance of economies of foreign trade partners, it is proposed to use the GDP calculated at purchasing power parity with the expected positive and statistically significant coefficient. As the second explanatory variable of the gravity equation of foreign trade, it is proposed to use a complex characteristic of the “trade distance” between countries, which reflects the current conditions of bilateral trade and depends on factors influencing the foreign trade turnover between countries — both directly (static proportionality of transport costs of geographical remoteness, and indirectly (dynamic institutional conditions of bilateral relations. The expediency of using the world average annual price for oil as the quantitative equivalent of the “trading distance” index is substantiated. Prospects for further research in this direction are identifying the form and force of influence of certain basic gravity variables on the foreign trade relations of certain partner countries and determining the appropriateness of including additional factors in the composition of the gravity equation of foreign trade.

  10. Ambulatory Antibiotic Stewardship through a Human Factors Engineering Approach: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Sara C; Tamma, Pranita D; Cosgrove, Sara E; Miller, Melissa A; Sateia, Heather; Szymczak, Julie; Gurses, Ayse P; Linder, Jeffrey A

    2018-01-01

    In the United States, most antibiotics are prescribed in ambulatory settings. Human factors engineering, which explores interactions between people and the place where they work, has successfully improved quality of care. However, human factors engineering models have not been explored to frame what is known about ambulatory antibiotic stewardship (AS) interventions and barriers and facilitators to their implementation. We conducted a systematic review and searched OVID MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and CINAHL to identify controlled interventions and qualitative studies of ambulatory AS and determine whether and how they incorporated principles from a human factors engineering model, the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety 2.0 model. This model describes how a work system (ambulatory clinic) contributes to a process (antibiotic prescribing) that leads to outcomes. The work system consists of 5 components, tools and technology, organization, person, tasks, and environment, within an external environment. Of 1,288 abstracts initially identified, 42 quantitative studies and 17 qualitative studies met inclusion criteria. Effective interventions focused on tools and technology (eg, clinical decision support and point-of-care testing), the person (eg, clinician education), organization (eg, audit and feedback and academic detailing), tasks (eg, delayed antibiotic prescribing), the environment (eg, commitment posters), and the external environment (media campaigns). Studies have not focused on clinic-wide approaches to AS. A human factors engineering approach suggests that investigating the role of the clinic's processes or physical layout or external pressures' role in antibiotic prescribing may be a promising way to improve ambulatory AS. © Copyright 2018 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  11. Can a Risk Factor Based Approach Safely Reduce Screening for Retinopathy of Prematurity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Friddle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Current American retinopathy of prematurity (ROP screening guidelines is imprecise for infants ≥ 30 weeks with birth weights between 1500 and 2000 g. Our objective was to evaluate a risk factor based approach for screening premature infants at low risk for severe ROP. Study Design. We performed a 13-year review from Intermountain Health Care (IHC data. All neonates born at ≤32 weeks were reviewed to determine ROP screening and/or development of severe ROP. Severe ROP was defined by stage ≥ 3 or need for laser therapy. Regression analysis was used to identify significant risk factors for severe ROP. Results. We identified 4607 neonates ≤ 32 weeks gestation. Following exclusion for death, with no retinal exam or incomplete data, 2791 (61% were included in the study. Overall, severe ROP occurred in 260 (9.3%, but only 11/1601 ≥ 29 weeks (0.7%. All infants with severe ROP ≥ 29 weeks had at least 2 identified ROP risk factors. Implementation of this risk based screening strategy to the IHC population over the timeline of this study would have eliminated screening in 21% (343/1601 of the screened population. Conclusions. Limiting ROP screening for infants ≥ 29 and ≤ 32 weeks to only those with clinical risk factors could significantly reduce screening exams while identifying all infants with severe ROP.

  12. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Identification of problems and alternative approaches. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R. [Hughes Training, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States); Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.I. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations was undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multi-disciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. The principal sources of radiation are a radioactive isotope, typically cobalt60 (Co-60), or a linear accelerator device capable of producing very high energy x-ray and electron beams. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation technologists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was initially performed to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of user-system interfaces, procedures, training and qualifications, and organizational policies and practices. The final phase of the project focused on identification of the most significant human factors problems with respect to safe and effective operation of the teletherapy system and an identification and assessment of alternative approaches for resolving the problems. This report presents the findings of this final phase.

  13. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Identification of problems and alternative approaches. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R.; Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.I.

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations was undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multi-disciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. The principal sources of radiation are a radioactive isotope, typically cobalt60 (Co-60), or a linear accelerator device capable of producing very high energy x-ray and electron beams. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation technologists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was initially performed to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of user-system interfaces, procedures, training and qualifications, and organizational policies and practices. The final phase of the project focused on identification of the most significant human factors problems with respect to safe and effective operation of the teletherapy system and an identification and assessment of alternative approaches for resolving the problems. This report presents the findings of this final phase

  14. The energy show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  15. CERN on show

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Last week I was in Ankara to discuss Turkish accession to CERN, and to take part in the opening of CERN’s main travelling exhibition at the Middle East Technical University. I was astonished at the crowds of people the exhibition drew in, and I’m told that it’s a similar story wherever it goes. Our smaller exhibition stands are also much in demand across our Member States.   You don’t have to travel to Ankara, however, to experience the same phenomenon – just go to Building 33 any time from Monday to Saturday and you’ll get the idea. But although we’ve worked hard over recent years to increase our capacity for visits to a level approaching 80,000 per year, there’s still a long waiting list. And that’s a problem. The success of the Visits Service rests on the goodwill of all the CERNois who volunteer to be guides, as well as those who graciously allow increasing numbers of visitors into their workplaces...

  16. A nested case-control approach to interactions between radiation dose and other factors as causes of cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, Charles E [Department of Epidemiology, Radiation Epidemiology Branch, US National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Often a nested case-control study is the most practicable approach to estimating the interaction of two cancer risk factors in a large cohort. If one of the factors has already been evaluated for the entire cohort, however, more information is already available about its relationship to risk than could be obtained from a nested study. A modified case-control approach is proposed, in which information about the second, unknown factor is sought for cases and controls matched on the first factor. The approach requires, for interaction models other than the multiplicative, a nonstandard analytical approach incorporating cohort-based information about the first factor. The problem is discussed in the context of breast cancer risk in a defined cohort of female Japanese atomic bomb survivors, in relation to radiation dose and reproductive history. (author)

  17. Key Factors Affecting the Price of Airbnb Listings: A Geographically Weighted Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Zhihua Zhang; Rachel J. C. Chen; Lee D. Han; Lu Yang

    2017-01-01

    Airbnb has been increasingly gaining popularity since 2008 due to its low prices and direct interactions with the local community. This paper employed a general linear model (GLM) and a geographically weighted regression (GWR) model to identify the key factors affecting Airbnb listing prices using data sets of 794 samples of Airbnb listings of business units in Metro Nashville, Tennessee. The results showed that the GWR model performs better than the GLM in terms of accuracy and affected vari...

  18. Retrospective analysis of 104 histologically proven adult brainstem gliomas: clinical symptoms, therapeutic approaches and prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reithmeier, Thomas; Kuzeawu, Aanyo; Hentschel, Bettina; Loeffler, Markus; Trippel, Michael; Nikkhah, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Adult brainstem gliomas are rare primary brain tumors (<2% of gliomas). The goal of this study was to analyze clinical, prognostic and therapeutic factors in a large series of histologically proven brainstem gliomas. Between 1997 and 2007, 104 patients with a histologically proven brainstem glioma were retrospectively analyzed. Data about clinical course of disease, neuropathological findings and therapeutic approaches were analyzed. The median age at diagnosis was 41 years (range 18-89 years), median KPS before any operative procedure was 80 (range 20-100) and median survival for the whole cohort was 18.8 months. Histopathological examinations revealed 16 grade I, 31 grade II, 42 grade III and 14 grade IV gliomas. Grading was not possible in 1 patient. Therapeutic concepts differed according to the histopathology of the disease. Median overall survival for grade II tumors was 26.4 months, for grade III tumors 12.9 months and for grade IV tumors 9.8 months. On multivariate analysis the relative risk to die increased with a KPS ≤ 70 by factor 6.7, with grade III/IV gliomas by the factor 1.8 and for age ≥ 40 by the factor 1.7. External beam radiation reduced the risk to die by factor 0.4. Adult brainstem gliomas present with a wide variety of neurological symptoms and postoperative radiation remains the cornerstone of therapy with no proven benefit of adding chemotherapy. Low KPS, age ≥ 40 and higher tumor grade have a negative impact on overall survival

  19. A multidimensional approach to understanding the potential risk factors and covariates of adult picky eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jordan M; Schenk, Rebecca R; Galloway, Amy T; Zickgraf, Hana F; Webb, Rose Mary; Martz, Denise M

    2018-06-01

    Adult picky eating (PE) has received increased attention in the eating behavior literature due to its important association with adult avoidant-restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID). The current study tested a model of potential risk factors of adult PE behavior, including perceived early parental feeding practices. An exploratory model was also utilized to understand associations with different aspects of adult PE behaviors. A sample of 1339 US adults recruited through Amazon's MTurk completed an online survey that included the recently developed Adult Picky Eating Questionnaire (APEQ), retrospective reports of parental feeding practices, and other measures of eating behavior and demographic variables. A structural equation modeling procedure tested a series of regression models that included BMI and disordered eating behaviors as covariates. SEM modeling indicated that retrospective reports of greater parental pressure to eat, higher disgust sensitivity, lower PE age of onset, and experiencing an aversive food event were associated with general adult PE behavior. Results also indicated parental encouragement of healthy eating may be a protective factor, and that men endorsed higher levels of adult PE. Exploratory analyses indicated that cross-sectional predictors and covariates were differentially related to specific aspects of PE as measured by the APEQ subscales. Early experiences, including parental approaches to feeding, appear to be potential risk factors of PE behavior in adults. A nuanced understanding of adult PE is important for the prevention and treatment of severe PE behaviors, related psychosocial impairment, and ARFID. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A plastic stress intensity factor approach to turbine disk structural integrity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shlyannikov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study based on a new fracture mechanics parameter is concerned with assessing the integrity of cracked steam turbine disk which operate under startup-shutdown cyclic loading conditions. Damage accumulation and growth in service have occurred on the inner surface of slot fillet of key. In order to determine elastic-plastic fracture mechanics parameters full-size stress-strain state analysis of turbine disk was performed for a quote-elliptical part-through cracks under considering loading conditions. As a result distributions of elastic and plastic stress intensity factors along crack front in slot fillet of key of turbine disk depending on surface crack form are defined. An engineering approach to the prediction of carrying capacity of cracked turbine disk which is sensitive to the loading history at maintenance is proposed. The predictions of the rate of crack growth and residual lifetime of steam turbine disk are compared for elastic and elastic-plastic solutions. It is shown that the previously proposed elastic crack growth models provide overestimate the lifetime with respect to the present one. An advantage to use the plastic stress intensity factor to characterize the fracture resistance as the self-dependent unified parameter for a variety of turbine disk configurations rather than the magnitude of the elastic stress intensity factors alone is discussed.

  1. From the big five to the general factor of personality: a dynamic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micó, Joan C; Amigó, Salvador; Caselles, Antonio

    2014-10-28

    An integrating and dynamic model of personality that allows predicting the response of the basic factors of personality, such as the Big Five Factors (B5F) or the general factor of personality (GFP) to acute doses of drug is presented in this paper. Personality has a dynamic nature, i.e., as a consequence of a stimulus, the GFP dynamics as well as each one of the B5F of personality dynamics can be explained by the same model (a system of three coupled differential equations). From this invariance hypothesis, a partial differential equation, whose solution relates the GFP with each one of the B5F, is deduced. From this dynamic approach, a co-evolution of the GFP and each one of the B5F occurs, rather than an unconnected evolution, as a consequence of the same stimulus. The hypotheses and deductions are validated through an experimental design centered on the individual, where caffeine is the considered stimulus. Thus, as much from a theoretical point of view as from an applied one, the models here proposed open a new perspective in the understanding and study of personality like a global system that interacts intimately with the environment, being a clear bet for the high level inter-disciplinary research.

  2. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  3. Multi-factor challenge/response approach for remote biometric authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Assam, Hisham; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2011-06-01

    Although biometric authentication is perceived to be more reliable than traditional authentication schemes, it becomes vulnerable to many attacks when it comes to remote authentication over open networks and raises serious privacy concerns. This paper proposes a biometric-based challenge-response approach to be used for remote authentication between two parties A and B over open networks. In the proposed approach, a remote authenticator system B (e.g. a bank) challenges its client A who wants to authenticate his/her self to the system by sending a one-time public random challenge. The client A responds by employing the random challenge along with secret information obtained from a password and a token to produce a one-time cancellable representation of his freshly captured biometric sample. The one-time biometric representation, which is based on multi-factor, is then sent back to B for matching. Here, we argue that eavesdropping of the one-time random challenge and/or the resulting one-time biometric representation does not compromise the security of the system, and no information about the original biometric data is leaked. In addition to securing biometric templates, the proposed protocol offers a practical solution for the replay attack on biometric systems. Moreover, we propose a new scheme for generating a password-based pseudo random numbers/permutation to be used as a building block in the proposed approach. The proposed scheme is also designed to provide protection against repudiation. We illustrate the viability and effectiveness of the proposed approach by experimental results based on two biometric modalities: fingerprint and face biometrics.

  4. Automatic Sky View Factor Estimation from Street View Photographs—A Big Data Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Liang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemispherical (fisheye photography is a well-established approach for estimating the sky view factor (SVF. High-resolution urban models from LiDAR and oblique airborne photogrammetry can provide continuous SVF estimates over a large urban area, but such data are not always available and are difficult to acquire. Street view panoramas have become widely available in urban areas worldwide: Google Street View (GSV maintains a global network of panoramas excluding China and several other countries; Baidu Street View (BSV and Tencent Street View (TSV focus their panorama acquisition efforts within China, and have covered hundreds of cities therein. In this paper, we approach this issue from a big data perspective by presenting and validating a method for automatic estimation of SVF from massive amounts of street view photographs. Comparisons were made with SVF estimates derived from two independent sources: a LiDAR-based Digital Surface Model (DSM and an oblique airborne photogrammetry-based 3D city model (OAP3D, resulting in a correlation coefficient of 0.863 and 0.987, respectively. The comparisons demonstrated the capacity of the proposed method to provide reliable SVF estimates. Additionally, we present an application of the proposed method with about 12,000 GSV panoramas to characterize the spatial distribution of SVF over Manhattan Island in New York City. Although this is a proof-of-concept study, it has shown the potential of the proposed approach to assist urban climate and urban planning research. However, further development is needed before this approach can be finally delivered to the urban climate and urban planning communities for practical applications.

  5. Treatment-Related Predictive and Prognostic Factors in Trimodality Approach in Stage IIIA/N2 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremić, Branislav; Casas, Francesc; Dubinsky, Pavol; Gomez-Caamano, Antonio; Čihorić, Nikola; Videtic, Gregory; Igrutinovic, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    While there are no established pretreatment predictive and prognostic factors in patients with stage IIIA/pN2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) indicating a benefit to surgery as a part of trimodality approach, little is known about treatment-related predictive and prognostic factors in this setting. A literature search was conducted to identify possible treatment-related predictive and prognostic factors for patients for whom trimodality approach was reported on. Overall survival was the primary endpoint of this study. Of 30 identified studies, there were two phase II studies, 5 "prospective" studies, and 23 retrospective studies. No study was found which specifically looked at treatment-related predictive factors of improved outcomes in trimodality treatment. Of potential treatment-related prognostic factors, the least frequently analyzed factors among 30 available studies were overall pathologic stage after preoperative treatment and UICC downstaging. Evaluation of treatment response before surgery and by pathologic tumor stage after induction therapy were analyzed in slightly more than 40% of studies and found not to influence survival. More frequently studied factors-resection status, degree of tumor regression, and pathologic nodal stage after induction therapy as well as the most frequently studied factor, the treatment (in almost 75% studies)-showed no discernible impact on survival, due to conflicting results. Currently, it is impossible to identify any treatment-related predictive or prognostic factors for selecting surgery in the treatment of patients with stage IIIA/pN2 NSCLC.

  6. Separating method factors and higher order traits of the Big Five: a meta-analytic multitrait-multimethod approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Luye; Connelly, Brian S; Geeza, Alexis A

    2012-02-01

    Though most personality researchers now recognize that ratings of the Big Five are not orthogonal, the field has been divided about whether these trait intercorrelations are substantive (i.e., driven by higher order factors) or artifactual (i.e., driven by correlated measurement error). We used a meta-analytic multitrait-multirater study to estimate trait correlations after common method variance was controlled. Our results indicated that common method variance substantially inflates trait correlations, and, once controlled, correlations among the Big Five became relatively modest. We then evaluated whether two different theories of higher order factors could account for the pattern of Big Five trait correlations. Our results did not support Rushton and colleagues' (Rushton & Irwing, 2008; Rushton et al., 2009) proposed general factor of personality, but Digman's (1997) α and β metatraits (relabeled by DeYoung, Peterson, and Higgins (2002) as Stability and Plasticity, respectively) produced viable fit. However, our models showed considerable overlap between Stability and Emotional Stability and between Plasticity and Extraversion, raising the question of whether these metatraits are redundant with their dominant Big Five traits. This pattern of findings was robust when we included only studies whose observers were intimately acquainted with targets. Our results underscore the importance of using a multirater approach to studying personality and the need to separate the causes and outcomes of higher order metatraits from those of the Big Five. We discussed the implications of these findings for the array of research fields in which personality is studied.

  7. A propensity score approach to correction for bias due to population stratification using genetic and non-genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huaqing; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Mitra, Nandita

    2009-12-01

    Confounding due to population stratification (PS) arises when differences in both allele and disease frequencies exist in a population of mixed racial/ethnic subpopulations. Genomic control, structured association, principal components analysis (PCA), and multidimensional scaling (MDS) approaches have been proposed to address this bias using genetic markers. However, confounding due to PS can also be due to non-genetic factors. Propensity scores are widely used to address confounding in observational studies but have not been adapted to deal with PS in genetic association studies. We propose a genomic propensity score (GPS) approach to correct for bias due to PS that considers both genetic and non-genetic factors. We compare the GPS method with PCA and MDS using simulation studies. Our results show that GPS can adequately adjust and consistently correct for bias due to PS. Under no/mild, moderate, and severe PS, GPS yielded estimated with bias close to 0 (mean=-0.0044, standard error=0.0087). Under moderate or severe PS, the GPS method consistently outperforms the PCA method in terms of bias, coverage probability (CP), and type I error. Under moderate PS, the GPS method consistently outperforms the MDS method in terms of CP. PCA maintains relatively high power compared to both MDS and GPS methods under the simulated situations. GPS and MDS are comparable in terms of statistical properties such as bias, type I error, and power. The GPS method provides a novel and robust tool for obtaining less-biased estimates of genetic associations that can consider both genetic and non-genetic factors. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Typological and dimensional approach at comparing the Giessen Test (GT) with the NEO-Five-Factor-Inventory (NEO-FFI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Marcus; Körner, Annett; Herzberg, Philipp Yorck

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This article reports comparisons of the Giessen Test (GT) with the NEO-Five-Factor-Inventory (NEO-FFI) based on a dimensional as well as on a typological approach. Method: Data were collected from 1673 subjects (aged between 18 and 96 years) constituting a representative sample of the German population. Results: The results indicate only moderate agreement (ranging from .25 to .61) between the subscales of the two personality inventories. The correspondence seems to be somewhat higher, when the typological approach was used instead of the dimensional approach. Conclusions: The typological approach is less dependent on the underlying questionnaires and provides a useful extension of the dimensional approach. PMID:19742276

  9. Computational Modelling Approaches on Epigenetic Factors in Neurodegenerative and Autoimmune Diseases and Their Mechanistic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afroza Khanam Irin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative as well as autoimmune diseases have unclear aetiologies, but an increasing number of evidences report for a combination of genetic and epigenetic alterations that predispose for the development of disease. This review examines the major milestones in epigenetics research in the context of diseases and various computational approaches developed in the last decades to unravel new epigenetic modifications. However, there are limited studies that systematically link genetic and epigenetic alterations of DNA to the aetiology of diseases. In this work, we demonstrate how disease-related epigenetic knowledge can be systematically captured and integrated with heterogeneous information into a functional context using Biological Expression Language (BEL. This novel methodology, based on BEL, enables us to integrate epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation or acetylation of histones into a specific disease network. As an example, we depict the integration of epigenetic and genetic factors in a functional context specific to Parkinson’s disease (PD and Multiple Sclerosis (MS.

  10. A Systematic Approach to Identify Candidate Transcription Factors that Control Cell Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. D’Alessio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of transcription factors (TFs are expressed in each cell type, but cell identity can be induced through the activity of just a small number of core TFs. Systematic identification of these core TFs for a wide variety of cell types is currently lacking and would establish a foundation for understanding the transcriptional control of cell identity in development, disease, and cell-based therapy. Here, we describe a computational approach that generates an atlas of candidate core TFs for a broad spectrum of human cells. The potential impact of the atlas was demonstrated via cellular reprogramming efforts where candidate core TFs proved capable of converting human fibroblasts to retinal pigment epithelial-like cells. These results suggest that candidate core TFs from the atlas will prove a useful starting point for studying transcriptional control of cell identity and reprogramming in many human cell types.

  11. Psychosomatic Factors and Psychologic Status in Psoriatic Patients and Approach to the Psoriatic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul H. Aydemir

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Even if it has not been completely proven, psychosomatic factors are generally agreed and most of the patients talk about stress and the other emotional traumas at the beginning of disease and at the attacks. Furthermore since it is a difficult to treat disease easily seen on the skin, cause to hopeless, loneliness and isolation senses and they feel theirselves dirty and guilty. Then it leads to an unbreakable vicious circle. It is very important to make an approach with much care and affection. It is very important that to listen, to examine and to touch the dermatologist to the patient with patience and affection. Besides that to take a psychiatric support may also help too much to the treatment of the diseases.

  12. Factors Affecting M-commerce Adoption in Oman using Technology Acceptance Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Jafar Naqvi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The advancement in mobile technologies has influenced many countries to adopt mobile services in their private and public organizations including Oman. M-commerce services are growing rapidly with the exponential growth of mobile devices, technologies and networks. Hence, many business organizations private or public use them to improve revenue, reduce costs, maintain their competitive edge and achieve a level of high efficiency. Although there were many M-commerce services introduced, it was hard to find evidence of any study conducted to determine their successes or failures. This study is an attempt to explore the factors affecting the adoption of M-commerce services in Oman using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM approach.

  13. The decay of Λ{sub b} → p K{sup -} in QCD factorization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Jie; Wei, Zheng-Tao [Nankai University, School of Physics, Tianjin (China); Ke, Hong-Wei [Tianjin University, School of Science, Tianjin (China)

    2016-05-15

    With only the tree-level operator, the decay of Λ{sub b} → p K{sup -} is predicted to be one order smaller than the experimental data. The QCD penguin effects should be taken into account. In this paper, we explore the one-loop QCD corrections to the decay of Λ{sub b} → p K{sup -} within the framework of QCD factorization approach. For the baryon system, the diquark approximation is adopted. The transition hadronic matrix elements between Λ{sub b} and p are calculated in the light-front quark model. The branching ratio of Λ{sub b} → p K{sup -} is predicted to be about 4.85 x 10{sup -6}, which is consistent with experimental data (4.9 ± 0.9) x 10{sup -6}. The CP violation is about 5 % in theory. (orig.)

  14. A new FACS approach isolates hESC derived endoderm using transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiong Pan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We show that high quality microarray gene expression profiles can be obtained following FACS sorting of cells using combinations of transcription factors. We use this transcription factor FACS (tfFACS methodology to perform a genomic analysis of hESC-derived endodermal lineages marked by combinations of SOX17, GATA4, and CXCR4, and find that triple positive cells have a much stronger definitive endoderm signature than other combinations of these markers. Additionally, SOX17(+ GATA4(+ cells can be obtained at a much earlier stage of differentiation, prior to expression of CXCR4(+ cells, providing an important new tool to isolate this earlier definitive endoderm subtype. Overall, tfFACS represents an advancement in FACS technology which broadly crosses multiple disciplines, most notably in regenerative medicine to redefine cellular populations.

  15. Dynamic SPECT reconstruction from few projections: a sparsity enforced matrix factorization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qiaoqiao; Zan, Yunlong; Huang, Qiu; Zhang, Xiaoqun

    2015-02-01

    The reconstruction of dynamic images from few projection data is a challenging problem, especially when noise is present and when the dynamic images are vary fast. In this paper, we propose a variational model, sparsity enforced matrix factorization (SEMF), based on low rank matrix factorization of unknown images and enforced sparsity constraints for representing both coefficients and bases. The proposed model is solved via an alternating iterative scheme for which each subproblem is convex and involves the efficient alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). The convergence of the overall alternating scheme for the nonconvex problem relies upon the Kurdyka-Łojasiewicz property, recently studied by Attouch et al (2010 Math. Oper. Res. 35 438) and Attouch et al (2013 Math. Program. 137 91). Finally our proof-of-concept simulation on 2D dynamic images shows the advantage of the proposed method compared to conventional methods.

  16. SU-E-T-469: A Practical Approach for the Determination of Small Field Output Factors Using Published Monte Carlo Derived Correction Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, E; Siergiej, D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Output factor determination for small fields (less than 20 mm) presents significant challenges due to ion chamber volume averaging and diode over-response. Measured output factor values between detectors are known to have large deviations as field sizes are decreased. No set standard to resolve this difference in measurement exists. We observed differences between measured output factors of up to 14% using two different detectors. Published Monte Carlo derived correction factors were used to address this challenge and decrease the output factor deviation between detectors. Methods: Output factors for Elekta's linac-based stereotactic cone system were measured using the EDGE detector (Sun Nuclear) and the A16 ion chamber (Standard Imaging). Measurements conditions were 100 cm SSD (source to surface distance) and 1.5 cm depth. Output factors were first normalized to a 10.4 cm × 10.4 cm field size using a daisy-chaining technique to minimize the dependence of field size on detector response. An equation expressing the relation between published Monte Carlo correction factors as a function of field size for each detector was derived. The measured output factors were then multiplied by the calculated correction factors. EBT3 gafchromic film dosimetry was used to independently validate the corrected output factors. Results: Without correction, the deviation in output factors between the EDGE and A16 detectors ranged from 1.3 to 14.8%, depending on cone size. After applying the calculated correction factors, this deviation fell to 0 to 3.4%. Output factors determined with film agree within 3.5% of the corrected output factors. Conclusion: We present a practical approach to applying published Monte Carlo derived correction factors to measured small field output factors for the EDGE and A16 detectors. Using this method, we were able to decrease the percent deviation between both detectors from 14.8% to 3.4% agreement

  17. An approach for prediction of petroleum production facility performance considering Arctic influence factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xueli; Barabady, Javad; Markeset, Tore

    2010-01-01

    As the oil and gas (O and G) industry is increasing the focus on petroleum exploration and development in the Arctic region, it is becoming increasingly important to design exploration and production facilities to suit the local operating conditions. The cold and harsh climate, the long distance from customer and suppliers' markets, and the sensitive environment may have considerable influence on the choice of design solutions and production performance characteristics such as throughput capacity, reliability, availability, maintainability, and supportability (RAMS) as well as operational and maintenance activities. Due to this, data and information collected for similar systems used in a normal climate may not be suitable. Hence, it is important to study and develop methods for prediction of the production performance characteristics during the design and operation phases. The aim of this paper is to present an approach for prediction of the production performance for oil and gas production facilities considering influencing factors in Arctic conditions. The proportional repair model (PRM) is developed in order to predict repair rate in Arctic conditions. The model is based on the proportional hazard model (PHM). A simple case study is used to demonstrate how the proposed approach can be applied.

  18. Distance Factors and Croatian Export Obstacles in the EU15: CAGE Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Miloloža

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For long-term sustainability of any enterprise, it is required to observe each market separately and systematically modify business approach to prevailing conditions in each. However, adaptation to each market can be a complex affair that requires certain financial costs but ignoring distinguishing criteria leads to reduction in revenues and undermines long-term profitability. Time saving and cost-effectiveness can be achieved by application of The CAGE Distance Framework – a model that analysis all diversities between two or more countries. Croatia did not yet utilize the benefits that European Union membership provides nor did significantly improved its international business. It is obvious that Croatia faces difficulties in the strategic approach to prospective foreign markets. Therefore, emphasis of this article is on analysis and identification of the distinguishing factors between Croatia and the EU15 in order to facilitate and enhance cooperation among them in the future. Throughout the analysis of Croatian export from the beginning of the economic crisis, this article gives an overview of international collaboration among Croatia and the EU15 and comparative analysis by using The CAGE Distance Framework. This analysis has confirmed significant fluctuations, unexploited potential and problems of the Croatian economy in all dimensions of The CAGE model.

  19. Perspective on Human and Organizational Factors (HOF) - Attempt of a Systemic Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meynen, F.

    2016-01-01

    The presentation will raise questions concerning current conceptions and practices related to human and organizational factors and will focus on the need of a more systemic view and approaches in the nuclear industry. In practice, attention is often focused unilaterally on technical aspects, neglecting the interactions and interfaces between the organization, the people and the technology. The work in the different areas takes place with different approaches, based on different technical backgrounds but also on different cultures of the country, the company, the plant, etc. Also within the concept of defence-in-depth the attention normally lies on the technical safety levels, although similar provisions exist in the organizational field. While the technical systems are always evolving and their reliability increases, the question of their implications for the organizations and the people who work with these systems is not always analysed in depth. Also, it should not be focused only on the staff in the control room. Attention must be directed also to the support organizations (maintenance, analysis, monitoring, etc.) and to the manufacturer, which play a significant and sometimes underestimated role in the overall system as well. Further, there is a tendency to reduce the complexity by looking at individual aspects such as “safety culture”, “resilience”, “management systems”, “training”, “organizational structure”, etc., often without going beyond into a systemic approach. This requires the involvement of all different disciplines. Hence, dealing with the issue of HOF also means creating a basis to understand the complexity of the interactions between human, organizational and technical aspects. For this a very good knowledge and solid experience in these different fields are required. The presentation will give some examples from other industries and the three major nuclear accidents of Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima as an

  20. Multilateral nuclear approaches (MNAs), factors and issues lessons from IAEA study to regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo

    2005-01-01

    In response to the increasing emphasis being placed on the importance of international cooperation as part of global efforts to cope with growing non proliferation, and security concerns in the nuclear field, the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Mohammed Elbaradei, appointed an international group of experts to consider possible multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle. The mandate of the Expert Group was three fold: · To identify and provide an analysis of issues and options relevant to multilateral approaches to the front and back ends of the nuclear fuel cycle; · To provide an overview of the policy, legal, security, economic, institutional and technological incentives and disincentives for cooperation in multilateral arrangements for the front and back ends of the nuclear fuel cycle; and · To provide a brief review of the historical and current experiences and analyses relating to multilateral fuel cycle arrangements relevant to the work of the Expert Group. The overall purpose was to assess MNAs in the framework of a double objective: strengthening the international nuclear non proliferation regime and making the peaceful uses of nuclear energy more economical and attractive. The Group identifies options for MNAs - options in terms of policy, institutional and legal factors - for those parts of the nuclear fuel cycle of greatest sensitivity from the point of view of proliferation risk. It also reflects the Groups deliberations on the corresponding benefits and disadvantages (pros and cons) of the various options and approaches. Although the Expert Group was able to agree to forward the resulting report to the Director General, it is important to note that the report does not reflect agreement by all of the experts on any of the options, nor a consensus assessment of their respective value. It is intended only to present options for MNAs, and to reflect on the range of considerations which could impact on the

  1. A statistical approach to estimating soil-to-plant transfer factor of strontium in agricultural fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Nao; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2009-01-01

    Soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) is one of the important parameters in radiation dose assessment models for the environmental transfer of radionuclides. Since TFs are affected by several factors, including radionuclides, plant species and soil properties, development of a method for estimation of TF using some soil and plant properties would be useful. In this study, we took a statistical approach to estimating the TF of stable strontium (TF Sr ) from selected soil properties and element concentrations in plants, which was used as an analogue of 90 Sr. We collected the plant and soil samples used for the study from 142 agricultural fields throughout Japan. We applied a multiple linear regression analysis in order to get an empirical equation to estimate TF Sr . TF Sr could be estimated from the Sr concentration in soil (C Sr soil ) and Ca concentration in crop (C Ca crop ) using the following equation: log TF Sr =-0.88·log C Sr soil +0.93·log C Ca crop -2.53. Then, we replaced our data with Ca concentrations in crops from a food composition database compiled by the Japanese government. Finally, we predicted TF Sr using Sr concentration in soil from our data and Ca concentration in crops from the database of food composition. (author)

  2. A macroepigenetic approach to identify factors responsible for the autism epidemic in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dufault Renee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The number of children ages 6 to 21 in the United States receiving special education services under the autism disability category increased 91% between 2005 to 2010 while the number of children receiving special education services overall declined by 5%. The demand for special education services continues to rise in disability categories associated with pervasive developmental disorders. Neurodevelopment can be adversely impacted when gene expression is altered by dietary transcription factors, such as zinc insufficiency or deficiency, or by exposure to toxic substances found in our environment, such as mercury or organophosphate pesticides. Gene expression patterns differ geographically between populations and within populations. Gene variants of paraoxonase-1 are associated with autism in North America, but not in Italy, indicating regional specificity in gene-environment interactions. In the current review, we utilize a novel macroepigenetic approach to compare variations in diet and toxic substance exposure between these two geographical populations to determine the likely factors responsible for the autism epidemic in the United States.

  3. Inclusive Higgs boson production at the LHC in the k{sub T}-factorization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulov, N.A. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Faculty of Physics; Lipatov, A.V. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics; Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Malyshev, M.A. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics

    2017-08-15

    We investigate the inclusive Higgs boson production in proton-proton collisions at the CERN LHC conditions using the k{sub T}-factorization approach. Our analysis is based on the dominant off-shell gluon-gluon fusion subprocess (where the transverse momenta of initial gluons are taken into account) and covers H→γγ, H→ZZ{sup *}→4l (where l=e,μ) and H→W{sup +}W{sup -}→e{sup ±}μ{sup -+}ν anti ν decay channels. The transverse momentum dependent (or unintegrated) gluon densities in a proton were derived from Ciafaloni-Catani-Fiorani-Marchesini equation or, alternatively, were chosen in accordance with Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. We estimate the theoretical uncertainties of our calculations and compare our results with next-to-next-to-leading-order plus next-to-next-to-leading-logarithmic ones obtained using collinear QCD factorization. Our predictions agree well with the latest experimental data taken by the CMS and ATLAS Collaborations at √(s)=8 and 13 TeV.

  4. Biomechanical approaches to identify and quantify injury mechanisms and risk factors in women's artistic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth J; Hume, Patria A

    2012-09-01

    Targeted injury prevention strategies, based on biomechanical analyses, have the potential to help reduce the incidence and severity of gymnastics injuries. This review outlines the potential benefits of biomechanics research to contribute to injury prevention strategies for women's artistic gymnastics by identification of mechanisms of injury and quantification of the effects of injury risk factors. One hundred and twenty-three articles were retained for review after searching electronic databases using key words, including 'gymnastic', 'biomech*', and 'inj*', and delimiting by language and relevance to the paper aim. Impact load can be measured biomechanically by the use of instrumented equipment (e.g. beatboard), instrumentation on the gymnast (accelerometers), or by landings on force plates. We need further information on injury mechanisms and risk factors in gymnastics and practical methods of monitoring training loads. We have not yet shown, beyond a theoretical approach, how biomechanical analysis of gymnastics can help reduce injury risk through injury prevention interventions. Given the high magnitude of impact load, both acute and accumulative, coaches should monitor impact loads per training session, taking into consideration training quality and quantity such as the control of rotation and the height from which the landings are executed.

  5. An evolutionary medicine approach to understanding factors that contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoshiba, Kazutetsu; Tsuji, Takao; Itoh, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies have been published on the causes and mechanisms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the reason for the existence of COPD and the reasons why COPD develops in humans have hardly been studied. Evolutionary medical approaches are required to explain not only the proximate factors, such as the causes and mechanisms of a disease, but the ultimate (evolutionary) factors as well, such as why the disease is present and why the disease develops in humans. According to the concepts of evolutionary medicine, disease susceptibility is acquired as a result of natural selection during the evolutionary process of traits linked to the genes involved in disease susceptibility. In this paper, we discuss the following six reasons why COPD develops in humans based on current evolutionary medical theories: (1) evolutionary constraints; (2) mismatch between environmental changes and evolution; (3) co-evolution with pathogenic microorganisms; (4) life history trade-off; (5) defenses and their costs, and (6) reproductive success at the expense of health. Our perspective pursues evolutionary answers to the fundamental question, 'Why are humans susceptible to this common disease, COPD, despite their long evolutionary history?' We believe that the perspectives offered by evolutionary medicine are essential for researchers to better understand the significance of their work.

  6. The systems approach to error reduction: factors influencing inoculation injury reporting in the operating theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter, Jayne; Jordan, Sue

    2013-11-01

    To examine the frequency of, and factors influencing, reporting of mucocutaneous and percutaneous injuries in operating theatres. Surgeons and peri-operative nurses risk acquiring blood-borne viral infections during surgical procedures. Appropriate first-aid and prophylactic treatment after an injury can significantly reduce the risk of infection. However, studies indicate that injuries often go unreported. The 'systems approach' to error reduction relies on reporting incidents and near misses. Failure to report will compromise safety. A postal survey of all surgeons and peri-operative nurses engaged in exposure prone procedures in nine Welsh hospitals, face-to-face interviews with selected participants and telephone interviews with Infection Control Nurses. The response rate was 51.47% (315/612). Most respondents reported one or more percutaneous (183/315, 58.1%) and/or mucocutaneous injuries (68/315, 21.6%) in the 5 years preceding the study. Only 54.9% (112/204) reported every injury. Surgeons were poorer at reporting: 70/133 (52.6%) reported all or >50% of their injuries compared with 65/71 nurses (91.5%). Injuries are frequently under-reported, possibly compromising safety in operating theatres. A significant number of inoculation injuries are not reported. Factors influencing under-reporting were identified. This knowledge can assist managers in improving reporting and encouraging a robust safety culture within operating departments. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Inclusive Higgs boson production at the LHC in the kT-factorization approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulov, N.A.; Malyshev, M.A.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the inclusive Higgs boson production in proton-proton collisions at the CERN LHC conditions using the k T -factorization approach. Our analysis is based on the dominant off-shell gluon-gluon fusion subprocess (where the transverse momenta of initial gluons are taken into account) and covers H→γγ, H→ZZ * →4l (where l=e,μ) and H→W + W - →e ± μ -+ ν anti ν decay channels. The transverse momentum dependent (or unintegrated) gluon densities in a proton were derived from Ciafaloni-Catani-Fiorani-Marchesini equation or, alternatively, were chosen in accordance with Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. We estimate the theoretical uncertainties of our calculations and compare our results with next-to-next-to-leading-order plus next-to-next-to-leading-logarithmic ones obtained using collinear QCD factorization. Our predictions agree well with the latest experimental data taken by the CMS and ATLAS Collaborations at √(s)=8 and 13 TeV.

  8. Sequence2Vec: A novel embedding approach for modeling transcription factor binding affinity landscape

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Hanjun

    2017-07-26

    Motivation: An accurate characterization of transcription factor (TF)-DNA affinity landscape is crucial to a quantitative understanding of the molecular mechanisms underpinning endogenous gene regulation. While recent advances in biotechnology have brought the opportunity for building binding affinity prediction methods, the accurate characterization of TF-DNA binding affinity landscape still remains a challenging problem. Results: Here we propose a novel sequence embedding approach for modeling the transcription factor binding affinity landscape. Our method represents DNA binding sequences as a hidden Markov model (HMM) which captures both position specific information and long-range dependency in the sequence. A cornerstone of our method is a novel message passing-like embedding algorithm, called Sequence2Vec, which maps these HMMs into a common nonlinear feature space and uses these embedded features to build a predictive model. Our method is a novel combination of the strength of probabilistic graphical models, feature space embedding and deep learning. We conducted comprehensive experiments on over 90 large-scale TF-DNA data sets which were measured by different high-throughput experimental technologies. Sequence2Vec outperforms alternative machine learning methods as well as the state-of-the-art binding affinity prediction methods.

  9. Inclusive Higgs boson production at the LHC in the kT -factorization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulov, N. A.; Lipatov, A. V.; Malyshev, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the inclusive Higgs boson production in proton-proton collisions at the CERN LHC conditions using the kT-factorization approach. Our analysis is based on the dominant off-shell gluon-gluon fusion subprocess (where the transverse momenta of initial gluons are taken into account) and covers H →γ γ , H →Z Z*→4 l (where l =e , μ ) and H →W+W-→e±μ∓ν ν ¯ decay channels. The transverse momentum dependent (or unintegrated) gluon densities in a proton were derived from Ciafaloni-Catani-Fiorani-Marchesini equation, which resums large logarithmic terms proportional to ln s ˜ln 1 /x , important at high energies. As an alternative choice, we apply the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription, where the transverse momentum dependent gluon density is constructed from the known conventional parton distributions. We estimate the theoretical uncertainties of our calculations and compare our results with next-to-next-to-leading-order plus next-to-next-to-leading-logarithmic ones obtained using collinear QCD factorization. Our predictions agree well with the latest experimental data taken by the CMS and ATLAS Collaborations at √{s }=8 and 13 TeV.

  10. Evaluation of approaches to monitor Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor expression during human disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Rozemeijer

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile pathogen of medical significance, using multiple virulence factors to cause disease. A prophylactic S. aureus 4-antigen (SA4Ag vaccine comprising capsular polysaccharide (types 5 and 8 conjugates, clumping factor A (ClfA and manganese transporter C (MntC is under development. This study was designed to characterize S. aureus isolates recovered from infected patients and also to investigate approaches for examining expression of S. aureus vaccine candidates and the host response during human infection. Confirmation of antigen expression in different disease states is important to support the inclusion of these antigens in a prophylactic vaccine. Hospitalized patients with diagnosed S. aureus wound (27 or bloodstream (24 infections were enrolled. Invasive and nasal carriage S. aureus isolates were recovered and characterized for genotypic diversity. S. aureus antigen expression was evaluated directly by real-time, quantitative, reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR analysis and indirectly by serology using a competitive Luminex immunoassay. Study isolates were genotypically diverse and all had the genes encoding the antigens present in the SA4Ag vaccine. S. aureus nasal carriage was detected in 55% of patients, and in those subjects 64% of the carriage isolates matched the invasive strain. In swab samples with detectable S. aureus triosephosphate isomerase housekeeping gene expression, RNA transcripts encoding the S. aureus virulence factors ClfA, MntC, and capsule polysaccharide were detected by qRT-PCR. Antigen expression was indirectly confirmed by increases in antibody titer during the course of infection from acute to convalescent phase. Demonstration of bacterial transcript expression together with immunological response to the SA4Ag antigens in a clinically relevant patient population provides support for inclusion of these antigens in a prophylactic vaccine.

  11. Evaluation of approaches to monitor Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor expression during human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozemeijer, Wouter; Fink, Pamela; Rojas, Eduardo; Jones, C Hal; Pavliakova, Danka; Giardina, Peter; Murphy, Ellen; Liberator, Paul; Jiang, Qin; Girgenti, Douglas; Peters, Remco P H; Savelkoul, Paul H M; Jansen, Kathrin U; Anderson, Annaliesa S; Kluytmans, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile pathogen of medical significance, using multiple virulence factors to cause disease. A prophylactic S. aureus 4-antigen (SA4Ag) vaccine comprising capsular polysaccharide (types 5 and 8) conjugates, clumping factor A (ClfA) and manganese transporter C (MntC) is under development. This study was designed to characterize S. aureus isolates recovered from infected patients and also to investigate approaches for examining expression of S. aureus vaccine candidates and the host response during human infection. Confirmation of antigen expression in different disease states is important to support the inclusion of these antigens in a prophylactic vaccine. Hospitalized patients with diagnosed S. aureus wound (27) or bloodstream (24) infections were enrolled. Invasive and nasal carriage S. aureus isolates were recovered and characterized for genotypic diversity. S. aureus antigen expression was evaluated directly by real-time, quantitative, reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis and indirectly by serology using a competitive Luminex immunoassay. Study isolates were genotypically diverse and all had the genes encoding the antigens present in the SA4Ag vaccine. S. aureus nasal carriage was detected in 55% of patients, and in those subjects 64% of the carriage isolates matched the invasive strain. In swab samples with detectable S. aureus triosephosphate isomerase housekeeping gene expression, RNA transcripts encoding the S. aureus virulence factors ClfA, MntC, and capsule polysaccharide were detected by qRT-PCR. Antigen expression was indirectly confirmed by increases in antibody titer during the course of infection from acute to convalescent phase. Demonstration of bacterial transcript expression together with immunological response to the SA4Ag antigens in a clinically relevant patient population provides support for inclusion of these antigens in a prophylactic vaccine.

  12. Environmental and Geographical Factors Structure Soil Microbial Diversity in New Caledonian Ultramafic Substrates: A Metagenomic Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Gourmelon

    Full Text Available Soil microorganisms play key roles in ecosystem functioning and are known to be influenced by biotic and abiotic factors, such as plant cover or edaphic parameters. New Caledonia, a biodiversity hotspot located in the southwest Pacific, is one-third covered by ultramafic substrates. These types of soils are notably characterised by low nutrient content and high heavy metal concentrations. Ultramafic outcrops harbour diverse vegetation types and remarkable plant diversity. In this study, we aimed to assess soil bacterial and fungal diversity in New Caledonian ultramafic substrates and to determine whether floristic composition, edaphic parameters and geographical factors affect this microbial diversity. Therefore, four plant formation types at two distinct sites were studied. These formations represent different stages in a potential chronosequence. Soil cores, according to a given sampling procedure, were collected to assess microbial diversity using a metagenomic approach, and to characterise the physico-chemical parameters. A botanical inventory was also performed. Our results indicated that microbial richness, composition and abundance were linked to the plant cover type and the dominant plant species. Furthermore, a large proportion of Ascomycota phylum (fungi, mostly in non-rainforest formations, and Planctomycetes phylum (bacteria in all formations were observed. Interestingly, such patterns could be indicators of past disturbances that occurred on different time scales. Furthermore, the bacteria and fungi were influenced by diverse edaphic parameters as well as by the interplay between these two soil communities. Another striking finding was the existence of a site effect. Differences in microbial communities between geographical locations may be explained by dispersal limitation in the context of the biogeographical island theory. In conclusion, each plant formation at each site possesses is own microbial community resulting from

  13. Risk Factors for Visual Field Progression in the Groningen Longitudinal Glaucoma Study : A Comparison of Different Statistical Approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselink, Christiaan; Marcus, Michael W.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To identify risk factors for visual field progression in glaucoma and to compare different statistical approaches with this risk factor analysis. Patients and Methods: We included 221 eyes of 221 patients. Progression was analyzed using Nonparametric Progression Analysis applied to Humphrey

  14. Identification and Ranking of Critical Success Factors of Knowledge Management Using Fuzzy Quality Function Deployment Approach: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohaghar

    2014-02-01

    Based on the information accessible for the researchers, this is one of the first works which evaluates the key factors of successful knowledge management through fuzzy quality function deployment approach. It is expected that the proposed method would represent appropriate tools for enterprises which have decided to implement knowledge management because it prioritizes the critical success factors based on the knowledge management outcomes.

  15. A knowledge-based approach for C-factor mapping in Spain using Landsat TM and GIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veihe (former Folly), Anita; Bronsveld, M.C.; Clavaux, M

    1996-01-01

    The cover and management factor (C) in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), is one of the most important parameters for assessing erosion. In this study it is shown how a knowledge-based approach can be used to optimize C-factor mapping in the Mediterranean region being characterized...... to the limitations of the USLE...

  16. Uranium and radium in Finnsjoen - an experimental approach for calculation of transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, S.; Bergman, R.

    1981-01-01

    The radiological safety studies for underground disposal of HLW show that the future individual and collective doses to an important extent may originate from groundwater borne radium and uranium which reach the biosphere. Indications that the dispersion rates presently used give rise to overestimations of calculated doses justified an investigation for more realistic turnover rates of radium and uranium than those which now are in use. Within one of the sites selected for testing, the area around lake Finnsjoen, a small number of environmental samples were collected and analyzed with respect to radium and uranium and the new transfer coefficients between soil and lake water were derived. The dose rates obtained with the new transfer factors show a close agreement for radium and a slight increase for uranium compared with earlier calculations. (Auth.)

  17. Contextual Factors Affecting the Innovation Performance of Manufacturing SMEs in Korea: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Seul Choi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically explores the relationship between innovation performance and the internal and contextual factors driving technological innovation in manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in metropolitan areas of Korea using structural equation modeling (SEM. Our analysis is based on firm-level data from the Korean Innovation Survey conducted by the Science and Technology Policy Institute in 2012. According to the results, SMEs’ innovation capacity was positively related to technological innovation performance, and SMEs’ skills and technology acquisition is a contextual factor that positively influences their innovation performance. In this process, SMEs’ innovation capacity is a partial mediator between skills and technology acquisition and SMEs’ technological innovation performance. Moreover, the results show that the relationship between government and public policies and SMEs’ innovation performance is mediated by SMEs’ internal innovation capacity. The results imply that both skills and technology acquisition and government and public policies are important contextual factors can increase SMEs’ innovation performance. Based on the results, this study provides implications for policy makers in terms of the policies that provide both direct and support roles in fostering and sustaining innovation, which drives regional economic growth and development.

  18. A retrospective likelihood approach for efficient integration of multiple omics factors in case-control association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliu, Brunilda; Tsonaka, Roula; Boehringer, Stefan; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine

    2015-03-01

    Integrative omics, the joint analysis of outcome and multiple types of omics data, such as genomics, epigenomics, and transcriptomics data, constitute a promising approach for powerful and biologically relevant association studies. These studies often employ a case-control design, and often include nonomics covariates, such as age and gender, that may modify the underlying omics risk factors. An open question is how to best integrate multiple omics and nonomics information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals based on the phenotype. Recent work on integrative omics have used prospective approaches, modeling case-control status conditional on omics, and nonomics risk factors. Compared to univariate approaches, jointly analyzing multiple risk factors with a prospective approach increases power in nonascertained cohorts. However, these prospective approaches often lose power in case-control studies. In this article, we propose a novel statistical method for integrating multiple omics and nonomics factors in case-control association studies. Our method is based on a retrospective likelihood function that models the joint distribution of omics and nonomics factors conditional on case-control status. The new method provides accurate control of Type I error rate and has increased efficiency over prospective approaches in both simulated and real data. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A data mining approach to investigate the factors influencing the crash severity of motorcycle pillion passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli Kashani, Ali; Rabieyan, Rahim; Besharati, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-12-01

    Motorcycle passengers comprise a considerable proportion of traffic crash victims. During a 5 year period (2006-2010) in Iran, an average of 3.4 pillion passengers are killed daily due to motorcycle crashes. This study investigated the main factors influencing crash severity of this group of road users. The Classification and Regression Trees (CART) method was employed to analyze the injury severity of pillion passengers in Iran over a 4 y ear period (2009-2012). The predictive accuracy of the model built with a total of 16 variables was 74%, which showed a considerable improvement compared to previous studies. The results indicate that area type, land use, and injured part of the body (head, neck, etc.) are the most influential factors affecting the fatality of motorcycle passengers. Results also show that helmet usage could reduce the fatality risk among motorcycle passengers by 28%. The findings of this study might help develop more targeted countermeasures to reduce the death rate of motorcycle pillion passengers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Understanding factors associated with the translation of cardiovascular research: a multinational case study approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Funders of health research increasingly seek to understand how best to allocate resources in order to achieve maximum value from their funding. We built an international consortium and developed a multinational case study approach to assess benefits arising from health research. We used that to facilitate analysis of factors in the production of research that might be associated with translating research findings into wider impacts, and the complexities involved. Methods We built on the Payback Framework and expanded its application through conducting co-ordinated case studies on the payback from cardiovascular and stroke research in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom. We selected a stratified random sample of projects from leading medical research funders. We devised a series of innovative steps to: minimize the effect of researcher bias; rate the level of impacts identified in the case studies; and interrogate case study narratives to identify factors that correlated with achieving high or low levels of impact. Results Twenty-nine detailed case studies produced many and diverse impacts. Over the 15 to 20 years examined, basic biomedical research has a greater impact than clinical research in terms of academic impacts such as knowledge production and research capacity building. Clinical research has greater levels of wider impact on health policies, practice, and generating health gains. There was no correlation between knowledge production and wider impacts. We identified various factors associated with high impact. Interaction between researchers and practitioners and the public is associated with achieving high academic impact and translation into wider impacts, as is basic research conducted with a clinical focus. Strategic thinking by clinical researchers, in terms of thinking through pathways by which research could potentially be translated into practice, is associated with high wider impact. Finally, we identified the complexity of

  1. A variant form of the human deleted in malignant brain tumor 1 (DMBT1 gene shows increased expression in inflammatory bowel diseases and interacts with dimeric trefoil factor 3 (TFF3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Madsen

    Full Text Available The protein deleted in malignant brain tumors (DMBT1 and the trefoil factor (TFF proteins have all been proposed to have roles in epithelial cell growth and cell differentiation and shown to be up regulated in inflammatory bowel diseases. A panel of monoclonal antibodies was raised against human DMBT1(gp340. Analysis of lung washings and colon tissue extracts by Western blotting in the unreduced state, two antibodies (Hyb213-1 and Hyb213-6 reacted with a double band of 290 kDa in lung lavage. Hyb213-6, in addition, reacted against a double band of 270 kDa in colon extract while Hyb213-1 showed no reaction. Hyb213-6 showed strong cytoplasmic staining in epithelial cells of both the small and large intestine whereas no staining was seen with Hyb213-1. The number of DMBT1(gp340 positive epithelial cells, stained with Hyb213-6, was significantly up regulated in inflammatory colon tissue sections from patients with ulcerative colitis (p<0.0001 and Crohn's disease (p = 0.006 compared to normal colon tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis of trefoil factor TFF1, 2 and 3 showed that TFF1 and 3 localized to goblet cells in both normal colon tissue and in tissue from patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. No staining for TFF2 was seen in goblet cells in normal colon tissue whereas the majority of tissue sections in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease showed sparse and scattered TFF2 positive goblet cells. DMBT1 and TFF proteins did therefore not co-localize in the same cells but localized in adjacent cells in the colon. The interaction between DMBT1(gp340 and trefoil TFFs proteins was investigated using an ELISA assay. DMBT1(gp340 bound to solid-phase bound recombinant dimeric TFF3 in a calcium dependent manner (p<0.0001 but did not bind to recombinant forms of monomeric TFF3, TFF2 or glycosylated TFF2. This implies a role for DMBT1 and TFF3 together in inflammatory bowel disease.

  2. Risk factors of delay proportional probability in diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination of Iranian children; Life table approach analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mokhtari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite success in expanded program immunization for an increase in vaccination coverage in the children of world, timeliness and schedule of vaccination remains as one of the challenges in public health. This study purposed to demonstrate the related factors of delayed diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP vaccination using life table approach. A historical cohort study conducted in the poor areas of five large Iran cities. Totally, 3610 children with 24-47 months old age who had documented vaccination card were enrolled. Time of vaccination for the third dose of DTP vaccine was calculated. Life table survival was used to calculate the proportional probability of vaccination in each time. Wilcoxon test was used for the comparison proportional probability of delayed vaccination based on studies factors. The overall median delayed time for DTP3 was 38.52 days. The Wilcoxon test showed that city, nationality, education level of parents, birth order and being in rural areas are related to the high probability of delay time for DTP3 vaccination (P 0.05. Being away from the capital, a high concentration of immigrants in the city borders with a low socioeconomic class leads to prolonged delay in DTP vaccination time. Special attention to these areas is needed to increase the levels of parental knowledge and to facilitate access to the health services care.

  3. Exploring Barriers to Medication Safety in an Ethiopian Hospital Emergency Department: A Human Factors Engineering Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephrem Abebe

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe challenges associated with the medication use process and potential medication safety hazards in an Ethiopian hospital emergency department using a human factors approach. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study employing observations and semi-structured interviews guided by the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety model of work system as an analytical framework. The study was conducted in the emergency department of a teaching hospital in Ethiopia. Study participants included resident doctors, nurses, and pharmacists. We performed content analysis of the qualitative data using accepted procedures. Results: Organizational barriers included communication failures, limited supervision and support for junior staff contributing to role ambiguity and conflict. Compliance with documentation policy was minimal. Task related barriers included frequent interruptions and work-related stress resulting from job requirements to continuously prioritize the needs of large numbers of patients and family members. Person related barriers included limited training and work experience. Work-related fatigue due to long working hours interfered with staff’s ability to document and review medication orders. Equipment breakdowns were common as were non-calibrated or poorly maintained medical devices contributing to erroneous readings. Key environment related barriers included overcrowding and frequent interruption of staff’s work. Cluttering of the work space compounded the problem by impeding efforts to locate medications, medical supplies or medical charts. Conclusions: Applying a systems based approach allows a context specific understanding of medication safety hazards in EDs from low-income countries. When developing interventions to improve medication and overall patient safety, health leaders should consider the interactions of the different factors. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or

  4. The effects of leadership and ward factors on job satisfaction in nursing homes: a multilevel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havig, Anders K; Skogstad, Anders; Veenstra, Marijke; Romøren, Tor I

    2011-12-01

    To examine (1) the relationships between job satisfaction and task- and relationship-oriented leadership and (2) the direct and moderating effects on job satisfaction of three ward-level factors: workload, use of teams and staff stability. Job satisfaction in nursing homes is vital to meeting the challenges related to recruitment and turnover. Cross-sectional design. A multilevel analysis approach was used to recognise a hierarchal structure of determined factors and to capture variation in job satisfaction at the individual and ward level. A questionnaire was sent to 444 registered nurses, auxiliary nurses and unskilled nursing assistants. Structured interviews were administered to 40 ward managers and 13 directors, and 900 hours of field observations was conducted in 40 nursing home wards throughout Norway. We found a significant relationship between job satisfaction and task-oriented and relationship-oriented leadership styles, with a stronger effect for task orientation. The effect of the two leadership styles varied significantly across wards. Furthermore, staff stability had both a significant positive direct effect and a moderating effect on job satisfaction, whereas the two other ward-level predictors yielded no significant contributions. The relatively stronger effect of task-oriented leadership on job satisfaction, particularly in wards with low staff stability, is in contrast to most previous studies and suggests that there may be specific conditions in nursing homes that favour the use of this leadership style. The varying effect of both leadership styles indicates that staff in different nursing home wards could benefit from the use of different leadership styles. The study highlights the importance of using different leadership behaviour and the importance of high staff stability to ensure job satisfaction among nursing home personnel. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. A systems theory approach to career development: Exploring factors that affect science as a career choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liskey, Brian K.

    This research project was designed to examine the factors that affect students' choice in a career. Specifically, the factors of (a) achievement, (b) interest, (c) self-efficacy, (d) perceived preparation for a career, and (e) being informed about a career will be under investigation. Of key importance to the study is how these factors can affect a student's perception about choosing a science career. A quantitative analysis of secondary data from the 2006 and 2009 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) international assessment and attitudinal questionnaire provided data on student perceptions and aptitude in science. The sample from PISA included over 400,000 15 year-old students from 57 countries. From the 57 countries, 30 countries, comprised by Organization for Economic and Cooperative Development (OECD), were isolated for analysis. Within this group of 30, 11 were selected for comparison based on their questionnaire response to expectations for a career in science at age 30. The Institute for Educational Science's, International Data Explorer was utilized to acquire and analyze data from the 2006 and 2009 PISA international tests and questionnaires to determine significance between scaled scores and PISA indices. Variables were chosen as factors affecting student's perception on various systems outlined by the Systems Theory of Career Development (Patton & McMahon, 1997) and the Systems Theory of Career Development Framework (Patton & McMahon, 1999). Four country groups were established based on student responses to question 30a from the 2006 PISA attitudinal questionnaire, which asks what career students expected to have at age 30. The results from comparing country groups showed that countries in Group A, which showed the highest values for students expecting a career in science, also had the highest average values for achievement on the PISA science literacy assessment. Likewise, countries that had the lowest values for expecting a career in

  6. Pharmacy patronage: identifying key factors in the decision making process using the determinant attribute approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franic, Duska M; Haddock, Sarah M; Tucker, Leslie Tootle; Wooten, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    To use the determinant attribute approach, a research method commonly used in marketing to identify the wants of various consumer groups, to evaluate consumer pharmacy choice when having a prescription order filled in different pharmacy settings. Cross sectional. Community independent, grocery store, community chain, and discount store pharmacies in Georgia between April 2005 and April 2006. Convenience sample of adult pharmacy consumers (n = 175). Survey measuring consumer preferences on 26 attributes encompassing general pharmacy site features (16 items), pharmacist characteristics (5 items), and pharmacy staff characteristics (5 items). 26 potential determinant attributes for pharmacy selection. 175 consumers were surveyed at community independent (n = 81), grocery store (n = 44), community chain (n = 27), or discount store (n = 23) pharmacy settings. The attributes of pharmacists and staff at all four pharmacy settings were shown to affect pharmacy patronage motives, although consumers frequenting non-community independent pharmacies were also motivated by secondary convenience factors, e.g., hours of operation, and prescription coverage. Most consumers do not perceive pharmacies as merely prescription-distribution centers that vary only by convenience. Prescriptions are not just another economic good. Pharmacy personnel influence pharmacy selection; therefore, optimal staff selection and training is likely the greatest asset and most important investment for ensuring pharmacy success.

  7. Three approaches for estimating recovery factors in carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.

    2017-07-17

    PrefaceThe Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 authorized the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2) and requested the USGS to estimate the “potential volumes of oil and gas recoverable by injection and sequestration of industrial carbon dioxide in potential sequestration formations” (42 U.S.C. 17271(b)(4)). Geologic CO2 sequestration associated with enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using CO2 in existing hydrocarbon reservoirs has the potential to increase the U.S. hydrocarbon recoverable resource. The objective of this report is to provide detailed information on three approaches that can be used to calculate the incremental recovery factors for CO2-EOR. Therefore, the contents of this report could form an integral part of an assessment methodology that can be used to assess the sedimentary basins of the United States for the hydrocarbon recovery potential using CO2-EOR methods in conventional oil reservoirs.

  8. A possible methodological approach to setting up control level of radiation factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devyatajkin, E.V.; Abramov, Yu.V.

    1986-01-01

    The mathematical formalization of the concept of control levels (CL) which enables one to obtain CL numerical values of controllable parameters required for rapid control purposes is described. The initial data for the assessment of environmental radioactivity are the controllable parameter values that is practical characteristic of controllable radiation factor showing technically measurable or calculation value. The controllable parameters can be divided into two classes depending on the degree of radiation effect on a man: possessing additivity properties (dosimetric class) and non-possessing (radiation class, which comprises the results of control of medium alteration dynamics, equipment operation safety, completeness of protection measures performance). The CL calculation formulas with account for requirements of radiation safety standards (RSS-76) are presented

  9. Testing of technology readiness index model based on exploratory factor analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariani, AF; Napitupulu, D.; Jati, RK; Kadar, JA; Syafrullah, M.

    2018-04-01

    SMEs readiness in using ICT will determine the adoption of ICT in the future. This study aims to evaluate the model of technology readiness in order to apply the technology on SMEs. The model is tested to find if TRI model is relevant to measure ICT adoption, especially for SMEs in Indonesia. The research method used in this paper is survey to a group of SMEs in South Tangerang. The survey measures the readiness to adopt ICT based on four variables which is Optimism, Innovativeness, Discomfort, and Insecurity. Each variable contains several indicators to make sure the variable is measured thoroughly. The data collected through survey is analysed using factor analysis methodwith the help of SPSS software. The result of this study shows that TRI model gives more descendants on some indicators and variables. This result can be caused by SMEs owners’ knowledge is not homogeneous about either the technology that they are used, knowledge or the type of their business.

  10. Evaluating the Total Factor Productivity Growth in Manufacturing Industries of Iran (Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the total factor productivity changes for 23 main manufacturing industries (2-digit ISIC group and country's provinces using data envelopment analysis during 2005 to 2007. The results show 2.3% increase in the productivity of the whole sector (average over the studied period, while the productivity of the country's provinces decreases by 7.3%, in the same period. We find Food and Beverage products and Khuzestan province having the highest productivity growth. Non-optimal allocation of resources and using of old equipments are the most important drawbacks of productivity growth for 23 main ISIC groups and provinces. Finally estimation of the regression models by panel data method reveals the privatization and increasing of labor’s available capital having a significant effect on productivity growth.

  11. Cross-Cultural Approach of Postpartum Depression: Manifestation, Practices Applied, Risk Factors and Therapeutic Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evagorou, Olympia; Arvaniti, Aikaterini; Samakouri, Maria

    2016-03-01

    It is a well known fact that postpartum depression (PPD) is a global phenomenon that women may experience, regardless of cultural identity and beliefs. This literature review presents the cultural beliefs and postnatal practices around the world, in each continent and people's origins, looking through the extent to which they contribute positively or negatively to the onset of the disease. 106 articles were used in this research, through a systematic electronic search of Pubmed (Medline) and Scopus. Comparison is also made between the prevalence, the risk factors and the different ways of appearance of the disease around the world and among immigrants. Finally, the initiatives and interventions made so far by the governments and institutions with a view to prevent and address this global problem are presented. The results showed (a) that different cultures share the same risk factors towards the disease (b) significant differences in the prevalence of the disease among both Western and non Western cultures and between the cultures themselves (c) more tendencies for somatization of depressive symptoms in non-Western cultures, (d) different postnatal practices between cultures, which are not always effective (e) the more non-West a culture is, the less interventions concern on mental health; the same phenomenon is observed on populations burdened by immigration. The beliefs held by culture should be taken seriously in detecting of PPD, as well as the assessment of the needs of women who have recently given birth.

  12. Functional Characterization of Tea (Camellia sinensis MYB4a Transcription Factor Using an Integrative Approach

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    Mingzhuo Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Green tea (Camellia sinensis, Cs abundantly produces a diverse array of phenylpropanoid compounds benefiting human health. To date, the regulation of the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in tea remains to be investigated. Here, we report a cDNA isolated from leaf tissues, which encodes a R2R3-MYB transcription factor. Amino acid sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicate that it is a member of the MYB4-subgroup and named as CsMYB4a. Transcriptional and metabolic analyses show that the expression profile of CsMYB4a is negatively correlated to the accumulation of six flavan-3-ols and other phenolic acids. GFP fusion analysis shows CsMYB4a’s localization in the nucleus. Promoters of five tea phenylpropanoid pathway genes are isolated and characterized to contain four types of AC-elements, which are targets of MYB4 members. Interaction of CsMYB4a and five promoters shows that CsMYB4a decreases all five promoters’ activity. To further characterize its function, CsMYB4a is overexpressed in tobacco plants. The resulting transgenic plants show dwarf, shrinking and yellowish leaf, and early senescence phenotypes. A further genome-wide transcriptomic analysis reveals that the expression levels of 20 tobacco genes involved in the shikimate and the phenylpropanoid pathways are significantly downregulated in transgenic tobacco plants. UPLC-MS and HPLC based metabolic profiling reveals significant reduction of total lignin content, rutin, chlorogenic acid, and phenylalanine in CsMYB4a transgenic tobacco plants. Promoter sequence analysis of the 20 tobacco genes characterizes four types of AC-elements. Further CsMYB4a-AC element and CsMYB4a-promoter interaction analyses indicate that the negative regulation of CsMYB4a on the shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathways in tobacco is via reducing promoter activity. Taken together, all data indicate that CsMYB4a negatively regulates the phenylpropanoid and shikimate pathways.Highlight: A tea (Camellia

  13. Computation of External Quality Factors for RF Structures by Means of Model Order Reduction and a Perturbation Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Flisgen, Thomas; van Rienen, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    External quality factors are significant quantities to describe losses via waveguide ports in radio frequency resonators. The current contribution presents a novel approach to determine external quality factors by means of a two-step procedure: First, a state-space model for the lossless radio frequency structure is generated and its model order is reduced. Subsequently, a perturbation method is applied on the reduced model so that external losses are accounted for. The advantage of this approach results from the fact that the challenges in dealing with lossy systems are shifted to the reduced order model. This significantly saves computational costs. The present paper provides a short overview on existing methods to compute external quality factors. Then, the novel approach is introduced and validated in terms of accuracy and computational time by means of commercial software.

  14. Factors Contributing to Residential Vacancy and Some Approaches to Management in Gyeonggi Province, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeehyun Nam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the decrease in the demand for large-scale apartments as a result of an aging society and a decrease in population, there has been an increase in vacant houses due to a supply that exceeds the projected demands. As a method of urban regeneration in rural areas and activation of citizen communities, the utilization of vacant houses has become one of the ways to promote a new lifestyle, active movement for citizen participation, and business model for long-term revitalization. This study aims to uncover and examine the major causes and factors behind the upswing in vacant houses. We investigated the current state of vacant houses, the recent policies concerning them, and the types of vacant houses in Korea’s Gyeonggi province. We then categorized and analyzed the causes of houses being vacant, their types, and the methods of utilizing them under different local conditions in order to understand the efficient processes and strategies for their utilization. The results showed that an excess of building construction (especially recent construction permits, the number of recipients of the national basic livelihood scheme, and the number of elderly people showed the strongest correlation with vacant houses.

  15. Identifying Associations Between Brain Imaging Phenotypes and Genetic Factors via A Novel Structured SCCA Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lei; Zhang, Tuo; Liu, Kefei; Yan, Jingwen; Yao, Xiaohui; Risacher, Shannon L; Saykin, Andrew J; Han, Junwei; Guo, Lei; Shen, Li

    2017-06-01

    Brain imaging genetics attracts more and more attention since it can reveal associations between genetic factors and the structures or functions of human brain. Sparse canonical correlation analysis (SCCA) is a powerful bi-multivariate association identification technique in imaging genetics. There have been many SCCA methods which could capture different types of structured imaging genetic relationships. These methods either use the group lasso to recover the group structure, or employ the graph/network guided fused lasso to find out the network structure. However, the group lasso methods have limitation in generalization because of the incomplete or unavailable prior knowledge in real world. The graph/network guided methods are sensitive to the sign of the sample correlation which may be incorrectly estimated. We introduce a new SCCA model using a novel graph guided pairwise group lasso penalty, and propose an efficient optimization algorithm. The proposed method has a strong upper bound for the grouping effect for both positively and negatively correlated variables. We show that our method performs better than or equally to two state-of-the-art SCCA methods on both synthetic and real neuroimaging genetics data. In particular, our method identifies stronger canonical correlations and captures better canonical loading profiles, showing its promise for revealing biologically meaningful imaging genetic associations.

  16. Connecting the Dots: State Health Department Approaches to Addressing Shared Risk and Protective Factors Across Multiple Forms of Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Natalie; Myers, Lindsey; Kuehl, Tomei; Bauman, Alice; Hertz, Marci

    2018-01-01

    Violence takes many forms, including intimate partner violence, sexual violence, child abuse and neglect, bullying, suicidal behavior, and elder abuse and neglect. These forms of violence are interconnected and often share the same root causes. They can also co-occur together in families and communities and can happen at the same time or at different stages of life. Often, due to a variety of factors, separate, “siloed” approaches are used to address each form of violence. However, understanding and implementing approaches that prevent and address the overlapping root causes of violence (risk factors) and promote factors that increase the resilience of people and communities (protective factors) can help practitioners more effectively and efficiently use limited resources to prevent multiple forms of violence and save lives. This article presents approaches used by 2 state health departments, the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene and the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, to integrate a shared risk and protective factor approach into their violence prevention work and identifies key lessons learned that may serve to inform crosscutting violence prevention efforts in other states. PMID:29189502

  17. Connecting the Dots: State Health Department Approaches to Addressing Shared Risk and Protective Factors Across Multiple Forms of Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Natalie; Myers, Lindsey; Kuehl, Tomei; Bauman, Alice; Hertz, Marci

    Violence takes many forms, including intimate partner violence, sexual violence, child abuse and neglect, bullying, suicidal behavior, and elder abuse and neglect. These forms of violence are interconnected and often share the same root causes. They can also co-occur together in families and communities and can happen at the same time or at different stages of life. Often, due to a variety of factors, separate, "siloed" approaches are used to address each form of violence. However, understanding and implementing approaches that prevent and address the overlapping root causes of violence (risk factors) and promote factors that increase the resilience of people and communities (protective factors) can help practitioners more effectively and efficiently use limited resources to prevent multiple forms of violence and save lives. This article presents approaches used by 2 state health departments, the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene and the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, to integrate a shared risk and protective factor approach into their violence prevention work and identifies key lessons learned that may serve to inform crosscutting violence prevention efforts in other states.

  18. Modeling water quality in an urban river using hydrological factors--data driven approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fi-John; Tsai, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Pin-An; Coynel, Alexandra; Vachaud, Georges

    2015-03-15

    Contrasting seasonal variations occur in river flow and water quality as a result of short duration, severe intensity storms and typhoons in Taiwan. Sudden changes in river flow caused by impending extreme events may impose serious degradation on river water quality and fateful impacts on ecosystems. Water quality is measured in a monthly/quarterly scale, and therefore an estimation of water quality in a daily scale would be of good help for timely river pollution management. This study proposes a systematic analysis scheme (SAS) to assess the spatio-temporal interrelation of water quality in an urban river and construct water quality estimation models using two static and one dynamic artificial neural networks (ANNs) coupled with the Gamma test (GT) based on water quality, hydrological and economic data. The Dahan River basin in Taiwan is the study area. Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) is considered as the representative parameter, a correlative indicator in judging the contamination level over the study. Key factors the most closely related to the representative parameter (NH3-N) are extracted by the Gamma test for modeling NH3-N concentration, and as a result, four hydrological factors (discharge, days w/o discharge, water temperature and rainfall) are identified as model inputs. The modeling results demonstrate that the nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous input (NARX) network furnished with recurrent connections can accurately estimate NH3-N concentration with a very high coefficient of efficiency value (0.926) and a low RMSE value (0.386 mg/l). Besides, the NARX network can suitably catch peak values that mainly occur in dry periods (September-April in the study area), which is particularly important to water pollution treatment. The proposed SAS suggests a promising approach to reliably modeling the spatio-temporal NH3-N concentration based solely on hydrological data, without using water quality sampling data. It is worth noticing that such estimation can be

  19. A biophysical approach using water deficit factor for daily estimations of evapotranspiration and CO2 uptake in Mediterranean environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, David; Lensky, Itamar M.; Osem, Yagil; Rohatyn, Shani; Rotenberg, Eyal; Yakir, Dan

    2017-09-01

    Estimations of ecosystem-level evapotranspiration (ET) and CO2 uptake in water-limited environments are scarce and scaling up ground-level measurements is not straightforward. A biophysical approach using remote sensing (RS) and meteorological data (RS-Met) is adjusted to extreme high-energy water-limited Mediterranean ecosystems that suffer from continuous stress conditions to provide daily estimations of ET and CO2 uptake (measured as gross primary production, GPP) at a spatial resolution of 250 m. The RS-Met was adjusted using a seasonal water deficit factor (fWD) based on daily rainfall, temperature and radiation data. We validated our adjusted RS-Met with eddy covariance flux measurements using a newly developed mobile lab system and the single active FLUXNET station operating in this region (Yatir pine forest station) at a total of seven forest and non-forest sites across a climatic transect in Israel (280-770 mm yr-1). RS-Met was also compared to the satellite-borne MODIS-based ET and GPP products (MOD16 and MOD17, respectively) at these sites.Results show that the inclusion of the fWD significantly improved the model, with R = 0.64-0.91 for the ET-adjusted model (compared to 0.05-0.80 for the unadjusted model) and R = 0.72-0.92 for the adjusted GPP model (compared to R = 0.56-0.90 of the non-adjusted model). The RS-Met (with the fWD) successfully tracked observed changes in ET and GPP between dry and wet seasons across the sites. ET and GPP estimates from the adjusted RS-Met also agreed well with eddy covariance estimates on an annual timescale at the FLUXNET station of Yatir (266 ± 61 vs. 257 ± 58 mm yr-1 and 765 ± 112 vs. 748 ± 124 gC m-2 yr-1 for ET and GPP, respectively). Comparison with MODIS products showed consistently lower estimates from the MODIS-based models, particularly at the forest sites. Using the adjusted RS-Met, we show that afforestation significantly increased the water use efficiency (the ratio of carbon uptake to ET) in this region

  20. Understanding key factors affecting electronic medical record implementation: a sociotechnical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucciniello, Maria; Lapsley, Irvine; Nasi, Greta; Pagliari, Claudia

    2015-07-17

    Recent health care policies have supported the adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) but examples of failed ICT projects in this sector have highlighted the need for a greater understanding of the processes used to implement such innovations in complex organizations. This study examined the interaction of sociological and technological factors in the implementation of an Electronic Medical Record (EMR) system by a major national hospital. It aimed to obtain insights for managers planning such projects in the future and to examine the usefulness of Actor Network Theory (ANT) as a research tool in this context. Case study using documentary analysis, interviews and observations. Qualitative thematic analysis drawing on ANT. Qualitative analyses revealed a complex network of interactions between organizational stakeholders and technology that helped to shape the system and influence its acceptance and adoption. The EMR clearly emerged as a central 'actor' within this network. The results illustrate how important it is to plan innovative and complex information systems with reference to (i) the expressed needs and involvement of different actors, starting from the initial introductory phase; (ii) promoting commitment to the system and adopting a participative approach; (iii) defining and resourcing new roles within the organization capable of supporting and sustaining the change and (iv) assessing system impacts in order to mobilize the network around a common goal. The paper highlights the organizational, cultural, technological, and financial considerations that should be taken into account when planning strategies for the implementation of EMR systems in hospital settings. It also demonstrates how ANT may be usefully deployed in evaluating such projects.

  1. Individual and contextual factors related to binge drinking among adolescents in Spain: a multilevel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixidó-Compañó, Ester; Sordo, Luis; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Puigcorbé, Susanna; Barrio, Gregorio; Brugal, M Teresa; Belza, María José J; Espelt, Albert

    2018-01-15

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of binge drinking by regions in Spain and assess the effect of individual and contextual factors related to this drinking pattern in adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed with data from the 2014 Spanish School Survey on Drug Use (ESTUDES) in students aged 14-18 years (N = 34,259). The outcome was binge drinking in adolescents during the last 30 days. Individual independent variables were socioeconomic variables and variables related to access to alcohol and its availability. Contextual variables consisted of adult alcohol consumption, public policies on alcohol, and socioeconomic factors. Multilevel Poisson regression models with robust variance were estimated, obtaining prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals.  The results showed that the prevalence of youth binge drinking by region of residence was similar for both sexes (r = 0.72). At the individual level, binge drinking was mainly associated with the perception of easy access to alcohol (PR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.23-1.55), consumption in open areas [(PR: 3.82; 95% CI: 3.44-4.24) < once a month and (PR: 6.57; 95% CI: 5.85-7.37) ≥ once a month], at least one parent allowing alcohol consumption (PR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.37-1.47), and receiving >30 euros weekly (PR :1.51; 95% CI: 1.37-1.67). Contextual variables were not associated with youth binge drinking when individual variables were considered. In conclusion, youth binge drinking was associated with individual variables related to high alcohol accessibility and availability, regardless of contextual variables. These variables explained the variability in binge drinking among Spanish regions.

  2. Factors controlling physico-chemical characteristics in the coastal waters off Mangalore-A multivariate approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Mesquita, A.; Pradhan, U.K.; Verlekar, X.N.; Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.

    2009-01-01

    Water quality parameters (temperature, pH, salinity, DO, BOD, suspended solids, nutrients, PHc, phenols, trace metals-Pb, Cd and Hg, chlorophyll-a (chl-a) and phaeopigments) and the sediment quality parameters (total phosphorous, total nitrogen, organic carbon and trace metals) were analysed from samples collected at 15 stations along 3 transects off Karnataka coast (Mangalore harbour in the south to Suratkal in the north), west coast of India during 2007. The analyses showed high ammonia off Suratkal, high nitrite (NO 2 -N) and nitrate (NO 3 -N) in the nearshore waters off Kulai and high nitrite (NO 2 -N) and ammonia (NH 3 -N) in the harbour area. Similarly, high petroleum hydrocarbon (PHc) values were observed near the harbour, while phenols remained high in the nearshore waters of Kulai and Suratkal. Significantly, high concentrations of cadmium and mercury with respect to the earlier studies were observed off Kulai and harbour regions, respectively. R-mode varimax factor analyses were applied separately to surface and bottom water data sets due to existing stratification in the water column caused by riverine inflow and to sediment data. This helped to understand the interrelationships between the variables and to identify probable source components for explaining the environmental status of the area. Six factors (each for surface and bottom waters) were found responsible for variance (86.9% in surface and 82.4% in bottom) in the coastal waters between Mangalore and Suratkal. In sediments, 4 factors explained 86.8% of the observed total variance. The variances indicated addition of nutrients and suspended solids to the coastal waters due to weathering and riverine transport and are categorized as natural sources. The observed contamination of coastal waters indicated anthropogenic inputs of Cd and phenol from industrial effluent sources at Kulai and Suratkal, ammonia from wastewater discharges off Kulai and harbour, PHc and Hg from boat traffic and harbour

  3. Factores de riesgo de preeclampsia: enfoque inmunoendocrino. Parte I Risk factors for preeclampsia: an immunoendocrine approach. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeddú Cruz Hernández

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En esta primera parte se realiza una amplia revisión de los factores clásicos de riesgo de preeclampsia, enfatizando en los aspectos inmunoendocrinos en cada uno de los casos. Se propuso una clasificación que los divide en 2 grandes grupos: maternos y ambientales, y esta constituye el eje central a partir del cual se realiza la discusión de los diferentes aspectos que integran esta revisión, la cual evidencia la importancia que tienen el sistema inmunológico y el endocrino en la fisiopatología, y el surgimiento de la enfermedad hipertensiva inducida por el embarazo.In this first part, a wide review of the classical risk factors for preeclampsia was made, making emphasis on the endocrine aspects in each case. It was proposed a classification that divided them into 2 large groups: maternal and environmental. This was the central axis from which the different aspects of this review were discussed, evidencing the importance of the immunological and endocrine systems in the physiopathology, and the appearance of the hypertensive disease induced by pregnancy.

  4. Examining the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction: A factor specific approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Ismail

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research was aimed at examining the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction with data obtained from Malaysian soldiers who were involved in peace keeping missions in a Middle Eastern country. The results of which would enable the management to improve the quality of service accorded to peacekeeping personnel. Design/methodology/approach: The study employed a cross-sectional research design which allowed the researchers to integrate the service quality literature, the semi structured interview and the actual survey to collect and examine the data for optimum results. Findings and Originality/value: The outcome of multiple regression analysis showed that responsiveness and assurance variables reflected a high correlation with customer satisfaction. On the other hand, tangibility, reliability and empathy variables recorded an insignificant correlation with customer satisfaction. Research limitations/implications: With respect to practical contributions, the findings of this study can be used as a guideline by the management to improve the quality of peacekeeping in areas of conflict. Practical implications: For security reasons, certain information affecting customer satisfaction could not be examined in detail. Originality/value: This paper presents key results on service quality and customers satisfaction research by looking at the niche segment which was not previously studied from the Malaysian perspective.

  5. Accounting for negative automaintenance in pigeons: a dual learning systems approach and factored representations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Lesaint

    Full Text Available Animals, including Humans, are prone to develop persistent maladaptive and suboptimal behaviours. Some of these behaviours have been suggested to arise from interactions between brain systems of Pavlovian conditioning, the acquisition of responses to initially neutral stimuli previously paired with rewards, and instrumental conditioning, the acquisition of active behaviours leading to rewards. However the mechanics of these systems and their interactions are still unclear. While extensively studied independently, few models have been developed to account for these interactions. On some experiment, pigeons have been observed to display a maladaptive behaviour that some suggest to involve conflicts between Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning. In a procedure referred as negative automaintenance, a key light is paired with the subsequent delivery of food, however any peck towards the key light results in the omission of the reward. Studies showed that in such procedure some pigeons persisted in pecking to a substantial level despite its negative consequence, while others learned to refrain from pecking and maximized their cumulative rewards. Furthermore, the pigeons that were unable to refrain from pecking could nevertheless shift their pecks towards a harmless alternative key light. We confronted a computational model that combines dual-learning systems and factored representations, recently developed to account for sign-tracking and goal-tracking behaviours in rats, to these negative automaintenance experimental data. We show that it can explain the variability of the observed behaviours and the capacity of alternative key lights to distract pigeons from their detrimental behaviours. These results confirm the proposed model as an interesting tool to reproduce experiments that could involve interactions between Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning. The model allows us to draw predictions that may be experimentally verified, which could help

  6. Estimation of Esfarayen Farmers Risk Aversion Coefficient and Its Influencing Factors (Nonparametric Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Nematollahi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to existence of the risk and uncertainty in agriculture, risk management is crucial for management in agriculture. Therefore the present study was designed to determine the risk aversion coefficient for Esfarayens farmers. Materials and Methods: The following approaches have been utilized to assess risk attitudes: (1 direct elicitation of utility functions, (2 experimental procedures in which individuals are presented with hypothetical questionnaires regarding risky alternatives with or without real payments and (3: Inference from observation of economic behavior. In this paper, we focused on approach (3: inference from observation of economic behavior, based on this assumption of existence of the relationship between the actual behavior of a decision maker and the behavior predicted from empirically specified models. A new non-parametric method and the QP method were used to calculate the coefficient of risk aversion. We maximized the decision maker expected utility with the E-V formulation (Freund, 1956. Ideally, in constructing a QP model, the variance-covariance matrix should be formed for each individual farmer. For this purpose, a sample of 100 farmers was selected using random sampling and their data about 14 products of years 2008- 2012 were assembled. The lowlands of Esfarayen were used since within this area, production possibilities are rather homogeneous. Results and Discussion: The results of this study showed that there was low correlation between some of the activities, which implies opportunities for income stabilization through diversification. With respect to transitory income, Ra, vary from 0.000006 to 0.000361 and the absolute coefficient of risk aversion in our sample were 0.00005. The estimated Ra values vary considerably from farm to farm. The results showed that the estimated Ra for the subsample existing of 'non-wealthy' farmers was 0.00010. The subsample with farmers in the 'wealthy' group had an

  7. A New Displacement-based Approach to Calculate Stress Intensity Factors With the Boundary Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Abstract The analysis of cracked brittle mechanical components considering linear elastic fracture mechanics is usually reduced to the evaluation of stress intensity factors (SIFs. The SIF calculation can be carried out experimentally, theoretically or numerically. Each methodology has its own advantages but the use of numerical methods has become very popular. Several schemes for numerical SIF calculations have been developed, the J-integral method being one of the most widely used because of its energy-like formulation. Additionally, some variations of the J-integral method, such as displacement-based methods, are also becoming popular due to their simplicity. In this work, a simple displacement-based scheme is proposed to calculate SIFs, and its performance is compared with contour integrals. These schemes are all implemented with the Boundary Element Method (BEM in order to exploit its advantages in crack growth modelling. Some simple examples are solved with the BEM and the calculated SIF values are compared against available solutions, showing good agreement between the different schemes.

  8. Key Factors Affecting the Price of Airbnb Listings: A Geographically Weighted Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Airbnb has been increasingly gaining popularity since 2008 due to its low prices and direct interactions with the local community. This paper employed a general linear model (GLM and a geographically weighted regression (GWR model to identify the key factors affecting Airbnb listing prices using data sets of 794 samples of Airbnb listings of business units in Metro Nashville, Tennessee. The results showed that the GWR model performs better than the GLM in terms of accuracy and affected variable selections. Statistically significant differences varied across regions in Metro Nashville. The coefficients illustrate a decreasing trend while there is an increase in the distance from the listed units to the convention center, which indicates that Airbnb listing prices are more sensitive to the distance from the convention center in the central area than in other areas. These findings can also provide implications for stakeholders such as Airbnb hosts to gain a better understanding of the market situation and formulate a suitable pricing strategy.

  9. Non-viral generation of marmoset monkey iPS cells by a six-factor-in-one-vector approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debowski, Katharina; Warthemann, Rita; Lentes, Jana; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Dressel, Ralf; Langenstroth, Daniel; Gromoll, Jörg; Sasaki, Erika; Behr, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Groundbreaking studies showed that differentiated somatic cells of mouse and human origin could be reverted to a stable pluripotent state by the ectopic expression of only four proteins. The resulting pluripotent cells, called induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, could be an alternative to embryonic stem cells, which are under continuous ethical debate. Hence, iPS cell-derived functional cells such as neurons may become the key for an effective treatment of currently incurable degenerative diseases. However, besides the requirement of efficacy testing of the therapy also its long-term safety needs to be carefully evaluated in settings mirroring the clinical situation in an optimal way. In this context, we chose the long-lived common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) as a non-human primate species to generate iPS cells. The marmoset monkey is frequently used in biomedical research and is gaining more and more preclinical relevance due to the increasing number of disease models. Here, we describe, to our knowledge, the first-time generation of marmoset monkey iPS cells from postnatal skin fibroblasts by non-viral means. We used the transposon-based, fully reversible piggyback system. We cloned the marmoset monkey reprogramming factors and established robust and reproducible reprogramming protocols with a six-factor-in-one-construct approach. We generated six individual iPS cell lines and characterized them in comparison with marmoset monkey embryonic stem cells. The generated iPS cells are morphologically indistinguishable from marmoset ES cells. The iPS cells are fully reprogrammed as demonstrated by differentiation assays, pluripotency marker expression and transcriptome analysis. They are stable for numerous passages (more than 80) and exhibit euploidy. In summary, we have established efficient non-viral reprogramming protocols for the derivation of stable marmoset monkey iPS cells, which can be used to develop and test cell replacement therapies in

  10. Non-viral generation of marmoset monkey iPS cells by a six-factor-in-one-vector approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Debowski

    Full Text Available Groundbreaking studies showed that differentiated somatic cells of mouse and human origin could be reverted to a stable pluripotent state by the ectopic expression of only four proteins. The resulting pluripotent cells, called induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells, could be an alternative to embryonic stem cells, which are under continuous ethical debate. Hence, iPS cell-derived functional cells such as neurons may become the key for an effective treatment of currently incurable degenerative diseases. However, besides the requirement of efficacy testing of the therapy also its long-term safety needs to be carefully evaluated in settings mirroring the clinical situation in an optimal way. In this context, we chose the long-lived common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus as a non-human primate species to generate iPS cells. The marmoset monkey is frequently used in biomedical research and is gaining more and more preclinical relevance due to the increasing number of disease models. Here, we describe, to our knowledge, the first-time generation of marmoset monkey iPS cells from postnatal skin fibroblasts by non-viral means. We used the transposon-based, fully reversible piggyback system. We cloned the marmoset monkey reprogramming factors and established robust and reproducible reprogramming protocols with a six-factor-in-one-construct approach. We generated six individual iPS cell lines and characterized them in comparison with marmoset monkey embryonic stem cells. The generated iPS cells are morphologically indistinguishable from marmoset ES cells. The iPS cells are fully reprogrammed as demonstrated by differentiation assays, pluripotency marker expression and transcriptome analysis. They are stable for numerous passages (more than 80 and exhibit euploidy. In summary, we have established efficient non-viral reprogramming protocols for the derivation of stable marmoset monkey iPS cells, which can be used to develop and test cell replacement

  11. A ChIP-chip approach reveals a novel role for transcription factor IRF1 in the DNA damage response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontini, Mattia; Vijayakumar, Meeraa; Garvin, Alexander; Clarke, Nicole

    2009-03-01

    IRF1 is a transcription factor that regulates key processes in the immune system and in tumour suppression. To gain further insight into IRF1's role in these processes, we searched for new target genes by performing chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to a CpG island microarray (ChIP-chip). Using this approach we identified 202 new IRF1-binding sites with high confidence. Functional categorization of the target genes revealed a surprising cadre of new roles that can be linked to IRF1. One of the major functional categories was the DNA damage response pathway. In order to further validate our findings, we show that IRF1 can regulate the mRNA expression of a number of the DNA damage response genes in our list. In particular, we demonstrate that the mRNA and protein levels of the DNA repair protein BRIP1 [Fanconi anemia gene J (FANC J)] are upregulated after IRF1 over-expression. We also demonstrate that knockdown of IRF1 by siRNA results in loss of BRIP1 expression, abrogation of BRIP1 foci after DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) damage and hypersensitivity to the DNA crosslinking agent, melphalan; a characteristic phenotype of FANC J cells. Taken together, our data provides a more complete understanding of the regulatory networks controlled by IRF1 and reveals a novel role for IRF1 in regulating the ICL DNA damage response.

  12. A ChIP–chip approach reveals a novel role for transcription factor IRF1 in the DNA damage response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontini, Mattia; Vijayakumar, Meeraa; Garvin, Alexander; Clarke, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    IRF1 is a transcription factor that regulates key processes in the immune system and in tumour suppression. To gain further insight into IRF1's role in these processes, we searched for new target genes by performing chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to a CpG island microarray (ChIP–chip). Using this approach we identified 202 new IRF1-binding sites with high confidence. Functional categorization of the target genes revealed a surprising cadre of new roles that can be linked to IRF1. One of the major functional categories was the DNA damage response pathway. In order to further validate our findings, we show that IRF1 can regulate the mRNA expression of a number of the DNA damage response genes in our list. In particular, we demonstrate that the mRNA and protein levels of the DNA repair protein BRIP1 [Fanconi anemia gene J (FANC J)] are upregulated after IRF1 over-expression. We also demonstrate that knockdown of IRF1 by siRNA results in loss of BRIP1 expression, abrogation of BRIP1 foci after DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) damage and hypersensitivity to the DNA crosslinking agent, melphalan; a characteristic phenotype of FANC J cells. Taken together, our data provides a more complete understanding of the regulatory networks controlled by IRF1 and reveals a novel role for IRF1 in regulating the ICL DNA damage response. PMID:19129219

  13. Expression, Purification, and Analysis of Unknown Translation Factors from "Escherichia Coli": A Synthesis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Justin D.; Littlefield, Peter; Delbecq, Scott; Prody, Gerry; Spiegel, P. Clint

    2010-01-01

    New approaches are currently being developed to expose biochemistry and molecular biology undergraduates to a more interactive learning environment. Here, we propose a unique project-based laboratory module, which incorporates exposure to biophysical chemistry approaches to address problems in protein chemistry. Each of the experiments described…

  14. Application of methodological approach to selection of sportswomen to calisthenics teams for group exercises, considering compatibility factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. Kozhanova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: motivation of methodological approach to selection of sportswomen to calisthenics teams for group exercises considering compatibility factor. Material: in the research 40 high qualification sportswomen of 17-23 yrs age with sport experience of 11-16 years participated. With cluster analysis 10 gymnasts with morphological indicators, meeting modern standards of group exercises were selected. Results: we found 5 generalized factors, which characterize structure of selection to teams and determines 72% of dispersion. Influence of kinds and connected with them criteria of compatibility on efficiency of gymnasts’ competition functioning were also determined. The authors substantiated methodological approach to selection of sportswomen to calisthenics teams for group exercises, considering compatibility factor. Conclusions: in selection to calisthenics teams for group exercises it is purposeful to realize complex registration of compatibility kinds, considering gymnasts’ similar features by recommended indicators.

  15. Quantitative analysis on sensitive factors of runoff change in Fenhe watershed based on integration approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deng; Jian, Shengqi; Wu, Zening; Zhang, Zhaoxi; Hu, Caihong

    2018-06-01

    The runoff of the Fenhe River flowed into the Yellow River (RRY) is reducing significantly due to the influence of climate change and human activities. It is generating bad situation of shortage of water resources and led to the deterioration of ecological environment of Shanxi Province. At the same time, the reduction in RRY causes the runoff reduction in Yellow River and exacerbated the water resources shortage of the middle area of the Yellow River. Therefore, it is important to alleviate water shortage and develop the soil and water conservation measurements and regional water policy by analyzing the influence of human activities and climate change on the RRY. The existing study quantified the reduction in amount of RRY which caused by human activities and climate change using statistical methods and watershed hydrological model. The main results of the study were as follow: Using hydrological variation diagnosis system, the variation characteristics of long time series of measured annual runoff were analyzed in Hejin station that is the Fenhe River control station. The results showed that the runoff of Fenhe River run into Yellow River declined year by year, in 1971, fell the most obviously. The impact of LUCC on runoff was calculated using the method of area ratio in the Fenhe River basin. Human activities were major factor in the reduction of RRY than the climate change, contributed 83.09 % of the total reduction in RRY, Groundwater exploitation gave the greatest contribution to the decrease in RRY in the scope of several kinds of human activity (30.09 %), followed by coal mining (26.03 %), climate changed contributed 19.17 % of the total reduction of RRY, and the decrease of precipitation contributed 20.81 %. But the variation of air temperature and wind speed would result in the increase of the amount of RRY.

  16. A spatiotemporal dengue fever early warning model accounting for nonlinear associations with meteorological factors: a Bayesian maximum entropy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chieh-Han; Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chien, Lung-Chang

    2014-05-01

    Dengue fever has been identified as one of the most widespread vector-borne diseases in tropical and sub-tropical. In the last decade, dengue is an emerging infectious disease epidemic in Taiwan especially in the southern area where have annually high incidences. For the purpose of disease prevention and control, an early warning system is urgently needed. Previous studies have showed significant relationships between climate variables, in particular, rainfall and temperature, and the temporal epidemic patterns of dengue cases. However, the transmission of the dengue fever is a complex interactive process that mostly understated the composite space-time effects of dengue fever. This study proposes developing a one-week ahead warning system of dengue fever epidemics in the southern Taiwan that considered nonlinear associations between weekly dengue cases and meteorological factors across space and time. The early warning system based on an integration of distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) and stochastic Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) analysis. The study identified the most significant meteorological measures including weekly minimum temperature and maximum 24-hour rainfall with continuous 15-week lagged time to dengue cases variation under condition of uncertainty. Subsequently, the combination of nonlinear lagged effects of climate variables and space-time dependence function is implemented via a Bayesian framework to predict dengue fever occurrences in the southern Taiwan during 2012. The result shows the early warning system is useful for providing potential outbreak spatio-temporal prediction of dengue fever distribution. In conclusion, the proposed approach can provide a practical disease control tool for environmental regulators seeking more effective strategies for dengue fever prevention.

  17. Approaches to Working with Children, Young People and Families for Traveller, Irish Traveller, Gypsy, Roma and Show People Communities. A Literature Review Report for the Children's Workforce Development Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark; Martin, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    The Children's Workforce Development Council (CWDC) commissioned this literature review as the first part of a project exploring issues around and approaches to working with Travellers, Irish Travellers, Gypsies, Roma and Showpeople, and the support, training and other programs available to staff involved. The project is intended to contribute to…

  18. Evaluation of approaches to monitor Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor expression during human disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, Wouter; Fink, Pamela; Rojas, Eduardo; Jones, C Hal; Pavliakova, Danka; Giardina, Peter; Murphy, Ellen; Liberator, Paul; Jiang, Qin; Girgenti, Douglas; Peters, Remco P H; Savelkoul, Paul H M; Jansen, Kathrin U; Anderson, Annaliesa S; Kluytmans, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile pathogen of medical significance, using multiple virulence factors to cause disease. A prophylactic S. aureus 4-antigen (SA4Ag) vaccine comprising capsular polysaccharide (types 5 and 8) conjugates, clumping factor A (ClfA) and manganese transporter C (MntC) is

  19. Sub-sequence Factorization-an Effective Approach for Projective Reconstruction under Occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Le; HU Zhanyi

    2001-01-01

    Projective reconstruction is a key step for 3D metric reconstruction from a sequence of images captured by an uncalibrated camera. Due to its inherent robustness, the factorization method is widely used in literatures. However, the main shortcoming of the standard factorization method is that it requires the corresponding points to appear across ALL the images. When large changes of view angles occur in the image sequence, or the scene is easy to be self-occluded, nearly it will be very difficult to have some corresponding points visible across all the images. But it is much easier for only several images to have enough correspondences required by factorization method. These images are called as a subsequence in the whole image set. In this paper,a sub-sequence factorization method is proposed to cope with the problem. The basic principle of the sub-sequence factorization method is to divide a long image sequence into several short subsequences according to its spatial continuity, and the standard factorization method is employed for each subsequence.Then, a novel alignment process is invoked to transform different reconstructions under different subsequences into one reference coordinates system. It is more practical as it only demands that there are enough correspondences in each subsequence, not the whole sequence. The proposed sub-sequence factorization method preserves the robustness aspect embedded in the standard factorization method. The experiments on synthetic and real images validate our proposed new method.

  20. A Market Segmentation Approach for Higher Education Based on Rational and Emotional Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Fernando; Pergelova, Albena; Rialp, Josep

    2010-01-01

    Market segmentation is an important topic for higher education administrators and researchers. For segmenting the higher education market, we have to understand what factors are important for high school students in selecting a university. Extant literature has probed the importance of rational factors such as teaching staff, campus facilities,…

  1. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo Approach to Confirmatory Item Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    Item factor analysis has a rich tradition in both the structural equation modeling and item response theory frameworks. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate a novel combination of various Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) estimation routines to estimate parameters of a wide variety of confirmatory item factor analysis models. Further, I show…

  2. Evaluating Effective Teaching in College Level Economics Using Student Ratings of Instruction: A Factor Analytic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbetsiafa, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the factors that affect students' evaluation of economic instruction using a sample of 1300 completed rating instruments at a comprehensive four-year mid-western public university. The study uses factor analysis to determine the validity and reliability of the evaluation instrument in assessing instructor or course…

  3. Regional determinants of FDI in China: a factor-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martijn A. Boermans; Zhang Yi; Hein Roelfsema

    2011-01-01

    We empirically investigate the factors that drive the uneven regional distribution of foreign direct investment (FDI) across Chinese provinces from 1995 to 2006. We first perform a factor analysis to summarize information embodied in around 40 variables and derive four FDI determinants:

  4. Factors Affecting Perceived Learning, Satisfaction, and Quality in the Online MBA: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastianelli, Rose; Swift, Caroline; Tamimi, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined how six factors related to content and interaction affect students' perceptions of learning, satisfaction, and quality in online master of business administration (MBA) courses. They developed three scale items to measure each factor. Using survey data from MBA students at a private university, the authors estimated structural…

  5. Factors Associated With Presenteeism and Psychological Distress Using a Theory-Driven Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, Marie-France; Corbière, Marc; Durand, Marie-José; Nastasia, Iuliana; Labrecque, Marie-Elise; Berbiche, Djamal; Albert, Valérie

    2015-06-01

    To test a model of presenteeism on the basis of established and emerging theories separated into organizational and individual factors that could be mediated by psychological distress. This was a Web survey of 2371 employees (response rate of 48%) of a provincial government agency. We assessed theories with validated measures for organizational and individual factors. Psychological distress was negatively associated to presenteeism, when controlling for sex, short-term work absence in the last year, and social desirability. Both individual and organizational factors were related to psychological distress. The most important factors included the presence of stress events in the preceding 6 months, extrinsic efforts (interruptions, work requirements), self-esteem as a worker, and internal amotivation. By identifying modifiable factors, our results suggest that the implementation of a work organization structure that promotes stimulation and accomplishment would reduce psychological distress and further presenteeism.

  6. Women-specific risk factors for heart failure: A genetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kemp, Jet; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte

    2018-03-01

    Heart failure is a complex disease, which is presented differently by men and women. Several studies have shown that reproductive factors, such as age at natural menopause, parity and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), may play a role in the development of heart failure. Shared genetics may provide clues to underlying mechanisms; however, this has never been examined. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to explore whether any reproductive factor is potentially related to heart failure in women, based on genetic similarities. Conducting a systematic literature review, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with reproductive factors, heart failure and its risk factors were extracted from recent genome-wide association studies. We tested whether there was any overlap between the SNPs and their proxies of reproductive risk factors with those known for heart failure or its risk factors. In total, 520 genetic variants were found that are associated with reproductive factors, namely age at menarche, age at natural menopause, menstrual cycle length, PCOS, preeclampsia, preterm delivery and spontaneous dizygotic twinning. For heart failure and associated phenotypes, 25 variants were found. Genetic variants for reproductive factors did not overlap with those for heart failure. However, age at menarche, gestational diabetes and PCOS were found to be genetically linked to risk factors for heart failure, such as atrial fibrillation, diabetes and smoking. Corresponding implicated genes, such as TNNI3K, ErbB3, MKL2, MTNR1B and PRKD1, may explain the associations between reproductive factors and heart failure. Exact effector mechanisms of these genes remain to be investigated further. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Problematic eating behaviors among bariatric surgical candidates: a psychometric investigation and factor analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelinas, Bethany L; Delparte, Chelsea A; Wright, Kristi D; Hart, Regan

    2015-01-01

    Psychological factors (e.g., anxiety, depression) are routinely assessed in bariatric pre-surgical programs, as high levels of psychopathology are consistently related to poor program outcomes (e.g., failure to lose significant weight pre-surgery, weight regain post-surgery). Behavioral factors related to poor program outcomes and ways in which behavioral and psychological factors interact, have received little attention in bariatric research and practice. Potentially problematic behavioral factors are queried by Section H of the Weight and Lifestyle Inventory (WALI-H), in which respondents indicate the relevance of certain eating behaviors to obesity. A factor analytic investigation of the WALI-H serves to improve the way in which this assessment tool is interpreted and used among bariatric surgical candidates, and subsequent moderation analyses serve to demonstrate potential compounding influences of psychopathology on eating behavior factors. Bariatric surgical candidates (n =362) completed several measures of psychopathology and the WALI-H. Item responses from the WALI-H were subjected to principal axis factoring with oblique rotation. Results revealed a three-factor model including: (1) eating in response to negative affect, (2) overeating/desirability of food, and (3) eating in response to positive affect/social cues. All three behavioral factors of the WALI-H were significantly associated with measures of depression and anxiety. Moderation analyses revealed that depression did not moderate the relationship between anxiety and any eating behavior factor. Although single forms of psychopathology are related to eating behaviors, the combination of psychopathology does not appear to influence these problematic behaviors. Recommendations for pre-surgical assessment and treatment of bariatric surgical candidates are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ecological correlates of multiple sexual partnerships among adolescents and young adults in urban Cape Town: a cumulative risk factor approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchiri, Evans; Odimegwu, Clifford; Banda, Pamela; Ntoimo, Lorreta; Adedini, Sunday

    2017-07-01

    Studies in South Africa have reported unsafe levels of risky sexual behvaiours among adolescents and young adults, with the country reporting the highest burden of HIV/AIDS globally, as well as a high rate of teenage pregnancy. While determinants of risky sexual behaviours have been investigated for factors occurring at the individual and household levels, not fully explored in the literature is the effect of community level factors. Furthermore, it is unclear whether risk factors occurring within the ecology of adolescents and young adults act cumulatively to influence their sexual practices. This article aims to address this knowledge gap using a case study of the Cape Area Panel Study of adolescents and young adults in urban Cape Town, South Africa. The ecological framework was adopted to guide the selection of risk factors at the individual, household, and community levels. Multivariate linear discriminant function analyses were used to select significant risk factors for multiple sexual partnerships and used to produce risk indices for the respondents. The cumulative risk approach was applied to test whether significant risk factors acted cumulatively. Findings point to the importance of ecological factors in influencing outcomes of multiple sexual partnerships among respondents and further demonstrate that ecological risk factors may act cumulatively. These findings are important for South Africa that is grappling with teenage pregnancy and disproportionate HIV epidemic among the youth.

  9. Assessing the Structure of the Ways of Coping Questionnaire in Fibromyalgia Patients Using Common Factor Analytic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Van Liew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ is a widely used measure of coping processes. Despite its use in a variety of populations, there has been concern about the stability and structure of the WCQ across different populations. This study examines the factor structure of the WCQ in a large sample of individuals diagnosed with fibromyalgia. The participants were 501 adults (478 women who were part of a larger intervention study. Participants completed the WCQ at their 6-month assessment. Foundational factoring approaches were performed on the data (i.e., maximum likelihood factoring [MLF], iterative principal factoring [IPF], principal axis factoring (PAF, and principal components factoring [PCF] with oblique oblimin rotation. Various criteria were evaluated to determine the number of factors to be extracted, including Kaiser’s rule, Scree plot visual analysis, 5 and 10% unique variance explained, 70 and 80% communal variance explained, and Horn’s parallel analysis (PA. It was concluded that the 4-factor PAF solution was the preferable solution, based on PA extraction and the fact that this solution minimizes nonvocality and multivocality. The present study highlights the need for more research focused on defining the limits of the WCQ and the degree to which population-specific and context-specific subscale adjustments are needed.

  10. Optimization of healthcare supply chain in context of macro-ergonomics factors by a unique mathematical programming approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadeh, A; Motevali Haghighi, S; Gaeini, Z; Shabanpour, N

    2016-07-01

    This study presents an integrated approach for analyzing the impact of macro-ergonomics factors in healthcare supply chain (HCSC) by data envelopment analysis (DEA). The case of this study is the supply chain (SC) of a real hospital. Thus, healthcare standards and macro-ergonomics factors are considered to be modeled by the mathematical programming approach. Over 28 subsidiary SC divisions with parallel missions and objectives are evaluated by analyzing inputs and outputs through DEA. Each division in this HCSC is considered as decision making unit (DMU). This approach can analyze the impact of macro-ergonomics factors on supply chain management (SCM) in healthcare sector. Also, this method ranks the relevant performance efficiencies of each HCSC. In this study by using proposed method, the most effective macro-ergonomics factor on HCSC is identified as "teamwork" issue. Also, this study would help managers to identify the areas of weaknesses in their SCM system and set improvement target plan for the related SCM system in healthcare industry. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study for macro-ergonomics optimization of HCSC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Proposal of a risk-factor-based analytical approach for integrating occupational health and safety into project risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Adel; Nadeau, Sylvie; Gbodossou, André

    2012-09-01

    Excluding occupational health and safety (OHS) from project management is no longer acceptable. Numerous industrial accidents have exposed the ineffectiveness of conventional risk evaluation methods as well as negligence of risk factors having major impact on the health and safety of workers and nearby residents. Lack of reliable and complete evaluations from the beginning of a project generates bad decisions that could end up threatening the very existence of an organization. This article supports a systematic approach to the evaluation of OHS risks and proposes a new procedure based on the number of risk factors identified and their relative significance. A new concept called risk factor concentration along with weighting of risk factor categories as contributors to undesirable events are used in the analytical hierarchy process multi-criteria comparison model with Expert Choice(©) software. A case study is used to illustrate the various steps of the risk evaluation approach and the quick and simple integration of OHS at an early stage of a project. The approach allows continual reassessment of criteria over the course of the project or when new data are acquired. It was thus possible to differentiate the OHS risks from the risk of drop in quality in the case of the factory expansion project. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Factors Influencing Satisfaction with Public City Transport: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawlasova Pavlina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Satisfaction is one of the key factors which influences customer loyalty. We assume that the satisfied customer will be willing to use the ssame service provider again. The overall passengers´ satisfaction with public city transport may be affected by the overall service quality. Frequency, punctuality, cleanliness in the vehicle, proximity, speed, fare, accessibility and safety of transport, information and other factors can influence passengers´ satisfaction. The aim of this paper is to quantify factors and identify the most important factors influencing customer satisfaction with public city transport within conditions of the Czech Republic. Two methods of analysis are applied in order to fulfil the aim. The method of factor analysis and the method Varimax were used in order to categorize variables according to their mutual relations. The method of structural equation modelling was used to evaluate the factors and validate the model. Then, the optimal model was found. The logistic parameters, including service continuity and frequency, and service, including information rate, station proximity and vehicle cleanliness, are the factors influencing passengers´ satisfaction on a large scale.

  13. Delta and Omega electromagnetic form factors in a Dyson-Schwinger/Bethe-Salpeter approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diana Nicmorus, Gernot Eichmann, Reinhard Alkofer

    2010-12-01

    We investigate the electromagnetic form factors of the Delta and the Omega baryons within the Poincare-covariant framework of Dyson-Schwinger and Bethe-Salpeter equations. The three-quark core contributions of the form factors are evaluated by employing a quark-diquark approximation. We use a consistent setup for the quark-gluon dressing, the quark-quark bound-state kernel and the quark-photon interaction. Our predictions for the multipole form factors are compatible with available experimental data and quark-model estimates. The current-quark mass evolution of the static electromagnetic properties agrees with results provided by lattice calculations.

  14. A systematic approach for the assessment of bacterial growth-controlling factors linked to biological stability of drinking water in distribution systems

    KAUST Repository

    Prest, E. I.; Hammes, F.; Kotzsch, S.; van Loosdrecht, M. C. M.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2016-01-01

    A systematic approach is presented for the assessment of (i) bacterial growth-controlling factors in drinking water and (ii) the impact of distribution conditions on the extent of bacterial growth in full-scale distribution systems. The approach

  15. A neuro-data envelopment analysis approach for optimization of uncorrelated multiple response problems with smaller the better type controllable factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashiri, Mahdi; Farshbaf-Geranmayeh, Amir; Mogouie, Hamed

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, a new method is proposed to optimize a multi-response optimization problem based on the Taguchi method for the processes where controllable factors are the smaller-the-better (STB)-type variables and the analyzer desires to find an optimal solution with smaller amount of controllable factors. In such processes, the overall output quality of the product should be maximized while the usage of the process inputs, the controllable factors, should be minimized. Since all possible combinations of factors' levels, are not considered in the Taguchi method, the response values of the possible unpracticed treatments are estimated using the artificial neural network (ANN). The neural network is tuned by the central composite design (CCD) and the genetic algorithm (GA). Then data envelopment analysis (DEA) is applied for determining the efficiency of each treatment. Although the important issue for implementation of DEA is its philosophy, which is maximization of outputs versus minimization of inputs, this important issue has been neglected in previous similar studies in multi-response problems. Finally, the most efficient treatment is determined using the maximin weight model approach. The performance of the proposed method is verified in a plastic molding process. Moreover a sensitivity analysis has been done by an efficiency estimator neural network. The results show efficiency of the proposed approach.

  16. Factors Influencing Implementation of OHSAS 18001 in Indian Construction Organizations: Interpretive Structural Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunku Venkata Siva Rajaprasad

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Management commitment has the maximum driving power and the most influential factor is safety policy, which states clearly the commitment of top management towards occupational safety and health.

  17. Sequence2Vec: A novel embedding approach for modeling transcription factor binding affinity landscape

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Hanjun; Umarov, Ramzan; Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Li, Yu; Song, Le; Gao, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Motivation: An accurate characterization of transcription factor (TF)-DNA affinity landscape is crucial to a quantitative understanding of the molecular mechanisms underpinning endogenous gene regulation. While recent advances in biotechnology have

  18. The Factors Influencing Satisfaction with Public City Transport: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlasova Pavlina

    2015-01-01

    Satisfaction is one of the key factors which influences customer loyalty. We assume that the satisfied customer will be willing to use the ssame service provider again. The overall passengers´ satisfaction with public city transport may be affected by the overall service quality. Frequency, punctuality, cleanliness in the vehicle, proximity, speed, fare, accessibility and safety of transport, information and other factors can influence passengers´ satisfaction. The aim of this pap...

  19. Reliability assessment of a bi-material notch: Strain energy density factor approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klusák, Jan; Knésl, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2010), s. 89-93 ISSN 0167-8442 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/2049; GA ČR GA101/08/0994 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : crack initiation * bi-material notch * strain energy density factor Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.073, year: 2010

  20. Velocity, attenuation, and quality factor in anisotropic viscoelastic media: A perturbation approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavryčuk, Václav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 5 (2008), D63-D73 ISSN 0016-8033 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/05/2182; GA AV ČR IAA300120801 Grant - others:EC(XE) MTKI-CT-2004-517242 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : wave propagation * anisotropic viscoelastic media * Q-factor Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.349, year: 2008

  1. Determinants of job stress in chemical process industry: A factor analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Balagopal G; Praveensal, C J; Madhu, G

    2015-01-01

    Job stress is one of the active research domains in industrial safety research. The job stress can result in accidents and health related issues in workers in chemical process industries. Hence it is important to measure the level of job stress in workers so as to mitigate the same to avoid the worker's safety related problems in the industries. The objective of this study is to determine the job stress factors in the chemical process industry in Kerala state, India. This study also aims to propose a comprehensive model and an instrument framework for measuring job stress levels in the chemical process industries in Kerala, India. The data is collected through a questionnaire survey conducted in chemical process industries in Kerala. The collected data out of 1197 surveys is subjected to principal component and confirmatory factor analysis to develop the job stress factor structure. The factor analysis revealed 8 factors that influence the job stress in process industries. It is also found that the job stress in employees is most influenced by role ambiguity and the least by work environment. The study has developed an instrument framework towards measuring job stress utilizing exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.

  2. Factors Associated with Asthma ED Visit Rates among Medicaid-enrolled Children: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luceta McRoy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asthma is one of the leading causes of emergency department visits and school absenteeism among school-aged children in the United States, but there is significant local-area variation in emergency department visit rates, as well as significant differences across racial-ethnic groups. Analysis: We first calculated emergency department (ED visit rates among Medicaid-enrolled children age 5–12 with asthma using a multi-state dataset. We then performed exploratory factor analysis using over 226 variables to assess whether they clustered around three county-level conceptual factors (socioeconomic status, healthcare capacity, and air quality thought to be associated with variation in asthma ED visit rates. Measured variables (including ED visit rate as the outcome of interest were then standardized and tested in a simple conceptual model through confirmatory factor analysis. Results: County-level (contextual variables did cluster around factors declared a priori in the conceptual model. Structural equation models connecting the ED visit rates to socioeconomic status, air quality, and healthcare system professional capacity factors (consistent with our conceptual framework converged on a solution and achieved a reasonable goodness of fit on confirmatory factor analysis. Conclusion: Confirmatory factor analysis offers an approach for quantitatively testing conceptual models of local-area variation and racial disparities in asthma-related emergency department use.

  3. Aggregation factor analysis for protein formulation by a systematic approach using FTIR, SEC and design of experiments techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan Wen; Ooishi, Ayako; Honda, Shinya

    2012-01-05

    A simple systematic approach using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and design of experiments (DOE) techniques was applied to the analysis of aggregation factors for protein formulations in stress and accelerated testings. FTIR and SEC were used to evaluate protein conformational and storage stabilities, respectively. DOE was used to determine the suitable formulation and to analyze both the main effect of single factors and the interaction effect of combined factors on aggregation. Our results indicated that (i) analysis at a low protein concentration is not always applicable to high concentration formulations; (ii) an investigation of interaction effects of combined factors as well as main effects of single factors is effective for improving conformational stability of proteins; (iii) with the exception of pH, the results of stress testing with regard to aggregation factors would be available for suitable formulation instead of performing time-consuming accelerated testing; (iv) a suitable pH condition should not be determined in stress testing but in accelerated testing, because of inconsistent effects of pH on conformational and storage stabilities. In summary, we propose a three-step strategy, using FTIR, SEC and DOE techniques, to effectively analyze the aggregation factors and perform a rapid screening for suitable conditions of protein formulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Variant Form of the Human Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumor 1 (DMBT1) Gene Shows Increased Expression in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Interacts with Dimeric Trefoil Factor 3 (TFF3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens; Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Nielsen, Ole Stig

    2013-01-01

    The protein deleted in malignant brain tumors (DMBT1) and the trefoil factor (TFF) proteins have all been proposed to have roles in epithelial cell growth and cell differentiation and shown to be up regulated in inflammatory bowel diseases. A panel of monoclonal antibodies was raised against human...

  5. Functional analyses of lupulin gland-specific regulatory factors from WD40, bHLH and Myb families of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) show formation of crucial complexes activating chs_H1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Jaroslav; Patzak, J.; Kocábek, Tomáš; Füssy, Zoltán; Stehlík, Jan; Orctová, Lidmila; Duraisamy, Ganesh Selvaraj

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 6 (2011), s. 151-155 ISSN 1613-2041 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/08/0740; GA MZe QH81052 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : lupulin metabolome * Humulus lupulus L. * protein complexes * transcription factors Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  6. An Inverse Function Least Square Fitting Approach of the Buildup Factor for Radiation Shielding Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Je [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Alkhatee, Sari; Roh, Gyuhong; Lee, Byungchul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Dose absorption and energy absorption buildup factors are widely used in the shielding analysis. The dose rate of the medium is main concern in the dose buildup factor, however energy absorption is an important parameter in the energy buildup factors. ANSI/ANS-6.4.3-1991 standard data is widely used based on interpolation and extrapolation by means of an approximation method. Recently, Yoshida's geometric progression (GP) formulae are also popular and it is already implemented in QAD code. In the QAD code, two buildup factors are notated as DOSE for standard air exposure response and ENG for the response of the energy absorbed in the material itself. In this paper, a new least square fitting method is suggested to obtain a reliable buildup factors proposed since 1991. Total 4 datasets of air exposure buildup factors are used for evaluation including ANSI/ANS-6.4.3-1991, Taylor, Berger, and GP data. The standard deviation of the fitted data are analyzed based on the results. A new reverse least square fitting method is proposed in this study in order to reduce the fitting uncertainties. It adapts an inverse function rather than the original function by the distribution slope of dataset. Some quantitative comparisons are provided for concrete and lead in this paper, too. This study is focused on the least square fitting of existing buildup factors to be utilized in the point-kernel code for radiation shielding analysis. The inverse least square fitting method is suggested to obtain more reliable results of concave shaped dataset such as concrete. In the concrete case, the variance and residue are decreased significantly, too. However, the convex shaped case of lead can be applied to the usual least square fitting method. In the future, more datasets will be tested by using the least square fitting. And the fitted data could be implemented to the existing point-kernel codes.

  7. Interrelationships of Physical Activity and Sleep with Cardiovascular Risk Factors: a Person-Oriented Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennman, Heini; Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Tolvanen, Asko; Peltonen, Markku; Vasankari, Tommi; Borodulin, Katja

    2015-12-01

    Associations of behaviorally modifiable factors like physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors, and sleep with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are complicated. We examined whether membership in latent classes (LCs) differentiated by PA and sleep profiles (real-life clustering of behaviors in population subgroups) associate with metabolic risk factors and CVD risk. The National FINRISK 2012 Study comprise a cross-sectional sample of 10,000 Finns aged 25 to 74 years. Analyses included participants with complete data on a health questionnaire, a health examination, who had no prevalent CVD (n = 4031). LCs with PA and sleep profiles were previously defined using latent class analysis. Ten metabolic risk factors and the Framingham 10-year CVD risk score were compared between the LCs. PA and sleep class profiles were substantially similar for genders. Compared to LC-1, with a profile including high PA and sufficient sleep, membership in LC-4, with a profile including sedentariness and insufficient sleep was associated with high metabolic risk factors in women but not in men. In women, also membership in LC-2, with a profile including light PA, sufficient sleep, and high sedentariness was associated with high metabolic risk factors. The Framingham 10-year CVD risk score was highest in LCs 2 and 4 in both genders. Membership in LCs differentiated by PA and sleep profiles was associated with metabolic risk factors merely in women, suggesting gender differences in the interrelationships of health behaviors and metabolic risk factors. Total CVD risk differed between the LCs despite of gender; however, the effect was small.

  8. Multi-scale approach to the environmental factors effects on spatio-temporal variability of Chironomus salinarius (Diptera: Chironomidae) in a French coastal lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, V.; Claret, C.; Garnier, R.; Fayolle, S.; Franquet, E.

    2010-03-01

    The complexity of the relationships between environmental factors and organisms can be revealed by sampling designs which consider the contribution to variability of different temporal and spatial scales, compared to total variability. From a management perspective, a multi-scale approach can lead to time-saving. Identifying environmental patterns that help maintain patchy distribution is fundamental in studying coastal lagoons, transition zones between continental and marine waters characterised by great environmental variability on spatial and temporal scales. They often present organic enrichment inducing decreased species richness and increased densities of opportunist species like C hironomus salinarius, a common species that tends to swarm and thus constitutes a nuisance for human populations. This species is dominant in the Bolmon lagoon, a French Mediterranean coastal lagoon under eutrophication. Our objective was to quantify variability due to both spatial and temporal scales and identify the contribution of different environmental factors to this variability. The population of C. salinarius was sampled from June 2007 to June 2008 every two months at 12 sites located in two areas of the Bolmon lagoon, at two different depths, with three sites per area-depth combination. Environmental factors (temperature, dissolved oxygen both in sediment and under water surface, sediment organic matter content and grain size) and microbial activities (i.e. hydrolase activities) were also considered as explanatory factors of chironomid densities and distribution. ANOVA analysis reveals significant spatial differences regarding the distribution of chironomid larvae for the area and the depth scales and their interaction. The spatial effect is also revealed for dissolved oxygen (water), salinity and fine particles (area scale), and for water column depth. All factors but water column depth show a temporal effect. Spearman's correlations highlight the seasonal effect

  9. Pion form factor in QCD sum rules, local duality approach, and O(A2) fractional analytic perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakulev, Alexander P.

    2010-01-01

    Using the results on the electromagnetic pion Form Factor (FF) obtained in the O(α s ) QCD sum rules with non-local condensates [A.P. Bakulev, A.V. Pimikov, and N.G. Stefanis, Phys. Rev. D79 (2009) 093010] we determine the effective continuum threshold for the local duality approach. Then we apply it to construct the O(α s 2 ) estimation of the pion FF in the framework of the fractional analytic perturbation theory.

  10. A biophysical approach using water deficit factor for daily estimations of evapotranspiration and CO2 uptake in Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Helman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Estimations of ecosystem-level evapotranspiration (ET and CO2 uptake in water-limited environments are scarce and scaling up ground-level measurements is not straightforward. A biophysical approach using remote sensing (RS and meteorological data (RS–Met is adjusted to extreme high-energy water-limited Mediterranean ecosystems that suffer from continuous stress conditions to provide daily estimations of ET and CO2 uptake (measured as gross primary production, GPP at a spatial resolution of 250 m. The RS–Met was adjusted using a seasonal water deficit factor (fWD based on daily rainfall, temperature and radiation data. We validated our adjusted RS–Met with eddy covariance flux measurements using a newly developed mobile lab system and the single active FLUXNET station operating in this region (Yatir pine forest station at a total of seven forest and non-forest sites across a climatic transect in Israel (280–770 mm yr−1. RS–Met was also compared to the satellite-borne MODIS-based ET and GPP products (MOD16 and MOD17, respectively at these sites.Results show that the inclusion of the fWD significantly improved the model, with R =  0.64–0.91 for the ET-adjusted model (compared to 0.05–0.80 for the unadjusted model and R =  0.72–0.92 for the adjusted GPP model (compared to R =  0.56–0.90 of the non-adjusted model. The RS–Met (with the fWD successfully tracked observed changes in ET and GPP between dry and wet seasons across the sites. ET and GPP estimates from the adjusted RS–Met also agreed well with eddy covariance estimates on an annual timescale at the FLUXNET station of Yatir (266 ± 61 vs. 257 ± 58 mm yr−1 and 765 ± 112 vs. 748 ± 124 gC m−2 yr−1 for ET and GPP, respectively. Comparison with MODIS products showed consistently lower estimates from the MODIS-based models, particularly at the forest sites. Using the adjusted RS–Met, we show that afforestation

  11. Influencing factors for condition-based maintenance in railway tracks using knowledge-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidi, A.; Hajizadeh, S.; Naeimi, M.; Nunez Vicencio, Alfredo; Li, Z.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a condition-based maintenance decision method using
    knowledge-based approach for rail surface defects. A railway track may contain a considerable number of surface defects which influence track maintenance decisions. The proposed method is based on two sets of

  12. Purcell factor for a cylindrical nanocavity: ab initio analytical approach: reply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordo, V.

    2014-01-01

    The comment by Sun et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31, 175 (2014)] on my paper [J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 1799 (2012)] is shown here to be due to a lack of understanding of the approach developed in my papers. (C) 2014 Optical Society of America...

  13. The effects of predictor method factors on selection outcomes: A modular approach to personnel selection procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Filip; Sackett, Paul R

    2017-01-01

    Past reviews and meta-analyses typically conceptualized and examined selection procedures as holistic entities. We draw on the product design literature to propose a modular approach as a complementary perspective to conceptualizing selection procedures. A modular approach means that a product is broken down into its key underlying components. Therefore, we start by presenting a modular framework that identifies the important measurement components of selection procedures. Next, we adopt this modular lens for reviewing the available evidence regarding each of these components in terms of affecting validity, subgroup differences, and applicant perceptions, as well as for identifying new research directions. As a complement to the historical focus on holistic selection procedures, we posit that the theoretical contributions of a modular approach include improved insight into the isolated workings of the different components underlying selection procedures and greater theoretical connectivity among different selection procedures and their literatures. We also outline how organizations can put a modular approach into operation to increase the variety in selection procedures and to enhance the flexibility in designing them. Overall, we believe that a modular perspective on selection procedures will provide the impetus for programmatic and theory-driven research on the different measurement components of selection procedures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Cross-Cultural Validation of Models of Approaches to Learning: An Application of Confirmatory Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ngai-Ying; Lin, Wen-Ying; Watkins, David

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes responses to a questionnaire from 10 samples of primary and secondary school students from Nigeria, Zimbabwe, Malaysia, Beijing, Hong Kong, and Canada. The questionnaire covered learning strategies, approaches, and motivation. These data were then analyzed using six different structural equation models. Includes discussion of the models…

  15. Conditioning factors of test-taking engagement in PIAAC: an exploratory IRT modelling approach considering person and item characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Goldhammer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A potential problem of low-stakes large-scale assessments such as the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC is low test-taking engagement. The present study pursued two goals in order to better understand conditioning factors of test-taking disengagement: First, a model-based approach was used to investigate whether item indicators of disengagement constitute a continuous latent person variable by domain. Second, the effects of person and item characteristics were jointly tested using explanatory item response models. Methods Analyses were based on the Canadian sample of Round 1 of the PIAAC, with N = 26,683 participants completing test items in the domains of literacy, numeracy, and problem solving. Binary item disengagement indicators were created by means of item response time thresholds. Results The results showed that disengagement indicators define a latent dimension by domain. Disengagement increased with lower educational attainment, lower cognitive skills, and when the test language was not the participant’s native language. Gender did not exert any effect on disengagement, while age had a positive effect for problem solving only. An item’s location in the second of two assessment modules was positively related to disengagement, as was item difficulty. The latter effect was negatively moderated by cognitive skill, suggesting that poor test-takers are especially likely to disengage with more difficult items. Conclusions The negative effect of cognitive skill, the positive effect of item difficulty, and their negative interaction effect support the assumption that disengagement is the outcome of individual expectations about success (informed disengagement.

  16. An environmental factor approach to account for reactor water effects in light water reactor pressure vessel and piping fatigue evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, H.S.; Gosselin, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes past and current studies of the environmental fatigue effects in LWR applications. Current Argonne and Japanese research efforts are reviewed and an approach to calculate an environmental correction factor is described. A description of how the proposed approach can be implemented in Section III, NB-3600 and NB-3200-type fatigue evaluations, is presented along with examples of applying the approach to piping (NB-3600) and safe-end fatigue evaluations. These procedures were applied to several BWR and PWR example cases. The results of these case studies indicated that there is a modest increase in calculated fatigue usage, which is considerably less than the results obtained when the NUREG/CR-5999 curves are applied directly

  17. An Auditing Approach for ERP Systems Examining Human Factors that Influence ERP User Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros MITAKOS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to connect the successful implementation and operation of the ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning information systems with people and their characteristics through a pilot survey. It examines the human factors that influence ERP user satisfaction. The presented survey tests 14 hypotheses and is based on the model developed by Zviran, Pliskin & Levin [21]. An additional factor has been added to the specified model, the self-efficacy factor analyzed by Bandura [1]. The results are based on 250 ERP users that responded to the survey. The key findings that were revealed by data analysis were that none of the human socio-demographic characteristics do influence ERP user satisfaction. Additionally it was found that perceived usefulness and self-efficacy are the key directors of the ERP user satisfaction. Moreover suggestions are given about how the companies should handle ERP usage in order to develop the prerequisites for increasing user satisfaction and productivity accordingly.

  18. Theoretical Approach to Synergistic Interaction of Ionizing Radiation with Other Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Petinb, Vladislav G.

    2005-01-01

    Living objects including men are never exposed to merely one harmful agent. Many physical, chemical, biological and social factors may simultaneously exert their deleterious influence to man and the environment. Risk assessment is generally performed with the simplest assumption that the factor under consideration acts largely independently of others. However, the combined exposure to two harmful agents could result in a higher effect than would be expected from the addition of the separate exposures to individual agents. Hence, there is a possibility that, at least at high exposures, the combined effect of ionizing radiation with other environmental factors can be resulted in a greater overall risk. The problem is not so clear for low intensity and there is no possibility of testing all conceivable combinations of agents. For further insight into the mode of synergistic interaction, discussed are a common feature of synergistic interaction display and a theoretical model to describe, optimize and predict the synergistic effects

  19. The human factors engineering approach to biomedical informatics projects: state of the art, results, benefits and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuscart-Zéphir, M-C; Elkin, Peter; Pelayo, Sylvia; Beuscart, Regis

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to define a comprehensible overview of the Human Factors approach to biomedical informatics applications for healthcare. The overview starts with a presentation of the necessity of a proper management of Human factors for Healthcare IT projects to avoid unusable products and unsafe work situations. The first section is dedicated to definitions of the Human Factors Engineering (HFE) main concepts. The second section describes a functional model of an HFE lifecycle adapted for healthcare work situations. The third section provides an overview of existing HF and usability methods for healthcare products and presents a selection of interesting results. The last section discusses the benefits and limitations of the HFE approach. Literature review based on Pubmed and conference proceedings in the field of Medical Informatics coupled with a review of other databases and conference proceedings in the field of Ergonomics focused on papers addressing healthcare work and system design. Usability studies performed on healthcare applications have uncovered unacceptable usability flaws that make the systems error prone, thus endangering the patient safety. Moreover, in many cases, the procurement and the implementation process simply forget about human factors: following only technological considerations, they issue potentially dangerous and always unpleasant work situations. But when properly applied to IT projects, the HFE approach proves efficient when seeking to improve patient safety, users' satisfaction and adoption of the products. We recommend that the HFE methodology should be applied to most informatics and systems development projects, and the usability of the products should be systematically checked before permitting their release and implementation. This requires the development of Centers specialized in Human Factors for Healthcare and Patient safety in each Country/Region.

  20. Energy transfer between a nanosystem and its host fluid: A multiscale factorization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereda, Yuriy V.; Espinosa-Duran, John M.; Ortoleva, Peter J.

    2014-02-01

    Energy transfer between a macromolecule or supramolecular assembly and a host medium is considered from the perspective of Newton's equations and Lie-Trotter factorization. The development starts by demonstrating that the energy of the molecule evolves slowly relative to the time scale of atomic collisions-vibrations. The energy is envisioned to be a coarse-grained variable that coevolves with the rapidly fluctuating atomistic degrees of freedom. Lie-Trotter factorization is shown to be a natural framework for expressing this coevolution. A mathematical formalism and workflow for efficient multiscale simulation of energy transfer is presented. Lactoferrin and human papilloma virus capsid-like structure are used for validation.

  1. Energy transfer between a nanosystem and its host fluid: A multiscale factorization approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sereda, Yuriy V.; Espinosa-Duran, John M.; Ortoleva, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Energy transfer between a macromolecule or supramolecular assembly and a host medium is considered from the perspective of Newton's equations and Lie-Trotter factorization. The development starts by demonstrating that the energy of the molecule evolves slowly relative to the time scale of atomic collisions-vibrations. The energy is envisioned to be a coarse-grained variable that coevolves with the rapidly fluctuating atomistic degrees of freedom. Lie-Trotter factorization is shown to be a natural framework for expressing this coevolution. A mathematical formalism and workflow for efficient multiscale simulation of energy transfer is presented. Lactoferrin and human papilloma virus capsid-like structure are used for validation

  2. Factors Affecting Stock Returns of Firms Quoted in ISE Market: A Dynamic Panel Data Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şebnem Er

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies, explaining the factors affecting stock returns, have been published both in developed and developing countries. In many of these papers, either cross-sectional or time series methods have been applied. In this study, Dynamic Panel Data Analysis Methods have been conducted to explain the factors affecting stock returns of 64 manufacturing firms that are continuously quoted in ISE during the period of 2003-2007. The results indicate that stock performance, financial structure, activity and profitability ratios can be used to explain the stock returns as well as the oil prices, economic growth, exchange rate, interest rate, and money supply.

  3. Insulin-like growth factor family and combined antisense approach in therapy of lung carcinoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Pavelić, Jasminka; Pavelić, Ljubomir; Karadza, Jerolim; Krizanac, Simun; Unesić, Josip; Spaventi, Sime; Pavelić, Kresimir

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perturbation in a level of any peptide from insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family (ligands, receptors, and binding proteins) seems to be implicated in lung cancer formation; IGF ligands and IGF-I receptor through their mitogenic and anti-apoptotic action, and the mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor (M6-P/IGF-IIR) possibly as a tumor suppressor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To determine the identity, role, and mutual relationship of IGFs in lung cancer growth and...

  4. Designing medical technology for resilience : integrating health economics and human factors approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsci, Simone; Uchegbu, Ijeoma; Buckle, Peter; Ni, Zhifang; Walne, Simon; Hanna, George B.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The slow adoption of innovation into healthcare calls into question the manner of evidence generation for medical technology. This paper identifies potential reasons for this including a lack of attention to human factors, poor evaluation of economic benefits, lack of understanding of

  5. Psychometric Evaluation of the Student Authorship Questionnaire: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantine, Joan; Guo, Xin; Larres, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This research provides new insights into the measurement of students' authorial identity and its potential for minimising the incidence of unintentional plagiarism by providing evidence about the psychometric properties of the Student Authorship Questionnaire (SAQ). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA) are employed to…

  6. Approaching the Affective Factors of Information Seeking: The Viewpoint of the Information Search Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Reijo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The article contributes to the conceptual studies of affective factors in information seeking by examining Kuhlthau's information search process model. Method: This random-digit dial telephone survey of 253 people (75% female) living in a rural, medically under-serviced area of Ontario, Canada, follows-up a previous interview study…

  7. Vascular risk factors and Alzheimer’s disease. Therapeutic approaches in mouse models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiesmann, M.

    2017-01-01

    The first aim of this thesis was to elucidate the impact of major vascular risk factors like hypertension, apoE4 and stroke during the very early phase of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) using several mice models. Hypertension has proven to be associated with cerebrovascular impairment already at young age

  8. The design value method and adjusted partial factor approach for existing structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caspeele, R.; Sykora, M.; Allaix, D.L.; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the design of new structures, the assessment of existing structures often relies on the subjective judgement of the investigating engineer. An objective verification format for existing structures based on alternative partial factors is however feasible, enabling a rather simple and

  9. Nursing students' attitudes towards information and communication technology: an exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Jae; Clarke, Charlotte L

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically test a shortened version of the Information Technology Attitude Scales for Health, in the investigation of nursing students with clinical placement experiences. Nurses and nursing students need to develop high levels of competency in information and communication technology. However, they encounter statistically significant barriers in the use of the technology. Although some instruments have been developed to measure factors that influence nurses' attitudes towards technology, the validity is questionable and few studies have been developed to test the attitudes of nursing students, in particular. A cross-sectional survey design was performed. The Information Technology Attitude Scales for Health was used to collect data from October 2012-December 2012. A panel of experts reviewed the content of the instrument and a pilot study was conducted. Following this, a total of 508 nursing students, who were engaged in clinical placements, were recruited from six universities in South Korea. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed and reliability and construct validity were assessed. The resulting instrument consisted of 19 items across four factors. Reliability of the four factors was acceptable and the validity was supported. The instrument was shown to be both valid and reliable for measuring nursing students' attitudes towards technology, thus aiding in the current understandings of this aspect. Through these measurements and understandings, nursing educators and students are able to be more reflexive of their attitudes and can thus seek to develop them positively. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Using Trusted Execution Environments in Two-factor Authentication: comparing approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijswijk, Roland M.; Poll, Erik

    Classic two-factor authentication has been around for a long time and has enjoyed success in certain markets (such as the corporate and the banking environ- ment). A reason for this success are the strong security properties, particularly where user interaction is concerned. These properties hinge

  11. Alternate Solution to Generalized Bernoulli Equations via an Integrating Factor: An Exact Differential Equation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, C. C.

    2017-01-01

    Solution methods to exact differential equations via integrating factors have a rich history dating back to Euler (1740) and the ideas enjoy applications to thermodynamics and electromagnetism. Recently, Azevedo and Valentino presented an analysis of the generalized Bernoulli equation, constructing a general solution by linearizing the problem…

  12. Finite Difference Methods for Option Pricing under Lévy Processes: Wiener-Hopf Factorization Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Kudryavtsev

    2013-01-01

    factorization identity. Notice that our algorithm has the same complexity as the ones which use the explicit-implicit scheme, with a tridiagonal matrix. However, our method is more accurate. We support the advantage of the new method in terms of accuracy and convergence by using numerical experiments.

  13. Assessing vocational outcome expectancy in individuals with serious mental illness: a factor-analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Kanako; Umucu, Emre; Wu, Jia-Rung; Yaghmaian, Rana; Lee, Hui-Ling; Fitzgerald, Sandra; Chan, Fong

    2017-07-04

    Self-determination theory (SDT) and self-efficacy theory (SET) can be used to conceptualize self-determined motivation to engage in mental health and vocational rehabilitation (VR) services and to predict recovery. To incorporate SDT and SET as a framework for vocational recovery, developing and validating SDT/SET measures in vocational rehabilitation is warranted. Outcome expectancy is an important SDT/SET variable affecting rehabilitation engagement and recovery. The purpose of this study was to validate the Vocational Outcome Expectancy Scale (VOES) for use within the SDT/SET vocational recovery framework. One hundred and twenty-four individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) participated in this study. Measurement structure of the VOES was evaluated using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Both EFA and CFA results supported a two-factor structure: (a) positive outcome expectancy, and (b) negative outcome expectancy. The internal consistency reliability coefficients for both factors were acceptable. In addition, positive outcome expectancy correlated stronger than negative outcome expectancy with other SDT/SET constructs in the expected directions. The VOES is a brief, reliable and valid instrument for assessing vocational outcome expectancy in individuals with SMI that can be integrated into SDT/SET as a vocational rehabilitation engagement and recovery model in psychiatric rehabilitation.

  14. Motivation: Approaching an Elusive Concept through the Factors That Shape It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bong Gee; Conradi, Kristin; McKenna, Michael C.; Jones, Jill S.

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to provide educators with clear definitions of motivational factors in reading so that instructional planning can capitalize on important distinctions. The authors present definitions of a small set of related motivational concepts (including attitudes, interests, self-efficacy, self-concept, goals, and value)…

  15. Factors influencing variation in physician adenoma detection rates: a theory-based approach for performance improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Louise; Hunkeler, Enid M; Jensen, Christopher D; Michie, Susan; Lee, Jeffrey K; Doubeni, Chyke A; Zauber, Ann G; Levin, Theodore R; Quinn, Virginia P; Corley, Douglas A

    2016-03-01

    Interventions to improve physician adenoma detection rates for colonoscopy have generally not been successful, and there are little data on the factors contributing to variation that may be appropriate targets for intervention. We sought to identify factors that may influence variation in detection rates by using theory-based tools for understanding behavior. We separately studied gastroenterologists and endoscopy nurses at 3 Kaiser Permanente Northern California medical centers to identify potentially modifiable factors relevant to physician adenoma detection rate variability by using structured group interviews (focus groups) and theory-based tools for understanding behavior and eliciting behavior change: the Capability, Opportunity, and Motivation behavior model; the Theoretical Domains Framework; and the Behavior Change Wheel. Nine factors potentially associated with adenoma detection rate variability were identified, including 6 related to capability (uncertainty about which types of polyps to remove, style of endoscopy team leadership, compromised ability to focus during an examination due to distractions, examination technique during withdrawal, difficulty detecting certain types of adenomas, and examiner fatigue and pain), 2 related to opportunity (perceived pressure due to the number of examinations expected per shift and social pressure to finish examinations before scheduled breaks or the end of a shift), and 1 related to motivation (valuing a meticulous examination as the top priority). Examples of potential intervention strategies are provided. By using theory-based tools, this study identified several novel and potentially modifiable factors relating to capability, opportunity, and motivation that may contribute to adenoma detection rate variability and be appropriate targets for future intervention trials. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors that affect micro-tooling features created by direct printing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhani, Mayur N.

    Current market required faster pace production of smaller, better, and improved products in shorter amount of time. Traditional high-rate manufacturing process such as hot embossing, injection molding, compression molding, etc. use tooling to replicate feature on a products. Miniaturization of many product in the field of biomedical, electronics, optical, and microfluidic is occurring on a daily bases. There is a constant need to produce cheaper, and faster tooling, which can be utilize by existing manufacturing processes. Traditionally, in order to manufacture micron size tooling features processes such as micro-machining, Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM), etc. are utilized. Due to a higher difficulty to produce smaller size features, and longer production cycle time, various additive manufacturing approaches are proposed, e.g. selective laser sintering (SLS), inkjet printing (3DP), fused deposition modeling (FDM), etc. were proposed. Most of these approaches can produce net shaped products from different materials such as metal, ceramic, or polymers. Several attempts were made to produce tooling features using additive manufacturing approaches. Most of these produced tooling were not cost effective, and the life cycle of these tooling was reported short. In this research, a method to produce tooling features using direct printing approach, where highly filled feedstock was dispensed on a substrate. This research evaluated different natural binders, such as guar gum, xanthan gum, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) and their combinations were evaluated. The best binder combination was then use to evaluate effect of different metal (316L stainless steel (3 mum), 316 stainless steel (45 mum), and 304 stainless steel (45 mum)) particle size on feature quality. Finally, the effect of direct printing process variables such as dispensing tip internal diameter (500 mum, and 333 mum) at different printing speeds were evaluated.

  17. A hybrid MCDM approach for ranking suppliers by considering ethical factors

    OpenAIRE

    Azadfallah, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    One of the negative effects of cooperating with un-ethically behaving suppliers is that it may devastate the companies' credibility among employees, customers and the public. In this paper, a hybrid Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) approach (Disjunctive-WPM method) is proposed to resolve this limitation. The proposed methods consist of the following steps: 1. drop unethical solutions and 2. rank the remaining solutions. Therefore, the aim of t...

  18. Beyond Risk and Protective Factors: An Adaptation-Based Approach to Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bruce J; Bianchi, JeanMarie; Griskevicius, Vladas; Frankenhuis, Willem E

    2017-07-01

    How does repeated or chronic childhood adversity shape social and cognitive abilities? According to the prevailing deficit model, children from high-stress backgrounds are at risk for impairments in learning and behavior, and the intervention goal is to prevent, reduce, or repair the damage. Missing from this deficit approach is an attempt to leverage the unique strengths and abilities that develop in response to high-stress environments. Evolutionary-developmental models emphasize the coherent, functional changes that occur in response to stress over the life course. Research in birds, rodents, and humans suggests that developmental exposures to stress can improve forms of attention, perception, learning, memory, and problem solving that are ecologically relevant in harsh-unpredictable environments (as per the specialization hypothesis). Many of these skills and abilities, moreover, are primarily manifest in currently stressful contexts where they would provide the greatest fitness-relevant advantages (as per the sensitization hypothesis). This perspective supports an alternative adaptation-based approach to resilience that converges on a central question: "What are the attention, learning, memory, problem-solving, and decision-making strategies that are enhanced through exposures to childhood adversity?" At an applied level, this approach focuses on how we can work with, rather than against, these strengths to promote success in education, employment, and civic life.

  19. The PNPLA3 rs738409 148M/M genotype is a risk factor for liver cancer in alcoholic cirrhosis but shows no or weak association in hepatitis C cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Dieter Nischalke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An isoleucine>methionine mutation at position 148 in the PNPLA3 gene (p.I148M, rs738409 has recently been identified as a susceptibility factor for liver damage in steatohepatitis. Here, we studied whether the PNPLA3 rs738409 polymorphism also affects predisposition to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. METHODS: We compared distributions of PNPLA3 genotypes in 80 and 81 Caucasian patients with alcoholic and hepatitis C virus (HCV-associated HCC to 80 and 81 age- and sex-matched patients with alcohol-related and HCV-related cirrhosis without HCC, respectively. PNPLA3 genotypes in 190 healthy individuals from the same population served as reference. Potential confounders obesity, diabetes, HCV genotype and HBV co-infection were controlled by univariate and multivariate logistic regression with forward variable selection. RESULTS: PNPLA3 genotypes were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for all study groups. The frequency of the 148M allele was significantly (p<0.001 increased in alcoholic cirrhosis with (53.7% and without HCC (36.2% but was not different between healthy controls (22.9% and patients with cirrhosis (25.3%; p = 0.545 and HCC (30.2%; p = 0.071 due to hepatitis C. HCC risk was highest in 148M/M homozygous patients with alcoholic liver disease (odds ratio (OR 16.8 versus healthy controls; 95% confidence interval (CI 6.68-42.43, p<0.001. Finally, multivariate regression confirmed 148M/M homozygosity (OR 2.8; 95%-CI: 1.24-6.42; p = 0.013 as HCC risk factor in alcoholic cirrhosis. In HCV-related cirrhosis only HCV genotype 1 was confirmed as a HCC risk factor (OR 4.2; 95%-CI: 1.50-11.52; p = 0.006. CONCLUSION: The PNPLA3 148M variant is a prominent risk factor for HCC in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, while its effects are negligible in patients with cirrhosis due to HCV. This polymorphism provides an useful tool to identify individuals with particularly high HCC risk in patients with alcoholic liver disease that

  20. The possibilities of suicide prevention in adolescents. A holistic approach to protective and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmár, Sándor

    2013-03-01

    There is no other such complex physical, biological, somatic, mental, psychological, psychiatric, cultural, social and spiritual phenomenon and general public health problem, so much unexplained, meaningless, so tragic, painful, and unreasonable, so difficult, contradictory and mystified like suicide. In spite of the several already identified background factors, we do not and we can not know the real reasons behind suicide, because suicide is multi-causal, and can never be traced back to one single cause, but there are always many biological, psychological-psychiatric, historical, social and cultural factors involved in its development. However, the strongest suicide risk factor is an unrecognized and untreated mental disorder. Suicide among young people is one of the most serious public health problems. In Hungary 1395 young people lost their lives due to suicide in the 24> age group between 2000-2010, 1150 males and 245 females. According to epidemiological studies, 24.7% of children and adolescents suffer from some form of behaviour-, conduct- or other psychiatric disorders. Among adolescents (aged 15-24) suicide was the first leading cause of death in 2010. Despite great advances in the psychopharmacology and psychotherapy of mental disorders, suicides persist as a major cause of mortality, especially among the 15-24-year old population. Victims of suicide are not healthy individuals. They always suffer from psychiatric or mental, physical or somatic, cultural (social, historical, mythological) and spiritual disorders. The author tries to classify suicide protective and risk factors according to physical-biological, mental-psychological, cultural-social, and spiritual aspects. However, it must be remembered that these factors are not necessarily present in each and every case and may vary from one country to another, one person to another, depending on cultural, political, (spiritual) and economical features. Risk and protective factors can occur (1) at the

  1. A combinatorial approach to synthetic transcription factor-promoter combinations for yeast strain engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dossani, Zain Y.; Apel, Amanda Reider; Szmidt-Middleton, Heather

    2018-01-01

    regions, we have built a library of hybrid promoters that are regulated by a synthetic transcription factor. The hybrid promoters consist of native S. cerevisiae promoters, in which the operator regions have been replaced with sequences that are recognized by the bacterial LexA DNA binding protein....... Correspondingly, the synthetic transcription factor (TF) consists of the DNA binding domain of the LexA protein, fused with the human estrogen binding domain and the viral activator domain, VP16. The resulting system with a bacterial DNA binding domain avoids the transcription of native S. cerevisiae genes...... levels, using the same synthetic TF and a given estradiol. This set of promoters, in combination with our synthetic TF, has the potential to regulate numerous genes or pathways simultaneously, to multiple desired levels, in a single strain....

  2. Key factors contributing to accident severity rate in construction industry in Iran: a regression modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanzadeh, Ahmad; Mohammadfam, Iraj; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Ghiasvand, Reza

    2016-03-01

    Construction industry involves the highest risk of occupational accidents and bodily injuries, which range from mild to very severe. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify the factors associated with accident severity rate (ASR) in the largest Iranian construction companies based on data about 500 occupational accidents recorded from 2009 to 2013. We also gathered data on safety and health risk management and training systems. Data were analysed using Pearson's chi-squared coefficient and multiple regression analysis. Median ASR (and the interquartile range) was 107.50 (57.24- 381.25). Fourteen of the 24 studied factors stood out as most affecting construction accident severity (p<0.05). These findings can be applied in the design and implementation of a comprehensive safety and health risk management system to reduce ASR.

  3. Energy transfer between a nanosystem and its host fluid: A multiscale factorization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sereda, Yuriy V.; Espinosa-Duran, John M.; Ortoleva, Peter J., E-mail: ortoleva@indiana.edu [Center for Cell and Virus Theory, Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, 800 E. Kirkwood Ave, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)

    2014-02-21

    Energy transfer between a macromolecule or supramolecular assembly and a host medium is considered from the perspective of Newton's equations and Lie-Trotter factorization. The development starts by demonstrating that the energy of the molecule evolves slowly relative to the time scale of atomic collisions-vibrations. The energy is envisioned to be a coarse-grained variable that coevolves with the rapidly fluctuating atomistic degrees of freedom. Lie-Trotter factorization is shown to be a natural framework for expressing this coevolution. A mathematical formalism and workflow for efficient multiscale simulation of energy transfer is presented. Lactoferrin and human papilloma virus capsid-like structure are used for validation.

  4. A few approaches to remove ambiguous factors in x-ray spectrum analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.

    1993-01-01

    A few attempts have been done to reduce ambiguous factors in the analysis of complex x-ray spectra. Uncertainty in peak identification and separation due to overlapping of x-ray peaks can be reduced by taking into account the response function of x-ray peaks and by using peak functions including all the x-ray sub-lines in a x-ray series. Ambiguous factors due to discontinuity of backgrounds which is sometimes followed by huge peaks can be reduced by considering contributions from the pile-up, escape and tail functions. The problem of uncertainty in the background fitting in a region of low x-ray energy, where many peaks overlap each other and determination of the background function contains much difficulties and ambiguities, can be solved by using peak functions involving tails in place of Gaussians. (author)

  5. Determination of UTW K/sub XSi/ factors for low atomic number microanalysis: A systematic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, K.M.; Echer, C.J.

    1987-07-01

    A systematic measurement of experimental K/sub XSi/ factors, with particular emphasis on low Z microanalysis (6 ≤ 7 ≤ 32), at 200 kV for a KEVEX UTW Si(Li) detector fitted to a JEOL 200CX analytical microscope, using a variety of high purity standards has been carried out. Under normal operating conditions of a LaB 6 filament, it is shown that absorption in the specimen is very critical, particularly for heavy element matrices, and sample thicknesses need to be measured for accurate microanalysis of low Z elements (C,N,O). Using these measured K/sub XSi/ factors, quantitative UTW-EDX microanalysis has been routinely extended to carbon. 21 refs

  6. A Study on Influencing Factors of Knowledge Management Systems Adoption: Models Comparison Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mei-Chun Yeh; Ming-Shu Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Using Linear Structural Relation model (LISREL model) as analysis method and technology acceptance model and decomposed theory of planned behavior as research foundation, this study approachesmainly from the angle of behavioral intention to examine the influential factors of 421 employees adopting knowledge management systems and in the meantime to compare the two method models mentioned on the top. According to the research, there is no, in comparison with technology acceptance model anddeco...

  7. Analyzing the impact of social factors on homelessness: a Fuzzy Cognitive Map approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mago, Vijay K; Morden, Hilary K; Fritz, Charles; Wu, Tiankuang; Namazi, Sara; Geranmayeh, Parastoo; Chattopadhyay, Rakhi; Dabbaghian, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Background The forces which affect homelessness are complex and often interactive in nature. Social forces such as addictions, family breakdown, and mental illness are compounded by structural forces such as lack of available low-cost housing, poor economic conditions, and insufficient mental health services. Together these factors impact levels of homelessness through their dynamic relations. Historic models, which are static in nature, have only been marginally successful in capturing th...

  8. The North American coach tourist to Ireland: a factor analysis approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Marie; Deegan, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the most significant travel behaviours and characteristics of North American coach tourists visiting Ireland. The data, identifying travel behaviours and characteristics, such as travel constraints, motivation, activities, accommodation attributes, life focus and personality traits was elucidated from questionnaires (n = 741) distributed to North American coach tourists that visited Ireland between June 2007 and March 2008. Factor analysis, which is ...

  9. Identifying the main Individual Factors Influencing Entrepreneurial Decision making Biases: A Qualitative Content Analysis Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kambiz Talebi; Pouria Nouri; Abdolah Ahmadi Kafeshani

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurial decisions are one of the most important functions of entrepreneurs so as to manage their ventures on a daily basis. These decisions are not fully rational and because of various factors like cognitive and personal characteristics, environmental and firm-related issues, entrepreneurial decisions are prone to biases. Decision making biases has become a favorable research topic among entrepreneurial scholars. Decision making biases are responsible for lots of entrepreneurial succ...

  10. FACTORS AND METRICS THAT INFLUENCE FRANCHISEE PERFORMANCE: AN APPROACH BASED ON BRAZILIAN FRANCHISES

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, Helder de Souza; Consoni, Flavia

    2017-01-01

    The article searches to map the manager’s decisions in order to understand what has been the franchisor system for choose regarding to characteristics, and what the metrics has been adopted to measure the performance Though 15 interviews with Brazilian franchise there was confirmation that revenue is the main metric used by national franchises to measure performance, although other indicators are also used in a complementary way. In addition, two other factors were cited by the interviewees a...

  11. Antecedents Factors that Influence Soy Consumption: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian, Siva K.; Moon, Wanki; Rimal, Arbindra; Coker, Kesha

    2009-01-01

    We propose a structural model of antecedent factors that affect the frequency of soy consumption. This model, suggests that soy-general knowledge influences perceptions about nutrition concern, health benefits of soy, soy related personal beliefs and personal attitudes toward soy. Health benefits of soy, in turn, impacts soy-related personal beliefs and personal attitudes toward soy. Additionally, soy-related personal beliefs influence personal attitudes toward soy. Finally, both nutrition co...

  12. Factors associated with supermarket and convenience store closure: a discrete time spatial survival modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Joshua L; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2018-06-01

    While there is a literature on the distribution of food stores across geographic and social space, much of this research uses cross-sectional data. Analyses attempting to understand whether the availability of stores across neighborhoods is associated with diet and/or health outcomes are limited by a lack of understanding of factors that shape the emergence of new stores and the closure of others. We used quarterly data on supermarket and convenience store locations spanning seven years (2006-2012) and tract-level census data in four US cities: Birmingham, Alabama; Chicago, Illinois; Minneapolis, Minnesota; San Francisco, California. A spatial discrete-time survival model was used to identify factors associated with an earlier and/or later closure time of a store. Sales volume was typically the strongest indicator of store survival. We identified heterogeneity in the association between tract-level poverty and racial composition with respect to store survival. Stores in high poverty, non-White tracts were often at a disadvantage in terms of survival length. The observed patterns of store survival varied by some of the same neighborhood sociodemographic factors associated with lifestyle and health outcomes, which could lead to confusion in interpretation in studies of the estimated effects of introduction of food stores into neighborhoods on health.

  13. Review of yield gap explaining factors and opportunities for alternative data collection approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beza, E.A.; Vasco Silva, João; Kooistra, Lammert; Reidsma, Pytrik

    2017-01-01

    Yield gap analysis is gaining increased scientific attention, as estimating and explaining yield gaps shows the potential for sustainable intensification of agricultural systems. Explaining yield gaps requires detailed information about the biophysical environment, crop management as well as

  14. Factors Associated with Successful Mentoring of Parents Addressing Childhood Obesity: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Abigail Villanueva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Parents mentoring other parents as a behavioral intervention for child obesity is novel with limited data describing the experience and dynamics of this approach. This study aimed to describe the experiences of parent mentors and the self-efficacy and attitudes of their mentees in the context of a clinical trial for childhood obesity. Methods. The context for this study was a randomized clinical trial using either parent mentors or a community health worker engaging parents of obese children in behavioral change over six months. Parent mentors were interviewed at the mid-point of the intervention using a semistructured questionnaire to elicit their perceptions and experiences during the process of mentoring. Parent mentees completed a survey assessing their self-efficacy, perception of the parent mentor, and attitudes and beliefs related to their child’s weight. Results. The qualitative analysis of parent mentor interviews indicated high commitment despite their nonprofessional status, facing challenges of engagement with fellow parents and attitudes of persistence and being nonjudgmental. The parent mentee ratings of parent mentors were overall very high and similar to the ratings of a community health worker (paraprofessional. Conclusion. The data suggest that a parent mentor model of intervention for child obesity is an acceptable mode of approaching behavior change in the Hispanic population around childhood obesity with potential for scalability if proven effective.

  15. Single-diffractive production of charmed mesons at the LHC within the k{sub t}-factorization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Łuszczak, Marta [University of Rzeszów,PL-35-959 Rzeszów (Poland); Maciuła, Rafał; Szczurek, Antoni; Trzebiński, Maciej [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN,PL-31-342 Cracow (Poland)

    2017-02-16

    We discuss the single-diffractive production of cc̄ pairs and charmed mesons at the LHC. For a first time we propose a k{sub t}-factorization approach to the diffractive processes. The transverse momentum dependent diffractive parton distributions are obtained from standard (collinear) diffractive parton distributions used in the literature. In this calculation the transverse momentum of the pomeron is neglected with respect to transverse momentum of partons entering the hard process. We also perform a first evaluation of the cross sections at the LHC using the diffractive transverse momentum dependent parton distributions. The results of the new approach are compared with those of the standard collinear one. Significantly larger cross sections are obtained in the k{sub t}-factorization approach in which some parts of higher-order effects is effectively included. The differences between corresponding differential distributions are discussed. Finally, we present a feasibility study of the process at the LHC using proton tagging technique. The analysis suggests that the measurement of single-diffractive charm production is possible using ATLAS and CMS/TOTEM detectors.

  16. Mayaro virus infection in amazonia: a multimodel inference approach to risk factor assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Abad-Franch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Arboviral diseases are major global public health threats. Yet, our understanding of infection risk factors is, with a few exceptions, considerably limited. A crucial shortcoming is the widespread use of analytical methods generally not suited for observational data--particularly null hypothesis-testing (NHT and step-wise regression (SWR. Using Mayaro virus (MAYV as a case study, here we compare information theory-based multimodel inference (MMI with conventional analyses for arboviral infection risk factor assessment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional survey of anti-MAYV antibodies revealed 44% prevalence (n = 270 subjects in a central Amazon rural settlement. NHT suggested that residents of village-like household clusters and those using closed toilet/latrines were at higher risk, while living in non-village-like areas, using bednets, and owning fowl, pigs or dogs were protective. The "minimum adequate" SWR model retained only residence area and bednet use. Using MMI, we identified relevant covariates, quantified their relative importance, and estimated effect-sizes (β ± SE on which to base inference. Residence area (β(Village  =  2.93 ± 0.41; β(Upland = -0.56 ± 0.33, β(Riverbanks  =  -2.37 ± 0.55 and bednet use (β = -0.95 ± 0.28 were the most important factors, followed by crop-plot ownership (β  =  0.39 ± 0.22 and regular use of a closed toilet/latrine (β = 0.19 ± 0.13; domestic animals had insignificant protective effects and were relatively unimportant. The SWR model ranked fifth among the 128 models in the final MMI set. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analyses illustrate how MMI can enhance inference on infection risk factors when compared with NHT or SWR. MMI indicates that forest crop-plot workers are likely exposed to typical MAYV cycles maintained by diurnal, forest dwelling vectors; however, MAYV might also be circulating in nocturnal, domestic-peridomestic cycles

  17. The US Business Cycle, 1867-2006: A Dynamic Factor Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ritschl, Albrecht; Sarferaz, Samad; Uebele, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We estimate a Stock/Watson index of economic activity to assess U.S. business cycle volatility since 1867. We replicate the Great Moderation of the 1980s and 1990s and find exceptionally low volatility also in the Golden Age of the 1960s. Postwar moderation relative to pre-1914 occurs under constant but not time-varying factor loadings, suggesting structural change toward more volatile sectors. For comparable series, the U.S. postwar business cycle was as volatile overall as under the Classic...

  18. Analyzing the impact of social factors on homelessness: a fuzzy cognitive map approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mago, Vijay K; Morden, Hilary K; Fritz, Charles; Wu, Tiankuang; Namazi, Sara; Geranmayeh, Parastoo; Chattopadhyay, Rakhi; Dabbaghian, Vahid

    2013-08-23

    The forces which affect homelessness are complex and often interactive in nature. Social forces such as addictions, family breakdown, and mental illness are compounded by structural forces such as lack of available low-cost housing, poor economic conditions, and insufficient mental health services. Together these factors impact levels of homelessness through their dynamic relations. Historic models, which are static in nature, have only been marginally successful in capturing these relationships. Fuzzy Logic (FL) and fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs) are particularly suited to the modeling of complex social problems, such as homelessness, due to their inherent ability to model intricate, interactive systems often described in vague conceptual terms and then organize them into a specific, concrete form (i.e., the FCM) which can be readily understood by social scientists and others. Using FL we converted information, taken from recently published, peer reviewed articles, for a select group of factors related to homelessness and then calculated the strength of influence (weights) for pairs of factors. We then used these weighted relationships in a FCM to test the effects of increasing or decreasing individual or groups of factors. Results of these trials were explainable according to current empirical knowledge related to homelessness. Prior graphic maps of homelessness have been of limited use due to the dynamic nature of the concepts related to homelessness. The FCM technique captures greater degrees of dynamism and complexity than static models, allowing relevant concepts to be manipulated and interacted. This, in turn, allows for a much more realistic picture of homelessness. Through network analysis of the FCM we determined that Education exerts the greatest force in the model and hence impacts the dynamism and complexity of a social problem such as homelessness. The FCM built to model the complex social system of homelessness reasonably represented reality for the

  19. Investigating the management information needs of academic Heads of Department: a Critical Success Factors approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Green

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a research project in the Department of Information Studies at the University of Sheffield. With funding from the British Library Research and Development Department a critical success factors-based investigation of the management information needs of academic Heads of Department in an number of English universities was undertaken in 1994/1995, following publication of the results of a pilot study byPellow and Wilson (1993. Senior academic staff, university administrators and librarians in sixteen universities were interviewed between December, 1994 and March, 1995. Collation of data and analysis of results have been completed

  20. This research is to study the factors which influence the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’. The data employed in the study are primary data within the period of July to August 2013, 30 research observations through census method. Method of analysis used in the study is multiple linear regressions. The results of analysis showed that the factors of labor, innovation and promotion have positive and significant influence on the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’ simultaneously. The analysis also showed that partially labor has positive and significant influence on the business success, yet innovation and promotion have insignificant and positive influence on the business success.

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Inggrita Gusti Sari; Muchtar, Yasmin Chairunnisa

    2013-01-01

    This research is to study the factors which influence the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’. The data employed in the study are primary data within the period of July to August 2013, 30 research observations through census method. Method of analysis used in the study is multiple linear regressions. The results of analysis showed that the factors of labor, innovation and promotion have positive and significant influence on the business success of small busine...

  1. Projects Delay Factors of Saudi Arabia Construction Industry Using PLS-SEM Path Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of PLS-SEM Path Model of delay factors of Saudi Arabia construction industry focussing on Mecca City. The model was developed and assessed using SmartPLS v3.0 software and it consists of 37 factors/manifests in 7 groups/independent variables and one dependent variable which is delay of the construction projects. The model was rigorously assessed at measurement and structural components and the outcomes found that the model has achieved the required threshold values. At structural level of the model, among the seven groups, the client and consultant group has the highest impact on construction delay with path coefficient β-value of 0.452 and the project management and contract administration group is having the least impact to the construction delay with β-value of 0.016. The overall model has moderate explaining power ability with R2 value of 0.197 for Saudi Arabia construction industry representation. This model will able to assist practitioners in Mecca city to pay more attention in risk analysis for potential construction delay.

  2. The Journal Impact Factor: Moving Toward an Alternative and Combined Scientometric Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Nurmashev, Bekaidar; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Udovik, Elena E; Baryshnikov, Aleksandr A; Kitas, George D

    2017-02-01

    The Journal Impact Factor (JIF) is a single citation metric, which is widely employed for ranking journals and choosing target journals, but is also misused as the proxy of the quality of individual articles and academic achievements of authors. This article analyzes Scopus-based publication activity on the JIF and overviews some of the numerous misuses of the JIF, global initiatives to overcome the 'obsession' with impact factors, and emerging strategies to revise the concept of the scholarly impact. The growing number of articles on the JIF, most of which are in English, reflects interest of experts in journal editing and scientometrics toward its uses, misuses, and options to overcome related problems. Solely displaying values of the JIFs on the journal websites is criticized by experts as these average metrics do not reflect skewness of citation distribution of individual articles. Emerging strategies suggest to complement the JIFs with citation plots and alternative metrics, reflecting uses of individual articles in terms of downloads and distribution of related information through social media and networking platforms. It is also proposed to revise the original formula of the JIF calculation and embrace the concept of the impact and importance of individual articles. The latter is largely dependent on ethical soundness of the journal instructions, proper editing and structuring of articles, efforts to promote related information through social media, and endorsements of professional societies.

  3. Approach to novel functional foods for stress control 4. Regulation of serotonin transporter by food factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mikiko; Haito, Sakiko; Furumoto, Mari; Kawai, Yoshichika; Terao, Junji; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2005-11-01

    Serotonin transporters (SERTs) are pre-synaptic proteins specialized for the clearance of serotonin following vesicular release at central nervous system (CNS) and enteric nervous system synapses. SERTs are high affinity targets in vivo for antidepressants such as serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). These include 'medical' psychopharmacological agents such as analgesics and antihistamines, a plant extract called St John's Wort (Hypericum). Osteoclasts are the primary cells responsible for bone resorption. They arise by the differentiation of osteoclast precursors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. The expression of SERTs was increased in RANKL-induced osteoclast-like cells. Using RANKL stimulation of RAW264.7 cells as a model system for osteoclast differentiation, we studied the direct effects of food factor on serotonin uptake. The SSRIs (fluoxetine and fluvoxamine) inhibited markedly (approximately 95%) in serotonin transport in differentiated osteoclast cells. The major components of St. John's Wort, hyperforin and hypericine were significantly decreased in serotonin transport activity. Thus, a new in vitro model using RANKL-induced osteoclast-like cells may be useful to analyze the regulation of SERT by food factors and SSRIs.

  4. Factors of adoption of mobile information technology by homecare nurses: a technology acceptance model 2 approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiying; Cocosila, Mihail; Archer, Norm

    2010-01-01

    Pervasive healthcare support through mobile information technology solutions is playing an increasing role in the attempt to improve healthcare and reduce costs. Despite the apparent attractiveness, many mobile applications have failed or have not been implemented as predicted. Among factors possibly leading to such outcomes, technology adoption is a key problem. This must be investigated early in the development process because healthcare is a particularly sensitive area with vital social implications. Moreover, it is important to investigate technology acceptance using the support of scientific tools validated for relevant information systems research. This article presents an empirical study based on the Technology Acceptance Model 2 in mobile homecare nursing. The study elicited the perceptions of 91 Canadian nurses who used personal digital assistants for 1 month in their daily activities. A partial least squares modeling data analysis revealed that nurse's perception of usefulness is the main factor in the adoption of mobile technology, having subjective norm and image within the organization as significant antecedents. Overall, this study was the first attempt at investigating scientifically, through a pertinent information systems research model, user adoption of mobile systems by homecare nursing personnel.

  5. A factorization approach to next-to-leading-power threshold logarithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonocore, D. [Nikhef,Science Park 105, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Laenen, E. [Nikhef,Science Park 105, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); ITFA, University of Amsterdam,Science Park 904, Amsterdam (Netherlands); ITF, Utrecht University,Leuvenlaan 4, Utrecht (Netherlands); Magnea, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino and INFN, Sezione di Torino,Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125, Torino (Italy); Melville, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow,Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Vernazza, L. [Higgs Centre for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh,Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ, Scotland (United Kingdom); White, C.D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow,Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-03

    Threshold logarithms become dominant in partonic cross sections when the selected final state forces gluon radiation to be soft or collinear. Such radiation factorizes at the level of scattering amplitudes, and this leads to the resummation of threshold logarithms which appear at leading power in the threshold variable. In this paper, we consider the extension of this factorization to include effects suppressed by a single power of the threshold variable. Building upon the Low-Burnett-Kroll-Del Duca (LBKD) theorem, we propose a decomposition of radiative amplitudes into universal building blocks, which contain all effects ultimately responsible for next-to-leading-power (NLP) threshold logarithms in hadronic cross sections for electroweak annihilation processes. In particular, we provide a NLO evaluation of the radiative jet function, responsible for the interference of next-to-soft and collinear effects in these cross sections. As a test, using our expression for the amplitude, we reproduce all abelian-like NLP threshold logarithms in the NNLO Drell-Yan cross section, including the interplay of real and virtual emissions. Our results are a significant step towards developing a generally applicable resummation formalism for NLP threshold effects, and illustrate the breakdown of next-to-soft theorems for gauge theory amplitudes at loop level.

  6. Identifying niche-mediated regulatory factors of stem cell phenotypic state: a systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Srikanth; Del Sol, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Understanding how the cellular niche controls the stem cell phenotype is often hampered due to the complexity of variegated niche composition, its dynamics, and nonlinear stem cell-niche interactions. Here, we propose a systems biology view that considers stem cell-niche interactions as a many-body problem amenable to simplification by the concept of mean field approximation. This enables approximation of the niche effect on stem cells as a constant field that induces sustained activation/inhibition of specific stem cell signaling pathways in all stem cells within heterogeneous populations exhibiting the same phenotype (niche determinants). This view offers a new basis for the development of single cell-based computational approaches for identifying niche determinants, which has potential applications in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. © 2017 The Authors. FEBS Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  7. Where is My Pay? Critical Success Factors of a Payroll System – A System Life Cycle Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Thite

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Majority of firms deploy technologies in HR administrative applications. While payroll processing is a routine transactional activity, poor design and implementation of payroll system can cause immense harm to employee and organizational well-being. Based on the case study of a flawed payroll system in a large and complex public sector organization in Australia, we highlight the key success factors using the system life cycle approach underpinned by the agile philosophy. It highlights the critical importance of strategic organizational review, user involvement and ongoing communication with diverse stakeholders during the planning, analysis, design, implementation and review stages of a payroll project. It reinforces the need for the adoption of and adherence to sound project and change management methodologies. We also explore the limitations of shared service center approach.

  8. A novel electrochemical approach for nuclear factor kappa B detection based on triplex DNA and gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Min; Yang Mei; Li Hao; Liang Zhiqiang; Li Genxi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A simple, selective, and sensitive electrochemical NF-κB sensor was presented. ► NF-κB was precisely qualified by chronocoulometry with a detection limit of 0.13 nM. ► NF-κB was also successfully detected in contaminated samples by our approach. - Abstract: The transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is always a standard for inducible transcription factors, while nearly all NF-κB studies require the measurement of the level of activated NF-κB in cells. Herein we report a novel electrochemical approach for accurate detection of NF-κB with the help of triplex DNA and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Firstly, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecules are self-assembled on the surface of a gold electrode. Then, AuNPs are functionalized with triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO). Since TFO may act with the dsDNA to form triplex DNA, the TFO functionalized on the AuNPs surfaces will bind with the dsDNA immobilized on the electrode surface, bringing large amounts of electrochemical compounds [Ru(NH 3 ) 6 ] 3+ close to the electrode to generate an intense electrochemical signal. However, in the presence of NF-κB, the protein will capture and bind with the dsDNA to replace TFO–AuNPs, resulting in significant decrease of electrochemical signal of [Ru(NH 3 ) 6 ] 3+ . By using this “on-off” strategy, NF-κB has been quantified in the range from 0.4 to 12.0 nM, with a detection limit of 0.13 nM. This approach has also been successfully used to detect NF-κB in contaminated samples with high specificity.

  9. An overview of gambling disorder: from treatment approaches to risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchon, José M; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2018-01-01

    Gambling disorder (GD) has been reclassified recently into the “Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders” category of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), a landmark occurrence for a behavioral addiction. GD is characterized by recurrent, maladaptive gambling behavior that results in clinically significant distress. Although the number of randomized controlled trials assessing the effectiveness of pharmacological treatments is limited, some pharmacological treatments, notably opiate antagonists, have been employed in the treatment of GD. Patients with GD often present cognitive distortions and specific personality traits, making treatment more difficult. Cognitive behavioral therapy has become the most common psychological intervention for treating gambling problems, and it is effective in reducing gambling behavior. In this brief overview, we provide a report on the state of pharmacological and psychological treatments for gambling disorder. Risk factors and potential future lines of research are addressed.

  10. Sustainable operations management and benchmarking in brewing: A factor weighting approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Bumblauskas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The brewing industry has been moving towards more efficient use of energy, water reuse and stewardship, and the tracking of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions to better manage environmental and social responsibility. Commercial breweries use a great deal of water and energy to convert one gallon (liter of water into one gallon (liter of beer. An analysis was conducted on sustainable operations and supply chain management at various United States and international breweries, specifically Europe, to benchmark brewery performance and establish common metrics for sustainability in the beer supply chain. The primary research questions explored in this article are whether water reclamation and GHG emissions can be properly monitored and measured and if processes can be created to help control waste (lean and emissions. Additional questions include how we can use operations management strategies and techniques such as the Factor-Weighted Method (FWM in industries such as brewing to develop sustainability scorecards.

  11. An overview of gambling disorder: from treatment approaches to risk factors [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Menchon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Gambling disorder (GD has been reclassified recently into the “Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders” category of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5, a landmark occurrence for a behavioral addiction. GD is characterized by recurrent, maladaptive gambling behavior that results in clinically significant distress. Although the number of randomized controlled trials assessing the effectiveness of pharmacological treatments is limited, some pharmacological treatments, notably opiate antagonists, have been employed in the treatment of GD. Patients with GD often present cognitive distortions and specific personality traits, making treatment more difficult. Cognitive behavioral therapy has become the most common psychological intervention for treating gambling problems, and it is effective in reducing gambling behavior. In this brief overview, we provide a report on the state of pharmacological and psychological treatments for gambling disorder. Risk factors and potential future lines of research are addressed.

  12. Modeling a hierarchical structure of factors influencing exploitation policy for water distribution systems using ISM approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek, Małgorzata; Wyczółkowski, Ryszard; Gładysiak, Violetta

    2017-12-01

    Water distribution systems are one of the basic elements of contemporary technical infrastructure of urban and rural areas. It is a complex engineering system composed of transmission networks and auxiliary equipment (e.g. controllers, checkouts etc.), scattered territorially over a large area. From the water distribution system operation point of view, its basic features are: functional variability, resulting from the need to adjust the system to temporary fluctuations in demand for water and territorial dispersion. The main research questions are: What external factors should be taken into account when developing an effective water distribution policy? Does the size and nature of the water distribution system significantly affect the exploitation policy implemented? These questions have shaped the objectives of research and the method of research implementation.

  13. Risk factors for mortality in blunt abdominal trauma with surgical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVANIA KLUG PIMENTEL

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTObjective:identify risk factors for mortality in patients who underwent laparotomy after blunt abdominal trauma.Methods:retrospective study, case-control, which were reviewed medical records of blunt trauma victims patients undergoing laparotomy, from March 2013 to January 2015, and compared the result of the deaths group with the group healed.Results:of 86 patients, 63% were healed, 36% died, and one patient was excluded from the study. Both groups had similar epidemiology and trauma mechanism, predominantly young adults males, automobilistic accident. Most cases that evolved to death had hemodynamic instability as laparotomy indication - 61% against 38% in the other group (p=0.02. The presence of solid organ injury was larger in the group of deaths - 80% versus 48% (p=0.001 and 61% of them had other associated abdominal injury compared to 25% in the other group (p=0.01. Of the patients who died 96% had other serious injuries associated (p=0.0003. Patients requiring damage control surgery had a higher mortality rate (p=0.0099. Only one of 18 patients with isolated hollow organ lesion evolved to death (p=0.0001. The mean injury score of TRISS of cured (91.70% was significantly higher than that of deaths (46.3% (p=0.002.Conclusion:the risk factors for mortality were hemodynamic instability as an indication for laparotomy, presence of solid organ injury, multiple intra-abdominal injuries, need for damage control surgery, serious injury association and low index of trauma score.

  14. Using a Systematic Approach to Identifying Organizational Factors in Root Cause Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallogly, Kay Wilde

    2011-01-01

    This presentation set the scene for the second discussion session. In her presentation, the author observed that: - Investigators do not see the connection between the analysis tools available and the identification of HOF. Most investigators use the tools in a cursory manner and so do not derive the full benefits of the tools. Some tools are used for presentation purposes as opposed to being used for analytical purposes e.g. event and causal factors charts. In some cases, the report will indicate that specific analytical tools were used in the investigation but the analysis is not in the body of the report. - Some investigators are documenting HOF causes but do not recognize them as such. This indicates a lack of understanding of HOF. - Others investigators focus on technical issues because of their own comfort level. - The culture of the Organisation will affect the depth of the investigation and therefore the use of the analytical tools to pursue HOF issues. - The author contends that if analysis tools are applied systematically to gather factually based data, then HOF issues can be identified. The use of factual information (without judgement and subjectivity) is important to maintain the credibility of the investigation especially when HOF issues are identified. - Systematic use of tools assists in better communication of the issues to foster greater understanding and acceptance by senior management. - Barrier Analysis, Change Analysis, and TWIN (Task Demands, Work Environment, Individual Capabilities, and Human Nature) all offer the opportunity to identify HOF issues if the analyst pursues this line of investigation. It was illustrated that many elements of the TWIN Error Precursors are themselves Organisational in nature. - The TWIN model applied to the Anatomy of an Event will help to distinguish those which are Organisational issues (Latent Organisational Weaknesses, Error Precursors and Flawed Defences) and those which are human factors (Active Errors

  15. Identifying the Safety Factors over Traffic Signs in State Roads using a Panel Quantile Regression Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šarić, Željko; Xu, Xuecai; Duan, Li; Babić, Darko

    2018-06-20

    This study intended to investigate the interactions between accident rate and traffic signs in state roads located in Croatia, and accommodate the heterogeneity attributed to unobserved factors. The data from 130 state roads between 2012 and 2016 were collected from Traffic Accident Database System maintained by the Republic of Croatia Ministry of the Interior. To address the heterogeneity, a panel quantile regression model was proposed, in which quantile regression model offers a more complete view and a highly comprehensive analysis of the relationship between accident rate and traffic signs, while the panel data model accommodates the heterogeneity attributed to unobserved factors. Results revealed that (1) low visibility of material damage (MD) and death or injured (DI) increased the accident rate; (2) the number of mandatory signs and the number of warning signs were more likely to reduce the accident rate; (3)average speed limit and the number of invalid traffic signs per km exhibited a high accident rate. To our knowledge, it's the first attempt to analyze the interactions between accident consequences and traffic signs by employing a panel quantile regression model; by involving the visibility, the present study demonstrates that the low visibility causes a relatively higher risk of MD and DI; It is noteworthy that average speed limit corresponds with accident rate positively; The number of mandatory signs and the number of warning signs are more likely to reduce the accident rate; The number of invalid traffic signs per km are significant for accident rate, thus regular maintenance should be kept for a safer roadway environment.

  16. Factors affecting pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in community pharmacy: A structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitadpakorn, Sujin; Farris, Karen B; Kittisopee, Tanattha

    2017-01-01

    The concept of customer engagement and devotion has been applied in various service businesses to keep the customers with business However, a limited number of studies were performed to examine the context of customer engagement and devotion in pharmacy business which focus on the impact of customer perceptions about pharmacists, perceived quality of pharmacy structure, medication price strategy on pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in a pharmacy providing pharmaceutical care to the customers. This study aimed to assess a conceptual model depicting the relationships among customer perceptions about pharmacists, pharmacy quality structure, medication price, customer engagement, and customer devotion. And also aimed to assess and measure if there is a direct or indirect relationship between these factors. A quantitative study was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires. Two hundred and fifty three customers who regularly visited the pharmacy were randomly recruited from a purposively selected 30 community pharmacies in Bangkok. The survey was completed during February to April 2016. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to assess the direct and indirect relationships between constructs. A total of 253/300 questionnaires were returned for analysis, and the response rate was 84%. Only perceptions about pharmacist in customers receiving professional pharmacy services was statically significant regarding relationship with pharmacy engagement (beta=0.45). Concurrently, the model from empirical data fit with the hypothetical model (p-value = 0.06, adjusted chi-square (CMIN/DF)=1.16, Goodness of Fit Index (GFI)=0.93, Comparatively Fit Index (CFI)=0.99, and Root Mean Square Error Approximation (RMSEA)=0.03). The study confirmed the indirect positive influence of customer perceptions about pharmacist on pharmacy customer devotion in providing pharmacy services via pharmacy engagement It was customer perceptions about pharmacist that influenced

  17. Which Factors Affect the Hospital Re-admission After Treatment Approaches to Urethral Strictures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reha Girgin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate patient- and procedure-related factors associated with hospital re-admission following urethral manipulations for the treatment of urethral strictures. Materials and Methods: Data of patients who underwent dilation or internal urethrotomy for urethral strictures between 2011 and 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients who were admitted to our institute for any reason within one month after hospital discharge were evaluated. The patient- and procedure-related factors affecting the readmission rates were revealed by multiple binary logistic regression using stepwise backward elinimination. Results: The average age of 76 male patients was 61.7±14.4 years. The mean maximal flow rate at preoperative uroflowmetry was 6.01±4.3 and the median American Society of Anesthesiologists score was 2.38. The process was the first for 45 (59.2% patients, the second for 16 (21.1% patients, the third for 9 (11.8% patients, and the fourth for 6 (7.9% patients. Amplatz dilators, cold knife and Ho:YAG laser were used in 50%, 27.6% and 22.4% of patients, respectively. The mean length of hospital stay was 0.89±0.31 days, and the complication rate was 19.7% (15/76. The mean urethral catheter dwell time was 8.9±14.2 day. Overall, the procedure was successful in 61 (80.3% patients and failed (Qmax <15 mL/sec in 19.7% of the cases. Fifteen (19.7% patients were re-admitted, while 2 (2.6% patients among them were re-hospitalized for further treatment. Comorbidity and age were independent predictors of re-admission. Conclusion: We found that younger age and lower comorbidities predicted hospital re-admission following procedures for urethral strictures.

  18. RISK-FACTORS, PATHOGENESIS, AND PHARMACEUTICAL APPROACHES FOR TREATMENT OF STEROID-INDUCED BONE INFARCTION OF FEMORAL HEAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Yang; Hu, Ningning; Miao, Xuman

    2016-01-01

    During first year of steroid usage, osteocyte necrosis and blood vessel blockage may occur, which subsequently may produce steroid-induced bone infarction (SIBI) resulting in painful movement of patient. For treatment of SIBI, pharmaceutical strategy is the basic approach. It involves the use of various pharmacologically active compounds including bisphosphonates, hyperbaric oxygen (HBO), coenzyme Q10, erythropoietin, antihyperlipidemics, anticoagulants, antioxidants, and tissue repair protein. Out of these, there is no pharmaceutical agent that may completely treat this disease because many factors are found to be responsible for SIBI development; therefore, there are multiple biomarkers of this disease. This situation argues for need of new therapeutic agents for SIEB1.

  19. Inclusive J/{psi} photoproduction and polarization at HERA in the k{sub T}-factorization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranov, S.P. [P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lipatov, A.V.; Zotov, N.P. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). D.V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics

    2010-12-15

    We investigate the inclusive photoproduction of J/{psi} mesons at HERA within the framework of the k{sub T} -factorization QCD approach. Our consideration is based on the color singlet model supplemented with the relevant off-shell matrix elements and the CCFM and KMR unintegrated gluon densities in a proton and in a photon. Both the direct and resolved photon contributions are taken into account. Our predictions are compared with the recent experimental data taken by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations. Special attention is put on the J/{psi} polarization parameters {lambda} and {nu} which are sensitive to the production dynamics. (orig.)

  20. Mastectomy or breast conserving surgery? Factors affecting type of surgical treatment for breast cancer – a classification tree approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Michael A; Meyricke, Ramona; O'Neill, Terry; Roberts, Steven

    2006-01-01

    A critical choice facing breast cancer patients is which surgical treatment – mastectomy or breast conserving surgery (BCS) – is most appropriate. Several studies have investigated factors that impact the type of surgery chosen, identifying features such as place of residence, age at diagnosis, tumor size, socio-economic and racial/ethnic elements as relevant. Such assessment of 'propensity' is important in understanding issues such as a reported under-utilisation of BCS among women for whom such treatment was not contraindicated. Using Western Australian (WA) data, we further examine the factors associated with the type of surgical treatment for breast cancer using a classification tree approach. This approach deals naturally with complicated interactions between factors, and so allows flexible and interpretable models for treatment choice to be built that add to the current understanding of this complex decision process. Data was extracted from the WA Cancer Registry on women diagnosed with breast cancer in WA from 1990 to 2000. Subjects' treatment preferences were predicted from covariates using both classification trees and logistic regression. Tumor size was the primary determinant of patient choice, subjects with tumors smaller than 20 mm in diameter preferring BCS. For subjects with tumors greater than 20 mm in diameter factors such as patient age, nodal status, and tumor histology become relevant as predictors of patient choice. Classification trees perform as well as logistic regression for predicting patient choice, but are much easier to interpret for clinical use. The selected tree can inform clinicians' advice to patients

  1. On determinant representations of scalar products and form factors in the SoV approach: the XXX case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitanine, N.; Maillet, J. M.; Niccoli, G.; Terras, V.

    2016-03-01

    In the present article we study the form factors of quantum integrable lattice models solvable by the separation of variables (SoVs) method. It was recently shown that these models admit universal determinant representations for the scalar products of the so-called separate states (a class which includes in particular all the eigenstates of the transfer matrix). These results permit to obtain simple expressions for the matrix elements of local operators (form factors). However, these representations have been obtained up to now only for the completely inhomogeneous versions of the lattice models considered. In this article we give a simple algebraic procedure to rewrite the scalar products (and hence the form factors) for the SoV related models as Izergin or Slavnov type determinants. This new form leads to simple expressions for the form factors in the homogeneous and thermodynamic limits. To make the presentation of our method clear, we have chosen to explain it first for the simple case of the XXX Heisenberg chain with anti-periodic boundary conditions. We would nevertheless like to stress that the approach presented in this article applies as well to a wide range of models solved in the SoV framework.

  2. On determinant representations of scalar products and form factors in the SoV approach: the XXX case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitanine, N; Maillet, J M; Niccoli, G; Terras, V

    2016-01-01

    In the present article we study the form factors of quantum integrable lattice models solvable by the separation of variables (SoVs) method. It was recently shown that these models admit universal determinant representations for the scalar products of the so-called separate states (a class which includes in particular all the eigenstates of the transfer matrix). These results permit to obtain simple expressions for the matrix elements of local operators (form factors). However, these representations have been obtained up to now only for the completely inhomogeneous versions of the lattice models considered. In this article we give a simple algebraic procedure to rewrite the scalar products (and hence the form factors) for the SoV related models as Izergin or Slavnov type determinants. This new form leads to simple expressions for the form factors in the homogeneous and thermodynamic limits. To make the presentation of our method clear, we have chosen to explain it first for the simple case of the XXX Heisenberg chain with anti-periodic boundary conditions. We would nevertheless like to stress that the approach presented in this article applies as well to a wide range of models solved in the SoV framework. (paper)

  3. Familial risk factors in social anxiety disorder: calling for a family-oriented approach for targeted prevention and early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappe, Susanne; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-12-01

    Within the last decade, social anxiety disorder (SAD) has been identified as a highly prevalent and burdensome disorder. Both the characterization of its symptomatology and effective treatment options are widely documented. Studies particularly indicate that SAD aggregates in families and has its onset in early adolescence. Given the family as an important context for children's cognitive, emotional and behavioural development, familial risk factors could be expected to significantly contribute to the reliable detection of populations at risk for SAD. Reviewing studies on familial risk factors for SAD argues for the importance of parental psychopathology and unfavourable family environment, but also denotes to several shortcomings such as cross-sectional designs, short follow-up periods, diverging methodologies and the focus on isolated factors. Using a prospective longitudinal study that covers the high-risk period for SAD, including a broader spectrum of putative risk factors may help to overcome many of the methodological limitations. This review sets out to develop a more family-oriented approach for predicting the onset and maintenance of SAD that may be fruitful to derive targeted prevention and early intervention in SAD.

  4. Factors affecting pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in community pharmacy: A structural equation modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitadpakorn S

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The concept of customer engagement and devotion has been applied in various service businesses to keep the customers with business However, a limited number of studies were performed to examine the context of customer engagement and devotion in pharmacy business which focus on the impact of customer perceptions about pharmacists, perceived quality of pharmacy structure, medication price strategy on pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in a pharmacy providing pharmaceutical care to the customers. Objective: This study aimed to assess a conceptual model depicting the relationships among customer perceptions about pharmacists, pharmacy quality structure, medication price, customer engagement, and customer devotion. And also aimed to assess and measure if there is a direct or indirect relationship between these factors. Methods: A quantitative study was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires. Two hundred and fifty three customers who regularly visited the pharmacy were randomly recruited from a purposively selected 30 community pharmacies in Bangkok. The survey was completed during February to April 2016. A structural equation model (SEM was used to assess the direct and indirect relationships between constructs. Results: A total of 253/300 questionnaires were returned for analysis, and the response rate was 84%. Only perceptions about pharmacist in customers receiving professional pharmacy services was statically significant regarding relationship with pharmacy engagement (beta=0.45. Concurrently, the model from empirical data fit with the hypothetical model (p-value = 0.06, adjusted chi-square (CMIN/DF=1.16, Goodness of Fit Index (GFI=0.93, Comparatively Fit Index (CFI=0.99, and Root Mean Square Error Approximation (RMSEA=0.03. Conclusion: The study confirmed the indirect positive influence of customer perceptions about pharmacist on pharmacy customer devotion in providing pharmacy services via pharmacy

  5. Multiple cardiovascular risk factors in Kenya: evidence from a health and demographic surveillance system using the WHO STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Gerald S; Mwangi, Ann; Chege, Patrick; Simiyu, Chrispinus J; Aswa, Daniel F; Odhiambo, David; Obala, Andrew A; Ayuo, Paul; Khwa-Otsyula, Barasa O

    2013-09-01

    To describe the distribution of cardiovascular risk factors in western Kenya using a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). Population based survey of residents in an HDSS. Webuye Division in Bungoma East District, Western Province of Kenya. 4037 adults ≥ 18 years of age. Home based survey using the WHO STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance. Self-report of high blood pressure, high blood sugar, tobacco use, alcohol use, physical activity, and fruit/vegetable intake. The median age of the population was 35 years (IQR 26-50). Less than 6% of the population reported high blood pressure or blood sugar. Tobacco and alcohol use were reported in 7% and 16% of the population, respectively. The majority of the population (93%) was physically active. The average number of days per week that participants reported intake of fruits (3.1 ± 0.1) or vegetables (1.6 ± 0.1) was low. In multiple logistic regression analyses, women were more likely to report a history of high blood pressure (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.9 to 3.9), less likely to report using tobacco (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.11), less likely to report alcohol use (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.21) or eat ≥ 5 servings per day of fruits or vegetables (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.99) compared to men. The most common cardiovascular risk factors in peri-urban western Kenya are tobacco use, alcohol use, and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables. Our data reveal locally relevant subgroup differences that could inform future prevention efforts.

  6. [Factors associated with the quality of prenatal care: an approach to premature birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Emiliana Cristina; Oliveira, Rosana Rosseto de; Mathias, Thais Aidar de Freitas

    2015-08-01

    To assess the quality of prenatal care in mothers with premature and term births and identify maternal and gestational factors associated with inadequate prenatal care. Cross-sectional study collecting data with the pregnant card, hospital records and interviews with mothers living in Maringa-PR. Data were collected from 576 mothers and their born alive infants who were attended in the public service from October 2013 to February 2014, using three different evaluation criteria. The association of prenatal care quality with prematurity was performed by univariate analysis and occurred only at Kessner criteria (CI=1.79;8.02). The indicators that contributed most to the inadequacy of prenatal care were tests of hemoglobin, urine, and fetal presentation. After logistic regression analysis, maternal and gestational variables associated to inadequate prenatal care were combined prenatal (CI=2.93;11.09), non-white skin color (CI=1.11;2.51); unplanned pregnancy (CI=1.34;3.17) and multiparity (CI=1.17;4.03). Prenatal care must follow the minimum recommended protocols, more attention is required to black and brown women, multiparous and with unplanned pregnancies to prevent preterm birth and maternal and child morbimortality.

  7. Nine human factors contributing to the user acceptance of telemedicine applications: a cognitive-emotional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Much attention is paid to the technical aspects of telemedicine in the development of new applications, but the enthusiasm about what is technically possible very often leads to the user acceptance of such products being neglected. The number of successful and sustainable telemedicine applications would be much higher if developers concentrated more on matters related to the cognitive-emotional situation of the users involved in telemedicine. The users include the care and cure providers, as well as the care and cure receivers. Based on an informal literature search and discussions with telemedicine implementation staff, nine factors have been identified which are essential for the user acceptance of telemedicine applications. All of them are connected more to the cognitive-emotional than to the cognitive-rational side of information processing. This suggests that in the future the cognitive-emotional side will need more attention. This in turn implies that the nine points mentioned above have to find their way into requirements engineering, development processes and product life cycles.

  8. Nonnegative Tensor Factorization Approach Applied to Fission Chamber’s Output Signals Blind Source Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laassiri, M.; Hamzaoui, E.-M.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.

    2018-02-01

    Inside nuclear reactors, gamma-rays emitted from nuclei together with the neutrons introduce unwanted backgrounds in neutron spectra. For this reason, powerful extraction methods are needed to extract useful neutron signal from recorded mixture and thus to obtain clearer neutron flux spectrum. Actually, several techniques have been developed to discriminate between neutrons and gamma-rays in a mixed radiation field. Most of these techniques, tackle using analogue discrimination methods. Others propose to use some organic scintillators to achieve the discrimination task. Recently, systems based on digital signal processors are commercially available to replace the analog systems. As alternative to these systems, we aim in this work to verify the feasibility of using a Nonnegative Tensor Factorization (NTF) to blind extract neutron component from mixture signals recorded at the output of fission chamber (WL-7657). This last have been simulated through the Geant4 linked to Garfield++ using a 252Cf neutron source. To achieve our objective of obtaining the best possible neutron-gamma discrimination, we have applied the two different NTF algorithms, which have been found to be the best methods that allow us to analyse this kind of nuclear data.

  9. Wayfinding: a quality factor in human design approach to healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Nord, R

    1999-01-01

    The specific aim of this paper is the systematic analysis of interactions and reciprocal conditions existing between the physical space of hospital buildings and the different categories of individuals that come in contact with them. The physical and environmental facilities of hospital architecture often influence the therapeutic character of space and the employees. If the values of the individual are to be safeguarded in this context, priority needs to be given to such factors as communication, privacy, etc. This would mean the involvement of other professional groups such as psychologists, sociologists, ergonomists, etc. at the hospital building planning stage. This paper will outline the result of some research conducted at the University Research Center "TESIS" of Florence to provide better understanding of design strategies applied to reduce the pathology of spaces within the healthcare environment. The case studies will highlight the parameters and the possible architectural solutions to wayfinding and the humanization of spaces, with particular emphasis on lay-outs, technologies, furniture and finishing design.

  10. Internal and external factors affecting photosynthetic pigment composition in plants: a meta-analytical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Raquel; Barrutia, Oihana; Artetxe, Unai; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Hernández, Antonio; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

    2015-04-01

    Photosynthetic pigment composition has been a major study target in plant ecophysiology during the last three decades. Although more than 2000 papers have been published, a comprehensive evaluation of the responses of photosynthetic pigment composition to environmental conditions is not yet available. After an extensive survey, we compiled data from 525 papers including 809 species (subkingdom Viridiplantae) in which pigment composition was described. A meta-analysis was then conducted to assess the ranges of photosynthetic pigment content. Calculated frequency distributions of pigments were compared with those expected from the theoretical pigment composition. Responses to environmental factors were also analysed. The results revealed that lutein and xanthophyll cycle pigments (VAZ) were highly responsive to the environment, emphasizing the high phenotypic plasticity of VAZ, whereas neoxanthin was very stable. The present meta-analysis supports the existence of relatively narrow limits for pigment ratios and also supports the presence of a pool of free 'unbound' VAZ. Results from this study provide highly reliable ranges of photosynthetic pigment contents as a framework for future research on plant pigments. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Implementing system-wide risk stratification approaches: A review of critical success and failure factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckel Schneider, Carmen; Gillespie, James A; Wilson, Andrew

    2017-05-01

    Risk stratification has become a widely used tool for linking people identified at risk of health deterioration to the most appropriate evidence-based care. This article systematically reviews recent literature to determine key factors that have been identified as critical enablers and/or barriers to successful implementation of risk stratification tools at a system level. A systematic search found 23 articles and four promising protocols for inclusion in the review, covering the use to 20 different risk stratification tools. These articles reported on only a small fraction of the risk stratification tools used in health systems; suggesting that while the development and statistical validation of risk stratification algorithms is widely reported, there has been little published evaluation of how they are implemented in real-world settings. Controlled studies provided some evidence that the use of risk stratification tools in combination with a care management plan offer patient benefits and that the use of a risk stratification tool to determine components of a care management plan may contribute to reductions in hospital readmissions, patient satisfaction and improved patient outcomes. Studies with the strongest focus on implementation used qualitative and case study methods. Among these, the literature converged on four key areas of implementation that were found to be critical for overcoming barriers to success: the engagement of clinicians and safeguarding equity, both of which address barriers of acceptance; the health system context to address administrative, political and system design barriers; and data management and integration to address logistical barriers.

  12. Factors influencing adherence to psychopharmacological medications in psychiatric patients: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Las Cuevas, Carlos; de Leon, Jose; Peñate, Wenceslao; Betancort, Moisés

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate pathways through which sociodemographic, clinical, attitudinal, and perceived health control variables impact psychiatric patients' adherence to psychopharmacological medications. A sample of 966 consecutive psychiatric outpatients was studied. The variables were sociodemographic (age, gender, and education), clinical (diagnoses, drug treatment, and treatment duration), attitudinal (attitudes toward psychopharmacological medication and preferences regarding participation in decision-making), perception of control over health (health locus of control, self-efficacy, and psychological reactance), and level of adherence to psychopharmacological medications. Structural equation modeling was applied to examine the nonstraightforward relationships and the interactive effects among the analyzed variables. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that psychiatric patients' treatment adherence was associated: 1) negatively with cognitive psychological reactance (adherence decreased as cognitive psychological reactance increased), 2) positively with patients' trust in their psychiatrists (doctors' subscale), 3) negatively with patients' belief that they are in control of their mental health and that their mental health depends on their own actions (internal subscale), and 4) positively (although weakly) with age. Self-efficacy indirectly influenced treatment adherence through internal health locus of control. This study provides support for the hypothesis that perceived health control variables play a relevant role in psychiatric patients' adherence to psychopharmacological medications. The findings highlight the importance of considering prospective studies of patients' psychological reactance and health locus of control as they may be clinically relevant factors contributing to adherence to psychopharmacological medications.

  13. Reexamining B→ππ, πK decays in QCD factorization approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinqiang; Yang Yadong

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by the recent experimental data, we have revisited the B→πK,ππ decays in the framework of QCD factorization, with inclusion of the important strong penguin corrections of order α s 2 induced by b→Dg*g* (D=d or s and g* denotes an off-shell gluon) transitions. We find that these higher order strong penguin contributions can provide ∼30% enhancement to the penguin-dominated B→πK decay rates, and such an enhancement can improve the consistency between the theoretical predictions and the experimental data significantly, while for the tree-dominated B→ππ decays, these higher order contributions play only a minor role. When these strong penguin contributions are summed, only a small strong phase remains and the direct CP asymmetries get small corrections. We also find that patterns of the ratios between the CP-averaged branching fractions remain nearly unaffected even after including these higher order corrections and the πK puzzle still persists. Our results may indicate that to resolve the puzzle one would have to resort to new physics contributions in the electroweak penguin sector as found by Buras et al

  14. In-Medium K^+ Electromagnetic Form Factor with a Symmetric Vertex in a Light Front Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabusaki, George H. S.; de Melo, J. P. B. C.; de Paula, Wayne; Tsushima, K.; Frederico, T.

    2018-05-01

    Using the light-front K^ +-Meson wave function based on a Bethe-Salpeter amplitude model for the Quark-Antiquark bound state, we study the Electromagnetic Form Factor (EMFF) of the K^ +-Meson in nuclear medium within the framework of light-front field theory. The K^ +-Meson model we adopt is well constrained by previous and recent studies to explain its properties in vacuum. The in-medium K^ +-Meson EMFF is evaluated for the plus-component of the electromagnetic current, J^+, in the Breit frame. In order to consistently incorporate the constituent up and antistrange Quarks of the K^ +-Meson immersed in symmetric nuclear matter, we use the Quark-Meson coupling model, which has been widely applied to various hadronic and nuclear phenomena in a nuclear medium with success. We predict the in-medium modification of the K^ +-Meson EMFF in symmetric nuclear matter. It is found that, after a fine tuning of the regulator mass, i.e. m_R = 0.600 GeV, the model is suitable to fit the available experimental data in vacuum within the theoretical uncertainties, and based on this we predict the in-medium modification of the K^ +-Meson EMFF.

  15. Factors influencing the occupational injuries of physical therapists in Taiwan: A hierarchical linear model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yu-Hui; Wu, Yu-Lung; Huang, Wan-Yun

    2017-01-01

    The evidence literature suggests that physical therapy practitioners are subjected to a high probability of acquiring work-related injuries, but only a few studies have specifically investigated Taiwanese physical therapy practitioners. This study was conducted to determine the relationships among individual and group hospital-level factors that contribute to the medical expenses for the occupational injuries of physical therapy practitioners in Taiwan. Physical therapy practitioners in Taiwan with occupational injuries were selected from the 2013 National Health Insurance Research Databases (NHIRD). The age, gender, job title, hospitals attributes, and outpatient data of physical therapy practitioners who sustained an occupational injury in 2013 were obtained with SAS 9.3. SPSS 20.0 and HLM 7.01 were used to conduct descriptive and hierarchical linear model analyses, respectively. The job title of physical therapy practitioners at the individual level and the hospital type at the group level exert positive effects on per person medical expenses. Hospital hierarchy moderates the individual-level relationships of age and job title with the per person medical expenses. Considering that age, job title, and hospital hierarchy affect medical expenses for the occupational injuries of physical therapy practitioners, we suggest strengthening related safety education and training and elevating the self-awareness of the risk of occupational injuries of physical therapy practitioners to reduce and prevent the occurrence of such injuries.

  16. Factors associated with an evidence-based measure of implementation for the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Bryan R; Hunter, Sarah B; Slaughter, Mary E; Han, Bing; Godley, Susan H

    2017-11-01

    An evidence-based measure of implementation (EBMI) is an implementation outcome measure shown to have predictive validity with one or more future-measured constructs of importance. The current study sought to identify correlates and predictors of an EBMI called procedure exposure. Garner et al. (2016) found procedure exposure to be an EBMI for the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA). The dataset included 76 community-based substance use treatment organizations located across the United States. Organizational-level regression analyses, which were framed within the context of Chaudoir et al. (2013) framework for predicting implementation outcomes, were used to examine predictors of A-CRA procedure exposure RESULTS: The Washington Circle's treatment initiation performance measure (B=5.05 [SE=1.60], p=0.002), as well as session exposure (B=0.18 [SE=0.06], p=0.003), were significant predictors of A-CRA procedure exposure in the backward stepwise regression analysis (Adjusted R-square=0.55). The Washington Circle's treatment engagement performance measure (B=7.93 [SE=0.77], pCRA procedure exposure but were not retained in the final model. Organizations implementing A-CRA are encouraged to make the following high priorities: (a) scheduling and completing a subsequent treatment session within 14days of their index session (treatment initiation) and (b) providing a targeted number of treatment sessions to each client (session exposure). To the extent organizations do this, they may be more likely to achieve higher levels of A-CRA procedure exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  18. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  19. Implementation of health promotion programmes in schools: an approach to understand the influence of contextual factors on the process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Emily Joan; Violon, Nolwenn; Jourdan, Didier

    2018-01-22

    Implementing complex and multi-level public health programmes is challenging in school settings. Discrepancies between expected and actual programme outcomes are often reported. Such discrepancies are due to complex interactions between contextual factors. Contextual factors relate to the setting, the community, in which implementation occurs, the stakeholders involved, and the characteristics of the programme itself. This work uses realist evaluation to understand how contextual factors influence the implementation process, to result in variable programme outcomes. This study focuses on identifying contextual factors, pinpointing combinations of contextual factors, and understanding interactions and effects of such factors and combinations on programme outcomes on different levels of the implementation process. Schools which had participated in a school-based health promotion programme between 2012 and 2015 were included. Two sets of qualitative data were collected: semi-structured interviews with school staff and programme coordinators; and written documents about the actions implemented in a selection of four schools. Quantitative data included 1553 questionnaires targeting pupils aged 8 to 11 in 14 schools to describe the different school contexts. The comparison between what was expected from the programme (programme theory) and the outcomes identified in the field data, showed that some of the mechanisms expected to support the implementation of the programme, did not operate as anticipated (e.g. inclusion of training, initiation by decision-maker). Key factors which influenced the implementation process included, amongst other factors, the mode of introduction of the programme, home/school relationship, leadership of the management team, and the level of delegated power. Five types of interactions between contextual factors were put forward: enabling, hindering, neutral, counterbalancing and moderating effects. Recurrent combinations of factors were

  20. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections based on syndromic approach and associated factors among Iranian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Rostami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Reproductive and sexual health related problems constitute one third of health problems among women aged 15 to 44 years. Sexually transmitted infections are a significant challenge for human development. We aimed to assess the prevalence of STIs and identify factors associated with among Iranian women. Materials and Methods: Through a cross-sectional study, 399 women aged 10-49 years were recruited. These were women who referred to urban and rural health centers in a city in Iran. Through a behavioral questionnaire, high-risk behaviors of the sample were asked about. Syndromic STIs were also assessed through clinical examination. T-test and multivariable Modified Poisson Regression was used to estimate the Prevalence Risk Ratios (PRRs in Stata 13. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: About 64.2% of the participants had at least one of the STIs. STI prevalence was significantly higher among women who self-reported not using condoms in their last sexual contact (75% vs. 39.8%, whose spouse/sexual partners (SSP had extramarital sex (87.7% vs. 59.6%, whose SSP had a past-year history of illicit substance use (72.9%vs. 60.9%, and whose SSP had a history of incarceration (91.5% vs. 59.1%. In multivariable analysis, it was shown that having first sexual intercourse before 20 years of age, history of abortion in the past year, low family income, not using condom in last sexual contact, and the partner’s incarceration history were identified as significant predictors. Conclusions: The knowledge produced from the current research can serve as evidence for the promotion of interventions and healthcare services related to sexual and reproductive health for Iranian women and their SSPs. The findings from the current study also support research on improving strategies for STI diagnosis and STI management.  

  1. Massive pulmonary embolism: the predisposing and complicating factors, its current diagnostic approaches and critical importance of early diagnostic physical exam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip A. Konecny

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Massive pulmonary embolism (MPE often leads to circulation collapse, a form of shock. The process is set off by thrombus or multiple thrombi dislodgement followed by a rapid perfusion insufficiency of pulmonary arterial system. Patients experience severe hypotension with diastolic and systolic failure with an acute tricuspid regurgitation. On many occasions, release of an obstruction is unattainable and death is occurring frequently within one hour of presentation. A key reported source of MPE is its occurrence as a complication of deep vein thrombosis (DVT. While long-term immobilization and surgery are both directly associated with MPE, others such as previous DVT, malignancy, infectious lung and heart diseases, family thrombophilia, lower limb paralysis and pregnancy have to be considered as risk factors mainly due to its silent nature. Predisposing and complicating risks should be addressed by an early diagnostic physical exam. The clinician might offer a wide variety of diagnostic approaches, combining techniques into algorithms to better deal with the embolism severity. Multiple patient life-style changes and decisions to adhere to the proposed plan should be built up on patient-physician team effort. KEY WORDS: Massive pulmonary embolism, predisposing factors, current diagnostic approaches.

  2. Interlinkages between attachment and the Five-Factor Model of personality in middle childhood and young adulthood: a longitudinal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, Mari; Granqvist, Pehr; Bohlin, Gunilla; Hagekull, Berit

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we examine concurrent and prospective links between attachment and the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality from middle childhood to young adulthood (n = 66). At age 8.5 years, attachment was measured with the Separation Anxiety Test and at 21 years with the Adult Attachment Interview, whereas the personality dimensions were assessed with questionnaires at both time points. The results showed that attachment and personality dimensions are meaningfully related, concurrently and longitudinally. Attachment security in middle childhood was positively related to extraversion and openness, both concurrently and prospectively. Unresolved/disorganized (U/d) attachment was negatively related to conscientiousness and positively related to openness in young adulthood. U/d attachment showed a unique contribution to openness above the observed temporal stability of openness. As attachment security was also associated with openness, the duality of this factor is discussed together with other theoretical considerations regarding attachment theory in relation to the FFM.

  3. Factors influencing adherence to psychopharmacological medications in psychiatric patients: a structural equation modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De las Cuevas C

    2017-03-01

    positively (although weakly with age. Self-efficacy indirectly influenced treatment adherence through internal health locus of control.Conclusion: This study provides support for the hypothesis that perceived health control variables play a relevant role in psychiatric patients’ adherence to psychopharmacological medications. The findings highlight the importance of considering prospective studies of patients’ psychological reactance and health locus of control as they may be clinically relevant factors contributing to adherence to psychopharmacological medications. Keywords: attitude to health, medication adherence, health behavior, internal-external control, model, statistical, psychiatry

  4. Application of the positive matrix factorization approach to identify heavy metal sources in sediments. A case study on the Mexican Pacific Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Macías, C; Sánchez-Reyna, G; Salazar-Coria, L; Schifter, I

    2014-01-01

    During the last two decades, sediments collected in different sources of water bodies of the Tehuantepec Basin, located in the southeast of the Mexican Pacific Coast, showed that concentrations of heavy metals may pose a risk to the environment and human health. The extractable organic matter, geoaccumulation index, and enrichment factors were quantified for arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel, lead, vanadium, zinc, and the fine-grained sediment fraction. The non-parametric SiZer method was applied to assess the statistical significance of the reconstructed metal variation along time. This inference method appears to be particularly natural and well suited to temperature and other environmental reconstructions. In this approach, a collection of smooth of the reconstructed metal concentrations is considered simultaneously, and inferences about the significance of the metal trends can be made with respect to time. Hence, the database represents a consolidated set of available and validated water and sediment data of an urban industrialized area, which is very useful as case study site. The positive matrix factorization approach was used in identification and source apportionment of the anthropogenic heavy metals in the sediments. Regionally, metals and organic matter are depleted relative to crustal abundance in a range of 45-55 %, while there is an inorganic enrichment from lithogenous/anthropogenic sources of around 40 %. Only extractable organic matter, Pb, As, and Cd can be related with non-crustal sources, suggesting that additional input cannot be explained by local runoff or erosion processes.

  5. Study of the Academic Members Attitude about Main Factors of Not Approaching to Scientific Writing in Hamadan University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Koorki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: one of the important indicators of scientific study and science production in the universities is original research and its scientific article. The aim of this study was to determine the academic members’ attitude about main factors of not approaching to scientific writing in Hamadan Uni. Med. Sci.Material & Methods: The current survey was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Statistical population was all of the academic members of this university in 2006 (N=260. The data collected through a questionnaire consists of 2 parts: I. the demographic characteristics, II. the questions related to their attitude. After distribution of the questionnaires we received 228 completed ones. The data was statistically analyzed by SPSS software.Results: Outcomes showed that the main factors of not approaching to write the scientific articles were: education, teaching and treatment engagement mean with 3.891.16 of 5, the barriers of doing original research and writing the articles (3.880.93, long duration of sending and acceptation of articles in Persian scientific journals (3.841.07 and weakness of English language skill (3.831.05.Conclusion: The barriers of scientific writing were in 3 parts: organizational, personal and personal-organizational problems. The academic members’ activities and university managers’ supports are needed to remove these barriers.

  6. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  7. The World Health Organization STEPwise Approach to Noncommunicable Disease Risk-Factor Surveillance: Methods, Challenges, and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Leanne; Guthold, Regina; Cowan, Melanie; Savin, Stefan; Bhatti, Lubna; Armstrong, Timothy; Bonita, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    We sought to outline the framework and methods used by the World Health Organization (WHO) STEPwise approach to noncommunicable disease (NCD) surveillance (STEPS), describe the development and current status, and discuss strengths, limitations, and future directions of STEPS surveillance. STEPS is a WHO-developed, standardized but flexible framework for countries to monitor the main NCD risk factors through questionnaire assessment and physical and biochemical measurements. It is coordinated by national authorities of the implementing country. The STEPS surveys are generally household-based and interviewer-administered, with scientifically selected samples of around 5000 participants. To date, 122 countries across all 6 WHO regions have completed data collection for STEPS or STEPS-aligned surveys. STEPS data are being used to inform NCD policies and track risk-factor trends. Future priorities include strengthening these linkages from data to action on NCDs at the country level, and continuing to develop STEPS' capacities to enable a regular and continuous cycle of risk-factor surveillance worldwide.

  8. Identifying Risk Factors for Drug Use in an Iranian Treatment Sample: A Prediction Approach Using Decision Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirabadizadeh, Alireza; Nezami, Hossein; Vaughn, Michael G; Nakhaee, Samaneh; Mehrpour, Omid

    2018-05-12

    Substance abuse exacts considerable social and health care burdens throughout the world. The aim of this study was to create a prediction model to better identify risk factors for drug use. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in South Khorasan Province, Iran. Of the total of 678 eligible subjects, 70% (n: 474) were randomly selected to provide a training set for constructing decision tree and multiple logistic regression (MLR) models. The remaining 30% (n: 204) were employed in a holdout sample to test the performance of the decision tree and MLR models. Predictive performance of different models was analyzed by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve using the testing set. Independent variables were selected from demographic characteristics and history of drug use. For the decision tree model, the sensitivity and specificity for identifying people at risk for drug abuse were 66% and 75%, respectively, while the MLR model was somewhat less effective at 60% and 73%. Key independent variables in the analyses included first substance experience, age at first drug use, age, place of residence, history of cigarette use, and occupational and marital status. While study findings are exploratory and lack generalizability they do suggest that the decision tree model holds promise as an effective classification approach for identifying risk factors for drug use. Convergent with prior research in Western contexts is that age of drug use initiation was a critical factor predicting a substance use disorder.

  9. Developing a Causal Model of Human and Organizational Culture Factors Affecting the Knowledge Management Maturity Using Meta-Synthesis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younis Jabarzadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Identifying influential factors which contribute to the knowledge management maturity and studying their interaction over time helps managers to understand the complex behavior of knowledge management system. It also leads them to make right decisions for utilizing these factors in promoting knowledge management and achieve strategic goals of the organization by providing a sound insight and an appropriate mechanism to reach to the optimal maturity level. In this study, all aspects and components of knowledge management with an emphasis on human factors and organizational culture, and relations between them have been identified by using a systematic literature review and meta-synthesis qualitative research approach. Then by using consultation and consensus of experts, all results verified. The results include 64 codes which are classified in 9 dimensions and two categories. Finally, due to the obtained classification and their relations, the dynamic model of knowledge management maturity is presented. The results of this study could be a suitable framework for improving mental models of knowledge management executives and experts. It makes possible Developing dynamic analysis models and appropriate policies in order to improve the knowledge management maturity in organizations.

  10. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  11. An adapted blockage factor correlation approach in wind tunnel experiments of a Savonius-style wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Sukanta; Saha, Ujjwal K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Significance of the blockage correction in wind tunnel experiments of Savonius-style wind turbine. • Adaptation of blockage factor correlations under open type test sections for blockage ratio of 21.16%. • Effectiveness of adapted correlations for smaller blockage ratios (BRs) of 16% and 12.25%. • Estimate the magnitude of the blockage correction under various loading conditions for each BR. • Variation of blockage correction factor with respect to tip speed ratio and BR. - Abstract: An investigation into the blockage correction effects in wind tunnel experiments of a small-scale wind energy conversion system in an open type test section is carried out. The energy conversion system includes a Savonius-style wind turbine (SSWT) and a power measurement assembly. As the available correlations for the closed type test sections may not be appropriate for the open test section under dynamic loading conditions, new correlations are adapted for the blockage correction factors with free stream wind speed, turbine rotational speed and variable load applied to the turbine to quantify the energy conversion coefficients more precisely. These are obtained for a blockage ratio of 21.16% through a comparison of present experimental data with those of established experimental data under dynamic loading conditions. Further, the accuracy of the adapted correlations is substantiated into the experiments with smaller blockage ratios of 16% and 12.25%. The relationships of the tip speed ratios and blockage ratios with the blockage correction factor are also discussed. Using these correlations, this study provides evidence of increase of blockage correction in the range 1–10% with the increase of both tip speed ratio and blockage ratio. The results also indicate that for blockage ratios approaching 10 and tip speed ratios below 0.5, the blockage effects are almost negligible in the open type test sections

  12. The relation between societal factors and different forms of prejudice: A cross-national approach on target-specific and generalized prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeusen, Cecil; Kern, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to investigate the generalizability of prejudice across contexts by analyzing associations between different types of prejudice in a cross-national perspective and by investigating the relation between country-specific contextual factors and target-specific prejudices. Relying on the European Social Survey (2008), results indicated that prejudices were indeed positively associated, confirming the existence of a generalized prejudice component. Next to substantial cross-national differences in associational strength, also within country variance in target-specific associations was observed. This suggested that the motivations for prejudice largely vary according to the intergroup context. Two aspects of the intergroup context - economic conditions and cultural values - showed to be related to generalized and target-specific components of prejudice. Future research on prejudice and context should take an integrative approach that considers both the idea of generalized and specific prejudice simultaneously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of environmental factors on food intake among nursing home residents: a survey combined with a video approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckinx F

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fanny Buckinx,1 Jean-Yves Reginster,1 Alison Morelle,2 Nicolas Paquot,3 Nicole Labeye,3 Médéa Locquet,1 Stéphane Adam,4,* Olivier Bruyère1,5,* 1Department of Public Health, Epidemiology and Health Economics, University of Liège, 2Nutrition and Dietetics, Haute Ecole de la Province de Liège, 3Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases, University Teaching Hospital of Liège, 4Psychology of Senescence, 5Department of Sport Sciences and Rehabilitation, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: In addition to the well-known physiological factors, dietary behavior that affects health seems to be influenced by a wide variety of environmental factors. The aim of this study was to assess, by means of an original video approach, the influence of the environment on food intake in nursing homes. Methods: The perception of the environment during meals in nursing homes was evaluated by residents and by two groups of volunteers who either work in the field of geriatrics, or who do not work in the field of geriatrics. First, a random sample of residents answered a self-administered questionnaire related to different indicators (ie, noise, space, comfort, light, odors, perceived satisfaction of meals, taste of meals, presentation of meals, service and setting. Second, two separate panels, one including the people who work in the field of geriatrics (ie, experts and one including the people who have no particular interest in geriatrics (ie, nonexperts, were asked to answer a questionnaire on their perception of the environment after having watched a video of the lunch in each nursing home. Then, the food intake of the residents was measured by a precise food-weighing method. Results: A total of 88 residents from nine different nursing homes, 18 experts and 45 nonexperts answered the questionnaires. This study highlighted that, on the one hand, after adjustment on confounding variables, the perception

  14. Comparing different versions of the Rahim EI questionnaire in a South African context: A confirmatory factor analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus Nel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Given the interest in the importance of emotional intelligence in employees and leaders with regard to performance of their jobs, it is imperative to use reliable and validinstruments to operationalise emotional intelligence. Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of three different versions of the Rahim emotional intelligence index (EQI, specifically withregard to its factor structure and reliability, using two different samples. otivation for the study: No previous study has investigated which version of the Rahim EQI is the most appropriate for conducting research within South African organisations. Inaddition, the question of whether the Rahim EQI measures a strong general factor has notbeen answered. Research approach, design, and method: A cross-sectional quantitative research design wasused. Two samples were used (n = 470 and n = 308. The first sample completed the 40-itemversion of the Rahim EQI, whilst the second sample completed the 30-item version of the Rahim EQI. The measurement model, representing the 22-item version of the Rahim EQI, was also fitted to both these samples. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare thedifferent versions, as well as conceptualisations, of the Rahim EQI. Main findings: The 22-item version of the Rahim EQI exhibited better model fit than the 40-item and 30-item versions. In addition, the bifactor model suggested that the Rahim EQIseems to measure a strong general factor (emotional intelligence with very little evidence ofthe presence of unique group factors (self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills. Practical/managerial implications: Both the reliability and factor structure of the 22-item version of the Rahim EQI have been confirmed. The bifactor structure should inform researchers and practitioners that, in order to understand emotional intelligence, it is better to conceptualise it as a unidimensional

  15. Radioactive waste: show time? - 16309

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codee, Hans; Verhoef, Ewoud

    2009-01-01

    Time will render radioactive waste harmless. How can we manage the time radioactive substances remain harmful? Just 'wait and see' or 'marking time' is not an option. We need to isolate the waste from our living environment and control it as long as necessary. For the situation in the Netherlands, it is obvious that a period of long term storage is needed. Both the small volume of waste and the limited financial possibilities are determining factors. Time is needed to let the volume of waste grow and to let the money, needed for disposal, grow in a capital growth fund. An organisation such as COVRA - the radioactive waste organisation in the Netherlands - can only function when it has good, open and transparent relationship with the public and particularly with the local population. If we tell people that we safely store radioactive waste for 100 years, they often ask: 'That long?' How can we explain the long-term aspect of radioactive waste management in a way people can relate to? In this paper, an overview is given of the activities of COVRA on the communication of radioactive waste management. (authors)

  16. From nano- to macro-scale: nanotechnology approaches for spatially controlled delivery of bioactive factors for bone and cartilage engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Vítor E; Gomes, Manuela E; Mano, João F; Reis, Rui L

    2012-07-01

    The field of biomaterials has advanced towards the molecular and nanoscale design of bioactive systems for tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and drug delivery. Spatial cues are displayed in the 3D extracellular matrix and can include signaling gradients, such as those observed during chemotaxis. Architectures range from the nanometer to the centimeter length scales as exemplified by extracellular matrix fibers, cells and macroscopic shapes. The main focus of this review is the application of a biomimetic approach by the combination of architectural cues, obtained through the application of micro- and nanofabrication techniques, with the ability to sequester and release growth factors and other bioactive agents in a spatiotemporal controlled manner for bone and cartilage engineering.

  17. Drell-Yan lepton pair production at high energies in the k{sub T}-factorization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipatov, A.V.; Malyshev, M.A.; Zotov, N.P. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). D.V. Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics

    2011-11-15

    In the framework of the k{sub T}-factorization approach, the production of unpolarized Drell-Yan lepton pair at high energies is studied. The consideration is based on the O({alpha}) and O({alpha}{alpha}{sub s}) off-shell partonic matrix elements with virtual photon {gamma}{sup *} and Z boson exchange. The calculations include leptonic decays of Z bosons with full spin correlations as well as {gamma}{sup *}-Z interference. The unintegrated parton densities in a proton are determined by the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. Our numerical predictions are compared with the data taken by the D diameter, CDF and CMS collaborations at the Tevatron and LHC energies. Special attention is put on the specific angular distributions measured very recently by the CDF collaboration for the first time. (orig.)

  18. Code-Aided Estimation and Detection on Time-Varying Correlated Mimo Channels: A Factor Graph Approach

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    Simoens Frederik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns channel tracking in a multiantenna context for correlated flat-fading channels obeying a Gauss-Markov model. It is known that data-aided tracking of fast-fading channels requires a lot of pilot symbols in order to achieve sufficient accuracy, and hence decreases the spectral efficiency. To overcome this problem, we design a code-aided estimation scheme which exploits information from both the pilot symbols and the unknown coded data symbols. The algorithm is derived based on a factor graph representation of the system and application of the sum-product algorithm. The sum-product algorithm reveals how soft information from the decoder should be exploited for the purpose of estimation and how the information bits can be detected. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  19. EEG source space analysis of the supervised factor analytic approach for the classification of multi-directional arm movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy Handiru, Vikram; Vinod, A. P.; Guan, Cuntai

    2017-08-01

    Objective. In electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) systems for motor control tasks the conventional practice is to decode motor intentions by using scalp EEG. However, scalp EEG only reveals certain limited information about the complex tasks of movement with a higher degree of freedom. Therefore, our objective is to investigate the effectiveness of source-space EEG in extracting relevant features that discriminate arm movement in multiple directions. Approach. We have proposed a novel feature extraction algorithm based on supervised factor analysis that models the data from source-space EEG. To this end, we computed the features from the source dipoles confined to Brodmann areas of interest (BA4a, BA4p and BA6). Further, we embedded class-wise labels of multi-direction (multi-class) source-space EEG to an unsupervised factor analysis to make it into a supervised learning method. Main Results. Our approach provided an average decoding accuracy of 71% for the classification of hand movement in four orthogonal directions, that is significantly higher (>10%) than the classification accuracy obtained using state-of-the-art spatial pattern features in sensor space. Also, the group analysis on the spectral characteristics of source-space EEG indicates that the slow cortical potentials from a set of cortical source dipoles reveal discriminative information regarding the movement parameter, direction. Significance. This study presents evidence that low-frequency components in the source space play an important role in movement kinematics, and thus it may lead to new strategies for BCI-based neurorehabilitation.

  20. Identifying factors associated with fast food consumption among adolescents in Beijing China using a theory-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, R; Castellanos, D C; Bachman, J

    2016-07-01

    China is in the midst of the nutrition transition with increasing rates of obesity and dietary changes. One contributor is the increase in fast food chains within the country. The purpose of this study was to develop a theory-based instrument that explores influencing factors of fast food consumption in adolescents residing in Beijing, China. Cross-sectional study. Value expectancy and theory of planned behaviour were utilised to explore influencing factors of fast food consumption in the target population. There were 201 Chinese adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18. Cronbach's alpha correlation coefficients were used to examine internal reliability of the theory-based questionnaire. Bivariate correlations and a MANOVA were utilised to determine the relationship between theory-based constructs, body mass index (BMI)-for-age and fast food intake frequency as well as to determine differences in theory-based scores among fast food consumption frequency groupings. The theory-based questionnaire showed good reliability. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the theory-based subcategory scores between fast food frequency groups. A significant positive correlation was observed between times per week fast food was consumed and each theory-based subscale score. Using BMI-for-age of 176 participants, 81% were normal weight and 19% were considered overweight or obese. Results showed consumption of fast food to be on average 1.50 ± 1.33 per week. The relationship between BMI-for-age and times per week fast food was consumed was not significant. As the nutrition transition continues and fast food chains expand, it is important to explore factors effecting fast food consumption in China. Interventions targeting influencing factors can be developed to encourage healthy dietary choice in the midst of this transition. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Building Resilience for Palliative Care Clinicians: An Approach to Burnout Prevention Based on Individual Skills and Workplace Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Anthony L; Steinhauser, Karen E; Kamal, Arif H; Jackson, Vicki A

    2016-08-01

    For palliative care (PC) clinicians, the work of caring for patients with serious illness can put their own well-being at risk. What they often do not learn in training, because of the relative paucity of evidence-based programs, are practical ways to mitigate this risk. Because a new study indicates that burnout in PC clinicians is increasing, we sought to design an acceptable, scalable, and testable intervention tailored to the needs of PC clinicians. In this article, we describe our paradigm for approaching clinician resilience, our conceptual model, and curriculum for a workplace resilience intervention for hospital-based PC teams. Our paradigm for approaching resilience is based on upstream, early intervention. Our conceptual model posits that clinician well-being is influenced by personal resources and work demands. Our curriculum for increasing clinician resilience is based on training in eight resilience skills that are useful for common challenges faced by clinicians. To address workplace issues, our intervention also includes material for the team leader and a clinician perception survey of work demands and workplace engagement factors. The intervention will focus on individual skill building and will be evaluated with measures of resilience, coping, and affect. For PC clinicians, resilience skills are likely as important as communication skills and symptom management as foundations of expertise. Future work to strengthen clinician resilience will likely need to address system issues more directly. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Unsupervised versus Supervised Identification of Prognostic Factors in Patients with Localized Retroperitoneal Sarcoma: A Data Clustering and Mahalanobis Distance Approach

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    Rita De Sanctis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this report is to unveil specific prognostic factors for retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS patients by univariate and multivariate statistical techniques. A phase I-II study on localized RPS treated with high-dose ifosfamide and radiotherapy followed by surgery (ISG-STS 0303 protocol demonstrated that chemo/radiotherapy was safe and increased the 3-year relapse-free survival (RFS with respect to historical controls. Of 70 patients, twenty-six developed local, 10 distant, and 5 combined relapse. Median disease-free interval (DFI was 29.47 months. According to a discriminant function analysis, DFI, histology, relapse pattern, and the first treatment approach at relapse had a statistically significant prognostic impact. Based on scientific literature and clinical expertise, clinicopathological data were analyzed using both a supervised and an unsupervised classification method to predict the prognosis, with similar sample sizes (66 and 65, resp., in casewise approach and 70 in mean-substitution one. This is the first attempt to predict patients’ prognosis by means of multivariate statistics, and in this light, it looks noticable that (i some clinical data have a well-defined prognostic value, (ii the unsupervised model produced comparable results with respect to the supervised one, and (iii the appropriate combination of both models appears fruitful and easily extensible to different clinical contexts.

  3. Detecting the Community Structure and Activity Patterns of Temporal Networks: A Non-Negative Tensor Factorization Approach

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    Gauvin, Laetitia; Panisson, André; Cattuto, Ciro

    2014-01-01

    The increasing availability of temporal network data is calling for more research on extracting and characterizing mesoscopic structures in temporal networks and on relating such structure to specific functions or properties of the system. An outstanding challenge is the extension of the results achieved for static networks to time-varying networks, where the topological structure of the system and the temporal activity patterns of its components are intertwined. Here we investigate the use of a latent factor decomposition technique, non-negative tensor factorization, to extract the community-activity structure of temporal networks. The method is intrinsically temporal and allows to simultaneously identify communities and to track their activity over time. We represent the time-varying adjacency matrix of a temporal network as a three-way tensor and approximate this tensor as a sum of terms that can be interpreted as communities of nodes with an associated activity time series. We summarize known computational techniques for tensor decomposition and discuss some quality metrics that can be used to tune the complexity of the factorized representation. We subsequently apply tensor factorization to a temporal network for which a ground truth is available for both the community structure and the temporal activity patterns. The data we use describe the social interactions of students in a school, the associations between students and school classes, and the spatio-temporal trajectories of students over time. We show that non-negative tensor factorization is capable of recovering the class structure with high accuracy. In particular, the extracted tensor components can be validated either as known school classes, or in terms of correlated activity patterns, i.e., of spatial and temporal coincidences that are determined by the known school activity schedule. PMID:24497935

  4. Clinical and Radiographic Characteristics as Predictive Factors of Swelling and Trismus after Mandibular Third Molar Surgery: A Longitudinal Approach

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    José Manuel Pérez-González

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Factors that contribute to swelling and trismus are complex, and they are originated by surgical trauma. The aim of the present study was to determine whether clinical and radiographic factors could predict the level of swelling and trismus after lower third molar surgery, through longitudinal approach. Methodology. A prospective longitudinal trial was carried out. Forty-five patients of both genders with clinical and radiographic diagnosis of asymptomatic mandibular impacted third molar and with no intake of analgesic or anti-inflammatory drugs 12 h prior to surgery were recruited and evaluated in a 72 h follow-up period. A mixed repeated measures model and backward and restricted maximal likelihood methods were used to analyze the data. Results. Male gender, body mass index (BMI, the relation to the lingual and buccal walls, and age were determinants for predicting postoperative swelling and for exerting a significant influence (P<0.05. Conclusions. This study suggests the association of male gender, the relation to lingual and buccal walls, BMI, and age with measurement of swelling.

  5. Human Leptospirosis Infection in Fiji: An Eco-epidemiological Approach to Identifying Risk Factors and Environmental Drivers for Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Colleen L; Watson, Conall H; Lowry, John H; David, Michael C; Craig, Scott B; Wynwood, Sarah J; Kama, Mike; Nilles, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease in the Pacific Islands. In Fiji, two successive cyclones and severe flooding in 2012 resulted in outbreaks with 576 reported cases and 7% case-fatality. We conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence study and used an eco-epidemiological approach to characterize risk factors and drivers for human leptospirosis infection in Fiji, and aimed to provide an evidence base for improving the effectiveness of public health mitigation and intervention strategies. Antibodies indicative of previous or recent infection were found in 19.4% of 2152 participants (81 communities on the 3 main islands). Questionnaires and geographic information systems data were used to assess variables related to demographics, individual behaviour, contact with animals, socioeconomics, living conditions, land use, and the natural environment. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, variables associated with the presence of Leptospira antibodies included male gender (OR 1.55), iTaukei ethnicity (OR 3.51), living in villages (OR 1.64), lack of treated water at home (OR 1.52), working outdoors (1.64), living in rural areas (OR 1.43), high poverty rate (OR 1.74), living Fiji are complex and multifactorial, with environmental factors playing crucial roles. With global climate change, severe weather events and flooding are expected to intensify in the South Pacific. Population growth could also lead to more intensive livestock farming; and urbanization in developing countries is often associated with urban and peri-urban slums where diseases of poverty proliferate. Climate change, flooding, population growth, urbanization, poverty and agricultural intensification are important drivers of zoonotic disease transmission; these factors may independently, or potentially synergistically, lead to enhanced leptospirosis transmission in Fiji and other similar settings.

  6. Factors associated with health related quality of life after a hip or knee total replacement, according to a gender approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio R. López Alonso

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the factors associated with Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL, and Symptoms and Physical Functional Disability (S&PFD after a Hip or Knee Total Replacement, according to a gender approach. A longitudinal cohort study design is performed at “La Merced” (Osuna. Sevilla and “Torrecárdenas” (Almería Hospitals, via telephone interview since October 2004 to November 2006. The study included all people who underwent a hip or knee total replacement. The dependent variables were HRQL and S&PFD, both measured via short versions of the COOP/WONCA and WOMAC questionnaires.Results: 311 people were included, who were mostly women (82,63% and 70 years old (average. The hip and knee replacement obtained an statistically significant improvement on HRQL (20,5% and S&PFD (28,2%, with no gender difference. Five variables were associated to HRQL for Women: HRQL previous to surgery, hospital, local infection as a complication, autonomy for daily living, and marital status. All of them were associated to men, except the last two ones. About S&PFD, six variables were associated for women: HRQL and S&PFD previous to surgery, hospital, local infection as a complication, body mass index and marital status. All of them were associated to men, except the last two ones.Factors associated to improve on HRQL and S&PFD in male population are few, though they find a great explanation of the improvement. Different situation arise on female population because more factors obtained a substantially inferior explanation.

  7. Migraine Subclassification via a Data-Driven Automated Approach Using Multimodality Factor Mixture Modeling of Brain Structure Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwedt, Todd J; Si, Bing; Li, Jing; Wu, Teresa; Chong, Catherine D

    2017-07-01

    The current subclassification of migraine is according to headache frequency and aura status. The variability in migraine symptoms, disease course, and response to treatment suggest the presence of additional heterogeneity or subclasses within migraine. The study objective was to subclassify migraine via a data-driven approach, identifying latent factors by jointly exploiting multiple sets of brain structural features obtained via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Migraineurs (n = 66) and healthy controls (n = 54) had brain MRI measurements of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and volumes for 68 regions. A multimodality factor mixture model was used to subclassify MRIs and to determine the brain structural factors that most contributed to the subclassification. Clinical characteristics of subjects in each subgroup were compared. Automated MRI classification divided the subjects into two subgroups. Migraineurs in subgroup #1 had more severe allodynia symptoms during migraines (6.1 ± 5.3 vs. 3.6 ± 3.2, P = .03), more years with migraine (19.2 ± 11.3 years vs 13 ± 8.3 years, P = .01), and higher Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) scores (25 ± 22.9 vs 15.7 ± 12.2, P = .04). There were not differences in headache frequency or migraine aura status between the two subgroups. Data-driven subclassification of brain MRIs based upon structural measurements identified two subgroups. Amongst migraineurs, the subgroups differed in allodynia symptom severity, years with migraine, and migraine-related disability. Since allodynia is associated with this imaging-based subclassification of migraine and prior publications suggest that allodynia impacts migraine treatment response and disease prognosis, future migraine diagnostic criteria could consider allodynia when defining migraine subgroups. © 2017 American Headache Society.

  8. Dalitz plot studies of D0 → KS0π+π− decays in a factorization approach

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    Leśniak Leonard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A quasi two-body QCD factorization is used to study the D0 → KS0π+π− decays. The presently available high-statistics Dalitz plot data of this process measured by the Belle and BABAR Collaborations are analyzed together with the τ− → KS0π−ντ decay data. The total experimental branching fraction is also included in the fits which show a very good overall agreement with the experimental Dalitz plot density distributions. The branching fractions of the dominant channels compare well with those of the isobar Belle or BABAR models. We show that the branching fractions corresponding to the annihilation amplitudes are significant.

  9. EVALUATION OF PROGNOSTIC FACTORS IN QUALITY OF LIFE OF PATIENTS WITH ADOLESCENT IDIOPATHIC SCOLIOSIS UNDERGOING SPINAL FUSION BY THE POSTERIOR APPROACH

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    FELIPE DE MORAES POMAR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the prognostic factors in the treatment of patients diagnosed with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis undergoing spinal fusion by the posterior approach. Methods: The study included 48 patients with idiopathic adolescent scoliosis (43 females and 5 males who underwent spinal fusion by the posterior approach, with an average age at diagnosis of 12 years, and clinical signs of Risser between 3 and 4 at the time of surgery. Clinical and radiographic measurements were performed, the participants answered the SRS-30 questionnaire, and the analysis of the medical record data was performed in two occasions during the preoperative period and at the end of two years of follow-up. Results: All satisfaction measures showed statistically significant change after the procedure (p<0.05 with respect to the radiographic characteristics, except for the lumbar apical vertebral translation (p=0.540 and Cobb L1-L5 (p=0.225. Conclusion: In general, it was found that patients who received surgical treatment were more satisfied with their appearance than those who underwent conservative treatment.

  10. Key Factors Influencing the Energy Absorption of Dual-Phase Steels: Multiscale Material Model Approach and Microstructural Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgasam, Tarek M.; Zbib, Hussein M.

    2018-06-01

    The increase in use of dual-phase (DP) steel grades by vehicle manufacturers to enhance crash resistance and reduce body car weight requires the development of a clear understanding of the effect of various microstructural parameters on the energy absorption in these materials. Accordingly, DP steelmakers are interested in predicting the effect of various microscopic factors as well as optimizing microstructural properties for application in crash-relevant components of vehicle bodies. This study presents a microstructure-based approach using a multiscale material and structure model. In this approach, Digimat and LS-DYNA software were coupled and employed to provide a full micro-macro multiscale material model, which is then used to simulate tensile tests. Microstructures with varied ferrite grain sizes, martensite volume fractions, and carbon content in DP steels were studied. The impact of these microstructural features at different strain rates on energy absorption characteristics of DP steels is investigated numerically using an elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model. The model is implemented in a multiscale finite-element framework. A comprehensive statistical parametric study using response surface methodology is performed to determine the optimum microstructural features for a required tensile toughness at different strain rates. The simulation results are validated using experimental data found in the literature. The developed methodology proved to be effective for investigating the influence and interaction of key microscopic properties on the energy absorption characteristics of DP steels. Furthermore, it is shown that this method can be used to identify optimum microstructural conditions at different strain-rate conditions.

  11. Analysis of the intellectual structure of human space exploration research using a bibliometric approach: Focus on human related factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tai Sik; Lee, Yoon-Sun; Lee, Jaeho; Chang, Byung Chul

    2018-02-01

    Human space exploration (HSE) is an interdisciplinary field composed of a range of subjects that have developed dramatically over the last few decades. This paper investigates the intellectual structure of HSE research with a focus on human related factors. A bibliometric approach with quantitative analytical techniques is applied to study the development and growth of the research. This study retrieves 1921 papers on HSE related to human factors from the year 1990 to the year 2016 from Web of Science and constructs a critical citation network composed of 336 papers. Edge-betweenness-based clustering is used to classify the citation network into twelve distinct research clusters based on four research themes: "biological risks from space radiation," "health and performance during long-duration spaceflight," "program and in-situ resources for HSE missions," and "habitat and life support systems in the space environment." These research themes are also similar to the classification results of a co-occurrence analysis on keywords for a total of 1921 papers. Papers with high centrality scores are identified as important papers in terms of knowledge flow. Moreover, the intermediary role of papers in exchanging knowledge between HSE sub-areas is identified using brokerage analysis. The key-route main path highlights the theoretical development trajectories. Due to the recent dramatic increase in investment by international governments and the private sector, the theoretical development trajectories of key research themes have been expanding from furthering scientific and technical knowledge to include various social and economic issues, thus encouraging massive public participation. This study contributes to an understanding of research trends and popular issues in the field of HSE by introducing a powerful way of determining major research themes and development trajectories. This study will help researchers seek the underlying knowledge diffusion flow from multifaceted

  12. Preconception and prenatal environmental factors associated with communication impairments in 9 year old children using an exposome-wide approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D Steer

    Full Text Available Although speech and language deficits are common in children and strongly associated with poor educational and social outcomes, little attention has been paid to the antecedents. In this study we used the information from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children to examine preconception and prenatal environmental risk factors that were related to communication difficulties in children using the Children's Communication Checklist (CCC. We used an exposome-wide approach to identify environmental factors univariably associated with the CCC. Taking account of the False Discovery rate, we used a P value of 0.000157 to identify 621 of 3855 items tested. These were then subjected to a series of stepwise linear regression analyses, firstly within 10 domains: personal characteristics, health, development, education, socio-economic variables, lifestyle, home and social environments, life events and chemical and other exposures; and then with the predictive variables from each domain. The final model consisted of 19 variables independently associated with the communication scale. These variables suggested 6 possible mechanisms: stressors primarily associated with socio-economic disadvantage although other lifestyle choices such as a social network of family or friends can ameliorate these effects; indicators of future parenting skills primarily associated with aspects of parental personality; aspects of the home environment; poor maternal health with a novel finding concerning maternal hearing loss; and maternal education which was partially mediated by the child's IQ. Finally, there may be a mechanism via the maternal diet in pregnancy in particular the consumption of fatty or processed foods. This is the subject of ongoing investigation.

  13. A systematic review of factors associated with accidental falls in people with multiple sclerosis: a meta-analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannì, Costanza; Prosperini, Luca; Jonsdottir, Johanna; Cattaneo, Davide

    2014-07-01

    To determine whether there are demographic, clinical, and instrumental variables useful to detect fall status of patients with multiple sclerosis. PubMed and the Cochrane Library. Eligible studies were identified by two independent investigators. Only studies having a clear distinction between fallers and non-fallers were included and meta-analysed. Odds ratios (ORs) and standard mean differences (SMDs) were calculated and pooled using fixed effect models. Among 115 screened articles, 15 fulfilled criteria for meta-analyses, with a total of 2425 patients included. Proportion of fallers may vary from 30% to 63% in a time frame from 1 to 12 months. No significant publication bias was found, even though 12/15 studies relied on retrospective reports of falls, thus introducing recall biases. Risk factors for falls varied across studies, owing to heterogeneity of populations included and clinical instruments used. The meta-analytic approach found that, compared with non-fallers, fallers had longer disease duration (SMD = 0.14, p = 0.02), progressive course of disease (OR = 2.02, p < 0.0001), assistive device for walking (OR = 3.16, p < 0.0001), greater overall disability level (SMD = 0.74, p < 0.0001), slower walking speed (SMD = 0.45, p = 0.0005), and worse performances in balance tests (Berg Balance Scale: SMD = -0.48, p = 0.002; Timed up-and-go test, SMD = 0.31, p = 0.04), and force-platform measures (postural sway) with eyes opened (SMD = 0.71, p = 0.006) and closed (SMD = 0.83, p = 0.01), respectively. Elucidations regarding risk factors for accidental falls in patients with multiple sclerosis (PwMs) are provided here, with worse disability score, progressive course, use of walking aid, and poorer performances in static and dynamic balance tests strongly associated with fall status. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Treatment outcome and prognostic factor analysis in transplant-eligible Chinese myeloma patients receiving bortezomib-based induction regimens including the staged approach, PAD or VTD

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    Chim Chor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have reported promising outcomes using a staged approach, in which bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone was used only in 14 patients with suboptimal response to VAD (vincristine/adriamycin/dexamethasone before autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT. Here we compared the outcomes of the staged approach with frontline PAD (bortezomib/doxorubicin/dexamethasone or VTD (bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone induction, and analysed prognostic factors for outcome. Patients and methods Ninety-one transplant-eligible Chinese patients received three induction regimens prior to ASCT [staged approach (N = 25, PAD (N = 31, VTD (N = 35]. and received thalidomide maintenance for 2 years post-ASCT. Results 43 (47.3% patients had International Staging System (ISS III disease. By an intention-to-treat analysis, the overall CR/nCR rate were 37.4% post-induction, and 62.6% post-ASCT. Five-year overall (OS and event-free (EFS survivals were 66% and 45.1%. There was no difference of the post-induction CR/nCR rate, EFS or OS between patients induced by these three regimens. Moreover, ISS III disease did not affect CR/nCR rates. Multivariate analysis showed that ISS and post-ASCT CR/nCR impacted OS while ISS and post-induction CR/nCR impacted EFS. Conclusions These three induction regimens produced comparable and favorable outcomes in myeloma. The unfavorable outcome of ISS stage III persisted despite upfront/early use of bortezomib. CR/nCR predicted favorable survivals.

  15. Escape by the Balearic Lizard (Podarcis lilfordi is affected by elevation of an approaching predator, but not by some other potential predation risk factors

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    William E. Cooper

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many predation risk factors to affect escape behavior by lizards, but effects of some potential risk factors are unknown or are variable among species. We studied effects of several risk factors on escape responses by the Balearic lizard (Podarcis lilfordi, Lacertidae on escape responses. Escape was elicited by an approaching experimenter who recorded flight initiation distance (predator-prey distance when escape begins and distance fled. When an experimenter approached from above (upslope, flight initiation distance and distance fled were longer than when the experimenter approached from below. This novel effect suggests that lizards exposed to aerial predation might have been naturally selected to respond rapidly to predators approaching from above or that effects of path inclination of escape ability may differ between predators and prey in a manner requiring a larger margin of safety during approaches from above than below. Although sex differences in aspects of escape occur in some lizards, including lacertids, no sex difference was observed in P. lilfordi. Because vigilance and some other aspects of antipredatory behavior exhibit cortical lateralization, we tested effects of approach from the left and right sides of lizards. As predicted by optimal escape theory, side of approach did not affect flight initiation distance. Because many lizards have color vision and respond to pigmentation of conspecifics in social settings, researchers have often worn only drably colored clothing when simulating predators. This precaution may be unnecessary because flight initiation distance did not differ among investigator shirt colors (red, orange, olive.

  16. Comparative proteome approach demonstrates that platelet-derived growth factor C and D efficiently induce proliferation while maintaining multipotency of hMSCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotoca, Ana M., E-mail: a.sotoca@science.ru.nl [Department of Cell and Applied Biology, Radboud University, Heijendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Roelofs-Hendriks, Jose [Department of Cell and Applied Biology, Radboud University, Heijendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Boeren, Sjef [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Wageningen University, Dreijenlaan 3, 6703 HA Wageningen (Netherlands); Kraan, Peter M. van der [Department of Rheumatology Research and Advanced Therapeutics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Vervoort, Jacques [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Wageningen University, Dreijenlaan 3, 6703 HA Wageningen (Netherlands); Zoelen, Everardus J.J. van; Piek, Ester [Department of Cell and Applied Biology, Radboud University, Heijendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2013-10-15

    This is the first study that comprehensively describes the effects of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) isoforms C and D during in vitro expansion of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Our results show that PDGFs can enhance proliferation of hMSCs without affecting their multipotency. It is of great value to culture and expand hMSCs in a safe and effective manner without losing their multipotency for manipulation and further development of cell-based therapies. Moreover, differential effects of PDGF isoforms have been observed on lineage-specific differentiation induced by BMP2 and Vitamin D3. Based on label-free LC-based quantitative proteomics approach we have furthermore identified specific pathways induced by PDGFs during the proliferation process, showing the importance of bioinformatics tools to study cell function. - Highlights: • PDGFs (C and D) significantly increased the number of multipotent undifferentiated hMSCs. • Enhanced proliferation did not impair the ability to undergo lineage-specific differentiation. • Proteomic analysis confirmed the overall signatures of the ‘intact’ cells.

  17. Factors affecting infestation by Triatoma infestans in a rural area of the humid Chaco in Argentina: a multi-model inference approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevitz, Juan M; Ceballos, Leonardo A; Gaspe, María Sol; Alvarado-Otegui, Julián A; Enríquez, Gustavo F; Kitron, Uriel; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2011-10-01

    Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi by Triatoma infestans remains a major public health problem in the Gran Chaco ecoregion, where understanding of the determinants of house infestation is limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study to model factors affecting bug presence and abundance at sites within house compounds in a well-defined rural area in the humid Argentine Chaco. Triatoma infestans bugs were found in 45.9% of 327 inhabited house compounds but only in 7.4% of the 2,584 sites inspected systematically on these compounds, even though the last insecticide spraying campaign was conducted 12 years before. Infested sites were significantly aggregated at distances of 0.8-2.5 km. The most frequently infested ecotopes were domiciles, kitchens, storerooms, chicken coops and nests; corrals were rarely infested. Domiciles with mud walls and roofs of thatch or corrugated tarred cardboard were more often infested (32.2%) than domiciles with brick-and-cement walls and corrugated metal-sheet roofs (15.1%). A multi-model inference approach using Akaike's information criterion was applied to assess the relative importance of each variable by running all possible (17,406) models resulting from all combinations of variables. Availability of refuges for bugs, construction with tarred cardboard, and host abundance (humans, dogs, cats, and poultry) per site were positively associated with infestation and abundance, whereas reported insecticide use showed a negative association. Ethnic background (Creole or Toba) adjusted for other factors showed little or no association. Promotion and effective implementation of housing improvement (including key peridomestic structures) combined with appropriate insecticide use and host management practices are needed to eliminate infestations. Fewer refuges are likely to result in fewer residual foci after insecticide spraying, and will facilitate community-based vector surveillance. A more integrated perspective that considers simultaneously

  18. Methodological factors affecting gas and methane production during in vitro rumen fermentation evaluated by meta-analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccarana, Laura; Cattani, Mirko; Tagliapietra, Franco; Schiavon, Stefano; Bailoni, Lucia; Mantovani, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Effects of some methodological factors on in vitro measures of gas production (GP, mL/g DM), CH4 production (mL/g DM) and proportion (% CH4 on total GP) were investigated by meta-analysis. These factors were considered: pressure in the GP equipment (0 = constant; 1 = increasing), incubation time (0 = 24; 1 = ≥ 48 h), time of rumen fluid collection (0 = before feeding; 1 = after feeding of donor animals), donor species of rumen fluid (0 = sheep; 1 = bovine), presence of N in the buffer solution (0 = presence; 1 = absence), and ratio between amount of buffered rumen fluid and feed sample (BRF/FS; 0 = ≤ 130 mL/g DM; 1 = 130-140 mL/g DM; 2 = ≥ 140 mL/g DM). The NDF content of feed sample incubated (NDF) was considered as a continuous variable. From an initial database of 105 papers, 58 were discarded because one of the above-mentioned factors was not stated. After discarding 17 papers, the final dataset comprised 30 papers (339 observations). A preliminary mixed model analysis was carried out on experimental data considering the study as random factor. Variables adjusted for study effect were analyzed using a backward stepwise analysis including the above-mentioned variables. The analysis showed that the extension of incubation time and reduction of NDF increased GP and CH4 values. Values of GP and CH4 also increased when rumen fluid was collected after feeding compared to before feeding (+26.4 and +9.0 mL/g DM, for GP and CH4), from bovine compared to sheep (+32.8 and +5.2 mL/g DM, for GP and CH4), and when the buffer solution did not contain N (+24.7 and +6.7 mL/g DM for GP and CH4). The increase of BRF/FS ratio enhanced GP and CH4 production (+7.7 and +3.3 mL/g DM per each class of increase, respectively). In vitro techniques for measuring GP and CH4 production are mostly used as screening methods, thus a full standardization of such techniques is not feasible. However, a greater harmonization

  19. Novel therapeutic approach for pulmonary emphysema using gelatin microspheres releasing basic fibroblast growth factor in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sung Soo; Yokomise, Hiroyasu; Matsuura, Natsumi; Gotoh, Masashi; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2014-08-01

    The prognosis of patients with emphysema is poor as there is no truly effective treatment. Our previous study showed that the alveolar space was smaller and the microvessel density was higher in a canine emphysema model after the intrapulmonary arterial administration of gelatin microspheres slowly releasing basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF-GMS). In the present study, we evaluated the functional effect of injecting bFGF-GMS via the pulmonary artery in this canine pulmonary emphysema model. Using the porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE)-induced total emphysema model, we approximated the value of lung compliance with a Power Lab System, and performed blood gas analysis in a control group, a total emphysema group, and a bFGF group in which bFGF-GMS were injected toward the whole pulmonary artery via the femoral vein. Each group comprised five dogs. Lung compliance was higher in the total emphysema group than in the control group (p = 0.031), and the bFGF group showed no significant improvement of lung compliance vs. the total emphysema group (p = 0.112). PaO2 (partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood) was improved by administering bFGF-GMS in the total emphysema model (p = 0.027). In the canine total emphysema model, blood gas parameters were improved by the whole pulmonary arterial administration of bFGF-GMS. This method has the potential to be an effective novel therapy for pulmonary emphysema.

  20. A systematic approach for the assessment of bacterial growth-controlling factors linked to biological stability of drinking water in distribution systems

    KAUST Repository

    Prest, E. I.

    2016-01-06

    A systematic approach is presented for the assessment of (i) bacterial growth-controlling factors in drinking water and (ii) the impact of distribution conditions on the extent of bacterial growth in full-scale distribution systems. The approach combines (i) quantification of changes in autochthonous bacterial cell concentrations in full-scale distribution systems with (ii) laboratoryscale batch bacterial growth potential tests of drinking water samples under defined conditions. The growth potential tests were done by direct incubation of water samples, without modification of the original bacterial flora, and with flow cytometric quantification of bacterial growth. This method was shown to be reproducible (ca. 4% relative standard deviation) and sensitive (detection of bacterial growth down to 5 μg L-1 of added assimilable organic carbon). The principle of step-wise assessment of bacterial growth-controlling factors was demonstrated on bottled water, shown to be primarily carbon limited at 133 (±18) × 103 cells mL-1 and secondarily limited by inorganic nutrients at 5,500 (±1,700) × 103 cells mL-1. Analysis of the effluent of a Dutch full-scale drinking water treatment plant showed (1) bacterial growth inhibition as a result of end-point chlorination, (2) organic carbon limitation at 192 (±72) × 103 cells mL-1 and (3) inorganic nutrient limitation at 375 (±31) × 103 cells mL-1. Significantly lower net bacterial growth was measured in the corresponding full-scale distribution system (176 (±25) × 103 cells mL-1) than in the laboratory-scale growth potential test of the same water (294 (±35) × 103 cells mL-1), highlighting the influence of distribution on bacterial growth. The systematic approach described herein provides quantitative information on the effect of drinking water properties and distribution system conditions on biological stability, which can assist water utilities in decision-making on treatment or distribution system improvements to

  1. Evaluating the effects of climate change on summertime ozone using a relative response factor approach for policymakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avise, Jeremy; Abraham, Rodrigo Gonzalez; Chung, Serena H; Chen, Jack; Lamb, Brian; Salathé, Eric P; Zhang, Yongxin; Nolte, Christopher G; Loughlin, Daniel H; Guenther, Alex; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Duhl, Tiffany

    2012-09-01

    The impact of climate change on surface-level ozone is examined through a multiscale modeling effort that linked global and regional climate models to drive air quality model simulations. Results are quantified in terms of the relative response factor (RRF(E)), which estimates the relative change in peak ozone concentration for a given change in pollutant emissions (the subscript E is added to RRF to remind the reader that the RRF is due to emission changes only). A matrix of model simulations was conducted to examine the individual and combined effects offuture anthropogenic emissions, biogenic emissions, and climate on the RRF(E). For each member in the matrix of simulations the warmest and coolest summers were modeled for the present-day (1995-2004) and future (2045-2054) decades. A climate adjustment factor (CAF(C) or CAF(CB) when biogenic emissions are allowed to change with the future climate) was defined as the ratio of the average daily maximum 8-hr ozone simulated under a future climate to that simulated under the present-day climate, and a climate-adjusted RRF(EC) was calculated (RRF(EC) = RRF(E) x CAF(C)). In general, RRF(EC) > RRF(E), which suggests additional emission controls will be required to achieve the same reduction in ozone that would have been achieved in the absence of climate change. Changes in biogenic emissions generally have a smaller impact on the RRF(E) than does future climate change itself The direction of the biogenic effect appears closely linked to organic-nitrate chemistry and whether ozone formation is limited by volatile organic compounds (VOC) or oxides of nitrogen (NO(x) = NO + NO2). Regions that are generally NO(x) limited show a decrease in ozone and RRF(EC), while VOC-limited regions show an increase in ozone and RRF(EC). Comparing results to a previous study using different climate assumptions and models showed large variability in the CAF(CB). We present a methodology for adjusting the RRF to account for the influence of

  2. Example of a Human Factors Engineering approach to a medication administration work system: potential impact on patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuscart-Zéphir, Marie-Catherine; Pelayo, Sylvia; Bernonville, Stéphanie

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of this paper are: In this approach, the implementation of such a complex IT solution is considered a major redesign of the work system. The paper describes the Human Factor (HF) tasks embedded in the project lifecycle: (1) analysis and modelling of the current work system and usability assessment of the medication CPOE solution; (2) HF recommendations for work re-design and usability recommendations for IT system re-engineering both aiming at a safer and more efficient work situation. Standard ethnographic methods were used to support the analysis of the current work system and work situations, coupled with cognitive task analysis methods and documents review. Usability inspection (heuristic evaluation) and both in-lab (simulated tasks) and on-site (real tasks) usability tests were performed for the evaluation of the CPOE candidate. Adapted software engineering models were used in combination with usual textual descriptions, tasks models and mock-ups to support the recommendations for work and product re-design. The analysis of the work situations identified different work organisations and procedures across the hospital's departments. The most important differences concerned the doctor-nurse communications and cooperation modes and the procedures for preparing and administering the medications. The assessment of the medication CPOE functions uncovered a number of usability problems including severe ones leading to impossible to detect or to catch errors. Models of the actual and possible distribution of tasks and roles were used to support decision making in the work design process. The results of the usability assessment were translated into requirements to support the necessary re-engineering of the IT application. The HFE approach to medication CPOE efficiently identifies and distinguishes currently unsafe or uncomfortable work situations that could obviously benefit from an IT solution from other work situations incorporating efficient work

  3. A Bayesian approach to assessing the uncertainty in estimating bioconcentration factors in earthworms--the example of quinoxyfen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoulis, George; Merli, Annalisa; Reeves, Graham; Meregalli, Giovanna; Stenberg, Kristofer; Tanaka, Taku; Capri, Ettore

    2011-06-01

    Quinoxyfen is a fungicide of the phenoxyquinoline class used to control powdery mildew, Uncinula necator (Schw.) Burr. Owing to its high persistence and strong sorption in soil, it could represent a risk for soil organisms if they are exposed at ecologically relevant concentrations. The objective of this paper is to predict the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of quinoxyfen in earthworms, selected as a representative soil organism, and to assess the uncertainty in the estimation of this parameter. Three fields in each of four vineyards in southern and northern Italy were sampled over two successive years. The measured BCFs varied over time, possibly owing to seasonal changes and the consequent changes in behaviour and ecology of earthworms. Quinoxyfen did not accumulate in soil, as the mean soil concentrations at the end of the 2 year monitoring period ranged from 9.16 to 16.0 µg kg⁻¹ dw for the Verona province and from 23.9 to 37.5 µg kg⁻¹ dw for the Taranto province, with up to eight applications per season. To assess the uncertainty of the BCF in earthworms, a probabilistic approach was used, firstly by building with weighted bootstrapping techniques a generic probabilistic density function (PDF) accounting for variability and incompleteness of knowledge. The generic PDF was then used to derive prior distribution functions, which, by application of Bayes' theorem, were updated with the new measurements and a posterior distribution was finally created. The study is a good example of probabilistic risk assessment. The means of mean and SD posterior estimates of log BCFworm (2.06, 0.91) are the 'best estimate values'. Further risk assessment of quinoxyfen and other phenoxyquinoline fungicides and realistic representative scenarios for modelling exercises required for future authorization and post-authorization requirements can now use this value as input. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Factors Associated with HIV Testing Among Participants from Substance Use Disorder Treatment Programs in the US: A Machine Learning Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yue; Liu, Hongmei; Metsch, Lisa R; Feaster, Daniel J

    2017-02-01

    HIV testing is the foundation for consolidated HIV treatment and prevention. In this study, we aim to discover the most relevant variables for predicting HIV testing uptake among substance users in substance use disorder treatment programs by applying random forest (RF), a robust multivariate statistical learning method. We also provide a descriptive introduction to this method for those who are unfamiliar with it. We used data from the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network HIV testing and counseling study (CTN-0032). A total of 1281 HIV-negative or status unknown participants from 12 US community-based substance use disorder treatment programs were included and were randomized into three HIV testing and counseling treatment groups. The a priori primary outcome was self-reported receipt of HIV test results. Classification accuracy of RF was compared to logistic regression, a standard statistical approach for binary outcomes. Variable importance measures for the RF model were used to select the most relevant variables. RF based models produced much higher classification accuracy than those based on logistic regression. Treatment group is the most important predictor among all covariates, with a variable importance index of 12.9%. RF variable importance revealed that several types of condomless sex behaviors, condom use self-efficacy and attitudes towards condom use, and level of depression are the most important predictors of receipt of HIV testing results. There is a non-linear negative relationship between count of condomless sex acts and the receipt of HIV testing. In conclusion, RF seems promising in discovering important factors related to HIV testing uptake among large numbers of predictors and should be encouraged in future HIV prevention and treatment research and intervention program evaluations.

  5. Early Detection of Poor Outcome after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Predictive Factors Using a Multidimensional Approach a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Caplain

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI is a common condition within the general population, usually with good clinical outcome. However, in 10–25% of cases, a post-concussive syndrome (PCS occurs. Identifying early prognostic factors for the development of PCS can ensure widespread clinical and economic benefits. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the potential value of a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation to identify early prognostic factors following MTBI. We performed a multi-center open, prospective, longitudinal study that included 72 MTBI patients and 42 healthy volunteers matched for age, gender, and socioeconomic status. MTBI patients were evaluated 8–21 days after injury, and 6 months thereafter, with a full neurological and psychological examination and brain MRI. At 6 months follow-up, MTBI patients were categorized into two subgroups according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV as having either favorable or unfavorable evolution (UE, corresponding to the presence of major or mild neurocognitive disorder due to traumatic brain injury. Univariate and multivariate logistical regression analysis demonstrated the importance of patient complaints, quality of life, and cognition in the outcome of MTBI patients, but only 6/23 UE patients were detected early via the multivariate logistic regression model. Using several variables from each of these three categories of variables, we built a model that assigns a score to each patient presuming the possibility of UE. Statistical analyses showed this last model to be reliable and sensitive, allowing early identification of patients at risk of developing PCS with 95.7% sensitivity and 77.6% specificity.

  6. Personality factors and weight preoccupation: a continuum approach to the association between eating disorders and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C; Claridge, G; Cerullo, D

    1997-01-01

    Evidence shows a high comorbidity of eating disorders and some forms of personality disorder. Adopting a dimensional approach to both, our study explored their connection among a non-clinical sample. 191 young women completed personality scales of general neuroticism, and of borderline, schizotypal, obsessive-compulsive, and narcissistic (both adjustive and maladaptive) traits. Weight preoccupation (WP), as a normal analogue of eating disorders, was assessed with scales from the Eating Disorder Inventory, and height and weight measured. The data were analysed with multiple regression techniques, with WP as the dependent variable. In low to normal weight subjects, after controlling for the significant influence of body mass, the specific predictors of WP in the regression model were borderline personality and maladaptive narcissism, in the positive direction, and adjustive narcissism and obsessive-compulsiveness in the negative direction. In heavier women, narcissism made no contribution--nor, more significantly, did body mass. Patterns of association between eating pathology and personality disorder, especially borderline and narcissism, can be clearly mapped across to personality traits in the currently non-clinical population. This finding has important implications for understanding dynamics of, and identifying individuals at risk for, eating disorders.

  7. [Muscle and bone health as a risk factor of fall among the elderly. An approach to identify high-risk fallers by risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Reiko; Kozaki, Koichi; Nakamura, Tetsuro; Toba, Kenji

    2008-06-01

    Fall-induced hip fracture is one of the major causes rendering the elderly to be in a low ADL or bed-ridden status. Fall is not only the cause for fractures, but it lowers elderly peoples'ADL. History of fall, age, decline of motor function, orthostatic hypotension, balance deficit, dementia, drug and environmental factors were raised as possible risk factor for falls. We created a fall predicting score which consist of 21 risk factors and a history of falls. We found that the score is useful to identify high-risk fallers. It would be necessary to identify high-risk fallers early and give an appropriate individual approach.

  8. A high-resolution peak fractionation approach for streamlined screening of nuclear-factor-E2-related factor-2 activators in Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Luo, Li-Ping; Song, Hui-Peng; Hao, Hai-Ping; Zhou, Ping; Qi, Lian-Wen; Li, Ping; Chen, Jun

    2014-01-24

    Generation of a high-purity fraction library for efficiently screening active compounds from natural products is challenging because of their chemical diversity and complex matrices. In this work, a strategy combining high-resolution peak fractionation (HRPF) with a cell-based assay was proposed for target screening of bioactive constituents from natural products. In this approach, peak fractionation was conducted under chromatographic conditions optimized for high-resolution separation of the natural product extract. The HRPF approach was automatically performed according to the predefinition of certain peaks based on their retention times from a reference chromatographic profile. The corresponding HRPF database was collected with a parallel mass spectrometer to ensure purity and characterize the structures of compounds in the various fractions. Using this approach, a set of 75 peak fractions on the microgram scale was generated from 4mg of the extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza. After screening by an ARE-luciferase reporter gene assay, 20 diterpene quinones were selected and identified, and 16 of these compounds were reported to possess novel Nrf2 activation activity. Compared with conventional fixed-time interval fractionation, the HRPF approach could significantly improve the efficiency of bioactive compound discovery and facilitate the uncovering of minor active components. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cow milk consumption, insulin-like growth factor-I, and human biology: a life history approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Andrea S

    2012-01-01

    To assess the life history consequences of cow milk consumption at different stages in early life (prenatal to adolescence), especially with regard to linear growth and age at menarche and the role of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in mediating a relationship among milk, growth and development, and long-term biological outcomes. United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999 to 2004 and review of existing literature. The literature tends to support milk's role in enhancing growth early in life (prior to age 5 years), but there is less support for this relationship during middle childhood. Milk has been associated with early menarche and with acceleration of linear growth in adolescence. NHANES data show a positive relationship between milk intake and linear growth in early childhood and adolescence, but not middle childhood, a period of relatively slow growth. IGF-I is a candidate bioactive molecule linking milk consumption to more rapid growth and development, although the mechanism by which it may exert such effects is unknown. Routine milk consumption is an evolutionarily novel dietary behavior that has the potential to alter human life history parameters, especially vis-à-vis linear growth, which in turn may have negative long-term biological consequences. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The Need for an Ecological Approach to Parental Stress in Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Combined Role of Individual and Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derguy, C.; M'Bailara, K.; Michel, G.; Roux, S.; Bouvard, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify parental stress predictors in ASD by considering individual and environmental factors in an ecological approach. Participants were 115 parents of children with ASD aged from 3 to 10 years. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the best predictors of parental stress among child-related, parent-related…

  11. NIGHT HEMODYNAMIC DISORDER RISK FACTORS AND MARKERS FOR PATIENT-SPECIFIC APPROACH TO CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE PREVENTION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Kozhevnikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:  High mortality rates of cardiovascular disease request research revealing risk factors and early markers of cardiovascular dysfunction in children with chronic pathology.Objective:  to reveal the risk factors and early markers of night hemodynamic disorders for the development of personalized cardiovascular disease prevention in children based on the results of the combined daily monitoring of arterial pressure, ECG examination, and analysis of night sleep. Patients and methods:  Parents filled screeningquestionnaire of night sleep before the study onset. Combined monitoring and examination was performed  in 232  children aged 6–17 with different blood pressure disorders using Astrocard НS E2bp (Russia equipment in the outpatient setting.Results: 24-hour BP monitoring identified arterial hypotension 3.8 times more often than routine ambulance method. 21% of children or every fifth child with hypotension  had night hypertension  associated  with maximum (93% pathology  of ENT organs  with nasal obstruction. Differentiation of investigated groups by night PP and DBP show these marks of hemodynamics to be really important at the early period of pathology development in children. 62% of children had QT interval with bad adaptation to RR-interval at night. In the group with high BMI we found 1.6 times more often children with height more than 85th percentile of the norm. These children had night diastolic hypotension  5 times more often, children with obesity didn’t have normal 24-hour  BP dynamics, children with high BMI had longer QT-interval at night.Conclusions: We demonstrate the necessity of night sleep hemodynamics investigation in children for personalized cardiovascular disorder prevention. Children of early school age suffering from chronic ENT-pathology with nasal obstruction and/or high BMI, with high BMI, and with height ≥85th percentile of gender-age norm have risk of development of cardiovascular

  12. Mixed method approach for determining factors associated with late presentation to HIV/AIDS care in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U N Yadav

    2016-01-01

    qualitative summary showed that the perceived HIV stigma, inadequate health education, lack of awareness on available government services, psychological problems, alcohol use, asymptomatic conditions, and financial problems are major barriers to access care early for the late presenters. Conclusion: The identified factors can be utilized for the formulation of policies and interventions by promoting early diagnoses and addressing special concerns such as stigma, disclosure, health education, and awareness.

  13. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  14. Evaluation of factors influencing child abuse leading to oro-facial lesions in Isfahan, Iran: A qualitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Nilchian

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: This study has identified a variety of factors influencing the incidence of child abuse. Therefore, dentists should meticulously pay attention to children who have these risk factors in order to discover child abuse events. Quantitative research would reveal the extent of these factors. Dentists′ knowledge of their roles in managing cases suffering from abuse might need to be assessed to see if dentists need further education in this important area.

  15. Coordination of I and C design with the obligatory consideration of human factors. A project management approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz, Silvia; Ciriello, Antonio; Krause, Wolfgang; Eisinger, Asriel

    2015-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering (HFE), like other engineering disciplines involved in plant design, cannot be considered retroactively. The engineering principles and methods derived from deep knowledge of the cognitive and perceptual capabilities and limitations of the plant's 'human element' are applied instead throughout plant design. Focusing HFE efforts on the plant's I and C, the plant's HMI is designed to ensure effective and error-free performance of the monitoring, control, and administrative tasks allocated to the control room crew. Generally speaking, a project's HFE program prescribes three main steps: (1) the analyses of plant monitoring and control functions in order to identify those to be performed manually (all others are performed automatically while still manually monitored) and determine in turn the HMI inventory of information displays, controls, alarms, and operating procedures required to support their performance, (2) the guided design of the plant's HMI, ensuring its compliance with HFE principles and the completeness and correctness of the task support it provides, and (3) the subsequent evaluation of operators performance, trained to follow the operating procedures and use the HMI referred to. The I and C systems designed to monitor and control the plant processes and implement, among other functions, the plant's HMI, are likely validated, governed by I and C norms and the project's V and V guidelines. Past experience shows that the three following obligatory steps pose challenges to project execution: (1) the acquisition and analysis of the multidisciplinary functional requirements (related to plant monitoring and control); (2) the likely interdisciplinary analysis whether and how fulfillment of these requirements shall be allocated to I and C automation systems or operators (or both), and (3) the HFE-guided HMI design and validation. A timely and cost-effective application of HFE to I and C engineering can be achieved by adequate planning and

  16. Psychosocial Factors Versus Single Predictors: A Factor Analytic Approach to Cardiovascular Outcomes in The Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    later than men (Bello & Mosca, 2004). Also, for women 6 taking oral contraceptives , smoking significantly increases their risk of developing CVD...to include both the physiological processes involved in stress and the stress response as well as the emotional and psychological aspects of stress...and stressors (Mason, 1975). The emotional and psychological aspects of stress are critical components in the link between psychosocial factors and

  17. Moderating role of entrepreneurial orientation on the relationship between entrepreneurial skills, environmental factors and entrepreneurial intention: A PLS approach

    OpenAIRE

    Najafi Auwalu Ibrahim; Abdulsalam Mas’ud

    2016-01-01

    For decades, entrepreneurship has become a major concern to both scholars and policymakers because of its significant role in economic and social transformation. This paper modeled the direct effects of entrepreneurial skill, environmental factors and entrepreneurial orientation on entrepreneurial intention as well as the indirect (moderating) effect of entrepreneurial orientation on the relationship of entrepreneurial skill and environmental factors with entrepreneurial intention. Quantitati...

  18. A geo-information system approach for forest fire likelihood based on causative and anti - causative factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srivastava, Sanjay K.; Saran, Sameer; de By, R.A.; Dadhwal, V.K.

    2014-01-01

    Innumerable forest fire spread models exist for taking a decision, but far less focus is on the real causative factors which initiate/ignite fire in an area. It has been observed that the majority of the forest fires in India are initiated due to anthropogenic factors. In this study, we develop a

  19. Acceptability of delivery of dietary advice in the dentistry setting to address obesity in pre-school children: a case study of the Common Risk Factor Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Emily J

    2015-07-01

    The Common Risk Factor Approach proposes that public health efforts can be improved by multiple agencies working together on a shared risk factor. The present study aimed to assess the acceptability to parents, dental practice staff and commissioners of the delivery of dietary advice in the dentistry setting in order to address obesity. Semi-structured focus groups with dental practice staff and one-to-one interviews with parents of pre-school children and public health commissioners involved in an oral health promotion initiative delivering dietary advice in dental surgeries. Data were analysed using the Framework Approach. General dental practice surgeries and pre-schools in areas of high deprivation in north-east England. Parents (n 4), dental practice staff (n 23) and one commissioner. All participants found acceptable the concept of delivering public health messages in non-conventional settings. Dental practice staff were concerned about the potential for conflicting messages and deprioritisation of oral health advice, and they identified practical barriers to delivery, such as lack of training. Parents were very apprehensive about the potential of such approaches to stigmatise overweight children, including bullying. Uncertainty over the causes of obesity led to confusion about its solutions and the roles of public health and health care. Major concerns about the implementation of the Common Risk Factor Approach were raised by parents and dental practice staff. Specific dietary guidance for both oral health and healthy weight, as well as further research into issues of suitability, feasibility and stigmatisation, are needed.

  20. A Synchro-Diachro Approach to Question the Development of a Human and Organizational Factors (HOF) Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vautier, J.-F.; Dutillieu, S.; Quiblier, S.; Sylvestre, C.; Lévêque, F.; Barnabé, I.; Baussart, N.; Paulus, V.; Lipart, C.; Barrière, V.; Dupont, M.

    2016-01-01

    First, this communication presents a dual approach to question the development of a HOF network. Next, an illustration of this approach is proposed: the development of the HOF network of the CEA. The dual approach is based on a synchronic way and a diachronic one, hence the name: “synchro-diachro”. The illustration presents elements which come from our experience feedback at CEA. The synchro-diachro approach: The synchronic point of view focuses on the development of a HOF network at one moment of its development. It is like taking a picture. The objective is here to point out some characteristics of the functioning of a HOF network. They are related to the complex systems theory, and especially to the concept of dialogical principle, proposed by Edgar Morin. These characteristics are dialogical pairs. The elements of this kind of pair are both complementary and antagonist to one another.

  1. Factors Affecting Infestation by Triatoma infestans in a Rural Area of the Humid Chaco in Argentina: A Multi-Model Inference Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevitz, Juan M.; Ceballos, Leonardo A.; Gaspe, María Sol; Alvarado-Otegui, Julián A.; Enríquez, Gustavo F.; Kitron, Uriel; Gürtler, Ricardo E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi by Triatoma infestans remains a major public health problem in the Gran Chaco ecoregion, where understanding of the determinants of house infestation is limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study to model factors affecting bug presence and abundance at sites within house compounds in a well-defined rural area in the humid Argentine Chaco. Methodology/Principal Findings Triatoma infestans bugs were found in 45.9% of 327 inhabited house compounds but only in 7.4% of the 2,584 sites inspected systematically on these compounds, even though the last insecticide spraying campaign was conducted 12 years before. Infested sites were significantly aggregated at distances of 0.8–2.5 km. The most frequently infested ecotopes were domiciles, kitchens, storerooms, chicken coops and nests; corrals were rarely infested. Domiciles with mud walls and roofs of thatch or corrugated tarred cardboard were more often infested (32.2%) than domiciles with brick-and-cement walls and corrugated metal-sheet roofs (15.1%). A multi-model inference approach using Akaike's information criterion was applied to assess the relative importance of each variable by running all possible (17,406) models resulting from all combinations of variables. Availability of refuges for bugs, construction with tarred cardboard, and host abundance (humans, dogs, cats, and poultry) per site were positively associated with infestation and abundance, whereas reported insecticide use showed a negative association. Ethnic background (Creole or Toba) adjusted for other factors showed little or no association. Conclusions/Significance Promotion and effective implementation of housing improvement (including key peridomestic structures) combined with appropriate insecticide use and host management practices are needed to eliminate infestations. Fewer refuges are likely to result in fewer residual foci after insecticide spraying, and will facilitate community-based vector

  2. Characterizing China's energy consumption with selective economic factors and energy-resource endowment: a spatial econometric approach

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    Jiang, Lei; Ji, Minhe; Bai, Ling

    2015-06-01

    Coupled with intricate regional interactions, the provincial disparity of energy-resource endowment and other economic conditions in China have created spatially complex energy consumption patterns that require analyses beyond the traditional ones. To distill the spatial effect out of the resource and economic factors on China's energy consumption, this study recast the traditional econometric model in a spatial context. Several analytic steps were taken to reveal different aspects of the issue. Per capita energy consumption (AVEC) at the provincial level was first mapped to reveal spatial clusters of high energy consumption being located in either well developed or energy resourceful regions. This visual spatial autocorrelation pattern of AVEC was quantitatively tested to confirm its existence among Chinese provinces. A Moran scatterplot was employed to further display a relatively centralized trend occurring in those provinces that had parallel AVEC, revealing a spatial structure with attraction among high-high or low-low regions and repellency among high-low or low-high regions. By a comparison between the ordinary least square (OLS) model and its spatial econometric counterparts, a spatial error model (SEM) was selected to analyze the impact of major economic determinants on AVEC. While the analytic results revealed a significant positive correlation between AVEC and economic development, other determinants showed some intricate influential patterns. The provinces endowed with rich energy reserves were inclined to consume much more energy than those otherwise, whereas changing the economic structure by increasing the proportion of secondary and tertiary industries also tended to consume more energy. Both situations seem to underpin the fact that these provinces were largely trapped in the economies that were supported by technologies of low energy efficiency during the period, while other parts of the country were rapidly modernized by adopting advanced

  3. Geoscience is Important? Show Me Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    "The public" is not homogenous and no single message or form of messaging will connect the entire public with the geosciences. One approach to promoting trust in, and engagement with, the geosciences is to identify specific sectors of the public and then develop interactions and communication products that are immediately relevant to that sector's interests. If the content and delivery are appropriate, this approach empowers people to connect with the geosciences on their own terms and to understand the relevance of the geosciences to their own situation. Federal policy makers are a distinct and influential subgroup of the general public. In preparation for the 2016 presidential election, the American Geosciences Institute (AGI) in collaboration with its 51 member societies prepared Geoscience for America's Critical Needs: Invitation to a National Dialogue, a document that identified major geoscience policy issues that should be addressed in a national policy platform. Following the election, AGI worked with eight other geoscience societies to develop Geoscience Policy Recommendations for the New Administration and the 115th Congress, which outlines specific policy actions to address national issues. State and local decision makers are another important subgroup of the public. AGI has developed online content, factsheets, and case studies with different levels of technical complexity so people can explore societally-relevant geoscience topics at their level of technical proficiency. A related webinar series is attracting a growing worldwide audience from many employment sectors. Partnering with government agencies and other scientific and professional societies has increased the visibility and credibility of these information products with our target audience. Surveys and other feedback show that these products are raising awareness of the geosciences and helping to build reciprocal relationships between geoscientists and decision makers. The core message of all

  4. Evaluations of Factors Predicting the Need for an Extra-Cervical Approach for Intra-Thoracic Goiter

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    Ali Sadrizadeh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intra-thoracic goiter refers to the extension of enlarged thyroid tissue into the thoracic inlet. This condition can produce symptoms of compression on adjacent organs and can sometimes be accompanied by malignant transformation. Therefore surgical treatment is almost always necessary. In order to remove the pathology with the fewest post-operative complications, selection of the appropriate surgical approach is essential. In this study we aimed to detect the criteria which help us select the best therapeutic approach.   Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, 82 patients with intra-thoracic goiter were investigated. Their data were extracted from medical records and analyzed using SPSS software.   Results: Overall 82 patients, 18 (21% males and 64 (78% females with mean age of 56.38 years were studied. The most common clinical symptoms were mass (95% and dyspnea (73%. In most patients, the surgical approach was cervical (90.2%, while 9.8% of patients required an extra-cervical approach. Post-operation complications were observed in 17.1% of patients; the most common being transient recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis (4.9%. Malignancy was reported in the histopathology of seven patients (8.5%. The most common malignant histopathology was papillary thyroid carcinoma (7.3%. Extension of the thyroid tissue below the uppermost level of the aortic arch was significantly correlated with the need for an extra-cervical approach to surgery (P

  5. The Study of the Historical Factors of the Foundation of Cities with the Approach to the Cities of Iran and Mesopotamia

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    Hamiad Kavyani pooya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In examining the time when communities began to dominate urbanization and civilization and the factors that led to this event, various historical and geographical schools have emphasized one of the major factors in the emergence and structure of ancient cities. In this context, the most common theories have stated the consequences of the "agricultural revolution" and "religiousism" and the religious contributions of the old people that have been the main source of the foundations of the cities. Therefore, following the verification of the veracity of these theories, by studying historical documents and archaeological findings with a library method and a descriptive approach, we found that, at least in the plateau of Iran and Mesopotamia, mankind created an agricultural revolution through a united geographical position. Then, following this revolution, the division of labor gradually took place, resulting in innovations, greater power and business relations and capital accumulation, and other factors such as religion, population, and political factors emerged in human culture and created cities. In fact, despite all these factors are not necessarily involved in the emergence and foundations of ancient cities, but considering the geographic area studied in this research geographical, economic, religious and political-military factors can be largely important and effective in the genesis and evolution of cities. And the ancient cities of Iran and Mesopotamia have had these characteristics. Of course, it should be in accordance with the above theories and emphasizing two factors of economic and religious.

  6. A Bayesian approach for incorporating economic factors in sample size design for clinical trials of individual drugs and portfolios of drugs.

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    Patel, Nitin R; Ankolekar, Suresh

    2007-11-30

    Classical approaches to clinical trial design ignore economic factors that determine economic viability of a new drug. We address the choice of sample size in Phase III trials as a decision theory problem using a hybrid approach that takes a Bayesian view from the perspective of a drug company and a classical Neyman-Pearson view from the perspective of regulatory authorities. We incorporate relevant economic factors in the analysis to determine the optimal sample size to maximize the expected profit for the company. We extend the analysis to account for risk by using a 'satisficing' objective function that maximizes the chance of meeting a management-specified target level of profit. We extend the models for single drugs to a portfolio of clinical trials and optimize the sample sizes to maximize the expected profit subject to budget constraints. Further, we address the portfolio risk and optimize the sample sizes to maximize the probability of achieving a given target of expected profit.

  7. Assessment of municipal infrastructure development and its critical influencing factors in urban China: A FA and STIRPAT approach.

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    Yu Li

    Full Text Available Municipal infrastructure is a fundamental facility for the normal operation and development of an urban city and is of significance for the stable progress of sustainable urbanization around the world, especially in developing countries. Based on the municipal infrastructure data of the prefecture-level cities in China, municipal infrastructure development is assessed comprehensively using a FA (factor analysis model, and then the stochastic model STIRPAT (stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence and technology is examined to investigate key factors that influence municipal infrastructure of cities in various stages of urbanization and economy. This study indicates that the municipal infrastructure development in urban China demonstrates typical characteristics of regional differentiation, in line with the economic development pattern. Municipal infrastructure development in cities is primarily influenced by income, industrialization and investment. For China and similar developing countries under transformation, national public investment remains the primary driving force of economy as well as the key influencing factor of municipal infrastructure. Contribution from urbanization and the relative consumption level, and the tertiary industry is still scanty, which is a crux issue for many developing countries under transformation. With economic growth and the transformation requirements, the influence of the conventional factors such as public investment and industrialization on municipal infrastructure development would be expected to decline, meanwhile, other factors like the consumption and tertiary industry driven model and the innovation society can become key contributors to municipal infrastructure sustainability.

  8. Assessment of municipal infrastructure development and its critical influencing factors in urban China: A FA and STIRPAT approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Zheng, Ji; Li, Fei; Jin, Xueting; Xu, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Municipal infrastructure is a fundamental facility for the normal operation and development of an urban city and is of significance for the stable progress of sustainable urbanization around the world, especially in developing countries. Based on the municipal infrastructure data of the prefecture-level cities in China, municipal infrastructure development is assessed comprehensively using a FA (factor analysis) model, and then the stochastic model STIRPAT (stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence and technology) is examined to investigate key factors that influence municipal infrastructure of cities in various stages of urbanization and economy. This study indicates that the municipal infrastructure development in urban China demonstrates typical characteristics of regional differentiation, in line with the economic development pattern. Municipal infrastructure development in cities is primarily influenced by income, industrialization and investment. For China and similar developing countries under transformation, national public investment remains the primary driving force of economy as well as the key influencing factor of municipal infrastructure. Contribution from urbanization and the relative consumption level, and the tertiary industry is still scanty, which is a crux issue for many developing countries under transformation. With economic growth and the transformation requirements, the influence of the conventional factors such as public investment and industrialization on municipal infrastructure development would be expected to decline, meanwhile, other factors like the consumption and tertiary industry driven model and the innovation society can become key contributors to municipal infrastructure sustainability.

  9. Moderating role of entrepreneurial orientation on the relationship between entrepreneurial skills, environmental factors and entrepreneurial intention: A PLS approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najafi Auwalu Ibrahim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For decades, entrepreneurship has become a major concern to both scholars and policymakers because of its significant role in economic and social transformation. This paper modeled the direct effects of entrepreneurial skill, environmental factors and entrepreneurial orientation on entrepreneurial intention as well as the indirect (moderating effect of entrepreneurial orientation on the relationship of entrepreneurial skill and environmental factors with entrepreneurial intention. Quantitative research design was employed using students’ sample. It was found that entrepreneurial skill, environmental factors and entrepreneurial orientation have positive influence on entrepreneurial intention. It was also discovered that entrepreneurial orientation moderates the relationship between entrepreneurial skill and entrepreneurial intention. However, the moderation effect of entrepreneurial orientation on the relationship between environmental factors and entrepreneurial intention was not established in this study, thus, called for exploring this moderating effect in other contexts. As implication to policy, government should ensure not only enriching students with entrepreneurial skill and conducive entrepreneurial environment but also well-built entrepreneurial orientation among Nigeria teeming youths as it has a direct effect as well as strong interaction with other factors in explaining entrepreneurial intention.

  10. The Aortic Bifurcation Angle as a Factor in Application of the Outback for Femoropopliteal Lesions in Ipsilateral Versus Contralateral Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskin, Daniel; Khaitovich, Boris; Balan, Shmuel; Silverberg, Daniel; Halak, Moshe; Rimon, Uri

    2018-01-01

    To assess the technical success of the Outback reentry device in contralateral versus ipsilateral approaches for femoropopliteal arterial occlusion. A retrospective review of patients treated for critical limb ischemia (CLI) using the Outback between January 2013 and July 2016 was performed. Age, gender, length and site of the occlusion, approach site, aortic bifurcation angle, and reentry site were recorded. Calcification score was assigned at both aortic bifurcation and reentry site. Technical success was assessed. During the study period, a total of 1300 endovascular procedures were performed on 489 patients for CLI. The Outback was applied on 50 femoropopliteal chronic total occlusions. Thirty-nine contralateral and 11 ipsilateral antegrade femoral were accessed. The device was used successfully in 41 patients (82%). There were nine failures, all in the contralateral approach group. Six due to inability to deliver the device due to acute aortic bifurcation angle and three due to failure to achieve luminal reentry. Procedural success was significantly affected by the aortic bifurcation angle (p = 0.013). The Outback has high technical success rates in treatment of femoropopliteal occlusion, when applied from either an ipsi- or contralateral approach. When applied in contralateral access, acute aortic bifurcation angle predicts procedural failure.

  11. A Novel Goal-Oriented Approach for Training Older Adult Computer Novices: Beyond the Effects of Individual-Difference Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis-Sawyer, Lisa A.; Sterns, Harvey L.

    1999-01-01

    Spreadsheet training using either goal-oriented or verbal persuasion approach was given to 106 computer novices aged 50-89. Goal orientation achieved more changes in computer attitudes, efficacy, and proficiency. Intellectual ability and personality dimensions did not affect results. (SK)

  12. Una Aproximación Relacional a la Violencia Escolar Entre Pares en Adolescentes Chilenos: Perspectiva Adolescente de los Factores Intervinientes A Relational Approach to School Violence Among Peers in Chilean Adolescents: Adolescent Perspective About Intervening Factors

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    Maritgen Potocnjak

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio aborda la violencia escolar desde la perspectiva de los adolescentes, identificando factores intervinientes en su emergencia. Se utilizó una metodología cualitativa exploratoria enmarcada en la grounded theory, realizando entrevistas individuales y grupales a una muestra intencionada de 28 estudiantes de 11 a 14 años de 3 colegios de la Región Metropolitana de Chile. Los resultados evidencian un distanciamiento entre las lógicas adultas y las necesidades socioafectivas de los estudiantes, lo que favorecería el involucramiento en violencia escolar. La escuela y los profesores no tendrían estrategias efectivas para hacer frente a este fenómeno. Las dinámicas de pares pueden sostener, potenciar o inhibir la violencia, al considerar elementos como el posicionamiento social y las jerarquías internas de la ecología social. El análisis relacional destaca la demanda adolescente por estructura, contención y orientación, planteando que el sistema adulto no satisface de manera adecuada estas necesidades. La violencia cumpliría la función de llamar la atención de los adultos y llenar el espacio de apego social y emocional que se constituye en una necesidad fundamental en esta etapa.The present study approaches school violence from the adolescents' perspective, identifying intervening factors in its emergence. An exploratory qualitative methodology within a grounded theory framework was used, interviewing individually and collectively 28 students of 11 to 14 years old from 3 schools in the Metropolitan Region of Chile. Results show a gap between adult perspectives and students' socioemotional needs, which would favor their involvement in school violence. Schools and teachers do not have effective strategies to face this phenomenon. Peer dynamics can sustain, reinforce, or inhibit violence, through the establishment of social hierarchies within the peer social ecology. The relational analysis highlights the adolescent

  13. Can We Protect the Gut in Critical Illness: The Role of Growth Factors and Other Novel Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Jessica A.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis The intestine plays a central role in the pathophysiology of critical illness and is frequently called the “motor” of the systemic inflammatory response