WorldWideScience

Sample records for factor approach shows

  1. Impact Factors Show Increased Use of AGU Journals in 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Barbara Meyers

    2009-07-01

    The latest numbers released from Journal Citation Reports (JCR), published annually by Thomson Reuters, show large increases in the impact factor (IF) for several AGU journals. IFs are one way for publishers to know that readers have found their journals useful and of value in research. A journal's IF is calculated by taking the total number of citations to articles published by a given journal in the past 2 years and dividing it by the total number of papers published by the journal in the same time period. More generally, it can be seen as the frequency with which articles in a journal have been cited over the past year. The numbers speak for themselves (see Table 1).

  2. Which new approaches to tackling neglected tropical diseases show promise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Jerry M; Dharamsi, Shafik; Wasan, Kishor M; Yassi, Annalee; Singer, Burton; Hotez, Peter J; Hanson, Christy; Bundy, Donald A P

    2010-05-18

    This PLoS Medicine Debate examines the different approaches that can be taken to tackle neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Some commentators, like Jerry Spiegel and colleagues from the University of British Columbia, feel there has been too much focus on the biomedical mechanisms and drug development for NTDs, at the expense of attention to the social determinants of disease. Burton Singer argues that this represents another example of the inappropriate "overmedicalization" of contemporary tropical disease control. Peter Hotez and colleagues, in contrast, argue that the best return on investment will continue to be mass drug administration for NTDs.

  3. Which new approaches to tackling neglected tropical diseases show promise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry M Spiegel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This PLoS Medicine Debate examines the different approaches that can be taken to tackle neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Some commentators, like Jerry Spiegel and colleagues from the University of British Columbia, feel there has been too much focus on the biomedical mechanisms and drug development for NTDs, at the expense of attention to the social determinants of disease. Burton Singer argues that this represents another example of the inappropriate "overmedicalization" of contemporary tropical disease control. Peter Hotez and colleagues, in contrast, argue that the best return on investment will continue to be mass drug administration for NTDs.

  4. A structural approach in networks: showing patterns, possibilities and pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Alves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a noticeable shift in evaluation paradigms away from positivist, individualist and atomistic explanations of phenomena to those seeking a more relational, contextual and systemic understanding. This growing shift in interest to the interrelationships or networks of connections between entities is apparent in fields as organizations in networks, knowledge transmission between social groups and so. A growing theoretical and methodological base is providing enhanced capacities to uncover the actual topologies or patterns of connections between entities, elements, people, organizations or communities and deliver a more fine grained analysis of their elements. In this way network analysis differs from conventional evaluation and research modes since its focus is on the interrelationships of entities not the characteristics of individuals. In this paper, we review and analyze the emerging capacity of the network paradigm as an evaluation method and show how this model can be applied t a range of evaluation arenas. In doing so, we outline a framework to guide network evaluation, establish some key network indicators and highlight key methodological aspects and pitfalls.

  5. Strong Showing for AGU Journals in 2009 Impact Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Bill

    2010-06-01

    AGU publishes great science, which is recognized in several ways. One of the most widely recognized is from Thomson Reuters, which provides the Journal Citation Report (JCR) each year as a component of the Web of Science®. JCR reports on several measures of journal usage, including a journal's Eigenfactor score, its Article Influence score, its Impact Factor, and its rank within a cohort of similar journals. According to the 2009 statistics released last week, AGU again has outperformed its larger competitors. For the twelfth time, two different AGU titles hold the top rank in their categories, and AGU titles hold the second spot in two other categories and third in two more.

  6. Gerber Technology Presented Modern-Day Approach at Texprocess Americas Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    At Texprocess Americas show in Atlanta, Georgia, the company took a modern-day approach to expose attendees to severalnew products. Applying the concept of "Bring us your challenge, We can help", the company offered these latest solutions to overcome customers' challenges.

  7. Alcohol-related genes show an enrichment of associations with a persistent externalizing factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashenhurst, James R; Harden, K Paige; Corbin, William R; Fromme, Kim

    2016-10-01

    Research using twins has found that much of the variability in externalizing phenotypes-including alcohol and drug use, impulsive personality traits, risky sex, and property crime-is explained by genetic factors. Nevertheless, identification of specific genes and variants associated with these traits has proven to be difficult, likely because individual differences in externalizing are explained by many genes of small individual effect. Moreover, twin research indicates that heritable variance in externalizing behaviors is mostly shared across the externalizing spectrum rather than specific to any behavior. We use a longitudinal, "deep phenotyping" approach to model a general externalizing factor reflecting persistent engagement in a variety of socially problematic behaviors measured at 11 assessment occasions spanning early adulthood (ages 18 to 28). In an ancestrally homogenous sample of non-Hispanic Whites (N = 337), we then tested for enrichment of associations between the persistent externalizing factor and a set of 3,281 polymorphisms within 104 genes that were previously identified as associated with alcohol-use behaviors. Next, we tested for enrichment among domain-specific factors (e.g., property crime) composed of residual variance not accounted for by the common factor. Significance was determined relative to bootstrapped empirical thresholds derived from permutations of phenotypic data. Results indicated significant enrichment of genetic associations for persistent externalizing, but not for domain-specific factors. Consistent with twin research findings, these results suggest that genetic variants are broadly associated with externalizing behaviors rather than unique to specific behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. A model comparison approach shows stronger support for economic models of fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Mary K; Towner, Mary C; Kress, Howard C; Alam, Nurul

    2013-05-14

    The demographic transition is an ongoing global phenomenon in which high fertility and mortality rates are replaced by low fertility and mortality. Despite intense interest in the causes of the transition, especially with respect to decreasing fertility rates, the underlying mechanisms motivating it are still subject to much debate. The literature is crowded with competing theories, including causal models that emphasize (i) mortality and extrinsic risk, (ii) the economic costs and benefits of investing in self and children, and (iii) the cultural transmission of low-fertility social norms. Distinguishing between models, however, requires more comprehensive, better-controlled studies than have been published to date. We use detailed demographic data from recent fieldwork to determine which models produce the most robust explanation of the rapid, recent demographic transition in rural Bangladesh. To rigorously compare models, we use an evidence-based statistical approach using model selection techniques derived from likelihood theory. This approach allows us to quantify the relative evidence the data give to alternative models, even when model predictions are not mutually exclusive. Results indicate that fertility, measured as either total fertility or surviving children, is best explained by models emphasizing economic factors and related motivations for parental investment. Our results also suggest important synergies between models, implicating multiple causal pathways in the rapidity and degree of recent demographic transitions.

  9. Showing their true colors: a practical approach to volume rendering from serial sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metscher Brian D

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In comparison to more modern imaging methods, conventional light microscopy still offers a range of substantial advantages with regard to contrast options, accessible specimen size, and resolution. Currently, tomographic image data in particular is most commonly visualized in three dimensions using volume rendering. To date, this method has only very rarely been applied to image stacks taken from serial sections, whereas surface rendering is still the most prevalent method for presenting such data sets three-dimensionally. The aim of this study was to develop standard protocols for volume rendering of image stacks of serial sections, while retaining the benefits of light microscopy such as resolution and color information. Results Here we provide a set of protocols for acquiring high-resolution 3D images of diverse microscopic samples through volume rendering based on serial light microscopical sections using the 3D reconstruction software Amira (Visage Imaging Inc.. We overcome several technical obstacles and show that these renderings are comparable in quality and resolution to 3D visualizations using other methods. This practical approach for visualizing 3D micro-morphology in full color takes advantage of both the sub-micron resolution of light microscopy and the specificity of histological stains, by combining conventional histological sectioning techniques, digital image acquisition, three-dimensional image filtering, and 3D image manipulation and visualization technologies. Conclusions We show that this method can yield "true"-colored high-resolution 3D views of tissues as well as cellular and sub-cellular structures and thus represents a powerful tool for morphological, developmental, and comparative investigations. We conclude that the presented approach fills an important gap in the field of micro-anatomical 3D imaging and visualization methods by combining histological resolution and differentiation of details with

  10. Showing their true colors: a practical approach to volume rendering from serial sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Stephan; Schwaha, Thomas; Metscher, Brian D

    2010-04-21

    In comparison to more modern imaging methods, conventional light microscopy still offers a range of substantial advantages with regard to contrast options, accessible specimen size, and resolution. Currently, tomographic image data in particular is most commonly visualized in three dimensions using volume rendering. To date, this method has only very rarely been applied to image stacks taken from serial sections, whereas surface rendering is still the most prevalent method for presenting such data sets three-dimensionally. The aim of this study was to develop standard protocols for volume rendering of image stacks of serial sections, while retaining the benefits of light microscopy such as resolution and color information. Here we provide a set of protocols for acquiring high-resolution 3D images of diverse microscopic samples through volume rendering based on serial light microscopical sections using the 3D reconstruction software Amira (Visage Imaging Inc.). We overcome several technical obstacles and show that these renderings are comparable in quality and resolution to 3D visualizations using other methods. This practical approach for visualizing 3D micro-morphology in full color takes advantage of both the sub-micron resolution of light microscopy and the specificity of histological stains, by combining conventional histological sectioning techniques, digital image acquisition, three-dimensional image filtering, and 3D image manipulation and visualization technologies. We show that this method can yield "true"-colored high-resolution 3D views of tissues as well as cellular and sub-cellular structures and thus represents a powerful tool for morphological, developmental, and comparative investigations. We conclude that the presented approach fills an important gap in the field of micro-anatomical 3D imaging and visualization methods by combining histological resolution and differentiation of details with 3D rendering of whole tissue samples. We demonstrate the

  11. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy: A Long Term Follow-up Shows Benefit with Risk Factor Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koroush Khalighi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Only sparse data was available on long-term of Takotusbo Cardiomyopathy (TC. Previous studies suggested prognosis is not necessarily benign. We report the long-term follow-up of 12 TC patients actively managed with risk factor reduction. Retrospective analysis of all patients diagnosed with TC at our hospital between 1998 and 2010. We identified 12 patients with TC among 1651 cases of emergent left heart catheterization over 12 years. Mean follow-up time was 8.3 ± 3.6 years. All were female, 87% had hypertension, 25% had history of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD, 67% had hyperlipidemia, 44% had some preceding emotional trauma, and 44% had some physical/physiological stress. Previous studies have shown that over 50% of TC patients experience future cardiac events, and 10% have a recurrence of TC. Patients were prescribed therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLC and guideline directed medical therapy (GDMT for aggressive risk factor reduction. TLC included diet, exercise, and cardiac rehabilitation. GDMT often included aspirin, beta-blockers, ACE-inhibitors, and statins. Follow-up echocardiograms showed recovery and maintenance of the ejection fraction. There was no cardiac mortality and no recurrences of TC. Aggressive risk factor reduction with TLC and GDMT may be effective in improving the long term outcomes of patients with TC.

  12. Mortality risk factors show similar trends in modern and historic populations exposed to plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Mauro; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Manzon, Vanessa S; Rinaldo, Natascia; Bianucci, Raffaella

    2016-05-31

    Plague has been responsible for two major historic pandemics (6th-8th century CE; 14th-19th century CE) and a modern one. The recent Malagasy plague outbreaks raised new concerns on the deadly potential of the plague-causing bacteria Yersinia pestis. Between September 2014 and April 2015, outbreaks of bubonic and pneumonic plague hit the Malagasy population. Two hundred and sixty-three cases, including 71 deaths, have been reported in 16 different districts with a case fatality rate of 27%. The scope of our study was to ascertain whether the risk factors for health in modern-day populations exposed to plague and in ancient populations that faced the two historic pandemics varied or remained substantially unaltered. The risk of mortality of the Malagasy population with those obtained from the reconstruction of three samples of European populations exposed to the historic pandemics was contrasted. The evidence shows that the risks of death are not uniform across age neither in modern nor in historic populations exposed to plague and shows precise concentrations in specific age groups (children between five and nine years of age and young adults). Although in the post-antibiotic era, the fatality rates have drastically reduced, both modern and historic populations were exposed to the same risk factors that are essentially represented by a low standard of environmental hygiene, poor nutrition, and weak health systems.

  13. Interdisciplinarity, Debate And Movie Clips As Highly Motivating Factors In Live Shows - Five Years Of Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengler, E.; Sirera, J. M.

    2011-09-01

    A live show on any subject that includes experiments and continuous interaction with the audience is a well known approach for EPO activities that many are carrying out all over. We present such an initiative with some added ingredients such as interdisciplinarity, the use of movie clips, and especially the debate between the two presenters, a debate that is all the more attractive to the public if it not fully staged but closely represents their actual points of view. José Montesinos, from the "Orotava" Canarian Foundation for the History of Science, is and plays the role of the more mature math professor who has grown weary of the overrated value given in science to mathematics and its consequences. This poses a constant challenge to his colleague, Erik Stengler, from the Science Museum of Tenerife, the young down-to-earth hands-on scientist, who defends the usual view that science and technology are to be judged by their achievements, which have brought about the advancement of modern society. With this approach and as a collaboration between our institutions, we have produced and toured highly successful activities on: Einstein and Relativity (from 2005 to 2008, "Einstein Goes To School," including a theatre play); circularity, the number π, forces of inertia and the Newtonian revolution (in 2008/2009, "The Tension Between Circularity and The Straight Line"); and the foundations of modern astronomy (in 2009/2010 "Kepler and Galileo, Messengers of the Stars"). Audiences were very varied - students, adult students, general public, prison inmates, teachers - and all appreciated the presentations as fun, thought-provoking and highly motivating, and valued especially the interdisciplinary character of the activity. Movie clips have shown to be especially useful to recover the attention of the young when they lose the thread due to the short attention spans they presently have.

  14. Factors secreted from dental pulp stem cells show multifaceted benefits for treating experimental rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Jun; Takahashi, Nobunori; Matsumoto, Takuya; Yoshioka, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Nishikawa, Masaya; Hibi, Hideharu; Ishigro, Naoki; Ueda, Minoru; Furukawa, Koichi; Yamamoto, Akihito

    2016-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by synovial hyperplasia and chronic inflammation, which lead to the progressive destruction of cartilage and bone in the joints. Numerous studies have reported that administrations of various types of MSCs improve arthritis symptoms in animal models, by paracrine mechanisms. However, the therapeutic effects of the secreted factors alone, without the cell graft, have been uncertain. Here, we show that a single intravenous administration of serum-free conditioned medium (CM) from human deciduous dental pulp stem cells (SHED-CM) into anti-collagen type II antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA), a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), markedly improved the arthritis symptoms and joint destruction. The therapeutic efficacy of SHED-CM was associated with an induction of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages in the CAIA joints and the abrogation of RANKL expression. SHED-CM specifically depleted of an M2 macrophage inducer, the secreted ectodomain of sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin-9 (ED-Siglec-9), exhibited a reduced ability to induce M2-related gene expression and attenuate CAIA. SHED-CM also inhibited the RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Collectively, our findings suggest that SHED-CM provides multifaceted therapeutic effects for treating CAIA, including the ED-Siglec-9-dependent induction of M2 macrophage polarization and inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. Thus, SHED-CM may represent a novel anti-inflammatory and reparative therapy for RA.

  15. Motivational factors as predictors of student approach to learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassesen, Berit

    for the remaining variables. Results: The results of the multiple linear regression showed that each of the motivational factors of self-efficacy, test-anxiety generally strong independent statistical significant predictors in the expected directions of students approach to learning, both when analyzed separately...... model: R2 = 0.279) and Surface approach (Final model: R2 = 0.214).Conclusion: Although successful learning largely depends on knowledge and skills, factors such as self efficacy and test anxiety play an important role as predictors of students’ learning approaches, and subsequent learning outcomes...... to obtaining them. Besides being a role model by showing enthusiasm for the subject, teachers are important moderators when it comes to building the ability and effort required for deep learning...

  16. Recidivism in female offenders: PCL-R lifestyle factor and VRAG show predictive validity in a German sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbarth, Hedwig; Osterheider, Michael; Nedopil, Norbert; Stadtland, Cornelis

    2012-01-01

    A clear and structured approach to evidence-based and gender-specific risk assessment of violence in female offenders is high on political and mental health agendas. However, most data on the factors involved in risk-assessment instruments are based on data of male offenders. The aim of the present study was to validate the use of the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R), the HCR-20 and the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG) for the prediction of recidivism in German female offenders. This study is part of the Munich Prognosis Project (MPP). It focuses on a subsample of female delinquents (n = 80) who had been referred for forensic-psychiatric evaluation prior to sentencing. The mean time at risk was 8 years (SD = 5 years; range: 1-18 years). During this time, 31% (n = 25) of the female offenders were reconvicted, 5% (n = 4) for violent and 26% (n = 21) for non-violent re-offenses. The predictive validity of the PCL-R for general recidivism was calculated. Analysis with receiver-operating characteristics revealed that the PCL-R total score, the PCL-R antisocial lifestyle factor, the PCL-R lifestyle factor and the PCL-R impulsive and irresponsible behavioral style factor had a moderate predictive validity for general recidivism (area under the curve, AUC = 0.66, p = 0.02). The VRAG has also demonstrated predictive validity (AUC = 0.72, p = 0.02), whereas the HCR-20 showed no predictive validity. These results appear to provide the first evidence that the PCL-R total score and the antisocial lifestyle factor are predictive for general female recidivism, as has been shown consistently for male recidivists. The implications of these findings for crime prevention, prognosis in women, and future research are discussed.

  17. Planetarium Shows: Public Outreach and Changing the Approach to Classroom Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, P. A.; Reiff, P.; Sumners, C.

    2009-05-01

    We are successfully using the planetarium experience as a method of increasing the public's knowledge of science for the last few years. The results with pre and post testing have shown that there is an increased level of science knowledge. With this level of achievement it was plausible that the next step would be introducing it into the classroom, particularly at an open admissions university with a multi-racial and ethnic population and in the non-majors science courses. Creating an atmosphere of excitement and interest in science within this group of students is difficult, particularly with those students who have minimal exposure to science and have little or no interest in the subject. They have preconceived ideas that the subject is boring, difficult and has no relation to their future career paths. Coupled with this apathy, not only in students but in segments of the public, there is an increasing need to educate all groups on environmental issues and the need to promote science and science research. Traditional teaching methods are not effective, and based on the outreach levels of success, we are introducing planetarium shows that are not only entertaining but include scientific concepts Most colleges and universities do not have a fixed planetarium, but a portable planetarium can serve the same purpose. The planetarium does not replace the traditional classroom and laboratory experience, but augments it. The shows, including the freeware Stellarium, can be incorporated into college and university classes from the physical to the biological sciences. For example, the show Titanic includes information on the effects of solar maximums and minimums on climate and changes in the last 100 years on ship building. Another show, Ice Worlds, includes information on polar geology and biology but also explains its importance as a terrestrial analogue for interpreting the remote sensing information obtained with robotic missions to the icy worlds in our outer solar

  18. Therapeutic approaches for tumor necrosis factor inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Letícia de Castro Barbosa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor (TNF consists of an inflammatory cytokine essential for homeostasis and organism defense. Despite its physiological relevance, both increased biosynthesis and release of TNF lead to the exacerbation of inflammatory and oxidative responses, which are related to the pathogenesis of a host of diseases of an inflammatory, autoimmune and/or infectious nature. In this context, effective therapeutic approaches for the modulation of TNF have been the focus of research efforts. Approximately one million individuals worldwide have been treated with biotechnological inhibitors of this cytokine, the so-called anti-TNF biopharmaceuticals. However, given the high risk of infection and the limitations related to cost and administration routes, new therapeutic approaches aimed at biological targets that directly or indirectly modulate the production and/or activation of TNF appear promising alternatives for the discovery of new anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory orally active drugs and are therefore discussed in this paper.O fator de necrose tumoral (do inglês, tumor necrosis factor - TNF consiste em uma citocina inflamatória essencial para a homeostase e defesa do organismo. A despeito de sua relevância fisiológica, o aumento da biossíntese e liberação do TNF conduzem à exacerbação das respostas inflamatória e oxidativa, as quais estão relacionadas à patogênese de várias doenças de natureza inflamatória, auto-imune e/ou infecciosa. A busca por abordagens terapêuticas eficientes na modulação do TNF tem sido alvo de diversos esforços de pesquisa. Aproximadamente um milhão de pessoas ao redor do mundo já foi tratado com inibidores biotecnológicos desta citocina, os chamados biofármacos anti-TNF. Entretanto, em face ao elevado risco de infecções e as limitações relacionadas ao custo e a via de administração, novas abordagens terapêuticas com foco em alvos que modulem, de forma direta ou indireta, a produ

  19. Live Reporting in a News / Current Affairs TV Show as a Factor of (Non Credibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tena Perišin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Only a perfunctory glance at the content of current aff airs/news programs makes it clear that in just a few years time, live reporting on Croatian TV news shows has increased dramatically. Technologicaladvancements, the equipping of TV stations with mobile satellite vans, and the pressure of competition have all resulted in increased instances of live reporting. When investigating news values, pictureand sound, as well as the possibility of immediate, timely reporting represent the key characteristics of TV journalism. In this context, live reports, as part of a news segment, should add to the authenticity and credibility of the program. Currently, however, TV broadcasting houses attempt to best one another in the number of live broadcasts as a means to purport a higher quality of their program. The direct address to the camera turns a reporter from an anonymous bearer of information into the “main star”. The figures accumulated on the extent of this form used in a news show do not determine the professional level of the editorial policy. Live reporting cannot be regarded as news value if other news values are neglected in the process. Recent research shows that live reports, in most cases, have been stripped of the initial notion of reporting on important and recent events. As such, they are becoming less of a justifi ed element in the creation of news.

  20. Natural and anthropogenic factors which inf luence aerosol distribution in Ingleborough Show Cave, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Andrew C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring in Ingleborough Show Cave (N. Yorkshire, UK reveals the inf luence of tourism and cave management techniques on different parameters of the cave atmosphere. Exploratory aerosol monitoring identif ied a 0.015 ± 0.03 mg/m3 (≈70% reduction in airborne particulates within the f irst 75 meters of cave passage and two major aerosol sources within this artif icially ventilated show cave. Autogenic aerosol production was identif ied close to active stream ways (increases of <0.012 mg/m3, suggesting the expulsion of water-borne aerosols during turbulent water f low. The presence of tourist groups also increased aerosol concentrations within the cave (increases of <0.021 mg/m3, either by transporting them from an allogenic source or through the disturbance of particles which had previously been deposited within the cave environment. Exploratory aerosol data is presented alongside more routine analytical monitoring, helping to contextualise the impact of cave management strategies on natural cave atmospherics.

  1. De Factorisatione Numerorum I : An Analytic Approach to Subexponential Factoring

    CERN Document Server

    Sica, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a novel glance at factoring. In this work, we are chiefly concerned with the asymptotic aspect of the method, as we will show that this approach \\emph{almost} allows to deterministically factor a RSA modulus $N=pq$ in $O\\bigl(\\exp({\\log^\\epsilon N})\\bigr)$ bit operations for any $\\epsilon>0$. An important feature of this approach is that any bound is absolutely proven and does not rely on any assumption. The technique broached here departs from any know (at least to the author) factoring method. It is based on the study of carefully selected multiplicative functions in order to approximate them at $N$. Using their generating functions, expressed in terms of the Riemann zeta function, together with their functional equations, we derive an analytic identity which involves the computation of a family of series, which we call the \\emph{singular series} (as they embody an arithmetic information in analytic disguise), depending "minimally" on $N$. We finally show how the approximate computation of a ma...

  2. An Algebraic Approach to Form Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Niedermaier, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    An associative $*$-algebra is introduced (containing a $TTR$-algebra as a subalgebra) that implements the form factor axioms, and hence indirectly the Wightman axioms, in the following sense: Each $T$-invariant linear functional over the algebra automatically satisfies all the form factor axioms. It is argued that this answers the question (posed in the functional Bethe ansatz) how to select the dynamically correct representations of the $TTR$-algebra. Applied to the case of integrable QFTs w...

  3. Performance of non-conventional factorization approaches for neutron kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulla, S.; Nervo, M. [Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento Energia, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    The use of factorization techniques provides a interesting option for the simulation of the time-dependent behavior of nuclear systems with a reduced computational effort. While point kinetics neglects all spatial and spectral effects, quasi-statics and multipoint kinetics allow to produce results with a higher accuracy for transients involving relevant modifications of the neutron distribution. However, in some conditions these methods can not work efficiently. In this paper, we discuss some possible alternative formulations for the factorization process for neutron kinetics, leading to mathematical models of reduced complications that can allow an accurate simulation of transients involving spatial and spectral effects. The performance of these innovative approaches are compared to standard techniques for some test cases, showing the benefits and shortcomings of the method proposed. (authors)

  4. Learning Approaches, Demographic Factors to Predict Academic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Minh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to predict academic outcome in math and math-related subjects using learning approaches and demographic factors. Design/Methodology/Approach: ASSIST was used as the instrumentation to measure learning approaches. The study was conducted in the International University of Vietnam with 616 participants. An…

  5. HSE management excellence: a Human Factors approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Theobald

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Present work discusses the integration of Human Factors in Health, Safety and Enviroment(HSE Management System allowing it as a way of checking the progress obtained, therebyminimizing the efforts and maximizing the result. A bibliographical research was carried outon the theoretical elements of the theme. As a result of this work, a proposal “conceptualstructure” for the integration of “Humais Factors” with the HSE management system ofAssociation of Oil & Gas Produces was presented.

  6. [Risk factors for cesarean section: epidemiologic approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo Hernández, B; Tene Pérez, C E; Ríos Silva, M

    2000-07-01

    The increase in frequency of cesareans that has been noted through 70's, not diminished--like it was expected--perinatal morbidity and mortality. The most important indications to cesarean are distocias, previous cesarean and fetal stress. In 1998 frequency of cesarean deliveries in our hospital was 35% of the pregnancy attended. The claim of this study was to determine risks factors to cesarean in our hospital. A case-control study was performed, selecting 165 cases (cesareans) and 328 controls (via vaginal). It was determined OR of the risks factors and atribuible fraction. Data were analyzed by X2. The most important indications to cesarean delivery were: distocias (39%, n = 64); previous cesarean (23%, n = 41) and fetal stress (11%, n = 21). There was not significative differences in age, height and rupture membrane time in both groups. History of cesarean delivery gave major risk to another surgical intervention (OR = 12.7, p = < 0.0001, atribuible fraction 92%). Nuliparous (OR = 6.6, p < 0.00000, atribuible fraction 85%), second gestation (OR = 1.8, p = 0.002) or history of abortion (OR = 1.8, p = 0.04) were factors mainly associated to cesarean delivery. We concluded that the precise 'medications of this surgical intervention specially in nuliparous or previous cesarean delivery cases must be replanteated to diminish its elevated frequency.

  7. A Sensitivity Analysis Approach to Identify Key Environmental Performance Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle assessment (LCA is widely used in design phase to reduce the product’s environmental impacts through the whole product life cycle (PLC during the last two decades. The traditional LCA is restricted to assessing the environmental impacts of a product and the results cannot reflect the effects of changes within the life cycle. In order to improve the quality of ecodesign, it is a growing need to develop an approach which can reflect the changes between the design parameters and product’s environmental impacts. A sensitivity analysis approach based on LCA and ecodesign is proposed in this paper. The key environmental performance factors which have significant influence on the products’ environmental impacts can be identified by analyzing the relationship between environmental impacts and the design parameters. Users without much environmental knowledge can use this approach to determine which design parameter should be first considered when (redesigning a product. A printed circuit board (PCB case study is conducted; eight design parameters are chosen to be analyzed by our approach. The result shows that the carbon dioxide emission during the PCB manufacture is highly sensitive to the area of PCB panel.

  8. A Novel Approach for Estimating Truck Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Avelino, Guilherme; Passos, Leonardo; Hora, Andre; Valente, Marco Tulio

    2016-01-01

    Truck Factor (TF) is a metric proposed by the agile community as a tool to identify concentration of knowledge in software development environments. It states the minimal number of developers that have to be hit by a truck (or quit) before a project is incapacitated. In other words, TF helps to measure how prepared is a project to deal with developer turnover. Despite its clear relevance, few studies explore this metric. Altogether there is no consensus about how to calculate it, and no suppo...

  9. Factors influencing crime rates: an econometric analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothos, John M. A.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2016-05-01

    The scope of the present study is to research the dynamics that determine the commission of crimes in the US society. Our study is part of a model we are developing to understand urban crime dynamics and to enhance citizens' "perception of security" in large urban environments. The main targets of our research are to highlight dependence of crime rates on certain social and economic factors and basic elements of state anticrime policies. In conducting our research, we use as guides previous relevant studies on crime dependence, that have been performed with similar quantitative analyses in mind, regarding the dependence of crime on certain social and economic factors using statistics and econometric modelling. Our first approach consists of conceptual state space dynamic cross-sectional econometric models that incorporate a feedback loop that describes crime as a feedback process. In order to define dynamically the model variables, we use statistical analysis on crime records and on records about social and economic conditions and policing characteristics (like police force and policing results - crime arrests), to determine their influence as independent variables on crime, as the dependent variable of our model. The econometric models we apply in this first approach are an exponential log linear model and a logit model. In a second approach, we try to study the evolvement of violent crime through time in the US, independently as an autonomous social phenomenon, using autoregressive and moving average time-series econometric models. Our findings show that there are certain social and economic characteristics that affect the formation of crime rates in the US, either positively or negatively. Furthermore, the results of our time-series econometric modelling show that violent crime, viewed solely and independently as a social phenomenon, correlates with previous years crime rates and depends on the social and economic environment's conditions during previous years.

  10. Doppler Sonography Confirmation in Patients Showing Calcified Carotid Artery Atheroma in Panoramic Radiography and Evaluation of Related Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahrokh Imanimoghaddam

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The purpose of this study was to identify patients at the risk of cerebrovascular attack (CVA by detecting calcified carotid artery atheroma (CCAA in panoramic radiography and evaluating their risk factors. Materials and methods. A total of 960 panoramic radiographs of patients above 40 years old were evaluated. Doppler Sonography (DS was performed for patients who showed calcified carotid artery atheroma (CCAA in panoramic radiography in order to determine the presence of CCAA and the degree of stenosis. Cardiovascular risk factors in both groups of patients with CCAA (12 subjects and without CCAA (3 subjects were compared using a questionnaire filled out by the patients. Statistical analysis including Fisher and independent t-test applied for data analysis. Results. Fifteen patients (30 sides showed calcification in their panoramic radiographs, and underwent DS which revealed CCAA in 16 sides (12 patients. Two patients (13.33% showed stenosis greater than 70%. Among the risk factors, only age showed a significant association with the occurrence of carotid calcified atheroma (P=0.026. Conclusion. Considering the results, dentists should refer especially elderly patients with radiographically identified atheromas for further examinations, as asymptomatic CCAA might be associated with high degrees of stenosis.

  11. Problem-based learning using patient-simulated videos showing daily life for a comprehensive clinical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Akiko; Ohira, Yoshiyuki; Uehara, Takanori; Noda, Kazutaka; Suzuki, Shingo; Shikino, Kiyoshi; Kajiwara, Hideki; Kondo, Takeshi; Hirota, Yusuke; Ikusaka, Masatomi

    2017-02-27

    We examined whether problem-based learning tutorials using patient-simulated videos showing daily life are more practical for clinical learning, compared with traditional paper-based problem-based learning, for the consideration rate of psychosocial issues and the recall rate for experienced learning. Twenty-two groups with 120 fifth-year students were each assigned paper-based problem-based learning and video-based problem-based learning using patient-simulated videos. We compared target achievement rates in questionnaires using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and discussion contents diversity using the Mann-Whitney U test. A follow-up survey used a chi-square test to measure students' recall of cases in three categories: video, paper, and non-experienced. Video-based problem-based learning displayed significantly higher achievement rates for imagining authentic patients (p=0.001), incorporating a comprehensive approach including psychosocial aspects (pmaterials.

  12. Mycalamide A Shows Cytotoxic Properties and Prevents EGF-Induced Neoplastic Transformation through Inhibition of Nuclear Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyshlovoy, Sergey A.; Fedorov, Sergey N.; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I.; Shubina, Larisa K.; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Stonik, Valentin A.; Honecker, Friedemann

    2012-01-01

    Mycalamide A, a marine natural compound previously isolated from sponges, is known as a protein synthesis inhibitor with potent antitumor activity. However, the ability of this compound to prevent malignant transformation of cells has never been examined before. Here, for the first time, we report the isolation of mycalamide A from ascidian Polysincraton sp. as well as investigation of its cancer preventive properties. In murine JB6 Cl41 P+ cells, mycalamide A inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced neoplastic transformation, and induced apoptosis at subnanomolar or nanomolar concentrations. The compound inhibited transcriptional activity of the oncogenic nuclear factors AP-1 and NF-κB, a potential mechanism of its cancer preventive properties. Induction of phosphorylation of the kinases MAPK p38, JNK, and ERK was also observed at high concentrations of mycalamide A. The drug shows promising potential for both cancer-prevention and cytotoxic therapy and should be further developed. PMID:22822368

  13. Light-cone sum rule approach for Baryon form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Offen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    We present the state-of-the-art of the light-cone sum rule approach to Baryon form factors. The essence of this approach is that soft Feynman contributions are calculated in terms of small transverse distance quantities using dispersion relations and duality. The form factors are thus expressed in terms of nucleon wave functions at small transverse separations, called distribution amplitudes, without any additional parameters. The distribution amplitudes, therefore, can be extracted from the comparison with the experimental data on form factors and compared to the results of lattice QCD simulations.

  14. Light-Cone Sum Rule Approach for Baryon Form Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offen, Nils

    2016-10-01

    We present the state-of-the-art of the light-cone sum rule approach to Baryon form factors. The essence of this approach is that soft Feynman contributions are calculated in terms of small transverse distance quantities using dispersion relations and duality. The form factors are thus expressed in terms of nucleon wave functions at small transverse separations, called distribution amplitudes, without any additional parameters. The distribution amplitudes, therefore, can be extracted from the comparison with the experimental data on form factors and compared to the results of lattice QCD simulations.

  15. Human factors systems approach to healthcare quality and patient safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayon, Pascale; Wetterneck, Tosha B.; Rivera-Rodriguez, A. Joy; Hundt, Ann Schoofs; Hoonakker, Peter; Holden, Richard; Gurses, Ayse P.

    2013-01-01

    Human factors systems approaches are critical for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. The SEIPS (Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety) model of work system and patient safety is a human factors systems approach that has been successfully applied in healthcare research and practice. Several research and practical applications of the SEIPS model are described. Important implications of the SEIPS model for healthcare system and process redesign are highlighted. Principles for redesigning healthcare systems using the SEIPS model are described. Balancing the work system and encouraging the active and adaptive role of workers are key principles for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. PMID:23845724

  16. Humanistic Approach and Affective Factors in Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗馨

    2010-01-01

    For a long time,Chinese EFL teaching has been following the teacher-centered model,which emphasizes the cognitive aspect but ignores the affective factors. So "emotional illiteracy" is a common phemenon and harmful to language learning and students' all-round development. This essay lays special stress on humanistic approach and analyzes the influence of some important affective factors on language learning,for the purpose of inviting teachers' attention to students' emotions in fulfilling their teaching task.

  17. Factorization approach to superintegrable systems: Formalism and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Á.; Herranz, F. J.; Kuru, Ş.; Negro, J.

    2017-03-01

    The factorization technique for superintegrable Hamiltonian systems is revisited and applied in order to obtain additional (higher-order) constants of the motion. In particular, the factorization approach to the classical anisotropic oscillator on the Euclidean plane is reviewed, and new classical (super) integrable anisotropic oscillators on the sphere are constructed. The Tremblay-Turbiner-Winternitz system on the Euclidean plane is also studied from this viewpoint.

  18. Factorization approach to superintegrable systems: Formalism and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, Á., E-mail: angelb@ubu.es; Herranz, F. J., E-mail: fjherranz@ubu.es [Universidad de Burgos, Departamento de Física (Spain); Kuru, Ş., E-mail: kuru@science.ankara.edu.tr [Ankara University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science (Turkey); Negro, J., E-mail: jnegro@fta.uva.es [Universidad de Valladolid, Departamento de Física Teórica, Atómica y Óptica (Spain)

    2017-03-15

    The factorization technique for superintegrable Hamiltonian systems is revisited and applied in order to obtain additional (higher-order) constants of the motion. In particular, the factorization approach to the classical anisotropic oscillator on the Euclidean plane is reviewed, and new classical (super) integrable anisotropic oscillators on the sphere are constructed. The Tremblay–Turbiner–Winternitz system on the Euclidean plane is also studied from this viewpoint.

  19. Selective Prevention Approaches to Build Protective Factors in Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Cheri J.

    2014-01-01

    Young children with disabilities may be at elevated risk for behavior problems as well as maltreatment. preventive approaches that can be infused into early intervention services are needed to support parents, build competencies among young children, and enhance protective factors that may temper risk. Two interventions--Stepping Stones Triple P,…

  20. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha allele 2 shows an association with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Latvians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtauvere-Brameus, A; Dabadghao, P; Rumba, I; Sanjeevi, C B

    2002-04-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is one of the most common chronic diseases. It is an autoimmune disease. Genes contributing the most for development of IDDM are located on chromosome 6p21.3 in the region called the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). HLA-DQ8/DR4 and DQ2/DR3 have shown positive association with IDDM, while DQ6 has negative association with IDDM in most Caucasian populations. The location of the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene in the MHC suggests the role of TNF in the etiology of IDDM as an autoimmune disease. The TNF region contains several polymorphisms that are associated with different levels of TNF-alpha production and susceptibility to autoimmune and infectious diseases. Ninety-two Latvian IDDM patients corresponding to WHO diagnostic criteria and 107 unrelated age- and sex-matched healthy controls were analyzed for the frequency of TNF-alpha alleles to test the hypothesis that TNF-alpha is associated with IDDM. We found that TNF-alpha microsatellite allele 2 is associated with IDDM, 29/92 (32%), versus 14/107 (13%) in healthy controls. The test of the strongest association of the MICA A5 allele and TNF-alpha allele 2 with IDDM showed that both are independently associated with the disease.

  1. A Factor Analytic Approach to Symptom Patterns in Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Gustafson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous publications have shown a high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of three short clinical rating scales for Alzheimer's disease (AD, frontotemporal dementia (FTD, and vascular dementia (VaD validated against neuropathological (NP diagnoses. In this study, the aim was to perform an exploratory factor analysis of the items in these clinical rating scales. The study included 190 patients with postmortem diagnoses of AD (n=74, VaD (n=33, mixed AD/VaD (n=31, or FTD (n=52. The factor analysis produced three strong factors. Factor 1 contained items describing cerebrovascular disease, similar to the Hachinski Ischemic Score. Factor 2 enclosed major clinical characteristics of FTD, and factor 3 showed a striking similarity to the AD scale. A fourth symptom cluster was described by perception and expression of emotions. The factor analyses strongly support the construct validity of the diagnostic rating scales.

  2. Standardized approach for developing probabilistic exposure factor distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy L.; McKone, Thomas E.; Sohn, Michael D.

    2003-03-01

    The effectiveness of a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) depends critically on the quality of input information that is available to the risk assessor and specifically on the probabilistic exposure factor distributions that are developed and used in the exposure and risk models. Deriving probabilistic distributions for model inputs can be time consuming and subjective. The absence of a standard approach for developing these distributions can result in PRAs that are inconsistent and difficult to review by regulatory agencies. We present an approach that reduces subjectivity in the distribution development process without limiting the flexibility needed to prepare relevant PRAs. The approach requires two steps. First, we analyze data pooled at a population scale to (1) identify the most robust demographic variables within the population for a given exposure factor, (2) partition the population data into subsets based on these variables, and (3) construct archetypal distributions for each subpopulation. Second, we sample from these archetypal distributions according to site- or scenario-specific conditions to simulate exposure factor values and use these values to construct the scenario-specific input distribution. It is envisaged that the archetypal distributions from step 1 will be generally applicable so risk assessors will not have to repeatedly collect and analyze raw data for each new assessment. We demonstrate the approach for two commonly used exposure factors--body weight (BW) and exposure duration (ED)--using data for the U.S. population. For these factors we provide a first set of subpopulation based archetypal distributions along with methodology for using these distributions to construct relevant scenario-specific probabilistic exposure factor distributions.

  3. Plasma Levels of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and d-Dopachrome Tautomerase Show a Highly Specific Profile in Early Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Thierry; Schlapbach, Luregn J.; Schneider, Anina; Weier, Manuela; Wellmann, Sven; Marquis, Patrick; Vermijlen, David; Sweep, Fred C. G. J.; Leng, Lin; Bucala, Richard; Calandra, Thierry; Giannoni, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic, constitutively expressed, pro-inflammatory cytokine and an important regulator of immune responses. d-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT), a newly described member of the MIF protein superfamily, shares sequence homology and biological activities with MIF. We recently reported that high expression levels of MIF sustain innate immune responses in newborns. Here, we elected to further characterize age-dependent MIF expression and to define whether DDT shares a similar expression profile with MIF. Therefore, we delineated the circulating concentrations of MIF and DDT throughout life using a large cohort of 307 subjects including fetuses, newborns, infants, children, and adults. Compared to levels measured in healthy adults (median: 5.7 ng/ml for MIF and 16.8 ng/ml for DDT), MIF and DDT plasma concentrations were higher in fetuses (median: 48.9 and 29.6 ng/ml), increased further at birth (median: 82.6 and 52.0 ng/ml), reached strikingly elevated levels on postnatal day 4 (median: 109.5 and 121.6 ng/ml), and decreased to adult levels during the first months of life. A strong correlation was observed between MIF and DDT concentrations in all age groups (R = 0.91, P < 0.0001). MIF and DDT levels correlated with concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor, a protein upregulated under low oxygen tension and implicated in vascular and lung development (R = 0.70, P < 0.0001 for MIF and R = 0.65, P < 0.0001 for DDT). In very preterm infants, lower levels of MIF and DDT on postnatal day 6 were associated with an increased risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia and late-onset neonatal sepsis. Thus, MIF and DDT plasma levels show a highly specific developmental profile in early life, supporting an important role for these cytokines during the neonatal period. PMID:28179905

  4. Factors associated with escalation and problematic approaches toward public figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, J Reid; James, David V; Mullen, Paul E; Pathé, Michele T; Farnham, Frank R; Preston, Lulu F; Darnley, Brian J

    2011-01-01

    Detailed comparison of factors associated with abnormal approach to the prominent and with escalation from communication to approach has not hitherto been undertaken. This partially reflects the failure of individual studies to adopt compatible terminologies. This study involves a careful dissection of six public figure studies, three involving U.S. politicians, two Hollywood celebrities, and one the British Royal Family. Common findings were unearthed across six headings. Approachers were significantly more likely to exhibit serious mental illness, engage in multiple means of communication, involve multiple contacts/targets, and to incorporate into their communication requests for help. They were significantly less likely to use threatening or antagonistic language in their communications, except in those cases involving security breaches. These results emphasize the importance of integrating mental health findings and preventive measures into risk management. Approach should not be regarded as a single behavioral category and has multiple motivations. Future studies should adopt standard terminology, preferably taken from the general stalking research.

  5. Learning approaches and studies of effect of environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkov Snežana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a presentation of 3P model of learning (Presage-Process-Product, which comprises learning approaches placed in a wider context of the set of variables related to personality, environment, process and outcomes of learning. Three approaches to learning - surface, deep and achievement-oriented - consist of motives and the corresponding learning strategies. There is a discussion of the findings and implications of a great deal of research using the instruments based on this model. We analyzed research findings about the effect of instruction on learning approaches acquired by pupils, and especially students. It is shown how based on learning approach employed by pupils it is possible to draw conclusions about the quality of instruction. Testing the instruments on various samples indicates that the model is applicable in different cultures. Cross-cultural research opened up the problem of relation between memorising and understanding. Further research is necessary, both empirical and theoretical, that is, development of conceptualization of these constructs, and especially their role in education. Perspectives for further research also open up in the direction of studying various factors connected with personality and their relations with learning approaches. The role of learning approaches of teachers in developing the learning approaches of pupils is yet to be examined.

  6. Cherenkov loss factor of short relativistic bunches:general approach

    CERN Document Server

    Baturin, S S

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of short relativistic charged particle bunches with waveguides and other accelerator system components is a critical issue for the development of X-ray FELs (free electron lasers) and linear collider projects. Wakefield Cherenkov losses of short bunches have been studied previously for resistive wall, disk-loaded, corrugated and dielectric loaded waveguides. It was noted in various publications [1] that if the slowdown layer is thin, the Cherenkov loss factor of a short bunch does not depend on the guiding system material and is a constant for any given transverse cross section dimensions of the waveguides. In this paper, we consider a new approach to the analysis of loss factors for relativistic short bunches and formulate a general integral relation that allows calculation of the loss factor for a short relativistic bunch passing an arbitrary waveguide system. The loss factors calculated by this new method for various types of waveguides with arbitrary thickness slowdown layers, including in...

  7. Fault Detection Observer Design for LSFDJ: A Factorization Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-jun; WENG Zheng-xin; TIAN Zuo-hua

    2005-01-01

    Based on a new special co-inner-outer factorization, a factorization approach for design fault detection observer for LSFDJ was proposed. It is a simple state-space method and can deal with time-varying LSFDJ with sensor noise and sensor faults. The performance of the fault detection observer is optimized in an H∞ setting,where the ratio between the gains from disturbance and fault to residual respectively is minimized. The design parameters of the detection observer were given in terms of the solution to the Riccati differential equation with jumps.

  8. Determining organizational information needs: the Critical Success Factors approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Reports on a series of investigations in the UK and Finland, in both academic and business institutions. The Critical Success Factors approach is defined and explored as a means of determining the information needs of organizations, rather than of individuals. Concludes that such use is appropriate and productive, enabling the identification of types of information that may aid the organization in its strategic policy making to achieve competitive advantage.

  9. Motivational factors as predictors of student approach to learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassesen, Berit Irene

    Background and aim: Research indicates that both self-efficacy and test anxiety may influence student performance. There is also evidence to suggest that students´ approach to learn, i.e. whether they adopt a deep or surface approach influence learning outcome. There is, however, little research...... exploring the possible influences of self-efficacy and test anxiety on study behavior in higher education. Increasing our knowledge about these associations could improve our understanding of the processes and mechanisms involved in learning and academic performance. Methods: 1181 undergraduate and graduate...... and multivariate hierarchical regression analyses, adjusting for the remaining variables. Results: Both self-efficacy, test-anxiety, and perception of the teaching environment appeared to be strong independent predictors of student approaches to learning even when controlling for other motivational factors...

  10. Motivational factors as predictors of student approach to learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassesen, Berit Irene

    Background and aim: Research indicates that both self-efficacy and test anxiety may influence student performance. There is also evidence to suggest that students´ approach to learn, i.e. whether they adopt a deep or surface approach influence learning outcome. There is, however, little research...... exploring the possible influences of self-efficacy and test anxiety on study behavior in higher education. Increasing our knowledge about these associations could improve our understanding of the processes and mechanisms involved in learning and academic performance. Methods: 1181 undergraduate and graduate...... and multivariate hierarchical regression analyses, adjusting for the remaining variables. Results: Both self-efficacy, test-anxiety, and perception of the teaching environment appeared to be strong independent predictors of student approaches to learning even when controlling for other motivational factors...

  11. [Triglycerides--a long known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Subgroup analysis shows the importance after acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Anders

    2015-09-09

    An increased blood concentration of triglycerides (TG) has long been recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Through competition from HDL cholesterol and the arrival of statin treatment for high LDL cholesterol the importance of TG as risk factor was largely forgotten. A high concentration of TG indicates high blood levels of TG-rich lipoproteins including cholesterol rich remnant particles. Studies using Mendelian randomizations have demonstrated that a low HDL cholesterol does not carry a direct atherogenic function and that remnant particles do so. New efforts should be exercised in order to diminish residual cardiovascular risk during statin treatment through decreasing TG rich lipoproteins.

  12. Nonrelativistic QED approach to the bound-electron g factor

    CERN Document Server

    Pachucki, K; Yerokhin, V A

    2004-01-01

    Within a systematic approach based on nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics (NRQED), we derive the one-loop self-energy correction of order alpha (Zalpha)^4 to the bound-electron g factor. In combination with numerical data, this analytic result improves theoretical predictions for the self-energy correction for carbon and oxygen by an order of magnitude. Basing on one-loop calculations, we obtain the logarithmic two-loop contribution of order alpha^2 (Zalpha)^4 ln[(Zalpha)^-2] and the dominant part of the corresponding constant term. The results obtained improve the accuracy of the theoretical predictions for the 1S bound-electron g factor and influence the value of the electron mass determined from g factor measurements.

  13. Nonrelativistic QED Approach to the Bound-Electron g Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachucki, Krzysztof; Jentschura, Ulrich D.; Yerokhin, Vladimir A.

    2004-10-01

    Within a systematic approach based on nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics, we derive the one-loop self-energy correction of order α(Zα)4 to the bound-electron g factor. In combination with numerical data, this analytic result improves theoretical predictions for the self-energy correction for carbon and oxygen by an order of magnitude. Basing on one-loop calculations, we obtain the logarithmic two-loop contribution of order α2(Zα)4ln([(Zα)-2] and the dominant part of the corresponding constant term. The results obtained improve the accuracy of the theoretical predictions for the 1S bound-electron g factor and influence the value of the electron mass determined from g-factor measurements.

  14. A combined cultivation and cultivation-independent approach shows high bacterial diversity in water-miscible metalworking fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodders, Nicole; Kämpfer, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Ten metalworking fluids (MWF) and seven water preparation basis samples (WPB) were taken from five industrial plants in Germany. Total cells (TCC) and colony forming units (CFU) were counted, strains were isolated and their 16S rRNA gene was sequenced. Additionally, DNA was extracted directly from the samples, and clone libraries of 16S rRNA genes were built and gene sequenced. TCC ranged from 7.6×10(4) TCC/mL MWF to 1.6×10(8) TCC/mL MWF, and from 4.6×10(2) TCC/mL WPB to 7.8×10(7) TCC/mL WPB. The CFU showed similar but often lower results. A total of 70 isolates and 732 clones were 16S rRNA gene sequenced and all isolates, as well as 183 of the nearly full length 16S rRNA of these clones, were gene sequenced. A total of 98 different genera were detected in all 17 samples. The number of genera within each sample varied highly, with 1-22 genera per sample. The dominant genera in MWF were Leucobacter, Desemzia, Sphingomonas and Wautersiella. From these, only Sphingomonas was detected in WPB as well. This study showed that MWF can harbour a high bacterial diversity, which differs significantly from the bacterial flora of the corresponding WPB.

  15. Mule duck "foie gras" shows different metabolic states according to its quality phenotype by using a proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Yoannah; Marie-Etancelin, Christel; Vignal, Alain; Viala, Didier; Davail, Stéphane; Molette, Caroline

    2014-07-23

    This study aimed at identifying the mechanisms implicated in "foie gras" quality variability through the study of the relationships between liver protein compositions and four liver quality phenotypes: liver weight, melting rate, and protein contents on crude or dry matter. Spots of soluble proteins were separated by bidimensional electrophoresis, and the relative abundance of proteins according to quality traits values was investigated. Twenty-three protein spots (19 unique identified proteins) showed different levels of abundance according to one or more of the traits' values. These abundance differences highlighted two groups of livers with opposite trends of abundance levels. Proteins of the first group, associated with low liver weight and melting rate, are involved in synthesis and anabolism processes, whereas proteins of the second group, associated with high liver weight and melting rate, are proteins involved in stress response. Altogether, these results highlight the variations in metabolic states underlying foie gras quality traits.

  16. Approaches to Working with Children, Young People and Families for Traveller, Irish Traveller, Gypsy, Roma and Show People Communities. Annotated Bibliography for the Children's Workforce Development Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark; Martin, Kerry; Wilkin, Carol

    2008-01-01

    This annoted bibliography relays a range of issues and approaches to working with Travellers, Irish Travellers, Gypsies, Roma and Show People. This is an accompanying document to the literature review report, ED501860.

  17. QCD Factorization Approach to Cold Nuclear Matter Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jianwe

    2016-09-01

    Cold nuclear matter effects exist in all high energy collisions involving identified nucleus (or nuclei). They have been manifested in very significant ways in e-A and p-A, as well as A-A collisions, where the cold nuclear effect is a part of the initial condition which plays a critical role in determining the outcome of heavy ion collisions. In this talk, I will discuss if it is possible to consistently calculate or extract the cold nuclear effect, the advantage and limitation of QCD factorization approach, and the predictive power or the testability of the QCD calculations.

  18. Commonly studied polymorphisms in inflammatory cytokine genes show only minor effects on mortality and related risk factors in nonagenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dato, Serena; Krabbe, Karen S; Thinggaard, Mikael; Pedersen, Bente K; Christensen, Kaare; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Christiansen, Lene

    2010-03-01

    Systemic low-grade inflammation is consistently associated with functional status, cognitive functioning, multimorbidity, and survival in oldest olds. If inflammation is either a cause or a consequence of age-related pathology, genetic determinants of late-life survival can reside in cytokine genes polymorphisms, regulating inflammatory responses. The aim of this study was to test associations between commonly studied polymorphisms in interleukin (IL)6, IL10, IL15, and IL18, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha genes and late-life survival in a longitudinal cohort of nonagenarians: the Danish 1905 cohort. Additionally, associations were investigated between inflammatory markers and major predictors of mortality as cognitive and functional status. Modest sex-specific associations were found with survival, cognitive functioning, and handgrip strength. Evaluation of combined genotypes indicated that, in nonagenarian men, the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory activity at IL18 and IL10 loci is protective against cognitive decline. In conclusion, in this large study with virtually complete follow-up, commonly studied polymorphisms in cytokine genes do not have a major impact on late-life survival or associated risk phenotypes.

  19. Field Studies Show That In Situ Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors for East African Agriculture Are Less Than IPCC Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelster, D.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Rufino, M.; Rosenstock, T. S.; Wanyama, G.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from African agricultural systems are thought to comprise a large portion of total emissions from the continent, however these estimates have been calculated using emission factors (EF) from other regions due to the lack of field studies in Africa, which results in large uncertainties for these estimates. Field measurements from western Kenya calculating emissions over a year in 59 different sites found that GHG emissions from typical smallholder farms ranged from 2.8 to 15.0 Mg CO2-C ha-1, -6.0 to 2.4 kg CH4-C ha-1 and -0.1 to 1.8 kg N2O-N ha-1, and were not affected by management intensity. The lack of a response in N2O emissions to N fertilization suggests that the EF currently used in national inventories overestimates N2O emissions from typical smallholder agriculture. Another study measuring N2O and CH4 emissions from manure deposited by grazing cattle found that the N2O EF ranged from 0.1 to 0.2%, while the CH4 EF ranged from 0.04 to 0.14 Kg CH4-C per 173 kg animal. These suggest that the current IPCC EF overestimate agricultural soil and manure GHG emissions for Kenya, and likely for much of East Africa.

  20. Show Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> Story: Show Time!The whole class presents the story"Under the Sea".Everyone is so excited and happy.Both Leo and Kathy show their parentsthe characters of the play."Who’s he?"asks Kathy’s mom."He’s the prince."Kathy replies."Who’s she?"asks Leo’s dad."She’s the queen."Leo replieswith a smile.

  1. Snobbish Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The State Administration of Radio,Film and Television (SARFT),China's media watchdog,issued a new set of mles on June 9 that strictly regulate TV match-making shows,which have been sweeping the country's primetime programming. "Improper social and love values such as money worship should not be presented in these shows.Humiliation,verbal attacks and sex-implied vulgar content are not allowed" the new roles said.

  2. Probabilistic approach for the selection of the shallow foundation’s safety factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mounji

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new approach for estimating the risk of foundation’s failure of which the design was made using the conventional safety factor. We also present the results of numerical simulations applied to a continuous spread footing foundation based on a grainy dry soil where the geotechnical characteristics are a random spatial variables. Indeed, we show that for the soil which has a high natural variability the probability of failure associated with the standard safety factor becomes important then, in this case, a good choice of the safety factor is necessary.

  3. "A cigarette a day keeps the goodies away": smokers show automatic approach tendencies for smoking--but not for food-related stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Machulska

    Full Text Available Smoking leads to the development of automatic tendencies that promote approach behavior toward smoking-related stimuli which in turn may maintain addictive behavior. The present study examined whether automatic approach tendencies toward smoking-related stimuli can be measured by using an adapted version of the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT. Given that progression of addictive behavior has been associated with a decreased reactivity of the brain reward system for stimuli signaling natural rewards, we also used the AAT to measure approach behavior toward natural rewarding stimuli in smokers. During the AAT, 92 smokers and 51 non-smokers viewed smoking-related vs. non-smoking-related pictures and pictures of natural rewards (i.e. highly palatable food vs. neutral pictures. They were instructed to ignore image content and to respond to picture orientation by either pulling or pushing a joystick. Within-group comparisons revealed that smokers showed an automatic approach bias exclusively for smoking-related pictures. Contrary to our expectations, there was no difference in smokers' and non-smokers' approach bias for nicotine-related stimuli, indicating that non-smokers also showed approach tendencies for this picture category. Yet, in contrast to non-smokers, smokers did not show an approach bias for food-related pictures. Moreover, self-reported smoking attitude could not predict approach-avoidance behavior toward nicotine-related pictures in smokers or non-smokers. Our findings indicate that the AAT is suited for measuring smoking-related approach tendencies in smokers. Furthermore, we provide evidence for a diminished approach tendency toward food-related stimuli in smokers, suggesting a decreased sensitivity to natural rewards in the course of nicotine addiction. Our results indicate that in contrast to similar studies conducted in alcohol, cannabis and heroin users, the AAT might only be partially suited for measuring smoking-related approach

  4. Motivational factors as predictors of student approach to learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassesen, Berit

    Abstract: Background and aim: Research indicates that both self-efficacy and test anxiety may influence student performance. There is also evidence to suggest that students´ approach to learn, i.e. whether they adopt a deep or surface approach affect the outcome of learning. There is, however...... to obtaining them. Besides being a role model by showing enthusiasm for the subject, teachers are important moderators when it comes to building the ability and effort required for deep learning...... about these associations could improve our understanding of the processes and mechanisms involved in learning and academic performance. Methods: 1181 undergraduate and graduate students from four major faculties at Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark (response rate: 87.5 %) completed a questionnaire...

  5. Identifying perinatal risk factors for infant maltreatment: an ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallisey Elaine J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child maltreatment and its consequences are a persistent problem throughout the world. Public health workers, human services officials, and others are interested in new and efficient ways to determine which geographic areas to target for intervention programs and resources. To improve assessment efforts, selected perinatal factors were examined, both individually and in various combinations, to determine if they are associated with increased risk of infant maltreatment. State of Georgia birth records and abuse and neglect data were analyzed using an area-based, ecological approach with the census tract as a surrogate for the community. Cartographic visualization suggested some correlation exists between risk factors and child maltreatment, so bivariate and multivariate regression were performed. The presence of spatial autocorrelation precluded the use of traditional ordinary least squares regression, therefore a spatial regression model coupled with maximum likelihood estimation was employed. Results Results indicate that all individual factors or their combinations are significantly associated with increased risk of infant maltreatment. The set of perinatal risk factors that best predicts infant maltreatment rates are: mother smoked during pregnancy, families with three or more siblings, maternal age less than 20 years, births to unmarried mothers, Medicaid beneficiaries, and inadequate prenatal care. Conclusion This model enables public health to take a proactive stance, to reasonably predict areas where poor outcomes are likely to occur, and to therefore more efficiently allocate resources. U.S. states that routinely collect the variables the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS defines for birth certificates can easily identify areas that are at high risk for infant maltreatment. The authors recommend that agencies charged with reducing child maltreatment target communities that demonstrate the perinatal risks

  6. Environmental Factors and Students’ Learning Approaches: A Survey on Malaysian Polytechnics Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramlee Mustapha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown the impact of environmental factors on student learning approaches. Despite the importance of such studies, studies on technical learners are few. Thus, this study aimed to determine the influence of learning environment on Polytechnics students’ learning approaches in Malaysia. Learning environment plays an important role in the cognitive, effective and social domains of students because it could improve students’ learning outcomes.  Learning approaches refer to the ways students deal with academic tasks that are related to learning outcomes.  This study used Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ and Revised Two-Factor Study Process Questionnaire (RSPQ-2F to collect the research data.  Data were analyzed using AMOS Version 18.  Multiple regressions were conducted to predict learning environment factors that influenced the level of students’ learning approaches.  The result shows that effective teaching is a major factor that influences students' deep approach followed by the assessment, learning resources and clear objectives.

  7. EROBATIC SHOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Visitors look at plane models of the Commercial Aircraft Corp. of China, developer of the count,s first homegrown large passenger jet C919, during the Singapore Airshow on February 16. The biennial event is the largest airshow in Asia and one of the most important aviation and defense shows worldwide. A number of Chinese companies took part in the event during which Okay Airways, the first privately owned aidine in China, signed a deal to acquire 12 Boeing 737 jets.

  8. Factors influencing groundwater quality: towards an integrated management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giglio, O; Quaranta, A; Barbuti, G; Napoli, C; Caggiano, G; Montagna, M T

    2015-01-01

    The safety of groundwater resources is a serious issue, particularly when these resources are the main source of water for drinking, irrigation and industrial use in coastal areas. In Italy, 85% of the water used by the public is of underground origin. The aim of this report is to analyze the main factors that make groundwater vulnerable. Soil characteristics and filtration capacity can promote or hinder the diffusion of environmental contaminants. Global climate change influences the prevalence and degree of groundwater contamination. Anthropic pressure causes considerable exploitation of water resources, leading to reduced water availability and the progressive deterioration of water quality. Management of water quality will require a multidisciplinary, dynamic and practical approach focused on identifying the measures necessary to reduce contamination and mitigate the risks associated with the use of contaminated water resources.

  9. Landslide susceptibility analysis using Probabilistic Certainty Factor Approach: A case study on Tevankarai stream watershed, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Evangelin Ramani Sujatha; G Victor Rajamanickam; P Kumaravel

    2012-10-01

    This paper reports the use of a GIS based Probabilistic Certainty Factor method to assess the geo-environmental factors that contribute to landslide susceptibility in Tevankarai Ar sub-watershed, Kodaikkanal. Landslide occurrences are a common phenomenon in the Tevankarai Ar sub-watershed, Kodaikkanal owing to rugged terrain at high altitude, high frequency of intense rainfall and rapidly expanding urban growth. The spatial database of the factors influencing landslides are compiled primarily from topographical maps, aerial photographs and satellite images. They are relief, slope, aspect, curvature, weathering, soil, land use, proximity to road and proximity to drainage. Certainty Factor Approach is used to study the interaction between the factors and the landslide, highlighting the importance of each factor in causing landslide. The results show that slope, aspect, soil and proximity to roads play important role in landslide susceptibility. The landslide susceptibility map is classified into five susceptible classes – low, very low, uncertain, high and very high − 93.32% of the study area falls under the stable category and 6.34% falls under the highly and very highly unstable category. The relative landslide density index (R index) is used to validate the landslide susceptibility map. R index increases with the increase in the susceptibility class. This shows that the factors selected for the study and susceptibility mapping using certainty factor are appropriate for the study area. Highly unstable zones show intense anthropogenic activities like high density settlement areas, and busy roads connecting the hill town and the plains.

  10. Higgs boson production at hadron colliders in the k{sub T}-factorization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipatov, A.V.; Zotov, N.P. [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki

    2005-01-01

    We consider the Higgs boson production at high energy hadron colliders in the framework of the {kappa}{sub T}-factorization approach. The attention is focused on the dominant gluon-gluon fusion subprocess. We calculate the total cross section and transverse momentum distributions of the inclusive Higgs production using unintegrated gluon distributions in a proton obtained from the full CCFM evolution equation. We show that {kappa}{sub T}-factorization gives a possibility to investigate the associated Higgs boson and jets production. We calculate the transverse momentum distributions and study the Higgs-jet and jet-jet azimuthal correlations in the Higgs+one or two jet production processes. We demonstrate the importance of the higher-order corrections within the {kappa}{sub T}-factorization approach. These corrections should be developed and taken into account in the future applications. (orig.)

  11. Higgs boson production at hadron collidersin the k{sub T}-factorization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipatov, A.V.; Zotov, N.P. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, D.V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2005-12-01

    We consider the Higgs boson production at high energy hadron colliders in the framework of the k{sub T}-factorization approach. The attention is focused on the dominant gluon-gluon fusion subprocess. We calculate the total cross section and transverse momentum distributions of the inclusive Higgs production using unintegrated gluon distributions in a proton obtained from the full CCFM evolution equation. We show that k{sub T}-factorization gives a possibility to investigate the associated Higgs boson and jets production. We calculate the transverse momentum distributions and study the Higgs-jet and jet-jet azimuthal correlations in the Higgs+one or two jet production processes. We demonstrate the importance of the higher-order corrections within the k{sub T}-factorization approach. These corrections should be developed and taken into account in the future applications. (orig.)

  12. An integrated model of transcription factor diffusion shows the importance of intersegmental transfer and quaternary protein structure for target site finding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo G Schmidt

    Full Text Available We present a computational model of transcription factor motion that explains both the observed rapid target finding of transcription factors, and how this motion influences protein and genome structure. Using the Smoldyn software, we modelled transcription factor motion arising from a combination of unrestricted 3D diffusion in the nucleoplasm, sliding along the DNA filament, and transferring directly between filament sections by intersegmental transfer. This presents a fine-grain picture of the way in which transcription factors find their targets two orders of magnitude faster than 3D diffusion alone allows. Eukaryotic genomes contain sections of nucleosome free regions (NFRs around the promoters; our model shows that the presence and size of these NFRs can be explained as their acting as antennas on which transcription factors slide to reach their targets. Additionally, our model shows that intersegmental transfer may have shaped the quaternary structure of transcription factors: sequence specific DNA binding proteins are unusually enriched in dimers and tetramers, perhaps because these allow intersegmental transfer, which accelerates target site finding. Finally, our model shows that a 'hopping' motion can emerge from 3D diffusion on small scales. This explains the apparently long sliding lengths that have been observed for some DNA binding proteins observed in vitro. Together, these results suggest that transcription factor diffusion dynamics help drive the evolution of protein and genome structure.

  13. Generational Approach to Factors Influencing Career Choice in Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jony Hsiao

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research aims to grasp which factors influence the generation Y to choose accounting as its career. A significant decline in the number of candidates willing to pursue a career as accountant has been observed abroad - USA, Australia, and Japan. However, in other countries - Brazil, Singapore, and Hong Kong - the opposite has been observed. Another issue is the decline in educational qualification of those pursuing an accounting career, contributing in a way that many talented students change their career choice. This may be explained by the fact that people tend to believe accounting is an exact science, full of calculations, boring, and not very creative, bringing an unbalance between the traits an individual should have according to the job market and those perceived by society. In order to give a contribution to literature concerning the factors that influence the generation Y in its career choice, a goal of this research was conducting an exploratory study where some hypotheses were formulated to support the discussion. We used Mannheim's Generational Theory and the literature on career choice. Data collection was carried out using a questionnaire, based on Schwartz's Portrait Value Questionnaire and Germeijs and Verschueren's Student Choice Task Inventory, adapted through focus group interview. Data were fully collected online and the sample consisted of 665 subjects. The results showed that people who chose accounting as their career were influenced by factors such as creativity, independence, challenging and dynamic environment, job security, money-making, job availability, and other significant people - friends and teachers. The subjects were not influenced by social factors, such as working with people and making contributions to society and family. They wish for more autonomy, creativity, and flexibility at work, and people still care about job security and money-making.

  14. A systems biology approach to transcription factor binding site prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The elucidation of mammalian transcriptional regulatory networks holds great promise for both basic and translational research and remains one the greatest challenges to systems biology. Recent reverse engineering methods deduce regulatory interactions from large-scale mRNA expression profiles and cross-species conserved regulatory regions in DNA. Technical challenges faced by these methods include distinguishing between direct and indirect interactions, associating transcription regulators with predicted transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs, identifying non-linearly conserved binding sites across species, and providing realistic accuracy estimates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We address these challenges by closely integrating proven methods for regulatory network reverse engineering from mRNA expression data, linearly and non-linearly conserved regulatory region discovery, and TFBS evaluation and discovery. Using an extensive test set of high-likelihood interactions, which we collected in order to provide realistic prediction-accuracy estimates, we show that a careful integration of these methods leads to significant improvements in prediction accuracy. To verify our methods, we biochemically validated TFBS predictions made for both transcription factors (TFs and co-factors; we validated binding site predictions made using a known E2F1 DNA-binding motif on E2F1 predicted promoter targets, known E2F1 and JUND motifs on JUND predicted promoter targets, and a de novo discovered motif for BCL6 on BCL6 predicted promoter targets. Finally, to demonstrate accuracy of prediction using an external dataset, we showed that sites matching predicted motifs for ZNF263 are significantly enriched in recent ZNF263 ChIP-seq data. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using an integrative framework, we were able to address technical challenges faced by state of the art network reverse engineering methods, leading to significant improvement in direct

  15. Halitosis: a review of associated factors and therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortelli, José Roberto; Barbosa, Mônica Dourado Silva; Westphal, Miriam Ardigó

    2008-01-01

    Halitosis or bad breath is an oral health condition characterized by unpleasant odors emanating consistently from the oral cavity. The origin of halitosis may be related both to systemic and oral conditions, but a large percentage of cases, about 85%, are generally related to an oral cause. Causes include certain foods, poor oral health care, improper cleaning of dentures, dry mouth, tobacco products and medical conditions. Oral causes are related to deep carious lesions, periodontal disease, oral infections, peri-implant disease, pericoronitis, mucosal ulcerations, impacted food or debris and, mainly, tongue coating. Thus, the aim of the present review was to describe the etiological factors, prevalence data and the therapeutic mechanical and chemical approaches related to halitosis. In general, halitosis most often results from the microbial degradation of oral organic substrates including volatile sulfur compounds (VSC). So far, there are few studies evaluating the prevalence of oral malodor in the world population. These studies reported rates ranging from 22% to more than 50%. The mechanical and chemical treatment of halitosis has been addressed by several studies in the past four decades. Many authors agree that the solution of halitosis problems must include the reduction of the intraoral bacterial load and/or the conversion of VSC to nonvolatile substrates. This could be achieved by therapy procedures that reduce the amount of microorganisms and substrates, especially on the tongue.

  16. Halitosis: a review of associated factors and therapeutic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Cortelli

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Halitosis or bad breath is an oral health condition characterized by unpleasant odors emanating consistently from the oral cavity. The origin of halitosis may be related both to systemic and oral conditions, but a large percentage of cases, about 85%, are generally related to an oral cause. Causes include certain foods, poor oral health care, improper cleaning of dentures, dry mouth, tobacco products and medical conditions. Oral causes are related to deep carious lesions, periodontal disease, oral infections, peri-implant disease, pericoronitis, mucosal ulcerations, impacted food or debris and, mainly, tongue coating. Thus, the aim of the present review was to describe the etiological factors, prevalence data and the therapeutic mechanical and chemical approaches related to halitosis. In general, halitosis most often results from the microbial degradation of oral organic substrates including volatile sulfur compounds (VSC. So far, there are few studies evaluating the prevalence of oral malodor in the world population. These studies reported rates ranging from 22% to more than 50%. The mechanical and chemical treatment of halitosis has been addressed by several studies in the past four decades. Many authors agree that the solution of halitosis problems must include the reduction of the intraoral bacterial load and/or the conversion of VSC to nonvolatile substrates. This could be achieved by therapy procedures that reduce the amount of microorganisms and substrates, especially on the tongue.

  17. The effects of motivational factors on car use: a multidisciplinary modelling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steg, L.; Ras, M. [University of Groningen (Netherlands). Centre for Environmental and Traffic Psychology; Geurs, K. [National Institute of Public Health and Environment, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2001-11-01

    Current transport models usually do not take motivational factors into account, and if they do, it is only implicitly. This paper presents a modelling approach aimed at explicitly examining the effects of motivational factors on present and future car use in the Netherlands. A car-use forecasting model for the years 2010 and 2020 was constructed on the basis of (i) a multinominal regression analysis, which revealed the importance of a motivational variable (viz., problem awareness) in explaining current car-use behavior separate from socio-demographic and socio-economic variables, and (ii) a population model constructed to forecast the size and composition of the Dutch population. The results show that car use could be better explained by taking motivational factors explicitly into account, and that the level of car use forecast might change significantly if changes in motivations are assumed. The question on how motivational factors could be incorporated into current (Dutch) national transport models was also addressed. (author)

  18. HDL in sepsis - risk factor and therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Emily E; Guo, Ling; Schwendeman, Anna; Li, Xiang-An

    2015-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a key component of circulating blood and plays essential roles in regulation of vascular endothelial function and immunity. Clinical data demonstrate that HDL levels drop by 40-70% in septic patients, which is associated with a poor prognosis. Experimental studies using Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoAI) null mice showed that HDL deficient mice are susceptible to septic death, and overexpressing ApoAI in mice to increase HDL levels protects against septic death. These clinical and animal studies support our hypothesis that a decrease in HDL level is a risk factor for sepsis, and raising circulating HDL levels may provide an efficient therapy for sepsis. In this review, we discuss the roles of HDL in sepsis and summarize the efforts of using synthetic HDL as a potential therapy for sepsis.

  19. A theoretical approach to the re-suspension factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnoni M.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric re-suspension of radionuclides is a well-known phenomenon that consists in the re-injection into the atmosphere of previously deposited radioactivity. The process is driven by the action of wind on surfaces and can act as an additional source of radiation exposure by inhalation, after the deposition has finished. It is thus defined as the re-suspension factor, a parameter K generally considered as a time depending function and defined as the ratio of Ca, the volumetric air activity concentration (Bq m−3 and I0 (Bq m−2, the radioactivity deposition at time zero. The re-suspension factor concept is very useful in radioprotection in order to estimate the inhalation of radionuclides re-suspended from contaminated surfaces when direct atmospheric measurements are lacking or difficult to perform. However, the choice of the proper values of K is usually not a simple task, being quite site-specific and related to the meteorological, géomorphologie and environmental characteristics of the area to be studied. Moreover, several investigations showed clearly that the values of K are a decreasing function of time. For that reason, K values span several orders of magnitude: typical values in the range 10−5–10−10 m−1 are reported in literature for different environmental conditions and time elapsed since the deposition event. The current available models for the re-suspension factor are based on empirical formulas whose parameters are highly site dependent and cannot easily be related to some physical quantity. In this paper a simple physical model for the re-suspension factor is proposed and tested with available environmental radioactivity data (137Cs, collected since 1986 (Chernobyl fallout. The new model not only allows a satisfactory description of the experimental data like even the current empirical models do, but it is also able to connect the K values to quantities with a physical meaning (such as, for example a diffusion

  20. Many-body approach to proton emission and the role of spectroscopic factors

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Khalili, J S; Escher, J; Jennings, B K; Sparenberg, J M; Al-Khalili, Jim; Barbieri, Carlo; Escher, Jutta; Jennings, Byron K.; Sparenberg, Jean-Marc

    2003-01-01

    The process of proton emission from nuclei is studied by utilizing the two-potential approach of Gurvitz and Kalbermann in the context of the full many-body problem. A time-dependent approach is used for calculating the decay width. Starting from an initial many-body quasi-stationary state, we employ the Feshbach projection operator approach and reduce the formalism to an effective one-body problem. We show that the decay width can be expressed in terms of a one-body matrix element multiplied by a normalization factor. We demonstrate that the traditional interpretation of this normalization as the square root of a spectroscopic factor is only valid for one particular choice of projection operator. This causes no problem for the calculation of the decay width in a consistent microscopic approach, but it leads to ambiguities in the interpretation of experimental results. In particular, spectroscopic factors extracted from a comparison of the measured decay width with a calculated single-particle width may be af...

  1. Bs → f0(980) Transition Form Factors Within the kT Factorization Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Dai-Min; FANG Zhen-Yun

    2013-01-01

    In the paper,we apply the kT factorization approach to deal with the Bs → f0(980) transition form factors in the large recoil regions,i.e.the small q2 regions.For the purpose,we adopt the B-meson wave-functions ΨB,ψ B and δ that include the three-Fock states contributions to do our discussion.Although the scalar meson f0(980) is widely perceived as the 4-quark bound state (scenario 2),but the distribution amplitudes of 4-quark states are still unknown to us,so we adopt 2-quark model (scenario 1) for scalar meson f0(980) in our discussion.By varying the B-meson wave-function parameters within their reasonable regions,we obtain F0(0) =F+(0) =0.20 ± 0.02,FT(0) =0.24 ± 0.02.Our present results for these form factors are consistent with the light-cone sum rule results obtained in the literature.

  2. Event-related potentials to tones show differences between children with multiple risk factors for dyslexia and control children before the onset of formal reading instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Jarmo A; Lohvansuu, Kaisa; Ervast, Leena; Leppänen, Paavo H T

    2015-02-01

    Multiple risk factors can affect the development of specific reading problems or dyslexia. In addition to the most prevalent and studied risk factor, phonological processing, auditory discrimination problems have also been found in children and adults with reading difficulties. The present study examined 37 children between the ages of 5 and 6, 11 of which had multiple risk factors for developing reading problems. The children participated in a passive oddball EEG experiment with sinusoidal sounds with changes in sound frequency, duration, or intensity. The responses to the standard stimuli showed a negative voltage shift in children at risk for reading problems compared to control children at 107-215 ms in frontocentral areas corresponding to P1 offset and N250 onset. Source analyses showed that the difference originated from the left and right auditory cortices. Additionally, the children at risk for reading problems had a larger late discriminative negativity (LDN) response in amplitude for sound frequency change than the control children. The amplitudes at the P1-N250 time window showed correlations to letter knowledge and phonological identification whereas the amplitudes at the LDN time window correlated with verbal short-term memory and rapid naming. These results support the view that problems in basic auditory processing abilities precede the onset of reading instruction and can act as one of the risk factors for dyslexia.

  3. Modelling individual differences in the form of Pavlovian conditioned approach responses: a dual learning systems approach with factored representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesaint, Florian; Sigaud, Olivier; Flagel, Shelly B; Robinson, Terry E; Khamassi, Mehdi

    2014-02-01

    Reinforcement Learning has greatly influenced models of conditioning, providing powerful explanations of acquired behaviour and underlying physiological observations. However, in recent autoshaping experiments in rats, variation in the form of Pavlovian conditioned responses (CRs) and associated dopamine activity, have questioned the classical hypothesis that phasic dopamine activity corresponds to a reward prediction error-like signal arising from a classical Model-Free system, necessary for Pavlovian conditioning. Over the course of Pavlovian conditioning using food as the unconditioned stimulus (US), some rats (sign-trackers) come to approach and engage the conditioned stimulus (CS) itself - a lever - more and more avidly, whereas other rats (goal-trackers) learn to approach the location of food delivery upon CS presentation. Importantly, although both sign-trackers and goal-trackers learn the CS-US association equally well, only in sign-trackers does phasic dopamine activity show classical reward prediction error-like bursts. Furthermore, neither the acquisition nor the expression of a goal-tracking CR is dopamine-dependent. Here we present a computational model that can account for such individual variations. We show that a combination of a Model-Based system and a revised Model-Free system can account for the development of distinct CRs in rats. Moreover, we show that revising a classical Model-Free system to individually process stimuli by using factored representations can explain why classical dopaminergic patterns may be observed for some rats and not for others depending on the CR they develop. In addition, the model can account for other behavioural and pharmacological results obtained using the same, or similar, autoshaping procedures. Finally, the model makes it possible to draw a set of experimental predictions that may be verified in a modified experimental protocol. We suggest that further investigation of factored representations in computational

  4. Modelling individual differences in the form of Pavlovian conditioned approach responses: a dual learning systems approach with factored representations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Lesaint

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement Learning has greatly influenced models of conditioning, providing powerful explanations of acquired behaviour and underlying physiological observations. However, in recent autoshaping experiments in rats, variation in the form of Pavlovian conditioned responses (CRs and associated dopamine activity, have questioned the classical hypothesis that phasic dopamine activity corresponds to a reward prediction error-like signal arising from a classical Model-Free system, necessary for Pavlovian conditioning. Over the course of Pavlovian conditioning using food as the unconditioned stimulus (US, some rats (sign-trackers come to approach and engage the conditioned stimulus (CS itself - a lever - more and more avidly, whereas other rats (goal-trackers learn to approach the location of food delivery upon CS presentation. Importantly, although both sign-trackers and goal-trackers learn the CS-US association equally well, only in sign-trackers does phasic dopamine activity show classical reward prediction error-like bursts. Furthermore, neither the acquisition nor the expression of a goal-tracking CR is dopamine-dependent. Here we present a computational model that can account for such individual variations. We show that a combination of a Model-Based system and a revised Model-Free system can account for the development of distinct CRs in rats. Moreover, we show that revising a classical Model-Free system to individually process stimuli by using factored representations can explain why classical dopaminergic patterns may be observed for some rats and not for others depending on the CR they develop. In addition, the model can account for other behavioural and pharmacological results obtained using the same, or similar, autoshaping procedures. Finally, the model makes it possible to draw a set of experimental predictions that may be verified in a modified experimental protocol. We suggest that further investigation of factored representations in

  5. Lessons learned from different approaches towards classifying personal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Rachel; Geyh, Szilvia

    2015-01-01

    To examine and compare existing suggestions towards a classification of Personal Factors (PF) of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Qualitative and quantitative content analyses of available categorizations of PF are conducted. While the eight categorizations greatly differ in their background and structure, the broad content areas covered seem to be similar and reflect the ICF definition of PF. They cover to various degrees 12 broad content areas: socio-demographic factors, behavioral and lifestyle factors, cognitive psychological factors, social relationships, experiences and biography, coping, emotional factors, satisfaction, other health conditions, biological/physiological factors, personality, motives/motivation. In comparing these categorizations, a common core of content issues for a potential ICF PF classification could be identified and valuable lessons learned. This can contribute to future classification development activities in relation to PF.

  6. Evaluating risk factor assumptions: a simulation-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miglioretti Diana L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsimulation models are an important tool for estimating the comparative effectiveness of interventions through prediction of individual-level disease outcomes for a hypothetical population. To estimate the effectiveness of interventions targeted toward high risk groups, the mechanism by which risk factors influence the natural history of disease must be specified. We propose a method for evaluating these risk factor assumptions as part of model-building. Methods We used simulation studies to examine the impact of risk factor assumptions on the relative rate (RR of colorectal cancer (CRC incidence and mortality for a cohort with a risk factor compared to a cohort without the risk factor using an extension of the CRC-SPIN model for colorectal cancer. We also compared the impact of changing age at initiation of screening colonoscopy for different risk mechanisms. Results Across CRC-specific risk factor mechanisms, the RR of CRC incidence and mortality decreased (towards one with increasing age. The rate of change in RRs across age groups depended on both the risk factor mechanism and the strength of the risk factor effect. Increased non-CRC mortality attenuated the effect of CRC-specific risk factors on the RR of CRC when both were present. For each risk factor mechanism, earlier initiation of screening resulted in more life years gained, though the magnitude of life years gained varied across risk mechanisms. Conclusions Simulation studies can provide insight into both the effect of risk factor assumptions on model predictions and the type of data needed to calibrate risk factor models.

  7. 从礼貌原则探寻访谈节目成功的因素%Explore the Factors of Successful Talk Show from the Politeness Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨欣榕

    2014-01-01

    "A Date with Luyu"is a successful talk show. This article aims to find out the key factors of its success from the perspective of Politeness Principle.%《鲁豫有约》是一档成功的访谈节目,本文从礼貌原则角度分析这档访谈节目成功的因素。

  8. Barley plants over-expressing the NAC transcription factor gene HvNAC005 show stunting and delay in development combined with early senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Michael W.; Matthewman, Colette; Podzimska-Sroka, Dagmara Agata;

    2016-01-01

    -expressing plants showed up-regulation of genes involved with secondary metabolism, hormone metabolism, stress, signalling, development, and transport. Up-regulation of senescence markers and hormone metabolism and signalling genes supports a role of HvNAC005 in the cross field of different hormone and signalling......The plant-specific NAC transcription factors have attracted particular attention because of their involvement in stress responses, senescence, and nutrient remobilization. The HvNAC005 gene of barley encodes a protein belonging to subgroup NAC-a6 of the NAC family. This study shows that HvNAC005...

  9. Design of psychosocial factors questionnaires: a systematic measurement approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Gloria H; Vargas, Angélica M; Rondón, Martin A; Felknor, Sarah A

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of psychosocial factors requires instruments that measure dynamic complexities. This study explains the design of a set of questionnaires to evaluate work and non-work psychosocial risk factors for stress-related illnesses. The measurement model was based on a review of literature. Content validity was performed by experts and cognitive interviews. Pilot testing was carried out with a convenience sample of 132 workers. Cronbach's alpha evaluated internal consistency and concurrent validity was estimated by Spearman correlation coefficients. Three questionnaires were constructed to evaluate exposure to work and non-work risk factors. Content validity improved the questionnaires coherence with the measurement model. Internal consistency was adequate (α = 0.85-0.95). Concurrent validity resulted in moderate correlations of psychosocial factors with stress symptoms. Questionnaires' content reflected a wide spectrum of psychosocial factors sources. Cognitive interviews improved understanding of questions and dimensions. The structure of the measurement model was confirmed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The genome-wide binding profile of the Sulfolobus solfataricus transcription factor Ss-LrpB shows binding events beyond direct transcription regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Duc, Trong; van Oeffelen, Liesbeth; Song, Ningning; Hassanzadeh-Ghassabeh, Gholamreza; Muyldermans, Serge; Charlier, Daniel; Peeters, Eveline

    2013-11-25

    Gene regulatory processes are largely resulting from binding of transcription factors to specific genomic targets. Leucine-responsive Regulatory Protein (Lrp) is a prevalent transcription factor family in prokaryotes, however, little information is available on biological functions of these proteins in archaea. Here, we study genome-wide binding of the Lrp-like transcription factor Ss-LrpB from Sulfolobus solfataricus. Chromatin immunoprecipitation in combination with DNA microarray analysis (ChIP-chip) has revealed that Ss-LrpB interacts with 36 additional loci besides the four previously identified local targets. Only a subset of the newly identified binding targets, concentrated in a highly variable IS-dense genomic region, is also bound in vitro by pure Ss-LrpB. There is no clear relationship between the in vitro measured DNA-binding specificity of Ss-LrpB and the in vivo association suggesting a limited permissivity of the crenarchaeal chromatin for transcription factor binding. Of 37 identified binding regions, 29 are co-bound by LysM, another Lrp-like transcription factor in S. solfataricus. Comparative gene expression analysis in an Ss-lrpB mutant strain shows no significant Ss-LrpB-mediated regulation for most targeted genes, with exception of the CRISPR B cluster, which is activated by Ss-LrpB through binding to a specific motif in the leader region. The genome-wide binding profile presented here implies that Ss-LrpB is associated at additional genomic binding sites besides the local gene targets, but acts as a specific transcription regulator in the tested growth conditions. Moreover, we have provided evidence that two Lrp-like transcription factors in S. solfataricus, Ss-LrpB and LysM, interact in vivo.

  11. New approaches for identification factors of cost management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholkin Anatolii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with determination and classification factors, that affect the costs and whose changes are result of management decisions. The modern condition of scientific researches in this field of economic science is analyzed. The classification of impact factors is made for machine building industry. Also is given new costs classification according to impact factors. New cost classification includes three classes and eighteen groups of cost. Every class and group is described. The need of this classification for purposes of cost management is defined. Also the practical significance from the use of new costs classification in management decisions and control is described

  12. Algebraic approach to form factors in the complex sinh-Gordon theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lashkevich, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We study form factors of the quantum complex sinh-Gordon theory in the algebraic approach. In the case of exponential fields the form factors can be obtained from the known form factors of the $Z_N$-symmetric Ising model. The algebraic construction also provides an Ansatz for form factors of descendant operators. We obtain generating functions of such form factors and establish their main properties: the cluster factorization and reflection equations.

  13. Algebraic approach to form factors in the complex sinh-Gordon theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkevich, Michael; Pugai, Yaroslav

    2017-01-01

    We study form factors of the quantum complex sinh-Gordon theory in the algebraic approach. In the case of exponential fields the form factors can be obtained from the known form factors of the ZN-symmetric Ising model. The algebraic construction also provides an Ansatz for form factors of descendant operators. We obtain generating functions of such form factors and establish their main properties: the cluster factorization and reflection equations.

  14. Electromagnetic form factors of baryons in an algebraic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijker, R. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Leviatan, A. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    1999-07-01

    We present a simultaneous analysis of elastic and transition form factors of the nucleon. The calculations are performed in the framework of an algebraic model of baryons. Effects of meson cloud couplings are considered. (Author)

  15. Electromagnetic form factors of baryons in an algebraic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bijker, R

    1999-01-01

    We present a simultaneous analysis of elastic and transition form factors of the nucleon. The calculations are performed in the framework of an algebraic model of baryons. Effects of meson cloud couplings are considered.

  16. Globalization and Income Distribution: A Specific Factors Continuum Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Does globalization widen inequality or increase income risk? In the specific factors continuum model of this paper, globalization widens inequality, amplifying the positive (negative) premia for export (import- competing) sectors. Globalization amplifies the risk from idiosyncratic relative productivity shocks but reduces risk from aggregate shocks to absolute advantage, relative endowments and transfers. Aggregate-shock-induced income risk bears most heavily on the poorest specific factors, ...

  17. [A Case of Crohn's Disease Showing Favorable Response to Induction and Maintenance Therapy with Methotrexate after Failure of Anti-tumor Necrosis Factor Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung Ran; Yun, Gak Won; Park, Yoo Mi; Kim, Jie Hyun; Youn, Young Hoon; Park, Hyo Jin; Park, Jae Jun

    2015-10-01

    Thanks to the introduction of immumomodulators and biologics, therapeutic approaches in Crohn's disease have changed significantly during the past decade. Although new biologic therapy has dramatically improved the treatment of Crohn's disease, a substantial number of patients are refractory to these therapies or lose their initial response. Methotrexate (MTX) is a structural analogue of folic acid that can competitively inhibit the binding of dihydrofolic acid to the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase and has been widely used as immunomodulator in rheumatology area for patients with rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. Although MTX has also been shown to be an effective agent for remission induction and maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease, the use of MTX in Crohn's disease has not yet been reported in Korea. Herein, we report a case of Crohn's disease patient who was successfully treated with MTX after treatment failure with thiopurine and anti-tumor necrosis factor.

  18. Predictive and Prognostic Factors in Colorectal Cancer: A Personalized Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy A. Rockall

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is an exciting time for all those engaged in the treatment of colorectal cancer. The advent of new therapies presents the opportunity for a personalized approach to the patient. This approach considers the complex genetic mechanisms involved in tumorigenesis in addition to classical clinicopathological staging. The potential predictive and prognostic biomarkers which have stemmed from the study of the genetic basis of colorectal cancer and therapeutics are discussed with a focus on mismatch repair status, KRAS, BRAF, 18qLOH, CIMP and TGF-β.

  19. Members of the barley NAC transcription factor gene family show differential co-regulation with senescence-associated genes during senescence of flag leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Michael W; Gregersen, Per L.

    2014-01-01

    The senescence process of plants is important for the completion of their life cycle, particularly for crop plants, it is essential for efficient nutrient remobilization during seed filling. It is a highly regulated process, and in order to address the regulatory aspect, the role of genes...... in the NAC transcription factor family during senescence of barley flag leaves was studied. Several members of the NAC transcription factor gene family were up-regulated during senescence in a microarray experiment, together with a large range of senescence-associated genes, reflecting the coordinated...... activation of degradation processes in senescing barley leaf tissues. This picture was confirmed in a detailed quantitative reverse transcription–PCR (qRT–PCR) experiment, which also showed distinct gene expression patterns for different members of the NAC gene family, suggesting a group of ~15 out of the 47...

  20. Effective Factors on Iranian Consumers Behavior in Internet Shopping: A Soft Computing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ghasemaghaei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Nowadays, the Internet is increasingly becoming the fastest growing shopping channel in these days. Moreover, it has been predicted that the city of Isfahan in Iran will experience a sharp increase in the Internet and the Web usage in the next decade. However, the factors affect the shopping of different products via the Internet have received a little direct research attention so far. Thus, there is an inherent need to investigate the nature and perceptions of consumers and the suitability of different types of products and services and also the role of each factor which impacts consumers’ behavior in choosing between buying from the Internet or traditional stores. Our case study is Isfahan Iran. Approach: The present study aimed to consider the influencing factors on consumer e-shopping behavior for different types of products. The data were obtained from 412 volunteers who had the Internet shopping experience and were analyzed using MLP neural networks and logistic regression for each types of product. Then, after comparing the accuracy of these methods, the most important factors which motivate the consumers to buy online were determined by the trained neural network. Results: Compared to the logistic regression, the neural network method showed a better performance in predicting the factors which affect on consumer online shopping behavior with the accuracy of at around 93% for all types of products included in this study. Conclusion: The results showed that companies should invest on different factors for different types of products to motivate consumers to shop online from them. Again, for each sort of products some factors are more important than the others. This study also suggested the merits of ANNs as non-linear predictors in commercial studies which can be used in reverse engineering as well.

  1. Design of psychosocial factors questionnaires: a systematic measurement approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Angélica; Felknor, Sarah A

    2012-01-01

    Background Evaluation of psychosocial factors requires instruments that measure dynamic complexities. This study explains the design of a set of questionnaires to evaluate work and non-work psychosocial risk factors for stress-related illnesses. Methods The measurement model was based on a review of literature. Content validity was performed by experts and cognitive interviews. Pilot testing was carried out with a convenience sample of 132 workers. Cronbach’s alpha evaluated internal consistency and concurrent validity was estimated by Spearman correlation coefficients. Results Three questionnaires were constructed to evaluate exposure to work and non-work risk factors. Content validity improved the questionnaires coherence with the measurement model. Internal consistency was adequate (α=0.85–0.95). Concurrent validity resulted in moderate correlations of psychosocial factors with stress symptoms. Conclusions Questionnaires´ content reflected a wide spectrum of psychosocial factors sources. Cognitive interviews improved understanding of questions and dimensions. The structure of the measurement model was confirmed. PMID:22628068

  2. Structure shows that a glycosaminoglycan and protein recognition site in factor H is perturbed by age-related macular degeneration-linked single nucleotide polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Andrew P; Deakin, Jon A; Schmidt, Christoph Q; Blaum, Bärbel S; Egan, Claire; Ferreira, Viviana P; Pangburn, Michael K; Lyon, Malcolm; Uhrín, Dusan; Barlow, Paul N

    2007-06-29

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism in the factor H gene predisposes to age-related macular degeneration. Factor H blocks the alternative pathway of complement on self-surfaces bearing specific polyanions, including the glycosaminoglycan chains of proteoglycans. Factor H also binds C-reactive protein, potentially contributing to noninflammatory apoptotic processes. The at risk sequence contains His (rather than Tyr) at position 402 (384 in the mature protein), in the seventh of the 20 complement control protein (CCP) modules (CCP7) of factor H. We expressed both His(402) and Tyr(402) variants of CCP7, CCP7,8, and CCP6-8. We determined structures of His(402) and Tyr(402) CCP7 and showed them to be nearly identical. The side chains of His/Tyr(402) have similar, solvent-exposed orientations far from interfaces with CCP6 and -8. Tyr(402) CCP7 bound significantly more tightly than His(402) CCP7 to a heparin affinity column as well as to defined-length sulfated heparin oligosaccharides employed in gel mobility shift assays. This observation is consistent with the position of the 402 side chain on the edge of one of two glycosaminoglycan-binding surface patches on CCP7 that we inferred on the basis of chemical shift perturbation studies with a sulfated heparin tetrasaccharide. According to surface plasmon resonance measurements, Tyr(402) CCP6-8 binds significantly more tightly than His(402) CCP6-8 to immobilized C-reactive protein. The data support a causal link between H402Y and age-related macular degeneration in which variation at position 402 modulates the response of factor H to age-related changes in the glycosaminoglycan composition and apoptotic activity of the macula.

  3. A combined structural dynamics approach identifies a putative switch in factor VIIa employed by tissue factor to initiate blood coagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole H; Rand, Kasper D; Østergaard, Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    Coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) requires tissue factor (TF) to attain full catalytic competency and to initiate blood coagulation. In this study, the mechanism by which TF allosterically activates FVIIa is investigated by a structural dynamics approach that combines molecular dynamics (MD...

  4. An immunologic approach to induction of epidermal growth factor deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaberg, Lasse; Nexø, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier;

    1995-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) in pharmacologic doses is able to induce growth and development in the fetus and the newborn. To investigate the opposite situation, the effects of insufficient amounts of EGF during development, we wanted to establish an in vivo model with a state of EGF deficiency......(-9) mol/L. The antibodies recognized purified EGF from the submandibular glands (6 kD) and from urine (45 kD) and further native EGF in saliva and urine. The cross-reactivity toward transforming growth factor-alpha was below 3%. Binding of EGF by antibodies inhibited its binding to the EGF...

  5. Replicating hedge fund returns: A factor model approach

    OpenAIRE

    Naser, Omar

    2007-01-01

    Growth in the Hedge Fund industry mirrors the growth in the Mutual Fund industry. This raises the possibility of creating a passive strategy that replicates Hedge Fund returns at lower cost using liquid, exchange-traded instruments. Using monthly returns for the period 1991-2005 on thirteen Hedge Fund strategies, I build a linear factor models (“clones”) that replicate Hedge Fund returns. I use six common factors to determine the amount of expected return and variation in returns that can be ...

  6. The Status of Cognitive Psychology Journals: An Impact Factor Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togia, Aspasia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact factor of cognitive psychology journals indexed in the Science and Social Sciences edition of "Journal Citation Reports" ("JCR") database over a period of 10 consecutive years. Cognitive psychology journals were indexed in 11 different subject categories of the database. Their mean impact factor…

  7. The Status of Cognitive Psychology Journals: An Impact Factor Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togia, Aspasia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact factor of cognitive psychology journals indexed in the Science and Social Sciences edition of "Journal Citation Reports" ("JCR") database over a period of 10 consecutive years. Cognitive psychology journals were indexed in 11 different subject categories of the database. Their mean impact factor…

  8. The Relative Importance of Job Factors: A New Measurement Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealey, Stanley M.

    This paper reports on a new two-phase measurement technique that permits a direct comparison of the perceived relative importance of economic vs. non-economic factors in a job situation in accounting for personnel retention, the willingness to produce, and job satisfaction. The paired comparison method was used to measure the preferences of 91…

  9. Factors associated with malnutrition among tribal children in India: a non-parametric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Avijit; Bhattacharjee, Nairita

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the determinants of malnutrition among the tribal children in India. The investigation is based on secondary data compiled from the National Family Health Survey-3. We used a classification and regression tree model, a non-parametric approach, to address the objective. Our analysis shows that breastfeeding practice, economic status, antenatal care of mother and women's decision-making autonomy are negatively associated with malnutrition among tribal children. We identify maternal malnutrition and urban concentration of household as the two risk factors for child malnutrition. The identified associated factors may be used for designing and targeting preventive programmes for malnourished tribal children. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. From System-Wide Differential Gene Expression to Perturbed Regulatory Factors: A Combinatorial Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurang Mahajan

    Full Text Available High-throughput experiments such as microarrays and deep sequencing provide large scale information on the pattern of gene expression, which undergoes extensive remodeling as the cell dynamically responds to varying environmental cues or has its function disrupted under pathological conditions. An important initial step in the systematic analysis and interpretation of genome-scale expression alteration involves identification of a set of perturbed transcriptional regulators whose differential activity can provide a proximate hypothesis to account for these transcriptomic changes. In the present work, we propose an unbiased and logically natural approach to transcription factor enrichment. It involves overlaying a list of experimentally determined differentially expressed genes on a background regulatory network coming from e.g. literature curation or computational motif scanning, and identifying that subset of regulators whose aggregated target set best discriminates between the altered and the unaffected genes. In other words, our methodology entails testing of all possible regulatory subnetworks, rather than just the target sets of individual regulators as is followed in most standard approaches. We have proposed an iterative search method to efficiently find such a combination, and benchmarked it on E. coli microarray and regulatory network data available in the public domain. Comparative analysis carried out on artificially generated differential expression profiles, as well as empirical factor overexpression data for M. tuberculosis, shows that our methodology provides marked improvement in accuracy of regulatory inference relative to the standard method that involves evaluating factor enrichment in an individual manner.

  11. From System-Wide Differential Gene Expression to Perturbed Regulatory Factors: A Combinatorial Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Gaurang; Mande, Shekhar C

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput experiments such as microarrays and deep sequencing provide large scale information on the pattern of gene expression, which undergoes extensive remodeling as the cell dynamically responds to varying environmental cues or has its function disrupted under pathological conditions. An important initial step in the systematic analysis and interpretation of genome-scale expression alteration involves identification of a set of perturbed transcriptional regulators whose differential activity can provide a proximate hypothesis to account for these transcriptomic changes. In the present work, we propose an unbiased and logically natural approach to transcription factor enrichment. It involves overlaying a list of experimentally determined differentially expressed genes on a background regulatory network coming from e.g. literature curation or computational motif scanning, and identifying that subset of regulators whose aggregated target set best discriminates between the altered and the unaffected genes. In other words, our methodology entails testing of all possible regulatory subnetworks, rather than just the target sets of individual regulators as is followed in most standard approaches. We have proposed an iterative search method to efficiently find such a combination, and benchmarked it on E. coli microarray and regulatory network data available in the public domain. Comparative analysis carried out on artificially generated differential expression profiles, as well as empirical factor overexpression data for M. tuberculosis, shows that our methodology provides marked improvement in accuracy of regulatory inference relative to the standard method that involves evaluating factor enrichment in an individual manner.

  12. B ->PV Decays in QCD Improved Factorization Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Yang Mao Zhi; Yang, Mao-Zhi; Yang, Ya-Dong

    2000-01-01

    Motivated by recent CELO measurements and the progress of the theory of B decays, we investigate $B\\to P V(P=\\pi,K. V= K^{*},\\rho,\\omega)$ decay modes in the framework of QCD improved factorization. We find that all the measured branching ratios are well accommodated in the reasonable parameter space and predictions for the other decay modes are well below the experimental upper limits. We also have calculated CP asymmetries in these decay modes.

  13. Approaching Safety through Quality: Factors Influencing College Student Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, S K; Mosher, G A

    2016-04-01

    Quality management practices have been identified by previous literature as a factor that could potentially reduce the level of safety incidents and hazards in agricultural work environments. The present study used multivariate analysis to examine the effect of independent variables such as quality and safety awareness, work experience, safety and quality management experience, and the perceived importance of safety and quality on the role of quality management practices as a mitigating factor for safety hazards and incidents in agriculture. Variables were measured on a five-point scale using a survey questionnaire. Data were collected from approximately 900 undergraduates enrolled in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at a large land grant university in the U.S. The level of student work experience and student perceptions of the importance of quality explained a significant amount of the variance in student views of quality management practices as a mitigating factor for safety hazards and incidents. The findings of this study provide further evidence for using quality management practices as a basis for safety interventions targeted at the agricultural workforce.

  14. Mapping Transcription Factors on Extended DNA: A Single Molecule Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenstein, Yuval; Gassman, Natalie; Weiss, Shimon

    The ability to determine the precise loci and distribution of nucleic acid binding proteins is instrumental to our detailed understanding of cellular processes such as transcription, replication, and chromatin reorganization. Traditional molecular biology approaches and above all Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) based methods have provided a wealth of information regarding protein-DNA interactions. Nevertheless, existing techniques can only provide average properties of these interactions, since they are based on the accumulation of data from numerous protein-DNA complexes analyzed at the ensemble level. We propose a single molecule approach for direct visualization of DNA binding proteins bound specifically to their recognition sites along a long stretch of DNA such as genomic DNA. Fluorescent Quantum dots are used to tag proteins bound to DNA, and the complex is deposited on a glass substrate by extending the DNA to a linear form. The sample is then imaged optically to determine the precise location of the protein binding site. The method is demonstrated by detecting individual, Quantum dot tagged T7-RNA polymerase enzymes on the bacteriophage T7 genomic DNA and assessing the relative occupancy of the different promoters.

  15. Factors Affecting Timely Completion of a PhD: A Complex Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchforth, Jegar; Beames, Stephanie; Thomas, Aleysha; Falk, Matthew; Farr, Charisse; Gasson, Susan; Thamrin, Sri Astuti; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2012-01-01

    Completing a PhD on time is a complex process, influenced by many interacting factors. In this paper we take a Bayesian Network approach to analyzing the factors perceived to be important in achieving this aim. Focusing on a single research group in Mathematical Sciences, we develop a conceptual model to describe the factors considered to be…

  16. Factors Mediating the Interactions between Adviser and Advisee during the Master's Thesis Project: A Quantitative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Jr., Jose Florencio; Lehmann, Angela Valeria Levay; Fleith, Denise De Souza

    2005-01-01

    Building on previous studies centred on the interaction between adviser and advisee in masters thesis projects, in which a qualitative approach was used, the present study uses factor analysis to identify the factors that determine either a successful or unsuccessful outcome for the masters thesis project. There were five factors relating to the…

  17. Exploring factors associated with pressure ulcers: a data mining approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Dheeraj; Su, Xiaogang; Patrician, Patricia A; Loan, Lori A; McCarthy, Mary S

    2015-01-01

    Pressure ulcers are associated with a nearly three-fold increase in in-hospital mortality. It is essential to investigate how other factors besides the Braden scale could enhance the prediction of pressure ulcers. Data mining modeling techniques can be beneficial to conduct this type of analysis. Data mining techniques have been applied extensively in health care, but are not widely used in nursing research. To remedy this methodological gap, this paper will review, explain, and compare several data mining models to examine patient level factors associated with pressure ulcers based on a four year study from military hospitals in the United States. The variables included in the analysis are easily accessible demographic information and medical measurements. Logistic regression, decision trees, random forests, and multivariate adaptive regression splines were compared based on their performance and interpretability. The random forests model had the highest accuracy (C-statistic) with the following variables, in order of importance, ranked highest in predicting pressure ulcers: days in the hospital, serum albumin, age, blood urea nitrogen, and total Braden score. Data mining, particularly, random forests are useful in predictive modeling. It is important for hospitals and health care systems to use their own data over time for pressure ulcer risk prediction, to develop risk models based upon more than the total Braden score, and specific to their patient population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. In vitro production of alkaloids: Factors, approaches, challenges and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayeed Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide diversity of plant secondary metabolites is largely used for the production of various pharmaceutical compounds. In vitro cell tissue or organ culture has been employed as a possible alternative to produce such industrial compounds. Tissue culture techniques provide continuous, reliable, and renewable source of valuable plant pharmaceuticals and might be used for the large-scale culture of the plant cells from which these secondary metabolites can be extracted. Alkaloids are one of the most important secondary metabolites known to play a vital role in various pharmaceutical applications leading to an increased commercial importance in recent years. The tissue culture techniques may be utilized to improve their production of alkaloids via somaclonal variations and genetic transformations. The focus of this review is toward the application of different tissue culture methods/techniques employed for the in vitro production of alkaloids with a systematic approach to improve their production.

  19. Exploring the Interactions of the Dietary Plant Flavonoids Fisetin and Naringenin with G-Quadruplex and Duplex DNA, Showing Contrasting Binding Behavior: Spectroscopic and Molecular Modeling Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Snehasish; Chakraborty, Sandipan; Sengupta, Pradeep K; Bhowmik, Sudipta

    2016-09-01

    Guanine-rich sequences have the propensity to fold into a four-stranded DNA structure known as a G-quadruplex (G4). G4 forming sequences are abundant in the promoter region of several oncogenes and become a key target for anticancer drug binding. Here we have studied the interactions of two structurally similar dietary plant flavonoids fisetin and naringenin with G4 as well as double stranded (duplex) DNA by using different spectroscopic and modeling techniques. Our study demonstrates the differential binding ability of the two flavonoids with G4 and duplex DNA. Fisetin more strongly interacts with parallel G4 structure than duplex DNA, whereas naringenin shows stronger binding affinity to duplex rather than G4 DNA. Molecular docking results also corroborate our spectroscopic results, and it was found that both of the ligands are stacked externally in the G4 DNA structure. C-ring planarity of the flavonoid structure appears to be a crucial factor for preferential G4 DNA recognition of flavonoids. The goal of this study is to explore the critical effects of small differences in the structure of closely similar chemical classes of such small molecules (flavonoids) which lead to the contrasting binding properties with the two different forms of DNA. The resulting insights may be expected to facilitate the designing of the highly selective G4 DNA binders based on flavonoid scaffolds.

  20. An integrated approach to rotorcraft human factors research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Hartzell, E. James; Voorhees, James W.; Bucher, Nancy M.; Shively, R. Jay

    1988-01-01

    As the potential of civil and military helicopters has increased, more complex and demanding missions in increasingly hostile environments have been required. Users, designers, and manufacturers have an urgent need for information about human behavior and function to create systems that take advantage of human capabilities, without overloading them. Because there is a large gap between what is known about human behavior and the information needed to predict pilot workload and performance in the complex missions projected for pilots of advanced helicopters, Army and NASA scientists are actively engaged in Human Factors Research at Ames. The research ranges from laboratory experiments to computational modeling, simulation evaluation, and inflight testing. Information obtained in highly controlled but simpler environments generates predictions which can be tested in more realistic situations. These results are used, in turn, to refine theoretical models, provide the focus for subsequent research, and ensure operational relevance, while maintaining predictive advantages. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of research are described along with examples of experimental results.

  1. Factors Influencing Sedentary Behaviour in Older Adults: An Ecological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Weir

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary behaviour is negatively associated with several health outcomes and is particularly problematic among older adults. Knowledge translation tools and public health promotion strategies are needed; however, little evidence is available to inform framing of such tools or development of intervention programs. The aim of the present study was to use data on the perceptions of sedentary time and the programs or supports older adults identify as important for reducing their sedentary time, to inform knowledge translation strategies targeting this population. Focus groups were conducted with four groups of older adults (n = 26 at local seniors' centres (Ontario, Canada. Participants were 74 ± 8.5 years old and were engaging in both sedentary and physical activities in a social environment. Using the Ecological Model for sedentary time in adults, we categorized data into leisure time, household, transport and occupation domains. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors that worked to either discourage or promote sedentary behaviour were identified. Drawing on both groupings of data, results were synthesized to inform public health strategies on appropriate messaging and better uptake of programming and guidelines. For example, successful programs developed on the topic will need to include a social component and a mentally stimulating component, as these were identified as critical for enjoyment and motivation. It was clear from this analysis that sedentary time reduction strategies will need to consider the different domains in which older adults accumulate sedentary time.

  2. Model approach for estimating potato pesticide bioconcentration factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraíba, Lourival Costa; Kataguiri, Karen

    2008-11-01

    We presented a model that estimates the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of pesticides in potatoes supposing that the pesticide in the soil solution is absorbed by the potato by passive diffusion, following Fick's second law. The pesticides in the model are nonionic organic substances, traditionally used in potato crops that degrade in the soil according to a first-order kinetic equation. This presents an expression that relates BCF with the pesticide elimination rate by the potato, with the pesticide accumulation rate within the potato, with the rate of growth of the potato and with the pesticide degradation rate in the soil. BCF was estimated supposing steady state equilibrium of the quotient between the pesticide concentration in the potato and the pesticide concentration in the soil solution. It is suggested that a negative correlation exists between the pesticide BCF and the soil sorption partition coefficient. The model was built based on the work of Trapp et al. [Trapp, S., Cammarano, A., Capri, E., Reichenberg, F., Mayer, P., 2007. Diffusion of PAH in potato and carrot slices and application for a potato model. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41 (9), 3103-3108], in which an expression to calculate the diffusivity of persistent organic substances in potatoes is presented. The model consists in adding to the expression of Trapp et al. [Trapp, S., Cammarano, A., Capri, E., Reichenberg, F., Mayer, P., 2007. Diffusion of PAH in potato and carrot slices and application for a potato model. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41 (9), 3103-3108] the hypothesis that the pesticide degrades in the soil. The value of BCF suggests which pesticides should be monitored in potatoes.

  3. The Arabidopsis homologs of CCR4-associated factor 1 show mRNA deadenylation activity and play a role in plant defence responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenxing Liang; Changbao Li; Fang Liu; Hongling Jiang; Shuyu Li; Jiaqiang Sun; Xiaoyan Wu; Chuanyou Li

    2009-01-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) turnover in eukaryotic cells begins with shortening of the poly (A) tail at the 3' end, a process called deadenylation. In yeast, the deadenylation reaction is predominantly mediated by CCR4 and CCR4-associated factor 1 (CAF1), two components of the well-characterised protein complex named CCR4-NOT. We re-port here that AtCAFla and AtCAFlb, putative Arabidopsis homologs of the yeast CAFI gene, partially complement the growth defect of the yeast cafl mutant in the presence of caffeine or at high temperatures. The expression of At-CAFla and AtCAFlb is induced by multiple stress-related hormones and stimuli. Both AtCAFIa and AtCAFIb show deadenylation activity in vitro and point mutations in the predicted active sites disrupt this activity. T-DNA inser-tion mutants disrupting the expression of AtCAFla and/or AtCAFlb are defective in deadenylation of stress-related mRNAs, indicating that the two AtCAFI proteins are involved in regulated mRNA deadenylation in vivo. Interest-ingly, the single and double mutants of AtCAFla and AtCAFlb show reduced expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes PR1 and PR2 and are more susceptible to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) infection, whereas transgenic plants over-expressing AtCAFla show elevated expression of PR1 and PR2 and increased resis-tance to the same pathogen. Our results suggest roles of the AtCAF1 proteins in regulated mRNA deadenylation and defence responses to pathogen infections.

  4. Pion Form Factor in QCD Sum Rules with Nonlocal Condensates and in the Local-Duality Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bakulev, Alexander P; Stefanis, N G

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the QCD sum-rule approach for the spacelike electromagnetic pion form factor in the $O(\\alpha_s)$ approximation. We show that the nonlocality of the condensates is a key point to include nonperturbative contributions to the pion form factor. We compare our results with the Local-Duality predictions and show that the continuum threshold $s_0(Q^2)$ parameter is highly underestimated in the Local-Duality approach at $Q^2\\gtrsim 2$ GeV$^2$. Using our fit for this parameter, $s_0^\\text{LD}(Q^2)$, and applying the fractional analytic perturbation theory, we estimate with an accuracy of the order of 1% the $O(\\alpha_s^2)$ contribution to the pion's form factor.

  5. Identification and validation of seven new loci showing differential DNA methylation related to serum lipid profile: an epigenome-wide approach. The REGICOR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipid traits (total, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides) are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. DNA methylation is not only an inherited but also modifiable epigenetic mark that has been related to cardiovascular risk factors. Our aim was to identify loci s...

  6. Versatile reporter systems show that transactivation by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax occurs independently of chromatin remodeling factor BRG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Liu, Meihong; Merling, Randall; Giam, Chou-Zen

    2006-08-01

    Potent activation of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) gene expression is mediated by the virus-encoded transactivator protein Tax and three imperfect 21-bp repeats in the viral long terminal repeats. Each 21-bp repeat contains a cAMP-responsive-element core flanked by 5' G-rich and 3' C-rich sequences. Tax alone does not bind DNA. Rather, it interacts with basic domain-leucine zipper transcription factors CREB and ATF-1 to form ternary complexes with the 21-bp repeats. In the context of the ternary complexes, Tax contacts the G/C-rich sequences and recruits transcriptional coactivators CREB-binding protein (CBP)/p300 to effect potent transcriptional activation. Using an easily transduced and chromosomally integrated reporter system derived from a self-inactivating lentivirus vector, we showed in a BRG1- and BRM1-deficient adrenal carcinoma cell line, SW-13, that Tax- and 21-bp repeat-mediated transactivation does not require BRG1 or BRM1 and is not enhanced by BRG1. With a similar reporter system, we further demonstrated that Tax- and tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced NF-kappaB activation occurs readily in SW-13 cells in the absence of BRG1 and BRM1. These results suggest that the assembly of stable multiprotein complexes containing Tax, CREB/ATF-1, and CBP/p300 on the 21-bp repeats is the principal mechanism employed by Tax to preclude nucleosome formation at the HTLV-1 enhancer/promoter. This most likely bypasses the need for BRG1-containing chromatin-remodeling complexes. Likewise, recruitment of CBP/p300 by NF-kappaB may be sufficient to disrupt histone-DNA interaction for the initiation of transcription.

  7. A Computational Approach to Politeness with Application to Social Factors

    CERN Document Server

    Danescu-Niculescu-Mizil, Cristian; Jurafsky, Dan; Leskovec, Jure; Potts, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    We propose a computational framework for identifying linguistic aspects of politeness. Our starting point is a new corpus of requests annotated for politeness, which we use to evaluate aspects of politeness theory and to uncover new interactions between politeness markers and context. These findings guide our construction of a classifier with domain-independent lexical and syntactic features operationalizing key components of politeness theory, such as indirection, deference, impersonalization and modality. Our classifier achieves close to human performance and is effective across domains. We use our framework to study the relationship between politeness and social power, showing that polite Wikipedia editors are more likely to achieve high status through elections, but, once elevated, they become less polite. We see a similar negative correlation between politeness and power on Stack Exchange, where users at the top of the reputation scale are less polite than those at the bottom. Finally, we apply our class...

  8. Late-Life Environmental Enrichment Induces Acetylation Events and Nuclear Factor κB-Dependent Regulations in the Hippocampus of Aged Rats Showing Improved Plasticity and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidl, Romain; Schneider, Anne; Bousiges, Olivier; Majchrzak, Monique; Barbelivien, Alexandra; de Vasconcelos, Anne Pereira; Dorgans, Kevin; Doussau, Frédéric; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; Cassel, Jean-Christophe; Boutillier, Anne-Laurence

    2016-04-13

    Aging weakens memory functions. Exposing healthy rodents or pathological rodent models to environmental enrichment (EE) housing improves their cognitive functions by changing neuronal levels of excitation, cellular signaling, and plasticity, notably in the hippocampus. At the molecular level, brain derived-neurotrophic factor (BDNF) represents an important player that supports EE-associated changes. EE facilitation of learning was also shown to correlate with chromatin acetylation in the hippocampus. It is not known, however, whether such mechanisms are still into play during aging. In this study, we exposed a cohort of aged rats (18-month-old) to either a 6 month period of EE or standard housing conditions and investigated chromatin acetylation-associated events [histone acetyltranferase activity, gene expression, and histone 3 (H3) acetylation] and epigenetic modulation of the Bdnf gene under rest conditions and during learning. We show that EE leads to upregulation of acetylation-dependent mechanisms in aged rats, whether at rest or following a learning challenge. We found an increased expression of Bdnf through Exon-I-dependent transcription, associated with an enrichment of acetylated H3 at several sites of Bdnf promoter I, more particularly on a proximal nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) site under learning conditions. We further evidenced p65/NF-κB binding to chromatin at promoters of genes important for plasticity and hippocampus-dependent learning (e.g., Bdnf, CamK2D). Altogether, our findings demonstrate that aged rats respond to a belated period of EE by increasing hippocampal plasticity, together with activating sustained acetylation-associated mechanisms recruiting NF-κB and promoting related gene transcription. These responses are likely to trigger beneficial effects associated with EE during aging. Aging weakens memory functions. Optimizing the neuronal circuitry required for normal brain function can be achieved by increasing sensory, motor, and

  9. Prompt photon and W/Z production in the k{sub T}-factorization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranov, S.P. [Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy Science, Leninsky prospect 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Lipatov, A.V.; Zotov, N.P. [Skobeltsin Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-01-15

    In the framework of the k{sub T}-factorization approach we study the production of prompt photons and electroweak gauge bosons in high energy proton-(anti)proton collisions at energy of modern colliders.

  10. ERP system implementation costs and selection factors of an implementation approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Björn; Sudzina, Frantisek; Newman, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Different approaches on implementation of enterprise resource planning (ERPs) systems exist. In this article, we investigate relationship between factors influencing selection of implementation approach and companies' ability to stay within budget when implementing ERPs. The question is: do factors......, which influence the implementation approach in an ERP project, cause also an increase of the project cost in a European context? Our survey was conducted in Denmark, Slovakia and Slovenia and focused on this issue. Our main findings are that: 1) the number of implemented modules influences selection...... of an implementation approach; 2) companies with information strategies are more likely to stay within budget regarding ERP systems implementation. However, we also found that: 3) implementation approach does not significantly influence ability to stay within budget; 4) a clear relationship between factors influencing...

  11. A novel, selective inhibitor of fibroblast growth factor receptors that shows a potent broad spectrum of antitumor activity in several tumor xenograft models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Genshi; Li, Wei-Ying; Chen, Daohong; Henry, James R; Li, Hong-Yu; Chen, Zhaogen; Zia-Ebrahimi, Mohammad; Bloem, Laura; Zhai, Yan; Huss, Karen; Peng, Sheng-Bin; McCann, Denis J

    2011-11-01

    The fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) are tyrosine kinases that are present in many types of endothelial and tumor cells and play an important role in tumor cell growth, survival, and migration as well as in maintaining tumor angiogenesis. Overexpression of FGFRs or aberrant regulation of their activities has been implicated in many forms of human malignancies. Therefore, targeting FGFRs represents an attractive strategy for development of cancer treatment options by simultaneously inhibiting tumor cell growth, survival, and migration as well as tumor angiogenesis. Here, we describe a potent, selective, small-molecule FGFR inhibitor, (R)-(E)-2-(4-(2-(5-(1-(3,5-Dichloropyridin-4-yl)ethoxy)-1H-indazol-3yl)vinyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)ethanol, designated as LY2874455. This molecule is active against all 4 FGFRs, with a similar potency in biochemical assays. It exhibits a potent activity against FGF/FGFR-mediated signaling in several cancer cell lines and shows an excellent broad spectrum of antitumor activity in several tumor xenograft models representing the major FGF/FGFR relevant tumor histologies including lung, gastric, and bladder cancers and multiple myeloma, and with a well-defined pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship. LY2874455 also exhibits a 6- to 9-fold in vitro and in vivo selectivity on inhibition of FGF- over VEGF-mediated target signaling in mice. Furthermore, LY2874455 did not show VEGF receptor 2-mediated toxicities such as hypertension at efficacious doses. Currently, this molecule is being evaluated for its potential use in the clinic.

  12. Gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor blockade agent, shows additional or synergistic effects on the radiosensitivity of esophageal cancer cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taira,Naruto

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Human esophageal cancers have been shown to express high levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and a relationship between high EGFR expression and local advance, the number of lymph node metastases, life expectancy, and sensitivity to chemo-radiotherapy has been demonstrated. We examined the use of gefitinib, an orally active EGFR-selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, as a new strategy for treatment of esophageal carcinoma. The effects of gefitinib were evaluated in monotherapy and in combination with radiotherapy in human esophageal carcinoma cell lines. Gefitinib produced a dose-dependent inhibition of cellular proliferation in all of the 8 esophageal carcinoma cell lines examined, with IC50 values ranging from 5.7 microM to 36.9 microM. In combination, gefitinib and radiotherapy showed a synergistic effect in 2 human esophageal carcinoma cell lines and an additive effect in 5 cell lines. Western blotting demonstrated that gefitinib blocked activation of the EGFR-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk pathway and the EGFR-phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K-Akt pathway after irradiation. These results suggest that further evaluation of EGFR blockade as a treatment for esophageal cancer should be performed, and that radiotherapy combined with EGFR blockade may enhance the response of esophageal carcinoma to therapy.

  13. Mouse Dac, a novel nuclear factor with homology to Drosophila dachshund shows a dynamic expression in the neural crest, the eye, the neocortex, and the limb bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caubit, X; Thangarajah, R; Theil, T; Wirth, J; Nothwang, H G; Rüther, U; Krauss, S

    1999-01-01

    Dac is a novel nuclear factor in mouse and humans that shares homology with Drosophila dachshund (dac). Alignment with available sequences defines a conserved box of 117 amino acids that shares weak homology with the proto-oncogene Ski and Sno. Dac expression is found in various neuroectodermal and mesenchymal tissues. At early developmental stages Dac is expressed in lateral mesoderm and in neural crest cells. In the neural plate/tube Dac expression is initially seen in the prosencephalon and gets gradually restricted to the presumptive neocortex and the distal portion of the outgrowing optic vesicle. Furthermore, Dac transcripts are detected in the mesenchyme underlying the Apical Ectodermal Ridge (AER) of the extending limb bud, the dorsal root ganglia and chain ganglia, and the mesenchyme of the growing genitalia. Dac expression in the Gli 3 mutant extra toes (Xt/Xt) shows little difference compared to the expression in wild-type limb buds. In contrast, a significant expansion of Dac expression are observed in the anterior mesenchyme of the limb buds of hemimelic extra toes (Hx/+) mice. FISH analysis reveals that human DAC maps to chromosome 13q22.3-23 and further fine-mapping defined a position of the DAC gene at 54cM or 13q21.1, a locus that associates with mental retardation and skeletal abnormalities.

  14. Integrating cognitive and motivational factors in depression: initial tests of a goal-orientation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykman, B M

    1998-01-01

    Attempts to predict depression from a strictly cognitive perspective have met with limited success. A goal-orientation model is proposed that integrates motivational and cognitive factors in attempting to explain and predict depression. The model proposes that people differ in their goal orientation, with some people being more validation seeking (VS) and others being more growth seeking (GS). The model predicts that compared with GS persons, VS persons will show greater anxiety in anticipation of a stressful event and greater self-esteem loss, task disengagement, and depression after a negative event. A goal-orientation measure was developed (Study 1), and the predictive validity of the model was tested (Studies 2-5). Findings suggest that the explanatory and predictive power of the cognitive theories can be enhanced, and the arsenal of the cognitive therapist enlarged, by integrating motivational and cognitive approaches to depression.

  15. 75 FR 8937 - Development of a Relative Potency Factor (RPF) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... AGENCY Development of a Relative Potency Factor (RPF) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH...) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Mixtures'' (EPA/635/R-08/012A). The draft document was... 27, 2010. The listening session on the draft document for PAH mixtures will be held on April 7,...

  16. Factors Contributing to Changes in a Deep Approach to Learning in Different Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postareff, Liisa; Parpala, Anna; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari

    2015-01-01

    The study explored factors explaining changes in a deep approach to learning. The data consisted of interviews with 12 students from four Bachelor-level courses representing different disciplines. We analysed and compared descriptions of students whose deep approach either increased, decreased or remained relatively unchanged during their courses.…

  17. Stochastic Discount Factor Approach to International Risk-Sharing:A Robustness Check of the Bilateral Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadzi-Vaskov, M.; Kool, C.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a robustness check of the stochastic discount factor approach to international (bilateral) risk-sharing given in Brandt, Cochrane, and Santa-Clara (2006). We demonstrate two main inherent limitations of the bilateral SDF approach to international risk-sharing. First, the discount

  18. Factors Contributing to Changes in a Deep Approach to Learning in Different Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postareff, Liisa; Parpala, Anna; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari

    2015-01-01

    The study explored factors explaining changes in a deep approach to learning. The data consisted of interviews with 12 students from four Bachelor-level courses representing different disciplines. We analysed and compared descriptions of students whose deep approach either increased, decreased or remained relatively unchanged during their courses.…

  19. The Effect of Differentiation Approach Developed on Creativity of Gifted Students: Cognitive and Affective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Esra; Özdemir, Ahmet S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to develop a differentiation approach for the mathematics education of gifted middle school students and to determine the effect of the differentiation approach on creative thinking skills of gifted students based on both cognitive and affective factors. In this context, the answer to the following question was searched:…

  20. Factors Influencing Local Communities' Satisfaction Levels with Different Forest Management Approaches of Kakamega Forest, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthiga, Paul M.; Mburu, John; Holm-Mueller, Karin

    2008-05-01

    Satisfaction of communities living close to forests with forest management authorities is essential for ensuring continued support for conservation efforts. However, more often than not, community satisfaction is not systematically elicited, analyzed, and incorporated in conservation decisions. This study attempts to elicit levels of community satisfaction with three management approaches of Kakamega forest in Kenya and analyze factors influencing them. Three distinct management approaches are applied by three different authorities: an incentive-based approach of the Forest Department (FD), a protectionist approach of the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS), and a quasi-private incentive-based approach of Quakers Church Mission (QCM). Data was obtained from a random sample of about 360 households living within a 10-km radius around the forest margin. The protectionist approach was ranked highest overall for its performance in forest management. Results indicate that households are influenced by different factors in their ranking of management approaches. Educated households and those located far from market centers are likely to be dissatisfied with all the three management approaches. The location of the households from the forest margin influences negatively the satisfaction with the protectionist approach, whereas land size, a proxy for durable assets, has a similar effect on the private incentive based approach of the QCM. In conclusion, this article indicates a number of policy implications that can enable the different authorities and their management approaches to gain approval of the local communities.

  1. Exclusive $J/\\psi$ production at the LHC in the $k_T$ factorization approach

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, S P; Ryskin, M G; Teubner, T

    2016-01-01

    The recent LHCb data for exclusive $J/\\psi$ peripheral production at 13 TeV motivate an improved `NLO' analysis to estimate the gluon distribution at low $x$ in which we re-calculate the rapidity gap survival factors and use a more precise expression for the photon flux. We comment on the difference between the $k_T$ and collinear factorization approaches.

  2. The effects of motivational factors on car use : a multidisciplinary modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, L; Geurs, K; Ras, M

    2001-01-01

    Current transport models usually do not take motivational factors into account, and if they do, it is only implicitly. This paper presents a modelling approach aimed at explicitly examining the effects of motivational factors on present and future car use in the Netherlands. A car-use forecasting mo

  3. AN EXPEDITION IN SEARCH OF A 5TH UNIVERSAL FACTOR - KEY ISSUES IN THE LEXICAL APPROACH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DERAAD, B

    1994-01-01

    It is argued that the fifth factor of the Big Five Model of personality traits cannot yet claim universal status. In order to identify a fifth factor within the lexical approach it is necessary to make full use of the potentialities of the psycholexical principles. Several flaws in the lexical

  4. Impact of MET inhibition on small-cell lung cancer cells showing aberrant activation of the hepatocyte growth factor/MET pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Yamada, Tadaaki; Takeuchi, Shinji; Arai, Sachiko; Fukuda, Koji; Sakamoto, Shuichi; Kawada, Manabu; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Mukae, Hiroshi; Yano, Seiji

    2017-07-01

    Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for approximately 15% of all lung cancers, and is characterized as extremely aggressive, often displaying rapid tumor growth and multiple organ metastases. In addition, the clinical outcome of SCLC patients is poor due to early relapse and acquired resistance to standard chemotherapy treatments. Hence, novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of SCLC are urgently required. Accordingly, several molecular targeted therapies were evaluated in SCLC; however, they failed to improve the clinical outcome. The receptor tyrosine kinase MET is a receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and aberrant activation of HGF/MET signaling is known as one of the crucial mechanisms enabling cancer progression and invasion. Here, we found that the HGF/MET signaling was aberrantly activated in chemoresistant or chemorelapsed SCLC cell lines (SBC-5, DMS273, and DMS273-G3H) by the secretion of HGF and/or MET copy number gain. A cell-based in vitro assay revealed that HGF/MET inhibition, induced either by MET inhibitors (crizotinib and golvatinib), or by siRNA-mediated knockdown of HGF or MET, constrained growth of chemoresistant SCLC cells through the inhibition of ERK and AKT signals. Furthermore, treatment with either crizotinib or golvatinib suppressed the systemic metastasis of SBC-5 cell tumors in natural killer cell-depleted SCID mice, predominantly through cell cycle arrest. These findings reveal the therapeutic potential of targeting the HGF/MET pathway for inhibition, to constrain tumor progression of SCLC cells showing aberrant activation of HGF/MET signaling. We suggest that it would be clinically valuable to further investigate HGF/MET-mediated signaling in SCLC cells. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  5. A unique modification of the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A shows the presence of the complete hypusine pathway in Leishmania donovani.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Chawla

    Full Text Available Deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH catalyzes the final step in the post-translational synthesis of an unusual amino acid hypusine (N(€-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl lysine, which is present on only one cellular protein, eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A. We present here the molecular and structural basis of the function of DOHH from the protozoan parasite, Leishmania donovani, which causes visceral leishmaniasis. The L. donovani DOHH gene is 981 bp and encodes a putative polypeptide of 326 amino acids. DOHH is a HEAT-repeat protein with eight tandem repeats of α-helical pairs. Four conserved histidine-glutamate sequences have been identified that may act as metal coordination sites. A ~42 kDa recombinant protein with a His-tag was obtained by heterologous expression of DOHH in Escherichia coli. Purified recombinant DOHH effectively catalyzed the hydroxylation of the intermediate, eIF5A-deoxyhypusine (eIF5A-Dhp, in vitro. L. donovani DOHH (LdDOHH showed ~40.6% sequence identity with its human homolog. The alignment of L. donovani DOHH with the human homolog shows that there are two significant insertions in the former, corresponding to the alignment positions 159-162 (four amino acid residues and 174-183 (ten amino acid residues which are present in the variable loop connecting the N- and C-terminal halves of the protein, the latter being present near the substrate binding site. Deletion of the ten-amino-acid-long insertion decreased LdDOHH activity to 14% of the wild type recombinant LdDOHH. Metal chelators like ciclopirox olamine (CPX and mimosine significantly inhibited the growth of L. donovani and DOHH activity in vitro. These inhibitors were more effective against the parasite enzyme than the human enzyme. This report, for the first time, confirms the presence of a complete hypusine pathway in a kinetoplastid unlike eubacteria and archaea. The structural differences between the L. donovani DOHH and the human homolog may be exploited for

  6. A unique modification of the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A shows the presence of the complete hypusine pathway in Leishmania donovani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Bhavna; Kumar, Ravi Ranjan; Tyagi, Nidhi; Subramanian, Gowri; Srinivasan, N; Park, Myung Hee; Madhubala, Rentala

    2012-01-01

    Deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH) catalyzes the final step in the post-translational synthesis of an unusual amino acid hypusine (N(€)-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl) lysine), which is present on only one cellular protein, eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A). We present here the molecular and structural basis of the function of DOHH from the protozoan parasite, Leishmania donovani, which causes visceral leishmaniasis. The L. donovani DOHH gene is 981 bp and encodes a putative polypeptide of 326 amino acids. DOHH is a HEAT-repeat protein with eight tandem repeats of α-helical pairs. Four conserved histidine-glutamate sequences have been identified that may act as metal coordination sites. A ~42 kDa recombinant protein with a His-tag was obtained by heterologous expression of DOHH in Escherichia coli. Purified recombinant DOHH effectively catalyzed the hydroxylation of the intermediate, eIF5A-deoxyhypusine (eIF5A-Dhp), in vitro. L. donovani DOHH (LdDOHH) showed ~40.6% sequence identity with its human homolog. The alignment of L. donovani DOHH with the human homolog shows that there are two significant insertions in the former, corresponding to the alignment positions 159-162 (four amino acid residues) and 174-183 (ten amino acid residues) which are present in the variable loop connecting the N- and C-terminal halves of the protein, the latter being present near the substrate binding site. Deletion of the ten-amino-acid-long insertion decreased LdDOHH activity to 14% of the wild type recombinant LdDOHH. Metal chelators like ciclopirox olamine (CPX) and mimosine significantly inhibited the growth of L. donovani and DOHH activity in vitro. These inhibitors were more effective against the parasite enzyme than the human enzyme. This report, for the first time, confirms the presence of a complete hypusine pathway in a kinetoplastid unlike eubacteria and archaea. The structural differences between the L. donovani DOHH and the human homolog may be exploited for structure

  7. A latent dynamic factor approach to forecasting multivariate stock market volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Gribisch, Bastian

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a latent dynamic factor model for low- as well as high-dimensional realized covariance matrices of stock returns. The approach is based on the matrix logarithm and allows for flexible dynamic dependence patterns by combining common latent factors driven by HAR dynamics and idiosyncratic AR(1) factors. The model accounts for symmetry and positive definiteness of covariance matrices without imposing parametric restrictions. Simulated Bayesian parameter estimates as well as p...

  8. Unraveling the WRKY transcription factors network in Arabidopsis Thaliana by integrative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Choura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The WRKY transcription factors superfamily are involved in diverse biological processes in plants including response to biotic and abiotic stresses and plant immunity. Protein-protein interaction network is a useful approach for understanding these complex processes. The availability of Arabidopsis Thaliana interactome offers a good opportunity to do get a global view of protein network. In this work, we have constructed the WRKY transcription factor network by combining different sources of evidence and we characterized its topological features using computational tools. We found that WRKY network is a hub-based network involving multifunctional proteins denoted as hubs such as WRKY 70, WRKY40, WRKY 53, WRKY 60, WRKY 33 and WRKY 51. Functional annotation showed seven functional modules particularly involved in biotic stress and defense responses. Furthermore, the gene ontology and pathway enrichment analysis revealed that WRKY proteins are mainly involved in plant-pathogen interaction pathways and their functions are directly related to the stress response and immune system process.

  9. PRISM offers a comprehensive genomic approach to transcription factor function prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Wenger, A. M.

    2013-02-04

    The human genome encodes 1500-2000 different transcription factors (TFs). ChIP-seq is revealing the global binding profiles of a fraction of TFs in a fraction of their biological contexts. These data show that the majority of TFs bind directly next to a large number of context-relevant target genes, that most binding is distal, and that binding is context specific. Because of the effort and cost involved, ChIP-seq is seldom used in search of novel TF function. Such exploration is instead done using expression perturbation and genetic screens. Here we propose a comprehensive computational framework for transcription factor function prediction. We curate 332 high-quality nonredundant TF binding motifs that represent all major DNA binding domains, and improve cross-species conserved binding site prediction to obtain 3.3 million conserved, mostly distal, binding site predictions. We combine these with 2.4 million facts about all human and mouse gene functions, in a novel statistical framework, in search of enrichments of particular motifs next to groups of target genes of particular functions. Rigorous parameter tuning and a harsh null are used to minimize false positives. Our novel PRISM (predicting regulatory information from single motifs) approach obtains 2543 TF function predictions in a large variety of contexts, at a false discovery rate of 16%. The predictions are highly enriched for validated TF roles, and 45 of 67 (67%) tested binding site regions in five different contexts act as enhancers in functionally matched cells.

  10. Factors Associated with Performance of Farmer Field School as Extension Approach to Cocoa Production in Osun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. O. Adisa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on factors associated with performance of Farmer Field School (FFS as extension approach to cocoa production in Osun State, Nigeria. Data were gathered through structured interview schedule from 248 cocoa farmers participating in FFS. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools such as frequency counts, percentage, mean and standard deviation while inferential statistics such as correlation and chi square were used to test the hypothesis set. Results of the study show that the mean age of cocoa farmers participating in FFS in the study area was 53.3 years with standard deviation of 9.0; majority (79.4% of them were males, they spent an average of 10.9 years in formal school, the mean of years of experience in cocoa production was 7.5 with standard deviation of 4.8 and they had progressive increase in cocoa output from 2007 to 2009. Furthermore, there was high compliance with the organizational structure and operational strategies recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO. There were positive and significant relationship between improvement in cocoa management practices and respondents’ age (r = 0.322; P ≤ 0.05; years of formal education(r = 0.153; P ≤ 0.05; cocoa land size(r = 0.501; P ≤ 0.01; years of experience in cocoa production (r = 0.503; P ≤ 0.01. The study also identified five crucial factors associated with performance of FFS as extension approach, which were social factor (λ = 1.0706; economic factor (λ = 1.2549; facilitators-related factor (λ = 1.6744; FFS operational strategies factor (λ = 0.9973; and community-related factor (λ = 0.4767. The factors indentified explained 83.50 percent of the variation in the performance of FFS as extension approach to cocoa production in Osun State.

  11. An integrated graphic–taxonomic–associative approach to analyze human factors in aviation accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Lei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human factors are critical causes of modern aviation accidents. However, existing accident analysis methods encounter limitations in addressing aviation human factors, especially in complex accident scenarios. The existing graphic approaches are effective for describing accident mechanisms within various categories of human factors, but cannot simultaneously describe inadequate human–aircraft–environment interactions and organizational deficiencies effectively, and highly depend on analysts’ skills and experiences. Moreover, the existing methods do not emphasize latent unsafe factors outside accidents. This paper focuses on the above three limitations and proposes an integrated graphic–taxonomic–associative approach. A new graphic model named accident tree (AcciTree, with a two-mode structure and a reaction-based concept, is developed for accident modeling and safety defense identification. The AcciTree model is then integrated with the well-established human factors analysis and classification system (HFACS to enhance both reliability of the graphic part and logicality of the taxonomic part for improving completeness of analysis. An associative hazard analysis technique is further put forward to extend analysis to factors outside accidents, to form extended safety requirements for proactive accident prevention. Two crash examples, a research flight demonstrator by our team and an industrial unmanned aircraft, illustrate that the integrated approach is effective for identifying more unsafe factors and safety requirements.

  12. Caregiving and Developmental Factors Differentiating Young At-Risk Urban Children Showing Resilient Versus Stress-Affected Outcomes: A Replication and Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Peter A.; And Others

    1999-01-01

    Tested hypotheses from an organizational-developmental model for childhood resilience among 7- to 9-year olds. Found that caregiving factors and early development differentiated children with resilient and stress-affected adaptations. Variables reflecting emotionally responsive, competent parenting were direct, proximal predictors of resilience…

  13. An instantaneous approach for determining the infrared emissivity of swine surface and the influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Jiao, Leizi; Zhao, Xiande; Dong, Daming

    2016-04-01

    Infrared thermal imaging technology has been widely employed in temperature measurements of human and animals and its accuracy relies on the determination process of the emissivity of the target to a large extent. However, common used methods were unable to determine the emissivity of the surface of living animals and thus lower the accuracy. In this paper, we suggested a new approach to acquire the infrared emissivity of living swine in real time. In the approach, the surface temperature of swine and reference body were measured to compute the emissivity and the measurement process was completed in a non-contact and non-invasive manner. We changed the surface reflection energy of animals and reference body by changing the ambient radiant energy and obtain the surface emissivity in real time without confirming the actual temperature of animal surface. In this way, the infrared emissivity of the animal surface can be determined instantaneously and without knowing the real temperature. Both swine specimen and a living swine were used in this study. Using this method, we measured the emissivity of different body sites of the swine. The results showed that the emissivity values at different body sites show the significant differences. The emissivity values at trotter and eye were respectively 0.895 and 0.930 and the emissivity on swine surface varied from 0.945 to 0.978. More important, the distribution of the infrared emissivity on a living swine was explored and the detailed differences of the emissivity on a swine surface can be cleanly seen. Furthermore, we studied the influencing factors on the emissivity of animal surface, through measuring the emissivity distribution on swine surface when pig specimens were sprayed with water on the surface or heated using this method. This study is of great significance for the accurate measurement of swine surface temperature.

  14. Diffractive processes at the LHC within $k_t$ -factorization approach

    CERN Document Server

    Łuszczak, Marta

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the single diffractive production of $c \\bar c$ pairs and charmed mesons at the LHC. In addition to standard collinear approach, for a first time we propose a $k_t$-factorization approach to the diffractive processes. The transverse momentum dependent (the unintegrated diffractive parton distributions) in proton are obtained with the help of the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription where collinear diffractive PDFs are used as input. In this calculation the transverse momentum of the pomeron is neglected with respect to transverse momentum of partons entering the hard process. The results of the new approach are compared with those of the standard collinear one. Significantly larger cross sections are obtained in the $k_t$-factorization approach where some part of higher-order effects is effectively included. Some correlation observables, like azimuthal angle correlation between $c$ and $\\bar c$, and $c \\bar c$ pair transverse momentum distribution were obtained for the first time.

  15. Estimating Productivity of Software Development Using the Total Factor Productivity Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machek Ondrej

    2012-11-01

    productivity measurement. In this article, we propose a model of process productivity measurement based on the total factor productivity (TFP approach commonly used in economics. In the first part of the article, we define productivity and its measurement. We also discuss the major data issues which have to be taken into consideration. Consequently, we apply the TFP approach in the domain of software engineering and we propose a TFP model of productivity assessment.

  16. Universal Covariance Inflation Factors in the Synchronization Approach to Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane, G.; Tribbia, J.

    2009-04-01

    A theoretical paradigm that seems appropriate for data assimilation is that of the synchronization of loosely coupled chaotic systems. Two or more chaotic systems, loosely coupled through only a few of many degrees of freedom, fall into synchronized motion along their strange attractors under a surprisingly wide variety of conditons, despite sensitivity to differences in initial conditions. The phenomenon has been used to establish a new framework for data assimilation as the synchronization of two systems, corresponding to "truth" and "model", respectively. One seeks to introduce coupling between the two systems in a way that minimizes synchronization error. In previous work, the introduction of observational noise in the coupling channel led to a system of stochastic differential equations that could be analyzed for the optimal value of a coupling coefficient in simple cases. That optimization procedure reproduced the Kalman filter algorithm under certain linearity conditions. In the presence of nonlinearities, if one generalizes the Kalman filter in a way that corresponds to inflating background error, one can derive optimal values for the covariance inflation factor that happen to agree roughly with those used in operational practice. Further, the optimization is robust against the introduction of model error. Here we generalize these previous results in several ways: First, we show that sampling error can be introduced as multiplicative noise. Optimal inflation factors can then be calculated to take account of this additional source of error. Second, we show that the previous optimization of an idealized one-dimensional system captures the essential effects of nonlinearities in higher dimensions. Lastly, in the optimal synchronization context, we compare covariance inflation to other ways of treating nonlinearities, such as adding noise to elements of the analysis error covariance matrix. The near-universality of the traditional inflation approach is explained

  17. Analysis of factors affecting satisfaction level on problem based learning approach using structural equation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Nur Farahin Mee; Zahid, Zalina

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, in the job market demand, graduates are expected not only to have higher performance in academic but they must also be excellent in soft skill. Problem-Based Learning (PBL) has a number of distinct advantages as a learning method as it can deliver graduates that will be highly prized by industry. This study attempts to determine the satisfaction level of engineering students on the PBL Approach and to evaluate their determinant factors. The Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to investigate how the factors of Good Teaching Scale, Clear Goals, Student Assessment and Levels of Workload affected the student satisfaction towards PBL approach.

  18. Peroxidases identified in a subtractive cDNA library approach show tissue-specific transcript abundance and enzyme activity during seed germination of Lepidium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkies, Ada; Schuster-Sherpa, Uta; Tintelnot, Stefanie; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard; Müller, Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    The micropylar endosperm is a major regulator of seed germination in endospermic species, to which the close Brassicaceae relatives Arabidopsis thaliana and Lepidium sativum (cress) belong. Cress seeds are about 20 times larger than the seeds of Arabidopsis. This advantage was used to construct a tissue-specific subtractive cDNA library of transcripts that are up-regulated late in the germination process specifically in the micropylar endosperm of cress seeds. The library showed that a number of transcripts known to be up-regulated late during germination are up-regulated in the micropylar endosperm cap. Detailed germination kinetics of SALK lines carrying insertions in genes present in our library showed that the identified transcripts do indeed play roles during germination. Three peroxidases were present in the library. These peroxidases were identified as orthologues of Arabidopsis AtAPX01, AtPrx16, and AtPrxIIE. The corresponding SALK lines displayed significant germination phenotypes. Their transcripts were quantified in specific cress seed tissues during germination in the presence and absence of ABA and they were found to be regulated in a tissue-specific manner. Peroxidase activity, and particularly its regulation by ABA, also differed between radicles and micropylar endosperm caps. Possible implications of this tissue-specificity are discussed.

  19. Mystery Written on Prescription Pads: Exploring Marketing Factors Influencing Prescription Behaviour using the AHP Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Bamoriya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Pharma market is highly fragmented & nature of competition is intense. Further, in modern times influencing doctors’ prescription decision has become very complex as there is little systematic knowledge about factors affecting the doctors’ prescription behaviour and the weight of individual factor. This study aims to demystify this complex prescription behaviour of doctors, through examining the above mentioned factors. For this purpose, a focus group study will be followed by a quantitative study using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP approach. The findings of the study will have important implications for the marketers in order to do proper allocation of their resources, to improve their promotional efficiency.

  20. Two Experiments to Approach the Boltzmann Factor: Chemical Reaction and Viscous Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Claudio; Battaglia, Onofrio R.; Guastella, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a pedagogical approach aimed at pointing out the role played by the Boltzmann factor in describing phenomena usually perceived as regulated by different mechanisms of functioning. Experimental results regarding some aspects of a chemical reaction and of the viscous flow of some liquids are analysed and described in terms…

  1. Factors Affecting the Involvement of Teachers in Guidance and Counselling as a Whole-School Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Sarah K. Y.; Hui, Eadaoin K. P.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores factors affecting the involvement of regular secondary school teachers in the whole-school approach to guidance and counselling by interviewing 12 secondary school teachers in Hong Kong. Emerging themes include teachers' ownership of their role in student guidance and counselling, the alignment of their disposition with…

  2. Two Experiments to Approach the Boltzmann Factor: Chemical Reaction and Viscous Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Claudio; Battaglia, Onofrio R.; Guastella, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a pedagogical approach aimed at pointing out the role played by the Boltzmann factor in describing phenomena usually perceived as regulated by different mechanisms of functioning. Experimental results regarding some aspects of a chemical reaction and of the viscous flow of some liquids are analysed and described in terms…

  3. Caregiving and developmental factors differentiating young at-risk urban children showing resilient versus stress-affected outcomes: a replication and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, P A; Cowen, E L; Work, W C; Hoyt-Meyers, L; Magnus, K B; Fagen, D B

    1999-01-01

    This study tested hypotheses from an organizational-developmental model for childhood resilience. In this model resilience reflects a child's mastery of age-salient objectives, in the face of substantial adversity, by drawing on internal and external resources that enhance processes of adaptation specific to each developmental stage. Interviews were conducted with parents of 122 7- to 9-year-old urban children exposed to multiple risk factors, 69 classified as resilient and 53 as maladjusted. Consistent with predictions generated by the model: (1) characteristics of a child's caregiving system and early development differentiated children with resilient and stress-affected adaptations; and (2) variables reflecting emotionally responsive, competent parenting were direct, proximal predictors of resilient status and mediators of other caregiver resources such as education, mental health, and relational history. Identified predictors of resilient status, including competent parenting and caregiver psychosocial resources, largely replicated findings from a prior study with sociodemographically comparable 9- to 12-year-old children.

  4. Random matrix approach to estimation of high-dimensional factor models

    CERN Document Server

    Yeo, Joongyeub

    2016-01-01

    In dealing with high-dimensional data sets, factor models are often useful for dimension reduction. The estimation of factor models has been actively studied in various fields. In the first part of this paper, we present a new approach to estimate high-dimensional factor models, using the empirical spectral density of residuals. The spectrum of covariance matrices from financial data typically exhibits two characteristic aspects: a few spikes and bulk. The former represent factors that mainly drive the features and the latter arises from idiosyncratic noise. Motivated by these two aspects, we consider a minimum distance between two spectrums; one from a covariance structure model and the other from real residuals of financial data that are obtained by subtracting principal components. Our method simultaneously provides estimators of the number of factors and information about correlation structures in residuals. Using free random variable techniques, the proposed algorithm can be implemented and controlled ef...

  5. Growth factor delivery-based tissue engineering: general approaches and a review of recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kangwon; Silva, Eduardo A; Mooney, David J

    2011-02-06

    The identification and production of recombinant morphogens and growth factors that play key roles in tissue regeneration have generated much enthusiasm and numerous clinical trials, but the results of many of these trials have been largely disappointing. Interestingly, the trials that have shown benefit all contain a common denominator, the presence of a material carrier, suggesting strongly that spatio-temporal control over the location and bioactivity of factors after introduction into the body is crucial to achieve tangible therapeutic effect. Sophisticated materials systems that regulate the biological presentation of growth factors represent an attractive new generation of therapeutic agents for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. This review provides an overview of growth factor delivery in tissue engineering. Certain fundamental issues and design strategies relevant to the material carriers that are being actively pursued to address specific technical objectives are discussed. Recent progress highlights the importance of materials science and engineering in growth factor delivery approaches to regenerative medicine.

  6. A Computationally Efficient State Space Approach to Estimating Multilevel Regression Models and Multilevel Confirmatory Factor Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fei; Preacher, Kristopher J; Wu, Wei; Yung, Yiu-Fai

    2014-01-01

    Although the state space approach for estimating multilevel regression models has been well established for decades in the time series literature, it does not receive much attention from educational and psychological researchers. In this article, we (a) introduce the state space approach for estimating multilevel regression models and (b) extend the state space approach for estimating multilevel factor models. A brief outline of the state space formulation is provided and then state space forms for univariate and multivariate multilevel regression models, and a multilevel confirmatory factor model, are illustrated. The utility of the state space approach is demonstrated with either a simulated or real example for each multilevel model. It is concluded that the results from the state space approach are essentially identical to those from specialized multilevel regression modeling and structural equation modeling software. More importantly, the state space approach offers researchers a computationally more efficient alternative to fit multilevel regression models with a large number of Level 1 units within each Level 2 unit or a large number of observations on each subject in a longitudinal study.

  7. The structure of temperament in preschoolers: a two-stage factor analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Margaret W; Olino, Thomas M; Durbin, C Emily; Goldsmith, H Hill; Klein, Daniel N

    2012-02-01

    The structure of temperament traits in young children has been the subject of extensive debate, with separate models proposing different trait dimensions. This research has relied almost exclusively on parent-report measures. The present study used an alternative approach, a laboratory observational measure, to explore the structure of temperament in preschoolers. A 2-stage factor analytic approach, exploratory factor analyses (n = 274) followed by confirmatory factor analyses (n = 276), was used. We retrieved an adequately fitting model that consisted of 5 dimensions: Sociability, Positive Affect/Interest, Dysphoria, Fear/Inhibition, and Constraint versus Impulsivity. This solution overlaps with, but is also distinct from, the major models derived from parent-report measures.

  8. E-Learning Personalization Using Triple-Factor Approach in Standard-Based Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksitowening, K. A.; Santoso, H. B.; Hasibuan, Z. A.

    2017-01-01

    E-Learning can be a tool in monitoring learning process and progress towards the targeted competency. Process and progress on every learner can be different one to another, since every learner may have different learning type. Learning type itself can be identified by taking into account learning style, motivation, and knowledge ability. This study explores personalization for learning type based on Triple-Factor Approach. Considering that factors in Triple-Factor Approach are dynamic, the personalization system needs to accommodate the changes that may occurs. Originated from the issue, this study proposed personalization that guides learner progression dynamically towards stages of their learning process. The personalization is implemented in the form of interventions that trigger learner to access learning contents and discussion forums more often as well as improve their level of knowledge ability based on their state of learning type.

  9. The chimeric repressor version of an Ethylene Response Factor (ERF) family member, Sl-ERF.B3, shows contrasting effects on tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingchun; Diretto, Gianfranco; Pirrello, Julien; Roustan, Jean-Paul; Li, Zhengguo; Giuliano, Giovanni; Regad, Farid; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2014-07-01

    Fruit ripening involves a complex interplay between ethylene and ripening-associated transcriptional regulators. Ethylene Response Factors (ERFs) are downstream components of ethylene signaling, known to regulate the expression of ethylene-responsive genes. Although fruit ripening is an ethylene-regulated process, the role of ERFs remains poorly understood. The role of Sl-ERF.B3 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit maturation and ripening is addressed here using a chimeric dominant repressor version (ERF.B3-SRDX). Over-expression of ERF.B3-SRDX results in a dramatic delay of the onset of ripening, enhanced climacteric ethylene production and fruit softening, and reduced pigment accumulation. Consistently, genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and in softening are up-regulated and those of carotenoid biosynthesis are down-regulated. Moreover, the expression of ripening regulators, such as RIN, NOR, CNR and HB-1, is stimulated in ERF.B3-SRDX dominant repressor fruits and the expression pattern of a number of ERFs is severely altered. The data suggest the existence of a complex network enabling interconnection between ERF genes which may account for the pleiotropic alterations in fruit maturation and ripening. Overall, the study sheds new light on the role of Sl-ERF.B3 in the transcriptional network controlling the ripening process and uncovers a means towards uncoupling some of the main ripening-associated processes.

  10. Use of a serum-free epidermal culture model to show deleterious effects of epidermal growth factor on morphogenesis and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C S; Lavker, R M; Rodeck, U; Risse, B; Jensen, P J

    1995-01-01

    The presence of serum has limited the utility of many culture models for the study of cytokine effects because its complexity and variability can confound the interpretation of data. In the present study, a serum-free skin co-culture model was used to investigate the effect of exogenous epidermal growth factor (EGF) on epidermal proliferation and differentiation. Human keratinocytes cultured on collagen rafts at the air-liquid interface produced a well-differentiated epithelium that resembled normal epidermis. Keratin filaments, membrane-coating granules, and keratohyalin granules were all observed. Epidermal differentiation markers keratin K1/K10, involucrin, and transglutaminase were localized in most of the suprabasal layers, whereas profilaggrin/filaggrin was confined to the granular layers and stratum corneum. In the continual presence of 10-20 ng/mL EGF, the epidermis was less organized, thinner, and less proliferative. EGF also depressed several indicators of differentiation: The number of keratohyalin granules and membrane-coating granules was greatly decreased; antigen expression of profilaggrin/filaggrin appeared diminished by immunocytochemical staining; frequent nuclear retention was noted in the relatively thickened stratum corneum-like layers. As detected by immunohistochemical staining, the expression of EGF receptor in the epidermis was reduced by exogenous EGF. These data illustrate that EGF cannot be considered a simple mitogen. Our findings also underscore the importance of using sophisticated culture models to assess complex cytokine effects that may be dependent on the architecture of a differentiating epidermis.

  11. A proteomic study showing differential regulation of stress, redox regulation and peroxidase proteins by iron supply and the transcription factor FER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbarova, Tzvetina; Matros, Andrea; Mock, Hans-Peter; Bauer, Petra

    2008-04-01

    Plants need to mobilize iron in the soil, and the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor FER is a central regulator of iron acquisition in tomato roots. FER activity is controlled by iron supply. To analyse to what extent FER influences Fe-regulated protein expression, we investigated the root proteome of wild-type tomato, the fer mutant and a transgenic FER overexpression line under low-iron conditions versus sufficient and generous iron supply. The root proteomes were analysed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with three technical and three biological replicates. Statistical analysis identified 39 protein spots that were differentially regulated in selected pairwise comparisons of experimental conditions. Of these, 24 were correlated with expression clusters revealed by principal component analysis. The 39 protein spots were analysed by MALDI-TOF and nanoLC-MS/MS to deduce their possible functions. We investigated the functional representation in the identified expression clusters, and found that loss of FER function in iron-cultured plants mimicked an iron-deficiency status. The largest identified protein expression cluster was upregulated by iron deficiency and in the fer mutant. Two iron-regulated proteins required FER activity for induction by iron deficiency. Few proteins were suppressed by iron deficiency. The differentially expressed proteins belonged predominantly to the functional categories 'stress', 'redox regulation' and 'miscellaneous peroxidases'. Hence, we were able to identify distinct expression clusters of proteins with distinct functions.

  12. Protective factors in patients aged over 65 with stroke treated by physiotherapy, showing cognitive impairment, in the Valencia Community. Protection Study in Older People (EPACV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil-Guillen Vicente

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family function may have an influence on the mental health deterioration of the caregivers of dependent family members and it could have a varying importance on the care of dependents. Little attention has been paid to the preparation of minor stroke survivors for the recovery trajectory or the spouse for the caregiving role. Therefore, this study protocol intends to analyze the influence of family function on the protection of patients with stroke sequels needing physiotherapy in the family environment. Methods/Design This is an analytical observational design, prospective cohort study and using a qualitative methodology by means of data collected in the “interviews of life”. The study will be carried out by the Rehabilitation Service at Hospital of Elda in the Valencia Community. All patients that have been diagnosed with stroke and need physiotherapy treatment, having a dependency grade assigned and consent to participate in the study, will undergo a monitoring of one year in order to assess the predictive factors depending on the dependence of the people affected. Discussion Our research aims to analyze the perception of caregivers, their difficulties to work, and the influence of family function. Moreover, it aims to register the perception of the patients with stroke sequel over the care received and whether they feel protected in their family environment.

  13. Transgenic wheat expressing Thinopyrum intermedium MYB transcription factor TiMYB2R-1 shows enhanced resistance to the take-all disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Yang, Lihua; Zhou, Xianyao; Zhou, Miaoping; Lu, Yan; Ma, Lingjian; Ma, Hongxiang; Zhang, Zengyan

    2013-05-01

    The disease take-all, caused by the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis, is one of the most destructive root diseases of wheat worldwide. Breeding resistant cultivars is an effective way to protect wheat from take-all. However, little progress has been made in improving the disease resistance level in commercial wheat cultivars. MYB transcription factors play important roles in plant responses to environmental stresses. In this study, an R2R3-MYB gene in Thinopyrum intermedium, TiMYB2R-1, was cloned and characterized. The gene sequence includes two exons and an intron. The expression of TiMYB2R-1 was significantly induced following G. graminis infection. An in vitro DNA binding assay proved that TiMYB2R-1 protein could bind to the MYB-binding site cis-element ACI. Subcellular localization assays revealed that TiMYB2R-1 was localized in the nucleus. TiMYB2R-1 transgenic wheat plants were generated, characterized molecularly, and evaluated for take-all resistance. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed that TiMYB2R-1 was integrated into the genomes of three independent transgenic wheat lines by distinct patterns and the transgene was heritable. Reverse transcription-PCR and western blot analyses revealed that TiMYB2R-1 was highly expressed in the transgenic wheat lines. Based on disease response assessments for three successive generations, the significantly enhanced resistance to take-all was observed in the three TiMYB2R-1-overexpressing transgenic wheat lines. Furthermore, the transcript levels of at least six wheat defence-related genes were significantly elevated in the TiMYB2R-1 transgenic wheat lines. These results suggest that engineering and overexpression of TiMYB2R-1 may be used for improving take-all resistance of wheat and other cereal crops.

  14. An Augmented Incomplete Factorization Approach for Computing the Schur Complement in Stochastic Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Petra, Cosmin G.

    2014-01-01

    We present a scalable approach and implementation for solving stochastic optimization problems on high-performance computers. In this work we revisit the sparse linear algebra computations of the parallel solver PIPS with the goal of improving the shared-memory performance and decreasing the time to solution. These computations consist of solving sparse linear systems with multiple sparse right-hand sides and are needed in our Schur-complement decomposition approach to compute the contribution of each scenario to the Schur matrix. Our novel approach uses an incomplete augmented factorization implemented within the PARDISO linear solver and an outer BiCGStab iteration to efficiently absorb pivot perturbations occurring during factorization. This approach is capable of both efficiently using the cores inside a computational node and exploiting sparsity of the right-hand sides. We report on the performance of the approach on highperformance computers when solving stochastic unit commitment problems of unprecedented size (billions of variables and constraints) that arise in the optimization and control of electrical power grids. Our numerical experiments suggest that supercomputers can be efficiently used to solve power grid stochastic optimization problems with thousands of scenarios under the strict "real-time" requirements of power grid operators. To our knowledge, this has not been possible prior to the present work. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  15. Identifying Risk and Protective Factors in Recidivist Juvenile Offenders: A Decision Tree Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Campos, Elena; García-García, Juan; Gil-Fenoy, Maria José; Zaldívar-Basurto, Flor

    2016-01-01

    Research on juvenile justice aims to identify profiles of risk and protective factors in juvenile offenders. This paper presents a study of profiles of risk factors that influence young offenders toward committing sanctionable antisocial behavior (S-ASB). Decision tree analysis is used as a multivariate approach to the phenomenon of repeated sanctionable antisocial behavior in juvenile offenders in Spain. The study sample was made up of the set of juveniles who were charged in a court case in the Juvenile Court of Almeria (Spain). The period of study of recidivism was two years from the baseline. The object of study is presented, through the implementation of a decision tree. Two profiles of risk and protective factors are found. Risk factors associated with higher rates of recidivism are antisocial peers, age at baseline S-ASB, problems in school and criminality in family members. PMID:27611313

  16. Spatialised fate factors for nitrate in catchments: modelling approach and implication for LCA results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset-Mens, Claudine; Anibar, Lamiaa; Durand, Patrick; van der Werf, Hayo M G

    2006-08-15

    The challenge for environmental assessment tools, such as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is to provide a holistic picture of the environmental impacts of a given system, while being relevant both at a global scale, i.e., for global impact categories such as climate change, and at a smaller scale, i.e., for regional impact categories such as aquatic eutrophication. To this end, the environmental mechanisms between emission and impact should be taken into account. For eutrophication in particular, which is one of the main impacts of farming systems, the fate factor of eutrophying pollutants in catchments, and particularly of nitrate, reflects one of these important and complex environmental mechanisms. We define this fate factor as: the ratio of the amount of nitrate at the outlet of the catchment over the nitrate emitted from the catchment's soils. In LCA, this fate factor is most often assumed equal to 1, while the observed fate factor is generally less than 1. A generic approach for estimating the range of variation of nitrate fate factors in a region of intensive agriculture was proposed. This approach was based on the analysis of different catchment scenarios combining different catchment types and different effective rainfalls. The evolution over time of the nitrate fate factor as well as the steady state fate factor for each catchment scenario was obtained using the INCA simulation model. In line with the general LCA model, the implications of the steady state fate factors for nitrate were investigated for the eutrophication impact result in the framework of an LCA of pig production. A sensitivity analysis to the fraction of nitrate lost as N(2)O was presented for the climate change impact category. This study highlighted the difference between the observed fate factor at a given time, which aggregates both storage and transformation processes and a "steady state fate factor", specific to the system considered. The range of steady state fate factors obtained for

  17. Speech Enhancement Algorithm Using Sub band Two Step Decision Directed Approach with Adaptive Weighting factor and Noise Masking Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Dhanaskodi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Speech Enhancement plays an important role in any of the speech processing systems like speech recognition, mobile communication, hearing aid. Approach: In this work, human perceptual auditory masking effect is incorporated into the single channel speech enhancement algorithm. The algorithm is based on a criterion by which the audible noise may be masked rather than being attenuated and thereby reducing the chance of distortion to speech. The basic decision directed approach is for efficient reduction of musical noise, that includes the estimation of the a priori SNR which is a crucial parameter of the spectral gain, follows the a posteriori SNR with a delay of one frame in speech frames. In this work a simple adaptive speech enhancement technique, using an adaptive sigmoid type function to determine the weighting factor of the TSDD algorithm is employed based on a sub band approach. In turn the spectral estimate is used to obtain a perceptual gain factor. Results: Objective and subjective measures like SNR, MSE, IS distance and were obtained, which shows the ability of the proposed method for efficient enhancement of noisy speech Conclusion/Recommendations: Performance assessment shows that our proposal can achieve a more significant noise reduction and a better spectral estimation of weak speech spectral components from a noisy signal as compared to the conventional speech enhancement algorithm.

  18. Whole genome association analysis shows that ACE is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and fails to replicate most candidates from Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jennifer; Reiman, Eric M; Zismann, Victoria L; Joshipura, Keta D; Pearson, John V; Hu-Lince, Diane; Huentelman, Matthew J; Craig, David W; Coon, Keith D; Beach, Thomas; Rohrer, Kristen C; Zhao, Alice S; Leung, Doris; Bryden, Leslie; Marlowe, Lauren; Kaleem, Mona; Mastroeni, Diego; Grover, Andrew; Rogers, Joseph; Heun, Reinhard; Jessen, Frank; Kölsch, Heike; Heward, Christopher B; Ravid, Rivka; Hutton, Michael L; Melquist, Stacey; Petersen, Ron C; Caselli, Richard J; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Stephan, Dietrich A; Hardy, John; Myers, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    For late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), the only confirmed, genetic association is with the apolipoprotein E (APOE) locus on chromosome 19. Meta-analysis is often employed to sort the true associations from the false positives. LOAD research has the advantage of a continuously updated meta-analysis of candidate gene association studies in the web-based AlzGene database. The top 30 AlzGene loci on May 1(st), 2007 were investigated in our whole genome association data set consisting of 1411 LOAD cases and neuropathoiogicaiiy verified controls genotyped at 312,316 SNPs using the Affymetrix 500K Mapping Platform. Of the 30 "top AlzGenes", 32 SNPs in 24 genes had odds ratios (OR) whose 95% confidence intervals that did not include 1. Of these 32 SNPs, six were part of the Affymetrix 500K Mapping panel and another ten had proxies on the Affymetrix array that had >80% power to detect an association with α=0.001. Two of these 16 SNPs showed significant association with LOAD in our sample series. One was rs4420638 at the APOE locus (uncorrected p-value=4.58E-37) and the other was rs4293, located in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) locus (uncorrected p-value=0.014). Since this result was nominally significant, but did not survive multiple testing correction for 16 independent tests, this association at rs4293 was verified in a geographically distinct German cohort (p-value=0.03). We present the results of our ACE replication aiongwith a discussion of the statistical limitations of multiple test corrections in whole genome studies.

  19. Diffractive production of heavy mesons at the LHC within $k_t$ - factorization approach

    CERN Document Server

    Luszczak, Marta

    2016-01-01

    We discuss diffractive production of heavy mesons at the LHC. The differential cross sections for single- and central-diffractive mechanisms for $c\\bar c$ pair production are calculated in the framework of the Ingelman-Schlein model corrected for absorption effects. Here, leading-order gluon-gluon fusion and quark-antiquark anihilation partonic subprocesses are taken into consideration. Both pomeron flux factors as well as parton distributions in the pomeron are taken from the H1 Collaboration analysis of diffractive structure function and diffractive dijets at HERA. The extra corrections from subleading reggeon exchanges are also taken into consideration. In addition to standard collinear approach, for the first time the differential cross sections for the diffractive $c\\bar c$ pair production are calculated in the framework of the $k_t$-factorization approach, i.e. effectively including higher-order corrections. The unintegrated (transverse momentum dependent) diffractive parton distributions in proton are ...

  20. Combination of Evidence with Different Weighting Factors: A Novel Probabilistic-Based Dissimilarity Measure Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the invalidation problem of Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence (DS with high conflict in multisensor data fusion, this paper presents a novel combination approach of conflict evidence with different weighting factors using a new probabilistic dissimilarity measure. Firstly, an improved probabilistic transformation function is proposed to map basic belief assignments (BBAs to probabilities. Then, a new dissimilarity measure integrating fuzzy nearness and introduced correlation coefficient is proposed to characterize not only the difference between basic belief functions (BBAs but also the divergence degree of the hypothesis that two BBAs support. Finally, the weighting factors used to reassign conflicts on BBAs are developed and Dempster’s rule is chosen to combine the discounted sources. Simple numerical examples are employed to demonstrate the merit of the proposed method. Through analysis and comparison of the results, the new combination approach can effectively solve the problem of conflict management with better convergence performance and robustness.

  1. Deep inelastic prompt photon production at HERA in the k{sub T} factorization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranov, S.P. [P.N. Lebedev Physics Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Lipatov, A.V.; Zotov, N.P. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). D.V. Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics

    2010-02-15

    We investigate the prompt photon production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA in the framework of k{sub T}-factorization QCD approach. Our study is based on the off-shell partonic amplitude eq{sup *} {yields} e{gamma}q, where the photon radiation from the leptons as well as from the quarks is taken into account. The unintegrated quark densities in a proton are determined using the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. The conservative error analysis is performed. We investigate both inclusive and jet associated prompt photon production rates. Our predictions are compared with the recent experimental data taken by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations. We demonstrate that in the k{sub T}-factorization approach the contribution from the quark radiation subprocess (QQ mechanism) is enhanced as compared to the leading-order collinear approximation. (orig.)

  2. Deep inelastic prompt photon production at HERA in the kt-factorization approach

    CERN Document Server

    Baranov, S P; Zotov, N P

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the prompt photon production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA in the framework of kt-factorization QCD approach. Our study is based on the off-shell partonic amplitude e q* -> e gamma q, where the photon radiation from the leptons as well as from the quarks is taken into account. The unintegrated quark densities in a proton are determined using the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. The conservative error analisys is performed. We investigate both inclusive and jet associated prompt photon production rates. Our predictions are compared with the recent experimental data taken by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations. We demonstrate that in the kt-factorization approach the contribution from the quark radiation subprocess (QQ mechanism) is enhanced as compared to the leading-order collinear approximation.

  3. Dynamic order reduction of thin-film deposition kinetics models: A reaction factorization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adomaitis, Raymond A., E-mail: adomaiti@umd.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    A set of numerical tools for the analysis and dynamic dimension reduction of chemical vapor and atomic layer deposition (ALD) surface reaction models is developed in this work. The approach is based on a two-step process where in the first, the chemical species surface balance dynamic equations are factored to effectively decouple the (nonlinear) reaction rates, a process that eliminates redundant dynamic modes and that identifies conserved quantities. If successful, the second phase is implemented to factor out redundant dynamic modes when species relatively minor in concentration are omitted; if unsuccessful, the technique points to potential model structural problems. An alumina ALD process is used for an example consisting of 19 reactions and 23 surface and gas-phase species. Using the approach developed, the model is reduced by nineteen modes to a four-dimensional dynamic system without any knowledge of the reaction rate values. Results are interpreted in the context of potential model validation studies.

  4. Enhancement of lipid production using biochemical, genetic and transcription factor engineering approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courchesne, Noémie Manuelle Dorval; Parisien, Albert; Wang, Bei; Lan, Christopher Q

    2009-04-20

    This paper compares three possible strategies for enhanced lipid overproduction in microalgae: the biochemical engineering (BE) approaches, the genetic engineering (GE) approaches, and the transcription factor engineering (TFE) approaches. The BE strategy relies on creating a physiological stress such as nutrient-starvation or high salinity to channel metabolic fluxes to lipid accumulation. The GE strategy exploits our understanding to the lipid metabolic pathway, especially the rate-limiting enzymes, to create a channelling of metabolites to lipid biosynthesis by overexpressing one or more key enzymes in recombinant microalgal strains. The TFE strategy is an emerging technology aiming at enhancing the production of a particular metabolite by means of overexpressing TFs regulating the metabolic pathways involved in the accumulation of target metabolites. Currently, BE approaches are the most established in microalgal lipid production. The TFE is a very promising strategy because it may avoid the inhibitive effects of the BE approaches and the limitation of "secondary bottlenecks" as commonly observed in the GE approaches. However, it is still a novel concept to be investigated systematically.

  5. Human factors multi-technique approach to teenage engagement in digital technologies health research

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Alexandra R; Craven, Michael P; Atkinson, Sarah; Simons, Lucy; Cobb, Sue; Mazzola, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores the use of multi-techniques for teenage HCI health research. Through four case studies we present information about adolescents as users of healthcare services and technologies, adolescent personal development and the human factors approaches through which teenagers have been involved in healthcare research projects. In each case study; comprising of the design or evaluation of a new digital technology for supporting health or well-being, the techniques used by researche...

  6. Prioritization of Revenue Management Factors:A Synthetic Extent Analysis Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Emre GULER

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents a novel approach for revealing the success factors of revenue management practices in hospitality industry. Our study aims to point out the favorably contributing ‘ingredients’ of a successful revenue management application. We investigate what revenue managers have learned from their past experience by using real empirical data and fuzzy synthetic evaluation procedure. Researchers and practitioners may regard this work as a functional benchmark analyzing a functi...

  7. Risk factor investigation for cardiovascular health through WHO STEPS approach in Ardabil, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashadi-Abdollahi H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available H Sadeghi-Bazargani1,2, H Jafarzadeh3, M Fallah4, S Hekmat3, J Bashiri3, GH Hosseingolizadeh3, MS Soltanmohammadzadeh3, A Mortezazadeh3, A Shaker3, M Danehzan3, A Zohouri3, O Khosravi3, R Nasimidoust3, N Malekpour3, E Kharazmi4, M Babaei3, M Nadirmohammadi3, H Mashhadi-Abdollahi51Neuroscience Research Center, 2Statistics and Epidemiology Department, Faculty of Health and Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3Public Health Department, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran; 4Tampere School of Public Health, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland; 5National Public Health Management Center (NPMC, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranObjectives: Reliable evidence is the keystone for any noncommunicable disease (NCD prevention plan to be initiated. In this study we carried out a risk factor investigation based on the WHO Stepwise approach to Surveillance (STEPS.Methods: The study was conducted out on 1000 adults between 15 and 64 years of age living in Ardabil province, north-west Iran during 2006, based on the WHO STEPS approach to surveillance of risk factors for NCD. At this stage only the first and second steps were carried out. Data were collected through standard questionnaires and methods analyzed using STATA version 8 statistical software package.Results: 29.0% of men and 2.6% of women were current daily tobacco smokers. The mean number of manufactured cigarettes smoked per day was 18.9 among current daily smokers. Smoking was most prevalent among men of low-income families and those of lower education. The mean body mass index (BMI was 26.6 kg/m2, and was significantly correlated with systolic blood pressure. 58.9% were overweight or obese; 18.0% had raised blood pressure and 3.7% had isolated systolic hypertension. The mean number of servings of fruit consumed per day was 1.1; 33.1% had low levels of activity. Combined risk factor analysis showed that 4.1% of participants were in the

  8. Host factors and HIV-1 replication: clinical evidence and potential therapeutic approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana eSanta-Marta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available HIV and human defense mechanisms have co-evolved to counteract each other. In the process of infection, HIV takes advantage of cellular machinery and blocks the action of the host restriction factors. A small subset of HIV+ individuals control HIV infection and progression to AIDS in the absence of treatment. These individuals known, as long-term non-progressors (LNTPs exhibit genetic and immunological characteristics that confer upon them an efficient resistance to infection and/or disease progression. The identification of some of these host factors led to the development of therapeutic approaches that attempted to mimic the natural control of HIV infection. Some of these approaches are currently being tested in clinical trials. While there are many genes which carry mutations and polymorphisms associated with non-progression, this review will be specifically focused on HIV host restriction factors (RF including both the main chemokine receptors and chemokines as well as intracellular restriction factors including, APOBEC, TRIM, tetherin and SAMHD1. The understanding of molecular profiles and mechanisms present in LTNPs should provide new insights to control HIV infection and contribute to the development of novel therapies against AIDS.

  9. Analysis of charmless two-body B decays in factorization-assisted topological-amplitude approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Si-Hong; Zhang, Qi-An; Lue, Cai-Dian [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physics, Beijing (China); Lyu, Wei-Ran [Renmin University of China, Physics Department, Beijing (China)

    2017-02-15

    We analyze charmless two-body non-leptonic B decays B → PP, PV under the framework of a factorization-assisted topological-amplitude approach, where P(V) denotes a light pseudoscalar (vector) meson. Compared with the conventional flavor diagram approach, we consider the flavor SU(3) breaking effect assisted by a factorization hypothesis for topological diagram amplitudes of different decay modes, factorizing out the corresponding decay constants and form factors. The non-perturbative parameters of topology diagram magnitudes χ and the strong phase φ are universal; they can be extracted by χ{sup 2} fit from current abundant experimental data of charmless B decays. The number of free parameters and the χ{sup 2} per degree of freedom are both reduced compared with previous analyses. With these best fitted parameters, we predict branching fractions and CP asymmetry parameters of nearly 100 B{sub u,d} and B{sub s} decay modes. The long-standing ππ and πK-CP puzzles are solved simultaneously. (orig.)

  10. Using an interdisciplinary approach to identify factors that affect clinicians' compliance with evidence-based guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurses, Ayse P; Marsteller, Jill A; Ozok, A Ant; Xiao, Yan; Owens, Sharon; Pronovost, Peter J

    2010-08-01

    Our objective was to identify factors that affect clinicians' compliance with the evidence-based guidelines using an interdisciplinary approach and develop a conceptual framework that can provide a comprehensive and practical guide for designing effective interventions. A literature review and a brainstorming session with 11 researchers from a variety of scientific disciplines were used to identify theoretical and conceptual models describing clinicians' guideline compliance. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the bibliographies of the papers identified were used as data sources for identifying the relevant theoretical and conceptual models. Thirteen different models that originated from various disciplines including medicine, rural sociology, psychology, human factors and systems engineering, organizational management, marketing, and health education were identified. Four main categories of factors that affect compliance emerged from our analysis: clinician characteristics, guideline characteristics, system characteristics, and implementation characteristics. Based on these findings, we developed an interdisciplinary conceptual framework that specifies the expected interrelationships among these four categories of factors and their impact on clinicians' compliance. An interdisciplinary approach is needed to improve clinicians' compliance with evidence-based guidelines. The conceptual framework from this research can provide a comprehensive and systematic guide to identify barriers to guideline compliance and design effective interventions to improve patient safety.

  11. Assessment of successful smoking cessation by psychological factors using the Bayesian network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaorong; Li, Suyun; Pan, Lulu; Wang, Qiang; Li, Huijie; Han, Mingkui; Zhang, Nan; Jiang, Fan; Jia, Chongqi

    2016-07-01

    The association between psychological factors and smoking cessation is complicated and inconsistent in published researches, and the joint effect of psychological factors on smoking cessation is unclear. This study explored how psychological factors jointly affect the success of smoking cessation using a Bayesian network approach. A community-based case control study was designed with 642 adult male successful smoking quitters as the cases, and 700 adult male failed smoking quitters as the controls. General self-efficacy (GSE), trait coping style (positive-trait coping style (PTCS) and negative-trait coping style (NTCS)) and self-rating anxiety (SA) were evaluated by GSE Scale, Trait Coping Style Questionnaire and SA Scale, respectively. Bayesian network was applied to evaluate the relationship between psychological factors and successful smoking cessation. The local conditional probability table of smoking cessation indicated that different joint conditions of psychological factors led to different outcomes for smoking cessation. Among smokers with high PTCS, high NTCS and low SA, only 36.40% successfully quitted smoking. However, among smokers with low pack-years of smoking, high GSE, high PTCS and high SA, 63.64% successfully quitted smoking. Our study indicates psychological factors jointly influence smoking cessation outcome. According to different joint situations, different solutions should be developed to control tobacco in practical intervention.

  12. Partial Least Square Approach to Second Order Factor in Behavioural Study of Accounting Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mohd Tarmizi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Theories are developed to explain an observed phenomenon in an effort to understand why and how things happen. Theories thus, use latent variables to estimate conceptual parameters. The level of abstraction depends, partly on the complexity of the theoretical model explaining the phenomenon. The conjugation of directly-measured variables leads to a formation of a first-order factor. A combination of theoretical underpinnings supporting an existence of a higher-order components, and statistical evidence pointing to such presence adds advantage for the researchers to investigate a phenomenon both at an aggregated and disjointed dimensions. As partial least square (PLS gains its tractions in theory development, behavioural accounting discipline in general should exploit the flexibility of PLS to work with the higher-order factors. However, technical guides are scarcely available. Therefore, this article presents a PLS approach to validate a higher-order factor on a statistical ground using accounting information system dataset.

  13. Electrically Small Magnetic Dipole Antennas With Quality Factors Approaching the Chu Lower Bound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav; Yaghjian, Arthur D.

    2010-01-01

    permeability yields the quality factor Q that constitutes the lower bound for a magnetic dipole antenna with a magneto-dielectric core. Furthermore, the smaller the antenna the closer its quality factor Q can approach the Chu lower bound. Simulated results for the TE10-mode multiarm spherical helix antenna......We investigate the quality factor Q for electrically small current distributions and practical antenna designs radiating the TE10 magnetic dipole field. The current distributions and the antenna designs employ electric currents on a spherical surface enclosing a magneto-dielectric material...... numerically. It is found that for a given antenna size and permittivity there is an optimum permeability that ensures the lowest possible Q, and this optimum permeability is inversely proportional to the square of the antenna electrical radius. When the relative permittivity is equal to 1, the optimum...

  14. Combined action of ionizing radiation with another factor: common rules and theoretical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Roh, Changhyun, E-mail: jkkim@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Komarova, Ludmila N.; Petin, Vladislav G., E-mail: vgpetin@yahoo.com [Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Two or more factors can simultaneously make their combined effects on the biological objects. This study has focused on theoretical approach to synergistic interaction due to the combined action of radiation and another factor on cell inactivation. A mathematical model for the synergistic interaction of different environmental agents was suggested for quantitative prediction of irreversibly damaged cells after combined exposures. The model takes into account the synergistic interaction of agents and based on the supposition that additional effective damages responsible for the synergy are irreversible and originated from an interaction of ineffective sub lesions. The experimental results regarding the irreversible component of radiation damage of diploid yeast cells simultaneous exposed to heat with ionizing radiation or UV light are presented. A good agreement of experimental results with model predictions was demonstrated. The importance of the results obtained for the interpretation of the mechanism of synergistic interaction of various environmental factors is discussed. (author)

  15. Using the Fuzzy Linguistic Preference Relation Approach for Assessing the Importance of Risk Factors in a Software Development Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Tong Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study employs fuzzy linguistic preference relation (Fuzzy LinPreRa approach to assess the relative degree of impact of risk factors in software development project for two expert groups working in technology enterprises and software development companies. For the identified risk dimensions, the results show the same rankings for these two groups. “Organization function risk” is considered the most important dimension influencing the software development project performance, with the others, in order, being “developing technology risk,” “resources integration risk,” “personnel system risk” and “system requirement risk.” The proposed approach not only facilitates the information collecting for making pairwise comparisons, but it also eliminates the inconsistencies in the collected information.

  16. On the relevance of assumptions associated with classical factor analytic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Daniel; Unlü, Ali

    2013-01-01

    A personal trait, for example a person's cognitive ability, represents a theoretical concept postulated to explain behavior. Interesting constructs are latent, that is, they cannot be observed. Latent variable modeling constitutes a methodology to deal with hypothetical constructs. Constructs are modeled as random variables and become components of a statistical model. As random variables, they possess a probability distribution in the population of reference. In applications, this distribution is typically assumed to be the normal distribution. The normality assumption may be reasonable in many cases, but there are situations where it cannot be justified. For example, this is true for criterion-referenced tests or for background characteristics of students in large scale assessment studies. Nevertheless, the normal procedures in combination with the classical factor analytic methods are frequently pursued, despite the effects of violating this "implicit" assumption are not clear in general. In a simulation study, we investigate whether classical factor analytic approaches can be instrumental in estimating the factorial structure and properties of the population distribution of a latent personal trait from educational test data, when violations of classical assumptions as the aforementioned are present. The results indicate that having a latent non-normal distribution clearly affects the estimation of the distribution of the factor scores and properties thereof. Thus, when the population distribution of a personal trait is assumed to be non-symmetric, we recommend avoiding those factor analytic approaches for estimation of a person's factor score, even though the number of extracted factors and the estimated loading matrix may not be strongly affected. An application to the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) is given. Comments on possible implications for the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) complete the presentation.

  17. Modeling the interplay of multilevel risk factors for future academic and behavior problems: a person-centered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Stephanie T; Rhoades, Brittany L; Nix, Robert L; Greenberg, Mark T

    2010-05-01

    This study identified profiles of 13 risk factors across child, family, school, and neighborhood domains in a diverse sample of children in kindergarten from four US locations (n = 750; 45% minority). It then examined the relation of those early risk profiles to externalizing problems, school failure, and low academic achievement in Grade 5. A person-centered approach, latent class analysis, revealed four unique risk profiles, which varied considerably across urban African American, urban White, and rural White children. Profiles characterized by several risks that cut across multiple domains conferred the highest risk for negative outcomes. Compared to a variable-centered approach, such as a cumulative risk index, these findings provide a more nuanced understanding of the early precursors to negative outcomes. For example, results suggested that urban children in single-parent homes that have few other risk factors (i.e., show at least average parenting warmth and consistency and report relatively low stress and high social support) are at quite low risk for externalizing problems, but at relatively high risk for poor grades and low academic achievement. These findings provide important information for refining and targeting preventive interventions to groups of children who share particular constellations of risk factors.

  18. The Analysis of Theoretical Approaches to Identification of Factors of Regional Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosyrieva Olena V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the investigation of current approaches to identification of factors of economic growth in the regions. The theory of new economic geography based on works and studies of P. Krugman has been considered. There highlighted the key issues of regional economic growth requiring an in-depth studying and consideration in the elaboration of strategies for sustainable development of the regions. The views of leading domestic and foreign scholars as well as the OECD experts, the World Bank, the National Statistics Service of the United Kingdom and others on the main drivers of economic growth have been analyzed. On the basis of the study the factors of regional economic growth most commonly encountered in theory and practice have been generalized. It is proved that scientists and analysts most often classify as the factors of regional economic growth the following ones: those characterizing human potential, scientific-technical and innovative activity, management and institutional capacity. The factors less frequently correlated by specialists and scientists with the regional economic growth include: those characterizing the environment, business and sociopolitical factors, which is associated with difficulty of their quantification, but in any case does not diminish their importance.

  19. Considerations on nonclinical approaches to modeling risk factors of suicidal ideation and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goody, S M G; Cannon, K E; Liu, M; Kallman, M J; Martinolle, J P; Mazelin-Winum, L; Giarola, A; Ardayfio, P; Moyer, J A; Teuns, G; Hudzik, T J

    2017-10-01

    Given the serious nature of suicidal ideation and behavior (SIB) and the possibility of treatment-emergent SIB, pharmaceutical companies are now applying more proactive approaches in clinical trials and are considering the value of nonclinical models to predict SIB. The current review summarizes nonclinical approaches to modeling three common risk factors associated with SIB: aggression, impulsivity, and anhedonia. For each risk factor, a general description, advantages and disadvantages, species considerations, nonclinical to clinical translation, and pharmacological validation with respect to treatments associated with SIB are summarized. From this review, several gaps were identified that need to be addressed before use of these nonclinical models can be considered a viable option to predict the relative risk for SIB. Other future directions that may compliment these nonclinical approaches, including the use of selectively-bred or genetically-modified rodent models, transgenic models, gene expression profiling, and biomarker analysis, are discussed. This article was developed with the support of the DruSafe Leadership Group of the International Consortium for Innovation and Quality in Pharmaceutical Development (IQ, www.iqconsortium.org). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Charmless B{sub (s)} → VV decays in factorization-assisted topological-amplitude approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Qi-An [CAS, Institute of High Energy Physics, P.O. Box 918, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physics, Beijing (China); Li, Ying [Yantai University, Department of Physics, Yantai (China); CAS, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); Lue, Cai-Dian [CAS, Institute of High Energy Physics, P.O. Box 918, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physics, Beijing (China); CAS, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)

    2017-05-15

    Within the factorization-assisted topological-amplitude approach, we studied the 33 charmless B{sub (s)} → VV decays, where V stands for a light vector meson. According to the flavor flows, the amplitude of each process can be decomposed into eight different topologies. In contrast to the conventional flavor diagrammatic approach, we further factorize each topological amplitude into decay constant, form factors and unknown universal parameters. By χ{sup 2} fitting 46 experimental observables, we extracted 10 theoretical parameters with χ{sup 2} per degree of freedom around 2. Using the fitted parameters, we calculated the branching fractions, polarization fractions, CP asymmetries and relative phases between polarization amplitudes of each decay mode. The decay channels dominated by tree diagram have large branching fractions and large longitudinal polarization fraction. The branching fractions and longitudinal polarization fractions of color-suppressed decays become smaller. Current experimental data of large transverse polarization fractions in the penguin dominant decay channels can be explained by only one transverse amplitude of penguin annihilation diagram. Our predictions of the not yet measured channels can be tested in the ongoing LHCb experiment and the Belle-II experiment in the future. (orig.)

  1. Charmless B_{(s)}→ VV decays in factorization-assisted topological-amplitude approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Qi-An; Li, Ying; Lü, Cai-Dian

    2017-05-01

    Within the factorization-assisted topological-amplitude approach, we studied the 33 charmless B_{(s)} → VV decays, where V stands for a light vector meson. According to the flavor flows, the amplitude of each process can be decomposed into eight different topologies. In contrast to the conventional flavor diagrammatic approach, we further factorize each topological amplitude into decay constant, form factors and unknown universal parameters. By χ ^2 fitting 46 experimental observables, we extracted 10 theoretical parameters with χ ^2 per degree of freedom around 2. Using the fitted parameters, we calculated the branching fractions, polarization fractions, CP asymmetries and relative phases between polarization amplitudes of each decay mode. The decay channels dominated by tree diagram have large branching fractions and large longitudinal polarization fraction. The branching fractions and longitudinal polarization fractions of color-suppressed decays become smaller. Current experimental data of large transverse polarization fractions in the penguin dominant decay channels can be explained by only one transverse amplitude of penguin annihilation diagram. Our predictions of the not yet measured channels can be tested in the ongoing LHCb experiment and the Belle-II experiment in the future.

  2. An information-based rough set approach to critical engineering factor identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Ji; Zheng Dongjian

    2008-01-01

    In order to analyze the main critical engineering factors, an information-based rough set approach that considers conditional information entropy as a measurement of information has been developed. An algorithm for continuous attribute discretization based on conditional information entropy and an algorithm for rule extraction considering the supports of rules are proposed. The initial decision system is established by collecting enough monitoring data. Then, the continuous attributes are discretized, and the condition attributes are reduced. Finally, the rules that indicate the action law of the main factors are extracted and the results are explained. By applying this approach to a crack in an arch gravity dam, it can be concluded that the water level and the temperature are the main factors affecting the crack opening, and there is a negative correlation between the crack opening and the temperature. This conclusion corresponds with the observation that cracks in most concrete dams are influenced mainly by water level and temperature, and the influence of temperature is more evident.

  3. First-Year Students' Approaches to Learning, and Factors Related to Change or Stability in Their Deep Approach during a Pharmacy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varunki, Maaret; Katajavuori, Nina; Postareff, Liisa

    2017-01-01

    Research shows that a surface approach to learning is more common among students in the natural sciences, while students representing the "soft" sciences are more likely to apply a deep approach. However, findings conflict concerning the stability of approaches to learning in general. This study explores the variation in students'…

  4. First-Year Students' Approaches to Learning, and Factors Related to Change or Stability in Their Deep Approach during a Pharmacy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varunki, Maaret; Katajavuori, Nina; Postareff, Liisa

    2017-01-01

    Research shows that a surface approach to learning is more common among students in the natural sciences, while students representing the "soft" sciences are more likely to apply a deep approach. However, findings conflict concerning the stability of approaches to learning in general. This study explores the variation in students'…

  5. Identification of factors required for meristem function in Arabidopsis using a novel next generation sequencing fast forward genetics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheres Ben

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phenotype-driven forward genetic experiments are powerful approaches for linking phenotypes to genomic elements but they still involve a laborious positional cloning process. Although sequencing of complete genomes now becomes available, discriminating causal mutations from the enormous amounts of background variation remains a major challenge. Method To improve this, we developed a universal two-step approach, named 'fast forward genetics', which combines traditional bulk segregant techniques with targeted genomic enrichment and next-generation sequencing technology Results As a proof of principle we successfully applied this approach to two Arabidopsis mutants and identified a novel factor required for stem cell activity. Conclusion We demonstrated that the 'fast forward genetics' procedure efficiently identifies a small number of testable candidate mutations. As the approach is independent of genome size, it can be applied to any model system of interest. Furthermore, we show that experiments can be multiplexed and easily scaled for the identification of multiple individual mutants in a single sequencing run.

  6. Estimating reliability coefficients with heterogeneous item weightings using Stata: A factor based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boermans, M.A.; Kattenberg, M.A.C.

    2011-01-01

    We show how to estimate a Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient in Stata after running a principal component or factor analysis. Alpha evaluates to what extent items measure the same underlying content when the items are combined into a scale or used for latent variable. Stata allows for testing

  7. A Transfer Learning Approach for Applying Matrix Factorization to Small ITS Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voß, Lydia; Schatten, Carlotta; Mazziotti, Claudia; Schmidt-Thieme, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Machine Learning methods for Performance Prediction in Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) have proven their efficacy; specific methods, e.g. Matrix Factorization (MF), however suffer from the lack of available information about new tasks or new students. In this paper we show how this problem could be solved by applying Transfer Learning (TL),…

  8. How acquainting shows verbally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    A central tenet of the integrational view of language and communication is an anchoring in the acting and integrating behaviour of the communicants themselves. In this way the integrational approach has a certain phenomenological slant. What happens when this approach is combined with a ¿psychology...

  9. Temporal changes of spatial soil moisture patterns: controlling factors explained with a multidisciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Edoardo; Wollschläger, Ute; Kögler, Simon; Behrens, Thorsten; Dietrich, Peter; Reinstorf, Frido; Schmidt, Karsten; Weiler, Markus; Werban, Ulrike; Zacharias, Steffen

    2016-04-01

    different hydrologic conditions and the factors controlling the temporal variability of the ECa-soil moisture relationship. The approach provided valuable insight into the time-varying contribution of local and nonlocal factors to the characteristic spatial patterns of soil moisture and the transition mechanisms. The spatial organization of soil moisture was controlled by different processes in different soil horizons, and the topsoil's moisture did not mirror processes that take place within the soil profile. Results show that, for the Schäfertal hillslope site which is presumed to be representative for non-intensively managed soils with moderate clay content, local soil properties (e.g., soil texture and porosity) are the major control on the spatial pattern of ECa. In contrast, the ECa-soil moisture relationship is small and varies over time indicating that ECa is not a good proxy for soil moisture estimation at the investigated site.Occasionally observed stronger correlations between ECa and soil moisture may be explained by background dependencies of ECa to other state variables such as pore water electrical conductivity. The results will help to improve conceptual understanding for hydrological model studies at similar or smaller scales, and to transfer observation concepts and process understanding to larger or less instrumented sites, as well as to constrain the use of EMI-based ECa data for hydrological applications.

  10. A systematic approach to the Kansei factors of tactile sense regarding the surface roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyungmee; Jun, Changrim

    2007-01-01

    Designing products to satisfy customers' emotion requires the information gathered through the human senses, which are visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, or tactile senses. By controlling certain design factors, customers' emotion can be evaluated, designed, and satisfied. In this study, a systematic approach is proposed to study the tactile sense regarding the surface roughness. Numerous pairs of antonymous tactile adjectives are collected and clustered. The optimal number of adjective clusters is estimated based on the several criterion functions. The representative average preferences of the final clusters are obtained as the estimates of engineering parameters to control the surface roughness of the commercial polymer-based products.

  11. $J/{\\psi}$ ${\\to}$ $DP$, $DV$ decays in the QCD factorization approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Junfeng; Chang, Qin; Huang, Jinshu; Yang, Yueling

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the recent measurements on nonleptonic $J/{\\psi}$ weak decays at BESIII and the potential prospects of $J/{\\psi}$ meson at the high-luminosity heavy-flavor experiments, the branching ratios of the two-body nonleptonic $J/{\\psi}$ ${\\to}$ $DP$, $DV$ decays are estimated quantitatively by considering the QCD radiative corrections to hadronic matrix elements with the QCD factorization approach. It is found that the Cabibbo favored $J/{\\psi}$ ${\\to}$ $D_{s}^{-}{\\rho}^{+}$, $D_{s}^{-}{\\pi}^{+}$, $\\overline{D}_{u}^{0}\\overline{K}^{{\\ast}0}$ decays have branching ratios ${\\gtrsim}$ $10^{-10}$, which might be promisingly detectable in the near future.

  12. Inclusive J/Psi photoproduction and polarization at HERA in the kt-factorization approach

    CERN Document Server

    Baranov, S P; Zotov, N P

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the inclusive photoproduction of J/Psi mesons at HERA within the framework of the kt-factorization QCD approach. Our consideration is based on the color singlet model supplemented with the relevant off-shell matrix elements and the CCFM and KMR unintegrated gluon densities in a proton and in a photon. Both the direct and resolved photon contributions are taken into account. Our predictions are compared with the recent experimental data taken by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations. Special attention is put on the J/Psi polarization parameters lambda and nu which are sensitive to the production dynamics.

  13. Prompt photon photoproduction at HERA in the k_T-factorization approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lipatov, A V

    2005-01-01

    We present calculations of the prompt photon photoproduction at HERA collider in the k_T-factorization approach. Both direct and resolved contributions are taken into account. The conservative error analisys is performed. The unintegrated parton densities in a proton and in a photon are determined using the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. We investigate both inclusive and associated with jet prompt photon photoproduction rates. In particular, we study the angular correlations between produced photon and hadronic jet in the transverse momentum plane which can provide a unique information about non-collinear evolution dynamics. We compare our theoretical predictions with recent experimental data taken by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations.

  14. How acquainting shows verbally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    A central tenet of the integrational view of language and communication is an anchoring in the acting and integrating behaviour of the communicants themselves. In this way the integrational approach has a certain phenomenological slant. What happens when this approach is combined with a ¿psychology...... of linguistic exertion¿ based upon the descriptions of the  stream of thought, and of conception (>acquainting) by William James? Text-examples taken from an internet site for dieters illustrate the combined James'ian & integrational approach in practice. Some of the examples are also specifically related...

  15. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Identification of problems and alternative approaches. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R. [Hughes Training, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States); Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.I. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations was undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multi-disciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. The principal sources of radiation are a radioactive isotope, typically cobalt60 (Co-60), or a linear accelerator device capable of producing very high energy x-ray and electron beams. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation technologists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was initially performed to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of user-system interfaces, procedures, training and qualifications, and organizational policies and practices. The final phase of the project focused on identification of the most significant human factors problems with respect to safe and effective operation of the teletherapy system and an identification and assessment of alternative approaches for resolving the problems. This report presents the findings of this final phase.

  16. Factors Influencing Cecal Intubation Time during Retrograde Approach Single-Balloon Enteroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Ming Ou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. The predisposing factors for prolonged cecal intubation time (CIT during colonoscopy have been well identified. However, the factors influencing CIT during retrograde SBE have not been addressed. The aim of this study was to determine the factors influencing CIT during retrograde SBE. Methods. We investigated patients who underwent retrograde SBE at a medical center from January 2011 to March 2014. The medical charts and SBE reports were reviewed. The patients’ characteristics and procedure-associated data were recorded. These data were analyzed with univariate analysis as well as multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify the possible predisposing factors. Results. We enrolled 66 patients into this study. The median CIT was 17.4 minutes. With univariate analysis, there was no statistical difference in age, sex, BMI, or history of abdominal surgery, except for bowel preparation (P=0.021. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that inadequate bowel preparation (odds ratio 30.2, 95% confidence interval 4.63–196.54; P<0.001 was the independent predisposing factors for prolonged CIT during retrograde SBE. Conclusions. For experienced endoscopist, inadequate bowel preparation was the independent predisposing factor for prolonged CIT during retrograde SBE.

  17. Kaon photoproduction with form factors in a gauge-invariant approach

    CERN Document Server

    Haberzettl, H; Mart, T; Feuster, T

    1998-01-01

    The general gauge-invariant photoproduction formalism given by Haberzettl is applied to kaon photoproduction off the nucleon at the tree level, with form factors describing composite nucleons. We demonstrate that, in contrast to Ohta's gauge-invariance prescription, this formalism allows electric current contributions to be multiplied by a form factor, i.e., they do not need to be treated like bare currents. Numerical results show that Haberzettl's gauge procedure, when compared to Ohta's, leads to much improved $\\chi^2$ values. Moreover, predictions for the new Bonn SAPHIR data for $p(\\gamma,K^+)\\Lambda$ are given.

  18. A Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling Approach Shows that Serum Penicillin G Concentrations Are Below Inhibitory Concentrations by Two Weeks after Benzathine Penicillin G Injection in the Majority of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    liter is the suggested minimum protective concentration of penicillin G against group A streptococcus . Note that the majority of measured concen- trations... pneumoniae , Streptococcus pyogenes and Haemophilus influenzae collected from patients across the USA, in 2001-2002, as part of the PROTEKT US study. J...Naval Health Research Center A Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling Approach Shows that Serum Penicillin G Concentrations Are Below Inhibitory

  19. The Role of Institutional Factors Over the National Insurance Demand: Theoretical Approach and Econometric Estimations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Laura DRAGOȘ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The insurance sector becomes a more and more important component for the national economic and financial development. Nevertheless, the consumption and the density, both for life and non-life insurances, reveal a great variation across countries. Academic literature treats frequently the importance of the economic and demographic factors. This study evaluates the determining institutional factors of the insurance demand using OLS Multiple Regressions models on a sample of 31 European countries. The econometric estimates, according to the theory, show that a country’s level of corruption is decisive for the development of the non-life insurances. For the life insurances, business freedom, fiscal freedom and government spending are the most relevant explanatory variables. The article emphasizes the mechanism through which the significant institutional factors influence the insurance density from a country.

  20. A Confirmatory Approach to Examining the Factor Structure of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Janni; Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2013-01-01

    four large scale cohorts. Three theoretical models were examined: 1. a model with five first order factors (i.e., hyperactivity/inattention, conduct, emotional, peer problems and prosocial), 2. a model adding two internalising and externalising second order factors to model 1, and 3. a model adding...... fits. Best model fits were found when two positively worded items were allowed to cross load with the prosocial scale, and cross loadings were allowed for among three sets of indicators. The analyses also revealed that model fits were slightly better for teachers than for parents and better for older...... a total difficulties second order factor to model 1. Model fits were evaluated, multi-group analyses were carried out and average variance extracted (AVE) and composite reliability (CR) estimates were examined. In this general population sample, low risk sample models 1 and 2 showed similar good overall...

  1. Presence of a cerebral factor showing summer-morph-producing hormone activity in the brain of the seasonal non-polyphenic butterflies Vanessa cardui, V. indica and Nymphalis xanthomelas japonica (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ayuki Tanaka; Moeko Inoue; Katsuhiko Endo; Chisato Kitazawa; Akira Yamanaka

    2009-01-01

    Three speciesofnymphalidbutterflies, Vanessacardui, V. indica and Nymphalis xanthomelas japonica, do not exhibit seasonal polyphenism in wing coloration. To deter-mine whether seasonal non-polyphenic butterflies possess a cerebral factor affecting wing coloration, we used a Polygonia c-aureum female short-day pupal assay for detection of summer-morph-producing hormone (SMPH) activity in P. c-aureum. When 2% NaCl extracts of 25 brain-equivalents prepared from the pupal brains of V. cardui, V. indica or N. xanthomelas japonica were injected into Polygonia female short-day pupae, all recipients developed into summer-morph adults with dark-yellow wings, and the average grade score (AGS) of summer morphs showing SMPH activity was 3.8, 3.7 and 4.0, respectively. In contrast, when acetone or 80% ethanol extracts prepared from pupal brains were injected into Polygonia pupae, all recipients developed into autumn-morph adults with a dark-brown coloration and each exhibited an AGS of less than 0.5. Our results indicate that a cerebral factor showing SMPH activity is present in the pupal brain of seasonal non-polyphenic nymphalid butterflies, suggesting that a SMPH and cerebral factor showing SMPH activity occur widely among butterfly species. This finding will improve our understanding of the presence of cerebral factors showing interspecific actions of SHPH.

  2. MODULAR COMPETENCE APPROACH AS THE FACTOR OF FORMATION OF LINGUISTIC PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Alekseevna Zakharova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article Modular competence approach as the factor of formation of linguistic personality the attention focuses on the fact that the distinguishing feature of the new Federal State Educational Standard is its activity nature which main objective is to develop the student’s personality.It requires the new pedagogical researches in the field of methodology of teaching, search of innovative tools, forms and methods of training and education associated with the development and introduction of modern educational technologies into the educational process.Perhaps currently in Russia the problem of being expert with free and actually cultural words is more relevant than ever for any member of society due to the new social conditions and needs.The linguistic personality is formed through the integration of the linguistic, language, communicative and cultural competences.The choice of modular technology is not random as it involves the interrelated and interdependent activities of a teacher and a student; it allows activation of the formation process of the complex of linguistic knowledge and gives the opportunity to acquire practical experience necessary for the elementary school teacher. This approach makes the lesson work motivating and purposeful one and allows to create a linguistic personality.The article presents the practical experience of use of the modular competence approach for the formation of a linguistic personality on the lessons of Russian with the methods of teaching in primary school in N.K. Kalugin Pedagogical College of the City of Orenburg.

  3. A systems biological approach to identify key transcription factors and their genomic neighborhoods in human sarcomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antti Ylip(a)(a); Olli Yli-Harja; Wei Zhang; Matti Nykter

    2011-01-01

    Identification of genetic signatures is the main objective for many computational oncology studies. The signature usually consists of numerous genes that are differentially expressed between two clinically distinct groups of samples, such as tumor subtypes. Prospectively, many signatures have been found to generalize poorly to other datasets and, thus, have rarely been accepted into clinical use. Recognizing the limited success of traditionally generated signatures, we developed a systems biology-based framework for robust identification of key transcription factors and their genomic regulatory neighborhoods. Application of the framework to study the differences between gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and leiomyosarcoma (LMS) resulted in the identification of nine transcription factors (SRF, NKX2-5, CCDC6, LEF1, VDR, ZNF250, TRIM63, MAF, and MYC). Functional annotations of the obtained neighborhoods identified the biological processes which the key transcription factors regulate differently between the tumor types. Analyzing the differences in the expression patterns using our approach resulted in a more robust genetic signature and more biological insight into the diseases compared to a traditional genetic signature.

  4. Finite difference methods for option pricing under Lévy processes: Wiener-Hopf factorization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, we consider the problem of pricing options in wide classes of Lévy processes. We propose a general approach to the numerical methods based on a finite difference approximation for the generalized Black-Scholes equation. The goal of the paper is to incorporate the Wiener-Hopf factorization into finite difference methods for pricing options in Lévy models with jumps. The method is applicable for pricing barrier and American options. The pricing problem is reduced to the sequence of linear algebraic systems with a dense Toeplitz matrix; then the Wiener-Hopf factorization method is applied. We give an important probabilistic interpretation based on the infinitely divisible distributions theory to the Laurent operators in the correspondent factorization identity. Notice that our algorithm has the same complexity as the ones which use the explicit-implicit scheme, with a tridiagonal matrix. However, our method is more accurate. We support the advantage of the new method in terms of accuracy and convergence by using numerical experiments.

  5. From the big five to the general factor of personality: a dynamic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micó, Joan C; Amigó, Salvador; Caselles, Antonio

    2014-10-28

    An integrating and dynamic model of personality that allows predicting the response of the basic factors of personality, such as the Big Five Factors (B5F) or the general factor of personality (GFP) to acute doses of drug is presented in this paper. Personality has a dynamic nature, i.e., as a consequence of a stimulus, the GFP dynamics as well as each one of the B5F of personality dynamics can be explained by the same model (a system of three coupled differential equations). From this invariance hypothesis, a partial differential equation, whose solution relates the GFP with each one of the B5F, is deduced. From this dynamic approach, a co-evolution of the GFP and each one of the B5F occurs, rather than an unconnected evolution, as a consequence of the same stimulus. The hypotheses and deductions are validated through an experimental design centered on the individual, where caffeine is the considered stimulus. Thus, as much from a theoretical point of view as from an applied one, the models here proposed open a new perspective in the understanding and study of personality like a global system that interacts intimately with the environment, being a clear bet for the high level inter-disciplinary research.

  6. A plastic stress intensity factor approach to turbine disk structural integrity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shlyannikov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study based on a new fracture mechanics parameter is concerned with assessing the integrity of cracked steam turbine disk which operate under startup-shutdown cyclic loading conditions. Damage accumulation and growth in service have occurred on the inner surface of slot fillet of key. In order to determine elastic-plastic fracture mechanics parameters full-size stress-strain state analysis of turbine disk was performed for a quote-elliptical part-through cracks under considering loading conditions. As a result distributions of elastic and plastic stress intensity factors along crack front in slot fillet of key of turbine disk depending on surface crack form are defined. An engineering approach to the prediction of carrying capacity of cracked turbine disk which is sensitive to the loading history at maintenance is proposed. The predictions of the rate of crack growth and residual lifetime of steam turbine disk are compared for elastic and elastic-plastic solutions. It is shown that the previously proposed elastic crack growth models provide overestimate the lifetime with respect to the present one. An advantage to use the plastic stress intensity factor to characterize the fracture resistance as the self-dependent unified parameter for a variety of turbine disk configurations rather than the magnitude of the elastic stress intensity factors alone is discussed.

  7. Automatic Sky View Factor Estimation from Street View Photographs—A Big Data Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Liang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemispherical (fisheye photography is a well-established approach for estimating the sky view factor (SVF. High-resolution urban models from LiDAR and oblique airborne photogrammetry can provide continuous SVF estimates over a large urban area, but such data are not always available and are difficult to acquire. Street view panoramas have become widely available in urban areas worldwide: Google Street View (GSV maintains a global network of panoramas excluding China and several other countries; Baidu Street View (BSV and Tencent Street View (TSV focus their panorama acquisition efforts within China, and have covered hundreds of cities therein. In this paper, we approach this issue from a big data perspective by presenting and validating a method for automatic estimation of SVF from massive amounts of street view photographs. Comparisons were made with SVF estimates derived from two independent sources: a LiDAR-based Digital Surface Model (DSM and an oblique airborne photogrammetry-based 3D city model (OAP3D, resulting in a correlation coefficient of 0.863 and 0.987, respectively. The comparisons demonstrated the capacity of the proposed method to provide reliable SVF estimates. Additionally, we present an application of the proposed method with about 12,000 GSV panoramas to characterize the spatial distribution of SVF over Manhattan Island in New York City. Although this is a proof-of-concept study, it has shown the potential of the proposed approach to assist urban climate and urban planning research. However, further development is needed before this approach can be finally delivered to the urban climate and urban planning communities for practical applications.

  8. Multi-factor challenge/response approach for remote biometric authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Assam, Hisham; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2011-06-01

    Although biometric authentication is perceived to be more reliable than traditional authentication schemes, it becomes vulnerable to many attacks when it comes to remote authentication over open networks and raises serious privacy concerns. This paper proposes a biometric-based challenge-response approach to be used for remote authentication between two parties A and B over open networks. In the proposed approach, a remote authenticator system B (e.g. a bank) challenges its client A who wants to authenticate his/her self to the system by sending a one-time public random challenge. The client A responds by employing the random challenge along with secret information obtained from a password and a token to produce a one-time cancellable representation of his freshly captured biometric sample. The one-time biometric representation, which is based on multi-factor, is then sent back to B for matching. Here, we argue that eavesdropping of the one-time random challenge and/or the resulting one-time biometric representation does not compromise the security of the system, and no information about the original biometric data is leaked. In addition to securing biometric templates, the proposed protocol offers a practical solution for the replay attack on biometric systems. Moreover, we propose a new scheme for generating a password-based pseudo random numbers/permutation to be used as a building block in the proposed approach. The proposed scheme is also designed to provide protection against repudiation. We illustrate the viability and effectiveness of the proposed approach by experimental results based on two biometric modalities: fingerprint and face biometrics.

  9. Using a factor mixture modeling approach in alcohol dependence in a general population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Aggen, Steven H; Prescott, Carol A; Kendler, Kenneth S; Neale, Michael C

    2008-11-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is a complex and heterogeneous disorder. The identification of more homogeneous subgroups of individuals with drinking problems and the refinement of the diagnostic criteria are inter-related research goals. They have the potential to improve our knowledge of etiology and treatment effects, and to assist in the identification of risk factors or specific genetic factors. Mixture modeling has advantages over traditional modeling that focuses on either the dimensional or categorical latent structure. The mixture modeling combines both latent class and latent trait models, but has not been widely applied in substance use research. The goal of the present study is to assess whether the AD criteria in the population could be better characterized by a continuous dimension, a few discrete subgroups, or a combination of the two. More than seven thousand participants were recruited from the population-based Virginia Twin Registry, and were interviewed to obtain DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, version IV) symptoms and diagnosis of AD. We applied factor analysis, latent class analysis, and factor mixture models for symptom items based on the DSM-IV criteria. Our results showed that a mixture model with 1 factor and 3 classes for both genders fit well. The 3 classes were a non-problem drinking group and severe and moderate drinking problem groups. By contrast, models constrained to conform to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were rejected by model fitting indices providing empirical evidence for heterogeneity in the AD diagnosis. Classification analysis showed different characteristics across subgroups, including alcohol-caused behavioral problems, comorbid disorders, age at onset for alcohol-related milestones, and personality. Clinically, the expanded classification of AD may aid in identifying suitable treatments, interventions and additional sources of comorbidity based on these more homogenous subgroups of alcohol use

  10. Please Show Yourself

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳丽; 孙俐

    2002-01-01

    We have experienced the social life since we were born. In the past days I have met a lot of people and affairs All those made me realize that there are masses of laughters and tears in our daily life Confidence, hardworking and determination will be the most three important factors if you like to get a shining future.

  11. A propensity score approach to correction for bias due to population stratification using genetic and non-genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huaqing; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Mitra, Nandita

    2009-12-01

    Confounding due to population stratification (PS) arises when differences in both allele and disease frequencies exist in a population of mixed racial/ethnic subpopulations. Genomic control, structured association, principal components analysis (PCA), and multidimensional scaling (MDS) approaches have been proposed to address this bias using genetic markers. However, confounding due to PS can also be due to non-genetic factors. Propensity scores are widely used to address confounding in observational studies but have not been adapted to deal with PS in genetic association studies. We propose a genomic propensity score (GPS) approach to correct for bias due to PS that considers both genetic and non-genetic factors. We compare the GPS method with PCA and MDS using simulation studies. Our results show that GPS can adequately adjust and consistently correct for bias due to PS. Under no/mild, moderate, and severe PS, GPS yielded estimated with bias close to 0 (mean=-0.0044, standard error=0.0087). Under moderate or severe PS, the GPS method consistently outperforms the PCA method in terms of bias, coverage probability (CP), and type I error. Under moderate PS, the GPS method consistently outperforms the MDS method in terms of CP. PCA maintains relatively high power compared to both MDS and GPS methods under the simulated situations. GPS and MDS are comparable in terms of statistical properties such as bias, type I error, and power. The GPS method provides a novel and robust tool for obtaining less-biased estimates of genetic associations that can consider both genetic and non-genetic factors.

  12. A fuel-based approach for emission factor development for highway paving construction equipment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Kaishan; Pang, Kaili; Di, Baofeng

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop and demonstrate a fuel-based approach for emissions factor estimation for highway paving construction equipment in China for better accuracy. A highway construction site in Chengdu was selected for this study with NO emissions being characterized and demonstrated. Four commonly used paving equipment, i.e., three rollers and one paver were selected in this study. A portable emission measurement system (PEMS) was developed and used for emission measurements of selected equipment during real-world highway construction duties. Three duty modes were defined to characterize the NO emissions, i.e., idling, moving, and working. In order to develop a representative emission factor for these highway construction equipment, composite emission factors were estimated using modal emission rates and the corresponding modal durations in the process of typical construction duties. Depending on duty mode and equipment type, NO emission rate ranged from 2.6-63.7mg/s and 6.0-55.6g/kg-fuel with the fuel consumption ranging from 0.31-4.52 g/s correspondingly. The NO composite emission factor was estimated to be 9-41mg/s with the single-drum roller being the highest and double-drum roller being the lowest and 6-30g/kg-fuel with the pneumatic tire roller being the highest while the double-drum roller being the lowest. For the paver, both time-based and fuel consumption-based NO composite emission rates are higher than all of the rollers with 56mg/s and 30g/kg-fuel, respectively. In terms of time-based quantity, the working mode contributes more than the other modes with idling being the least for both emissions and fuel consumption. In contrast, the fuel-based emission rate appears to have less variability in emissions. Thus, in order to estimate emission factors for emission inventory development, the fuel-based emission factor may be selected for better accuracy.

  13. The decay of Λ{sub b} → p K{sup -} in QCD factorization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Jie; Wei, Zheng-Tao [Nankai University, School of Physics, Tianjin (China); Ke, Hong-Wei [Tianjin University, School of Science, Tianjin (China)

    2016-05-15

    With only the tree-level operator, the decay of Λ{sub b} → p K{sup -} is predicted to be one order smaller than the experimental data. The QCD penguin effects should be taken into account. In this paper, we explore the one-loop QCD corrections to the decay of Λ{sub b} → p K{sup -} within the framework of QCD factorization approach. For the baryon system, the diquark approximation is adopted. The transition hadronic matrix elements between Λ{sub b} and p are calculated in the light-front quark model. The branching ratio of Λ{sub b} → p K{sup -} is predicted to be about 4.85 x 10{sup -6}, which is consistent with experimental data (4.9 ± 0.9) x 10{sup -6}. The CP violation is about 5 % in theory. (orig.)

  14. Lattice approach to finite volume form-factors of the Massive Thirring (Sine-Gordon) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedűs, Árpád

    2017-08-01

    In this paper we demonstrate, that the light-cone lattice approach for the Massive-Thirring (sine-Gordon) model, through the quantum inverse scattering method, admits an appropriate framework for computing the finite volume form-factors of local operators of the model. In this work we compute the finite volume diagonal matrix elements of the U(1) conserved current in the pure soliton sector of the theory. Based on the systematic large volume expansion of our results, we conjecture an exact expression for the finite volume expectation values of local operators in pure soliton states. At large volume in leading order these expectation values have the same form as in purely elastic scattering theories, but exponentially small corrections differ from previous Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz conjectures of purely elastic scattering theories.

  15. The decay of $\\Lambda_b\\rightarrow p~K^-$ in QCD factorization approach

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Jie; Wei, Zheng-Tao

    2016-01-01

    With only the tree level operator, the decay of $\\Lambda_b\\rightarrow pK$ is predicted to be one order smaller than the experimental data. The QCD penguin effects should be taken into account. In this paper, we explore the one-loop QCD corrections to the decay of $\\Lambda_b\\to pK$ within the framework of QCD factorization approach. For the baryon system, the diquark approximation is adopted. The transition hadronic matrix elements between $\\Lambda_b$ and $p$ are calculated in the light front quark model. The branching ratio of $\\Lambda_b\\rightarrow pK$ is predicted to be about $4.85\\times 10^{-6}$ which is consistent with experimental data $(4.9\\pm 0.9)\\times 10^{-6}$. The CP violation is about 5\\% in theory.

  16. New Approaches in Tumor Necrosis Factor Antagonism for the Treatment of Psoriatic Arthritis: Certolizumab Pegol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauli, Alberto; Piga, Matteo; Lubrano, Ennio; Marchesoni, Antonio; Floris, Alberto; Mathieu, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    The pathogenesis of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is still under discussion but great advances have been made in the last 2 decades that confirm the central role of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in its inflammatory milieu. New therapeutic approaches have been proposed, and new molecules with anti-TNF-α activity have been chemically altered to improve their pharmacological properties. Certolizumab pegol (CZP) is a PEGylated Fc-free anti-TNF that has been shown clinically to be effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), skin psoriasis, and PsA. This article summarizes available data on its clinical efficacy and safety profile in the treatment of patients with PsA.

  17. Transgenic Nonhuman Primate Models for Human Diseases: Approaches and Contributing Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongchang Chen; Yuyu Niu; Weizhi Ji

    2012-01-01

    Nonhuman primates (NHPs) provide powerful experimental models to study human development,cognitive functions and disturbances as well as complex behavior,because of their genetic and physiological similarities to humans.Therefore,NHPs are appropriate models for the study of human diseases,such as neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's,Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases,which occur as a result of genetic mutations.However,such diseass afflicting humans do not occur naturally in NHPs.So transgenic NHPs need to be established to understand the etiology of disease pathology and pathogenesis.Compared to rodent genetic models,the generation of transgenic NHPs for human diseases is inefficient,and only a transgenic monkey model for Huntington's disease has been reported.This review focuses on potential approaches and contributing factors for generating transgenic NHPs to study human diseases.

  18. Psychosomatic Factors and Psychologic Status in Psoriatic Patients and Approach to the Psoriatic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul H. Aydemir

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Even if it has not been completely proven, psychosomatic factors are generally agreed and most of the patients talk about stress and the other emotional traumas at the beginning of disease and at the attacks. Furthermore since it is a difficult to treat disease easily seen on the skin, cause to hopeless, loneliness and isolation senses and they feel theirselves dirty and guilty. Then it leads to an unbreakable vicious circle. It is very important to make an approach with much care and affection. It is very important that to listen, to examine and to touch the dermatologist to the patient with patience and affection. Besides that to take a psychiatric support may also help too much to the treatment of the diseases.

  19. Prompt photon hadroproduction at high energies in the k{sub T}-factorization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipatov, A V; Zotov, N P [D V Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, M V Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119 992 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-02-15

    We consider the prompt photon production at high energy hadron colliders in the framework of the k{sub T}-factorization approach. The unintegrated quark and gluon distributions in a proton are determined using the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. The conservative error analysis is performed. We investigate both inclusive prompt photon and prompt photon and associated muon production rates. In a standard model such events occur mainly due to the Compton scattering process where the final heavy (charm or bottom) quark produces a muon. The theoretical results are compared with recent experimental data taken by the D and CDF collaborations at Fermilab Tevatron. Our analysis also covers the azimuthal correlations between the produced prompt photon and muon which can provide an important information about non-collinear parton evolution in a proton. Finally, we extrapolate the theoretical predictions to CERN LHC energies.

  20. Prompt photon hadroproduction at high energies in the k{sub T}-factorization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipatov, A.V.; Zotov, N.P. [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki

    2005-09-01

    We consider the prompt photon production at high energy hadron colliders in the framework of k{sub T}-factorization approach. The unintegrated quark and gluon distributions in a proton are determined using the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. The conservative error analysis is performed. We investigate both inclusive prompt photon and prompt photon and associated muon production rates. In standard model such events come mainly due to Compton scattering process where the final heavy (charm or bottom) quark produces a muon. The theoretical results are compared with recent experimental data taken by the DOe and CDF collaborations at Fermilab Tevatron. Our analysis also covers the azimuthal correlations between produced prompt photon and muon which can provide an important information about non-collinear parton evolution in a proton. Finally, we extrapolate the theoretical predictions to CERN LHC energies. (orig.)

  1. Deep inelastic beauty production at HERA in the k{sub T}-factorization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipatov, A.V.; Zotov, N.P. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). D.V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics

    2006-05-15

    We calculate the cross section of beauty production in electron-proton deep inelastic scattering at HERA collider in the framework of the k{sub t}-factorization approach. The unintegrated gluon distributions in a proton are obtained from the full CCFM, from unified BFKL-DGLAP evolution equations as well as from the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. We investigate different production rates and study the b-quark contribution to the inclusive proton structure function F{sub 2}(x,Q{sup 2}) at small x and at moderate and high values of Q{sup 2}. Our theoretical results are compared with the recent experimental data taken by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations. We demonstrate the importance of leading ln 1/x contributions in description of the HERA data. (Orig.)

  2. Computational Modelling Approaches on Epigenetic Factors in Neurodegenerative and Autoimmune Diseases and Their Mechanistic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afroza Khanam Irin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative as well as autoimmune diseases have unclear aetiologies, but an increasing number of evidences report for a combination of genetic and epigenetic alterations that predispose for the development of disease. This review examines the major milestones in epigenetics research in the context of diseases and various computational approaches developed in the last decades to unravel new epigenetic modifications. However, there are limited studies that systematically link genetic and epigenetic alterations of DNA to the aetiology of diseases. In this work, we demonstrate how disease-related epigenetic knowledge can be systematically captured and integrated with heterogeneous information into a functional context using Biological Expression Language (BEL. This novel methodology, based on BEL, enables us to integrate epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation or acetylation of histones into a specific disease network. As an example, we depict the integration of epigenetic and genetic factors in a functional context specific to Parkinson’s disease (PD and Multiple Sclerosis (MS.

  3. Prompt photon hadroproduction at high energies in the k_T-factorization approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lipatov, A V

    2005-01-01

    We consider the prompt photon production at high energy hadron colliders in the framework of k_T-factorization approach. The unintegrated quark and gluon distributions in a proton are determined using the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. The conservative error analisys is performed. We investigate both inclusive prompt photon and prompt photon and associated muon production rates. In Standard Model such events come mainly due to Compton scattering process where the final heavy (charm or bottom) quark produces a muon. The theoretical results are compared with recent experimental data taken by the D0 and CDF collaborations at Fermilab Tevatron. Our analysis also covers the azimuthal correlations between produced prompt photon and muon which can provide an important information about non-collinear parton evolution in a proton. Finally, we extrapolate the theoretical predictions to CERN LHC energies.

  4. Drell-Yan lepton pair production at high energies in the kt-factorization approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lipatov, A V; Zotov, N P

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of the kt-factorization approach, the production of unpolarized Drell-Yan lepton pair at high energies is studied. The consideration is based on the O(alpha) and $O(alpha alpha_s) off-shell partonic matrix elements with virtual photon and Z boson exchange. The calculations include leptonic decays of Z bosons with full spin correlations as well as gamma - Z interference. The unintegrated parton densities in a proton are determined by the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. Our numerical predictions are compared with the data taken by the D0, CDF and CMS collaborations at the Tevatron and LHC energies. Special attention is put on the specific angular distributions measured very recently by the CDF collaboration for the first time.

  5. Factors Affecting M-commerce Adoption in Oman using Technology Acceptance Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Jafar Naqvi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The advancement in mobile technologies has influenced many countries to adopt mobile services in their private and public organizations including Oman. M-commerce services are growing rapidly with the exponential growth of mobile devices, technologies and networks. Hence, many business organizations private or public use them to improve revenue, reduce costs, maintain their competitive edge and achieve a level of high efficiency. Although there were many M-commerce services introduced, it was hard to find evidence of any study conducted to determine their successes or failures. This study is an attempt to explore the factors affecting the adoption of M-commerce services in Oman using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM approach.

  6. A Systematic Approach to Identify Candidate Transcription Factors that Control Cell Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. D’Alessio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of transcription factors (TFs are expressed in each cell type, but cell identity can be induced through the activity of just a small number of core TFs. Systematic identification of these core TFs for a wide variety of cell types is currently lacking and would establish a foundation for understanding the transcriptional control of cell identity in development, disease, and cell-based therapy. Here, we describe a computational approach that generates an atlas of candidate core TFs for a broad spectrum of human cells. The potential impact of the atlas was demonstrated via cellular reprogramming efforts where candidate core TFs proved capable of converting human fibroblasts to retinal pigment epithelial-like cells. These results suggest that candidate core TFs from the atlas will prove a useful starting point for studying transcriptional control of cell identity and reprogramming in many human cell types.

  7. Identification and Ranking of Critical Success Factors of Knowledge Management Using Fuzzy Quality Function Deployment Approach: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohaghar

    2014-02-01

    Based on the information accessible for the researchers, this is one of the first works which evaluates the key factors of successful knowledge management through fuzzy quality function deployment approach. It is expected that the proposed method would represent appropriate tools for enterprises which have decided to implement knowledge management because it prioritizes the critical success factors based on the knowledge management outcomes.

  8. Using Student-Centred Learning Environments to Stimulate Deep Approaches to Learning: Factors Encouraging or Discouraging Their Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeten, Marlies; Kyndt, Eva; Struyven, Katrien; Dochy, Filip

    2010-01-01

    This review outlines encouraging and discouraging factors in stimulating the adoption of deep approaches to learning in student-centred learning environments. Both encouraging and discouraging factors can be situated in the context of the learning environment, in students' perceptions of that context and in characteristics of the students…

  9. Risk Factors for Visual Field Progression in the Groningen Longitudinal Glaucoma Study : A Comparison of Different Statistical Approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselink, Christiaan; Marcus, Michael W.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To identify risk factors for visual field progression in glaucoma and to compare different statistical approaches with this risk factor analysis. Patients and Methods: We included 221 eyes of 221 patients. Progression was analyzed using Nonparametric Progression Analysis applied to Humphrey

  10. Risk Factors for Visual Field Progression in the Groningen Longitudinal Glaucoma Study : A Comparison of Different Statistical Approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselink, Christiaan; Marcus, Michael W.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To identify risk factors for visual field progression in glaucoma and to compare different statistical approaches with this risk factor analysis. Patients and Methods: We included 221 eyes of 221 patients. Progression was analyzed using Nonparametric Progression Analysis applied to Humphrey

  11. An approach using multi-factor combination to evaluate high rocky slope safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Huaizhi; Yang, Meng; Wen, Zhiping

    2016-06-01

    A high rocky slope is an open complex giant system for which there is contradiction among different influencing factors and coexistence of qualitative and quantitative information. This study presents a comprehensive intelligent evaluation method of high rocky slope safety through an integrated analytic hierarchy process, extension matter element model and entropy weight to assess the safety behavior of the high rocky slope. The proposed intelligent evaluation integrates subjective judgments derived from the analytic hierarchy process with the extension matter model and entropy weight into a multiple indexes dynamic safety evaluation approach. A combined subjective and objective comprehensive evaluation process, a more objective study, through avoiding subjective effects on the weights, and a qualitative safety assessment and quantitative safety amount are presented in the proposed method. The detailed computational procedures were also provided to illustrate the integration process of the above methods. Safety analysis of one high rocky slope is conducted to illustrate that this approach can adequately handle the inherent imprecision and contradiction of the human decision-making process and provide the flexibility and robustness needed for the decision maker to better monitor the safety status of a high rocky slope. This study was the first application of the proposed integrated evaluation method in the safety assessment of a high rocky slope. The study also indicated that it can also be applied to other similar problems.

  12. Distance Factors and Croatian Export Obstacles in the EU15: CAGE Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Miloloža

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For long-term sustainability of any enterprise, it is required to observe each market separately and systematically modify business approach to prevailing conditions in each. However, adaptation to each market can be a complex affair that requires certain financial costs but ignoring distinguishing criteria leads to reduction in revenues and undermines long-term profitability. Time saving and cost-effectiveness can be achieved by application of The CAGE Distance Framework – a model that analysis all diversities between two or more countries. Croatia did not yet utilize the benefits that European Union membership provides nor did significantly improved its international business. It is obvious that Croatia faces difficulties in the strategic approach to prospective foreign markets. Therefore, emphasis of this article is on analysis and identification of the distinguishing factors between Croatia and the EU15 in order to facilitate and enhance cooperation among them in the future. Throughout the analysis of Croatian export from the beginning of the economic crisis, this article gives an overview of international collaboration among Croatia and the EU15 and comparative analysis by using The CAGE Distance Framework. This analysis has confirmed significant fluctuations, unexploited potential and problems of the Croatian economy in all dimensions of The CAGE model.

  13. Dynamic SPECT reconstruction from few projections: a sparsity enforced matrix factorization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qiaoqiao; Zan, Yunlong; Huang, Qiu; Zhang, Xiaoqun

    2015-02-01

    The reconstruction of dynamic images from few projection data is a challenging problem, especially when noise is present and when the dynamic images are vary fast. In this paper, we propose a variational model, sparsity enforced matrix factorization (SEMF), based on low rank matrix factorization of unknown images and enforced sparsity constraints for representing both coefficients and bases. The proposed model is solved via an alternating iterative scheme for which each subproblem is convex and involves the efficient alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). The convergence of the overall alternating scheme for the nonconvex problem relies upon the Kurdyka-Łojasiewicz property, recently studied by Attouch et al (2010 Math. Oper. Res. 35 438) and Attouch et al (2013 Math. Program. 137 91). Finally our proof-of-concept simulation on 2D dynamic images shows the advantage of the proposed method compared to conventional methods.

  14. A new FACS approach isolates hESC derived endoderm using transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiong Pan

    Full Text Available We show that high quality microarray gene expression profiles can be obtained following FACS sorting of cells using combinations of transcription factors. We use this transcription factor FACS (tfFACS methodology to perform a genomic analysis of hESC-derived endodermal lineages marked by combinations of SOX17, GATA4, and CXCR4, and find that triple positive cells have a much stronger definitive endoderm signature than other combinations of these markers. Additionally, SOX17(+ GATA4(+ cells can be obtained at a much earlier stage of differentiation, prior to expression of CXCR4(+ cells, providing an important new tool to isolate this earlier definitive endoderm subtype. Overall, tfFACS represents an advancement in FACS technology which broadly crosses multiple disciplines, most notably in regenerative medicine to redefine cellular populations.

  15. Developing Student Housing Quality Scale in Higher Institutions of Learning: A Factor Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. K. Bondinuba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The researchers developed an instrument for measuring student housing quality (SHQ in Higher Institutions of Learning (HIL in Ghana. The paper sought to validate the student housing quality scale (SHOQUAL through factor analysis approach. 700 respondents were sampled from two public HIL in Ghana in a cross-sectional survey that used a self-administered structured questionnaire for data collection. Confirmatory factor fnalysis (CFA was conducted to detect the underlying latent variables that significantly determine SHQ in Ghanaian HIL. The findings indicate that four emerged SHQ dimensions relevant to the research context were labelled as follows: core facility quality, enabling facility quality, support facility quality, and cost of housing. The constructs in the derived model possess high reliability and validity. Student housing service providers could conveniently use the derived instrument items for measuring SHQ in HIL. Implications are discussed and limitations are noted. The paper contributes to the literature in the areas of models of service quality in student housing management in HIL.

  16. Biomechanical approaches to identify and quantify injury mechanisms and risk factors in women's artistic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth J; Hume, Patria A

    2012-09-01

    Targeted injury prevention strategies, based on biomechanical analyses, have the potential to help reduce the incidence and severity of gymnastics injuries. This review outlines the potential benefits of biomechanics research to contribute to injury prevention strategies for women's artistic gymnastics by identification of mechanisms of injury and quantification of the effects of injury risk factors. One hundred and twenty-three articles were retained for review after searching electronic databases using key words, including 'gymnastic', 'biomech*', and 'inj*', and delimiting by language and relevance to the paper aim. Impact load can be measured biomechanically by the use of instrumented equipment (e.g. beatboard), instrumentation on the gymnast (accelerometers), or by landings on force plates. We need further information on injury mechanisms and risk factors in gymnastics and practical methods of monitoring training loads. We have not yet shown, beyond a theoretical approach, how biomechanical analysis of gymnastics can help reduce injury risk through injury prevention interventions. Given the high magnitude of impact load, both acute and accumulative, coaches should monitor impact loads per training session, taking into consideration training quality and quantity such as the control of rotation and the height from which the landings are executed.

  17. Sequence2Vec: A novel embedding approach for modeling transcription factor binding affinity landscape

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Hanjun

    2017-07-26

    Motivation: An accurate characterization of transcription factor (TF)-DNA affinity landscape is crucial to a quantitative understanding of the molecular mechanisms underpinning endogenous gene regulation. While recent advances in biotechnology have brought the opportunity for building binding affinity prediction methods, the accurate characterization of TF-DNA binding affinity landscape still remains a challenging problem. Results: Here we propose a novel sequence embedding approach for modeling the transcription factor binding affinity landscape. Our method represents DNA binding sequences as a hidden Markov model (HMM) which captures both position specific information and long-range dependency in the sequence. A cornerstone of our method is a novel message passing-like embedding algorithm, called Sequence2Vec, which maps these HMMs into a common nonlinear feature space and uses these embedded features to build a predictive model. Our method is a novel combination of the strength of probabilistic graphical models, feature space embedding and deep learning. We conducted comprehensive experiments on over 90 large-scale TF-DNA data sets which were measured by different high-throughput experimental technologies. Sequence2Vec outperforms alternative machine learning methods as well as the state-of-the-art binding affinity prediction methods.

  18. A macroepigenetic approach to identify factors responsible for the autism epidemic in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dufault Renee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The number of children ages 6 to 21 in the United States receiving special education services under the autism disability category increased 91% between 2005 to 2010 while the number of children receiving special education services overall declined by 5%. The demand for special education services continues to rise in disability categories associated with pervasive developmental disorders. Neurodevelopment can be adversely impacted when gene expression is altered by dietary transcription factors, such as zinc insufficiency or deficiency, or by exposure to toxic substances found in our environment, such as mercury or organophosphate pesticides. Gene expression patterns differ geographically between populations and within populations. Gene variants of paraoxonase-1 are associated with autism in North America, but not in Italy, indicating regional specificity in gene-environment interactions. In the current review, we utilize a novel macroepigenetic approach to compare variations in diet and toxic substance exposure between these two geographical populations to determine the likely factors responsible for the autism epidemic in the United States.

  19. A Variant Form of the Human Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumor 1 (DMBT1) Gene Shows Increased Expression in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Interacts with Dimeric Trefoil Factor 3 (TFF3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens; Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Nielsen, Ole Stig;

    2013-01-01

    The protein deleted in malignant brain tumors (DMBT1) and the trefoil factor (TFF) proteins have all been proposed to have roles in epithelial cell growth and cell differentiation and shown to be up regulated in inflammatory bowel diseases. A panel of monoclonal antibodies was raised against human......-1 showed no reaction. Hyb213-6 showed strong cytoplasmic staining in epithelial cells of both the small and large intestine whereas no staining was seen with Hyb213-1. The number of DMBT1(gp340) positive epithelial cells, stained with Hyb213-6, was significantly up regulated in inflammatory colon tissue...

  20. Create a Polarized Light Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson that introduces students to polarized light using a problem-solving approach. After illustrating the concept using a slinky and poster board with a vertical slot, students solve the problem of creating a polarized light show using Polya's problem-solving methods. (MDH)

  1. The Health Show

    OpenAIRE

    Swann, David

    2011-01-01

    Dr David Swann interviewed on The Health Show, Series 1, Episode 5, 2011 for BBC World about the award-winning 21st Century Nursing Bag. BBC World News reaches 241million people every week, available in 296 million homes, 1.8 million hotel rooms and has the highest average viewership on a weekday of any international news channel. The Health Show is a new 26-part series for BBC World News covering the most important news stories from around the world.

  2. Prevalence of Risk Factors for Chronic Non-communicable Diseases Using WHO Steps Approach in an Adult Population in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Ankur; Anand, Tanu; Sharma, Urvi; Kishore, Jugal; Chakraborty, Mantosh; Ray, Prakash Chandra; Ingle, Gopal Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing worldwide largely due to prevalence of various risk factors, which can be controlled. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to measure the prevalence of major preventable risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi, using STEPS approach. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study, that included a random sample of 200 adults, was conducted. A study tool based on the WHO STEPS questionnaire for assessing non-communicable diseases and their risk factors was used. Fasting venous blood sample was collected to assess the lipid profile and fasting blood sugar. Anthropometric measurements of the participants were also taken. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: Out of the 200 participants, 26% (n = 52) were consuming alcohol and 17% (n = 34) were smoking. Majority (77.5%) had a raised waist circumference, and more than two-thirds were either overweight or obese. Fasting blood sugar levels were found to be raised in 18% of the study population. More than third participants had raised systolic and diastolic blood pressures and abnormal lipid profiles. More males were found to be overweight in comparison to females (P < 0.01), but in contrast, obesity (P < 0.05) and raised waist circumference (P < 0.001) were more common in females. Tobacco use was more common in lower class (P < 0.05), whereas obesity was commoner in the upper socio-economic class (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Study showed a high burden of risk factors for NCDs in the study population, pointing towards changing disease epidemiology of non-communicable diseases in India. PMID:25161966

  3. A Fashion Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Story: The yearly fashion show day.The children take turns to walk on the stage and show the class their favorite clothes.Now it’s Joe’s and Phoebe’s turn.Joe walks on the stage and says,“My shorts are blue.Do you like my blue shorts?”On the other side of the stage, Phoebe is wearing her favorite pink skirt.“My skirt is pink.Do you like my pink skirt?”asks

  4. Dynamic structure factor of a strongly correlated Fermi superfluid within a density functional theory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Peng; Dalfovo, Franco; Sharma, Rishi; Liu, Xia-Ji; Hu, Hui

    2016-11-01

    We theoretically investigate the dynamic structure factor of a strongly interacting Fermi gas at the crossover from Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer superfluids to Bose-Einstein condensates, by developing an improved random phase approximation within the framework of a density functional theory (DFT)—the so-called superfluid local density approximation. Compared with the previous random-phase-approximation studies based on the standard Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, the use of the DFT greatly improves the accuracy of the equation of state at the crossover, and leads to a better description of both collective Bogoliubov-Anderson-Goldstone phonon mode and single-particle fermionic excitations at small transferred momentum. Near unitarity, where the s-wave scattering length diverges, we show that the single-particle excitations start to significantly contribute to the spectrum of dynamic structure factor once the frequency is above a threshold of the energy gap at 2{{Δ }}. The sharp rise in the spectrum at this threshold can be utilized to measure the pairing gap Δ. Together with the sound velocity determined from the phonon branch, the dynamic structure factor provides us some key information of the crossover Fermi superfluid. Our predictions could be examined in experiments with 6Li or 40K atoms using Bragg spectroscopy.

  5. Contextual Factors Affecting the Innovation Performance of Manufacturing SMEs in Korea: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Seul Choi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically explores the relationship between innovation performance and the internal and contextual factors driving technological innovation in manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in metropolitan areas of Korea using structural equation modeling (SEM. Our analysis is based on firm-level data from the Korean Innovation Survey conducted by the Science and Technology Policy Institute in 2012. According to the results, SMEs’ innovation capacity was positively related to technological innovation performance, and SMEs’ skills and technology acquisition is a contextual factor that positively influences their innovation performance. In this process, SMEs’ innovation capacity is a partial mediator between skills and technology acquisition and SMEs’ technological innovation performance. Moreover, the results show that the relationship between government and public policies and SMEs’ innovation performance is mediated by SMEs’ internal innovation capacity. The results imply that both skills and technology acquisition and government and public policies are important contextual factors can increase SMEs’ innovation performance. Based on the results, this study provides implications for policy makers in terms of the policies that provide both direct and support roles in fostering and sustaining innovation, which drives regional economic growth and development.

  6. On not showing scalps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    proposed by Janet Marstine, the editor of the Routledge Companion to Museum Ethics, I show how the museum succeeded in engaging users in questions of museum ethics. However, this specific debate on human remains in museums developed into an encounter between a global, museological discourse...

  7. Violence and TV Shows

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Yrd. Doç. Dr. Şinasi

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to discuss theories on theviolent effects of TV shows on viewers, especiallyon children. Therefore, this study includes a briefdiscussion of definitions of violence, discussionof violence theories, main results of researcheson televised violence, measuring TV violence,perception of televised violence, individualdifferences and reactions to TV violence,aggressiveness and preferences for TV violence.

  8. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  9. A Visionary Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Seduction. Distinction. Relax. Pulsation. These are the "style universes" on display at Première Vision, heralded as "The World’s Premiere Fabric Show." Started more than 35 years ago by 15 French weavers, Première Vision has expanded beyond its

  10. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  11. CP-Violating Asymmetries in Charmless Non-Leptonic Decays $B \\rightarrow PP, PV, VV$ in the Factorization Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, A; Lü, C D

    1999-01-01

    We present estimates of the direct (in decay amplitudes) and indirect (mixing- induced) CP-violating asymmetries in the non-leptonic charmless two-body decay rates for $B \\to PP$, $B \\to PV$ and $B \\to VV$ decays and their charged conjugates, where P(V) is a light pseudoscalar (vector) meson. These estimates are based on a generalized factorization approach making use of next-to-leading order perturbative QCD contributions which generate the required strong phases. No soft final state interactions are included. We study the dependence of the asymmetries on a number of input parameters and show that there are at least two (possibly three) classes of decays in which the asymmetries are parametrically stable in this approach. The decay modes of particular interest are: $\\optbar{B^0} \\to \\pi^+ \\pi^-$, $\\optbar{B^0} \\to K_S^0 \\pi^0$, $\\optbar{B^0} \\to K_S^0 \\eta^\\prime$, $\\optbar{B^0} \\to K_S^0 asymmetry in the decays $øptbar{B^0} \\to K_S^0 h^0$ with $h^0=\\pi^0,K_S^0, of these asymmetries will lead to a determina...

  12. [Identification of risk factors for work-related stress in a hospital: a qualitative and quantitative approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, C G; Gerbaudo, Laura; Manconi, Maria Paola; Violante, B

    2013-01-01

    Italian legislation establishes the obligation for the employer to assess any risks to the safety and health of workers, including those relating to work-related stress (WRS). Several studies have proved the existence of a link between WRS and both individual diseases and organizational results. The research aimed at detecting WRS risk factors in a hospital consisting of 53 departments employing 2334 workers. A qualitative and quantitative approach was adopted divided into six steps: 1) analysis of the hospital indicators; 2) semistructured interviews of the 53 department heads; 3) preparation of a checklist including 42 WRS risk indicators; 4) observation by shadowing of the 53 departments; 5) setting up of 53 focus groups with staff from each department; 6) distribution of the check-list to a representative sample of 747 employees. Data analysis showed a "low" level of WRS risk regarding the hospital as a whole, a "medium" level regarding six transversal indicators and eight departments. Three indicators considered particularly significant were examined in detail: "workplace and ergonomic conditions", "shift work", "interruptions in work flow". The results helped to identifj a series of best practices aimed at reducing WRS risk that are applicable to other health care settings. The qualitative and quantitative approach produced a keen involvement of the employees of the hospital which will positively encourage the real efficacy of the measures taken.

  13. Risk factors of delay proportional probability in diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination of Iranian children; Life table approach analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mokhtari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite success in expanded program immunization for an increase in vaccination coverage in the children of world, timeliness and schedule of vaccination remains as one of the challenges in public health. This study purposed to demonstrate the related factors of delayed diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP vaccination using life table approach. A historical cohort study conducted in the poor areas of five large Iran cities. Totally, 3610 children with 24-47 months old age who had documented vaccination card were enrolled. Time of vaccination for the third dose of DTP vaccine was calculated. Life table survival was used to calculate the proportional probability of vaccination in each time. Wilcoxon test was used for the comparison proportional probability of delayed vaccination based on studies factors. The overall median delayed time for DTP3 was 38.52 days. The Wilcoxon test showed that city, nationality, education level of parents, birth order and being in rural areas are related to the high probability of delay time for DTP3 vaccination (P 0.05. Being away from the capital, a high concentration of immigrants in the city borders with a low socioeconomic class leads to prolonged delay in DTP vaccination time. Special attention to these areas is needed to increase the levels of parental knowledge and to facilitate access to the health services care.

  14. CERN on show

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Last week I was in Ankara to discuss Turkish accession to CERN, and to take part in the opening of CERN’s main travelling exhibition at the Middle East Technical University. I was astonished at the crowds of people the exhibition drew in, and I’m told that it’s a similar story wherever it goes. Our smaller exhibition stands are also much in demand across our Member States.   You don’t have to travel to Ankara, however, to experience the same phenomenon – just go to Building 33 any time from Monday to Saturday and you’ll get the idea. But although we’ve worked hard over recent years to increase our capacity for visits to a level approaching 80,000 per year, there’s still a long waiting list. And that’s a problem. The success of the Visits Service rests on the goodwill of all the CERNois who volunteer to be guides, as well as those who graciously allow increasing numbers of visitors into their workplaces...

  15. Shanghai Shows Its Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The city known as China’s economic powerhouse showed a more caring face as host of the Special Olympic Games Between October 2 and 11,the Special Olympics Summer Games were hosted in Shanghai,the first time the 40-year-old athletic com- petition for people with intellectual disabilities came to a developing country. This Special Olympics was also larger than all previous games in temps of the number of athletes.

  16. Selection of Variables in Exploratory Factor Analysis: An Empirical Comparison of a Stepwise and Traditional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarty, Kristine Y.; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; Ferron, John M.; Hines, Constance V.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the performance of a stepwise variable selection algorithm to traditional exploratory factor analysis. The Monte Carlo study included six factors in the design; the number of common factors; the number of variables explained by the common factors; the magnitude of factor loadings; the number…

  17. A novel approach for transcription factor analysis using SELEX with high-throughput sequencing (TFAST.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Reiss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In previous work, we designed a modified aptamer-free SELEX-seq protocol (afSELEX-seq for the discovery of transcription factor binding sites. Here, we present original software, TFAST, designed to analyze afSELEX-seq data, validated against our previously generated afSELEX-seq dataset and a model dataset. TFAST is designed with a simple graphical interface (Java so that it can be installed and executed without extensive expertise in bioinformatics. TFAST completes analysis within minutes on most personal computers. METHODOLOGY: Once afSELEX-seq data are aligned to a target genome, TFAST identifies peaks and, uniquely, compares peak characteristics between cycles. TFAST generates a hierarchical report of graded peaks, their associated genomic sequences, binding site length predictions, and dummy sequences. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Including additional cycles of afSELEX-seq improved TFAST's ability to selectively identify peaks, leading to 7,274, 4,255, and 2,628 peaks identified in two-, three-, and four-cycle afSELEX-seq. Inter-round analysis by TFAST identified 457 peaks as the strongest candidates for true binding sites. Separating peaks by TFAST into classes of worst, second-best and best candidate peaks revealed a trend of increasing significance (e-values 4.5 × 10(12, 2.9 × 10(-46, and 1.2 × 10(-73 and informational content (11.0, 11.9, and 12.5 bits over 15 bp of discovered motifs within each respective class. TFAST also predicted a binding site length (28 bp consistent with non-computational experimentally derived results for the transcription factor PapX (22 to 29 bp. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: TFAST offers a novel and intuitive approach for determining DNA binding sites of proteins subjected to afSELEX-seq. Here, we demonstrate that TFAST, using afSELEX-seq data, rapidly and accurately predicted sequence length and motif for a putative transcription factor's binding site.

  18. Three approaches for estimating recovery factors in carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.

    2017-07-17

    PrefaceThe Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 authorized the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2) and requested the USGS to estimate the “potential volumes of oil and gas recoverable by injection and sequestration of industrial carbon dioxide in potential sequestration formations” (42 U.S.C. 17271(b)(4)). Geologic CO2 sequestration associated with enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using CO2 in existing hydrocarbon reservoirs has the potential to increase the U.S. hydrocarbon recoverable resource. The objective of this report is to provide detailed information on three approaches that can be used to calculate the incremental recovery factors for CO2-EOR. Therefore, the contents of this report could form an integral part of an assessment methodology that can be used to assess the sedimentary basins of the United States for the hydrocarbon recovery potential using CO2-EOR methods in conventional oil reservoirs.

  19. Time transfer capability of standard small form factor pluggable laser modules based on photon counting approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojanek, Pavel; Prochazka, Ivan; Blazej, Josef

    2017-05-01

    We are reporting on timing parameters of commonly used standard Small Form Factor Pluggable (SFP) laser modules using single photon counting method. Photon counting is a promising approach for laser time transfer via optical fiber communication hardware. The sub-picosecond precision and stability may be achieved. We have performed several experiments with the aim to measure main parameters of the modules, such as time delay precision, time stability and temperature stability, all being critical for optical time transfer applications. Two standard 16 and 10 Gbit/s at 850 nm SFP modules were examined. The ultimate precision of possible time transfer of 800 fs for averaging times of hours was achieved. The modules together with their driving circuits exhibited very good temperature stability. The temperature drift as low as 300+/-200 fs/K was measured. The achieved timing parameters will enable to use the standard SFP modules for a new method of two way time transfer where the time differences between two distant time scales are measured in parallel to data transfer on existing optical data links without any communication interference.

  20. Cardiovascular disease risk reduction for tenth graders. A multiple-factor school-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, J D; Telch, M J; Robinson, T N; Maccoby, N; Taylor, C B; Farquhar, J W

    All tenth graders in four senior high schools (N = 1447) from two school districts participated in a cardiovascular disease risk-reduction trial. Within each district, one school was assigned at random to receive a special 20-session risk-reduction intervention and one school served as a control. At a two-month follow-up, risk factor knowledge scores were significantly greater for students in the treatment group. Compared with controls, a higher proportion of those in the treatment group who were not exercising regularly at baseline reported regular exercise at follow-up. Almost twice as many baseline experimental smokers in the treatment group reported quitting at follow-up, while only 5.6% of baseline experimental smokers in the treatment group graduated to regular smoking compared with 10.3% in the control group. Students in the treatment group were more likely to report that they would choose "heart-healthy" snack items. Beneficial treatment effects were observed for resting heart rate, body mass index, triceps skin fold thickness, and subscapular skin fold thickness. The results suggest that it is feasible to provide cardiovascular disease risk-reduction training to a large segment of the population through school-based primary prevention approaches.

  1. Pharmacy patronage: identifying key factors in the decision making process using the determinant attribute approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franic, Duska M; Haddock, Sarah M; Tucker, Leslie Tootle; Wooten, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    To use the determinant attribute approach, a research method commonly used in marketing to identify the wants of various consumer groups, to evaluate consumer pharmacy choice when having a prescription order filled in different pharmacy settings. Cross sectional. Community independent, grocery store, community chain, and discount store pharmacies in Georgia between April 2005 and April 2006. Convenience sample of adult pharmacy consumers (n = 175). Survey measuring consumer preferences on 26 attributes encompassing general pharmacy site features (16 items), pharmacist characteristics (5 items), and pharmacy staff characteristics (5 items). 26 potential determinant attributes for pharmacy selection. 175 consumers were surveyed at community independent (n = 81), grocery store (n = 44), community chain (n = 27), or discount store (n = 23) pharmacy settings. The attributes of pharmacists and staff at all four pharmacy settings were shown to affect pharmacy patronage motives, although consumers frequenting non-community independent pharmacies were also motivated by secondary convenience factors, e.g., hours of operation, and prescription coverage. Most consumers do not perceive pharmacies as merely prescription-distribution centers that vary only by convenience. Prescriptions are not just another economic good. Pharmacy personnel influence pharmacy selection; therefore, optimal staff selection and training is likely the greatest asset and most important investment for ensuring pharmacy success.

  2. Factors Determinants the Choice of Mobile Service Providers: Structural Equation Modeling Approach on Bangladeshi Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahasanul Haque

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to find out what were the factors that may have played significant role to select the telecommunication service providers. In general this research has an intention to develop a research framework grounded on a strong theoretical and literature review background. The survey instruments employed on Bangladeshi consumers included demographic background, price, service quality, product quality and availability and promotional offers for consumer perception. Thus the structural equation modeling approach was necessary in order to examine the variables. The data analysis was conducted using SPSS and AMOS (Analysis of Moment Structure with the software package for windows. From the result it is revealed that paths are related to the casual processes significantly. Among all the significant variables, from our result, Price is the most important among our respondents followed by Service quality, product quality and promotion. Further research should be considered to gather more information regarding the service quality and customers’ satisfaction dimensions in context of the Bangladeshi mobile phone operators. It is hoped that the findings of this study may assist mobile phone industry in Bangladesh about their services and promotion of their services. However, the findings of this study may provide needed feedback and contribute to the improvement of players’ strategy and their marketing program

  3. Affinity Density: a novel genomic approach to the identification of transcription factor regulatory targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelett, Dennis J; Lakeland, Daniel L; Weiss, Joseph B

    2009-07-01

    A new method was developed for identifying novel transcription factor regulatory targets based on calculating Local Affinity Density. Techniques from the signal-processing field were used, in particular the Hann digital filter, to calculate the relative binding affinity of different regions based on previously published in vitro binding data. To illustrate this approach, the complete genomes of Drosophila melanogaster and D.pseudoobscura were analyzed for binding sites of the homeodomain proteinc Tinman, an essential heart development gene in both Drosophila and Mouse. The significant binding regions were identified relative to genomic background and assigned to putative target genes. Valid candidates common to both species of Drosophila were selected as a test of conservation. The new method was more sensitive than cluster searches for conserved binding motifs with respect to positive identification of known Tinman targets. Our Local Affinity Density method also identified a significantly greater proportion of Tinman-coexpressed genes than equivalent, optimized cluster searching. In addition, this new method predicted a significantly greater than expected number of genes with previously published RNAi phenotypes in the heart. Algorithms were implemented in Python, LISP, R and maxima, using MySQL to access locally mirrored sequence data from Ensembl (D.melanogaster release 4.3) and flybase (D.pseudoobscura). All code is licensed under GPL and freely available at http://www.ohsu.edu/cellbio/dev_biol_prog/affinitydensity/.

  4. Not a "reality" show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  5. Computation of External Quality Factors for RF Structures by Means of Model Order Reduction and a Perturbation Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Flisgen, Thomas; van Rienen, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    External quality factors are significant quantities to describe losses via waveguide ports in radio frequency resonators. The current contribution presents a novel approach to determine external quality factors by means of a two-step procedure: First, a state-space model for the lossless radio frequency structure is generated and its model order is reduced. Subsequently, a perturbation method is applied on the reduced model so that external losses are accounted for. The advantage of this approach results from the fact that the challenges in dealing with lossy systems are shifted to the reduced order model. This significantly saves computational costs. The present paper provides a short overview on existing methods to compute external quality factors. Then, the novel approach is introduced and validated in terms of accuracy and computational time by means of commercial software.

  6. A systems theory approach to career development: Exploring factors that affect science as a career choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liskey, Brian K.

    This research project was designed to examine the factors that affect students' choice in a career. Specifically, the factors of (a) achievement, (b) interest, (c) self-efficacy, (d) perceived preparation for a career, and (e) being informed about a career will be under investigation. Of key importance to the study is how these factors can affect a student's perception about choosing a science career. A quantitative analysis of secondary data from the 2006 and 2009 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) international assessment and attitudinal questionnaire provided data on student perceptions and aptitude in science. The sample from PISA included over 400,000 15 year-old students from 57 countries. From the 57 countries, 30 countries, comprised by Organization for Economic and Cooperative Development (OECD), were isolated for analysis. Within this group of 30, 11 were selected for comparison based on their questionnaire response to expectations for a career in science at age 30. The Institute for Educational Science's, International Data Explorer was utilized to acquire and analyze data from the 2006 and 2009 PISA international tests and questionnaires to determine significance between scaled scores and PISA indices. Variables were chosen as factors affecting student's perception on various systems outlined by the Systems Theory of Career Development (Patton & McMahon, 1997) and the Systems Theory of Career Development Framework (Patton & McMahon, 1999). Four country groups were established based on student responses to question 30a from the 2006 PISA attitudinal questionnaire, which asks what career students expected to have at age 30. The results from comparing country groups showed that countries in Group A, which showed the highest values for students expecting a career in science, also had the highest average values for achievement on the PISA science literacy assessment. Likewise, countries that had the lowest values for expecting a career in

  7. Evaluating the Total Factor Productivity Growth in Manufacturing Industries of Iran (Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ahmadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the total factor productivity changes for 23 main manufacturing industries (2-digit ISIC group and country's provinces using data envelopment analysis during 2005 to 2007. The results show 2.3% increase in the productivity of the whole sector (average over the studied period, while the productivity of the country's provinces decreases by 7.3%, in the same period. We find Food and Beverage products and Khuzestan province having the highest productivity growth. Non-optimal allocation of resources and using of old equipments are the most important drawbacks of productivity growth for 23 main ISIC groups and provinces. Finally estimation of the regression models by panel data method reveals the privatization and increasing of labor’s available capital having a significant effect on productivity growth.

  8. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  9. Arabidopsis Plants Having Defects in Nonsense-mediated mRNA Decay Factors UPF1,UPF2, and UPF3 Show Photoperiod-dependent Phenotypes in Development and Stress Responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan Shi; lan T. Baldwin; Jianqiang Wu

    2012-01-01

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is an important mRNA quality surveillance pathway in all eukaryotes that eliminates aberrant mRNAs derived from various sources.Three NMD factor proteins,UPF1,UPF2,and UPF3 are required for the NMD process and were found to be also involved in certain stress responses in mammalian and yeast cells.Using Arabidopsis thaliana mutants of UPF1 and UPF3 and UPF2-silenced lines (irUPF2),we examined the involvement of UPF1,UPF2,and UPF3 in development and in response to stresses,wounding and infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv.tomato strain DC3000.Under the long (16 h) photoperiod condition,Arabidopsis having a defect in NMD factors exhibited altered morphologies of various organs,disturbed homeostasis of wounding-induced jasmonic acid and pathogen-elicited salicylic acid,and abnormal wounding- and methyl jasmonate-induced changes in the transcript levels of two defense-related genes,LOX2 and VSP2.Importantly,when plants were cultivated under the short (10 h) photoperiod condition,mutants of UPF1 and UPF3 and irUPF2 showed smaller differences from the wild-type plants in growth and stress-induced responses.These data suggest a complex regulatory network,likely composed of light signaling and NMD factor-mediated pathways,in influencing plant development and adaption to environmental stresses.

  10. Survival Prognostic Factors of Male Breast Cancer in Southern Iran: a LASSO-Cox Regression Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Hadi Raeisi; Salehi, Alireza; Zare, Najaf

    2015-01-01

    We used to LASSO-Cox method for determining prognostic factors of male breast cancer survival and showed the superiority of this method compared to Cox proportional hazard model in low sample size setting. In order to identify and estimate exactly the relative hazard of the most important factors effective for the survival duration of male breast cancer, the LASSO-Cox method has been used. Our data includes the information of male breast cancer patients in Fars province, south of Iran, from 1989 to 2008. Cox proportional hazard and LASSO-Cox models were fitted for 20 classified variables. To reduce the impact of missing data, the multiple imputation method was used 20 times through the Markov chain Mont Carlo method and the results were combined with Rubin's rules. In 50 patients, the age at diagnosis was 59.6 (SD=12.8) years with a minimum of 34 and maximum of 84 years and the mean of survival time was 62 months. Three, 5 and 10 year survival were 92%, 77% and 26%, respectively. Using the LASSO-Cox method led to eliminating 8 low effect variables and also decreased the standard error by 2.5 to 7 times. The relative efficiency of LASSO-Cox method compared with the Cox proportional hazard method was calculated as 22.39. The19 years follow of male breast cancer patients show that the age, having a history of alcohol use, nipple discharge, laterality, histological grade and duration of symptoms were the most important variables that have played an effective role in the patient's survival. In such situations, estimating the coefficients by LASSO-Cox method will be more efficient than the Cox's proportional hazard method.

  11. Public medical shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre.

  12. The Great Cometary Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  13. Factors Contributing to Residential Vacancy and Some Approaches to Management in Gyeonggi Province, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeehyun Nam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the decrease in the demand for large-scale apartments as a result of an aging society and a decrease in population, there has been an increase in vacant houses due to a supply that exceeds the projected demands. As a method of urban regeneration in rural areas and activation of citizen communities, the utilization of vacant houses has become one of the ways to promote a new lifestyle, active movement for citizen participation, and business model for long-term revitalization. This study aims to uncover and examine the major causes and factors behind the upswing in vacant houses. We investigated the current state of vacant houses, the recent policies concerning them, and the types of vacant houses in Korea’s Gyeonggi province. We then categorized and analyzed the causes of houses being vacant, their types, and the methods of utilizing them under different local conditions in order to understand the efficient processes and strategies for their utilization. The results showed that an excess of building construction (especially recent construction permits, the number of recipients of the national basic livelihood scheme, and the number of elderly people showed the strongest correlation with vacant houses.

  14. Modeling water quality in an urban river using hydrological factors--data driven approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fi-John; Tsai, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Pin-An; Coynel, Alexandra; Vachaud, Georges

    2015-03-15

    Contrasting seasonal variations occur in river flow and water quality as a result of short duration, severe intensity storms and typhoons in Taiwan. Sudden changes in river flow caused by impending extreme events may impose serious degradation on river water quality and fateful impacts on ecosystems. Water quality is measured in a monthly/quarterly scale, and therefore an estimation of water quality in a daily scale would be of good help for timely river pollution management. This study proposes a systematic analysis scheme (SAS) to assess the spatio-temporal interrelation of water quality in an urban river and construct water quality estimation models using two static and one dynamic artificial neural networks (ANNs) coupled with the Gamma test (GT) based on water quality, hydrological and economic data. The Dahan River basin in Taiwan is the study area. Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) is considered as the representative parameter, a correlative indicator in judging the contamination level over the study. Key factors the most closely related to the representative parameter (NH3-N) are extracted by the Gamma test for modeling NH3-N concentration, and as a result, four hydrological factors (discharge, days w/o discharge, water temperature and rainfall) are identified as model inputs. The modeling results demonstrate that the nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous input (NARX) network furnished with recurrent connections can accurately estimate NH3-N concentration with a very high coefficient of efficiency value (0.926) and a low RMSE value (0.386 mg/l). Besides, the NARX network can suitably catch peak values that mainly occur in dry periods (September-April in the study area), which is particularly important to water pollution treatment. The proposed SAS suggests a promising approach to reliably modeling the spatio-temporal NH3-N concentration based solely on hydrological data, without using water quality sampling data. It is worth noticing that such estimation can be

  15. Clinical management of smoking cessation: patient factors affecting a reward-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Jeanette M; Halpern, Michael T

    2010-12-10

    Although the majority of current smokers indicate they would like to quit, only about half of smokers make a quit attempt each year. Of those who attempt to quit, only about 5% are successful. Many effective products and programs are available to assist in smoking cessation; however those interested in quitting often do not make use of these resources. To increase use of cessation products in order to improve successful cessation rates, the Consumer Demand Roundtable has argued that smokers need to be viewed as consumers of cessation products rather than as patients needing treatment. With this consumer-based approach in mind, the current review examines how participant characteristics, perceptions, and behavior influence, and are influenced by, contingency management (CM) paradigms in various settings. Findings suggest that participant factors associated with success in these programs include demographic characteristics (eg, gender, marital status), self-efficacy, motivation to quit, and impulsivity. Overall, participants perceive incentives for successful cessation as motivating. However, such programs may involve greater withdrawal symptoms (eg, craving for cigarettes) initially, but these symptoms tend to decrease at a greater rate over time compared with nonincentive group participants. CM programs have also been shown to be successful across a number of settings (eg, communities, schools), including settings in which smokers are often considered difficult to treat (eg, substance abuse treatment centers). Overall, CM programs are perceived positively by participants and can increase rates of successful cessation. Furthermore, CM interventions have the flexibility to adapt to individual preferences and needs, leading to greater participation and likelihood of successful cessation. Thus, CM provides an important framework for addressing the need for consumer-focused smoking cessation interventions.

  16. Nuclear velocity perturbation theory for vibrational circular dichroism: An approach based on the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function

    CERN Document Server

    Scherrer, Arne; Sebastiani, Daniel; Gross, E K U; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear velocity perturbation current-density theory (NVPT) for vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) is derived from the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function. This new formalism offers an exact starting point to include correction terms to the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) form of the molecular wave function, similarly to the complete-adiabatic approximation. The corrections depend on a small parameter that, in a classical treatment of the nuclei, is identified as the nuclear velocity. Apart from proposing a rigorous basis for the NVPT, we show that the rotational strength, related to the intensity of the VCD signal, contain a new contribution beyond-BO that can be evaluated with the NVPT and that only arises when the exact factorization approach is employed. Numerical results are presented for chiral and non-chiral systems to test the validity of the approach.

  17. A novel fully-human cytolytic fusion protein based on granzyme B shows in vitro cytotoxicity and ex vivo binding to solid tumors overexpressing the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesen, Judith; Hehmann-Titt, Grit; Woitok, Mira; Fendel, Rolf; Barth, Stefan; Fischer, Rainer; Stein, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Human cytolytic fusion proteins (hCFPs) offer a promising immunotherapeutic approach for the treatment of solid tumors, avoiding the immunogenicity and undesirable side-effects caused by immunotoxins derived from plants or bacteria. The well-characterized human serine protease granzyme B has already been used as a therapeutic pro-apoptotic effector domain. We therefore developed a novel recombinant hCFP (GbR201K-scFv1711) consisting of an epidermal growth factor receptor-specific human antibody fragment and a granzyme B point mutant (R201K) that is insensitive to serpin B9 (PI9), a natural inhibitor of wild-type granzyme B that is often expressed in solid tumors. We found that GbR201K-scFv1711 selectively bound to epidermoid cancer and rhabdomyosarcoma cells and was rapidly internalized by them. Nanomolar concentrations of GbR201K-scFv1711 achieved the specific killing of epidermoid cancer cells by inducing apoptosis, and similar effects were observed in rhabdomyosarcoma cells when GbR201K-scFv1711 was combined with the endosomolytic substance chloroquine. The novel hCFP was stable in serum and bound to human rhabdomyosarcoma tissue ex vivo. These data confirm that GbR201K-scFv1711 is a promising therapeutic candidate suitable for further clinical investigation.

  18. The Structure of Negative Self-Statements in Children and Adolescents: A Confirmatory Factor-Analytic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schniering, Carolyn A.; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the nature and organization of a range of negative self-statements in children and adolescents, using a structural equations/confirmatory factor-analytic approach. A community sample of 978 children aged 7-16 years completed a questionnaire about the frequency with which they experienced a broad range of…

  19. At risk, or not at risk: Epidemiological approaches for assessing psychiatric (genetic) risk factors in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breetvelt, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis “At risk, or not at risk” describes several approaches - cross-sectional, prospective, phenotype mining and forward genetics - for assessing psychiatric (genetic) risk factors in a general population study. The aims were 1) to investigate how routine and follow-up data from populationbas

  20. Examining the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction: A factor specific approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Ismail

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research was aimed at examining the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction with data obtained from Malaysian soldiers who were involved in peace keeping missions in a Middle Eastern country. The results of which would enable the management to improve the quality of service accorded to peacekeeping personnel. Design/methodology/approach: The study employed a cross-sectional research design which allowed the researchers to integrate the service quality literature, the semi structured interview and the actual survey to collect and examine the data for optimum results. Findings and Originality/value: The outcome of multiple regression analysis showed that responsiveness and assurance variables reflected a high correlation with customer satisfaction. On the other hand, tangibility, reliability and empathy variables recorded an insignificant correlation with customer satisfaction. Research limitations/implications: With respect to practical contributions, the findings of this study can be used as a guideline by the management to improve the quality of peacekeeping in areas of conflict. Practical implications: For security reasons, certain information affecting customer satisfaction could not be examined in detail. Originality/value: This paper presents key results on service quality and customers satisfaction research by looking at the niche segment which was not previously studied from the Malaysian perspective.

  1. Factores de riesgo de preeclampsia: enfoque inmunoendocrino. Parte I Risk factors for preeclampsia: an immunoendocrine approach. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeddú Cruz Hernández

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En esta primera parte se realiza una amplia revisión de los factores clásicos de riesgo de preeclampsia, enfatizando en los aspectos inmunoendocrinos en cada uno de los casos. Se propuso una clasificación que los divide en 2 grandes grupos: maternos y ambientales, y esta constituye el eje central a partir del cual se realiza la discusión de los diferentes aspectos que integran esta revisión, la cual evidencia la importancia que tienen el sistema inmunológico y el endocrino en la fisiopatología, y el surgimiento de la enfermedad hipertensiva inducida por el embarazo.In this first part, a wide review of the classical risk factors for preeclampsia was made, making emphasis on the endocrine aspects in each case. It was proposed a classification that divided them into 2 large groups: maternal and environmental. This was the central axis from which the different aspects of this review were discussed, evidencing the importance of the immunological and endocrine systems in the physiopathology, and the appearance of the hypertensive disease induced by pregnancy.

  2. Simulation of soil erosion and deposition in a changing land use: A modelling approach to implement the support practice factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelacani, Samanta; Märker, Michael; Rodolfi, Giuliano

    2008-07-01

    Using the USPED (Unit Stream Power Erosion Deposition) model, three land use scenarios were analysed for an Italian small catchment (15 km 2) of high landscape value. The upper Orme stream catchment, located in the Chianti area, 30 km south of Florence, has a long historical agriculture record. Information on land use and soil conservation practices date back to 1821, hence offering an opportunity to model impacts of land use change on erosion and deposition. For this study, a procedure that takes into account soil conservation practices and potential sediment storage is proposed. The approach was to calculate and model the flow accumulation considering rural and logging roads, location of urban areas, drainage ditches, streams, gullies and permanent sediment sinks. This calculation attempts to assess the spatial variability, especially the impact of support practices ( P factor). Weather data from 1980-2003 were taken into account to calculate the R factor. However, to consider the intense pluviometric conditions in terms of the erosivity factor, the 0.75th quantile was used, while the lowest erosivity was modelled using the 0.25th quantile. Results of the USPED model simulation show that in 1821 the mean annual net erosion for the watershed was 2.8 Mg ha - 1 y - 1 ; in 1954 it was 4.2 Mg ha - 1 y - 1 ; and in 2004 it was 5.3 Mg ha - 1 y - 1 . Conservation practices can reduce erosion processes by ≥ 20 Mg ha - 1 y - 1 when the 1821 practices are introduced in the present management. On the other hand, if the support practices are not considered in the model, soil erosion risk is overestimated. Field observation for the present-day simulation confirmed that erosion and associated sediment deposition predicted by the model depend, as expected, on geomorphology and land use. The model shows limitations that are mainly due to the input data. A high resolution DEM is essential for the delineation of reliable topographic potential to predict erosion and deposition

  3. Single-diffractive production of charmed mesons at the LHC within the $k_t$-factorization approach

    CERN Document Server

    Luszczak, Marta; Szczurek, Antoni; Trzebinski, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the single diffractive production of $c \\bar c$ pairs and charmed mesons at the LHC. For a first time we propose a $k_t$-factorization approach to the diffractive processes. The transverse momentum dependent diffractive parton distributions are obtained from standard (collinear) diffractive parton distributions used in the literature. In this calculation the transverse momentum of the pomeron is neglected with respect to transverse momentum of partons entering the hard process. We also perform the first evaluation of the cross sections at the LHC using the diffractive transverse momentum dependent parton distributions. The results of the new approach are compared with those of the standard collinear one. Significantly larger cross sections are obtained in the $k_t$-factorization approach where some part of higher-order effects is effectively included. The differences between corresponding differential distributions are discussed. Finally, we present a feasibility study of the process at the LHC usi...

  4. A variant form of the human deleted in malignant brain tumor 1 (DMBT1 gene shows increased expression in inflammatory bowel diseases and interacts with dimeric trefoil factor 3 (TFF3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Madsen

    Full Text Available The protein deleted in malignant brain tumors (DMBT1 and the trefoil factor (TFF proteins have all been proposed to have roles in epithelial cell growth and cell differentiation and shown to be up regulated in inflammatory bowel diseases. A panel of monoclonal antibodies was raised against human DMBT1(gp340. Analysis of lung washings and colon tissue extracts by Western blotting in the unreduced state, two antibodies (Hyb213-1 and Hyb213-6 reacted with a double band of 290 kDa in lung lavage. Hyb213-6, in addition, reacted against a double band of 270 kDa in colon extract while Hyb213-1 showed no reaction. Hyb213-6 showed strong cytoplasmic staining in epithelial cells of both the small and large intestine whereas no staining was seen with Hyb213-1. The number of DMBT1(gp340 positive epithelial cells, stained with Hyb213-6, was significantly up regulated in inflammatory colon tissue sections from patients with ulcerative colitis (p<0.0001 and Crohn's disease (p = 0.006 compared to normal colon tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis of trefoil factor TFF1, 2 and 3 showed that TFF1 and 3 localized to goblet cells in both normal colon tissue and in tissue from patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. No staining for TFF2 was seen in goblet cells in normal colon tissue whereas the majority of tissue sections in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease showed sparse and scattered TFF2 positive goblet cells. DMBT1 and TFF proteins did therefore not co-localize in the same cells but localized in adjacent cells in the colon. The interaction between DMBT1(gp340 and trefoil TFFs proteins was investigated using an ELISA assay. DMBT1(gp340 bound to solid-phase bound recombinant dimeric TFF3 in a calcium dependent manner (p<0.0001 but did not bind to recombinant forms of monomeric TFF3, TFF2 or glycosylated TFF2. This implies a role for DMBT1 and TFF3 together in inflammatory bowel disease.

  5. Non-viral generation of marmoset monkey iPS cells by a six-factor-in-one-vector approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Debowski

    Full Text Available Groundbreaking studies showed that differentiated somatic cells of mouse and human origin could be reverted to a stable pluripotent state by the ectopic expression of only four proteins. The resulting pluripotent cells, called induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells, could be an alternative to embryonic stem cells, which are under continuous ethical debate. Hence, iPS cell-derived functional cells such as neurons may become the key for an effective treatment of currently incurable degenerative diseases. However, besides the requirement of efficacy testing of the therapy also its long-term safety needs to be carefully evaluated in settings mirroring the clinical situation in an optimal way. In this context, we chose the long-lived common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus as a non-human primate species to generate iPS cells. The marmoset monkey is frequently used in biomedical research and is gaining more and more preclinical relevance due to the increasing number of disease models. Here, we describe, to our knowledge, the first-time generation of marmoset monkey iPS cells from postnatal skin fibroblasts by non-viral means. We used the transposon-based, fully reversible piggyback system. We cloned the marmoset monkey reprogramming factors and established robust and reproducible reprogramming protocols with a six-factor-in-one-construct approach. We generated six individual iPS cell lines and characterized them in comparison with marmoset monkey embryonic stem cells. The generated iPS cells are morphologically indistinguishable from marmoset ES cells. The iPS cells are fully reprogrammed as demonstrated by differentiation assays, pluripotency marker expression and transcriptome analysis. They are stable for numerous passages (more than 80 and exhibit euploidy. In summary, we have established efficient non-viral reprogramming protocols for the derivation of stable marmoset monkey iPS cells, which can be used to develop and test cell replacement

  6. Non-viral generation of marmoset monkey iPS cells by a six-factor-in-one-vector approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debowski, Katharina; Warthemann, Rita; Lentes, Jana; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Dressel, Ralf; Langenstroth, Daniel; Gromoll, Jörg; Sasaki, Erika; Behr, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Groundbreaking studies showed that differentiated somatic cells of mouse and human origin could be reverted to a stable pluripotent state by the ectopic expression of only four proteins. The resulting pluripotent cells, called induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, could be an alternative to embryonic stem cells, which are under continuous ethical debate. Hence, iPS cell-derived functional cells such as neurons may become the key for an effective treatment of currently incurable degenerative diseases. However, besides the requirement of efficacy testing of the therapy also its long-term safety needs to be carefully evaluated in settings mirroring the clinical situation in an optimal way. In this context, we chose the long-lived common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) as a non-human primate species to generate iPS cells. The marmoset monkey is frequently used in biomedical research and is gaining more and more preclinical relevance due to the increasing number of disease models. Here, we describe, to our knowledge, the first-time generation of marmoset monkey iPS cells from postnatal skin fibroblasts by non-viral means. We used the transposon-based, fully reversible piggyback system. We cloned the marmoset monkey reprogramming factors and established robust and reproducible reprogramming protocols with a six-factor-in-one-construct approach. We generated six individual iPS cell lines and characterized them in comparison with marmoset monkey embryonic stem cells. The generated iPS cells are morphologically indistinguishable from marmoset ES cells. The iPS cells are fully reprogrammed as demonstrated by differentiation assays, pluripotency marker expression and transcriptome analysis. They are stable for numerous passages (more than 80) and exhibit euploidy. In summary, we have established efficient non-viral reprogramming protocols for the derivation of stable marmoset monkey iPS cells, which can be used to develop and test cell replacement therapies in

  7. Accounting for negative automaintenance in pigeons: a dual learning systems approach and factored representations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Lesaint

    Full Text Available Animals, including Humans, are prone to develop persistent maladaptive and suboptimal behaviours. Some of these behaviours have been suggested to arise from interactions between brain systems of Pavlovian conditioning, the acquisition of responses to initially neutral stimuli previously paired with rewards, and instrumental conditioning, the acquisition of active behaviours leading to rewards. However the mechanics of these systems and their interactions are still unclear. While extensively studied independently, few models have been developed to account for these interactions. On some experiment, pigeons have been observed to display a maladaptive behaviour that some suggest to involve conflicts between Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning. In a procedure referred as negative automaintenance, a key light is paired with the subsequent delivery of food, however any peck towards the key light results in the omission of the reward. Studies showed that in such procedure some pigeons persisted in pecking to a substantial level despite its negative consequence, while others learned to refrain from pecking and maximized their cumulative rewards. Furthermore, the pigeons that were unable to refrain from pecking could nevertheless shift their pecks towards a harmless alternative key light. We confronted a computational model that combines dual-learning systems and factored representations, recently developed to account for sign-tracking and goal-tracking behaviours in rats, to these negative automaintenance experimental data. We show that it can explain the variability of the observed behaviours and the capacity of alternative key lights to distract pigeons from their detrimental behaviours. These results confirm the proposed model as an interesting tool to reproduce experiments that could involve interactions between Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning. The model allows us to draw predictions that may be experimentally verified, which could help

  8. Thermal form factor approach to the ground-state correlation functions of the XXZ chain in the antiferromagnetic massive regime

    CERN Document Server

    Dugave, Maxime; Kozlowski, Karol K; Suzuki, Junji

    2016-01-01

    We use the form factors of the quantum transfer matrix in the zero-temperature limit in order to study the two-point ground-state correlation functions of the XXZ chain in the antiferromagnetic massive regime. We obtain novel form factor series representations of the correlation functions which differ from those derived either from the q-vertex-operator approach or from the algebraic Bethe Ansatz approach to the usual transfer matrix. We advocate that our novel representations are numerically more efficient and allow for a straightforward calculation of the large-distance asymptotic behaviour of the two-point functions. Keeping control over the temperature corrections to the two-point functions we see that these are of order $T^\\infty$ in the whole antiferromagnetic massive regime. The isotropic limit of our result yields a novel form factor series representation for the two-point correlation functions of the XXX chain at zero magnetic field.

  9. Application of methodological approach to selection of sportswomen to calisthenics teams for group exercises, considering compatibility factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozhanova O.S.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: motivation of methodological approach to selection of sportswomen to calisthenics teams for group exercises considering compatibility factor. Material: in the research 40 high qualification sportswomen of 17-23 yrs age with sport experience of 11-16 years participated. With cluster analysis 10 gymnasts with morphological indicators, meeting modern standards of group exercises were selected. Results: we found 5 generalized factors, which characterize structure of selection to teams and determines 72% of dispersion. Influence of kinds and connected with them criteria of compatibility on efficiency of gymnasts’ competition functioning were also determined. The authors substantiated methodological approach to selection of sportswomen to calisthenics teams for group exercises, considering compatibility factor. Conclusions: in selection to calisthenics teams for group exercises it is purposeful to realize complex registration of compatibility kinds, considering gymnasts’ similar features by recommended indicators.

  10. Lie-Algebraic Approach for Pricing Zero-Coupon Bonds in Single-Factor Interest Rate Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Lo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lie-algebraic approach has been applied to solve the bond pricing problem in single-factor interest rate models. Four of the popular single-factor models, namely, the Vasicek model, Cox-Ingersoll-Ross model, double square-root model, and Ahn-Gao model, are investigated. By exploiting the dynamical symmetry of their bond pricing equations, analytical closed-form pricing formulae can be derived in a straightfoward manner. Time-varying model parameters could also be incorporated into the derivation of the bond price formulae, and this has the added advantage of allowing yield curves to be fitted. Furthermore, the Lie-algebraic approach can be easily extended to formulate new analytically tractable single-factor interest rate models.

  11. Risk factors and prediction of very short term versus short/intermediate term post-stroke mortality: a data mining approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Jonathan F; Stephens, Christopher R; Angelova, Maia

    2014-11-01

    Data mining and knowledge discovery as an approach to examining medical data can limit some of the inherent bias in the hypothesis assumptions that can be found in traditional clinical data analysis. In this paper we illustrate the benefits of a data mining inspired approach to statistically analysing a bespoke data set, the academic multicentre randomised control trial, U.K Glucose Insulin in Stroke Trial (GIST-UK), with a view to discovering new insights distinct from the original hypotheses of the trial. We consider post-stroke mortality prediction as a function of days since stroke onset, showing that the time scales that best characterise changes in mortality risk are most naturally defined by examination of the mortality curve. We show that certain risk factors differentiate between very short term and intermediate term mortality. In particular, we show that age is highly relevant for intermediate term risk but not for very short or short term mortality. We suggest that this is due to the concept of frailty. Other risk factors are highlighted across a range of variable types including socio-demographics, past medical histories and admission medication. Using the most statistically significant risk factors we build predictive classification models for very short term and short/intermediate term mortality. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimation of Esfarayen Farmers Risk Aversion Coefficient and Its Influencing Factors (Nonparametric Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Nematollahi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to existence of the risk and uncertainty in agriculture, risk management is crucial for management in agriculture. Therefore the present study was designed to determine the risk aversion coefficient for Esfarayens farmers. Materials and Methods: The following approaches have been utilized to assess risk attitudes: (1 direct elicitation of utility functions, (2 experimental procedures in which individuals are presented with hypothetical questionnaires regarding risky alternatives with or without real payments and (3: Inference from observation of economic behavior. In this paper, we focused on approach (3: inference from observation of economic behavior, based on this assumption of existence of the relationship between the actual behavior of a decision maker and the behavior predicted from empirically specified models. A new non-parametric method and the QP method were used to calculate the coefficient of risk aversion. We maximized the decision maker expected utility with the E-V formulation (Freund, 1956. Ideally, in constructing a QP model, the variance-covariance matrix should be formed for each individual farmer. For this purpose, a sample of 100 farmers was selected using random sampling and their data about 14 products of years 2008- 2012 were assembled. The lowlands of Esfarayen were used since within this area, production possibilities are rather homogeneous. Results and Discussion: The results of this study showed that there was low correlation between some of the activities, which implies opportunities for income stabilization through diversification. With respect to transitory income, Ra, vary from 0.000006 to 0.000361 and the absolute coefficient of risk aversion in our sample were 0.00005. The estimated Ra values vary considerably from farm to farm. The results showed that the estimated Ra for the subsample existing of 'non-wealthy' farmers was 0.00010. The subsample with farmers in the 'wealthy' group had an

  13. Expression, Purification, and Analysis of Unknown Translation Factors from "Escherichia Coli": A Synthesis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Justin D.; Littlefield, Peter; Delbecq, Scott; Prody, Gerry; Spiegel, P. Clint

    2010-01-01

    New approaches are currently being developed to expose biochemistry and molecular biology undergraduates to a more interactive learning environment. Here, we propose a unique project-based laboratory module, which incorporates exposure to biophysical chemistry approaches to address problems in protein chemistry. Each of the experiments described…

  14. A variant form of the human deleted in malignant brain tumor 1 (DMBT1) gene shows increased expression in inflammatory bowel diseases and interacts with dimeric trefoil factor 3 (TFF3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jens; Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Nielsen, Ole; Tornøe, Ida; Thim, Lars; Fenger, Claus; Mollenhauer, Jan; Holmskov, Uffe

    2013-01-01

    The protein deleted in malignant brain tumors (DMBT1) and the trefoil factor (TFF) proteins have all been proposed to have roles in epithelial cell growth and cell differentiation and shown to be up regulated in inflammatory bowel diseases. A panel of monoclonal antibodies was raised against human DMBT1(gp340). Analysis of lung washings and colon tissue extracts by Western blotting in the unreduced state, two antibodies (Hyb213-1 and Hyb213-6) reacted with a double band of 290 kDa in lung lavage. Hyb213-6, in addition, reacted against a double band of 270 kDa in colon extract while Hyb213-1 showed no reaction. Hyb213-6 showed strong cytoplasmic staining in epithelial cells of both the small and large intestine whereas no staining was seen with Hyb213-1. The number of DMBT1(gp340) positive epithelial cells, stained with Hyb213-6, was significantly up regulated in inflammatory colon tissue sections from patients with ulcerative colitis (pTFF3 in a calcium dependent manner (pTFF3, TFF2 or glycosylated TFF2. This implies a role for DMBT1 and TFF3 together in inflammatory bowel disease.

  15. Assessing the situational factors and impulsive buying behavior: Market segmentation approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mihić, Mirela; Kursan, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation between situational factors and impulsive buying behavior with the aim of separating an adequate number of different customer segments. The study will try to provide answers to the following questions: Can situational factors stimulate impulsive purchase and to what extent? Considering the effect of the analyzed situational factors on impulsive buying is it possible to isolate different consumer segments? Do these segments differ in te...

  16. Genome-Wide Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Sequencing Analysis Shows that WhiB Is a Transcription Factor That Cocontrols Its Regulon with WhiA To Initiate Developmental Cell Division in Streptomyces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Bush

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available WhiB is the founding member of a family of proteins (the WhiB-like [Wbl] family that carry a [4Fe-4S] iron-sulfur cluster and play key roles in diverse aspects of the biology of actinomycetes, including pathogenesis, antibiotic resistance, and the control of development. In Streptomyces, WhiB is essential for the process of developmentally controlled cell division that leads to sporulation. The biochemical function of Wbl proteins has been controversial; here, we set out to determine unambiguously if WhiB functions as a transcription factor using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq in Streptomyces venezuelae. In the first demonstration of in vivo genome-wide Wbl binding, we showed that WhiB regulates the expression of key genes required for sporulation by binding upstream of ~240 transcription units. Strikingly, the WhiB regulon is identical to the previously characterized WhiA regulon, providing an explanation for the identical phenotypes of whiA and whiB mutants. Using ChIP-seq, we demonstrated that in vivo DNA binding by WhiA depends on WhiB and vice versa, showing that WhiA and WhiB function cooperatively to control expression of a common set of WhiAB target genes. Finally, we show that mutation of the cysteine residues that coordinate the [4Fe-4S] cluster in WhiB prevents DNA binding by both WhiB and WhiA in vivo.

  17. Production of two charm quark–antiquark pairs in single-parton scattering within the kt-factorization approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas van Hameren

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present first results for the 2→4 single-parton scattering gg→cc¯cc¯ subprocess for the first time fully within the kt-factorization approach. In this calculation we have used the Kimber–Martin–Ryskin unintegrated gluon distribution which effectively includes some class of higher-order gluon emissions, and an off-shell matrix element squared calculated using recently developed techniques. The results are compared with our earlier result obtained within the collinear-factorization approach. Only slightly larger cross sections are obtained than in the case of the collinear approach. Inclusion of transverse momenta of gluons entering the hard process leads to a much stronger azimuthal decorrelation between cc and c¯c¯ than in the collinear-factorization approach. A comparison to predictions of double parton scattering (DPS results and the LHCb data strongly suggests that the assumption of two fully independent DPS (gg→cc¯⊗gg→cc¯ may be too approximate.

  18. A spatiotemporal dengue fever early warning model accounting for nonlinear associations with meteorological factors: a Bayesian maximum entropy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chieh-Han; Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chien, Lung-Chang

    2014-05-01

    Dengue fever has been identified as one of the most widespread vector-borne diseases in tropical and sub-tropical. In the last decade, dengue is an emerging infectious disease epidemic in Taiwan especially in the southern area where have annually high incidences. For the purpose of disease prevention and control, an early warning system is urgently needed. Previous studies have showed significant relationships between climate variables, in particular, rainfall and temperature, and the temporal epidemic patterns of dengue cases. However, the transmission of the dengue fever is a complex interactive process that mostly understated the composite space-time effects of dengue fever. This study proposes developing a one-week ahead warning system of dengue fever epidemics in the southern Taiwan that considered nonlinear associations between weekly dengue cases and meteorological factors across space and time. The early warning system based on an integration of distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) and stochastic Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) analysis. The study identified the most significant meteorological measures including weekly minimum temperature and maximum 24-hour rainfall with continuous 15-week lagged time to dengue cases variation under condition of uncertainty. Subsequently, the combination of nonlinear lagged effects of climate variables and space-time dependence function is implemented via a Bayesian framework to predict dengue fever occurrences in the southern Taiwan during 2012. The result shows the early warning system is useful for providing potential outbreak spatio-temporal prediction of dengue fever distribution. In conclusion, the proposed approach can provide a practical disease control tool for environmental regulators seeking more effective strategies for dengue fever prevention.

  19. Human NR5A1/SF-1 mutations show decreased activity on BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), an important regulator of energy balance: testing impact of novel SF-1 mutations beyond steroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malikova, Jana; Camats, Núria; Fernández-Cancio, Mónica; Heath, Karen; González, Isabel; Caimarí, María; del Campo, Miguel; Albisu, Marian; Kolouskova, Stanislava; Audí, Laura; Flück, Christa E

    2014-01-01

    Human NR5A1/SF-1 mutations cause 46,XY disorder of sex development (DSD) with broad phenotypic variability, and rarely cause adrenal insufficiency although SF-1 is an important transcription factor for many genes involved in steroidogenesis. In addition, the Sf-1 knockout mouse develops obesity with age. Obesity might be mediated through Sf-1 regulating activity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an important regulator of energy balance in the ventromedial hypothalamus. To characterize novel SF-1 gene variants in 4 families, clinical, genetic and functional studies were performed with respect to steroidogenesis and energy balance. 5 patients with 46,XY DSD were found to harbor NR5A1/SF-1 mutations including 2 novel variations. One patient harboring a novel mutation also suffered from adrenal insufficiency. SF-1 mutations were studied in cell systems (HEK293, JEG3) for impact on transcription of genes involved in steroidogenesis (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B2) and in energy balance (BDNF). BDNF regulation by SF-1 was studied by promoter assays (JEG3). Two novel NR5A1/SF-1 mutations (Glu7Stop, His408Profs*159) were confirmed. Glu7Stop is the 4th reported SF-1 mutation causing DSD and adrenal insufficiency. In vitro studies revealed that transcription of the BDNF gene is regulated by SF-1, and that mutant SF-1 decreased BDNF promoter activation (similar to steroid enzyme promoters). However, clinical data from 16 subjects carrying SF-1 mutations showed normal birth weight and BMI. Glu7Stop and His408Profs*159 are novel SF-1 mutations identified in patients with 46,XY DSD and adrenal insufficiency (Glu7Stop). In vitro, SF-1 mutations affect not only steroidogenesis but also transcription of BDNF which is involved in energy balance. However, in contrast to mice, consequences on weight were not found in humans with SF-1 mutations.

  20. Human NR5A1/SF-1 mutations show decreased activity on BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, an important regulator of energy balance: testing impact of novel SF-1 mutations beyond steroidogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Malikova

    Full Text Available Human NR5A1/SF-1 mutations cause 46,XY disorder of sex development (DSD with broad phenotypic variability, and rarely cause adrenal insufficiency although SF-1 is an important transcription factor for many genes involved in steroidogenesis. In addition, the Sf-1 knockout mouse develops obesity with age. Obesity might be mediated through Sf-1 regulating activity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, an important regulator of energy balance in the ventromedial hypothalamus.To characterize novel SF-1 gene variants in 4 families, clinical, genetic and functional studies were performed with respect to steroidogenesis and energy balance.5 patients with 46,XY DSD were found to harbor NR5A1/SF-1 mutations including 2 novel variations. One patient harboring a novel mutation also suffered from adrenal insufficiency.SF-1 mutations were studied in cell systems (HEK293, JEG3 for impact on transcription of genes involved in steroidogenesis (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B2 and in energy balance (BDNF. BDNF regulation by SF-1 was studied by promoter assays (JEG3.Two novel NR5A1/SF-1 mutations (Glu7Stop, His408Profs*159 were confirmed. Glu7Stop is the 4th reported SF-1 mutation causing DSD and adrenal insufficiency. In vitro studies revealed that transcription of the BDNF gene is regulated by SF-1, and that mutant SF-1 decreased BDNF promoter activation (similar to steroid enzyme promoters. However, clinical data from 16 subjects carrying SF-1 mutations showed normal birth weight and BMI.Glu7Stop and His408Profs*159 are novel SF-1 mutations identified in patients with 46,XY DSD and adrenal insufficiency (Glu7Stop. In vitro, SF-1 mutations affect not only steroidogenesis but also transcription of BDNF which is involved in energy balance. However, in contrast to mice, consequences on weight were not found in humans with SF-1 mutations.

  1. Optimization of healthcare supply chain in context of macro-ergonomics factors by a unique mathematical programming approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadeh, A; Motevali Haghighi, S; Gaeini, Z; Shabanpour, N

    2016-07-01

    This study presents an integrated approach for analyzing the impact of macro-ergonomics factors in healthcare supply chain (HCSC) by data envelopment analysis (DEA). The case of this study is the supply chain (SC) of a real hospital. Thus, healthcare standards and macro-ergonomics factors are considered to be modeled by the mathematical programming approach. Over 28 subsidiary SC divisions with parallel missions and objectives are evaluated by analyzing inputs and outputs through DEA. Each division in this HCSC is considered as decision making unit (DMU). This approach can analyze the impact of macro-ergonomics factors on supply chain management (SCM) in healthcare sector. Also, this method ranks the relevant performance efficiencies of each HCSC. In this study by using proposed method, the most effective macro-ergonomics factor on HCSC is identified as "teamwork" issue. Also, this study would help managers to identify the areas of weaknesses in their SCM system and set improvement target plan for the related SCM system in healthcare industry. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study for macro-ergonomics optimization of HCSC.

  2. The first double-blind, randomised, parallel-group certolizumab pegol study in methotrexate-naive early rheumatoid arthritis patients with poor prognostic factors, C-OPERA, shows inhibition of radiographic progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsumi, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Ishiguro, Naoki; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Eguchi, Katsumi; Watanabe, Akira; Origasa, Hideki; Yasuda, Shinsuke; Yamanishi, Yuji; Kita, Yasuhiko; Matsubara, Tsukasa; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Shoji, Toshiharu; Okada, Toshiyuki; van der Heijde, Désirée; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Koike, Takao

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate efficacy and safety of combination therapy using certolizumab pegol (CZP) and methotrexate (MTX) as first-line treatment for MTX-naive, early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with poor prognostic factors, compared with MTX alone. MTX-naive, early RA patients with ≤12 months persistent disease, high anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide, and either rheumatoid factor positive and/or presence of bone erosions were enrolled in this multicentre, double-blind, randomised placebo (PBO)-controlled study. Patients were randomised 1:1 to CZP+MTX or PBO+MTX for 52 weeks. Primary endpoint was inhibition of radiographic progression (change from baseline in modified Total Sharp Score (mTSS CFB)) at week 52. Secondary endpoints were mTSS CFB at week 24, and clinical remission rates at weeks 24 and 52. 316 patients randomised to CZP+MTX (n=159) or PBO+MTX (n=157) had comparable baseline characteristics reflecting features of early RA (mean disease duration: 4.0 vs 4.3 months; Disease Activity Score 28-joint assessment (DAS28)) (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)): 5.4 vs 5.5; mTSS: 5.2 vs 6.0). CZP+MTX group showed significantly greater inhibition of radiographic progression relative to PBO+MTX at week 52 (mTSS CFB=0.36 vs 1.58; p<0.001) and week 24 (mTSS CFB=0.26 vs 0.86; p=0.003). Clinical remission rates (Simple Disease Activity Index, Boolean and DAS28 (ESR)) of the CZP+MTX group were significantly higher compared with those of the PBO+MTX group, at weeks 24 and 52. Safety results in both groups were similar, with no new safety signals observed with addition of CZP to MTX. In MTX-naive early RA patients with poor prognostic factors, CZP+MTX significantly inhibited structural damage and reduced RA signs and symptoms, demonstrating the efficacy of CZP in these patients. (NCT01451203). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Regional determinants of FDI in China: a factor-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boermans, Martijn A.; Roelfsema, Hein; Yi, Zhang

    2011-01-01

    We empirically investigate the factors that drive the uneven regional distribution of foreign direct investment (FDI) across Chinese provinces from 1995 to 2006. We first perform a factor analysis to summarize information embodied in around 40 variables and derive four FDI determinants: ‘institution

  4. Regional determinants of FDI in China: a factor-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang Yi; Martijn A. Boermans; Hein Roelfsema

    2011-01-01

    We empirically investigate the factors that drive the uneven regional distribution of foreign direct investment (FDI) across Chinese provinces from 1995 to 2006. We first perform a factor analysis to summarize information embodied in around 40 variables and derive four FDI determinants:

  5. WISC-IV and Clinical Validation of the Four- and Five-Factor Interpretative Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Lawrence G.; Keith, Timothy Z.; Zhu, Jianjun; Chen, Hsinyi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the constructs measured by the WISC-IV and the consistency of measurement across large normative and clinical samples. Competing higher order four- and five-factor models were analyzed using the WISC-IV normative sample and clinical subjects. The four-factor solution is the model published with the test…

  6. A Market Segmentation Approach for Higher Education Based on Rational and Emotional Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Fernando; Pergelova, Albena; Rialp, Josep

    2010-01-01

    Market segmentation is an important topic for higher education administrators and researchers. For segmenting the higher education market, we have to understand what factors are important for high school students in selecting a university. Extant literature has probed the importance of rational factors such as teaching staff, campus facilities,…

  7. Spectral density of the correlation matrix of factor models: a random matrix theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo, F; Mantegna, R N

    2005-07-01

    We studied the eigenvalue spectral density of the correlation matrix of factor models of multivariate time series. By making use of the random matrix theory, we analytically quantified the effect of statistical uncertainty on the spectral density due to the finiteness of the sample. We considered a broad range of models, ranging from one-factor models to hierarchical multifactor models.

  8. A Market Segmentation Approach for Higher Education Based on Rational and Emotional Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Fernando; Pergelova, Albena; Rialp, Josep

    2010-01-01

    Market segmentation is an important topic for higher education administrators and researchers. For segmenting the higher education market, we have to understand what factors are important for high school students in selecting a university. Extant literature has probed the importance of rational factors such as teaching staff, campus facilities,…

  9. Examining the Factor Structure of Participant Reactions to Training: A Multidimensional Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ronald B.; Casper, Wendy J.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of the factor structure of a large database of participant reactions to training (n=9,128) supported a multidimensional view; the utility of training was an important factor. Perceptions of the instructor carried great weight in perceptions of training. (SK)

  10. Design of exchange-correlation functionals through the correlation factor approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlíková Přecechtělová, Jana, E-mail: j.precechtelova@gmail.com, E-mail: Matthias.Ernzerhof@UMontreal.ca [Département de Chimie, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succursale A, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Institut für Chemie, Theoretische Chemie / Quantenchemie, Sekr. C7, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Bahmann, Hilke; Kaupp, Martin [Institut für Chemie, Theoretische Chemie / Quantenchemie, Sekr. C7, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Ernzerhof, Matthias, E-mail: j.precechtelova@gmail.com, E-mail: Matthias.Ernzerhof@UMontreal.ca [Département de Chimie, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succursale A, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2015-10-14

    The correlation factor model is developed in which the spherically averaged exchange-correlation hole of Kohn-Sham theory is factorized into an exchange hole model and a correlation factor. The exchange hole model reproduces the exact exchange energy per particle. The correlation factor is constructed in such a manner that the exchange-correlation energy correctly reduces to exact exchange in the high density and rapidly varying limits. Four different correlation factor models are presented which satisfy varying sets of physical constraints. Three models are free from empirical adjustments to experimental data, while one correlation factor model draws on one empirical parameter. The correlation factor models are derived in detail and the resulting exchange-correlation holes are analyzed. Furthermore, the exchange-correlation energies obtained from the correlation factor models are employed to calculate total energies, atomization energies, and barrier heights. It is shown that accurate, non-empirical functionals can be constructed building on exact exchange. Avenues for further improvements are outlined as well.

  11. Factors Affecting Perceived Learning, Satisfaction, and Quality in the Online MBA: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastianelli, Rose; Swift, Caroline; Tamimi, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined how six factors related to content and interaction affect students' perceptions of learning, satisfaction, and quality in online master of business administration (MBA) courses. They developed three scale items to measure each factor. Using survey data from MBA students at a private university, the authors estimated structural…

  12. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo Approach to Confirmatory Item Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    Item factor analysis has a rich tradition in both the structural equation modeling and item response theory frameworks. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate a novel combination of various Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) estimation routines to estimate parameters of a wide variety of confirmatory item factor analysis models. Further, I show…

  13. Evaluation of approaches to monitor Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor expression during human disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, Wouter; Fink, Pamela; Rojas, Eduardo; Jones, C Hal; Pavliakova, Danka; Giardina, Peter; Murphy, Ellen; Liberator, Paul; Jiang, Qin; Girgenti, Douglas; Peters, Remco P H; Savelkoul, Paul H M; Jansen, Kathrin U; Anderson, Annaliesa S; Kluytmans, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile pathogen of medical significance, using multiple virulence factors to cause disease. A prophylactic S. aureus 4-antigen (SA4Ag) vaccine comprising capsular polysaccharide (types 5 and 8) conjugates, clumping factor A (ClfA) and manganese transporter C (MntC) is

  14. A Common Factors Approach to Supporting University Students Experiencing Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surette, Tanya E.; Shier, Micheal L.

    2017-01-01

    This study empirically assessed the applicability of the common factors model to students accessing university-based counseling (n = 102). Participants rated symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization at intake and discharge. Therapists kept detailed session notes on client factors and therapy process variables. Data were analyzed utilizing…

  15. Decoding Cellular Dynamics in Epidermal Growth Factor Signaling Using a New Pathway-Based Integration Approach for Proteomics and Transcriptomics Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Astrid; Beißbarth, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Identification of dynamic signaling mechanisms on different cellular layers is now facilitated as the increased usage of various high-throughput techniques goes along with decreasing costs for individual experiments. A lot of these signaling mechanisms are known to be coordinated by their dynamics, turning time-course data sets into valuable information sources for inference of regulatory mechanisms. However, the combined analysis of parallel time-course measurements from different high-throughput platforms still constitutes a major challenge requiring sophisticated bioinformatic tools in order to ease biological interpretation. We developed a new pathway-based integration approach for the analysis of coupled omics time-series data, which we implemented in the R package pwOmics. Unlike many other approaches, our approach acknowledges the role of the different cellular layers of measurement and infers consensus profiles and time profile clusters for further biological interpretation. We investigated a time-course data set on epidermal growth factor stimulation of human mammary epithelial cells generated on the two layers of RNA and proteins. The data was analyzed using our new approach with a focus on feedback signaling and pathway crosstalk. We could confirm known regulatory patterns relevant in the physiological cellular response to epidermal growth factor stimulation as well as identify interesting new interactions in this signaling context, such as the regulatory influence of the connective tissue growth factor on transferrin receptor or the influence of growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible alpha on the connective tissue growth factor. Thus, we show that integrated cross-platform analysis provides a deeper understanding of regulatory signaling mechanisms. Combined with time-course information it enables the characterization of dynamic signaling processes and leads to the identification of important regulatory interactions which might be dysregulated in disease

  16. Factors related to variation in premenopausal bone mineral status: a health promotion approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor-Locke, C; McColl, R S

    2000-01-01

    Bone loss prior to menopause may contribute to later risk of fracture due to osteoporosis. Women may be able to optimize premenopausal bone mass and/or prevent losses. Heredity, and possibly age at menarche (retrospectively determined), are unmodifiable risk factors and attention should therefore be directed to more amenable factors. Amenorrhea, low body weight, disordered eating, and smoking are modifiable risk factors. Vitamin D is not a factor for premenopausal women who receive incidental sun exposure and consume fortified foods, but supplementation should be considered for others, especially during the winter months. Protective factors include a higher body weight (especially due to increased muscularity), calcium supplementation, and purposeful load-bearing exercise. Positive effects of oral contraceptives are most apparent in women with menstrual irregularities. Reproductive history (parity), lactation, moderate intakes of alcohol and caffeine, and the appropriate treatment of endometriosis have no apparent effect on premenopausal bone.

  17. EXPLORING FACTORS INFLUENCING FINANCIAL PLANNING AFTER RETIREMENT: STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdul Jalil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study explores the critical factors that influence financial planning after retirement among Malaysians, an area which has somewhat been largely overlooked by the extant literature. The study has used a quantitative method to survey a sample of 170 Malaysian citizens, from various places in the Klang Valley area. Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to analyze the data. The results suggest that the paths are interrelated to the casual processes significantly. Furthermore, individual’s income or monthly salary is found to be the most important factor influencing financial planning, followed by attitude and culture. The results are mainly favourable to academics and practitioners in Malaysia by contributing an understanding into critical factors that influence people to make financial plan before their retirement. The study provides implications of the findings in the concluding section.

  18. Finite difference methods for option pricing under Lévy processes: Wiener-Hopf factorization approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kudryavtsev, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, we consider the problem of pricing options in wide classes of Lévy processes. We propose a general approach to the numerical methods based on a finite difference approximation for the generalized Black-Scholes equation...

  19. An integrated transcriptomics-guided genome-wide promoter analysis and next-generation proteomics approach to mine factor(s) regulating cellular differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Kamal; Bader, Samuel L.; Kumar, Pankaj; Malakar, Dipankar; Campbell, David S.; Pradhan, Bhola Shankar; Sarkar, Rajesh K.; Wadhwa, Neerja; Sensharma, Souvik; Jain, Vaibhav; Moritz, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Differential next-generation-omics approaches aid in the visualization of biological processes and pave the way for divulging important events and/or interactions leading to a functional output at cellular or systems level. To this end, we undertook an integrated Nextgen transcriptomics and proteomics approach to divulge differential gene expression of infant and pubertal rat Sertoli cells (Sc).Unlike, pubertal Sc, infant Sc are immature and fail to support spermatogenesis. We found exclusive association of 14 and 19 transcription factor binding sites to infantile and pubertal states of Sc, respectively, using differential transcriptomics-guided genome-wide computational analysis of relevant promoters employing 220 Positional Weight Matrices from the TRANSFAC database. Proteomic SWATH-MS analysis provided extensive quantification of nuclear and cytoplasmic protein fractions revealing 1,670 proteins differentially located between the nucleus and cytoplasm of infant Sc and 890 proteins differentially located within those of pubertal Sc. Based on our multi-omics approach, the transcription factor YY1 was identified as one of the lead candidates regulating differentiation of Sc.YY1 was found to have abundant binding sites on promoters of genes upregulated during puberty. To determine its significance, we generated transgenic rats with Sc specific knockdown of YY1 that led to compromised spermatogenesis. PMID:28065881

  20. Official loyalty as the factor of official activity: administratively-legal and phenomenological approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gornostaev S.V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the administrative-legal and phenomenological approaches to understanding the official loyalty. Official loyalty is being considered under the administrative-legal approach as adherence to formal official duty, which is a system of obligations, taken together with official status, the source of which are: normative base of service activity, legal requirements of the head and public interests. Lists of the limitations of administrative-legal approach to understanding the of official loyalty: weak underdeveloped concept, the failure to take into account the wide range of situations, operation with a models rather than actual processes. Discusses the advantages of the phenomenological approach in studying the performance of loyalty: its psychological advantages, the existence of a theoretical framework, the work with the real phenomena. Within the phenomenological approach official loyalty is defined as psychological-behavioral integration of the employee in the group operating in the service sector, on the basis of a common cause of activities. Possibilities of sharing of the considered approaches for the decision of problems of optimization of official activity are designated.

  1. The Factors Influencing Satisfaction with Public City Transport: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawlasova Pavlina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Satisfaction is one of the key factors which influences customer loyalty. We assume that the satisfied customer will be willing to use the ssame service provider again. The overall passengers´ satisfaction with public city transport may be affected by the overall service quality. Frequency, punctuality, cleanliness in the vehicle, proximity, speed, fare, accessibility and safety of transport, information and other factors can influence passengers´ satisfaction. The aim of this paper is to quantify factors and identify the most important factors influencing customer satisfaction with public city transport within conditions of the Czech Republic. Two methods of analysis are applied in order to fulfil the aim. The method of factor analysis and the method Varimax were used in order to categorize variables according to their mutual relations. The method of structural equation modelling was used to evaluate the factors and validate the model. Then, the optimal model was found. The logistic parameters, including service continuity and frequency, and service, including information rate, station proximity and vehicle cleanliness, are the factors influencing passengers´ satisfaction on a large scale.

  2. A new damping factor algorithm based on line search of the local minimum point for inverse approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqi; Liu, Weijie; Lu, Fang; Zhang, Xiangkui; Hu, Ping

    2013-05-01

    The influence of damping factor on the convergence and computational efficiency of the inverse approach was studied through a series of practical examples. A new selection algorithm of the damping (relaxation) factor which takes into account of both robustness and calculation efficiency is proposed, then the computer program is implemented and tested on Siemens PLM NX | One-Step. The result is compared with the traditional Armijo rule through six examples such as U-beam, square box and cylindrical cup et al, confirming the effectiveness of proposed algorithm.

  3. Delta and Omega electromagnetic form factors in a Dyson-Schwinger/Bethe-Salpeter approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diana Nicmorus, Gernot Eichmann, Reinhard Alkofer

    2010-12-01

    We investigate the electromagnetic form factors of the Delta and the Omega baryons within the Poincare-covariant framework of Dyson-Schwinger and Bethe-Salpeter equations. The three-quark core contributions of the form factors are evaluated by employing a quark-diquark approximation. We use a consistent setup for the quark-gluon dressing, the quark-quark bound-state kernel and the quark-photon interaction. Our predictions for the multipole form factors are compatible with available experimental data and quark-model estimates. The current-quark mass evolution of the static electromagnetic properties agrees with results provided by lattice calculations.

  4. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-producing undifferentiated carcinoma of the colon mimicking a pulmonary giant cell carcinoma: a case showing overexpression of CD44 along with highly proliferating nestin-positive tumor vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Shogo; Waki, Michihiko; Tsuchiya, Tomonori; Hoshi, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-producing tumors are known for their aggressive behavior. Only four cases of G-CSF-producing colorectal carcinoma have been previously reported. Herein, we present a case of an undifferentiated carcinoma of the descending colon showing G-CSF production and giant cell carcinoma morphology in a 93-year-old woman. A tumor with a diameter of 80 mm was identified in the descending colon via computed tomography. Descending colectomy was performed involving the abdominal wall where tumor invasion was observed. The white blood cell count, which was elevated before resection, decreased to normal levels after intervention. However, local recurrence at the resected site was detected 39 days after surgery. Upon recurrence, increased white blood cell counts and serum G-CSF were seen. The patient died because of respiratory failure 98 days after colectomy. By using immunohistochemistry, G-CSF expression was detected in tumor cells in the resected specimen, along with overexpression of CD44 and highly proliferating nestin-positive tumor vessels. The poor clinical outcome of this patient is consistent with previous reports that the expression of these three molecules predict poor prognosis. While G-CSF can be a therapeutic target considering its auto/paracrine function to induce tumor growth via the G-CSF receptor, CD44 and nestin may also be possible candidate therapeutic targets. Further studies are required to assess the efficacy of treatments targeting these three molecules.

  5. Do global factors impact BRICS stock markets? A quantile regression approach

    OpenAIRE

    Walid Mensi; Shawkat Hammoudeh; Juan Carlos Reboredo; Duc Khuong Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the dependence structure between the emerging stock markets of the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) and influential global factors (the S&P 500 index, the commodity markets, the global stock market uncert

  6. The Scree Test and the Number of Factors: a Dynamic Graphics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Rubén Daniel; Valero-Mora, Pedro; Macbeth, Guillermo

    2015-03-17

    Exploratory Factor Analysis and Principal Component Analysis are two data analysis methods that are commonly used in psychological research. When applying these techniques, it is important to determine how many factors to retain. This decision is sometimes based on a visual inspection of the Scree plot. However, the Scree plot may at times be ambiguous and open to interpretation. This paper aims to explore a number of graphical and computational improvements to the Scree plot in order to make it more valid and informative. These enhancements are based on dynamic and interactive data visualization tools, and range from adding Parallel Analysis results to "linking" the Scree plot with other graphics, such as factor-loadings plots. To illustrate our proposed improvements, we introduce and describe an example based on real data on which a principal component analysis is appropriate. We hope to provide better graphical tools to help researchers determine the number of factors to retain.

  7. Transition electromagnetic form factor in the Minkowski space Bethe-Salpeter approach

    CERN Document Server

    Carbonell, J

    2013-01-01

    Using the solutions of the Bethe-Salpeter equation in Minkowski space for bound and scattering states found in previous works, we calculate the transition electromagnetic form factor describing the electro-disintegration of a bound system.

  8. Identifying and Quantifying Cultural Factors That Matter to the IT Workforce: An Approach Based on Automated Content Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiedel, Theresa; Müller, Oliver; Debortoli, Stefan;

    2016-01-01

    builds on 112,610 online reviews of Fortune 500 IT companies collected from Glassdoor, an online platform on which current and former employees can anonymously review companies and their management. We perform an automated content analysis to identify cultural factors that employees emphasize...... of culture and the success of companies, the validity of this approach is often discussed and researchers call for new ways of studying culture. Therefore, our research goal is to present an alternative approach to culture analysis for examining which cultural factors matter to the IT workforce. Our study...... in their reviews. Through a regression analysis on numerical employee satisfaction ratings, we find that a culture of learning and performance orientation contributes to employee motivation, while a culture of assertiveness and gender inegalitarianism has a strong negative influence on employees’ satisfaction...

  9. Identifying and Quantifying Cultural Factors That Matter to the IT Workforce: An Approach Based on Automated Content Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiedel, Theresa; Müller, Oliver; Debortoli, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    builds on 112,610 online reviews of Fortune 500 IT companies collected from Glassdoor, an online platform on which current and former employees can anonymously review companies and their management. We perform an automated content analysis to identify cultural factors that employees emphasize...... of culture and the success of companies, the validity of this approach is often discussed and researchers call for new ways of studying culture. Therefore, our research goal is to present an alternative approach to culture analysis for examining which cultural factors matter to the IT workforce. Our study...... in their reviews. Through a regression analysis on numerical employee satisfaction ratings, we find that a culture of learning and performance orientation contributes to employee motivation, while a culture of assertiveness and gender inegalitarianism has a strong negative influence on employees’ satisfaction...

  10. A Bayesian Approach to Identifying New Risk Factors for Dementia: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yen-Hsia; Wu, Shihn-Sheng; Lin, Chun-Hung Richard; Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Yang, Pinchen; Chang, Yang-Pei; Tseng, Kuan-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Dementia is one of the most disabling and burdensome health conditions worldwide. In this study, we identified new potential risk factors for dementia from nationwide longitudinal population-based data by using Bayesian statistics.We first tested the consistency of the results obtained using Bayesian statistics with those obtained using classical frequentist probability for 4 recognized risk factors for dementia, namely severe head injury, depression, diabetes mellitus, and vascular diseases. Then, we used Bayesian statistics to verify 2 new potential risk factors for dementia, namely hearing loss and senile cataract, determined from the Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database.We included a total of 6546 (6.0%) patients diagnosed with dementia. We observed older age, female sex, and lower income as independent risk factors for dementia. Moreover, we verified the 4 recognized risk factors for dementia in the older Taiwanese population; their odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 3.469 to 1.207. Furthermore, we observed that hearing loss (OR = 1.577) and senile cataract (OR = 1.549) were associated with an increased risk of dementia.We found that the results obtained using Bayesian statistics for assessing risk factors for dementia, such as head injury, depression, DM, and vascular diseases, were consistent with those obtained using classical frequentist probability. Moreover, hearing loss and senile cataract were found to be potential risk factors for dementia in the older Taiwanese population. Bayesian statistics could help clinicians explore other potential risk factors for dementia and for developing appropriate treatment strategies for these patients.

  11. The Factors Influencing Satisfaction with Public City Transport: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlasova Pavlina

    2015-01-01

    Satisfaction is one of the key factors which influences customer loyalty. We assume that the satisfied customer will be willing to use the ssame service provider again. The overall passengers´ satisfaction with public city transport may be affected by the overall service quality. Frequency, punctuality, cleanliness in the vehicle, proximity, speed, fare, accessibility and safety of transport, information and other factors can influence passengers´ satisfaction. The aim of this pap...

  12. Multi-scale approach to the environmental factors effects on spatio-temporal variability of Chironomus salinarius (Diptera: Chironomidae) in a French coastal lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, V.; Claret, C.; Garnier, R.; Fayolle, S.; Franquet, E.

    2010-03-01

    The complexity of the relationships between environmental factors and organisms can be revealed by sampling designs which consider the contribution to variability of different temporal and spatial scales, compared to total variability. From a management perspective, a multi-scale approach can lead to time-saving. Identifying environmental patterns that help maintain patchy distribution is fundamental in studying coastal lagoons, transition zones between continental and marine waters characterised by great environmental variability on spatial and temporal scales. They often present organic enrichment inducing decreased species richness and increased densities of opportunist species like C hironomus salinarius, a common species that tends to swarm and thus constitutes a nuisance for human populations. This species is dominant in the Bolmon lagoon, a French Mediterranean coastal lagoon under eutrophication. Our objective was to quantify variability due to both spatial and temporal scales and identify the contribution of different environmental factors to this variability. The population of C. salinarius was sampled from June 2007 to June 2008 every two months at 12 sites located in two areas of the Bolmon lagoon, at two different depths, with three sites per area-depth combination. Environmental factors (temperature, dissolved oxygen both in sediment and under water surface, sediment organic matter content and grain size) and microbial activities (i.e. hydrolase activities) were also considered as explanatory factors of chironomid densities and distribution. ANOVA analysis reveals significant spatial differences regarding the distribution of chironomid larvae for the area and the depth scales and their interaction. The spatial effect is also revealed for dissolved oxygen (water), salinity and fine particles (area scale), and for water column depth. All factors but water column depth show a temporal effect. Spearman's correlations highlight the seasonal effect

  13. A computational approach for identifying the chemical factors involved in the glycosaminoglycans-mediated acceleration of amyloid fibril formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Monsellier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Amyloid fibril formation is the hallmark of many human diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, type II diabetes and amyloidosis. Amyloid fibrils deposit in the extracellular space and generally co-localize with the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs of the basement membrane. GAGs have been shown to accelerate the formation of amyloid fibrils in vitro for a number of protein systems. The high number of data accumulated so far has created the grounds for the construction of a database on the effects of a number of GAGs on different proteins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we have constructed such a database and have used a computational approach that uses a combination of single parameter and multivariate analyses to identify the main chemical factors that determine the GAG-induced acceleration of amyloid formation. We show that the GAG accelerating effect is mainly governed by three parameters that account for three-fourths of the observed experimental variability: the GAG sulfation state, the solute molarity, and the ratio of protein and GAG molar concentrations. We then combined these three parameters into a single equation that predicts, with reasonable accuracy, the acceleration provided by a given GAG in a given condition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In addition to shedding light on the chemical determinants of the protein:GAG interaction and to providing a novel mathematical predictive tool, our findings highlight the possibility that GAGs may not have such an accelerating effect on protein aggregation under the conditions existing in the basement membrane, given the values of salt molarity and protein:GAG molar ratio existing under such conditions.

  14. Purcell factor for a cylindrical nanocavity: ab initio analytical approach: reply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordo, V.

    2014-01-01

    The comment by Sun et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31, 175 (2014)] on my paper [J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 1799 (2012)] is shown here to be due to a lack of understanding of the approach developed in my papers. (C) 2014 Optical Society of America...

  15. Finite Difference Methods for Option Pricing under Lévy Processes: Wiener-Hopf Factorization Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kudryavtsev, Oleg

    2013-01-01

      In the paper, we consider the problem of pricing options in wide classes of Lévy processes. We propose a general approach to the numerical methods based on a finite difference approximation for the generalized Black-Scholes equation...

  16. Drell-Yan production at forward rapidities: a hybrid factorization approach

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the Drell-Yan production of dileptons at high energies in the forward rapidity region of proton-proton collisions in a hybrid high-energy approach. This approach uses unintegrated gluon distributions in one proton and collinear quark/antiquark distributions in the second proton. We compute various distributions for the case of low-mass dilepton production and compare to the LHCb and ATLAS experimental data on dilepton mass distributions. In distinction to dipole approaches, we include four Drell-Yan structure functions as well as cuts at the level of lepton kinematics. The impact of the interference structure functions is rather small for typical experimental cuts. We find that both side contributions ($g q/\\bar q$ and $q/\\bar q g$) have to be included even for the LHCb rapidity coverage which is in contradiction with what is usually done in the dipole approach. We present results for different unintegrated gluon distributions from the literature. Some of them include saturation effects, but we see...

  17. Chicken granulosa cells show differential expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor messenger RNA and differential responsiveness to EGF and LH dependent upon location of granulosa cells to the germinal disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, H H; Bahr, J M

    2001-06-01

    Granulosa cells in the chicken follicle exhibit different phenotypes according to their location relative to the germinal disc (GD). Granulosa cells proximal to the GD (referred to as proximal granulosa cells) are more proliferative, whereas granulosa cells distal to the GD (referred to as distal granulosa cells) are more differentiated. We have shown that epidermal growth factor (EGF) derived from the GD stimulated proliferation of granulosa cells proximal to the GD, whereas extraovarian LH promoted differentiation. We tested the hypothesis that phenotypic differences of granulosa cells are the result of differential responsiveness of granulosa cells to EGF and LH. We found that both granulosa and theca layers of chicken preovulatory follicles expressed mRNA for EGF receptor (EGFr) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. However, only the granulosa layer showed differential expression of EGFr and LH receptor (LHr) mRNA. Competitive reverse transcription-PCR revealed that proximal granulosa cells expressed more EGFr mRNA but less LHr mRNA than distal granulosa cells. In addition, proximal granulosa cells proliferated more in response to EGF than their distal counterparts. We further demonstrated that EGF decreased LHr mRNA expression by granulosa cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas EGF and LH had no effect on EGFr mRNA expression except at one dose of LH (15 ng/ml) that stimulated EGFr mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that EGF derived from the GD influences the phenotypes of granulosa cells. Granulosa cells proximal to the GD exhibit a proliferative phenotype possibly because they are exposed to and are more responsive to GD-derived EGF. Furthermore, GD-derived EGF decreases LHr mRNA expression by proximal granulosa cells and therefore results in less differentiated granulosa cell phenotype. In contrast, granulosa cells distal to the GD are not under the influence of EGF and exhibit a more differentiated phenotype.

  18. Determination of the Calibration Factor of Superconducting Gravimeter 057 at the Lhasa Station: A frequency-Domain Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the calibration factor of the superconducting gravimeter 057 (SG057 at the Lhasa station is accurately determined for the first time with a frequency-domain approach and the data recorded by the LaCoste Romberg Earth Tides No. 20 (LCR-ET20 gravimeter which is installed nearby SG057. The advantage of the frequency-domain approach is that it eliminates the influence of different gravimeter drifts on the determination of the calibration factor. The determined calibration factor of SG057 is (-77.7358 ± 0.0409 × 10-8 m s-2 V-1, and the relative accuracy is about 0.5‰. The newly determined calibration factor has been calculated with the Wuhan international tidal gravity reference values (ITGRVs based on the data recorded by LCR-ET20 at the Wuhan station before it was installed at the Lhasa station. A high-precision synthesized gravity tide is achieved at the Lhasa station with accurate tidal parameters and theoretical tidal parameters for the long tidal waves from the Dehant-Defraigne-Wahr (DDW earth tide model. The synthesized gravity tide can be used for tidal gravity corrections of future gravity measurements in the Tibetan area. The linear gravimeter drift of SG057 is estimated by gravity records without the effects of land uplift, atmosphere and polar motion yielding a rate of 6.8 × 10-8 m s-2 yr-1.

  19. Approaches to Working with Children, Young People and Families for Traveller, Irish Traveller, Gypsy, Roma and Show People Communities. A Literature Review Report for the Children's Workforce Development Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark; Martin, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    The Children's Workforce Development Council (CWDC) commissioned this literature review as the first part of a project exploring issues around and approaches to working with Travellers, Irish Travellers, Gypsies, Roma and Showpeople, and the support, training and other programs available to staff involved. The project is intended to contribute to…

  20. Factors influencing community health centers' efficiency: a latent growth curve modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Shriram; Wan, Thomas T H; Zhang, Jackie; Sherin, Kevin

    2007-10-01

    The objective of study is to examine factors affecting the variation in technical and cost efficiency of community health centers (CHCs). A panel study design was formulated to examine the relationships among the contextual, organizational structural, and performance variables. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) of technical efficiency and latent growth curve modeling of multi-wave technical and cost efficiency were performed. Regardless of the efficiency measures, CHC efficiency was influenced more by contextual factors than organizational structural factors. The study confirms the independent and additive influences of contextual and organizational predictors on efficiency. The change in CHC technical efficiency positively affects the change in CHC cost efficiency. The practical implication of this finding is that healthcare managers can simultaneously optimize both technical and cost efficiency through appropriate use of inputs to generate optimal outputs. An innovative solution is to employ decision support software to prepare an expert system to assist poorly performing CHCs to achieve better cost efficiency through optimizing technical efficiency.

  1. Phenomenological discussion of $B\\to P V$ decays in QCD improved factorization approach

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksan, Roy; Morénas, V; Pène, O; Safir, A S

    2003-01-01

    Trying a global fit of the experimental branching ratios and CP-asymmetries of the charmless $B\\to PV$ decays according to QCD factorization, we find it impossible to reach a satisfactory agreement, the confidence level (CL) of the best fit is smaller than .1 %. This failure reflects the difficulty to accommodate several large experimental branching ratios of the strange channels. Furthermore, experiment was not able to exclude a large direct CP asymmetry in $\\bar {B}^0\\to\\rho^+ \\pi^-$, which is predicted very small by QCD factorization. Proposing a fit with QCD factorization complemented by a charming-penguin inspired model we reach a best fit which is not excluded by experiment (CL of about 8 %) but is not fully convincing. These negative results must be tempered by the remark that some of the experimental data used are recent and might still evolve significantly.

  2. An Auditing Approach for ERP Systems Examining Human Factors that Influence ERP User Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros MITAKOS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to connect the successful implementation and operation of the ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning information systems with people and their characteristics through a pilot survey. It examines the human factors that influence ERP user satisfaction. The presented survey tests 14 hypotheses and is based on the model developed by Zviran, Pliskin & Levin [21]. An additional factor has been added to the specified model, the self-efficacy factor analyzed by Bandura [1]. The results are based on 250 ERP users that responded to the survey. The key findings that were revealed by data analysis were that none of the human socio-demographic characteristics do influence ERP user satisfaction. Additionally it was found that perceived usefulness and self-efficacy are the key directors of the ERP user satisfaction. Moreover suggestions are given about how the companies should handle ERP usage in order to develop the prerequisites for increasing user satisfaction and productivity accordingly.

  3. Electromagnetic form factors of the Delta in a S-wave approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ramalho, G

    2008-01-01

    Without any further adjusting of parameters, a relativistic constituent quark model, successful in the description of the data for the nucleon elastic form factors and the dominant contribution to the nucleon to $\\Delta$ electromagnetic transition, is used here to predict the dominant electromagnetic form factors of the $\\Delta$ baryon. The model considered is based on a simple $\\Delta$ wave function corresponding to a quark-diquark system in an S-state. The results for E0 and M1 are consistent both with experimental results and lattice calculations. The remaining form factors M1 and E2 are negligible for small $Q^2$, as expected, given the symmetric structure considered for the $\\Delta$.

  4. A knowledge-based approach for C-factor mapping in Spain using Landsat TM and GIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veihe (former Folly), Anita; Bronsveld, M.C.; Clavaux, M

    1996-01-01

    by unhomogeneous land cover. The study area covers a quarter scene of a Landsat TM in the Madrid region. Via a visual classification of multi-temporal false colour composites, the study area could be divided into major land classes consisting of urban areas, natural vegetation and areas dominated by annual crops....... Each class was sampled separately followed by a supervised classification using the maximum likelihood algorithm. With the use of additional data, an improved distinction was made between cover types characterized by different risk levels with respect to the C-factor. For areas with natural vegetation......The cover and management factor (C) in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), is one of the most important parameters for assessing erosion. In this study it is shown how a knowledge-based approach can be used to optimize C-factor mapping in the Mediterranean region being characterized...

  5. Fertilization for High Yields in Corn-Sweet Potato-Wheat Rotation: A Systematic Approach to Nutrient Limiting Factors of Soils in Chongqing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A systematic approach was adopted to investigate the nutrient limiting factors in gray-brown purple soils and yellow soils derived from limestone in Chongqing, China, to study balanced fertilization for corn, sweet potato and wheat in rotation. The results showed that N, P and K were deficient in both soils, Cu, Mn, S andZn in the gray-brown purple soils and Ca, Mg, Mo and Zn for the yellow soils. Balanced fertilizer application increased yields of corn, sweet potato and wheat by 28.4%, 28.7% and 4.4%, respectively, as compared to the local farmers' practice. The systematic approach can be considered as one of the most efficient and reliable methods in fertility study.

  6. A Pedagogical Approach to the Boltzmann Factor through Experiments and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, O. R.; Bonura, A.; Sperandeo-Mineo, R. M.

    2009-01-01

    The Boltzmann factor is the basis of a huge amount of thermodynamic and statistical physics, both classical and quantum. It governs the behaviour of all systems in nature that are exchanging energy with their environment. To understand why the expression has this specific form involves a deep mathematical analysis, whose flow of logic is hard to…

  7. Psychometric Evaluation of the Student Authorship Questionnaire: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantine, Joan; Guo, Xin; Larres, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This research provides new insights into the measurement of students' authorial identity and its potential for minimising the incidence of unintentional plagiarism by providing evidence about the psychometric properties of the Student Authorship Questionnaire (SAQ). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA) are employed to…

  8. Assessing vocational outcome expectancy in individuals with serious mental illness: a factor-analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Kanako; Umucu, Emre; Wu, Jia-Rung; Yaghmaian, Rana; Lee, Hui-Ling; Fitzgerald, Sandra; Chan, Fong

    2017-07-04

    Self-determination theory (SDT) and self-efficacy theory (SET) can be used to conceptualize self-determined motivation to engage in mental health and vocational rehabilitation (VR) services and to predict recovery. To incorporate SDT and SET as a framework for vocational recovery, developing and validating SDT/SET measures in vocational rehabilitation is warranted. Outcome expectancy is an important SDT/SET variable affecting rehabilitation engagement and recovery. The purpose of this study was to validate the Vocational Outcome Expectancy Scale (VOES) for use within the SDT/SET vocational recovery framework. One hundred and twenty-four individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) participated in this study. Measurement structure of the VOES was evaluated using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Both EFA and CFA results supported a two-factor structure: (a) positive outcome expectancy, and (b) negative outcome expectancy. The internal consistency reliability coefficients for both factors were acceptable. In addition, positive outcome expectancy correlated stronger than negative outcome expectancy with other SDT/SET constructs in the expected directions. The VOES is a brief, reliable and valid instrument for assessing vocational outcome expectancy in individuals with SMI that can be integrated into SDT/SET as a vocational rehabilitation engagement and recovery model in psychiatric rehabilitation.

  9. Psychometric Structure of a Comprehensive Objective Structured Clinical Examination: A Factor Analytic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkan, Kevin; Simon, Steven R.; Baker, Harley; Todres, I. David

    2004-01-01

    Problem Statement and Background: While the psychometric properties of Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) have been studied, their latent structures have not been well characterized. This study examines a factor analytic model of a comprehensive OSCE and addresses implications for measurement of clinical performance. Methods: An…

  10. Determination of the main risk factors for benzodiazepine dependence using a multivariate and multidimensional approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.C.; Hilberink, S.R.; Breteler, M.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for benzodiazepine (BZD) dependence, such as sociodemographic variables, characteristics of BZD use, and psychiatric parameters, which to date have been found to relate inconsistently to indicators of BZD dependence such as chronic BZD use and BZD w

  11. The design value method and adjusted partial factor approach for existing structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caspeele, R.; Sykora, M.; Allaix, D.L.; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the design of new structures, the assessment of existing structures often relies on the subjective judgement of the investigating engineer. An objective verification format for existing structures based on alternative partial factors is however feasible, enabling a rather simple and s

  12. A factorization approach to next-to-leading-power threshold logarithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonocore, D.; Laenen, E.; Magnea, L.; Melville, S.; Vernazza, L.; White, C. D.

    2015-01-01

    Threshold logarithms become dominant in partonic cross sections when the selected final state forces gluon radiation to be soft or collinear. Such radiation factorizes at the level of scattering amplitudes, and this leads to the resummation of threshold logarithms which appear at leading power in th

  13. Novel genetic risk factors for venous thrombosis; a haplotype-based candidate gene approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitte de Willige, Shirley

    2007-01-01

    Venous thrombosis (VT) is a common disease, which occurs mostly in the deep veins of the leg. VT clusters within families and is a multicausal disease, in which both genetic and environmental factors interact in the onset of the disease. The aim of the study described in this thesis was to find new

  14. Motivation: Approaching an Elusive Concept through the Factors That Shape It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bong Gee; Conradi, Kristin; McKenna, Michael C.; Jones, Jill S.

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to provide educators with clear definitions of motivational factors in reading so that instructional planning can capitalize on important distinctions. The authors present definitions of a small set of related motivational concepts (including attitudes, interests, self-efficacy, self-concept, goals, and value)…

  15. Strategic Competence as a Fourth-Order Factor Model: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phakiti, Aek

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on an empirical study that tests a fourth-order factor model of strategic competence through the use of structural equation modeling (SEM). The study examines the hierarchical relationship of strategic competence to (a) strategic knowledge of cognitive and metacognitive strategy use in general (i.e., trait) and (b) strategic…

  16. Approaching the Affective Factors of Information Seeking: The Viewpoint of the Information Search Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Reijo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The article contributes to the conceptual studies of affective factors in information seeking by examining Kuhlthau's information search process model. Method: This random-digit dial telephone survey of 253 people (75% female) living in a rural, medically under-serviced area of Ontario, Canada, follows-up a previous interview study…

  17. The relationships between WAIS-IV factor index scores and educational level: A bifactor model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Francisco J; Sorrel, Miguel A; Román, Francisco J; Colom, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    IQ summary scores may not involve equivalent psychological meaning for different educational levels. Ultimately, this relates to the distinction between constructs and measurements. Here, we explore this issue studying the standardization of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) for Spain. A representative sample of 743 individuals (374 females and 369 males) who completed the 15 subtests comprising this intelligence battery was considered. We analyzed (a) the best latent factor structure for modeling WAIS-IV subtest performance, (b) measurement invariance across educational levels, and (c) the relationships of educational level/attainment with latent factors, Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), and index factor scores. These were the main findings: (a) the bifactor model provides the best fit; (b) there is partial invariance, and therefore it is concluded that the battery is a proper measure of the constructs of interest for the educational levels analyzed (nevertheless, the relevance of g decreases at high educational levels); (c) at the latent level, g and, to a lesser extent, Verbal Comprehension and Processing Speed, are positively related to educational level/attainment; (d) despite the previous finding, we find that Verbal Comprehension and Processing Speed factor index scores have reduced incremental validity beyond FSIQ; and (e) FSIQ is a slightly biased measure of g. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Nursing students' attitudes towards information and communication technology: an exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Jae; Clarke, Charlotte L

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically test a shortened version of the Information Technology Attitude Scales for Health, in the investigation of nursing students with clinical placement experiences. Nurses and nursing students need to develop high levels of competency in information and communication technology. However, they encounter statistically significant barriers in the use of the technology. Although some instruments have been developed to measure factors that influence nurses' attitudes towards technology, the validity is questionable and few studies have been developed to test the attitudes of nursing students, in particular. A cross-sectional survey design was performed. The Information Technology Attitude Scales for Health was used to collect data from October 2012-December 2012. A panel of experts reviewed the content of the instrument and a pilot study was conducted. Following this, a total of 508 nursing students, who were engaged in clinical placements, were recruited from six universities in South Korea. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed and reliability and construct validity were assessed. The resulting instrument consisted of 19 items across four factors. Reliability of the four factors was acceptable and the validity was supported. The instrument was shown to be both valid and reliable for measuring nursing students' attitudes towards technology, thus aiding in the current understandings of this aspect. Through these measurements and understandings, nursing educators and students are able to be more reflexive of their attitudes and can thus seek to develop them positively. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Using Trusted Execution Environments in Two-factor Authentication: comparing approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijswijk, Roland M.; Poll, Erik

    Classic two-factor authentication has been around for a long time and has enjoyed success in certain markets (such as the corporate and the banking environ- ment). A reason for this success are the strong security properties, particularly where user interaction is concerned. These properties hinge

  20. Dissection of Nod factor signalling in legumes: cell biology, mutants and pharmacological approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esseling, J.J.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Nodulation factors (NFs) are lipochito-oligosaccharide signal molecules excreted by soil-living rhizobia. These molecules elicit a range of responses in the legume roots, with which the bacteria can live in symbiosis. In this review we focus on the genetic, pharmacological and cell biological approa

  1. Dealing with Interpretability Issues in Predicting Firm Growth: Factor Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilandžić Ana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alongside the theoretical progress made in understanding the factors that influence firm growth, many methodological challenges are yet to be overcome. Authors point to the notion of interpretability of growth prediction models as an important prerequisite for further advancement of the field as well as enhancement of models’ practical values.

  2. Finite Difference Methods for Option Pricing under Lévy Processes: Wiener-Hopf Factorization Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Kudryavtsev

    2013-01-01

    factorization identity. Notice that our algorithm has the same complexity as the ones which use the explicit-implicit scheme, with a tridiagonal matrix. However, our method is more accurate. We support the advantage of the new method in terms of accuracy and convergence by using numerical experiments.

  3. Approaches for Strengthening Causal Inference Regarding Prenatal Risk Factors for Childhood Behavioural and Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sarah J.; Relton, Caroline; Zammit, Stanley; Smith, George Davey

    2013-01-01

    Background: The risk of childhood behavioural and psychiatric diseases could be substantially reduced if modifiable risk factors for these disorders were identified. The critical period for many of these exposures is likely to be in utero as this is the time when brain development is most rapid. However, due to confounding and other limitations of…

  4. Factors that affect micro-tooling features created by direct printing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhani, Mayur N.

    Current market required faster pace production of smaller, better, and improved products in shorter amount of time. Traditional high-rate manufacturing process such as hot embossing, injection molding, compression molding, etc. use tooling to replicate feature on a products. Miniaturization of many product in the field of biomedical, electronics, optical, and microfluidic is occurring on a daily bases. There is a constant need to produce cheaper, and faster tooling, which can be utilize by existing manufacturing processes. Traditionally, in order to manufacture micron size tooling features processes such as micro-machining, Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM), etc. are utilized. Due to a higher difficulty to produce smaller size features, and longer production cycle time, various additive manufacturing approaches are proposed, e.g. selective laser sintering (SLS), inkjet printing (3DP), fused deposition modeling (FDM), etc. were proposed. Most of these approaches can produce net shaped products from different materials such as metal, ceramic, or polymers. Several attempts were made to produce tooling features using additive manufacturing approaches. Most of these produced tooling were not cost effective, and the life cycle of these tooling was reported short. In this research, a method to produce tooling features using direct printing approach, where highly filled feedstock was dispensed on a substrate. This research evaluated different natural binders, such as guar gum, xanthan gum, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) and their combinations were evaluated. The best binder combination was then use to evaluate effect of different metal (316L stainless steel (3 mum), 316 stainless steel (45 mum), and 304 stainless steel (45 mum)) particle size on feature quality. Finally, the effect of direct printing process variables such as dispensing tip internal diameter (500 mum, and 333 mum) at different printing speeds were evaluated.

  5. Examining the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction: a factor specific approach

    OpenAIRE

    Azman Ismail; Ahmad Azan Ridzuan; Nur Ilyani Ranlan Rose; Muhammad Madi Bin Abdullah; Muhammad Sabbir Rahman; Sebastian K. Francis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This research was aimed at examining the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction with data obtained from Malaysian soldiers who were involved in peace keeping missions in a Middle Eastern country. The results of which would enable the management to improve the quality of service accorded to peacekeeping personnel. Design/methodology/approach: The study employed a cross-sectional research design which allowed the researchers to integrate the service quality lite...

  6. Response to Ponamgi et al. Comments on Khalighi et al. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy: A Long Term Follow-up Shows Benefit with Risk Factor Reduction. J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis., 2015, 2, 273–281.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Umar Farooq

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We appreciate the thorough response given by Ponagmi et al. [1], who rightly point out that the pathophysiology and modifiable risk factors of Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy (TC have yet to be unequivocally established. [...

  7. A factorization approach to next-to-leading-power threshold logarithms

    CERN Document Server

    Bonocore, D; Magnea, L; Melville, S; Vernazza, L; White, C D

    2015-01-01

    Threshold logarithms become dominant in partonic cross sections when the selected final state forces gluon radiation to be soft or collinear. Such radiation factorizes at the level of scattering amplitudes, and this leads to the resummation of threshold logarithms which appear at leading power in the threshold variable. In this paper, we consider the extension of this factorization to include effects suppressed by a single power of the threshold variable. Building upon the Low-Burnett-Kroll-Del Duca (LBKD) theorem, we propose a decomposition of radiative amplitudes into universal building blocks, which contain all effects ultimately responsible for next-to-leading power (NLP) threshold logarithms in hadronic cross sections for electroweak annihilation processes. In particular, we provide a NLO evaluation of the "radiative jet function", responsible for the interference of next-to-soft and collinear effects in these cross sections. As a test, using our expression for the amplitude, we reproduce all abelian-lik...

  8. Energy transfer between a nanosystem and its host fluid: A multiscale factorization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sereda, Yuriy V.; Espinosa-Duran, John M.; Ortoleva, Peter J., E-mail: ortoleva@indiana.edu [Center for Cell and Virus Theory, Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, 800 E. Kirkwood Ave, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)

    2014-02-21

    Energy transfer between a macromolecule or supramolecular assembly and a host medium is considered from the perspective of Newton's equations and Lie-Trotter factorization. The development starts by demonstrating that the energy of the molecule evolves slowly relative to the time scale of atomic collisions-vibrations. The energy is envisioned to be a coarse-grained variable that coevolves with the rapidly fluctuating atomistic degrees of freedom. Lie-Trotter factorization is shown to be a natural framework for expressing this coevolution. A mathematical formalism and workflow for efficient multiscale simulation of energy transfer is presented. Lactoferrin and human papilloma virus capsid-like structure are used for validation.

  9. A Novel Approach of Position Estimation and Power Factor Corrector Converter Fed BLDC Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kaliappan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a Power factor Corrected (PFC Bridgeless Buck-Boost converter fed BLDC motor drive. The Bridgeless configuration eliminates the Diode Bridge Rectifier in order to reduce the number of components and the conduction loss. The position sensors used in BLDC drives have drawbacks of additional cost, mechanical alignment problems. These bottle necks results in sensorless technique. The Sensorless technique mostly relies on measurement of Back EMF to determine relative positions of stator and rotor for the correct coil energising sequence can be implemented. This paper introduces the offline Finite Element method for sensorless operation. The proposed sensorless scheme estimates the motor position at standstill and running condition. The obtained Power Factor is within the acceptable limits IEC 61000-3-2. The proposed drive is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink the obtained results are validated experimentally on a developed prototype of the drive.

  10. Pesticides exposure as etiological factors of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases--a mechanistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltazar, Maria Teresa; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Duarte, José Alberto; Carvalho, Félix

    2014-10-15

    The etiology of most neurodegenerative disorders is multifactorial and consists of an interaction between environmental factors and genetic predisposition. The role of pesticide exposure in neurodegenerative disease has long been suspected, but the specific causative agents and the mechanisms underlying are not fully understood. For the main neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis there are evidences linking their etiology with long-term/low-dose exposure to pesticides such as paraquat, maneb, dieldrin, pyrethroids and organophosphates. Most of these pesticides share common features, namely the ability to induce oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, α-synuclein fibrillization and neuronal cell loss. This review aims to clarify the role of pesticides as environmental risk factors in genesis of idiopathic PD and other neurological syndromes. For this purpose, the most relevant epidemiological and experimental data is highlighted in order to discuss the molecular mechanisms involved in neurodegeneration.

  11. The possibilities of suicide prevention in adolescents. A holistic approach to protective and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmár, Sándor

    2013-03-01

    There is no other such complex physical, biological, somatic, mental, psychological, psychiatric, cultural, social and spiritual phenomenon and general public health problem, so much unexplained, meaningless, so tragic, painful, and unreasonable, so difficult, contradictory and mystified like suicide. In spite of the several already identified background factors, we do not and we can not know the real reasons behind suicide, because suicide is multi-causal, and can never be traced back to one single cause, but there are always many biological, psychological-psychiatric, historical, social and cultural factors involved in its development. However, the strongest suicide risk factor is an unrecognized and untreated mental disorder. Suicide among young people is one of the most serious public health problems. In Hungary 1395 young people lost their lives due to suicide in the 24> age group between 2000-2010, 1150 males and 245 females. According to epidemiological studies, 24.7% of children and adolescents suffer from some form of behaviour-, conduct- or other psychiatric disorders. Among adolescents (aged 15-24) suicide was the first leading cause of death in 2010. Despite great advances in the psychopharmacology and psychotherapy of mental disorders, suicides persist as a major cause of mortality, especially among the 15-24-year old population. Victims of suicide are not healthy individuals. They always suffer from psychiatric or mental, physical or somatic, cultural (social, historical, mythological) and spiritual disorders. The author tries to classify suicide protective and risk factors according to physical-biological, mental-psychological, cultural-social, and spiritual aspects. However, it must be remembered that these factors are not necessarily present in each and every case and may vary from one country to another, one person to another, depending on cultural, political, (spiritual) and economical features. Risk and protective factors can occur (1) at the

  12. Transition electromagnetic form factor and current conservation in the Bethe-Salpeter approach

    CERN Document Server

    Carbonell, J

    2015-01-01

    The transition form factor for electrodisintegration of a two-body bound system is calculated in the Bethe-Salpeter framework. For the initial (bound) and the final (scattering) states, we use our solutions of the Bethe-Salpeter equation in Minkowski space which were first obtained recently. The gauge invariance, which manifests itself in the conservation of the transition electromagnetic current Jq = 0, is studied numerically. It results from a cancellation between the plane wave and the final state interaction contributions. This cancellation takes place only if the initial bound state BS amplitude, the final scattering state and the operator of electromagnetic current are strictly consistent with each other, that is if they are found in the same dynamical framework. A reliable result for the transition form factor can be obtained in this case only.

  13. D → ρℓ + ℓ - decays in the QCD factorization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Thorsten; Müller, Bastian; Seidel, Dirk

    2017-08-01

    We consider rare semileptonic decays of a heavy D-meson into a light vector meson in the framework of QCD factorization. In contrast to the corresponding B-meson decays, the naive factorization hypothesis does not even serve as a first approximation. Rather, the decay amplitudes appear to be dominated by non-factorizable dynamics, e.g. through annihilation topologies, which are particularly sensitive to long-distance hadronic contributions. We therefore pay particular attention to intermediate vector-meson resonances appearing in quark-loop and annihilation topologies. Compared to the analogous B-meson decays, we identify a number of effects that result in very large theoretical uncertainties for differential decay rates. Some of these effects are found to cancel in the ratio of partially integrated decay rates for transversely and longitudinally polarized ρ mesons. On the phenomenological side this implies a very limited potential to constrain physics beyond the Standard Model by means of these decays.

  14. QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN THE SUPPLY CHAIN: ANALYTICAL APPROACHES AND FACTORS TO DETERMINE OPTIMAL QUALITY LEVELS

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, Tushar

    2015-01-01

    Quality has been identified as an important component for each and every business, irrespective of their size and type, and hence, quality affects each and every activity of an organization crucial for their success. Therefore, since recent times, almost every organization has identified the need of perceiving quality and its management across the supply chain. There are a number of factors affecting the maintenance and management of quality across supply chain. As the topic itself his ...

  15. Estimating Productivity of Software Development Using the Total Factor Productivity Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Machek Ondrej; Hnilica Jiri; Hejda Jan

    2012-01-01

    The design, control and optimization of software engineering processes generally require the determination of performance measures such as efficiency or productivity. However, the definition and measurement of productivity is often inaccurate and differs from one method to another. On the other hand, economic theory offers a well‐grounded tool of productivity measurement. In this article, we propose a model of process productivity measurement based on the total factor productivity (TFP) ap...

  16. A Novel Approach of Position Estimation and Power Factor Corrector Converter Fed BLDC Motor

    OpenAIRE

    S. Kaliappan; Rajeswari, R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a Power factor Corrected (PFC) Bridgeless Buck-Boost converter fed BLDC motor drive. The Bridgeless configuration eliminates the Diode Bridge Rectifier in order to reduce the number of components and the conduction loss. The position sensors used in BLDC drives have drawbacks of additional cost, mechanical alignment problems. These bottle necks results in sensorless technique. The Sensorless technique mostly relies on measurement of Back EMF to determine relative positions...

  17. Nursing students’ attitudes towards information communication technology:An exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, J.J.; Clarke, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically test a shortened version of the Information Technology Attitude Scales for Health, in the investigation of nursing students with clinical placement experiences.Background: Nurses and nursing students need to develop high levels of competency in information and communication technology. However, they encounter significant barriers in the use of the technology. Although some instruments have been developed to measure factors that in...

  18. Success Factors Contributing to eGovernment Adoption in Saudi Arabia: G2C approach

    OpenAIRE

    Abunadi, Ibrahim; Sanzogni, Louis; Sandhu, Kuldeep; Woods, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is predetermined to implement eGovernment and provide world-class government services to citizens by 2010. However, this initiative will be meaningless if the people did not adopt these electronic services. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine success factors that will facilitate the adoption of eGovernment in Saudi Arabia. The results of the literature review have been deployed into surveys with Saudi eGovernment users. The discussion of the analysis from results...

  19. Antecedents Factors that Influence Soy Consumption: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian, Siva K.; Moon, Wanki; Rimal, Arbindra; Coker, Kesha

    2009-01-01

    We propose a structural model of antecedent factors that affect the frequency of soy consumption. This model, suggests that soy-general knowledge influences perceptions about nutrition concern, health benefits of soy, soy related personal beliefs and personal attitudes toward soy. Health benefits of soy, in turn, impacts soy-related personal beliefs and personal attitudes toward soy. Additionally, soy-related personal beliefs influence personal attitudes toward soy. Finally, both nutrition co...

  20. Identifying and prioritizing factors that influence reapeted patronage of Etka chain-stores customers: a neural network approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Jahandideh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, chain stores are experiencing a severe competitive environment. In such an environment, a growing number of customers are equipped by high volumes of information and are more risk-taking. As they tend to switch their store based on the higher value that they might receive elsewhere, as customers switching behavior has become so commonplace and has become a challenge for retailers. Thus, factors that influence the willingness of customers to repurchase will play a critical role in the performance and success of chain stores. This paper aimed to identify and prioritize the determinative factors that cause customers repeat patronage in Etka chain stores. Factors were extracted based on a thorough literature review and then these factors were modified using pre-test and interview methods. In this study, questionnaires were used for data collection. Respectively, to identify and prioritize determinative factors, correlation analysis and artificial neural networks were used. Results showed that in order of importance, quality, price loyalty program, number of service counters, store staff, shelf labels, product selection, parking facilities, home delivery, store brand, and store atmosphere are factors that determine customers’ repeat patronage of Etka chain stores. Meanwhile, young, educated and wealthy customers showed lower store repeat patronage. Finally, the paper concludes with suggestions for increasing consumer repeat-patronage of Etka chain-stores and directions for future research.

  1. A clinical approach to obstructive sleep apnea as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeder MT

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Micha T Maeder,1 Otto D Schoch,2 Hans Rickli1 1Department of Cardiology, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kantonsspital St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is associated with cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular diseases, and increased mortality. Epidemiological studies have established these associations, and there are now numerous experimental and clinical studies which have provided information on the possible underlying mechanisms. Mechanistic proof-of-concept studies with surrogate endpoints have been performed to demonstrate that treatment of OSA by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP has the potential to reverse or at least to attenuate not only OSA but also the adverse cardiovascular effects associated with OSA. However, no randomized studies have been performed to demonstrate that treatment of OSA by CPAP improves clinical outcomes in patients with cardiovascular risk factors and/or established cardiovascular disease and concomitant OSA. In the present review, we summarize the current knowledge on the role of OSA as a potential cardiovascular risk factor, the impact of OSA on cardiac function, the role of OSA as a modifier of the course of cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, and heart failure, and the insights from studies evaluating the impact of CPAP therapy on the cardiovascular features associated with OSA. Keywords: obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular, risk, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, hypertension

  2. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors for salvage nasopharyngectomy via the maxillary swing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jimmy Yu Wai; To, Victor Shing Howe; Chow, Velda Ling Yu; Wong, Stanley Thian Sze; Wei, William Ignace

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic factors for salvage nasopharyngectomy. A retrospective review was conducted on maxillary swing nasopharyngectomy performed between 1998 and 2010. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified prognostic factors affecting actuarial local tumor control and overall survival. The median follow-up duration was 52 months. Among the 268 patients, 79.1% had clear resection margins. The 5-year actuarial local tumor control and overall survival was 74% and 62.1%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, tumor size, resection margin status, and gross tumor in the sphenoid sinus were independent prognostic factors for local tumor control. For overall survival, resection margin status, synchronous cervical nodal recurrence, and cavernous sinus invasion had a negative influence on overall survival after surgery. Extent of nasopharyngectomy should be tailored to the individual tumor to achieve clear resection margins. Cavernous sinus invasion is associated with poor survival outcome, and detailed counseling and meticulous surgical planning is crucial in such circumstances. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Using graphical adaptive lasso approach to construct transcription factor and microRNA's combinatorial regulatory network in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Naifang; Dai, Ding; Deng, Chao; Qian, Minping; Deng, Minghua

    2014-06-01

    Discovering the regulation of cancer-related gene is of great importance in cancer biology. Transcription factors and microRNAs are two kinds of crucial regulators in gene expression, and they compose a combinatorial regulatory network with their target genes. Revealing the structure of this network could improve the authors' understanding of gene regulation, and further explore the molecular pathway in cancer. In this article, the authors propose a novel approach graphical adaptive lasso (GALASSO) to construct the regulatory network in breast cancer. GALASSO use a Gaussian graphical model with adaptive lasso penalties to integrate the sequence information as well as gene expression profiles. The simulation study and the experimental profiles verify the accuracy of the authors' approach. The authors further reveal the structure of the regulatory network, and explore the role of feedforward loops in gene regulation. In addition, the authors discuss the combinatorial regulatory effect between transcription factors and microRNAs, and select miR-155 for detailed analysis of microRNA's role in cancer. The proposed GALASSO approach is an efficient method to construct the combinatorial regulatory network. It also provides a new way to integrate different data sources and could find more applications in meta-analysis problem.

  4. Development of realistic environmental release factors based on measured data: approach and lessons from the EU metal industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonck, Frederik A M; Van Assche, Frank; Hicks, Keegan; Mertens, Jelle; Voigt, Astrid; Verougstraete, Violaine

    2014-10-01

    The assessment of environmental exposure and risks associated with the production or use of a substance on an industrial site includes the estimation of the releases to the environment. In the absence of measured release data on the specific substance, a risk assessor would rely on default release factors to the environmental compartments as developed in international, national, or regional context. Because a wide variety of substances, processes, and uses has to be covered, default release factors are as a rule conservative, usually leading to significant overprediction of releases and hence to overpredicted environmental exposure concentrations and risks. In practice, unrealistic and worst-case predictions do not support a more efficient management of releases and risk. The objective of this article is to propose a more realistic approach to characterize the environmental releases from manufacture, processing, and downstream uses of the metals and their compounds. Although developed in the European Union (EU), this approach can also be used in other regions and in other chemical management systems addressing metals. A database consisting of more than 1300 recent (1993-2010), site-specific measured release factors to air and water of 18 different metals from various EU Member States was compiled and used to calculate average and reasonable worst-case release factors for multiple metal manufacture and industrial use processes. The parameters influencing releases to water were found to depend predominantly on life cycle step (manufacture and/or use), the sector and/or the solid-water partition coefficient (K(d)). The release factors can be used as advanced tier instrument in environmental safety assessments, increasing the realism of the estimates while still keeping a sufficient level of conservatism.

  5. Open charm meson production at BNL RHIC within $k_{t}$-factorization approach and revision of their semileptonic decays

    CERN Document Server

    Maciula, Rafal; Luszczak, Marta

    2015-01-01

    We discuss inclusive production of open charm mesons in proton-proton scattering at the BNL RHIC. The calculation is performed in the framework of $k_t$-factorization approach which effectively includes higher-order pQCD corrections. Different models of unintegrated gluon distributions (UGDF) from the literature are used. We focus on UGDF models favoured by the LHC data and on a new up-to-date parametrizations based on the HERA collider DIS high-precision data. Results of the $k_t$-factorization approach are compared to next-to-leading order collinear predictions. The hadronization of heavy quarks is done by means of fragmentation function technique. The theoretical transverse momentum distributions of charmed mesons are compared with recent experimental data of the STAR collaboration at $\\sqrt{s} = 200$ and $500$ GeV. Theoretical uncertainties related to the choice of renormalization and factorization scales as well as due to the quark mass are discussed. Very good description of the measured integrated cros...

  6. Thermal form factor approach to the ground-state correlation functions of the XXZ chain in the antiferromagnetic massive regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugave, Maxime; Göhmann, Frank; Kozlowski, Karol K.; Suzuki, Junji

    2016-09-01

    We use the form factors of the quantum transfer matrix in the zero-temperature limit in order to study the two-point ground-state correlation functions of the XXZ chain in the antiferromagnetic massive regime. We obtain novel form factor series representations of the correlation functions which differ from those derived either from the q-vertex-operator approach or from the algebraic Bethe Ansatz approach to the usual transfer matrix. We advocate that our novel representations are numerically more efficient and allow for a straightforward calculation of the large-distance asymptotic behaviour of the two-point functions. Keeping control over the temperature corrections to the two-point functions we see that these are of order {T}∞ in the whole antiferromagnetic massive regime. The isotropic limit of our result yields a novel form factor series representation for the two-point correlation functions of the XXX chain at zero magnetic field. Dedicated to the memory of Petr Petrovich Kulish.

  7. Factors Associated with Successful Mentoring of Parents Addressing Childhood Obesity: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Abigail Villanueva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Parents mentoring other parents as a behavioral intervention for child obesity is novel with limited data describing the experience and dynamics of this approach. This study aimed to describe the experiences of parent mentors and the self-efficacy and attitudes of their mentees in the context of a clinical trial for childhood obesity. Methods. The context for this study was a randomized clinical trial using either parent mentors or a community health worker engaging parents of obese children in behavioral change over six months. Parent mentors were interviewed at the mid-point of the intervention using a semistructured questionnaire to elicit their perceptions and experiences during the process of mentoring. Parent mentees completed a survey assessing their self-efficacy, perception of the parent mentor, and attitudes and beliefs related to their child’s weight. Results. The qualitative analysis of parent mentor interviews indicated high commitment despite their nonprofessional status, facing challenges of engagement with fellow parents and attitudes of persistence and being nonjudgmental. The parent mentee ratings of parent mentors were overall very high and similar to the ratings of a community health worker (paraprofessional. Conclusion. The data suggest that a parent mentor model of intervention for child obesity is an acceptable mode of approaching behavior change in the Hispanic population around childhood obesity with potential for scalability if proven effective.

  8. Biomolecular recognition principles for bionanocombinatorics: an integrated approach to elucidate enthalpic and entropic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenghua; Palafox-Hernandez, J Pablo; Law, Wing-Cheung; Hughes, Zak E; Swihart, Mark T; Prasad, Paras N; Knecht, Marc R; Walsh, Tiffany R

    2013-11-26

    Bionanocombinatorics is an emerging field that aims to use combinations of positionally encoded biomolecules and nanostructures to create materials and devices with unique properties or functions. The full potential of this new paradigm could be accessed by exploiting specific noncovalent interactions between diverse palettes of biomolecules and inorganic nanostructures. Advancement of this paradigm requires peptide sequences with desired binding characteristics that can be rationally designed, based upon fundamental, molecular-level understanding of biomolecule-inorganic nanoparticle interactions. Here, we introduce an integrated method for building this understanding using experimental measurements and advanced molecular simulation of the binding of peptide sequences to gold surfaces. From this integrated approach, the importance of entropically driven binding is quantitatively demonstrated, and the first design rules for creating both enthalpically and entropically driven nanomaterial-binding peptide sequences are developed. The approach presented here for gold is now being expanded in our laboratories to a range of inorganic nanomaterials and represents a key step toward establishing a bionanocombinatorics assembly paradigm based on noncovalent peptide-materials recognition.

  9. Factors contributing to attrition behavior in diabetes self-management programs: A mixed method approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Offenheim Ana

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes self-management education is a critical component in diabetes care. Despite worldwide efforts to develop efficacious DSME programs, high attrition rates are often reported in clinical practice. The objective of this study was to examine factors that may contribute to attrition behavior in diabetes self-management programs. Methods We conducted telephone interviews with individuals who had Type 2 diabetes (n = 267 and attended a diabetes education centre. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with attrition behavior. Forty-four percent of participants (n = 118 withdrew prematurely from the program and were asked an open-ended question regarding their discontinuation of services. We used content analysis to code and generate themes, which were then organized under the Behavioral Model of Health Service Utilization. Results Working full and part-time, being over 65 years of age, having a regular primary care physician or fewer diabetes symptoms were contributing factors to attrition behaviour in our multivariable logistic regression. The most common reasons given by participants for attrition from the program were conflict between their work schedules and the centre's hours of operation, patients' confidence in their own knowledge and ability when managing their diabetes, apathy towards diabetes education, distance to the centre, forgetfulness, regular physician consultation, low perceived seriousness of diabetes, and lack of familiarity with the centre and its services. There was considerable overlap between our quantitative and qualitative results. Conclusion Reducing attrition behaviour requires a range of strategies targeted towards delivering convenient and accessible services, familiarizing individuals with these services, increasing communication between centres and their patients, and creating better partnerships between centres and primary care physicians.

  10. Mayaro virus infection in amazonia: a multimodel inference approach to risk factor assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Abad-Franch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Arboviral diseases are major global public health threats. Yet, our understanding of infection risk factors is, with a few exceptions, considerably limited. A crucial shortcoming is the widespread use of analytical methods generally not suited for observational data--particularly null hypothesis-testing (NHT and step-wise regression (SWR. Using Mayaro virus (MAYV as a case study, here we compare information theory-based multimodel inference (MMI with conventional analyses for arboviral infection risk factor assessment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional survey of anti-MAYV antibodies revealed 44% prevalence (n = 270 subjects in a central Amazon rural settlement. NHT suggested that residents of village-like household clusters and those using closed toilet/latrines were at higher risk, while living in non-village-like areas, using bednets, and owning fowl, pigs or dogs were protective. The "minimum adequate" SWR model retained only residence area and bednet use. Using MMI, we identified relevant covariates, quantified their relative importance, and estimated effect-sizes (β ± SE on which to base inference. Residence area (β(Village  =  2.93 ± 0.41; β(Upland = -0.56 ± 0.33, β(Riverbanks  =  -2.37 ± 0.55 and bednet use (β = -0.95 ± 0.28 were the most important factors, followed by crop-plot ownership (β  =  0.39 ± 0.22 and regular use of a closed toilet/latrine (β = 0.19 ± 0.13; domestic animals had insignificant protective effects and were relatively unimportant. The SWR model ranked fifth among the 128 models in the final MMI set. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analyses illustrate how MMI can enhance inference on infection risk factors when compared with NHT or SWR. MMI indicates that forest crop-plot workers are likely exposed to typical MAYV cycles maintained by diurnal, forest dwelling vectors; however, MAYV might also be circulating in nocturnal, domestic-peridomestic cycles

  11. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE CONSUMER’S INTENTION TO USE E- COMMERCE: A THEORETICAL APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Al-dalahmeh; Ali Salman Saleh

    2007-01-01

    There is a need in the literature for an application of the well known social cognitive theory in the area of e-commerce. Hence, this paper develops and models a theoretical framework to study the impact of psychological factors based on the social cognitive theory on the intention to use e-commerce. More specifically, the paper examines the role of individuals’ beliefs about their abilities towards the intention to use e-commerce technology (e-commerce self-efficacy). A conceptual model, bas...

  12. $B \\to \\pi\\pi, K \\pi$ Decays in QCD Improved Factorization Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Muta, T; Yang Mao Zhi; Yang, Y D; Muta, Taizo; Sugamoto, Akio; Yang, Mao-Zhi; Yang, Ya-Dong

    2000-01-01

    Motivated by recent measurements, we investigate $B\\to \\pi \\pi, K \\pi$ decay modes in the framework of QCD improved factorization, which was recently proposed by Beneke et. al. We find that all the measured branching ratios are well accommodated in the reasonable parameter space except for $B\\to K^0 \\pi^0 $. We also discuss in detail the strong penguin contributions and the ${\\cal O}(\\alpha_s)$ corrections to the chirally enhanced terms. We find that the weak phase $\\gamma$ lies in the region $120^{\\circ}<\\gamma<240^{\\circ}$, which is mainly constrained by $B\\to \\pi^- \\pi^+ $.

  13. The corticotropin-releasing factor system in inflammatory bowel disease: prospects for new therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschos, Konstantinos A; Kolios, George; Chatzaki, Ekaterini

    2009-07-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that stress is implicated in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), via initial nervous disturbance and subsequent immune dysfunction through brain-gut interactions. The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system, being the principal neuroendocrine coordinator of stress responses, is involved in the inflammatory process within the gastrointestinal tract, via vagal and peripheral pathways, as implied by multiple reports reviewed here. Blocking of CRF receptors could theoretically exert beneficial anti-inflammatory effects in colonic tissues. The recently synthesised small-molecule CRF(1) antagonists or alternatively non-peptide CRF(2) antagonists when available, may become new reliable options in the treatment of IBD.

  14. Where is My Pay? Critical Success Factors of a Payroll System – A System Life Cycle Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Thite

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Majority of firms deploy technologies in HR administrative applications. While payroll processing is a routine transactional activity, poor design and implementation of payroll system can cause immense harm to employee and organizational well-being. Based on the case study of a flawed payroll system in a large and complex public sector organization in Australia, we highlight the key success factors using the system life cycle approach underpinned by the agile philosophy. It highlights the critical importance of strategic organizational review, user involvement and ongoing communication with diverse stakeholders during the planning, analysis, design, implementation and review stages of a payroll project. It reinforces the need for the adoption of and adherence to sound project and change management methodologies. We also explore the limitations of shared service center approach.

  15. [Application of risk-based approach for determination of critical factors in technology transfer of production of medicinal products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beregovykh, V V; Spitskiy, O R

    2014-01-01

    Risk-based approach is used for examination of impact of different factors on quality of medicinal products in technology transfer. A general diagram is offered for risk analysis execution in technology transfer from pharmaceutical development to production. When transferring technology to full- scale commercial production it is necessary to investigate and simulate production process application beforehand in new real conditions. The manufacturing process is the core factorfor risk analysis having the most impact on quality attributes of a medicinal product. Further importantfactors are linked to materials and products to be handled and manufacturing environmental conditions such as premises, equipment and personnel. Usage of risk-based approach in designing of multipurpose production facility of medicinal products is shown where quantitative risk analysis tool RAMM (Risk Analysis and Mitigation Matrix) was applied.

  16. An expert performance approach to examining factors contributing to academic success in organic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandagopal, Kiruthiga

    Successful completion of the introductory course in organic chemistry is a prerequisite for many graduate and professional science programs, yet the failure rate for this course is notoriously high. To date, there have been few studies examining factors contributing to academic success in organic chemistry. This study demonstrates that the online, longitudinal methods used by investigations of expert performance can examine and successfully identify factors contributing to academic success at the college level. Sixty-four students enrolled in introductory organic chemistry during the Fall 2007 and Spring 2008 semesters completed motivation questionnaires, interviews, diaries, and think-aloud reading and problem-solving tasks at three different points across a semester. Measures of spatial ability, general ability, and background preparation were also collected. Each measure was analyzed to determine significant differences between groups differing in grade-point average (GPA) prior to the start of the course and to identify predictors of organic chemistry grade. Variables measuring background preparation, problem-solving strategies and studying strategies were found to be the best predictors of academic success in organic chemistry. Implications for instruction in organic chemistry and effective studying behaviors are discussed.

  17. The Journal Impact Factor: Moving Toward an Alternative and Combined Scientometric Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Nurmashev, Bekaidar; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Udovik, Elena E; Baryshnikov, Aleksandr A; Kitas, George D

    2017-02-01

    The Journal Impact Factor (JIF) is a single citation metric, which is widely employed for ranking journals and choosing target journals, but is also misused as the proxy of the quality of individual articles and academic achievements of authors. This article analyzes Scopus-based publication activity on the JIF and overviews some of the numerous misuses of the JIF, global initiatives to overcome the 'obsession' with impact factors, and emerging strategies to revise the concept of the scholarly impact. The growing number of articles on the JIF, most of which are in English, reflects interest of experts in journal editing and scientometrics toward its uses, misuses, and options to overcome related problems. Solely displaying values of the JIFs on the journal websites is criticized by experts as these average metrics do not reflect skewness of citation distribution of individual articles. Emerging strategies suggest to complement the JIFs with citation plots and alternative metrics, reflecting uses of individual articles in terms of downloads and distribution of related information through social media and networking platforms. It is also proposed to revise the original formula of the JIF calculation and embrace the concept of the impact and importance of individual articles. The latter is largely dependent on ethical soundness of the journal instructions, proper editing and structuring of articles, efforts to promote related information through social media, and endorsements of professional societies.

  18. Approach to novel functional foods for stress control 4. Regulation of serotonin transporter by food factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mikiko; Haito, Sakiko; Furumoto, Mari; Kawai, Yoshichika; Terao, Junji; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2005-11-01

    Serotonin transporters (SERTs) are pre-synaptic proteins specialized for the clearance of serotonin following vesicular release at central nervous system (CNS) and enteric nervous system synapses. SERTs are high affinity targets in vivo for antidepressants such as serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). These include 'medical' psychopharmacological agents such as analgesics and antihistamines, a plant extract called St John's Wort (Hypericum). Osteoclasts are the primary cells responsible for bone resorption. They arise by the differentiation of osteoclast precursors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. The expression of SERTs was increased in RANKL-induced osteoclast-like cells. Using RANKL stimulation of RAW264.7 cells as a model system for osteoclast differentiation, we studied the direct effects of food factor on serotonin uptake. The SSRIs (fluoxetine and fluvoxamine) inhibited markedly (approximately 95%) in serotonin transport in differentiated osteoclast cells. The major components of St. John's Wort, hyperforin and hypericine were significantly decreased in serotonin transport activity. Thus, a new in vitro model using RANKL-induced osteoclast-like cells may be useful to analyze the regulation of SERT by food factors and SSRIs.

  19. Bioactive nanoengineered hydrogels for bone tissue engineering: a growth-factor-free approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Janet R; Thakur, Teena; Desai, Prachi; Jaiswal, Manish K; Sears, Nick; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth; Kaunas, Roland; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K

    2015-03-24

    Despite bone's impressive ability to heal after traumatic injuries and fractures, a significant need still exists for developing strategies to promote healing of nonunion defects. To address this issue, we developed collagen-based hydrogels containing two-dimensional nanosilicates. Nanosilicates are ultrathin nanomaterials with a high degree of anisotropy and functionality that results in enhanced surface interactions with biological entities compared to their respective three-dimensional counterparts. The addition of nanosilicates resulted in a 4-fold increase in compressive modulus along with an increase in pore size compared to collagen-based hydrogels. In vitro evaluation indicated that the nanocomposite hydrogels are capable of promoting osteogenesis in the absence of any osteoinductive factors. A 3-fold increase in alkaline phosphatase activity and a 4-fold increase in the formation of a mineralized matrix were observed with the addition of the nanosilicates to the collagen-based hydrogels. Overall, these results demonstrate the multiple functions of nanosilicates conducive to the regeneration of bone in nonunion defects, including increased network stiffness and porosity, injectability, and enhanced mineralized matrix formation in a growth-factor-free microenvironment.

  20. Projects Delay Factors of Saudi Arabia Construction Industry Using PLS-SEM Path Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul RahmanIsmail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of PLS-SEM Path Model of delay factors of Saudi Arabia construction industry focussing on Mecca City. The model was developed and assessed using SmartPLS v3.0 software and it consists of 37 factors/manifests in 7 groups/independent variables and one dependent variable which is delay of the construction projects. The model was rigorously assessed at measurement and structural components and the outcomes found that the model has achieved the required threshold values. At structural level of the model, among the seven groups, the client and consultant group has the highest impact on construction delay with path coefficient β-value of 0.452 and the project management and contract administration group is having the least impact to the construction delay with β-value of 0.016. The overall model has moderate explaining power ability with R2 value of 0.197 for Saudi Arabia construction industry representation. This model will able to assist practitioners in Mecca city to pay more attention in risk analysis for potential construction delay.

  1. Factors of adoption of mobile information technology by homecare nurses: a technology acceptance model 2 approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiying; Cocosila, Mihail; Archer, Norm

    2010-01-01

    Pervasive healthcare support through mobile information technology solutions is playing an increasing role in the attempt to improve healthcare and reduce costs. Despite the apparent attractiveness, many mobile applications have failed or have not been implemented as predicted. Among factors possibly leading to such outcomes, technology adoption is a key problem. This must be investigated early in the development process because healthcare is a particularly sensitive area with vital social implications. Moreover, it is important to investigate technology acceptance using the support of scientific tools validated for relevant information systems research. This article presents an empirical study based on the Technology Acceptance Model 2 in mobile homecare nursing. The study elicited the perceptions of 91 Canadian nurses who used personal digital assistants for 1 month in their daily activities. A partial least squares modeling data analysis revealed that nurse's perception of usefulness is the main factor in the adoption of mobile technology, having subjective norm and image within the organization as significant antecedents. Overall, this study was the first attempt at investigating scientifically, through a pertinent information systems research model, user adoption of mobile systems by homecare nursing personnel.

  2. Identifying niche-mediated regulatory factors of stem cell phenotypic state: a systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Srikanth; Del Sol, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Understanding how the cellular niche controls the stem cell phenotype is often hampered due to the complexity of variegated niche composition, its dynamics, and nonlinear stem cell-niche interactions. Here, we propose a systems biology view that considers stem cell-niche interactions as a many-body problem amenable to simplification by the concept of mean field approximation. This enables approximation of the niche effect on stem cells as a constant field that induces sustained activation/inhibition of specific stem cell signaling pathways in all stem cells within heterogeneous populations exhibiting the same phenotype (niche determinants). This view offers a new basis for the development of single cell-based computational approaches for identifying niche determinants, which has potential applications in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. © 2017 The Authors. FEBS Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  3. Inclusive J/{psi} photoproduction and polarization at HERA in the k{sub T} -factorization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranov, S.P. [P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lipatov, A.V.; Zotov, N.P. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, D.V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-15

    We investigate the inclusive photoproduction of J/{psi} mesons at HERA within the framework of the k{sub T} -factorization QCD approach. Our study is based on the color singlet model supplemented with the relevant off-shell matrix elements and the CCFM and KMR unintegrated gluon densities in a proton and in a photon. Both the direct and resolved photon contributions are taken into account. Our predictions are compared with the recent experimental data taken by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations. Special attention is put on the J/ {psi} polarization parameters {lambda} and {nu}, which are sensitive to the production dynamics. (orig.)

  4. Inclusive J/{psi} photoproduction and polarization at HERA in the k{sub T}-factorization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranov, S.P. [P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lipatov, A.V.; Zotov, N.P. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). D.V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics

    2010-12-15

    We investigate the inclusive photoproduction of J/{psi} mesons at HERA within the framework of the k{sub T} -factorization QCD approach. Our consideration is based on the color singlet model supplemented with the relevant off-shell matrix elements and the CCFM and KMR unintegrated gluon densities in a proton and in a photon. Both the direct and resolved photon contributions are taken into account. Our predictions are compared with the recent experimental data taken by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations. Special attention is put on the J/{psi} polarization parameters {lambda} and {nu} which are sensitive to the production dynamics. (orig.)

  5. Search for optimal conditions for exploring double-parton scattering in four-jet production: $k_t$-factorization approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kutak, Krzysztof; Serino, Mirko; Szczurek, Antoni; van Hameren, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper we discuss how to maximize the double-parton scattering (DPS) contribution in four-jet production. Here both single-parton and double-parton scattering effects are calculated in the $k_t$-factorization approach, following our recent developments of relevant methods and tools. Several differential distributions are shown and discussed in the context of future searches for DPS effects, such as rapidity of jets, rapidity distance, and azimuthal correlations between jets. The dependences of the relative DPS amount is studied as function of those observables. The regions with an enhanced DPS contribution are identified. Future experimental explorations could extract more precise values of $\\sigma_{eff}$.

  6. COMPETENCE APPROACH TO EDUCATION AS THE FACTOR OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMMUNICATIVE TOLERANCE OF A FUTURE TEACHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Lazareva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives proof of the thesis that the competence approach to education is the factor of development of the communicative tolerance of the future teacher of a foreign language provided the subject-subject relations are maintained in the pedagogical process. Students’ valuation attitude to competences is brought to life on the empirical level. The article traces the degree of the influence of competences on the communicative tolerance of the personality of a graduating student of the basic educational programme of the bachelor.

  7. RISK-FACTORS, PATHOGENESIS, AND PHARMACEUTICAL APPROACHES FOR TREATMENT OF STEROID-INDUCED BONE INFARCTION OF FEMORAL HEAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Yang; Hu, Ningning; Miao, Xuman

    2016-01-01

    During first year of steroid usage, osteocyte necrosis and blood vessel blockage may occur, which subsequently may produce steroid-induced bone infarction (SIBI) resulting in painful movement of patient. For treatment of SIBI, pharmaceutical strategy is the basic approach. It involves the use of various pharmacologically active compounds including bisphosphonates, hyperbaric oxygen (HBO), coenzyme Q10, erythropoietin, antihyperlipidemics, anticoagulants, antioxidants, and tissue repair protein. Out of these, there is no pharmaceutical agent that may completely treat this disease because many factors are found to be responsible for SIBI development; therefore, there are multiple biomarkers of this disease. This situation argues for need of new therapeutic agents for SIEB1.

  8. Sustained High HIV Incidence in Young Women in Southern Africa: Social, Behavioral, and Structural Factors and Emerging Intervention Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Abigail; Colvin, Christopher J; Kuo, Caroline; Swartz, Alison; Lurie, Mark

    2015-06-01

    Young women in southern Africa experience some of the highest incidence rates of HIV infection in the world. Across southern Africa, HIV prevalence among women increases rapidly between the teenage years and young adulthood. Adult HIV prevalence is 16.8 % in South Africa, 23 % in Botswana, 23 % in Lesotho, and 26.5 % in Swaziland. Existing research has illuminated some of the key social, behavioral, and structural factors associated with young women's disproportionate HIV risk, including gendered social norms that advantage male power in sexual relationships and age disparities in relationships between younger women and older male partners. Important structural factors include the region's history of labor migration and legacy of family disruption, and entrenched social and economic inequalities. New interventions are emerging to address these high levels of HIV risk in the key population of young women, including structural interventions, biomedical prevention such as PrEP, and combined HIV prevention approaches.

  9. Factors Affecting Malnutrition in Developing Countries: A Linear Mixed Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohair F. Higazi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available  AbstractThe main objective of this study is to pinpoint the main factors that affect the percentage who suffers of malnutrition in developing countries. Three locations are randomly chosen: Asia, Africa, and Middle east and North Africa ( MENA; A total of 96 countries were chosen randomly from 137  developing countries of the three locations; and were cross classified by " Location" and  " Human Development Index (HDI as high, middle, and low (UNDP,  2005.  Data for the study was compiled from FAO (2005. The analysis started with seven explanatory variables and the dependent variable; however, stepwise regression reveals that the average Protein intake and Infant mortality rate were the only two significant variables. "Location and "HDI" are dummy coded and OLS regression is performed using the two significant variables, but the only significant variable was the "average protein intake". OLS multiple regression Model is re-applied to the data using dummy variables technique with interaction with the "average Protein intake", nine regression equations were reached.The Linear Mixed effect Models are also applied, using "location" as the random factor and "HDI" as the fixed factor. Five models were applied: (1 a null model (baseline modelwhere no predictors are introduced to the model; (2 the fixed model: where predictors used are the  covariate and the HDI; (3 the random model: where predictors used are  the covariate and Location ; (4 the mixed model: where predictors used are the covariate and the HDI I  ( fixed and the location( random; and (5 the random coefficient model: where predictors used are  the covariate ,  the HDI Index  and the location but produces different prediction equations that differ in slopes and intercepts. Models are compared based on information criterions. The random coefficient model produces the least criterion values and thus fits better than all previous ones. A comparison between the Random Coefficient

  10. Factors Affecting Malnutrition in Developing Countries: A Linear Mixed Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohair F. Higazi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available  AbstractThe main objective of this study is to pinpoint the main factors that affect the percentage who suffers of malnutrition in developing countries. Three locations are randomly chosen: Asia, Africa, and Middle east and North Africa ( MENA; A total of 96 countries were chosen randomly from 137  developing countries of the three locations; and were cross classified by " Location" and  " Human Development Index (HDI as high, middle, and low (UNDP,  2005.  Data for the study was compiled from FAO (2005. The analysis started with seven explanatory variables and the dependent variable; however, stepwise regression reveals that the average Protein intake and Infant mortality rate were the only two significant variables. "Location and "HDI" are dummy coded and OLS regression is performed using the two significant variables, but the only significant variable was the "average protein intake". OLS multiple regression Model is re-applied to the data using dummy variables technique with interaction with the "average Protein intake", nine regression equations were reached.The Linear Mixed effect Models are also applied, using "location" as the random factor and "HDI" as the fixed factor. Five models were applied: (1 a null model (baseline modelwhere no predictors are introduced to the model; (2 the fixed model: where predictors used are the  covariate and the HDI; (3 the random model: where predictors used are  the covariate and Location ; (4 the mixed model: where predictors used are the covariate and the HDI I  ( fixed and the location( random; and (5 the random coefficient model: where predictors used are  the covariate ,  the HDI Index  and the location but produces different prediction equations that differ in slopes and intercepts. Models are compared based on information criterions. The random coefficient model produces the least criterion values and thus fits better than all previous ones. A comparison between the Random Coefficient

  11. Mastectomy or breast conserving surgery? Factors affecting type of surgical treatment for breast cancer – a classification tree approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Neill Terry

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A critical choice facing breast cancer patients is which surgical treatment – mastectomy or breast conserving surgery (BCS – is most appropriate. Several studies have investigated factors that impact the type of surgery chosen, identifying features such as place of residence, age at diagnosis, tumor size, socio-economic and racial/ethnic elements as relevant. Such assessment of "propensity" is important in understanding issues such as a reported under-utilisation of BCS among women for whom such treatment was not contraindicated. Using Western Australian (WA data, we further examine the factors associated with the type of surgical treatment for breast cancer using a classification tree approach. This approach deals naturally with complicated interactions between factors, and so allows flexible and interpretable models for treatment choice to be built that add to the current understanding of this complex decision process. Methods Data was extracted from the WA Cancer Registry on women diagnosed with breast cancer in WA from 1990 to 2000. Subjects' treatment preferences were predicted from covariates using both classification trees and logistic regression. Results Tumor size was the primary determinant of patient choice, subjects with tumors smaller than 20 mm in diameter preferring BCS. For subjects with tumors greater than 20 mm in diameter factors such as patient age, nodal status, and tumor histology become relevant as predictors of patient choice. Conclusion Classification trees perform as well as logistic regression for predicting patient choice, but are much easier to interpret for clinical use. The selected tree can inform clinicians' advice to patients.

  12. On determinant representations of scalar products and form factors in the SoV approach: the XXX case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitanine, N.; Maillet, J. M.; Niccoli, G.; Terras, V.

    2016-03-01

    In the present article we study the form factors of quantum integrable lattice models solvable by the separation of variables (SoVs) method. It was recently shown that these models admit universal determinant representations for the scalar products of the so-called separate states (a class which includes in particular all the eigenstates of the transfer matrix). These results permit to obtain simple expressions for the matrix elements of local operators (form factors). However, these representations have been obtained up to now only for the completely inhomogeneous versions of the lattice models considered. In this article we give a simple algebraic procedure to rewrite the scalar products (and hence the form factors) for the SoV related models as Izergin or Slavnov type determinants. This new form leads to simple expressions for the form factors in the homogeneous and thermodynamic limits. To make the presentation of our method clear, we have chosen to explain it first for the simple case of the XXX Heisenberg chain with anti-periodic boundary conditions. We would nevertheless like to stress that the approach presented in this article applies as well to a wide range of models solved in the SoV framework.

  13. Factors controlling physico-chemical characteristics in the coastal waters off Mangalore - A multivariate approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Mesquita, A.; Pradhan, U.K.; Verlekar, X.N.; Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.

    , organic carbon and trace metals) were analysed from samples collected at 15 stations along 3 transects off Karnataka coast (Mangalore harbour in the south to Suratkal in the north),west coast of India during 2007. The analyses showed high ammonia off...

  14. A "Common Factors" Approach to Developing Culturally Tailored HIV Prevention Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarzak, Jill; Phillips, Sarah D.; Filippova, Olga; Alpatova, Polina; Mazhnaya, Alyona; Zub, Tatyana; Aleksanyan, Ruzanna

    2016-01-01

    The current dominant model of HIV prevention intervention dissemination involves packaging interventions developed in one context, training providers to implement that specific intervention, and evaluating the extent to which providers implement it with fidelity. Research shows that providers rarely implement these programs with fidelity due to…

  15. Sustainable operations management and benchmarking in brewing: A factor weighting approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Bumblauskas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The brewing industry has been moving towards more efficient use of energy, water reuse and stewardship, and the tracking of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions to better manage environmental and social responsibility. Commercial breweries use a great deal of water and energy to convert one gallon (liter of water into one gallon (liter of beer. An analysis was conducted on sustainable operations and supply chain management at various United States and international breweries, specifically Europe, to benchmark brewery performance and establish common metrics for sustainability in the beer supply chain. The primary research questions explored in this article are whether water reclamation and GHG emissions can be properly monitored and measured and if processes can be created to help control waste (lean and emissions. Additional questions include how we can use operations management strategies and techniques such as the Factor-Weighted Method (FWM in industries such as brewing to develop sustainability scorecards.

  16. [The general intelligence factor: psychometric study. Approach to the problem of mental deterioration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccatagliata, G; Albano, C; Torres, S; Cocito, L; Ivaldi, M

    1979-01-01

    The authors have measured the correlation coefficient between W.B. and P.M. scores in 80 normal subjects, comparable for age and school. A mutual relationship between the two tests, connected by the hypothetical general intelligence factor "g", was really demonstrated. Correlation coefficient was positive and significative between W.B. total scores, excepted verbal scores, and P.M., the highest one between subtests 8, 9 and P.M. The intra-tests correlation between W.B. total scores and each subtest score was also evaluated: between sub-tests 8, 9 and W.B. total scores the highest one again. A new qualitative interpretation of mental deterioration in clinical neurology and psychiatry is suggested on the base of these results.

  17. Climaite - a three factor climate change ecosystem manipulation study: set up and approaches for data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Mikkelsen, Teis; Beier, Claus; Schmidt, Inger Kappel;

    In a new Danish climate change related field scale experiment, CLIMAITE, we are investigating the impacts of individual and multiple simultaneous global changes on ecosystem processes and functioning in a Danish semi natural grassland vegetation dominated by Deschampsia flexuosa and Calluna...... vulgaris. The Climaite experiment involves three global change factors: elevated CO2 (510 ppm), elevated temperature (+ 1-2 C) and altered precipitation (1-1.5 months extended drought in May-July) all compared to ambient conditions in a complete factorial design. The experiment includes six replicates......, the physiological status of plants, soil water chemistry and emission of green house gasses. The CO2 is enhanced all year around during daylight hours in 6 plots by the use of a FACE system (F. Miglietta design). Temperature elevation is achieved by night time warming where IR reflective curtains automatically...

  18. Factors affecting pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in community pharmacy: A structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitadpakorn, Sujin; Farris, Karen B; Kittisopee, Tanattha

    2017-01-01

    The concept of customer engagement and devotion has been applied in various service businesses to keep the customers with business However, a limited number of studies were performed to examine the context of customer engagement and devotion in pharmacy business which focus on the impact of customer perceptions about pharmacists, perceived quality of pharmacy structure, medication price strategy on pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in a pharmacy providing pharmaceutical care to the customers. This study aimed to assess a conceptual model depicting the relationships among customer perceptions about pharmacists, pharmacy quality structure, medication price, customer engagement, and customer devotion. And also aimed to assess and measure if there is a direct or indirect relationship between these factors. A quantitative study was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires. Two hundred and fifty three customers who regularly visited the pharmacy were randomly recruited from a purposively selected 30 community pharmacies in Bangkok. The survey was completed during February to April 2016. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to assess the direct and indirect relationships between constructs. A total of 253/300 questionnaires were returned for analysis, and the response rate was 84%. Only perceptions about pharmacist in customers receiving professional pharmacy services was statically significant regarding relationship with pharmacy engagement (beta=0.45). Concurrently, the model from empirical data fit with the hypothetical model (p-value = 0.06, adjusted chi-square (CMIN/DF)=1.16, Goodness of Fit Index (GFI)=0.93, Comparatively Fit Index (CFI)=0.99, and Root Mean Square Error Approximation (RMSEA)=0.03). The study confirmed the indirect positive influence of customer perceptions about pharmacist on pharmacy customer devotion in providing pharmacy services via pharmacy engagement It was customer perceptions about pharmacist that influenced

  19. Factors associated with the quality of prenatal care: an approach to premature birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Cristina Melo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVETo assess the quality of prenatal care in mothers with premature and term births and identify maternal and gestational factors associated with inadequate prenatal care.METHODCross-sectional study collecting data with the pregnant card, hospital records and interviews with mothers living in Maringa-PR. Data were collected from 576 mothers and their born alive infants who were attended in the public service from October 2013 to February 2014, using three different evaluation criteria. The association of prenatal care quality with prematurity was performed by univariate analysis and occurred only at Kessner criteria (CI=1.79;8.02.RESULTSThe indicators that contributed most to the inadequacy of prenatal care were tests of hemoglobin, urine, and fetal presentation. After logistic regression analysis, maternal and gestational variables associated to inadequate prenatal care were combined prenatal (CI=2.93;11.09, non-white skin color (CI=1.11;2.51; unplanned pregnancy (CI=1.34;3.17 and multiparity (CI=1.17;4.03.CONCLUSIONPrenatal care must follow the minimum recommended protocols, more attention is required to black and brown women, multiparous and with unplanned pregnancies to prevent preterm birth and maternal and child morbimortality.

  20. [Factors associated with the quality of prenatal care: an approach to premature birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Emiliana Cristina; Oliveira, Rosana Rosseto de; Mathias, Thais Aidar de Freitas

    2015-08-01

    To assess the quality of prenatal care in mothers with premature and term births and identify maternal and gestational factors associated with inadequate prenatal care. Cross-sectional study collecting data with the pregnant card, hospital records and interviews with mothers living in Maringa-PR. Data were collected from 576 mothers and their born alive infants who were attended in the public service from October 2013 to February 2014, using three different evaluation criteria. The association of prenatal care quality with prematurity was performed by univariate analysis and occurred only at Kessner criteria (CI=1.79;8.02). The indicators that contributed most to the inadequacy of prenatal care were tests of hemoglobin, urine, and fetal presentation. After logistic regression analysis, maternal and gestational variables associated to inadequate prenatal care were combined prenatal (CI=2.93;11.09), non-white skin color (CI=1.11;2.51); unplanned pregnancy (CI=1.34;3.17) and multiparity (CI=1.17;4.03). Prenatal care must follow the minimum recommended protocols, more attention is required to black and brown women, multiparous and with unplanned pregnancies to prevent preterm birth and maternal and child morbimortality.

  1. Wayfinding: a quality factor in human design approach to healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Nord, R

    1999-01-01

    The specific aim of this paper is the systematic analysis of interactions and reciprocal conditions existing between the physical space of hospital buildings and the different categories of individuals that come in contact with them. The physical and environmental facilities of hospital architecture often influence the therapeutic character of space and the employees. If the values of the individual are to be safeguarded in this context, priority needs to be given to such factors as communication, privacy, etc. This would mean the involvement of other professional groups such as psychologists, sociologists, ergonomists, etc. at the hospital building planning stage. This paper will outline the result of some research conducted at the University Research Center "TESIS" of Florence to provide better understanding of design strategies applied to reduce the pathology of spaces within the healthcare environment. The case studies will highlight the parameters and the possible architectural solutions to wayfinding and the humanization of spaces, with particular emphasis on lay-outs, technologies, furniture and finishing design.

  2. Factors influencing adherence to psychopharmacological medications in psychiatric patients: a structural equation modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    De las Cuevas, Carlos; de Leon, Jose; Peñate, Wenceslao; Betancort, Moisés

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate pathways through which sociodemographic, clinical, attitudinal, and perceived health control variables impact psychiatric patients’ adherence to psychopharmacological medications. Method A sample of 966 consecutive psychiatric outpatients was studied. The variables were sociodemographic (age, gender, and education), clinical (diagnoses, drug treatment, and treatment duration), attitudinal (attitudes toward psychopharmacological medication and preferences regarding participation in decision-making), perception of control over health (health locus of control, self-efficacy, and psychological reactance), and level of adherence to psychopharmacological medications. Structural equation modeling was applied to examine the nonstraightforward relationships and the interactive effects among the analyzed variables. Results Structural equation modeling demonstrated that psychiatric patients’ treatment adherence was associated: 1) negatively with cognitive psychological reactance (adherence decreased as cognitive psychological reactance increased), 2) positively with patients’ trust in their psychiatrists (doctors’ subscale), 3) negatively with patients’ belief that they are in control of their mental health and that their mental health depends on their own actions (internal subscale), and 4) positively (although weakly) with age. Self-efficacy indirectly influenced treatment adherence through internal health locus of control. Conclusion This study provides support for the hypothesis that perceived health control variables play a relevant role in psychiatric patients’ adherence to psychopharmacological medications. The findings highlight the importance of considering prospective studies of patients’ psychological reactance and health locus of control as they may be clinically relevant factors contributing to adherence to psychopharmacological medications.

  3. An approach to detecting abnormal vehicle events in complex factors over highway surveillance video

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The detection of abnormal vehicle events is a research hotspot in the analysis of highway surveillance video.Because of the complex factors,which include different conditions of weather,illumination,noise and so on,vehicle’s feature extraction and abnormity detection become difficult.This paper proposes a Fast Constrained Delaunay Triangulation(FCDT) algorithm to replace complicated segmentation algorithms for multi-feature extraction.Based on the video frames segmented by FCDT,an improved algorithm is presented to estimate background self-adaptively.After the estimation,a multi-feature eigenvector is generated by Principal Component Analysis(PCA) in accordance with the static and motional features extracted through locating and tracking each vehicle.For abnormity detection,adaptive detection modeling of vehicle events(ADMVE) is presented,for which a semi-supervised Mixture of Gaussian Hidden Markov Model(MGHMM) is trained with the multi-feature eigenvectors from each video segment.The normal model is developed by supervised mode with manual labeling,and becomes more accurate via iterated adaptation.The abnormal models are trained through the adapted Bayesian learning with unsupervised mode.The paper also presents experiments using real video sequence to verify the proposed method.

  4. Factors associated with an evidence-based measure of implementation for the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Bryan R; Hunter, Sarah B; Slaughter, Mary E; Han, Bing; Godley, Susan H

    2017-09-02

    An evidence-based measure of implementation (EBMI) is an implementation outcome measure shown to have predictive validity with one or more future-measured constructs of importance. The current study sought to identify correlates and predictors of an EBMI called procedure exposure. Garner et al. (2016) found procedure exposure to be an EBMI for the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA). The dataset included 76 community-based substance use treatment organizations located across the United States. Organizational-level regression analyses, which were framed within the context of Chaudoir et al. (2013) framework for predicting implementation outcomes, were used to examine predictors of A-CRA procedure exposure RESULTS: The Washington Circle's treatment initiation performance measure (B=5.05 [SE=1.60], p=0.002), as well as session exposure (B=0.18 [SE=0.06], p=0.003), were significant predictors of A-CRA procedure exposure in the backward stepwise regression analysis (Adjusted R-square=0.55). The Washington Circle's treatment engagement performance measure (B=7.93 [SE=0.77], pexposure but were not retained in the final model. Organizations implementing A-CRA are encouraged to make the following high priorities: (a) scheduling and completing a subsequent treatment session within 14days of their index session (treatment initiation) and (b) providing a targeted number of treatment sessions to each client (session exposure). To the extent organizations do this, they may be more likely to achieve higher levels of A-CRA procedure exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Study of the Academic Members Attitude about Main Factors of Not Approaching to Scientific Writing in Hamadan University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Koorki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: one of the important indicators of scientific study and science production in the universities is original research and its scientific article. The aim of this study was to determine the academic members’ attitude about main factors of not approaching to scientific writing in Hamadan Uni. Med. Sci.Material & Methods: The current survey was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Statistical population was all of the academic members of this university in 2006 (N=260. The data collected through a questionnaire consists of 2 parts: I. the demographic characteristics, II. the questions related to their attitude. After distribution of the questionnaires we received 228 completed ones. The data was statistically analyzed by SPSS software.Results: Outcomes showed that the main factors of not approaching to write the scientific articles were: education, teaching and treatment engagement mean with 3.891.16 of 5, the barriers of doing original research and writing the articles (3.880.93, long duration of sending and acceptation of articles in Persian scientific journals (3.841.07 and weakness of English language skill (3.831.05.Conclusion: The barriers of scientific writing were in 3 parts: organizational, personal and personal-organizational problems. The academic members’ activities and university managers’ supports are needed to remove these barriers.

  6. Elliptic flow and nuclear modification factors of D-mesons at FAIR in a Hybrid-Langevin approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Thomas; Steinheimer, Jan; Bleicher, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR) will provide new possibilities for charm-quark ($D$-meson) observables in heavy-ion collisions at low collision energies and high baryon densities. To predict the collective flow and nuclear modification factors of charm quarks in this environment, we apply a Langevin approach for the transport of charm quarks in the UrQMD (hydrodynamics + Boltzmann) hybrid model. Due to the inclusion of event-by-event fluctuations and a full (3+1) dimensional hydrodynamical evolution, the UrQMD hybrid approach provides a realistic evolution of the matter produced in heavy-ion collisions. As drag and diffusion coefficients we use a resonance approach for elastic heavy-quark scattering and assume a decoupling temperature of the charm quarks from the hot medium of $130\\, \\MeV$. Hadronization of the charm quarks to $D$-mesons by coalescence is included. Since the initial charm-quark distribution at FAIR is unknown, we utilize ...

  7. Factors contributing to the accumulation of reproductive isolation: A mixed model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Dean M

    2017-08-01

    The analysis of large datasets describing reproductive isolation between species has been extremely influential in the study of speciation. However, the statistical methods currently used for these data limit the ability to make direct inferences about the factors predicting the evolution of reproductive isolation. As a result, our understanding of iconic patterns and rules of speciation rely on indirect analyses that have clear statistical limitations. Phylogenetic mixed models are commonly used in ecology and evolution, but have not been applied to studies of reproductive isolation. Here I describe a flexible framework using phylogenetic mixed models to analyze data collected at different evolutionary scales, to test both categorical and continuous predictor variables, and to test the effect of multiple predictors on rates and patterns of reproductive isolation simultaneously. I demonstrate the utility of this framework by re-analyzing four classic datasets, from both animals and plants, and evaluating several hypotheses that could not be tested in the original studies: In the Drosophila and Bufonidae datasets, I found support for more rapid accumulation of reproductive isolation in sympatric species pairs compared to allopatric species pairs. Using Silene and Nolana, I found no evidence supporting the hypothesis that floral differentiation elevates postzygotic reproductive isolation. The faster accumulation of postzygotic isolation in sympatry is likely the result of species coexistence determined by the level of postzygotic isolation between species. In addition, floral trait divergence does not appear to translate into pleiotropic effects on postzygotic reproductive isolation. Overall, these methods can allow researchers to test new hypotheses using a single statistical method, while remedying the statistical limitations of several previous methods.

  8. Integrative Approach to Quality Assessment of Medical Journals Using Impact Factor, Eigenfactor, and Article Influence Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizkallah, Jacques; Sin, Don D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Impact factor (IF) is a commonly used surrogate for assessing the scientific quality of journals and articles. There is growing discontent in the medical community with the use of this quality assessment tool because of its many inherent limitations. To help address such concerns, Eigenfactor (ES) and Article Influence scores (AIS) have been devised to assess scientific impact of journals. The principal aim was to compare the temporal trends in IF, ES, and AIS on the rank order of leading medical journals over time. Methods The 2001 to 2008 IF, ES, AIS, and number of citable items (CI) of 35 leading medical journals were collected from the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) and the http://www.eigenfactor.org databases. The journals were ranked based on the published 2008 ES, AIS, and IF scores. Temporal score trends and variations were analyzed. Results In general, the AIS and IF values provided similar rank orders. Using ES values resulted in large changes in the rank orders with higher ranking being assigned to journals that publish a large volume of articles. Since 2001, the IF and AIS of most journals increased significantly; however the ES increased in only 51% of the journals in the analysis. Conversely, 26% of journals experienced a downward trend in their ES, while the rest experienced no significant changes (23%). This discordance between temporal trends in IF and ES was largely driven by temporal changes in the number of CI published by the journals. Conclusion The rank order of medical journals changes depending on whether IF, AIS or ES is used. All of these metrics are sensitive to the number of citable items published by journals. Consumers should thus consider all of these metrics rather than just IF alone in assessing the influence and importance of medical journals in their respective disciplines. PMID:20419115

  9. Prioritization of Effective Risk Factors on Oil Industry Construction Projects (By PMBOK Standard Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Baharmand

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is an applied, analytic-descriptive research in terms of nature. It is thus an analysis in which a sample has been applied for data collection and it is descriptive since its variables are assessed and reported as they are in reality. This study seeks to identify effective risks existing in construction industry specifically in the national macro projects such as oil industry projects through utilizing Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK model and to estimate the relative impact of each risk on the projects. It aims at prioritizing the effective risk factors on the construction projects (a case study of National Iranian Oil Company. Thus NIOC construction projects, consulting engineers companies and contractor companies in construction projects of oil industry have been selected as the statistical universe to identify and prioritize the risks. Due to the focus of oil industry construction projects on South Pars Special Economic Zone, under planning, implementation or completion phases and with regard to the phases' expansion in terms of number and volume of activities and also strategic features and confidentiality of information, three phases out of 28 ones have been case-studied. It is generally concluded in this study that with respect to the country significant strategic, geopolitical, geographical, economic and military position in the world, it is a matter of great magnitude to regard the risks identification and management as one of the important areas in the project management and to consider it as a national and comprehensive plan when designing and ratifying industrial projects of the country.

  10. The PNPLA3 rs738409 148M/M genotype is a risk factor for liver cancer in alcoholic cirrhosis but shows no or weak association in hepatitis C cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Dieter Nischalke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An isoleucine>methionine mutation at position 148 in the PNPLA3 gene (p.I148M, rs738409 has recently been identified as a susceptibility factor for liver damage in steatohepatitis. Here, we studied whether the PNPLA3 rs738409 polymorphism also affects predisposition to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. METHODS: We compared distributions of PNPLA3 genotypes in 80 and 81 Caucasian patients with alcoholic and hepatitis C virus (HCV-associated HCC to 80 and 81 age- and sex-matched patients with alcohol-related and HCV-related cirrhosis without HCC, respectively. PNPLA3 genotypes in 190 healthy individuals from the same population served as reference. Potential confounders obesity, diabetes, HCV genotype and HBV co-infection were controlled by univariate and multivariate logistic regression with forward variable selection. RESULTS: PNPLA3 genotypes were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for all study groups. The frequency of the 148M allele was significantly (p<0.001 increased in alcoholic cirrhosis with (53.7% and without HCC (36.2% but was not different between healthy controls (22.9% and patients with cirrhosis (25.3%; p = 0.545 and HCC (30.2%; p = 0.071 due to hepatitis C. HCC risk was highest in 148M/M homozygous patients with alcoholic liver disease (odds ratio (OR 16.8 versus healthy controls; 95% confidence interval (CI 6.68-42.43, p<0.001. Finally, multivariate regression confirmed 148M/M homozygosity (OR 2.8; 95%-CI: 1.24-6.42; p = 0.013 as HCC risk factor in alcoholic cirrhosis. In HCV-related cirrhosis only HCV genotype 1 was confirmed as a HCC risk factor (OR 4.2; 95%-CI: 1.50-11.52; p = 0.006. CONCLUSION: The PNPLA3 148M variant is a prominent risk factor for HCC in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, while its effects are negligible in patients with cirrhosis due to HCV. This polymorphism provides an useful tool to identify individuals with particularly high HCC risk in patients with alcoholic liver disease that

  11. Clarifying the effect of behavioral and clinical factors on traumatic dental injuries in childhood: a hierarchical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Paulo Floriani; Feldens, Eliane Gerson; Bruch, Cristina Montini; Ferreira, Simone Helena; Feldens, Carlos Alberto

    2015-06-01

    To explore associations between traumatic dental injuries (TDI) in Brazilian preschool children and clinical, behavioral, and socio-demographic factors using a hierarchical approach. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 1316 children aged 0-5 years at public preschools in the city of Canoas (southern Brazil). Demographic (sex and age), socioeconomic (mother's schooling, income and family structure) and behavioral (use of pacifier, breastfeeding duration and bottle use at 12 months) factors were collected through a questionnaire. TDI (Andreasen criteria) and malocclusion (overjet and anterior open bite) were recorded by trained and calibrated examiners. Poisson regression was employed to determine factors associated with TDI using a hierarchical approach. The prevalence of TDI was 13.3%. In the final model, the probability of TDI was 50% higher in children who used a pacifier (PR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.08-2.10), 77% higher in children with overjet between 3 and 5 mm (PR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.22-2.57) and nearly threefold higher in children with overjet > 5 mm (PR: 2.73; 95% CI: 1.77-4.20) compared with children with overjet ≤ 2 mm. Additional analysis demonstrated that overjet represented the pathway by which pacifier use was associated with TDI. Pacifier use is strongly associated with the occurrence of TDI in the primary dentition, and accentuated overjet represents a pathway to this association. These findings suggest the need for prevention strategies that address early counseling on pacifier use to reduce the occurrence of TDI. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. [From JSLH (The Japanese Society for Laboratory Hematology): An Active Team Approach to Medicine as Laboratory Technologists, through Showing Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood Samples Directly to Patients with Hematological Malignancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Sanae; Kojima, Yukari; Saito, Kyoko; Wada, Hisako; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Morinaga, Koji; Kawai, Yasukazu; Haba, Toshihiro

    2014-11-01

    The clinical path for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients has been in practice in our hospital since 2003. In the clinical path, laboratory technologists take on the role of explaining the microscopic findings in bone marrow and peripheral blood samples to patients (with or without their families) using the view-sharing microscope in our laboratory. From July 2003 to October 2014, 56 patients were enrolled in the AML clinical path and given an explanation of their bone marrow and peripheral blood samples. The patients' median age was 62, and the median time spent for explanation was 40 minutes. We conducted a questionnaire feedback survey involving those who enrolled, and the results showed significant improvement in the recognition of the disease pathophysiology, treatment efficacy, and the importance of precautions against infectious diseases. Based on the feedback, we have made marked efforts to provide patients with an improved environment during the explanatory session. This includes installing a special display for the patients, drawing a schematic illustration that shows how the blood cells differentiate, and putting them into operation in a hematology ward to promote patient privacy and precautions against infectious diseases. Hematological laboratory technologists have played an important role in patient care in our hospital. To perform their role as effectively as possible, hematological laboratory technologists participate in the conferences of the Department of Hematology and Oncology regularly, in which medical staff members can discuss the conditions and clinical courses of patients. We aim to contribute to patient satisfaction by sophisticating specialized knowledge as hematological laboratory technologists and cooperate with other medical staff members.

  13. Back-calculation method shows that within-flock transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H7N7) virus in the Netherlands is not influenced by housing risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Marian E H; Nielen, Mirjam; Koch, Guus; Bouma, Annemarie; De Jong, Mart C M; Stegeman, Arjan

    2009-04-01

    To optimize control of an avian influenza outbreak knowledge of within-flock transmission is needed. This study used field data to estimate the transmission rate parameter (beta) and the influence of risk factors on within-flock transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N7 virus in the 2003 epidemic in The Netherlands. The estimation is based on back-calculation of daily mortality data to fit a susceptible-infectious-dead format, and these data were analysed with a generalized linear model. This back-calculation method took into account the uncertainty of the length of the latent period, the survival of an infection by some birds and the influence of farm characteristics. After analysing the fit of the different databases created by back-calculation, it could be concluded that an absence of the latency period provided the best fit. The transmission rate parameter (beta) from these field data was estimated at 4.50 per infectious chicken per day (95% CI: 2.68-7.57), which was lower than what was reported from experimental data. In contrast to general belief, none of the studied risk factors (housing system, flock size, species, age of the birds in weeks and date of depopulation) had significant influence on the estimated beta.

  14. A novel computational approach for the prediction of networked transcription factors of aryl hydrocarbon-receptor-regulated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kel, Alexander; Reymann, Susanne; Matys, Volker; Nettesheim, Paul; Wingender, Edgar; Borlak, Jürgen

    2004-12-01

    A novel computational method based on a genetic algorithm was developed to study composite structure of promoters of coexpressed genes. Our method enabled an identification of combinations of multiple transcription factor binding sites regulating the concerted expression of genes. In this article, we study genes whose expression is regulated by a ligand-activated transcription factor, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), that mediates responses to a variety of toxins. AhR-mediated change in expression of AhR target genes was measured by oligonucleotide microarrays and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in human and rat hepatocytes. Promoters and long-distance regulatory regions (>10 kb) of AhR-responsive genes were analyzed by the genetic algorithm and a variety of other computational methods. Rules were established on the local oligonucleotide context in the flanks of the AhR binding sites, on the occurrence of clusters of AhR recognition elements, and on the presence in the promoters of specific combinations of multiple binding sites for the transcription factors cooperating in the AhR regulatory network. Our rules were applied to search for yet unknown Ah-receptor target genes. Experimental evidence is presented to demonstrate high fidelity of this novel in silico approach.

  15. From SARS to Avian Influenza: The Role of International Factors in China's Approach to Infectious Disease Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldizen, Fiona C

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades global environmental change, globalization, urbanization, and the rise in movement of people have increased the risk for pandemic disease outbreaks. As environmental exposures do not respect state borders, a globalist concept of global health response has developed, which requires transparency and cooperation for coordinated responses to disease outbreaks. Countries that avoid cooperation on health issues for social or political reasons can endanger the global community. The aim of this study was to examine the rapid change in China's infectious disease policy between 2000 and 2013, from actively rejecting the assistance of international health experts during the HIV/AIDS and severe acute respiratory syndrome crises to following best-practice disease response policies and cooperating with international health actors during the 2013 avian influenza outbreak. Using international relations theory, I examined whether international political factors had a major influence on this change. Using the case studies of international reputation, socialization with international organizations, and the securitization of infectious disease, this study examined the influence of international and domestic pressures on Chinese infectious disease policy. Although international relations theory, especially theories popular in global health diplomacy literature, provide valuable insight into the role of international factors and foreign policy interests in China's changing approach to infectious disease control, it cannot provide viable explanations without considering the domestic interests of the Chinese government. Analysis of state responses to infectious disease using international relations theories must consider domestic political factors. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimation of seismic quality factor: Artificial neural networks and current approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Eray; Saatçılar, Ruhi; Ergintav, Semih

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study are to estimate soil attenuation using alternatives to traditional methods, to compare results of using these methods, and to examine soil properties using the estimated results. The performances of all methods, amplitude decay, spectral ratio, Wiener filter, and artificial neural network (ANN) methods, are examined on field and synthetic data with noise and without noise. High-resolution seismic reflection field data from Yeniköy (Arnavutköy, İstanbul) was used as field data, and 424 estimations of Q values were made for each method (1,696 total). While statistical tests on synthetic and field data are quite close to the Q value estimation results of ANN, Wiener filter, and spectral ratio methods, the amplitude decay methods showed a higher estimation error. According to previous geological and geophysical studies in this area, the soil is water-saturated, quite weak, consisting of clay and sandy units, and, because of current and past landslides in the study area and its vicinity, researchers reported heterogeneity in the soil. Under the same physical conditions, Q value calculated on field data can be expected to be 7.9 and 13.6. ANN models with various structures, training algorithm, input, and number of neurons are investigated. A total of 480 ANN models were generated consisting of 60 models for noise-free synthetic data, 360 models for different noise content synthetic data and 60 models to apply to the data collected in the field. The models were tested to determine the most appropriate structure and training algorithm. In the final ANN, the input vectors consisted of the difference of the width, energy, and distance of seismic traces, and the output was Q value. Success rate of both ANN methods with noise-free and noisy synthetic data were higher than the other three methods. Also according to the statistical tests on estimated Q value from field data, the method showed results that are more suitable. The Q value can be estimated

  17. A human factors systems approach to understanding team-based primary care: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Marlon P; Swedlund, Matthew P

    2016-12-01

    Research shows that high-functioning teams improve patient outcomes in primary care. However, there is no consensus on a conceptual model of team-based primary care that can be used to guide measurement and performance evaluation of teams. To qualitatively understand whether the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) model could serve as a framework for creating and evaluating team-based primary care. We evaluated qualitative interview data from 19 clinicians and staff members from 6 primary care clinics associated with a large Midwestern university. All health care clinicians and staff in the study clinics completed a survey of their communication connections to team members. Social network analysis identified key informants for interviews by selecting the respondents with the highest frequency of communication ties as reported by their teammates. Semi-structured interviews focused on communication patterns, team climate and teamwork. Themes derived from the interviews lent support to the SEIPS model components, such as the work system (Team, Tools and Technology, Physical Environment, Tasks and Organization), team processes and team outcomes. Our qualitative data support the SEIPS model as a promising conceptual framework for creating and evaluating primary care teams. Future studies of team-based care may benefit from using the SEIPS model to shift clinical practice to high functioning team-based primary care. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. This research is to study the factors which influence the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’. The data employed in the study are primary data within the period of July to August 2013, 30 research observations through census method. Method of analysis used in the study is multiple linear regressions. The results of analysis showed that the factors of labor, innovation and promotion have positive and significant influence on the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’ simultaneously. The analysis also showed that partially labor has positive and significant influence on the business success, yet innovation and promotion have insignificant and positive influence on the business success.

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Inggrita Gusti Sari; Muchtar, Yasmin Chairunnisa

    2013-01-01

    This research is to study the factors which influence the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’. The data employed in the study are primary data within the period of July to August 2013, 30 research observations through census method. Method of analysis used in the study is multiple linear regressions. The results of analysis showed that the factors of labor, innovation and promotion have positive and significant influence on the business success of small busine...

  19. Factors influencing the extraction of pharmaceuticals from sewage sludge and soil: an experimental design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferhi, Sabrina; Bourdat-Deschamps, Marjolaine; Daudin, Jean-Jacques; Houot, Sabine; Nélieu, Sylvie

    2016-09-01

    Pharmaceuticals can enter the environment when organic waste products are recycled on agricultural soils. The extraction of pharmaceuticals is a challenging step in their analysis. The very different extraction conditions proposed in the literature make the choice of the right method for multi-residue analysis difficult. This study aimed at evaluating, with experimental design methodology, the influence of the nature, pH and composition of the extraction medium on the extraction recovery of 14 pharmaceuticals, including 8 antibiotics, from soil and sewage sludge. Preliminary experimental designs showed that acetonitrile and citrate-phosphate buffer were the best extractants. Then, a response surface design demonstrated that many cross-product and squared terms had significant effects, explaining the shapes of the response surfaces. It also allowed optimising the pharmaceutical recoveries in soil and sludge. The optimal conditions were interpreted considering the ionisation states of the compounds, their solubility in the extraction medium and their interactions with the solid matrix. To perform the analysis, a compromise was made for each matrix. After a QuEChERS purification, the samples were analysed by online SPE-UHPLC-MS-MS. Both methods were simple and economical. They were validated with the accuracy profile methodology for soil and sludge and characterised for another type of soil, digested sludge and composted sludge. Trueness globally ranged between 80 and 120 % recovery, and inter- and intra-day precisions were globally below 20 % relative standard deviation. Various pharmaceuticals were present in environmental samples, with concentration levels ranging from a few micrograms per kilogramme up to thousands of micrograms per kilogramme. Graphical abstract Influence of the extraction medium on the extraction recovery of 14 pharmaceuticals. Influence of the ionisation state, the solubility and the interactions of pharmaceuticals with solid matrix. Analysis

  20. On the Mathematical Relationship Between Latent Change Score and Autoregressive Cross-Lagged Factor Approaches: Cautions for Inferring Causal Relationship Between Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Satoshi; Hayes, Timothy; McArdle, John J

    2015-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the relationship between latent change score (LCS) and autoregressive cross-lagged (ARCL) factor models in longitudinal designs. These models originated from different theoretical traditions for different analytic purposes, yet they share similar mathematical forms. In this paper, we elucidate the mathematical relationship between these models and show that the LCS model is reduced to the ARCL model when fixed effects are assumed in the slope factor scores. Additionally, we provide an applied example using height and weight data from a gerontological study. Throughout the example, we emphasize caution in choosing which model (ARCL or LCS) to apply due to the risk of obtaining misleading results concerning the presence and direction of causal precedence between two variables. We suggest approaching model specification not only by comparing estimates and fit indices between the LCS and ARCL models (as well as other models) but also by giving appropriate weight to substantive and theoretical considerations, such as assessing the justifiability of the assumption of random effects in the slope factor scores.

  1. Comparing different versions of the Rahim EI questionnaire in a South African context: A confirmatory factor analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus Nel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Given the interest in the importance of emotional intelligence in employees and leaders with regard to performance of their jobs, it is imperative to use reliable and validinstruments to operationalise emotional intelligence.Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of three different versions of the Rahim emotional intelligence index (EQI, specifically withregard to its factor structure and reliability, using two different samples.otivation for the study: No previous study has investigated which version of the Rahim EQI is the most appropriate for conducting research within South African organisations. Inaddition, the question of whether the Rahim EQI measures a strong general factor has notbeen answered.Research approach, design, and method: A cross-sectional quantitative research design wasused. Two samples were used (n = 470 and n = 308. The first sample completed the 40-itemversion of the Rahim EQI, whilst the second sample completed the 30-item version of the Rahim EQI. The measurement model, representing the 22-item version of the Rahim EQI, was also fitted to both these samples. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare thedifferent versions, as well as conceptualisations, of the Rahim EQI.Main findings: The 22-item version of the Rahim EQI exhibited better model fit than the 40-item and 30-item versions. In addition, the bifactor model suggested that the Rahim EQIseems to measure a strong general factor (emotional intelligence with very little evidence ofthe presence of unique group factors (self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills.Practical/managerial implications: Both the reliability and factor structure of the 22-item version of the Rahim EQI have been confirmed. The bifactor structure should inform researchers and practitioners that, in order to understand emotional intelligence, it is better to conceptualise it as a unidimensional

  2. The relation between societal factors and different forms of prejudice: A cross-national approach on target-specific and generalized prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeusen, Cecil; Kern, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to investigate the generalizability of prejudice across contexts by analyzing associations between different types of prejudice in a cross-national perspective and by investigating the relation between country-specific contextual factors and target-specific prejudices. Relying on the European Social Survey (2008), results indicated that prejudices were indeed positively associated, confirming the existence of a generalized prejudice component. Next to substantial cross-national differences in associational strength, also within country variance in target-specific associations was observed. This suggested that the motivations for prejudice largely vary according to the intergroup context. Two aspects of the intergroup context - economic conditions and cultural values - showed to be related to generalized and target-specific components of prejudice. Future research on prejudice and context should take an integrative approach that considers both the idea of generalized and specific prejudice simultaneously.

  3. A new case of Carney triad: gastrointestinal stromal tumours and leiomyoma of the oesophagus do not show activating mutations of KIT and platelet‐derived growth factor receptor α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knop, S; Schupp, M; Wardelmann, E; Stueker, D; Horger, M S; Kanz, L; Einsele, H; Kroeber, S M

    2006-01-01

    The Carney triad is a rare syndrome of unknown aetiology, with synchronous or metachronous appearance of rare neoplasms: gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs), pulmonary chondromas and extra‐adrenal paragangliomas. In most cases, the Carney triad is incomplete. The combination encountered typically, GISTs and pulmonary chondromas, was also seen in our patient, a 22‐year‐old woman. She was diagnosed with the triad after Billroth II gastrectomy for histologically proved gastric GISTs. The diagnosis of pulmonary chondromas was confirmed by transthoracic, computed tomography‐guided needle biopsy. An oesophageal leiomyoma was resected 2 years after the initial diagnosis, on suspicion of paraganglioma. The clinical course of the patient has been uneventful since. The last follow‐up was carried out 6 years after the initial diagnosis. On histological examination, the cells of gastric GIST were partly positive for CD34, whereas CD117 was expressed in all areas in variable intensity and S‐100 protein was negative. The oesophageal tumour was classified as leiomyoma due to strong immunopositivity for smooth muscle actin and desmin, being negative for CD34 and CD117. Two different gastric GIST lesions as well as the oesophageal leiomyoma and normal tissue were analysed for activating mutations in common hot spots of KIT (exon 9 and 11) and platelet‐derived growth factor receptor α (exon 18), but in all probes wild‐type sequences were found. These results are in accordance with the first published analyses of GIST lesions from Carney patients. PMID:17021135

  4. A new case of Carney triad: gastrointestinal stromal tumours and leiomyoma of the oesophagus do not show activating mutations of KIT and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knop, S; Schupp, M; Wardelmann, E; Stueker, D; Horger, M S; Kanz, L; Einsele, H; Kroeber, S M

    2006-10-01

    The Carney triad is a rare syndrome of unknown aetiology, with synchronous or metachronous appearance of rare neoplasms: gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs), pulmonary chondromas and extra-adrenal paragangliomas. In most cases, the Carney triad is incomplete. The combination encountered typically, GISTs and pulmonary chondromas, was also seen in our patient, a 22-year-old woman. She was diagnosed with the triad after Billroth II gastrectomy for histologically proved gastric GISTs. The diagnosis of pulmonary chondromas was confirmed by transthoracic, computed tomography-guided needle biopsy. An oesophageal leiomyoma was resected 2 years after the initial diagnosis, on suspicion of paraganglioma. The clinical course of the patient has been uneventful since. The last follow-up was carried out 6 years after the initial diagnosis. On histological examination, the cells of gastric GIST were partly positive for CD34, whereas CD117 was expressed in all areas in variable intensity and S-100 protein was negative. The oesophageal tumour was classified as leiomyoma due to strong immunopositivity for smooth muscle actin and desmin, being negative for CD34 and CD117. Two different gastric GIST lesions as well as the oesophageal leiomyoma and normal tissue were analysed for activating mutations in common hot spots of KIT (exon 9 and 11) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (exon 18), but in all probes wild-type sequences were found. These results are in accordance with the first published analyses of GIST lesions from Carney patients.

  5. Geospatial approach in determining anthropogenic factors contributed to deforestation of mangrove: A case study in Konawe Selatan, Southeast Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati Yusuf, Dewi; Prasetyo, L. B.; Kusmana, C.; Machfud

    2017-01-01

    Human activities play an important role in ecosystem damage occurrence, particularly located in rapid developing city. Coastal area is one that has high resource potential, but also susceptible to disturbance since most of the population live in these areas. The development of coastal areas is also influenced by rapid development activities on land and sea. Mangrove is one of the dominant coastal ecosystems, highly productive, complex and high-value benefits. Therefore it is important to learn how anthropogenic factors affect the level of disruption to mangrove ecosystem. In this paper, several factors which considered as dominant have been evaluated through a case study in Konawe Selatan, Southeast Sulawesi. Geospatial model was used to mapping zone with disturbance level based on the anthropogenic factors. The result showed areas with highest disturbance level identified in some areas of District Tinangge; Palangga Selatan; Laeya; Lainea; middle of Kolono Bay; along coast area of Moramo and Moramo Utara. It can be concluded that mangrove ecosystem disruption level due model to anthropogenic factors may determine closely to the factual situation involving socio-economic data. This study provide a guide for future studies on mangrove susceptibility mapping and references in determining the strategy of sustainability mangrove management.

  6. Code-Aided Estimation and Detection on Time-Varying Correlated Mimo Channels: A Factor Graph Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoens Frederik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns channel tracking in a multiantenna context for correlated flat-fading channels obeying a Gauss-Markov model. It is known that data-aided tracking of fast-fading channels requires a lot of pilot symbols in order to achieve sufficient accuracy, and hence decreases the spectral efficiency. To overcome this problem, we design a code-aided estimation scheme which exploits information from both the pilot symbols and the unknown coded data symbols. The algorithm is derived based on a factor graph representation of the system and application of the sum-product algorithm. The sum-product algorithm reveals how soft information from the decoder should be exploited for the purpose of estimation and how the information bits can be detected. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  7. Calculation of transient dynamic stress intensity factors at bimaterial interface cracks using a SBFEMbased frequency-domain approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.J.YANG; A.J.DEEKS

    2008-01-01

    A frequency-domain approach based on the semi-analytical scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM) was developed to calculate dynamic stress intensity factors (DSIFs) at bimaterial interface cracks subjected to transient loading. Be-cause the stress solutions of the SBFEM in the frequency domain are analytical in the radial direction, and the complex stress singularity at the bimaterial interface crack tip is explicitly represented in the stress solutions, the mixed-mode DSIFs were calculated directly by definition. The complex frequency-response functions of DSIFs were then used by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and the inverse FFT to calculate time histories of DSIFs. A benchmark example was modelled. Good re-sults were obtained by modelling the example with a small number of degrees of freedom due to the semi-analytical nature of the SBFEM.

  8. The metrological approach: a major key factor for the accreditation and continuous improvement of the wood preservation laboratory of Cirad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin L.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2006, the wood preservation laboratory of Cirad is accredited by COFRAC (French accreditation committee – accreditation No. 1-1686 for tests on the durability of wood and wood-based products and on protective efficacy of wood preservatives and termite control products. The metrological approach adopted by the wood preservation laboratory is a key factor on the continuous improvement of practices. Tests to determine the resistance against wood-destroying biological agents are the most difficult of all wood analysis tests. They are aimed at assessing and quantifying the impact of living organism, such as fungi and termites, on a lignocellulosic material. The extent of variability of this impact, which in turn is linked with the diversity of these organisms and of the material, can be readily determined. The validity and reliability of the findings therefore depend directly on the quality of the metrological process, including the choice of measurement devices, their management and compliance with international standards.

  9. Drell-Yan lepton pair production at high energies in the k{sub T}-factorization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipatov, A.V.; Malyshev, M.A.; Zotov, N.P. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). D.V. Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics

    2011-11-15

    In the framework of the k{sub T}-factorization approach, the production of unpolarized Drell-Yan lepton pair at high energies is studied. The consideration is based on the O({alpha}) and O({alpha}{alpha}{sub s}) off-shell partonic matrix elements with virtual photon {gamma}{sup *} and Z boson exchange. The calculations include leptonic decays of Z bosons with full spin correlations as well as {gamma}{sup *}-Z interference. The unintegrated parton densities in a proton are determined by the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. Our numerical predictions are compared with the data taken by the D diameter, CDF and CMS collaborations at the Tevatron and LHC energies. Special attention is put on the specific angular distributions measured very recently by the CDF collaboration for the first time. (orig.)

  10. Meta-coexpression conservation analysis of microarray data: a "subset" approach provides insight into brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timmusk Tõnis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene expression contribute to serious pathologies such as depression, epilepsy, cancer, Alzheimer's, Huntington and Parkinson's disease. Therefore, exploring the mechanisms of BDNF regulation represents a great clinical importance. Studying BDNF expression remains difficult due to its multiple neural activity-dependent and tissue-specific promoters. Thus, microarray data could provide insight into the regulation of this complex gene. Conventional microarray co-expression analysis is usually carried out by merging the datasets or by confirming the re-occurrence of significant correlations across datasets. However, co-expression patterns can be different under various conditions that are represented by subsets in a dataset. Therefore, assessing co-expression by measuring correlation coefficient across merged samples of a dataset or by merging datasets might not capture all correlation patterns. Results In our study, we performed meta-coexpression analysis of publicly available microarray data using BDNF as a "guide-gene" introducing a "subset" approach. The key steps of the analysis included: dividing datasets into subsets with biologically meaningful sample content (e.g. tissue, gender or disease state subsets; analyzing co-expression with the BDNF gene in each subset separately; and confirming co- expression links across subsets. Finally, we analyzed conservation in co-expression with BDNF between human, mouse and rat, and sought for conserved over-represented TFBSs in BDNF and BDNF-correlated genes. Correlated genes discovered in this study regulate nervous system development, and are associated with various types of cancer and neurological disorders. Also, several transcription factor identified here have been reported to regulate BDNF expression in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion The study demonstrates the potential of the "subset" approach in co-expression conservation

  11. EEG source space analysis of the supervised factor analytic approach for the classification of multi-directional arm movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy Handiru, Vikram; Vinod, A. P.; Guan, Cuntai

    2017-08-01

    Objective. In electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) systems for motor control tasks the conventional practice is to decode motor intentions by using scalp EEG. However, scalp EEG only reveals certain limited information about the complex tasks of movement with a higher degree of freedom. Therefore, our objective is to investigate the effectiveness of source-space EEG in extracting relevant features that discriminate arm movement in multiple directions. Approach. We have proposed a novel feature extraction algorithm based on supervised factor analysis that models the data from source-space EEG. To this end, we computed the features from the source dipoles confined to Brodmann areas of interest (BA4a, BA4p and BA6). Further, we embedded class-wise labels of multi-direction (multi-class) source-space EEG to an unsupervised factor analysis to make it into a supervised learning method. Main Results. Our approach provided an average decoding accuracy of 71% for the classification of hand movement in four orthogonal directions, that is significantly higher (>10%) than the classification accuracy obtained using state-of-the-art spatial pattern features in sensor space. Also, the group analysis on the spectral characteristics of source-space EEG indicates that the slow cortical potentials from a set of cortical source dipoles reveal discriminative information regarding the movement parameter, direction. Significance. This study presents evidence that low-frequency components in the source space play an important role in movement kinematics, and thus it may lead to new strategies for BCI-based neurorehabilitation.

  12. Building Resilience for Palliative Care Clinicians: An Approach to Burnout Prevention Based on Individual Skills and Workplace Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Anthony L; Steinhauser, Karen E; Kamal, Arif H; Jackson, Vicki A

    2016-08-01

    For palliative care (PC) clinicians, the work of caring for patients with serious illness can put their own well-being at risk. What they often do not learn in training, because of the relative paucity of evidence-based programs, are practical ways to mitigate this risk. Because a new study indicates that burnout in PC clinicians is increasing, we sought to design an acceptable, scalable, and testable intervention tailored to the needs of PC clinicians. In this article, we describe our paradigm for approaching clinician resilience, our conceptual model, and curriculum for a workplace resilience intervention for hospital-based PC teams. Our paradigm for approaching resilience is based on upstream, early intervention. Our conceptual model posits that clinician well-being is influenced by personal resources and work demands. Our curriculum for increasing clinician resilience is based on training in eight resilience skills that are useful for common challenges faced by clinicians. To address workplace issues, our intervention also includes material for the team leader and a clinician perception survey of work demands and workplace engagement factors. The intervention will focus on individual skill building and will be evaluated with measures of resilience, coping, and affect. For PC clinicians, resilience skills are likely as important as communication skills and symptom management as foundations of expertise. Future work to strengthen clinician resilience will likely need to address system issues more directly.

  13. Identifying factors associated with fast food consumption among adolescents in Beijing China using a theory-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, R; Castellanos, D C; Bachman, J

    2016-07-01

    China is in the midst of the nutrition transition with increasing rates of obesity and dietary changes. One contributor is the increase in fast food chains within the country. The purpose of this study was to develop a theory-based instrument that explores influencing factors of fast food consumption in adolescents residing in Beijing, China. Cross-sectional study. Value expectancy and theory of planned behaviour were utilised to explore influencing factors of fast food consumption in the target population. There were 201 Chinese adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18. Cronbach's alpha correlation coefficients were used to examine internal reliability of the theory-based questionnaire. Bivariate correlations and a MANOVA were utilised to determine the relationship between theory-based constructs, body mass index (BMI)-for-age and fast food intake frequency as well as to determine differences in theory-based scores among fast food consumption frequency groupings. The theory-based questionnaire showed good reliability. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the theory-based subcategory scores between fast food frequency groups. A significant positive correlation was observed between times per week fast food was consumed and each theory-based subscale score. Using BMI-for-age of 176 participants, 81% were normal weight and 19% were considered overweight or obese. Results showed consumption of fast food to be on average 1.50 ± 1.33 per week. The relationship between BMI-for-age and times per week fast food was consumed was not significant. As the nutrition transition continues and fast food chains expand, it is important to explore factors effecting fast food consumption in China. Interventions targeting influencing factors can be developed to encourage healthy dietary choice in the midst of this transition. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The contribution of psychological factors to recovery after mild traumatic brain injury: is cluster analysis a useful approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Deborah L; Surgenor, Lois J; Hay-Smith, E Jean C; Williman, Jonathan; Siegert, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Outcomes after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) vary, with slow or incomplete recovery for a significant minority. This study examines whether groups of cases with shared psychological factors but with different injury outcomes could be identified using cluster analysis. This is a prospective observational study following 147 adults presenting to a hospital-based emergency department or concussion services in Christchurch, New Zealand. This study examined associations between baseline demographic, clinical, psychological variables (distress, injury beliefs and symptom burden) and outcome 6 months later. A two-step approach to cluster analysis was applied (Ward's method to identify clusters, K-means to refine results). Three meaningful clusters emerged (high-adapters, medium-adapters, low-adapters). Baseline cluster-group membership was significantly associated with outcomes over time. High-adapters appeared recovered by 6-weeks and medium-adapters revealed improvements by 6-months. The low-adapters continued to endorse many symptoms, negative recovery expectations and distress, being significantly at risk for poor outcome more than 6-months after injury (OR (good outcome) = 0.12; CI = 0.03-0.53; p Cluster analysis supported the notion that groups could be identified early post-injury based on psychological factors, with group membership associated with differing outcomes over time. Implications for clinical care providers regarding therapy targets and cases that may benefit from different intensities of intervention are discussed.

  15. A quantitative comparison between the flow factor approach model and the molecular dynamics simulation results for the flow of a confined molecularly thin fluid film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongbin

    2015-06-01

    Quantitative comparisons were made between the flow factor approach model and the molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) results both of which describe the flow of a molecularly thin fluid film confined between two solid walls. Although these two approaches, respectively, calculate the flow of a confined molecularly thin fluid film by different ways, very good agreements were found between them when the Couette and Poiseuille flows, respectively, calculated from them were compared. It strongly indicates the validity of the flow factor approach model in modeling the flow of a confined molecularly thin fluid film.

  16. Detecting the community structure and activity patterns of temporal networks: a non-negative tensor factorization approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Gauvin

    Full Text Available The increasing availability of temporal network data is calling for more research on extracting and characterizing mesoscopic structures in temporal networks and on relating such structure to specific functions or properties of the system. An outstanding challenge is the extension of the results achieved for static networks to time-varying networks, where the topological structure of the system and the temporal activity patterns of its components are intertwined. Here we investigate the use of a latent factor decomposition technique, non-negative tensor factorization, to extract the community-activity structure of temporal networks. The method is intrinsically temporal and allows to simultaneously identify communities and to track their activity over time. We represent the time-varying adjacency matrix of a temporal network as a three-way tensor and approximate this tensor as a sum of terms that can be interpreted as communities of nodes with an associated activity time series. We summarize known computational techniques for tensor decomposition and discuss some quality metrics that can be used to tune the complexity of the factorized representation. We subsequently apply tensor factorization to a temporal network for which a ground truth is available for both the community structure and the temporal activity patterns. The data we use describe the social interactions of students in a school, the associations between students and school classes, and the spatio-temporal trajectories of students over time. We show that non-negative tensor factorization is capable of recovering the class structure with high accuracy. In particular, the extracted tensor components can be validated either as known school classes, or in terms of correlated activity patterns, i.e., of spatial and temporal coincidences that are determined by the known school activity schedule.

  17. Detecting the community structure and activity patterns of temporal networks: a non-negative tensor factorization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvin, Laetitia; Panisson, André; Cattuto, Ciro

    2014-01-01

    The increasing availability of temporal network data is calling for more research on extracting and characterizing mesoscopic structures in temporal networks and on relating such structure to specific functions or properties of the system. An outstanding challenge is the extension of the results achieved for static networks to time-varying networks, where the topological structure of the system and the temporal activity patterns of its components are intertwined. Here we investigate the use of a latent factor decomposition technique, non-negative tensor factorization, to extract the community-activity structure of temporal networks. The method is intrinsically temporal and allows to simultaneously identify communities and to track their activity over time. We represent the time-varying adjacency matrix of a temporal network as a three-way tensor and approximate this tensor as a sum of terms that can be interpreted as communities of nodes with an associated activity time series. We summarize known computational techniques for tensor decomposition and discuss some quality metrics that can be used to tune the complexity of the factorized representation. We subsequently apply tensor factorization to a temporal network for which a ground truth is available for both the community structure and the temporal activity patterns. The data we use describe the social interactions of students in a school, the associations between students and school classes, and the spatio-temporal trajectories of students over time. We show that non-negative tensor factorization is capable of recovering the class structure with high accuracy. In particular, the extracted tensor components can be validated either as known school classes, or in terms of correlated activity patterns, i.e., of spatial and temporal coincidences that are determined by the known school activity schedule.

  18. Human Leptospirosis Infection in Fiji: An Eco-epidemiological Approach to Identifying Risk Factors and Environmental Drivers for Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Colleen L; Watson, Conall H; Lowry, John H; David, Michael C; Craig, Scott B; Wynwood, Sarah J; Kama, Mike; Nilles, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease in the Pacific Islands. In Fiji, two successive cyclones and severe flooding in 2012 resulted in outbreaks with 576 reported cases and 7% case-fatality. We conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence study and used an eco-epidemiological approach to characterize risk factors and drivers for human leptospirosis infection in Fiji, and aimed to provide an evidence base for improving the effectiveness of public health mitigation and intervention strategies. Antibodies indicative of previous or recent infection were found in 19.4% of 2152 participants (81 communities on the 3 main islands). Questionnaires and geographic information systems data were used to assess variables related to demographics, individual behaviour, contact with animals, socioeconomics, living conditions, land use, and the natural environment. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, variables associated with the presence of Leptospira antibodies included male gender (OR 1.55), iTaukei ethnicity (OR 3.51), living in villages (OR 1.64), lack of treated water at home (OR 1.52), working outdoors (1.64), living in rural areas (OR 1.43), high poverty rate (OR 1.74), living leptospirosis infection in Fiji are complex and multifactorial, with environmental factors playing crucial roles. With global climate change, severe weather events and flooding are expected to intensify in the South Pacific. Population growth could also lead to more intensive livestock farming; and urbanization in developing countries is often associated with urban and peri-urban slums where diseases of poverty proliferate. Climate change, flooding, population growth, urbanization, poverty and agricultural intensification are important drivers of zoonotic disease transmission; these factors may independently, or potentially synergistically, lead to enhanced leptospirosis transmission in Fiji and other similar settings.

  19. A novel computational biostatistics approach implies impaired dephosphorylation of growth factor receptors as associated with severity of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkowski, K M; Sonakya, V; Bigio, B; Tonn, M K; Shic, F; Ascano, M; Nasca, C; Gold-Von Simson, G

    2014-01-28

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has increased 20-fold over the past 50 years to >1% of US children. Although twin studies attest to a high degree of heritability, the genetic risk factors are still poorly understood. We analyzed data from two independent populations using u-statistics for genetically structured wide-locus data and added data from unrelated controls to explore epistasis. To account for systematic, but disease-unrelated differences in (non-randomized) genome-wide association studies (GWAS), a correlation between P-values and minor allele frequency with low granularity data and for conducting multiple tests in overlapping genetic regions, we present a novel study-specific criterion for 'genome-wide significance'. From recent results in a comorbid disease, childhood absence epilepsy, we had hypothesized that axonal guidance and calcium signaling are involved in autism as well. Enrichment of the results in both studies with related genes confirms this hypothesis. Additional ASD-specific variations identified in this study suggest protracted growth factor signaling as causing more severe forms of ASD. Another cluster of related genes suggests chloride and potassium ion channels as additional ASD-specific drug targets. The involvement of growth factors suggests the time of accelerated neuronal growth and pruning at 9-24 months of age as the period during which treatment with ion channel modulators would be most effective in preventing progression to more severe forms of autism. By extension, the same computational biostatistics approach could yield profound insights into the etiology of many common diseases from the genetic data collected over the last decade.

  20. Graphene Oxides Show Angiogenic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sudip; Sriram, Pavithra; Barui, Ayan Kumar; Nethi, Susheel Kumar; Veeriah, Vimal; Chatterjee, Suvro; Suresh, Kattimuttathu Ittara; Patra, Chitta Ranjan

    2015-08-05

    Angiogenesis, a process resulting in the formation of new capillaries from the pre-existing vasculature plays vital role for the development of therapeutic approaches for cancer, atherosclerosis, wound healing, and cardiovascular diseases. In this report, the synthesis, characterization, and angiogenic properties of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been demonstrated, observed through several in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays. The results here demonstrate that the intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species as well as activation of phospho-eNOS and phospho-Akt might be the plausible mechanisms for GO and rGO induced angiogenesis. The results altogether suggest the possibilities for the development of alternative angiogenic therapeutic approach for the treatment of cardiovascular related diseases where angiogenesis plays a significant role.

  1. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  2. Dalitz plot studies of D0 → KS0π+π− decays in a factorization approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leśniak Leonard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A quasi two-body QCD factorization is used to study the D0 → KS0π+π− decays. The presently available high-statistics Dalitz plot data of this process measured by the Belle and BABAR Collaborations are analyzed together with the τ− → KS0π−ντ decay data. The total experimental branching fraction is also included in the fits which show a very good overall agreement with the experimental Dalitz plot density distributions. The branching fractions of the dominant channels compare well with those of the isobar Belle or BABAR models. We show that the branching fractions corresponding to the annihilation amplitudes are significant.

  3. Human Leptospirosis Infection in Fiji: An Eco-epidemiological Approach to Identifying Risk Factors and Environmental Drivers for Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen L Lau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease in the Pacific Islands. In Fiji, two successive cyclones and severe flooding in 2012 resulted in outbreaks with 576 reported cases and 7% case-fatality. We conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence study and used an eco-epidemiological approach to characterize risk factors and drivers for human leptospirosis infection in Fiji, and aimed to provide an evidence base for improving the effectiveness of public health mitigation and intervention strategies. Antibodies indicative of previous or recent infection were found in 19.4% of 2152 participants (81 communities on the 3 main islands. Questionnaires and geographic information systems data were used to assess variables related to demographics, individual behaviour, contact with animals, socioeconomics, living conditions, land use, and the natural environment. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, variables associated with the presence of Leptospira antibodies included male gender (OR 1.55, iTaukei ethnicity (OR 3.51, living in villages (OR 1.64, lack of treated water at home (OR 1.52, working outdoors (1.64, living in rural areas (OR 1.43, high poverty rate (OR 1.74, living <100m from a major river (OR 1.41, pigs in the community (OR 1.54, high cattle density in the district (OR 1.04 per head/sqkm, and high maximum rainfall in the wettest month (OR 1.003 per mm. Risk factors and drivers for human leptospirosis infection in Fiji are complex and multifactorial, with environmental factors playing crucial roles. With global climate change, severe weather events and flooding are expected to intensify in the South Pacific. Population growth could also lead to more intensive livestock farming; and urbanization in developing countries is often associated with urban and peri-urban slums where diseases of poverty proliferate. Climate change, flooding, population growth, urbanization, poverty and agricultural intensification are important drivers of

  4. Quantitative Prediction of Human Renal Clearance and Drug-Drug Interactions of Organic Anion Transporter Substrates Using In Vitro Transport Data: A Relative Activity Factor Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathialagan, Sumathy; Piotrowski, Mary A; Tess, David A; Feng, Bo; Litchfield, John; Varma, Manthena V

    2017-04-01

    Organic anion transporters (OATs) are important in the renal secretion, and thus, the clearance, of many drugs; and their functional change can result in pharmacokinetic variability. In this study, we applied transport rates measured in vitro using OAT-transfected human embryonic kidney cells to predict human renal secretory and total renal clearance of 31 diverse drugs. Selective substrates to OAT1 (tenofovir), OAT2 (acyclovir and ganciclovir), and OAT3 (benzylpenicillin, oseltamivir acid) were used to obtain relative activity factors (RAFs) for these individual transporters by relating in vitro transport clearance (after physiologic scaling) to in vivo secretory clearance. Using the estimated RAFs (0.64, 7.3, and 4.1, respectively, for OAT1, OAT2, and OAT3, respectively) and the in vitro active clearances, renal secretory clearance and total renal clearance were predicted with average fold errors (AFEs) of 1.89 and 1.40, respectively. The results show that OAT3-mediated transport play a predominant role in renal secretion for 22 of the 31 drugs evaluated. This mechanistic static approach was further applied to quantitatively predict renal drug-drug interactions (AFE ∼1.6) of the substrate drugs with probenecid, a clinical probe OAT inhibitor. In conclusion, the proposed in vitro-in vivo extrapolation approach is the first comprehensive attempt toward mechanistic modeling of renal secretory clearance based on routinely employed in vitro cell models.

  5. EVALUATION OF PROGNOSTIC FACTORS IN QUALITY OF LIFE OF PATIENTS WITH ADOLESCENT IDIOPATHIC SCOLIOSIS UNDERGOING SPINAL FUSION BY THE POSTERIOR APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELIPE DE MORAES POMAR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the prognostic factors in the treatment of patients diagnosed with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis undergoing spinal fusion by the posterior approach. Methods: The study included 48 patients with idiopathic adolescent scoliosis (43 females and 5 males who underwent spinal fusion by the posterior approach, with an average age at diagnosis of 12 years, and clinical signs of Risser between 3 and 4 at the time of surgery. Clinical and radiographic measurements were performed, the participants answered the SRS-30 questionnaire, and the analysis of the medical record data was performed in two occasions during the preoperative period and at the end of two years of follow-up. Results: All satisfaction measures showed statistically significant change after the procedure (p<0.05 with respect to the radiographic characteristics, except for the lumbar apical vertebral translation (p=0.540 and Cobb L1-L5 (p=0.225. Conclusion: In general, it was found that patients who received surgical treatment were more satisfied with their appearance than those who underwent conservative treatment.

  6. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  7. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  8. Incidence of and Factors Associated with Sinus Membrane Perforation During Maxillary Sinus Augmentation Using the Reamer Drilling Approach: A Double-Center Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Alberto; Monje-Gil, Florencio; Burgueño, Miguel; Gonzalez-Garcia, Raúl; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2016-01-01

    Maxillary sinus membrane perforation has been reported as the most common intraoperative complication during sinus augmentation, potentially leading to postoperative infection and consequent loss of graft or even implant failure. Numerous anatomical factors have been demonstrated to affect membrane tearing. However, careful use of proper instrumentation, such as a reamer, seems to play an important role in minimizing the incidence of these complications. Hence, the aim of the present study was to (1) investigate the reliability of reamer drilling for lateral window preparation; (2) examine the incidence of membrane perforation; and (3) study the factors that might influence membrane perforation. Results from this study showed the safety and effectiveness of using a reamer to perform lateral window approach sinus augmentation. The sinus membrane perforation rate was found to be 12.5%. A slightly higher perforation rate was noted in thinner maxillary lateral walls (< 1.25 mm). The authors concluded that reamer drilling is a safe and effective alternate technique for opening the lateral window wall when the lateral wall thickness is ≥ 1.25mm.

  9. An Integrated and Multivariate Model along with Designing Experiments Approach for Assessment of Micro- and Macro- Ergonomic Factors: The Case of a Gas Refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadeh, A; Mohammadfam, I; Sadjadi, M; Hamidi, Y; Kianfar, A

    2008-12-28

    The objectives of this paper are three folds. First, an integrated framework for designing and development of the integrated health, safety and environment (HSE) model is presented. Second, it is implemented and tested for a large gas refinery in Iran. Third, it is shown whether the total ergonomics model is superior to the conventional ergonomics approach. This study is among the first to examine total ergonomics components in a manufacturing system. This study was conducted in Sarkhoon & Qeshm Gas refinery- Iran in 2006. To achieve the above objectives, an integrated approach based on total ergonomics factors was developed. Second, it is applied to the refinery and the advantages of total ergonomics approach are discussed. Third, the impacts of total ergonomics factors on local factors are examined through non-parametric statistical analysis. It was shown that total ergonomics model is much more beneficial than conventional approach. It should be noted that the traditional ergonomics methodology is not capable of locating the findings of total ergonomics model. The distinguished aspect of this study is the employment of a total system approach based on integration of the conventional ergonomics factors with HSE factors.

  10. Competency-based on-the-job training for aviation maintenance and inspection--a human factors approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, D

    2000-08-01

    More than 90% of the critical skills that an aviation maintenance technician uses are acquired through on-the-job training (OJT). Yet many aviation maintenance technicians rely on a 'degenerating buddy system', 'follow Joe around', or unstructured approach to OJT. Many aspects of the aviation maintenance environment point to the need for a structured OJT program, but perhaps the most significant is the practice of job bidding which can create rapid turnover of technicians. The task analytic training system (TATS), a model for developing team-driven structured OJT was developed by the author, and first introduced in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group to provide competency-based OJT for aviation maintenance and inspection personnel. The goal of the model was not only to provide a comprehensive, highly structured training system that could be applied to any maintenance and inspection task, but also to improve team coordination, attitude and morale. The first goal was accomplished by following the systems eight-step process, the latter through incorporating human factors principles such as decision making, communication, team building and conflict resolution into the process itself. In general, the process helps to instill mutual respect and trust, enhance goal-directed behavior, strengthen technicians' self-esteem and responsiveness to new ideas and encourage technicians to make worthwhile contributions. The theoretical background of the model is addressed by illustrating how the proven training methodologies of job task analysis and job instruction training are blended with human factors principles resulting in a unique team-driven approach to training. The paper discusses major elements of the model including needs identification, outlining targeted jobs, writing and verifying training procedures, an approval system, sequencing of training, certifying trainers, implementing, employing tracking mechanisms, evaluating, and establishing a maintenance/audit plan

  11. Novel factors in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and potential drug candidates are found with systems biology approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máté Manczinger

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease characterized by increased proliferation of keratinocytes, activation of immune cells and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. Systems biology approach makes it possible to reveal novel important factors in the pathogenesis of the disease. Protein-protein, protein-DNA, merged (containing both protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions and chemical-protein interaction networks were constructed consisting of differentially expressed genes (DEG between lesional and non-lesional skin samples of psoriatic patients and/or the encoded proteins. DEGs were determined by microarray meta-analysis using MetaOMICS package. We used STRING for protein-protein, CisRED for protein-DNA and STITCH for chemical-protein interaction network construction. General network-, cluster- and motif-analysis were carried out in each network. Many DEG-coded proteins (CCNA2, FYN, PIK3R1, CTGF, F3 and transcription factors (AR, TFDP1, MEF2A, MECOM were identified as central nodes, suggesting their potential role in psoriasis pathogenesis. CCNA2, TFDP1 and MECOM might play role in the hyperproliferation of keratinocytes, whereas FYN may be involved in the disturbed immunity in psoriasis. AR can be an important link between inflammation and insulin resistance, while MEF2A has role in insulin signaling. A controller sub-network was constructed from interlinked positive feedback loops that with the capability to maintain psoriatic lesional phenotype. Analysis of chemical-protein interaction networks detected 34 drugs with previously confirmed disease-modifying effects, 23 drugs with some experimental evidences, and 21 drugs with case reports suggesting their positive or negative effects. In addition, 99 unpublished drug candidates were also found, that might serve future treatments for psoriasis.

  12. Preconception and prenatal environmental factors associated with communication impairments in 9 year old children using an exposome-wide approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D Steer

    Full Text Available Although speech and language deficits are common in children and strongly associated with poor educational and social outcomes, little attention has been paid to the antecedents. In this study we used the information from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children to examine preconception and prenatal environmental risk factors that were related to communication difficulties in children using the Children's Communication Checklist (CCC. We used an exposome-wide approach to identify environmental factors univariably associated with the CCC. Taking account of the False Discovery rate, we used a P value of 0.000157 to identify 621 of 3855 items tested. These were then subjected to a series of stepwise linear regression analyses, firstly within 10 domains: personal characteristics, health, development, education, socio-economic variables, lifestyle, home and social environments, life events and chemical and other exposures; and then with the predictive variables from each domain. The final model consisted of 19 variables independently associated with the communication scale. These variables suggested 6 possible mechanisms: stressors primarily associated with socio-economic disadvantage although other lifestyle choices such as a social network of family or friends can ameliorate these effects; indicators of future parenting skills primarily associated with aspects of parental personality; aspects of the home environment; poor maternal health with a novel finding concerning maternal hearing loss; and maternal education which was partially mediated by the child's IQ. Finally, there may be a mechanism via the maternal diet in pregnancy in particular the consumption of fatty or processed foods. This is the subject of ongoing investigation.

  13. Escape by the Balearic Lizard (Podarcis lilfordi is affected by elevation of an approaching predator, but not by some other potential predation risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Cooper

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many predation risk factors to affect escape behavior by lizards, but effects of some potential risk factors are unknown or are variable among species. We studied effects of several risk factors on escape responses by the Balearic lizard (Podarcis lilfordi, Lacertidae on escape responses. Escape was elicited by an approaching experimenter who recorded flight initiation distance (predator-prey distance when escape begins and distance fled. When an experimenter approached from above (upslope, flight initiation distance and distance fled were longer than when the experimenter approached from below. This novel effect suggests that lizards exposed to aerial predation might have been naturally selected to respond rapidly to predators approaching from above or that effects of path inclination of escape ability may differ between predators and prey in a manner requiring a larger margin of safety during approaches from above than below. Although sex differences in aspects of escape occur in some lizards, including lacertids, no sex difference was observed in P. lilfordi. Because vigilance and some other aspects of antipredatory behavior exhibit cortical lateralization, we tested effects of approach from the left and right sides of lizards. As predicted by optimal escape theory, side of approach did not affect flight initiation distance. Because many lizards have color vision and respond to pigmentation of conspecifics in social settings, researchers have often worn only drably colored clothing when simulating predators. This precaution may be unnecessary because flight initiation distance did not differ among investigator shirt colors (red, orange, olive.

  14. Treatment outcome and prognostic factor analysis in transplant-eligible Chinese myeloma patients receiving bortezomib-based induction regimens including the staged approach, PAD or VTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chim Chor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have reported promising outcomes using a staged approach, in which bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone was used only in 14 patients with suboptimal response to VAD (vincristine/adriamycin/dexamethasone before autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT. Here we compared the outcomes of the staged approach with frontline PAD (bortezomib/doxorubicin/dexamethasone or VTD (bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone induction, and analysed prognostic factors for outcome. Patients and methods Ninety-one transplant-eligible Chinese patients received three induction regimens prior to ASCT [staged approach (N = 25, PAD (N = 31, VTD (N = 35]. and received thalidomide maintenance for 2 years post-ASCT. Results 43 (47.3% patients had International Staging System (ISS III disease. By an intention-to-treat analysis, the overall CR/nCR rate were 37.4% post-induction, and 62.6% post-ASCT. Five-year overall (OS and event-free (EFS survivals were 66% and 45.1%. There was no difference of the post-induction CR/nCR rate, EFS or OS between patients induced by these three regimens. Moreover, ISS III disease did not affect CR/nCR rates. Multivariate analysis showed that ISS and post-ASCT CR/nCR impacted OS while ISS and post-induction CR/nCR impacted EFS. Conclusions These three induction regimens produced comparable and favorable outcomes in myeloma. The unfavorable outcome of ISS stage III persisted despite upfront/early use of bortezomib. CR/nCR predicted favorable survivals.

  15. Approach to the land-use change and its influential factors in Loess Plateau of Dingxi Prefecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Dong, Suocheng; Hou, Xiaoli; Fan, Zhenjun

    2004-11-01

    Based on land-use datum (at scale of 100,000) of the interpretation of Landsat Thematic Mapper in 1980, 1995 and 2000, which came from environmental database of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the authors investigated land-use change and influential factors by the combined use of geographic information systems (GIS) method, Markov model and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) statistical method. The results showed that, in the periods 1980-2000, crop land increased by 0.58 percent (4278.86 hectares), of which 92.93 percent was transformed from grassland and 7.07 percent from forestland. Urban or built-up land increased by 26.23 percent (687.45 hectares), of which 77.35 percent was transformed from cropland. Rural residential land increased by 5.17 percent (1324.37 hectares). Forestland and water land decreased in area. Grassland decreased by 0.57 percent (5706.77 hectares). Secondly, transition rate of landscape spatial pattern among the landscape elements from 1995 to 2000 was slower than that from 1980 to 1995. Land use types as cropland, grassland, woodland and rural residential land were the primary change types from 1995 to 2000. Thirdly, both natural and social economic factors influenced land use pattern. The population and per capita grain yield were positively correlated to rural residential pattern. The spatial distribution of grassland and cropland showed strong positive correlation to annual rainfall and annual air temperature, and negative association to annual per capita net income of rural residents. The poor annual per capita net income of rural residents and investment in capital construction restricted the extended area of urban build-up land. Therefore, the drought is not proportional to pattern of urban build-up land. The study verified the analysis conclusion of influential factors by redundancy degree of CCA. The integration of remote sensing data, GIS, Markov process and CCA provided a comprehensive method to analyze land use pattern and

  16. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  17. Factors affecting the design of slow release formulations of herbicides based on clay-surfactant systems. A methodological approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Del Carmen Galán-Jiménez

    Full Text Available A search for clay-surfactant based formulations with high percentage of the active ingredient, which can yield slow release of active molecules is described. The active ingredients were the herbicides metribuzin (MZ, mesotrione (MS and flurtamone (FL, whose solubilities were examined in the presence of four commercial surfactants; (i neutral: two berols (B048, B266 and an alkylpolyglucoside (AG6202; (ii cationic: an ethoxylated amine (ET/15. Significant percent of active ingredient (a.i. in the clay/surfactant/herbicide formulations could be achieved only when most of the surfactant was added as micelles. MZ and FL were well solubilized by berols, whereas MS by ET/15. Sorption of surfactants on the clay mineral sepiolite occurred mostly by sorption of micelles, and the loadings exceeded the CEC. Higher loadings were determined for B266 and ET/15. The sorption of surfactants was modeled by using the Langmuir-Scatchard equation which permitted the determination of binding coefficients that could be used for further predictions of the sorbed amounts of surfactants under a wide range of clay/surfactant ratios. A possibility was tested of designing clay-surfactant based formulations of certain herbicides by assuming the same ratio between herbicides and surfactants in the formulations as for herbicides incorporated in micelles in solution. Calculations indicated that satisfactory FL formulations could not be synthesized. The experimental fractions of herbicides in the formulations were in agreement with the predicted ones for MS and MZ. The validity of this approach was confirmed in in vitro release tests that showed a slowing down of the release of a.i. from the designed formulations relative to the technical products. Soil dissipation studies with MS formulations also showed improved bioactivity of the clay-surfactant formulation relative to the commercial one. This methodological approach can be extended to other clay-surfactant systems for

  18. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Lau, Morten I.; Rutström, E. Elisabet

    2008-01-01

    , and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  19. Phyllodes tumor showing intraductal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makidono, Akari; Tsunoda, Hiroko; Mori, Miki; Yagata, Hiroshi; Onoda, Yui; Kikuchi, Mari; Nozaki, Taiki; Saida, Yukihisa; Nakamura, Seigo; Suzuki, Koyu

    2013-07-01

    Phyllodes tumor of the breast is a rare fibroepithelial lesion and particularly uncommon in adolescent girls. It is thought to arise from the periductal rather than intralobular stroma. Usually, it is seen as a well-defined mass. Phyllodes tumor showing intraductal growth is extremely rare. Here we report a girl who has a phyllodes tumor with intraductal growth.

  20. Pembrolizumab Shows Promise for NSCLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Data from the KEYNOTE-001 trial show that pembrolizumab improves clinical outcomes for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, and is well tolerated. PD-L1 expression in at least 50% of tumor cells correlated with improved efficacy.