WorldWideScience

Sample records for factor analysis suggests

  1. Comprehensive Analysis Suggests Overlapping Expression of Rice ONAC Transcription Factors in Abiotic and Biotic Stress Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Sun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available NAC (NAM/ATAF/CUC transcription factors comprise a large plant-specific gene family that contains more than 149 members in rice. Extensive studies have revealed that NAC transcription factors not only play important roles in plant growth and development, but also have functions in regulation of responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, biological functions for most of the members in the NAC family remain unknown. In this study, microarray data analyses revealed that a total of 63 ONAC genes exhibited overlapping expression patterns in rice under various abiotic (salt, drought, and cold and biotic (infection by fungal, bacterial, viral pathogens, and parasitic plants stresses. Thirty-eight ONAC genes exhibited overlapping expression in response to any two abiotic stresses, among which 16 of 30 selected ONAC genes were upregulated in response to exogenous ABA. Sixty-five ONAC genes showed overlapping expression patterns in response to any two biotic stresses. Results from the present study suggested that members of the ONAC genes with overlapping expression pattern may have pleiotropic biological functions in regulation of defense response against different abiotic and biotic stresses, which provide clues for further functional analysis of the ONAC genes in stress tolerance and pathogen resistance.

  2. The Disgust Scale: Item Analysis, Factor Structure, and Suggestions for Refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Williams, Nathan L.; Tolin, David F.; Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; Sawchuk, Craig N.; Lohr, Jeffrey M.; Elwood, Lisa S.

    2007-01-01

    In the 4 studies presented (N = 1,939), a converging set of analyses was conducted to evaluate the item adequacy, factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Disgust Scale (DS; J. Haidt, C. McCauley, & P. Rozin, 1994). The results suggest that 7 items (i.e., Items 2, 7, 8, 21, 23, 24, and 25) should be considered for removal from the DS.…

  3. Transcriptomic and QTL analysis suggest candidate fruit shape factors in cucumber (Cucumis sativus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit size and shape are important determinants of market class and value in cucumber; however, underlying mechanisms regulating size and shape have not been identified. To gain insight into possible factors regulating cucumber fruit growth, we used a combined QTL and transcriptome approach to exami...

  4. Structural analysis of the essential resuscitation promoting factor YeaZ suggests a mechanism of nucleotide regulation through dimer reorganization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inci Aydin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The yeaZ gene product forms part of the conserved network YjeE/YeaZ/YgjD essential for the survival of many gram-negative eubacteria. Among other as yet unidentified roles, YeaZ functions as a resuscitation promoting factor required for survival and resuscitation of cells in a viable but non-culturable (VBNC state. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to investigate in detail the structure/function relationship of this family of proteins we have performed X-ray crystallographic studies of Vibrio parahaemolyticus YeaZ. The YeaZ structure showed that it has a classic actin-like nucleotide-binding fold. Comparisons of this crystal structure to that of available homologues from E. coli, T. maritima and S. typhimurium revealed two distinctly different modes of dimer formation. In one form, prevalent in the absence of nucleotide, the putative nucleotide-binding site is incomplete, lacking a binding pocket for a nucleotide base. In the second form, residues from the second subunit complete the nucleotide-binding site. This suggests that the two dimer architectures observed in the crystal structures correspond to a free and a nucleotide-bound form of YeaZ. A multiple sequence alignment of YeaZ proteins from different bacteria allowed us to identify a large conserved hydrophobic patch on the protein surface that becomes exposed upon nucleotide-driven dimer re-arrangement. We hypothesize that the transition between two dimer architectures represents the transition between the 'on' and 'off' states of YeaZ. The effect of this transition is to alternately expose and bury a docking site for the partner protein YgjD. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This paper provides the first structural insight into the putative mechanism of nucleotide regulation of YeaZ through dimer reorganization. Our analysis suggests that nucleotide binding to YeaZ may act as a regulator or switch that changes YeaZ shape, allowing it to switch partners between YjeE and YgjD.

  5. Factor structure of suggestibility revisited: new evidence for direct and indirect suggestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Polczyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Yielding to suggestions can be viewed as a relatively stable individual trait, called suggestibility. It has been long proposed that there are two kinds of suggestible influence, and two kinds of suggestibility corresponding to them: direct and indirect. Direct suggestion involves overt unhidden influence, while indirect suggestion concerns influence that is hidden, and the participant does not know that the suggestibility is being measured. So far however, empirical evidence for the existence of the two factors has been scarce. In the present study, more sophisticated and reliable tools for measuring suggestibility were applied than in the previous research, in the hope that better measurement would reveal the factor structure of suggestibility. Two tests of direct suggestibility were used: the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A, measuring hypnotic susceptibility, and the Barber Suggestibility Scale, measuring non-hypnotic direct imaginative suggestibility. Three tests served to measure indirect suggestibility: the Sensory Suggestibility Scale, measuring indirect suggestibility relating to perception; the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, measuring the tendency to yield to suggestive questions and changing answers after negative feedback; and the Emotional Dialogs Tests, measuring the tendency to perceive nonexistent aggression. Participants and procedure In sum, 115 participants were tested, 69 women, 49 men, mean age 22.20 years, SD = 2.20. Participants were tested in two sessions, lasting for a total of four hours. Results Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the existence of two uncorrelated factors of suggestibility: direct and indirect. Conclusions Suggestibility may indeed involve two factors, direct and indirect, and failure to discover them in previous research may be due to methodological problems.

  6. 影响食品安全包装因素的分析与建议%Analysis and suggestion of package factors on food safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁奇林; 王月华; 徐方旭; 马蓉; 冯叙桥

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the issue of food safety has increasingly aroused the attention of all circles of the society. The issue of food safety relates, to a large extent, to food package, and is one of the factors that cause the food safety issue, so it is put widely attention by the researchers both at home and abroad. This paper introduced the present situation of food packaging at home and abroad, focusing on the effect of package mate-rials, package structure and package printing on food safety. Package factors were analyzed in this review paper. New technologies of food package related to food safety were also summarized and some suggestions to assure food safety provided.%近几年,食品安全问题越来越引起社会各界的广泛关注,而食品包装的安全性与食品安全问题息息相关,也是引起食品安全问题的因素之一,因此受到国内外研究者的广泛关注。本文介绍了国内外食品包装安全现状,主要从影响食品安全的相关包装因素入手,分析了包装材料、包装结构和包装印刷对食品安全的影响,归纳总结了食品包装技术,并提出了一些保证食品包装安全的建议。

  7. Time series analysis of benzo[a]pyrene-induced transcriptome changes suggests that a network of transcription factors regulates the effects on functional gene sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delft, J.H.M. van; Mathijs, K.; Staal, Y.C.M.; Herwijnen, M.H.M. van; Brauers, K.J.J.; Boorsma, A.; Kleinjans, J.C.S.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical carcinogens may cause a multitude of effects inside cells, thereby affecting transcript levels of genes by direct activation of transcription factors (TF) or indirectly through the formation of DNA damage. As the temporal profiles of these responses may be profoundly different, examining ti

  8. Factor analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gorsuch, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive and comprehensible, this classic covers the basic and advanced topics essential for using factor analysis as a scientific tool in psychology, education, sociology, and related areas. Emphasizing the usefulness of the techniques, it presents sufficient mathematical background for understanding and sufficient discussion of applications for effective use. This includes not only theory but also the empirical evaluations of the importance of mathematical distinctions for applied scientific analysis.

  9. Synesthesia in twins: incomplete concordance in monozygotes suggests extragenic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosley, Hannah G; Eagleman, David M

    2015-06-01

    Colored-sequence synesthesia (CSS) is a neurological condition in which sequential stimuli such as letters, numbers, or days of the week trigger simultaneous, involuntary color perception. Although the condition appears to run in families and several studies have sought a genetic link, the genetic contribution to synesthesia remains unclear. We conducted the first comparative twin study of CSS and found that CSS has a pairwise concordance of 73.9% in monozygotic twins, and a pairwise concordance of 36.4% in dizygotic twins. In line with previous studies, our results suggest a heritable element of synesthesia. However, consonant with the findings of previous single-pair case studies, our large sample size verifies that synesthesia is not completely conferred by genetics; if it were, monozygotic twins should have 100% concordance. These findings implicate a genetic mechanism of CSS that may work differently than previously thought: collectively, our data suggest that synesthesia is a heritable condition with incomplete penetrance that is substantially influenced by epigenetic and environmental factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Suggestion: Human Factor Based User Interface Design Tool

    OpenAIRE

    S.Q. Abbas,; Rizwan Beg; Shahnaz Fatima

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce HFBUIT, Human Factor based user interface tool that enables designers and engineers to create human factor based user interface. This tool will help the designer to utilize the knowledge about the user to configure the interface for different users, i.e. each user may have different skills, level of experience, or cognitive and physical disabilities. The tool makes it easy to knowhuman factors & to reduce the number of usability problems. HFBUIT can be used in real...

  11. 儿童龋病的相关因素分析及预防建议%Analysis of Related Factors of Children's Caries and Preventive Suggestions for It

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹杭; 陈樱

    2015-01-01

    Objective To discuss the related factors of children's caries and preventive suggestions for it. Methods An analysis was done on the condition of 200 children aged 5 years from urban and rural kindergartens in the chengxiang district in putian city who taken oral health examination. All the children were divided into dental caries group and non-dental caries group. The related factors of children's caries were observed and targeted preventive measures were taken positively. Results Among all the 200 children included in this investigation, 47.50% were found with caries. The proportion of children whose parents knew little about caries, as well as those who did not brush their teeth everyday, those who were not breast-feeding children, those who suffered from malnutrition, those who lived in rural area, and those who had a sweet tooth were higher in the dental caries group than in the non-dental caries group, P<0.05. Conclusion The incidence of children's caries is higher, and the related factors include lake of related knowledge, not brush teeth timely, diet, malnutrition. Targeted preventive suggestions showed be made to reduce the incidence of caries.%目的 探讨儿童龋病的相关因素分析及预防建议. 方法 整群选取2014年2月—2014年6月在莆田市城厢区的数所城乡幼儿园内进行口腔健康检查的200例5岁儿童的患病情况进行分析,儿童分为龋病组和非龋病组,观察比较儿童龋病的相关因素,并针对相关因素采取积极的预防措施. 结果 在参与调查的200名儿童中,龋病发生率为47.50%. 龋病组儿童家长缺乏龋病相关知识、未每天刷牙、非母乳喂养、营养不良、居住农村、喜爱甜食发生率均明显高于无龋病组儿童,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05). 结论 儿童龋病发病率较高,相关因素包括缺乏相关知识、未及时刷牙、饮食、营养不良等,针对龋病因素采取预防措施,降低龋病发病率.

  12. User Suggestions Extraction from customer Reviews A Sentiment Analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwanath.J,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Customer review is a major criterion for the improvement of the quality of services rendered and enhancement of the deliverables. Blogs, articles and discussion forums, provide manufacturers or sellers with a good understanding of the reception level of their products in the competitive market. An interesting area from the business analysis perspective, this paper discusses an opinion based mining technique for the extraction of the relevant data using Natural Language Processing and text analysis, and comprehends suggestions from an actionable feedback.

  13. Foundations of factor analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mulaik, Stanley A

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Factor Analysis and Structural Theories Brief History of Factor Analysis as a Linear Model Example of Factor AnalysisMathematical Foundations for Factor Analysis Introduction Scalar AlgebraVectorsMatrix AlgebraDeterminants Treatment of Variables as Vectors Maxima and Minima of FunctionsComposite Variables and Linear Transformations Introduction Composite Variables Unweighted Composite VariablesDifferentially Weighted Composites Matrix EquationsMulti

  14. Sarcopenia: Prevalence and associated factors based on different suggested definitions in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hunkyung; Hirano, Hirohiko; Edahiro, Ayako; Ohara, Yuki; Watanabe, Yutaka; Kojima, Narumi; Kim, Miji; Hosoi, Erika; Yoshida, Yuko; Yoshida, Hideyo; Shinkai, Shoji

    2016-03-01

    The age-related loss of muscle mass and/or strength and performance, sarcopenia, has been associated with geriatric syndromes, morbidity and mortality. Although sarcopenia has been researched for many years, currently there is a lack of consensus on its definition. Some studies define sarcopenia as low muscle mass alone, whereas other studies have recently combined low muscle mass, strength and physical performance suggested by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People, as well as the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. The arbitrary use of various available sarcopenia definitions within the literature can cause discrepancies in the prevalence and associated risk factors. The application of population-specific cut-off values in any sample population can be problematic, particularly among different ethnicities. Using commonly used cut-off points to define sarcopenia, including solely muscle mass and combined definitions, on a community-dwelling elderly Japanese population, the prevalence of sarcopenia ranged from 2.5 to 28.0% in men and 2.3 to 11.7% in women, with muscle mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and 7.1-98.0% in men and 19.8-88.0% in women measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Body mass index was the most prominent related factor for sarcopenia across the definitions in this Japanese sample. However, other associated hematological and chronic condition factors varied depending on the definition. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. Genomic analysis suggests higher susceptibility of children to air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Danitsja M; Pedersen, Marie; Hendriksen, Peter J M;

    2008-01-01

    between parents. Very little overlap was observed between children and adults. The two most important biological processes or molecular functions significantly modulated in children, but not in adults, are nucleosome and immune response related. Our study suggests differences between children and adults...

  16. Compare Analysis between Chinese and Indonesian Phonetics and teaching suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Anggreani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With further development of friendly relations between China and Indonesia, coupled with a growing number of Indonesian Chinese, learning Chinese language is getting more important. Article compared Chinese and Indonesian voice and showed the voice of the Chinese language. Moreover, article provided ideas for Chinese phonetics teaching and for Indonesian students in learning Chinese pronunciation. In addition, article puts forward suggestions in order to improve foreign language teaching.

  17. Analysis of existing risk assessments, and list of suggestions

    CERN Document Server

    Heimsch, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The scope of this project was to analyse risk assessments made at CERN and extracting some crucial information about the different methodologies used, profiles of people who make the risk assessments, and gathering information of whether the risk matrix was used and if the acceptable level of risk was defined. Second step of the project was to trigger discussion inside HSE about risk assessment by suggesting a risk matrix and a risk assessment template.

  18. Proteomic analysis of the Arabidopsis nucleolus suggests novel nucleolar functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pendle, Alison F; Clark, Gillian P; Boon, Reinier

    2005-01-01

    The eukaryotic nucleolus is involved in ribosome biogenesis and a wide range of other RNA metabolism and cellular functions. An important step in the functional analysis of the nucleolus is to determine the complement of proteins of this nuclear compartment. Here, we describe the first proteomic ...

  19. Infants' brain responses to speech suggest analysis by synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Patricia K; Ramírez, Rey R; Bosseler, Alexis; Lin, Jo-Fu Lotus; Imada, Toshiaki

    2014-08-01

    Historic theories of speech perception (Motor Theory and Analysis by Synthesis) invoked listeners' knowledge of speech production to explain speech perception. Neuroimaging data show that adult listeners activate motor brain areas during speech perception. In two experiments using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we investigated motor brain activation, as well as auditory brain activation, during discrimination of native and nonnative syllables in infants at two ages that straddle the developmental transition from language-universal to language-specific speech perception. Adults are also tested in Exp. 1. MEG data revealed that 7-mo-old infants activate auditory (superior temporal) as well as motor brain areas (Broca's area, cerebellum) in response to speech, and equivalently for native and nonnative syllables. However, in 11- and 12-mo-old infants, native speech activates auditory brain areas to a greater degree than nonnative, whereas nonnative speech activates motor brain areas to a greater degree than native speech. This double dissociation in 11- to 12-mo-old infants matches the pattern of results obtained in adult listeners. Our infant data are consistent with Analysis by Synthesis: auditory analysis of speech is coupled with synthesis of the motor plans necessary to produce the speech signal. The findings have implications for: (i) perception-action theories of speech perception, (ii) the impact of "motherese" on early language learning, and (iii) the "social-gating" hypothesis and humans' development of social understanding.

  20. Cladistic biogeographic analysis suggests an early Caribbean diversification in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Tania; Rodríguez, Gerardo; Cao, Nathanaël; Ebach, Malte C.; Morrone, Juan J.

    2007-07-01

    The Great American Biotic Interchange has been the predominant paradigm for explaining biotic diversification in the Nearctic/Neotropical overlap or Mexican Transition Zone, which is commonly explained by the collision of the North and South American continental plates, which began in the Oligocene and fused both landmasses. In the most far-reaching cladistic biogeographical analysis of the area to date, evidence has been found supporting the existence of a remnant Caribbean region extending from eastern Mexico to southeastern USA, a hypothesis that challenges current views of the Great American Biotic Interchange and the Mexican Transition Zone. We show herein that an older terrane, which has drifted to the present day positions of Yucatan and Cuba, may be biogeographically linked to an early ‘Gondwanan’ biota of the Paleocene (ca. 60 Ma). The evidence indicates an east west biotic divide in Mexico, existing before the collision and formation of Central America. The south north division of the country, previously recognized by several authors as associated with the Great American Biotic Interchange and the Mexican Transition Zone, is of a younger age.

  1. Analysis of RMB Exchange Rate Fluctuation Trend, Inlfuencing Factors and Policy Suggestions In 2013%2013年人民币汇率的波动趋势、影响因素及政策建议分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷宇

    2013-01-01

    RMB exchange rate shows strong trend of appreciation in 2013, which relfect relatively stable economic growth of China and the prediction of appreciation in foreign exchange rate market. But the analysis of Chinese economic variables shows that the RMB exchange rate has lost the basis of large appreciation. On the other hand, according to the lowering speed of Chinese economic growth, the expectation of US ending QE monetary policy and unclear prospect of world economic growth, RMB exchange rate might enter the periodic devaluation channel or lfuctuate around the current level with wide range. Under the circumstances of economic uncertainties, the central bank should strengthen the market formation basis of RMB exchange rate, by RMB internationalization and reform of interest rate.%2013年人民币汇率表现出较强劲的升值态势,反映出中国相对稳健的经济增长和市场中的升值预期。但经济基本面分析表明,人民币汇率已失去大幅升值的基础。另一方面,受我国经济发展减速、美国退出量化宽松货币政策、世界经济运行不确定等因素的影响,人民币汇率在未来可能进入阶段性贬值通道或围绕目前水平宽幅震荡。在经济不确定性加强的环境下,我国央行需通过人民币国际化、利率市场化改革等,强化人民币汇率形成的市场基础。

  2. Bayesian Exploratory Factor Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Gabriella; Frühwirth-Schnatter, Sylvia; Heckman, James J.;

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops and applies a Bayesian approach to Exploratory Factor Analysis that improves on ad hoc classical approaches. Our framework relies on dedicated factor models and simultaneously determines the number of factors, the allocation of each measurement to a unique factor, and the corr......This paper develops and applies a Bayesian approach to Exploratory Factor Analysis that improves on ad hoc classical approaches. Our framework relies on dedicated factor models and simultaneously determines the number of factors, the allocation of each measurement to a unique factor......, and the corresponding factor loadings. Classical identification criteria are applied and integrated into our Bayesian procedure to generate models that are stable and clearly interpretable. A Monte Carlo study confirms the validity of the approach. The method is used to produce interpretable low dimensional aggregates...

  3. Bayesian Exploratory Factor Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Gabriella; Frühwirth-Schnatter, Sylvia; Heckman, James J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops and applies a Bayesian approach to Exploratory Factor Analysis that improves on ad hoc classical approaches. Our framework relies on dedicated factor models and simultaneously determines the number of factors, the allocation of each measurement to a unique factor......, and the corresponding factor loadings. Classical identification criteria are applied and integrated into our Bayesian procedure to generate models that are stable and clearly interpretable. A Monte Carlo study confirms the validity of the approach. The method is used to produce interpretable low dimensional aggregates...

  4. Mendelian randomization suggests non-causal associations of testosterone with cardiometabolic risk factors and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, R; Teumer, A; Völker, U; Dörr, M; Nauck, M; Biffar, R; Völzke, H; Baumeister, S E; Wallaschofski, H

    2013-01-01

    Prospective studies showed that low serum testosterone concentrations are associated with various cardiometabolic risk factors and mortality. However, the causal nature of these associations is controversial. We studied 1 882 men aged 20-79 years with serum testosterone concentrations and genotyping data from the longitudinal population-based Study of Health in Pomerania. Testosterone concentrations were cross-sectionally associated with cardiometabolic risk factors, including anthropometric, lipid, blood pressure and glycaemic parameters; and prospectively with all-cause mortality (277 deaths, 14.7%) during the 10-year follow-up. To overcome problems of residual confounding, reverse causation, or regression dilution bias in the investigated testosterone-outcome associations, we used two-stage least square regression models with previously identified polymorphisms at the SHBG gene (rs12150660) and X chromosome (rs5934505) as multiple genetic instruments in an instrumental variable (IV) approach, also known as Mendelian randomization. In standard regression analyses, testosterone was robustly associated with a wide range of cardiometabolic risk factors. In subsequent IV analyses, no such significant associations were observed. Similarly, prospective analyses showed a consistent association of low testosterone concentrations with increased all-cause mortality risk, which was not apparent in subsequent IV analyses. The present Mendelian randomization analyses did not detect any evidence for causal associations of testosterone concentrations with cardiometabolic risk factors and mortality, suggesting that previously reported associations might largely result from residual confounding or reverse causation. Although testosterone assessment might improve risk prediction, implementation of testosterone replacement therapy requires further evidence of a direct effect on cardiometabolic outcomes from double-blinded randomized controlled trials and large-scale Mendelian

  5. Factor Analysis and AIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaike, Hirotugu

    1987-01-01

    The Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) was introduced to extend the method of maximum likelihood to the multimodel situation. Use of the AIC in factor analysis is interesting when it is viewed as the choice of a Bayesian model; thus, wider applications of AIC are possible. (Author/GDC)

  6. Threat-Related Information Suggests Competence: A Possible Factor in the Spread of Rumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Boyer

    Full Text Available Information about potential danger is a central component of many rumors, urban legends, ritual prescriptions, religious prohibitions and witchcraft crazes. We investigate a potential factor in the cultural success of such material, namely that a source of threat-related information may be intuitively judged as more competent than a source that does not convey such information. In five studies, we asked participants to judge which of two sources of information, only one of which conveyed threat-related information, was more knowledgeable. Results suggest that mention of potential danger makes a source appear more competent than others, that the effect is not due to a general negativity bias, and that it concerns competence rather than a more generally positive evaluation of the source.

  7. Virulence factor rtx in Legionella pneumophila, evidence suggesting it is a modular multifunctional protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelaz Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The repeats in toxin (Rtx are an important pathogenicity factor involved in host cells invasion of Legionella pneumophila and other pathogenic bacteria. Its role in escaping the host immune system and cytotoxic activity is well known. Its repeated motives and modularity make Rtx a multifunctional factor in pathogenicity. Results The comparative analysis of rtx gene among 6 strains of L. pneumophila showed modularity in their structures. Among compared genomes, the N-terminal region of the protein presents highly dissimilar repeats with functionally similar domains. On the contrary, the C-terminal region is maintained with a fashionable modular configuration, which gives support to its proposed role in adhesion and pore formation. Despite the variability of rtx among the considered strains, the flanking genes are maintained in synteny and similarity. Conclusion In contrast to the extracellular bacteria Vibrio cholerae, in which the rtx gene is highly conserved and flanking genes have lost synteny and similarity, the gene region coding for the Rtx toxin in the intracellular pathogen L. pneumophila shows a rapid evolution. Changes in the rtx could play a role in pathogenicity. The interplay of the Rtx toxin with host membranes might lead to the evolution of new variants that are able to escape host cell defences.

  8. Patients with Fever of Unknown Origin and Splenomegaly: Diagnostic Value of Splenectomy and Preoperative Risk Factors Suggestive of Underlying Lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Wei; Cai, Huacong; Cao, Xinxin; Chen, Miao; Li, Jian; Zhu, Tienan; Duan, Minghui; Wang, Shujie; Han, Bing; Zhou, Daobin

    2017-01-01

    We reviewed patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO) and splenomegaly and assessed the diagnostic value of splenectomy and measured risk factors suggestive of an underlying lymphoma. FUO patients (n = 83) who had splenomegaly and underwent splenectomy were enrolled into this retrospective single-center study. Clinical presentations were documented and risk factors suggestive of an underlying lymphoma were tested. Seventy-four patients (89.2%) had a diagnosis of lymphoma or not after splenectomy and follow-up. Of those (55.4%) diagnosed with lymphoma, 29 had B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 12 had T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The remaining 33 (44.6%) had diseases other than lymphoma. Using multivariate logistic analysis, the following 3 independent risk factors were found to be related to a final diagnosis of lymphoma: age (continuous) (HR 1.086; 95% CI 1.033-1.141; p = 0.001), massively enlarged spleen (HR 7.797; 95% CI 1.267-47.959; p = 0.027), and enlarged intra-abdominal lymph nodes (HR 63.925; 95% CI 7.962-513.219; p < 0.001). The calibration of the model was satisfactory (p = 0.248 using the Hosmer-Lemeshow test), and the discrimination power was good (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.925; 95% CI 0.863-0.987). Splenectomy is an effective diagnostic procedure for patients with FUO and splenomegaly and lymphoma is a common cause. Older age, a massively enlarged spleen, and enlarged intra-abdominal lymph nodes are risk factors suggesting an underlying lymphoma, and surgery for high-risk patients should be considered. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Pitfalls in chronobiology: a suggested analysis using intrathecal bupivacaine analgesia as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Steven L; Lemmer, Bjoern; Boselli, Emmanuel; Boiste, Fabienne; Bouvet, Lionel; Allaouchiche, Bernard; Chassard, Dominique

    2010-10-01

    The duration of analgesia from epidural administration of local anesthetics to parturients has been shown to follow a rhythmic pattern according to the time of drug administration. We studied whether there was a similar pattern after intrathecal administration of bupivacaine in parturients. In the course of the analysis, we came to believe that some data points coincident with provider shift changes were influenced by nonbiological, health care system factors, thus incorrectly suggesting a periodic signal in duration of labor analgesia. We developed graphical and analytical tools to help assess the influence of individual points on the chronobiological analysis. Women with singleton term pregnancies in vertex presentation, cervical dilation 3 to 5 cm, pain score >50 mm (of 100 mm), and requesting labor analgesia were enrolled in this study. Patients received 2.5 mg of intrathecal bupivacaine in 2 mL using a combined spinal-epidural technique. Analgesia duration was the time from intrathecal injection until the first request for additional analgesia. The duration of analgesia was analyzed by visual inspection of the data, application of smoothing functions (Supersmoother; LOWESS and LOESS [locally weighted scatterplot smoothing functions]), analysis of variance, Cosinor (Chronos-Fit), Excel, and NONMEM (nonlinear mixed effect modeling). Confidence intervals (CIs) were determined by bootstrap analysis (1000 replications with replacement) using PLT Tools. Eighty-two women were included in the study. Examination of the raw data using 3 smoothing functions revealed a bimodal pattern, with a peak at approximately 0630 and a subsequent peak in the afternoon or evening, depending on the smoother. Analysis of variance did not identify any statistically significant difference between the duration of analgesia when intrathecal injection was given from midnight to 0600 compared with the duration of analgesia after intrathecal injection at other times. Chronos-Fit, Excel, and

  10. The confounding factors leading to plagiarism in academic writing and some suggested remedies: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guraya, Salman Yousuf; Guraya, Shaista Salman

    2017-05-01

    There is a staggering upsurge in the incidence of plagiarism of scientific literature. Literature shows divergent views about the factors that make plagiarism reprehensible. This review explores the causes and remedies for the perennial academic problem of plagiarism. Data sources were searched for full text English language articles published from 2000 to 2015. Data selection was done using medical subject headline (MeSH) terms plagiarism, unethical writing, academic theft, retraction, medical field, and plagiarism detection software. Data extraction was undertaken by selecting titles from retrieved references and data synthesis identified key factors leading to plagiarism such as unawareness of research ethics, poor writing skills and pressure or publish mantra. Plagiarism can be managed by a balance among its prevention, detection by plagiarism detection software, and institutional sanctions against proven plagiarists. Educating researchers about ethical principles of academic writing and institutional support in training writers about academic integrity and ethical publications can curtail plagiarism.

  11. Preventing lodging in bioenergy crops: a biomechanical analysis of maize stalks suggests a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Forell, Greg; Robertson, Daniel; Lee, Shien Yang; Cook, Douglas D

    2015-07-01

    The hypothetical ideal for maize (Zea mays) bioenergy production would be a no-waste plant: high-yielding, with silage that is easily digestible for conversion to biofuel. However, increased digestibility is typically associated with low structural strength and a propensity for lodging. The solution to this dilemma may lie in our ability to optimize maize morphology using tools from structural engineering. To investigate how material (tissue) and geometric (morphological) factors influence stalk strength, detailed structural models of the maize stalk were created using finite-element software. Model geometry was obtained from high-resolution x-ray computed tomography (CT) scans, and scan intensity information was integrated into the models to infer inhomogeneous material properties. A sensitivity analysis was performed by systematically varying material properties over broad ranges, and by modifying stalk geometry. Computational models exhibited realistic stress and deformation patterns. In agreement with natural failure patterns, maximum stresses were predicted near the node. Maximum stresses were observed to be much more sensitive to changes in dimensions of the stalk cross section than they were to changes in material properties of stalk components. The average sensitivity to geometry was found to be more than 10-fold higher than the average sensitivity to material properties. These results suggest a new strategy for the breeding and development of bioenergy maize varieties in which tissue weaknesses are counterbalanced by relatively small increases (e.g. 5%) in stalk diameter that reduce structural stresses.

  12. Adult Onset Vitiligo: Multivariate Analysis Suggests the Need for a Thyroid Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, L; Colucci, R; Cammi, A; Dragoni, F; Moretti, S

    2016-01-01

    Background. There are limited epidemiological studies evaluating the effect of age at onset on disease features in vitiligo. Objectives. To identify factors associated with adult onset vitiligo in comparison with childhood onset vitiligo. Patients and Methods. We retrospectively collected medical records of 191 patients. Such records included clinical examination, personal and familial medical history, laboratory evaluations, concomitant vitiligo treatment and drug assumption. Results. 123 patients with a disease onset after the age of 40 (adult onset vitiligo) were compared with 68 patients who developed vitiligo before the age of 12 (childhood onset vitiligo). Multivariate analysis revealed that personal history of thyroid diseases (P = 0.04; OR 0.4), stress at onset (P = 0.002; OR = 0.34), personal history of autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) (P = 0.003; OR = 0.23), and thyroid nodules (P = 0.001; OR 0.90) were independently associated with adult onset vitiligo, whereas family history of dermatological diseases (P = 0.003; OR = 2.87) and Koebner phenomenon (P < 0.001; OR = 4.73) with childhood onset vitiligo. Moreover, in the adult onset group, concomitant thyroid disease preceded vitiligo in a statistically significant number of patients (P = 0.014). Conclusions. Childhood onset and adult onset vitiligo have different clinical features. In particular, ATD and thyroid nodules were significantly associated with adult onset vitiligo, suggesting that a thyroid screening should be recommended in this group of patients.

  13. Analysis on Protection of GI Product Xiangshan Spirit and Suggestions of Its Industrial Supervision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    From name, historic stories, reputation, traffic and location factors, and natural factors as production and processing, water, raw material and yeast, this paper firstly analyzes key factors for protection of GI product Xiangshan Spirit. Then, it discusses differences in quality characteristics between Xiangshan Spirit and other rice flavor type spirits. Besides, industrial development of Xiangshan Spirit is analyzed from residues of pesticides, quality of water for making wine, and exclusive use of geographical indication Xiangshan Spirit. Finally, it puts forward following suggestions, including formulating and implementing local standard GI Product Xiangshan Spirit, strengthening quality control over rice raw material, implementing "enterprise + base" industrial model, and support group enterprises with government as leader.

  14. Radiolabelled somatostatin analogue treatment in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: factors associated with response and suggestions for therapeutic sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campana, Davide; Nori, Francesca; Cacciari, Giulia; Tomassetti, Paola [University of Bologna, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Bologna (Italy); Capurso, Gabriele; Panzuto, Francesco; Delle Fave, Gianfranco [University of Rome, Digestive and Liver Disease Unit, Rome (Italy); Partelli, Stefano [Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Hospital, Department of Surgery, Negrar (Italy); University of Verona, Department of Surgery, Verona (Italy); Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Pancreas Surgical Unit, Ancona (Italy); Tamburrino, Domenico; Falconi, Massimo [University of Verona, Department of Surgery, Verona (Italy); Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Pancreas Surgical Unit, Ancona (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a relatively new treatment modality for patients with unresectable or metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP NETs). The aim of this study was to determine the time to progression of patients treated with PRRT and to identify the prognostic factors related to treatment response. Patients with sporadic GEP NETs prospectively treated with PRRT were retrospectively analysed. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). A total of 69 patients (37 men and 32 women; 45 with pancreatic and 24 with gastrointestinal lesion; 22 NET G1 and 41 NET G2) were treated with {sup 90}Y or {sup 177}Lu. The objective response rate was 27.5 % (partial response, PR), while 50.7 % had stable disease and 23.2 % had progressive disease. Significant differences in PFS were observed in relationship to the stage of the disease (44 months for stage III, 23 months for stage IV), the evidence of a PR 6 months after the end of the PRRT (39 months in patients with a PR, 22 months in patients without a PR) and previous transarterial chemoembolization (TACE, yes 13 months vs no 31 months). Stage IV, NET G2 and previous TACE were found to be significant factors for tumour progression at multivariate analysis. Low tumour burden and a low proliferation index represent independent prognostic factors for long PFS, while previous chemoembolization techniques represent independent prognostic factors for early tumour progression and shorter PFS. Our data suggest that chemoembolization techniques to reduce the hepatic tumour burden should be avoided. (orig.)

  15. Genome-wide analysis of KAP1 binding suggests autoregulation of KRAB-ZNFs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette O'Geen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We performed a genome-scale chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-chip comparison of two modifications (trimethylation of lysine 9 [H3me3K9] and trimethylation of lysine 27 [H3me3K27] of histone H3 in Ntera2 testicular carcinoma cells and in three different anatomical sources of primary human fibroblasts. We found that in each of the cell types the two modifications were differentially enriched at the promoters of the two largest classes of transcription factors. Specifically, zinc finger (ZNF genes were bound by H3me3K9 and homeobox genes were bound by H3me3K27. We have previously shown that the Polycomb repressive complex 2 is responsible for mediating trimethylation of lysine 27 of histone H3 in human cancer cells. In contrast, there is little overlap between H3me3K9 targets and components of the Polycomb repressive complex 2, suggesting that a different histone methyltransferase is responsible for the H3me3K9 modification. Previous studies have shown that SETDB1 can trimethylate H3 on lysine 9, using in vitro or artificial tethering assays. SETDB1 is thought to be recruited to chromatin by complexes containing the KAP1 corepressor. To determine if a KAP1-containing complex mediates trimethylation of the identified H3me3K9 targets, we performed ChIP-chip assays and identified KAP1 target genes using human 5-kb promoter arrays. We found that a large number of genes of ZNF transcription factors were bound by both KAP1 and H3me3K9 in normal and cancer cells. To expand our studies of KAP1, we next performed a complete genomic analysis of KAP1 binding using a 38-array tiling set, identifying ~7,000 KAP1 binding sites. The identified KAP1 targets were highly enriched for C2H2 ZNFs, especially those containing Krüppel-associated box (KRAB domains. Interestingly, although most KAP1 binding sites were within core promoter regions, the binding sites near ZNF genes were greatly enriched within transcribed regions of the target genes. Because KAP1 is

  16. Intelligence, previous convictions and interrogative suggestibility: a path analysis of alleged false-confession cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, R; Gudjonsson, G H

    1993-05-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between interrogative suggestibility and previous convictions among 108 defendants in criminal trials, using a path analysis technique. It was hypothesized that previous convictions, which may provide defendants with interrogative experiences, would correlate negatively with 'shift' as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (Gudjonsson, 1984a), after intelligence and memory had been controlled for. The hypothesis was partially confirmed and the theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  17. Burden Analysis of Rare Microdeletions Suggests a Strong Impact of Neurodevelopmental Genes in Genetic Generalised Epilepsies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lal, Dennis; Ruppert, Ann-Kathrin; Trucks, Holger; Schulz, Herbert; de Kovel, Carolien G.; Trenite, Dorothee Kasteleijn-Nolst; Sonsma, Anja C. M.; Koeleman, Bobby P.; Lindhout, Dick; Weber, Yvonne G.; Lerche, Holger; Kapser, Claudia; Schankin, Christoph J.; Kunz, Wolfram S.; Surges, Rainer; Elger, Christian E.; Gaus, Verena; Schmitz, Bettina; Helbig, Ingo; Muhle, Hiltrud; Stephani, Ulrich; Klein, Karl M.; Rosenow, Felix; Neubauer, Bernd A.; Reinthaler, Eva M.; Zimprich, Fritz; Feucht, Martha; Moller, Rikke S.; Hjalgrim, Helle; De Jonghe, Peter; Suls, Arvid; Lieb, Wolfgang; Franke, Andre; Strauch, Konstantin; Gieger, Christian; Schurmann, Claudia; Schminke, Ulf; Nuernberg, Peter; Sander, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Genetic generalised epilepsy (GGE) is the most common form of genetic epilepsy, accounting for 20% of all epilepsies. Genomic copy number variations (CNVs) constitute important genetic risk factors of common GGE syndromes. In our present genome-wide burden analysis, large (>= 400 kb) and rare (= 200

  18. Burden analysis of rare microdeletions suggests a strong impact of neurodevelopmental genes in genetic generalised epilepsies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Lal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Genetic generalised epilepsy (GGE is the most common form of genetic epilepsy, accounting for 20% of all epilepsies. Genomic copy number variations (CNVs constitute important genetic risk factors of common GGE syndromes. In our present genome-wide burden analysis, large (≥ 400 kb and rare (< 1% autosomal microdeletions with high calling confidence (≥ 200 markers were assessed by the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array in European case-control cohorts of 1,366 GGE patients and 5,234 ancestry-matched controls. We aimed to: 1 assess the microdeletion burden in common GGE syndromes, 2 estimate the relative contribution of recurrent microdeletions at genomic rearrangement hotspots and non-recurrent microdeletions, and 3 identify potential candidate genes for GGE. We found a significant excess of microdeletions in 7.3% of GGE patients compared to 4.0% in controls (P = 1.8 x 10-7; OR = 1.9. Recurrent microdeletions at seven known genomic hotspots accounted for 36.9% of all microdeletions identified in the GGE cohort and showed a 7.5-fold increased burden (P = 2.6 x 10-17 relative to controls. Microdeletions affecting either a gene previously implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders (P = 8.0 x 10-18, OR = 4.6 or an evolutionarily conserved brain-expressed gene related to autism spectrum disorder (P = 1.3 x 10-12, OR = 4.1 were significantly enriched in the GGE patients. Microdeletions found only in GGE patients harboured a high proportion of genes previously associated with epilepsy and neuropsychiatric disorders (NRXN1, RBFOX1, PCDH7, KCNA2, EPM2A, RORB, PLCB1. Our results demonstrate that the significantly increased burden of large and rare microdeletions in GGE patients is largely confined to recurrent hotspot microdeletions and microdeletions affecting neurodevelopmental genes, suggesting a strong impact of fundamental neurodevelopmental processes in the pathogenesis of common GGE syndromes.

  19. Burden Analysis of Rare Microdeletions Suggests a Strong Impact of Neurodevelopmental Genes in Genetic Generalised Epilepsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks, Holger; Schulz, Herbert; de Kovel, Carolien G.; Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, Dorothée; Sonsma, Anja C. M.; Koeleman, Bobby P.; Lindhout, Dick; Weber, Yvonne G.; Lerche, Holger; Kapser, Claudia; Schankin, Christoph J.; Kunz, Wolfram S.; Surges, Rainer; Elger, Christian E.; Gaus, Verena; Schmitz, Bettina; Helbig, Ingo; Muhle, Hiltrud; Stephani, Ulrich; Klein, Karl M.; Rosenow, Felix; Neubauer, Bernd A.; Reinthaler, Eva M.; Zimprich, Fritz; Feucht, Martha; Møller, Rikke S.; Hjalgrim, Helle; De Jonghe, Peter; Suls, Arvid; Lieb, Wolfgang; Franke, Andre; Strauch, Konstantin; Gieger, Christian; Schurmann, Claudia; Schminke, Ulf; Nürnberg, Peter; Sander, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Genetic generalised epilepsy (GGE) is the most common form of genetic epilepsy, accounting for 20% of all epilepsies. Genomic copy number variations (CNVs) constitute important genetic risk factors of common GGE syndromes. In our present genome-wide burden analysis, large (≥ 400 kb) and rare (< 1%) autosomal microdeletions with high calling confidence (≥ 200 markers) were assessed by the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array in European case-control cohorts of 1,366 GGE patients and 5,234 ancestry-matched controls. We aimed to: 1) assess the microdeletion burden in common GGE syndromes, 2) estimate the relative contribution of recurrent microdeletions at genomic rearrangement hotspots and non-recurrent microdeletions, and 3) identify potential candidate genes for GGE. We found a significant excess of microdeletions in 7.3% of GGE patients compared to 4.0% in controls (P = 1.8 x 10-7; OR = 1.9). Recurrent microdeletions at seven known genomic hotspots accounted for 36.9% of all microdeletions identified in the GGE cohort and showed a 7.5-fold increased burden (P = 2.6 x 10-17) relative to controls. Microdeletions affecting either a gene previously implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders (P = 8.0 x 10-18, OR = 4.6) or an evolutionarily conserved brain-expressed gene related to autism spectrum disorder (P = 1.3 x 10-12, OR = 4.1) were significantly enriched in the GGE patients. Microdeletions found only in GGE patients harboured a high proportion of genes previously associated with epilepsy and neuropsychiatric disorders (NRXN1, RBFOX1, PCDH7, KCNA2, EPM2A, RORB, PLCB1). Our results demonstrate that the significantly increased burden of large and rare microdeletions in GGE patients is largely confined to recurrent hotspot microdeletions and microdeletions affecting neurodevelopmental genes, suggesting a strong impact of fundamental neurodevelopmental processes in the pathogenesis of common GGE syndromes. PMID:25950944

  20. Business Communication in Less Commonly Taught Languages: Teaching Suggestions through Discourse Analysis:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia V. Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge generated by studies in discourse analysis is rarely brought into the teaching of business communication in a foreign language. Instead of presenting learners with "samples" of language after which they will pattern their production, foreign language instructors may invite learners to analyze the interplay between text and context in their own and in others' discourses. Therefore, the teaching of communicative functions (such as requesting, apologizing, suggesting, etc. in foreign languages should go beyond the presentation, production and practice of textual forms: learners should be actively involved in doing discourse analysis in order to be able to make principled decisions when formulating suggestions in the workplace. In the case of less commonly taught languages, this approach is especially important, since textbooks and other teaching materials are not likely to include analysis and/ or focused applications of communicative functions. The recommendations included in this article contribute to fulfill this need in the teaching of LCTLs.

  1. Factor analysis of multivariate data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, A.A.; Mahadevan, R.

    A brief introduction to factor analysis is presented. A FORTRAN program, which can perform the Q-mode and R-mode factor analysis and the singular value decomposition of a given data matrix is presented in Appendix B. This computer program, uses...

  2. Factor Analysis of Intern Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Sid T.; Hannah, Shellie Louise; Bell, Columbus David

    2012-01-01

    Four factors in teaching intern effectiveness, as measured by a Praxis III-similar instrument, were found among observational data of teaching interns during the 2010 spring semester. Those factors were lesson planning, teacher/student reflection, fairness & safe environment, and professionalism/efficacy. This factor analysis was as much of a…

  3. Factor analysis and missing data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamakura, WA; Wedel, M

    2000-01-01

    The authors study the estimation of factor models and the imputation of missing data and propose an approach that provides direct estimates of factor weights without the replacement of missing data with imputed values. First, the approach is useful in applications of factor analysis in the presence

  4. Analysis on Protection of GI Product Hanyuan Chinese Prickly Ash and Suggestions of its Industrial Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Hanyuan Prickly Ash is a type of GI products with very deep cultural essence.From such humanistic factors as name origin,historical origin,fame,cultivation technology,and management measure,and such natural factors as climatic environment and soil conditions,this paper analysis key factors for protection of GI product Hanyuan Prickly Ash.Then it discusses about industrial development of Hanyuan Prickly Ash from suitable planting areas and climate.It proposes that we should gradually raise safety and hygienic indexes,revise and implement local standards,strengthen popularization of harmless production technologies and quality control of product,promote "enterprise + base" industrial model,and implement government marketing of brand and industry.

  5. Multiple pathways for steel regulation suggested by genomic and sequence analysis of the murine Steel gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedell, M.A.; Copeland, N.G.; Jenkins, N.A. [NCI-Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, Frederick, MD (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The Steel (Sl) locus encodes mast cell growth factor (Mgf) that is required for the development of germ cells, hematopoietic cells and melanocytes. Although the expression patterns of the Mgf gene are well characterized, little is known of the factors which regulate its expression. Here, we describe the cloning and sequence of the full-length transcription unit and the 5{prime} flanking region of the murine Mgf gene. The full-length Mgf mRNA consists of a short 5{prime} untranslated region (UTR), a 0.8-kb ORF and a long 3{prime} UTR. A single transcription initiation site is used in a number of mouse tissues and is located just downstream of binding sites for several known transcription factors. In the 5{prime} UTR, two ATGs were found upstream of the initiator methionine and are conserved among different species, suggesting that Mgf may be translationally regulated. At least two Mgf mRNAs are produced by alternative use of polyadenylation sites, but numerous other potential polyadenylation sites were found in the 3{prime} UTR. In addition, the 3{prime} UTR contains numerous sequence motifs that may regulate Mgf mRNA stability. These studies suggest multiple ways in which expression of Mgf may be regulated. 39 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Analysis on Protection of GI Product Liupao Tea and Suggestions of its Industrial Supervision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    From humanistic characteristics,historical origin,fame,quality,and the correlation between quality and production region,we analyze key factors of protection for Geographic Indication product Liupao Tea.We also analyze industrial development of Liupao Tea from processing threshold,scale of processing enterprises,standard and index,planting base,research and development and technology popularization,and pesticide control.In line with these situations,we put forward following suggestions.First,it is proposed to raise standard index and formulate national standard for Liupao Tea.Second,we should popularize the industrial mode of "market + association(enterprise) + base" and establish demonstration area for protection of Geographic Indication product Liupao Tea.Third,it is recommended to raise the production and processing threshold.Fourth,we should establish special production inspection and research and development institution.Fifth,it is suggested to set up independent supervision organization.

  7. Factors Which Facilitate or Impede Interpersonal Interactions and Relationships after Spinal Cord Injury: A Scoping Review with Suggestions for Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delena Amsters

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal interactions and relationships can influence an individual’s perceptions of health and quality of life in the presence of disability. In the case of people with spinal cord injury (SCI, positive interpersonal interactions and relationships have been shown to contribute to resilience and adaptability. Understanding factors which facilitate or impede the development and maintenance of relationships after SCI may form the basis for proactive relationship support for people with SCI. To gain a broad insight into these factors, a scoping review was undertaken. Databases were searched for English language studies published between 2000 and 2015 that informed the review question. Sixty-two (62 studies were identified. Thematic analysis was conducted on data extracted from the studies and 51 factors which may facilitate relationships and 38 factors which may impede relationships after SCI were noted. The majority of factors could be categorized as environmental or personal according to the domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF. The facilitating factors included partner and social support, reciprocity in relationships, and presenting oneself positively. Impeding factors included physical environmental barriers, real and perceived social biases, and poor self-image. Factors identified may inform the provision of supportive, holistic rehabilitation for people with SCI.

  8. Factors Which Facilitate or Impede Interpersonal Interactions and Relationships after Spinal Cord Injury: A Scoping Review with Suggestions for Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsters, Delena; Schuurs, Sarita; Pershouse, Kiley; Power, Bettina; Harestad, Yvonne; Kendall, Melissa; Kuipers, Pim

    2016-01-01

    Interpersonal interactions and relationships can influence an individual's perceptions of health and quality of life in the presence of disability. In the case of people with spinal cord injury (SCI), positive interpersonal interactions and relationships have been shown to contribute to resilience and adaptability. Understanding factors which facilitate or impede the development and maintenance of relationships after SCI may form the basis for proactive relationship support for people with SCI. To gain a broad insight into these factors, a scoping review was undertaken. Databases were searched for English language studies published between 2000 and 2015 that informed the review question. Sixty-two (62) studies were identified. Thematic analysis was conducted on data extracted from the studies and 51 factors which may facilitate relationships and 38 factors which may impede relationships after SCI were noted. The majority of factors could be categorized as environmental or personal according to the domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). The facilitating factors included partner and social support, reciprocity in relationships, and presenting oneself positively. Impeding factors included physical environmental barriers, real and perceived social biases, and poor self-image. Factors identified may inform the provision of supportive, holistic rehabilitation for people with SCI.

  9. Metagenomic analysis suggests modern freshwater microbialites harbor a core and distinct microbial community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Allen White III

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern microbialites are complex microbial communities that interface with abiotic factors to form carbonate-rich organosedimentary structures whose ancestors provide the earliest evidence of life. Past studies primarily on marine microbialites have inventoried diverse taxa and metabolic pathways, but it is unclear which of these are members of the microbialite community and which are introduced from adjacent environments. Here we control for these factors by sampling the surrounding water and nearby sediment, in addition to the microbialites and use a metagenomics approach to interrogate the microbial community. Our findings suggest that the Pavilion Lake microbialite community profile, metabolic potential and pathway distributions are distinct from those in the neighboring sediments and water. Based on RefSeq classification, members of the Proteobacteria (e.g alpha and delta classes were the dominant taxa in the microbialites, and possessed novel functional guilds associated with the metabolism of heavy metals, antibiotic resistance, primary alcohol biosynthesis and urea metabolism; the latter may help drive biomineralization. Urea metabolism within Pavilion Lake microbialites is a feature not previously associated in other microbialites. The microbialite communities were also significantly enriched for cyanobacteria and acidobacteria, which likely play an important role in biomineralization. Additional findings suggest that Pavilion Lake microbialites are under viral selection as genes associated with viral infection (e.g CRISPR-Cas, phage shock and phage excision are abundant within the microbialite metagenomes. The morphology of Pavilion Lake microbialites changes dramatically with depth; yet, metagenomic data did not vary significantly by morphology or depth, indicating that microbialite morphology is altered by other factors, perhaps transcriptional differences or abiotic conditions. This work provides a comprehensive metagenomic

  10. Exome Sequence Analysis Suggests that Genetic Burden Contributes to Phenotypic Variability and Complex Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gonzaga-Jauregui

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT disease is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous distal symmetric polyneuropathy. Whole-exome sequencing (WES of 40 individuals from 37 unrelated families with CMT-like peripheral neuropathy refractory to molecular diagnosis identified apparent causal mutations in ∼45% (17/37 of families. Three candidate disease genes are proposed, supported by a combination of genetic and in vivo studies. Aggregate analysis of mutation data revealed a significantly increased number of rare variants across 58 neuropathy-associated genes in subjects versus controls, confirmed in a second ethnically discrete neuropathy cohort, suggesting that mutation burden potentially contributes to phenotypic variability. Neuropathy genes shown to have highly penetrant Mendelizing variants (HPMVs and implicated by burden in families were shown to interact genetically in a zebrafish assay exacerbating the phenotype established by the suppression of single genes. Our findings suggest that the combinatorial effect of rare variants contributes to disease burden and variable expressivity.

  11. Exome sequence analysis suggests genetic burden contributes to phenotypic variability and complex neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Harel, Tamar; Gambin, Tomasz; Kousi, Maria; Griffin, Laurie B.; Francescatto, Ludmila; Ozes, Burcak; Karaca, Ender; Jhangiani, Shalini; Bainbridge, Matthew N.; Lawson, Kim S.; Pehlivan, Davut; Okamoto, Yuji; Withers, Marjorie; Mancias, Pedro; Slavotinek, Anne; Reitnauer, Pamela J; Goksungur, Meryem T.; Shy, Michael; Crawford, Thomas O.; Koenig, Michel; Willer, Jason; Flores, Brittany N.; Pediaditrakis, Igor; Us, Onder; Wiszniewski, Wojciech; Parman, Yesim; Antonellis, Anthony; Muzny, Donna M.; Katsanis, Nicholas; Battaloglu, Esra; Boerwinkle, Eric; Gibbs, Richard A.; Lupski, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous distal symmetric polyneuropathy. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) of 40 individuals from 37 unrelated families with CMT-like peripheral neuropathy refractory to molecular diagnosis identified apparent causal mutations in ~45% (17/37) of families. Three candidate disease genes are proposed, supported by a combination of genetic and in vivo studies. Aggregate analysis of mutation data revealed a significantly increased number of rare variants across 58 neuropathy associated genes in subjects versus controls; confirmed in a second ethnically discrete neuropathy cohort, suggesting mutation burden potentially contributes to phenotypic variability. Neuropathy genes shown to have highly penetrant Mendelizing variants (HMPVs) and implicated by burden in families were shown to interact genetically in a zebrafish assay exacerbating the phenotype established by the suppression of single genes. Our findings suggest that the combinatorial effect of rare variants contributes to disease burden and variable expressivity. PMID:26257172

  12. In silico analysis suggests interaction between Ebola virus and the extracellular matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljko eVeljkovic

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The worst Ebola virus (EV outbreak in history has hit Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea hardest and the trendlines in this crisis are grave, and now represents global public health threat concern. Limited therapeutic and/or prophylactic options which are available for humans suffering from Ebola virus disease (EVD further complicate situation. Previous studies suggested that the EV glycoprotein (GP is the main determinant causing structural damage of endothelial cells that triggers the hemorrhagic diathesis, but molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remains elusive. Using the informational spectrum method (ISM, a virtual spectroscopy method for analysis of the protein-protein interactions, the interaction of GP with endothelial extracellular matrix (ECM was investigated. Presented results of this in silico study suggest that Elastin Microfibril Interface Located Proteins (EMILINs are involved in interaction between GP and ECM. This finding could contribute to better understanding of EV/endothelium interaction and its role in pathogenesis, prevention and therapy of EVD.

  13. Kaizen practice in healthcare: a qualitative analysis of hospital employees' suggestions for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocato, Pamela; Stenfors-Hayes, Terese; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Hasson, Henna; Nyström, Monica Elisabeth

    2016-07-29

    Kaizen, or continuous improvement, lies at the core of lean. Kaizen is implemented through practices that enable employees to propose ideas for improvement and solve problems. The aim of this study is to describe the types of issues and improvement suggestions that hospital employees feel empowered to address through kaizen practices in order to understand when and how kaizen is used in healthcare. We analysed 186 structured kaizen documents containing improvement suggestions that were produced by 165 employees at a Swedish hospital. Directed content analysis was used to categorise the suggestions into following categories: type of situation (proactive or reactive) triggering an action; type of process addressed (technical/administrative, support and clinical); complexity level (simple or complex); and type of outcomes aimed for (operational or sociotechnical). Compliance to the kaizen template was calculated. 72% of the improvement suggestions were reactions to a perceived problem. Support, technical and administrative, and primary clinical processes were involved in 47%, 38% and 16% of the suggestions, respectively. The majority of the kaizen documents addressed simple situations and focused on operational outcomes. The degree of compliance to the kaizen template was high for several items concerning the identification of problems and the proposed solutions, and low for items related to the test and implementation of solutions. There is a need to combine kaizen practices with improvement and innovation practices that help staff and managers to address complex issues, such as the improvement of clinical care processes. The limited focus on sociotechnical aspects and the partial compliance to kaizen templates may indicate a limited understanding of the entire kaizen process and of how it relates to the overall organisational goals. This in turn can hamper the sustainability of kaizen practices and results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  14. First course in factor analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Comrey, Andrew L

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this book is to foster a basic understanding of factor analytic techniques so that readers can use them in their own research and critically evaluate their use by other researchers. Both the underlying theory and correct application are emphasized. The theory is presented through the mathematical basis of the most common factor analytic models and several methods used in factor analysis. On the application side, considerable attention is given to the extraction problem, the rotation problem, and the interpretation of factor analytic results. Hence, readers are given a background of

  15. Molecular Network Analysis Suggests Aberrant CREB-Mediated Gene Regulation in the Alzheimer Disease Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichi Satoh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD involves the complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors affecting multiple cellular pathways. Recent advances in systems biology provide a system-level understanding of AD by elucidating the genome-wide molecular interactions. By using KeyMolnet, a bioinformatics tool for analyzing molecular interactions on the curated knowledgebase, we characterized molecular network of 2,883 all stages of AD-related genes (ADGs and 559 incipient AD-related genes (IADGs identified by global gene expression profiling of the hippocampal CA1 region of AD brains in terms of significant clinical and pathological correlations (Blalock et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101: 2173-2178, 2004. By the common upstream search, KeyMolnet identified cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB as the principal transcription factor exhibiting the most significant relevance to molecular networks of both ADGs and IADGs. The CREB-regulated transcriptional network included upregulated and downregulated sets of ADGs and IADGs, suggesting an involvement of generalized deregulation of the CREB signaling pathway in the pathophysiology of AD, beginning at the early stage of the disease. To verify the in silico observations in vivo, we conducted immunohistochemical studies of 11 AD and 13 age-matched control brains by using anti-phoshorylated CREB (pCREB antibody. An abnormal accumulation of pCREB imunoreactivity was identified in granules of granulovacuolar degeneration (GVD in the hippocampal neurons of AD brains. These observations suggest that aberrant CREB-mediated gene regulation serves as a molecular biomarker of AD-related pathological processes, and support the hypothesis that sequestration of pCREB in GVD granules is in part responsible for deregulation of CREB-mediated gene expression in AD hippocampus.

  16. Problems in wavelet analysis of hydrologic series and some suggestions on improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hongrui; YE Letian; LIU Changming; YANG Chi; LIU Peng

    2007-01-01

    Applying the wavelet theory and methods to investigate the hydrologic processes such as precipitation and runoff is a hot field. However, several aspects in research are usually ignored: the effect of admissible condition of wavelet functions and the disturbance of noises for the detection of periods, the effect of the length of a hydrologic time-series on the final result, and the choice between the anomaly and the original time series for wavelet analysis. In this paper, these issues are fully discussed. Precipitation data from Lanzhou Precipitation Station are taken for case study. The result indicates that in the wavelet analysis of hydrologic series, denoise methods should be used to eliminate the influence of noises. The MexHat wavelet function satisfies the admissible condition, which ensures that the periodic properties of hydrologic processes can be well represented by using the MexHat wavelet for decomposition. The affected range of hydrologic series which should be discarded before analysis is given. It is also suggested that the anomaly series should be used to highlight the actual undulation of the hydrologic series.

  17. Main Consequences of IFRS Adoption: Analysis of Existing Literature and Suggestions for Further Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Maria Estima Costa Lourenço

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study characterizes the results of scientific research on the effect of adopting the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS that have been published in the most prestigious scientific journals in the field of accounting at the international level and it identifies avenues for further research. Based on the analysis of a set of 67 articles published by the accounting journals that make up the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI, published between 2000 and 2013, it is concluded that, as a general rule, IFRS adoption has a positive effect on information quality, the capital market, analysts' ability to predict, comparability, and information use. Nevertheless, this effect depends on some factors, such as country's characteristics (namely, the enforcement level and companies' characteristics. Sharing rules is not, by itself, enough to create a common business language, and management incentives and institutional factors play a major role in framing the characteristics of financial reporting. Finally, some gaps are identified in the literature and avenues for further research are introduced.

  18. Association Analysis Suggests SOD2 as a Newly Identified Candidate Gene Associated With Leprosy Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Geovana Brotto; Salomão, Heloisa; Francio, Angela Schneider; Fava, Vinícius Medeiros; Werneck, Renata Iani; Mira, Marcelo Távora

    2016-08-01

    Genetic studies have identified several genes and genomic regions contributing to the control of host susceptibility to leprosy. Here, we test variants of the positional and functional candidate gene SOD2 for association with leprosy in 2 independent population samples. Family-based analysis revealed an association between leprosy and allele G of marker rs295340 (P = .042) and borderline evidence of an association between leprosy and alleles C and A of markers rs4880 (P = .077) and rs5746136 (P = .071), respectively. Findings were validated in an independent case-control sample for markers rs295340 (P = .049) and rs4880 (P = .038). These results suggest SOD2 as a newly identified gene conferring susceptibility to leprosy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Novel analysis of oceanic surface water metagenomes suggests importance of polyphosphate metabolism in oligotrophic environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Temperton

    Full Text Available Polyphosphate is a ubiquitous linear homopolymer of phosphate residues linked by high-energy bonds similar to those found in ATP. It has been associated with many processes including pathogenicity, DNA uptake and multiple stress responses across all domains. Bacteria have also been shown to use polyphosphate as a way to store phosphate when transferred from phosphate-limited to phosphate-rich media--a process exploited in wastewater treatment and other environmental contaminant remediation. Despite this, there has, to date, been little research into the role of polyphosphate in the survival of marine bacterioplankton in oligotrophic environments. The three main proteins involved in polyphosphate metabolism, Ppk1, Ppk2 and Ppx are multi-domain and have differential inter-domain and inter-gene conservation, making unbiased analysis of relative abundance in metagenomic datasets difficult. This paper describes the development of a novel Isofunctional Homolog Annotation Tool (IHAT to detect homologs of genes with a broad range of conservation without bias of traditional expect-value cutoffs. IHAT analysis of the Global Ocean Sampling (GOS dataset revealed that genes associated with polyphosphate metabolism are more abundant in environments where available phosphate is limited, suggesting an important role for polyphosphate metabolism in marine oligotrophs.

  20. The Vindija Neanderthal scapular glenoid fossa: comparative shape analysis suggests evo-devo changes among Neanderthals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vincenzo, Fabio; Churchill, Steven E; Manzi, Giorgio

    2012-02-01

    Although the shape of the scapular glenoid fossa (SGF) may be influenced by epigenetic and developmental factors, there appears to be strong genetic control over its overall form, such that variation within and between hominin taxa in SGF shape may contain information about their evolutionary histories. Here we present the results of a geometric morphometric study of the SGF of the Neanderthal Vi-209 from Vindjia Cave (Croatia), relative to samples of Plio-Pleistocene, later Pleistocene, and recent hominins. Variation in overall SGF shape follows a chronological trend from the plesiomorphic condition seen in Australopithecus to modern humans, with pre-modern species of the genus Homo exhibiting intermediate morphologies. Change in body size across this temporal series is not linearly directional, which argues against static allometry as an explanation. However, life history and developmental rates change directionally across the series, suggesting an ontogenetic effect on the observed changes in shape (ontogenetic allometry). Within this framework, the morphospace occupied by the Neanderthals exhibits a discontinuous distribution. The Vindija SGF and those of the later Near Eastern Neanderthals (Kebara and Shanidar) approach the modern condition and are somewhat segregated from both northwestern European (Neandertal and La Ferrassie) and early Mediterranean Neanderthals (Krapina and Tabun). Although more than one scenario may account for the pattern seen in the Neanderthals, the data is consistent with palaeogenetic evidence suggesting low levels of gene flow between Neanderthals and modern humans in the Near East after ca. 120-100 ka (thousands of years ago) (with subsequent introgression of modern human alleles into eastern and central Europe). Thus, in keeping with previous analyses that document some modern human features in the Vindija Neanderthals, the Vindija G(3) sample should not be seen as representative of 'classic'--that is, unadmixed, pre

  1. Experimental burn plot trial in the Kruger National Park: history, experimental design and suggestions for data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Biggs

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimental burn plot (EBP trial initiated in 1954 is one of few ongoing long-termfire ecology research projects in Africa. The trial aims to assess the impacts of differentfire regimes in the Kruger National Park. Recent studies on the EBPs have raised questions as to the experimental design of the trial, and the appropriate model specificationwhen analysing data. Archival documentation reveals that the original design was modified on several occasions, related to changes in the park's fire policy. These modifications include the addition of extra plots, subdivision of plots and changes in treatmentsover time, and have resulted in a design which is only partially randomised. The representativity of the trial plots has been questioned on account of their relatively small size,the concentration of herbivores on especially the frequently burnt plots, and soil variation between plots. It is suggested that these factors be included as covariates inexplanatory models or that certain plots be excluded from data analysis based on resultsof independent studies of these factors. Suggestions are provided for the specificationof the experimental design when analysing data using Analysis of Variance. It is concluded that there is no practical alternative to treating the trial as a fully randomisedcomplete block design.

  2. Analysis of acetylation stoichiometry suggests that SIRT3 repairs nonenzymatic acetylation lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinert, Brian T; Moustafa, Tarek; Iesmantavicius, Vytautas; Zechner, Rudolf; Choudhary, Chunaram

    2015-11-03

    Acetylation is frequently detected on mitochondrial enzymes, and the sirtuin deacetylase SIRT3 is thought to regulate metabolism by deacetylating mitochondrial proteins. However, the stoichiometry of acetylation has not been studied and is important for understanding whether SIRT3 regulates or suppresses acetylation. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we measured acetylation stoichiometry in mouse liver tissue and found that SIRT3 suppressed acetylation to a very low stoichiometry at its target sites. By examining acetylation changes in the liver, heart, brain, and brown adipose tissue of fasted mice, we found that SIRT3-targeted sites were mostly unaffected by fasting, a dietary manipulation that is thought to regulate metabolism through SIRT3-dependent deacetylation. Globally increased mitochondrial acetylation in fasted liver tissue, higher stoichiometry at mitochondrial acetylation sites, and greater sensitivity of SIRT3-targeted sites to chemical acetylation in vitro and fasting-induced acetylation in vivo, suggest a nonenzymatic mechanism of acetylation. Our data indicate that most mitochondrial acetylation occurs as a low-level nonenzymatic protein lesion and that SIRT3 functions as a protein repair factor that removes acetylation lesions from lysine residues.

  3. Activation of Vago by interferon regulatory factor (IRF) suggests an interferon system-like antiviral mechanism in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaozheng; Li, Haoyang; Chen, Yixiao; Chen, Yonggui; Wang, Sheng; Weng, Shao-Ping; Xu, Xiaopeng; He, Jianguo

    2015-10-13

    There is a debate on whether invertebrates possess an antiviral immunity similar to the interferon (IFN) system of vertebrates. The Vago gene from arthropods encodes a viral-activated secreted peptide that restricts virus infection through activating the JAK-STAT pathway and is considered to be a cytokine functionally similar to IFN. In this study, the first crustacean IFN regulatory factor (IRF)-like gene was identified in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. The L. vannamei IRF showed similar protein nature to mammalian IRFs and could be activated during virus infection. As a transcriptional regulatory factor, L. vannamei IRF could activate the IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE)-containing promoter to regulate the expression of mammalian type I IFNs and initiate an antiviral state in mammalian cells. More importantly, IRF could bind the 5'-untranslated region of L. vannamei Vago4 gene and activate its transcription, suggesting that shrimp Vago may be induced in a similar manner to that of IFNs and supporting the opinion that Vago might function as an IFN-like molecule in invertebrates. These suggested that shrimp might possess an IRF-Vago-JAK/STAT regulatory axis, which is similar to the IRF-IFN-JAK/STAT axis of vertebrates, indicating that invertebrates might possess an IFN system-like antiviral mechanism.

  4. Bioinformatics analysis suggests base modifications of tRNAs and miRNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hailing

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modifications of RNA bases have been found in some mRNAs and non-coding RNAs including rRNAs, tRNAs, and snRNAs, where modified bases are important for RNA function. Little is known about RNA base modifications in Arabidopsis thaliana. Results In the current work, we carried out a bioinformatics analysis of RNA base modifications in tRNAs and miRNAs using large numbers of cDNA sequences of small RNAs (sRNAs generated with the 454 technology and the massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS method. We looked for sRNAs that map to the genome sequence with one-base mismatch (OMM, which indicate candidate modified nucleotides. We obtained 1,187 sites with possible RNA base modifications supported by both 454 and MPSS sequences. Seven hundred and three of these sites were within tRNA loci. Nucleotide substitutions were frequently located in the T arm (substitutions from A to U or G, upstream of the D arm (from G to C, U, or A, and downstream of the D arm (from G to U. The positions of major substitution sites corresponded with the following known RNA base modifications in tRNAs: N1-methyladenosine (m1A, N2-methylguanosine (m2G, and N2-N2-methylguanosine (m22G. Conclusion These results indicate that our bioinformatics method successfully detected modified nucleotides in tRNAs. Using this method, we also found 147 substitution sites in miRNA loci. As with tRNAs, substitutions from A to U or G and from G to C, U, or A were common, suggesting that base modifications might be similar in tRNAs and miRNAs. We suggest that miRNAs contain modified bases and such modifications might be important for miRNA maturation and/or function.

  5. Transforming Rubrics Using Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryla, Ed; Shelley, Gary; Trainor, William

    2012-01-01

    Student learning and program effectiveness is often assessed using rubrics. While much time and effort may go into their creation, it is equally important to assess how effective and efficient the rubrics actually are in terms of measuring competencies over a number of criteria. This study demonstrates the use of common factor analysis to identify…

  6. Genomic survey, gene expression analysis and structural modeling suggest diverse roles of DNA methyltransferases in legumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Garg

    Full Text Available DNA methylation plays a crucial role in development through inheritable gene silencing. Plants possess three types of DNA methyltransferases (MTases, namely Methyltransferase (MET, Chromomethylase (CMT and Domains Rearranged Methyltransferase (DRM, which maintain methylation at CG, CHG and CHH sites. DNA MTases have not been studied in legumes so far. Here, we report the identification and analysis of putative DNA MTases in five legumes, including chickpea, soybean, pigeonpea, Medicago and Lotus. MTases in legumes could be classified in known MET, CMT, DRM and DNA nucleotide methyltransferases (DNMT2 subfamilies based on their domain organization. First three MTases represent DNA MTases, whereas DNMT2 represents a transfer RNA (tRNA MTase. Structural comparison of all the MTases in plants with known MTases in mammalian and plant systems have been reported to assign structural features in context of biological functions of these proteins. The structure analysis clearly specified regions crucial for protein-protein interactions and regions important for nucleosome binding in various domains of CMT and MET proteins. In addition, structural model of DRM suggested that circular permutation of motifs does not have any effect on overall structure of DNA methyltransferase domain. These results provide valuable insights into role of various domains in molecular recognition and should facilitate mechanistic understanding of their function in mediating specific methylation patterns. Further, the comprehensive gene expression analyses of MTases in legumes provided evidence of their role in various developmental processes throughout the plant life cycle and response to various abiotic stresses. Overall, our study will be very helpful in establishing the specific functions of DNA MTases in legumes.

  7. Genomic survey, gene expression analysis and structural modeling suggest diverse roles of DNA methyltransferases in legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rohini; Kumari, Romika; Tiwari, Sneha; Goyal, Shweta

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation plays a crucial role in development through inheritable gene silencing. Plants possess three types of DNA methyltransferases (MTases), namely Methyltransferase (MET), Chromomethylase (CMT) and Domains Rearranged Methyltransferase (DRM), which maintain methylation at CG, CHG and CHH sites. DNA MTases have not been studied in legumes so far. Here, we report the identification and analysis of putative DNA MTases in five legumes, including chickpea, soybean, pigeonpea, Medicago and Lotus. MTases in legumes could be classified in known MET, CMT, DRM and DNA nucleotide methyltransferases (DNMT2) subfamilies based on their domain organization. First three MTases represent DNA MTases, whereas DNMT2 represents a transfer RNA (tRNA) MTase. Structural comparison of all the MTases in plants with known MTases in mammalian and plant systems have been reported to assign structural features in context of biological functions of these proteins. The structure analysis clearly specified regions crucial for protein-protein interactions and regions important for nucleosome binding in various domains of CMT and MET proteins. In addition, structural model of DRM suggested that circular permutation of motifs does not have any effect on overall structure of DNA methyltransferase domain. These results provide valuable insights into role of various domains in molecular recognition and should facilitate mechanistic understanding of their function in mediating specific methylation patterns. Further, the comprehensive gene expression analyses of MTases in legumes provided evidence of their role in various developmental processes throughout the plant life cycle and response to various abiotic stresses. Overall, our study will be very helpful in establishing the specific functions of DNA MTases in legumes.

  8. Path analysis suggests phytoene accumulation is the key step limiting the carotenoid pathway in white carrot roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Fernandes Santos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two F2 carrot (Daucus carota L. populations (orange rooted Brasilia x very dark orange rooted High Carotene Mass - HCM cross and the dark orange rooted cultivated variety B493 x white rooted wild carrot Queen Anne's Lace - QAL cross with very unrelated genetic backgrounds were used to investigate intrinsic factors limiting carotenoid accumulation in carrots by applying phenotypic correlation and path analysis to study the relationships between major root carotenes, root color and several other morphological traits. Most of the correlations between traits were close and agreed in sign between the two populations. Root weight had a moderate to highly significant positive correlation with leaf length, root length and top and middle root diameter. Although phenotypic correlations failed to identify the order of the substrates and products in the carotenoid pathway the correct order of substrates and products (phytoene -> zeta-carotene -> lycopene was identified in the causal diagram of beta-carotene for the Brasilia x HCM population. Path analysis of beta-carotene synthesis in the B493 x QAL population suggested that selection for root carotenes had little effect on plant morphological traits. Causal model of beta-carotene and lycopene in the B493 x QAL population suggested that phytoene synthesis is the key step limiting the carotenoid pathway in white carrots. Path analysis, first presented by Sewall Wright to study quantitative traits, appears to be a powerful statistical approach for the identification of key compounds in complex pathways.

  9. Meta-analysis of phenotypic selection on flowering phenology suggests that early flowering plants are favoured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A; Ollerton, Jeff; Parra-Tabla, Victor; De-Nova, J Arturo

    2011-05-01

    Flowering times of plants are important life-history components and it has previously been hypothesized that flowering phenologies may be currently subject to natural selection or be selectively neutral. In this study we reviewed the evidence for phenotypic selection acting on flowering phenology using ordinary and phylogenetic meta-analysis. Phenotypic selection exists when a phenotypic trait co-varies with fitness; therefore, we looked for studies reporting an association between two components of flowering phenology (flowering time or flowering synchrony) with fitness. Data sets comprising 87 and 18 plant species were then used to assess the incidence and strength of phenotypic selection on flowering time and flowering synchrony, respectively. The influence of dependence on pollinators, the duration of the reproductive event, latitude and plant longevity as moderators of selection were also explored. Our results suggest that selection favours early flowering plants, but the strength of selection is influenced by latitude, with selection being stronger in temperate environments. However, there is no consistent pattern of selection on flowering synchrony. Our study demonstrates that phenotypic selection on flowering time is consistent and relatively strong, in contrast to previous hypotheses of selective neutrality, and has implications for the evolution of temperate floras under global climate change. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  10. Comparative skull analysis suggests species-specific captivity-related malformation in lions (Panthera leo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Saragusty

    Full Text Available Lion (Panthera leo populations have dramatically decreased worldwide with a surviving population estimated at 32,000 across the African savannah. Lions have been kept in captivity for centuries and, although they reproduce well, high rates of stillbirths as well as morbidity and mortality of neonate and young lions are reported. Many of these cases are associated with bone malformations, including foramen magnum (FM stenosis and thickened tentorium cerebelli. The precise causes of these malformations and whether they are unique to captive lions remain unclear. To test whether captivity is associated with FM stenosis, we evaluated 575 lion skulls of wild (N = 512 and captive (N = 63 origin. Tiger skulls (N = 276; 56 captive, 220 wild were measured for comparison. While no differences were found between males and females or between subadults and adults in FM height (FMH, FMH of captive lions (17.36±3.20 mm was significantly smaller and with greater variability when compared to that in wild lions (19.77±2.11 mm. There was no difference between wild (18.47±1.26 mm and captive (18.56±1.64 mm tigers in FMH. Birth origin (wild vs. captive as a factor for FMH remained significant in lions even after controlling for age and sex. Whereas only 20/473 wild lions (4.2% had FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile of the wild population (16.60 mm, this was evident in 40.4% (23/57 of captive lion skulls. Similar comparison for tigers found no differences between the captive and wild populations. Lions with FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile had wider skulls with smaller cranial volume. Cranial volume remained smaller in both male and female captive lions when controlled for skull size. These findings suggest species- and captivity-related predisposition for the pathology in lions.

  11. Statistical analysis of iron geochemical data suggests limited late Proterozoic oxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Erik A.; Wolock, Charles J.; Morgan, Alex S.; Gill, Benjamin C.; Kunzmann, Marcus; Halverson, Galen P.; MacDonald, Francis A.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Johnston, David T.

    2015-07-01

    Sedimentary rocks deposited across the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic transition record extreme climate fluctuations, a potential rise in atmospheric oxygen or re-organization of the seafloor redox landscape, and the initial diversification of animals. It is widely assumed that the inferred redox change facilitated the observed trends in biodiversity. Establishing this palaeoenvironmental context, however, requires that changes in marine redox structure be tracked by means of geochemical proxies and translated into estimates of atmospheric oxygen. Iron-based proxies are among the most effective tools for tracking the redox chemistry of ancient oceans. These proxies are inherently local, but have global implications when analysed collectively and statistically. Here we analyse about 4,700 iron-speciation measurements from shales 2,300 to 360 million years old. Our statistical analyses suggest that subsurface water masses in mid-Proterozoic oceans were predominantly anoxic and ferruginous (depleted in dissolved oxygen and iron-bearing), but with a tendency towards euxinia (sulfide-bearing) that is not observed in the Neoproterozoic era. Analyses further indicate that early animals did not experience appreciable benthic sulfide stress. Finally, unlike proxies based on redox-sensitive trace-metal abundances, iron geochemical data do not show a statistically significant change in oxygen content through the Ediacaran and Cambrian periods, sharply constraining the magnitude of the end-Proterozoic oxygen increase. Indeed, this re-analysis of trace-metal data is consistent with oxygenation continuing well into the Palaeozoic era. Therefore, if changing redox conditions facilitated animal diversification, it did so through a limited rise in oxygen past critical functional and ecological thresholds, as is seen in modern oxygen minimum zone benthic animal communities.

  12. Analysis of pea HMG-I/Y expression suggests a role in defence gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterman, Steven J; Choi, Jane J; Hadwiger, Lee A

    2003-07-01

    SUMMARY HMG-I/Y proteins are characterized by the presence of AT-hook motifs, DNA binding domains that recognize AT-rich tracts of DNA. By facilitating protein:protein and protein:DNA interactions in the vicinity of these AT-rich binding sites, HMG-I/Y positively or negatively regulates gene expression. Several pea defence gene promoters have AT-rich tracts of DNA that are potential targets for modulation via HMG-I/Y. In this study, a comparison of the expression of a pea defence gene (DRR206) mRNA relative to the expression of HMG-I/Y mRNA was monitored by Northern analysis following the inoculation of a fungal pathogen, Fusarium solani or treatment with chitosan and a F. solani DNase (Fsph DNase). In pea pod endocarp tissue, HMG-I/Y expression was observed at high levels in untreated tissue and at lower levels 6 h following inoculation or wounding of the tissue. Western blots with an antipea HMG-I/Y polyclonal antibody also revealed that pea HMG-I/Y is expressed at decreased levels 6 h following inoculation or elicitor treatment. HMG-I/Y extracted from pea caused alterations in the gel migration of radio-labelled AT-rich sequences from the pea DRR206 promoter, suggesting that similar interactions could exist in vivo. Agroinfiltration was utilized to express the pea HMG-I/Y gene in tobacco containing a chimeric gene fusion of a promoter from the PR gene, DRR206, and the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. Transient expression of pea HMG-I/Y led to a decrease in GUS reporter gene activity in the heterologous tobacco system. These data implicate pea HMG-I/Y abundance in the down-regulation of DRR206 gene expression, and possibly HMG-I/Y depletion in the expression of defence genes in pea.

  13. Promoter Escape with Bacterial Two-component σ Factor Suggests Retention of σ Region Two in the Elongation Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Shreya; Prajapati, Ranjit Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Jayanta

    2015-11-20

    The transition from the formation of the RNA polymerase (RNAP)-promoter open complex step to the productive elongation complex step involves "promoter escape" of RNAP. From the structure of RNAP, a promoter escape model has been proposed that suggests that the interactions between σR4 and RNAP and σR4 and DNA are destabilized upon transition to elongation. This accounts for the reduced affinity of σ to RNAP and stochastic release of σ. However, as the loss of interaction of σR4 with RNAP results in the release of intact σ, assessing this interaction remains challenging to be experimentally verified. Here we study the promoter escape model using a two-component σ factor YvrI and YvrHa from Bacillus subtilis that independently contributes to the functions of σR4 and σR2 in a RNAP-promoter complex. Our results show that YvrI, which mimics σR4, is released gradually as transcription elongation proceeds, whereas YvrHa, which mimics σR2 is retained throughout the elongation complexes. Thus our result validates the proposed model for promoter escape and also suggests that promoter escape involves little or no change in the interaction of σR2 with RNAP.

  14. A Suggested Stress Analysis Procedure For Nozzle To Head Shell Element Model – A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanket S. Chaudhari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Stress analysis of pressure vessel has been always a serious and a critical analysis. The paper performs a standard procedure of pressure vessel analysis and validation based on previous papers. It also demonstrates the most critical part and how it affects entire structure. Relevant ASME (ASME, 2004, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 2, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York norms are produced to explain analysis procedure. WRC (Welding research council methodology is explained to validate finite element analysis work

  15. Status Quo, Analysis and Suggestions for Public Awareness on Wetland Conservation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaoyun; XU Jiliang; YUAN Jun

    2011-01-01

    To understand the status of public awareness on wetland conservation in China, 1 237 people from 8 provinces or municipality were interviewed by questionnaire. After analysis of the results, 88.5% of the interviewees know the word ‘wetland'. TV and radio is the main tool for them to get information. More than two thirds of the respondents mainly learn the information on wetland conservation through TV and radio. There are still big gaps among different people in understanding wetland. Only 13.3% of the respondents give a completely right answer on question ‘ which areas are wetlands'. Most of the respondents cited lakes, marshes and rivers as wetlands, but more than half of them do not regard beaches, reservoirs, paddy fields and fish ponds as wetlands. Most of the people cited wetlands can provide such functions as water conservation, climate regulation, protecting wildlife, removing pollution, but know little about other functions such as flood control, provisioning of aquatic products, and soil retention, and much less about the cultural functions such as recreation, and inherited folk culture. Except for wastewater discharge, nearly half of the general public knows little about other threats of the wetland, while most of the people do not believe that artificial aquaculture will cause threats to the wetland areas. Public awareness on wetland conservation in China needs to be improved. Most of the respondents cited that TV, radio and internet are the most effective ways to publicize information on wetland conservation. More than two thirds of the respondents mainly learn the information on wetland conservation through TV and radio, while 38.0% of the respondents mainly through internet.Specifically, for farmers/fishermen, posters/picture albums can benefit them more than the internet; the undergraduates also expect to learn wetland mainly through posters/picture albums; while for the primary and middle school students, the school education is another

  16. Coming to Terms With Risk Factors for Eating Disorders: Application of Risk Terminology and Suggestions for a General Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Corinna; Hayward, Chris; de Zwaan, Martina; Kraemer, Helena C.; Agras, W. Steward

    2004-01-01

    The aims of the present review are to apply a recent risk factor approach (H. C. Kraemer et al., 1997) to putative risk factors for eating disorders, to order these along a timeline, and to deduce general taxonomic questions. Putative risk factors were classified according to risk factor type, outcome (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa,…

  17. Characterization of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. NAC transcription factors suggests conserved functions compared to both monocots and dicots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregersen Per L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The NAC transcription factor family is involved in the regulation of traits in both monocots and dicots of high agronomic importance. Understanding the precise functions of the NAC genes can be of utmost importance for the improvement of cereal crop plants through plant breeding. For the cereal crop plant barley (Hordeum vulgare L. only a few NAC genes have so far been investigated. Results Through searches in publicly available barley sequence databases we have obtained a list of 48 barley NAC genes (HvNACs with 43 of them representing full-length coding sequences. Phylogenetic comparisons to Brachypodium, rice, and Arabidopsis NAC proteins indicate that the barley NAC family includes members from all of the eight NAC subfamilies, although by comparison to these species a number of HvNACs still remains to be identified. Using qRT-PCR we investigated the expression profiles of 46 HvNACs across eight barley tissues (young flag leaf, senescing flag leaf, young ear, old ear, milk grain, late dough grain, roots, and developing stem and two hormone treatments (abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate. Conclusions Comparisons of expression profiles of selected barley NAC genes with the published functions of closely related NAC genes from other plant species, including both monocots and dicots, suggest conserved functions in the areas of secondary cell wall biosynthesis, leaf senescence, root development, seed development, and hormone regulated stress responses.

  18. Genome-wide association study in multiple human prion diseases suggests genetic risk factors additional to PRNP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Simon; Uphill, James; Beck, John; Poulter, Mark; Campbell, Tracy; Lowe, Jessica; Adamson, Gary; Hummerich, Holger; Klopp, Norman; Rückert, Ina-Maria; Wichmann, H-Erich; Azazi, Dhoyazan; Plagnol, Vincent; Pako, Wandagi H.; Whitfield, Jerome; Alpers, Michael P.; Whittaker, John; Balding, David J.; Zerr, Inga; Kretzschmar, Hans; Collinge, John

    2012-01-01

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative diseases of humans and animals caused by the misfolding and aggregation of prion protein (PrP). Mammalian prion diseases are under strong genetic control but few risk factors are known aside from the PrP gene locus (PRNP). No genome-wide association study (GWAS) has been done aside from a small sample of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD). We conducted GWAS of sporadic CJD (sCJD), variant CJD (vCJD), iatrogenic CJD, inherited prion disease, kuru and resistance to kuru despite attendance at mortuary feasts. After quality control, we analysed 2000 samples and 6015 control individuals (provided by the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium and KORA-gen) for 491032-511862 SNPs in the European study. Association studies were done in each geographical and aetiological group followed by several combined analyses. The PRNP locus was highly associated with risk in all geographical and aetiological groups. This association was driven by the known coding variation at rs1799990 (PRNP codon 129). No non-PRNP loci achieved genome-wide significance in the meta-analysis of all human prion disease. SNPs at the ZBTB38–RASA2 locus were associated with CJD in the UK (rs295301, P = 3.13 × 10−8; OR, 0.70) but these SNPs showed no replication evidence of association in German sCJD or in Papua New Guinea-based tests. A SNP in the CHN2 gene was associated with vCJD [P = 1.5 × 10−7; odds ratio (OR), 2.36], but not in UK sCJD (P = 0.049; OR, 1.24), in German sCJD or in PNG groups. In the overall meta-analysis of CJD, 14 SNPs were associated (P < 10−5; two at PRNP, three at ZBTB38–RASA2, nine at nine other independent non-PRNP loci), more than would be expected by chance. None of the loci recently identified as genome-wide significant in studies of other neurodegenerative diseases showed any clear evidence of association in prion diseases. Concerning common genetic variation, it is likely that the PRNP locus contains the only

  19. Analysis and Suggestions on Management Strategies in Eco-industrial Parks in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanfang ZHOU; Zhonghong YANG

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In the research, management strategies and problems of eco-industrial parks were mainly analyzed and some suggestions were proposed based on eco-in- dustrial park, circular economy and ecologization of industrial park in China, providing references for ecologica~ization policy design of industrial parks in China.

  20. Serum AMH levels in women with a history of preeclampsia suggest a role for vascular factors in ovarian aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yarde, F.; Maas, A.H.E.M.; Franx, A.; Eijkemans, M.J.; Drost, J.T.D.; Rijn, B.B. van; Eyck, J. van; Schouw, Y.T. van der; Broekmans, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The association between early menopause and vascular disease as a possible causative factor has recently received attention. Preeclampsia (PE) is associated with future cardiovascular risk factors, and this premature vascular aging potentially modifies the ovarian aging process. OBJECTIVE:

  1. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that sociality is associated with reduced effectiveness of selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settepani, Virginia; Bechsgaard, Jesper Smærup; Bilde, Trine

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of sociality in spiders is associated with female bias, reproductive skew and an inbreeding mating system, factors that cause a reduction in effective population size and increase effects of genetic drift. These factors act to decrease the effectiveness of selection, thereby...... increasing the fixation probability of deleterious mutations. Comparative studies of closely related species with contrasting social traits and mating systems provide the opportunity to test consequences of low effective population size on the effectiveness of selection empirically. We used phylogenetic...... analyses of three inbred social spider species and seven outcrossing subsocial species of the genus Stegodyphus, and compared dN/dS ratios and codon usage bias between social Inbreeding and subsocial outcrossing mating systems to assess the effectiveness of selection. The overall results do not differ...

  2. Post-Foundational Discourse Analysis: A Suggestion for a Research Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Marttila

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-foundational discourse analysis, also labeled as Essex School in Discourse Analysis, has been observed to suffer from a considerable methodological deficit that limits its applicability in empirical research. The principal aim of this article is to overcome this methodological deficit by constructing the research program of the post-foundational discourse analysis that facilitates its operationalization in empirical research. In accordance with Imre LAKATOS (1970 and David HOWARTH (2004a, a research program is referred to an internally consistent and openly scrutinizable system of theoretical, methodological and phenomenal concepts that opens up the possibility to distinguish between the "negative" and the "positive" heuristics of empirical research. The first three sections develop the positive heuristics of the post-foundational discourse analysis by elucidating its theoretical foundations, methodological position and phenomenal framework. The concluding fourth section draws on the presented positive heuristics to outline the analytical stages and strategies of the post-foundational discourse analysis and discusses suitable methods for sampling and interpreting empirical data. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs150319

  3. Linkage analysis suggests a locus of ichthyosis vulgaris on 1q22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wei; Cui, Bin; Zhang, Yizhi; Jiang, Haisong; Wei, Shengcai; Bu, Lei; Zhao, Guoping; Hu, Landian; Kong, Xiangyin

    2003-01-01

    Ichthyosis vulgaris (IV) is an inherited scaling skin disorder with a prevalence estimated at 2.29% in China. The gene responsible for this disorder has not been elucidated. To find the disease gene, we ascertained two Chinese IV families. Linkage analysis identified an IV locus on chromosome 1q22 with a maximum two-point Lod score of 2.47 at D1S1653 (theta=0.00). Haplotype analysis placed the critical region in a 7-cM interval defined by D1S1653 and D1S2675. These results provide the basis for further identifying the gene responsible for IV disorder.

  4. Factors affecting a recently purchased handgun's risk for use in crime under circumstances that suggest gun trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Mona A; Wintemute, Garen J; Webster, Daniel W

    2010-05-01

    While many handguns are used in crime each year in the USA, most are not. We conducted this study to identify factors present at the time of a handgun's most recent retail sale that were associated with its subsequent use in crime under circumstances suggesting that the handgun had been trafficked--purchased with the intent of diverting it to criminal use. Handguns acquired in multiple-gun purchases were of particular interest. Using data for 180,321 handguns purchased from federally licensed retailers in California in 1996, we studied attributes of the handguns, the retailers selling them, the purchasers, and the sales transactions. Our outcome measure was a handgun's recovery by a police agency, followed by a gun ownership trace, conducted by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, that determined (a) that the recovery had occurred within 3 years of the handgun's most recent purchase from a licensed retailer and (b) that the person who possessed the gun when it was recovered by police was not its most recent purchaser. Altogether, 722 handguns were recovered and had trace results that met the additional criteria. Handguns acquired in multiple-gun, same-day transactions were more likely to be traced than were single-purchase handguns (odds ratio [OR] 1.33, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.08 to 1.63). This was not the case for multiple-purchase handguns defined more broadly as multiple handguns purchased by one individual over any 30-day period as used in "one-gun-a-month" laws. Bivariate regressions indicated increased risk of a handgun being traced when it sold new for $150 or less (OR 4.28, 95% CI 3.59 to 5.11) or had been purchased by a woman (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.62 to 2.52). Handguns sold by retailers who also had a relatively high proportion (>or=2%) of purchases denied because the prospective purchasers were prohibited from owning firearms were more likely to be traced than were those sold by other retailers (OR 4.09, 95% CI 3.39 to 4

  5. Factors Affecting a Recently Purchased Handgun’s Risk for Use in Crime under Circumstances That Suggest Gun Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintemute, Garen J.; Webster, Daniel W.

    2010-01-01

    While many handguns are used in crime each year in the USA, most are not. We conducted this study to identify factors present at the time of a handgun’s most recent retail sale that were associated with its subsequent use in crime under circumstances suggesting that the handgun had been trafficked—purchased with the intent of diverting it to criminal use. Handguns acquired in multiple-gun purchases were of particular interest. Using data for 180,321 handguns purchased from federally licensed retailers in California in 1996, we studied attributes of the handguns, the retailers selling them, the purchasers, and the sales transactions. Our outcome measure was a handgun’s recovery by a police agency, followed by a gun ownership trace, conducted by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, that determined (a) that the recovery had occurred within 3 years of the handgun’s most recent purchase from a licensed retailer and (b) that the person who possessed the gun when it was recovered by police was not its most recent purchaser. Altogether, 722 handguns were recovered and had trace results that met the additional criteria. Handguns acquired in multiple-gun, same-day transactions were more likely to be traced than were single-purchase handguns (odds ratio [OR] 1.33, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.08 to 1.63). This was not the case for multiple-purchase handguns defined more broadly as multiple handguns purchased by one individual over any 30-day period as used in “one-gun-a-month” laws. Bivariate regressions indicated increased risk of a handgun being traced when it sold new for $150 or less (OR 4.28, 95% CI 3.59 to 5.11) or had been purchased by a woman (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.62 to 2.52). Handguns sold by retailers who also had a relatively high proportion (≥2%) of purchases denied because the prospective purchasers were prohibited from owning firearms were more likely to be traced than were those sold by other retailers (OR 4.09, 95% CI 3.39 to

  6. Communicating Comparative Findings from Meta-Analysis in Educational Research: Some Examples and Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Steve; Katsipataki, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews some of the strengths and limitations of the comparative use of meta-analysis findings, using examples from the Sutton Trust-Education Endowment Foundation Teaching and Learning "Toolkit" which summarizes a range of educational approaches to improve pupil attainment in schools. This comparative use of quantitative…

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of halide binding to haloalkane dehalogenase suggests the occurrence of large conformational changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krooshof, Geja H.; Floris, René; Tepper, Armand W.J.W.; Janssen, Dick B.

    Haloalkane dehalogenase (DhlA) hydrolyzes short-chain haloalkanes to produce the corresponding alcohols and halide ions. Release of the halide ion from the active-site cavity can proceed via a two-step and a three-step route, which both contain slow enzyme isomerization steps. Thermodynamic analysis

  8. Genomic Analysis of the Human Gut Microbiome Suggests Novel Enzymes Involved in Quinone Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravcheev, Dmitry A.; Thiele, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquinone and menaquinone are membrane lipid-soluble carriers of electrons that are essential for cellular respiration. Eukaryotic cells can synthesize ubiquinone but not menaquinone, whereas prokaryotes can synthesize both quinones. So far, most of the human gut microbiome (HGM) studies have been based on metagenomic analysis. Here, we applied an analysis of individual HGM genomes to the identification of ubiquinone and menaquinone biosynthetic pathways. In our opinion, the shift from metagenomics to analysis of individual genomes is a pivotal milestone in investigation of bacterial communities, including the HGM. The key results of this study are as follows. (i) The distribution of the canonical pathways in the HGM genomes was consistent with previous reports and with the distribution of the quinone-dependent reductases for electron acceptors. (ii) The comparative genomics analysis identified four alternative forms of the previously known enzymes for quinone biosynthesis. (iii) Genes for the previously unknown part of the futalosine pathway were identified, and the corresponding biochemical reactions were proposed. We discuss the remaining gaps in the menaquinone and ubiquinone pathways in some of the microbes, which indicate the existence of further alternate genes or routes. Together, these findings provide further insight into the biosynthesis of quinones in bacteria and the physiology of the HGM. PMID:26904004

  9. The archaebacterial hypusine-containing protein. Structural features suggest common ancestry with eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartig, D; Lemkemeier, K; Frank, J; Lottspeich, F; Klink, F

    1992-03-01

    The amino acid hypusine is formed by post-translational modification of a lysine residue in eukaryotes and archaebacteria but up to now only the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF-5A has been known to contain this unique component. We isolated and purified a hypusine-containing protein from the thermophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. The mainly cytosolic protein comprised about 0.03% of the post-ribosomal supernatant protein. No other hypusine-containing protein could be detected in S. acidocaldarius. The molar ratio of hypusine/hypusine-containing protein was 1:1. SDS/PAGE showed a molecular mass of 16.8 kDa; a pI of 7.8 for the native protein resulted from IEF. The N-terminus was blocked. Four cyanogen bromide fragments were partially sequenced and used to derive two 17-base oligonucleotide probes. A 3-kb HindIII fragment of genomic DNA hybridizing with both probes was cloned. By sequencing of exonuclease III deletion clones an open reading frame of 405 nucleotides was found coding for a protein of 135 amino acids with a molecular mass of 15 kDa. It contained all cyanogen bromide sequences analysed. Sequence alignment revealed that seven of eight residues around Lys40 in the Sulfolobus hypusine-containing protein were identical to the nonapeptides centered by hypusine in the three eIF-5A proteins sequenced so far. The Edman procedure gave no phenylthiohydantoin derivative for this position. For a central region of 44 residues a sequence similarity of 54% between the archaebacterial and eukaryotic proteins was calculated; for the total sequence about 33% similarity resulted. In addition, there were a number of conservative changes. The unique lysine modification surrounded by a conserved sequence strongly suggests a common ancestry of archaebacterial hypusine-containing protein and eIF-5A. Together with similarities in molecular mass and intracellular localization, it may point to an analogous biochemical function.

  10. EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS (EFA IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR AND MARKETING RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Pascual Soler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA is one of the most widely used statistical procedures in social research. The main objective of this work is to describe the most common practices used by researchers in the consumer behavior and marketing area. Through a literature review methodology the practices of AFE in five consumer behavior and marketing journals(2000-2010 were analyzed. Then, the choices made by the researchers concerning factor model, retention criteria, rotation, factors interpretation and other relevant issues to factor analysis were analized. The results suggest that researchers routinely conduct analyses using such questionable methods. Suggestions for improving the use of factor analysis and the reporting of results are presented and a checklist (Exploratory Factor Analysis Checklist, EFAC is provided to help editors, reviewers, and authors improve reporting exploratory factor analysis.

  11. Citation trend and suggestions for improvement of impact factor of Journal of Korean Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Hwan; Hwang, Seong Su; Ahn, Myeong Im [College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, So Na [The Catholic University of Korea, Medical Library Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    To analyze the recent citation trend and to find a way to improve impact factor (IF) of the Journal of Korean Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (JKSTRO) by analysis of Korean Medical Citation index (KoMCI) citation data of JKSTRO and comparison with that of mean citation data of all journals enlisted on KoMCI (KoMCI journals) during 2000-2005. All citation data of entire journals enlisted on KoMCI and JKSTRO from 2000 to 2005 were obtained from KoMCI. The trend of total and annual number of published articles and reference citations, total citations and self-citations per paper, IF and impact factor excluding self-citations (ZIF) were described and compared on both KoMCI journals an JKSTRO. Annual number of published articles was decreased for 6 years on both KoMCI journals and JKSTRO (32% and 38% reduction rate). The number of Korean journal references per article is 1.6 papers of JKSTRO comparing to 2.0 papers on KoMCI journals. The percentage of Korean references/total references increased from 5.0% in 2000 to 7.7% in 2005 on JKSTRO and from 8.5% in 2000 to 10.1% on KoMCI journals. The number of total citations received/paper on JKSTRO (average 1.333) is smaller than that of KoMCI journals (average 1.694), there was an increased rate of 67% in 2005 comparing to 2000. The percentage of self-citations/total citations (average 72%) on JKSTRO is slightly higher than that of KoMCI journals (average 61%)/ IF of JKSTRO was gradually improved and 0.144, 0.125, 0.088, 0.107, 0.187 and 0.203 in 2000-2005 respectively. However, ZIF of JKSTRO is steadily decreased from 0.038 in 2000 to 0.013 in 2005 except 0.044 in 2004. IF of JKSTRO was slightly improved but had some innate problem of smaller number of citations received . To make JKSTRO as a highly cited journal, the awareness of academic status of JKSTRO and active participation of every member of JKSTRO including encouraging self-citations of papers published recent 2 years and submission of English written papers, and

  12. Analysis of Tc1-Mariner elements in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum suggests recent activity and flexible transposases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Mateus F; Silva, José C F; Mizubuti, Eduardo S G; Araújo, Elza F; Queiroz, Marisa V

    2014-10-03

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a necrotrophic fungus that is pathogenic to many plants. Genomic analysis of its revealed transposable element expansion that has strongly influenced the evolutionary trajectory of several species. Transposons from the Tc1-Mariner superfamily are thought to be ubiquitous components of fungal genomes and are generally found in low copy numbers with large numbers of deleterious mutations in their transposase coding sequence. This study shows that the genome of S. sclerotiorum has a large number of copies of Tc1-Mariner transposons, and in silico analysis shows evidence that they were recently active. This finding was confirmed by expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis. Fourteen new Tc1-Mariner transposon families that were distributed throughout the genome were identified, and in some cases, due to the excision/retention of introns, different transcripts were observed for the same family, which might be the result of an efficient strategy to circumvent mutations that generate premature stop codons in the RNA sequence. In addition, the presence of these introns shows that the transposase protein has a flexible coding sequence and, consequently, conformation. No evidence for RIP-like gene silencing mechanisms, which are commonly found in fungi, was found in the identified Tc1-Mariner elements, and analysis of the genomic insertion sites of these elements showed that they were widely distributed throughout the genome with some copies located near the 3' regions of genes. In particular, EST analysis demonstrated that one of these copies was co-expressed with a gene, which showed the potential for these elements to undergo exaptation. Fourteen novel Tc1-Mariner families were characterized. Some families had evidence of introns, which might or might not be excised depending on the family or element in question, and this finding demonstrates a possible strategy for overcoming possible mutations that generate premature stop codons in a RNA sequence

  13. Segregation analysis suggests that keratoconus is a complex non-mendelian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriszt, Agnes; Losonczy, Gergely; Berta, András; Vereb, György; Takács, Lili

    2014-11-01

    Complex segregation analysis of 60 unrelated sporadic keratoconus (KC) families was performed to reveal the presumed mode of inheritance in our dataset. Sixty probands, 212 family members and 212 age and gender matched healthy controls underwent clinical and videokeratographic examination. Family aggregation and distribution of videokeratography parameters were examined. Segregation of KSI, KISA and 6mm Fourier asymmetry alone or in covariate analysis with gender or the presence of Fleischer ring, exploring mendelian and non-mendelian models of inheritance was tested using complex segregation analysis with the S.A.G.E. program package. In 145 relatives of probands, the estimated prevalence of manifest KC was 7.6% (95% CI: 3.3-11.9) based on KISA index, indicating strong familial aggregation. All examined videokeratography indices were able to differentiate between KC and non-KC family members as well as normal controls (anova p 0.1) for all indices indicated the presence of a non-mendelian major gene effect (MG). Inclusion of Fleischer ring as covariate improved the fit of MG models. Mendelian, Sporadic and polygenic models were consistently rejected. Complex segregation analysis indicates a strong genetic contribution to the transmission of keratoconus. Inheritance is most probably due to a non-mendelian major gene effect. Low genotype-phenotype correlation in sporadic KC families can make linkage studies difficult, thus genome wide association studies, epigenetic and pathway analyses may provide more information on disease pathogenesis in non-familial keratoconus. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Widespread kelp-derived carbon in pelagic and benthic nearshore fishes suggested by stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Biela, Vanessa R.; Newsome, Seth D.; Bodkin, James L.; Kruse, Gordon H.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2016-11-01

    Kelp forests provide habitat for diverse and abundant fish assemblages, but the extent to which kelp provides a source of energy to fish and other predators is unclear. To examine the use of kelp-derived energy by fishes we estimated the contribution of kelp- and phytoplankton-derived carbon using carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes measured in muscle tissue. Benthic-foraging kelp greenling (Hexagrammos decagrammus) and pelagic-foraging black rockfish (Sebastes melanops) were collected at eight sites spanning ∼35 to 60°N from the California Current (upwelling) to Alaska Coastal Current (downwelling) in the northeast Pacific Ocean. Muscle δ13C values were expected to be higher for fish tissue primarily derived from kelp, a benthic macroalgae, and lower for tissue primarily derived from phytoplankton, pelagic microalgae. Muscle δ13C values were higher in benthic-feeding kelp greenling than in pelagic-feeding black rockfish at seven of eight sites, indicating more kelp-derived carbon in greenling as expected. Estimates of kelp carbon contributions ranged from 36 to 89% in kelp greenling and 32 to 65% in black rockfish using carbon isotope mixing models. Isotopic evidence suggests that these two nearshore fishes routinely derive energy from kelp and phytoplankton, across coastal upwelling and downwelling systems. Thus, the foraging mode of nearshore predators has a small influence on their ultimate energy source as energy produced by benthic macroalgae and pelagic microalgae were incorporated in fish tissue regardless of feeding mode and suggest strong and widespread benthic-pelagic coupling. Widespread kelp contributions to benthic- and pelagic-feeding fishes suggests that kelp energy provides a benefit to nearshore fishes and highlights the potential for kelp and fish production to be linked.

  15. Striatal proteomic analysis suggests that first L-dopa dose equates to chronic exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birger Scholz

    Full Text Available L-3,4-dihydroxypheylalanine (L-dopa-induced dyskinesia represent a debilitating complication of therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD that result from a progressive sensitization through repeated L-dopa exposures. The MPTP macaque model was used to study the proteome in dopamine-depleted striatum with and without subsequent acute and chronic L-dopa treatment using two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry. The present data suggest that the dopamine-depleted striatum is so sensitive to de novo L-dopa treatment that the first ever administration alone would be able (i to induce rapid post-translational modification-based proteomic changes that are specific to this first exposure and (ii, possibly, lead to irreversible protein level changes that would be not further modified by chronic L-dopa treatment. The apparent equivalence between first and chronic L-dopa administration suggests that priming would be the direct consequence of dopamine loss, the first L-dopa administrations only exacerbating the sensitization process but not inducing it.

  16. An easy guide to factor analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kline, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Factor analysis is a statistical technique widely used in psychology and the social sciences. With the advent of powerful computers, factor analysis and other multivariate methods are now available to many more people. An Easy Guide to Factor Analysis presents and explains factor analysis as clearly and simply as possible. The author, Paul Kline, carefully defines all statistical terms and demonstrates step-by-step how to work out a simple example of principal components analysis and rotation. He further explains other methods of factor analysis, including confirmatory and path analysis, a

  17. Connectivity analysis of suggestive brain areas involved in middle ear pressure regulation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SA, Sami; Gaihede, Michael

    2010-01-01

    , MEP counter-regulation presented as Eustachian tube openings with steep and fast pressure changes toward 0 Pa, whereas in others, gradual and slow pressure changes presented related to the mastoid; these changes sometimes crossed 0 Pa into opposite pressures. In many cases, combinations......HYPOTHESIS:: Middle ear pressure (MEP) is actively regulated by both the Eustachian tube and the mastoid air cell system. BACKGROUND:: MEP is a highly significant factor involved in many clinical conditions related to otitis media. Basic knowledge on its overall regulation remains insufficient...... of these distinct mechanisms were found. CONCLUSION:: The human mastoid as well as the Eustachian tube was capable of active counter-regulation of the MEP in short-term experimental pressure changes in healthy ears. Thus, these 2 systems seemed to function in a complementary way, where the mastoid was related...

  18. DNA microarray analysis suggests that zinc pyrithione causes iron starvation to the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasokawa, Daisuke; Murata, Satomi; Iwahashi, Yumiko; Kitagawa, Emiko; Kishi, Katsuyuki; Okumura, Yukihiro; Iwahashi, Hitoshi

    2010-05-01

    Zinc pyrithione has been used in anti-dandruff shampoos and in anti-fouling paint on ships. However, little is known of its mode of action. We characterized the effects of sub-lethal concentrations of zinc pyrithione (Zpt) on Saccharomyces cerevisiae using DNA microarrays. The majority of the strongly upregulated genes are related to iron transport, and many of the strongly downregulated genes are related to the biosynthesis of cytochrome (heme). These data suggest that Zpt induces severe iron starvation. To confirm the DNA microarray data, we supplemented cultures containing Zpt with iron, and the growth of the yeast was restored significantly. From these results, we propose that the principal toxicity of zinc pyrithione arises from iron starvation.

  19. Genome wide expression analysis suggests perturbation of vascular homeostasis during high altitude pulmonary edema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sharma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE is a life-threatening form of non-cardiogenic edema which occurs in unacclimatized but otherwise normal individuals within two to four days after rapid ascent to altitude beyond 3000 m. The precise pathoetiology and inciting mechanisms regulating HAPE remain unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: We performed global gene expression profiling in individuals with established HAPE compared to acclimatized individuals. Our data suggests concurrent modulation of multiple pathways which regulate vascular homeostasis and consequently lung fluid dynamics. These pathways included those which regulate vasoconstriction through smooth muscle contraction, cellular actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and endothelial permeability/dysfunction. Some notable genes within these pathways included MYLK; rho family members ARGEF11, ARHGAP24; cell adhesion molecules such as CLDN6, CLDN23, PXN and VCAM1 besides other signaling intermediates. Further, several important regulators of systemic/pulmonary hypertension including ADRA1D, ECE1, and EDNRA were upregulated in HAPE. We also observed significant upregulation of genes involved in paracrine signaling through chemokines and lymphocyte activation pathways during HAPE represented by transcripts of TNF, JAK2, MAP2K2, MAP2K7, MAPK10, PLCB1, ARAF, SOS1, PAK3 and RELA amongst others. Perturbation of such pathways can potentially skew vascular homeostatic equilibrium towards altered vascular permeability. Additionally, differential regulation of hypoxia-sensing, hypoxia-response and OXPHOS pathway genes in individuals with HAPE were also observed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data reveals specific components of the complex molecular circuitry underlying HAPE. We show concurrent perturbation of multiple pathways regulating vascular homeostasis and suggest multi-genic nature of regulation of HAPE.

  20. Seismic performance analysis and design suggestion for frame buildings with cast-in-place staircases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuan; Wu, Xiaobin; Xiong, Yaoqing; Li, Congchun; Yang, Wen

    2013-06-01

    Many staircases in reinforced concrete (RC) frame structures suffered severe damage during the Wenchuan earthquake. Elastic analyses for 18 RC structure models with and without staircases are conducted and compared to study the influence of the staircase on the stiffness, displacements and internal forces of the structures. To capture the yielding development and damage mechanism of frame structures, elasto-plastic analysis is carried out for one of the 18 models. Based on the features observed in the analyses, a new type of staircase design i.e., isolating them from the master structure to eliminate the effect of K-type struts, is proposed and discussed. It is concluded that the proposed method of staircase isolation is effective and feasible for engineering design, and does not significantly increase the construction cost.

  1. Functional gene analysis suggests different acetogen populations in the bovine rumen and tammar wallaby forestomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagen, Emma J; Denman, Stuart E; Padmanabha, Jagadish; Zadbuke, Someshwar; Al Jassim, Rafat; Morrison, Mark; McSweeney, Christopher S

    2010-12-01

    Reductive acetogenesis via the acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) pathway is an alternative hydrogen sink to methanogenesis in the rumen. Functional gene-based analysis is the ideal approach for investigating organisms capable of this metabolism (acetogens). However, existing tools targeting the formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase gene (fhs) are compromised by lack of specificity due to the involvement of formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (FTHFS) in other pathways. Acetyl-CoA synthase (ACS) is unique to the acetyl-CoA pathway and, in the present study, acetyl-CoA synthase genes (acsB) were recovered from a range of acetogens to facilitate the design of acsB-specific PCR primers. fhs and acsB libraries were used to examine acetogen diversity in the bovine rumen and forestomach of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), a native Australian marsupial demonstrating foregut fermentation analogous to rumen fermentation but resulting in lower methane emissions. Novel, deduced amino acid sequences of acsB and fhs affiliated with the Lachnospiraceae in both ecosystems and the Ruminococcaeae/Blautia group in the rumen. FTHFS sequences that probably originated from nonacetogens were identified by low "homoacetogen similarity" scores based on analysis of FTHFS residues, and comprised a large proportion of FTHFS sequences from the tammar wallaby forestomach. A diversity of FTHFS and ACS sequences in both ecosystems clustered between the Lachnospiraceae and Clostridiaceae acetogens but without close sequences from cultured isolates. These sequences probably originated from novel acetogens. The community structures of the acsB and fhs libraries from the rumen and the tammar wallaby forestomach were different (LIBSHUFF, P < 0.001), and these differences may have significance for overall hydrogenotrophy in both ecosystems.

  2. Use of multivariate analysis to suggest a new molecular classification of colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Enric; Ramamoorthy, Rajarajan; Oukrif, Dahmane; Rosmarin, Daniel; Presz, Michal; Wang, Haitao; Pulker, Hannah; Lockstone, Helen; Hveem, Tarjei; Cranston, Treena; Danielsen, Havard; Novelli, Marco; Davidson, Brian; Xu, Zheng-Zhou; Molloy, Peter; Johnstone, Elaine; Holmes, Christopher; Midgley, Rachel; Kerr, David; Sieber, Oliver; Tomlinson, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Molecular classification of colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently based on microsatellite instability (MSI), KRAS or BRAF mutation and, occasionally, chromosomal instability (CIN). Whilst useful, these categories may not fully represent the underlying molecular subgroups. We screened 906 stage II/III CRCs from the VICTOR clinical trial for somatic mutations. Multivariate analyses (logistic regression, clustering, Bayesian networks) identified the primary molecular associations. Positive associations occurred between: CIN and TP53 mutation; MSI and BRAF mutation; and KRAS and PIK3CA mutations. Negative associations occurred between: MSI and CIN; MSI and NRAS mutation; and KRAS mutation, and each of NRAS, TP53 and BRAF mutations. Some complex relationships were elucidated: KRAS and TP53 mutations had both a direct negative association and a weaker, confounding, positive association via TP53–CIN–MSI–BRAF–KRAS. Our results suggested a new molecular classification of CRCs: (1) MSI+ and/or BRAF-mutant; (2) CIN+ and/or TP53– mutant, with wild-type KRAS and PIK3CA; (3) KRAS- and/or PIK3CA-mutant, CIN+, TP53-wild-type; (4) KRAS– and/or PIK3CA-mutant, CIN–, TP53-wild-type; (5) NRAS-mutant; (6) no mutations; (7) others. As expected, group 1 cancers were mostly proximal and poorly differentiated, usually occurring in women. Unexpectedly, two different types of CIN+ CRC were found: group 2 cancers were usually distal and occurred in men, whereas group 3 showed neither of these associations but were of higher stage. CIN+ cancers have conventionally been associated with all three of these variables, because they have been tested en masse. Our classification also showed potentially improved prognostic capabilities, with group 3, and possibly group 1, independently predicting disease-free survival. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23165447

  3. Tissue-specific expression patterns of Arabidopsis NF-Y transcription factors suggest potential for extensive combinatorial complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefers, Nicholas; Dang, Kristen K; Kumimoto, Roderick W; Bynum, William Edwards; Tayrose, Gregory; Holt, Ben F

    2009-02-01

    All aspects of plant and animal development are controlled by complex networks of transcription factors. Transcription factors are essential for converting signaling inputs, such as changes in daylength, into complex gene regulatory outputs. While some transcription factors control gene expression by binding to cis-regulatory elements as individual subunits, others function in a combinatorial fashion. How individual subunits of combinatorial transcription factors are spatially and temporally deployed (e.g. expression-level, posttranslational modifications and subcellular localization) has profound effects on their control of gene expression. In the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), we have identified 36 Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y) transcription factor subunits (10 NF-YA, 13 NF-YB, and 13 NF-YC subunits) that can theoretically combine to form 1,690 unique complexes. Individual plant subunits have functions in flowering time, embryo maturation, and meristem development, but how they combine to control these processes is unknown. To assist in the process of defining unique NF-Y complexes, we have created promoter:beta-glucuronidase fusion lines for all 36 Arabidopsis genes. Here, we show NF-Y expression patterns inferred from these promoter:beta-glucuronidase lines for roots, light- versus dark-grown seedlings, rosettes, and flowers. Additionally, we review the phylogenetic relationships and examine protein alignments for each NF-Y subunit family. The results are discussed with a special emphasis on potential roles for NF-Y subunits in photoperiod-controlled flowering time.

  4. Integrative analysis of transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. suggests new metabolic control mechanisms for monolignol biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Lee

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The entanglement of lignin polymers with cellulose and hemicellulose in plant cell walls is a major biological barrier to the economically viable production of biofuels from woody biomass. Recent efforts of reducing this recalcitrance with transgenic techniques have been showing promise for ameliorating or even obviating the need for costly pretreatments that are otherwise required to remove lignin from cellulose and hemicelluloses. At the same time, genetic manipulations of lignin biosynthetic enzymes have sometimes yielded unforeseen consequences on lignin composition, thus raising the question of whether the current understanding of the pathway is indeed correct. To address this question systemically, we developed and applied a novel modeling approach that, instead of analyzing the pathway within a single target context, permits a comprehensive, simultaneous investigation of different datasets in wild type and transgenic plants. Specifically, the proposed approach combines static flux-based analysis with a Monte Carlo simulation in which very many randomly chosen sets of parameter values are evaluated against kinetic models of lignin biosynthesis in different stem internodes of wild type and lignin-modified alfalfa plants. In addition to four new postulates that address the reversibility of some key reactions, the modeling effort led to two novel postulates regarding the control of the lignin biosynthetic pathway. The first posits functionally independent pathways toward the synthesis of different lignin monomers, while the second postulate proposes a novel feedforward regulatory mechanism. Subsequent laboratory experiments have identified the signaling molecule salicylic acid as a potential mediator of the postulated control mechanism. Overall, the results demonstrate that mathematical modeling can be a valuable complement to conventional transgenic approaches and that it can provide biological insights that are otherwise difficult to obtain.

  5. Whole genome sequence analysis suggests intratumoral heterogeneity in dissemination of breast cancer to lymph nodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Blighe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intratumoral heterogeneity may help drive resistance to targeted therapies in cancer. In breast cancer, the presence of nodal metastases is a key indicator of poorer overall survival. The aim of this study was to identify somatic genetic alterations in early dissemination of breast cancer by whole genome next generation sequencing (NGS of a primary breast tumor, a matched locally-involved axillary lymph node and healthy normal DNA from blood. METHODS: Whole genome NGS was performed on 12 µg (range 11.1-13.3 µg of DNA isolated from fresh-frozen primary breast tumor, axillary lymph node and peripheral blood following the DNA nanoball sequencing protocol. Single nucleotide variants, insertions, deletions, and substitutions were identified through a bioinformatic pipeline and compared to CIN25, a key set of genes associated with tumor metastasis. RESULTS: Whole genome sequencing revealed overlapping variants between the tumor and node, but also variants that were unique to each. Novel mutations unique to the node included those found in two CIN25 targets, TGIF2 and CCNB2, which are related to transcription cyclin activity and chromosomal stability, respectively, and a unique frameshift in PDS5B, which is required for accurate sister chromatid segregation during cell division. We also identified dominant clonal variants that progressed from tumor to node, including SNVs in TP53 and ARAP3, which mediates rearrangements to the cytoskeleton and cell shape, and an insertion in TOP2A, the expression of which is significantly associated with tumor proliferation and can segregate breast cancers by outcome. CONCLUSION: This case study provides preliminary evidence that primary tumor and early nodal metastasis have largely overlapping somatic genetic alterations. There were very few mutations unique to the involved node. However, significant conclusions regarding early dissemination needs analysis of a larger number of patient samples.

  6. Comparative secretome analysis suggests low plant cell wall degrading capacity in Frankia symbionts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normand Philippe

    2008-01-01

    genomes, suggesting that plant cell wall polysaccharide degradation may not be crucial to root infection, or that this degradation varies among strains. We hypothesize that the relative lack of secreted polysaccharide-degrading enzymes in Frankia reflects a strategy used by these bacteria to avoid eliciting host defense responses. The esterases, lipases, and proteases found in the core Frankia secretome might facilitate hyphal penetration through the cell wall, release carbon sources, or modify chemical signals. The core secretome also includes extracellular solute-binding proteins and Frankia-specific hypothetical proteins that may enable the actinorhizal symbiosis.

  7. Electron Microprobe Analysis of Hf in Zircon: Suggestions for Improved Accuracy of a Difficult Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournelle, J.; Hanchar, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    It is not commonly recognized as such, but the accurate measurement of Hf in zircon is not a trivial analytical issue. This is important to assess because Hf is often used as an internal standard for trace element analyses of zircon by LA-ICPMS. The issues pertaining to accuracy revolve around: (1) whether the Hf Ma or the La line is used; (2) what accelerating voltage is applied if Zr La is also measured, and (3) what standard for Hf is used. Weidenbach, et al.'s (2004) study of the 91500 zircon demonstrated the spread (in accuracy) of possible EPMA values for six EPMA labs, 2 of which used Hf Ma, 3 used Hf La, and one used Hf Lb, and standards ranged from HfO2, a ZrO2-HfO2 compound, Hf metal, and hafnon. Weidenbach, et al., used the ID-TIMS values as the correct value (0.695 wt.% Hf.), for which not one of the EPMA labs came close to that value (3 were low and 3 were high). Those data suggest: (1) that there is a systematic underestimation error of the 0.695 wt% Hf (ID-TIMS Hf) value if Hf Ma is used; most likely an issue with the matrix correction, as the analytical lines and absorption edges of Zr La, Si Ka and Hf Ma are rather tightly packed in the electromagnetic spectrum. Mass absorption coefficients are easily in error (e.g., Donovan's determination of the MAC of Hf by Si Ka of 5061 differs from the typically used Henke value of 5449 (Donovan et al, 2002); and (2) For utilization of the Hf La line, however, the second order Zr Ka line interferes with Hf La if the accelerating voltage is greater than 17.99 keV. If this higher keV is used and differential mode PHA is applied, only a portion of the interference is removed (e.g., removal of escape peaks), causing an overestimation of Hf content. Unfortunately, it is virtually impossible to apply an interference correction in this case, as it is impossible to locate Hf-free Zr probe standard. We have examined many of the combinations used by those six EPMA labs and concluded that the optimal EPMA is done with Hf

  8. Analysis of Neogene deformation between Beaver, Utah and Barstow, California: Suggestions for altering the extensional paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. Ernest; Beard, Sue; Mankinen, Edward A.; Hillhouse, John W.

    2013-01-01

    -scale coupling is critical to understanding major NS shortening and westerly tectonic escape in the Lake Mead area.One north-elongate uplift in the Hingeline shear zone is a positive flower structure along a strike-slip fault, and we postulate that most other large uplifts are diapiric, resulting from extension-normal inflow of ductile substrate, rather than second-order isostatic responses to tectonic unloading. We also postulate that large steep-axis rotations, and some small ones as well, result from basal tractions imparted by gradients in southerly directed subjacent ductile flow rather than by shear coupling imparted by laterally variable elongation strains. The shortening strain recorded in the rotations and related structures probably matches or exceeds the magnitude of lengthening, even for the Lake Mead area where we do not question local large (~65 km) west-directed lengthening. We assess the results of extensive recent earth-science research in the Lake Mead area and conclude that previously published models of N-S convergence, westerly tectonic rafting, and N-S occlusion are valid and record unique tectonic escape accommodation for south-directed displacement of the Great Basin sector of the Basin and Range. Genetic ties between the south-directed displacement and plate-interaction forces are elusive, and we suggest the displacement results from body forces inherent in the Basin and Range.

  9. Retrospective analysis of the quality of reports by author-suggested and non-author-suggested reviewers in journals operating on open or single-blind peer review models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuk, Maria K; Dudbridge, Frank; Nanda, Shreeya; Harriman, Stephanie L; Patel, Jigisha; Moylan, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether reports from reviewers recommended by authors show a bias in quality and recommendation for editorial decision, compared with reviewers suggested by other parties, and whether reviewer reports for journals operating on open or single-blind peer review models differ with regard to report quality and reviewer recommendations. Design Retrospective analysis of the quality of reviewer reports using an established Review Quality Instrument, and analysis of reviewer recommendations and author satisfaction surveys. Setting BioMed Central biology and medical journals. BMC Infectious Diseases and BMC Microbiology are similar in size, rejection rates, impact factors and editorial processes, but the former uses open peer review while the latter uses single-blind peer review. The Journal of Inflammation has operated under both peer review models. Sample Two hundred reviewer reports submitted to BMC Infectious Diseases, 200 reviewer reports submitted to BMC Microbiology and 400 reviewer reports submitted to the Journal of Inflammation. Results For each journal, author-suggested reviewers provided reports of comparable quality to non-author-suggested reviewers, but were significantly more likely to recommend acceptance, irrespective of the peer review model (previewer reports measured by the Review Quality Instrument was 5% higher than for BMC Microbiology (p=0.042). For the Journal of Inflammation, the quality of reports was the same irrespective of the peer review model used. Conclusions Reviewers suggested by authors provide reports of comparable quality to non-author-suggested reviewers, but are significantly more likely to recommend acceptance. Open peer review reports for BMC Infectious Diseases were of higher quality than single-blind reports for BMC Microbiology. There was no difference in quality of peer review in the Journal of Inflammation under open peer review compared with single blind. PMID:26423855

  10. Human Factors Analysis in Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ren-zuo; Ma Ruo-feng; Liu Li-na; Xiong Zhong-wei

    2004-01-01

    The general human factors analysis analyzes human functions, effects and influence in a system. But in a narrow sense, it analyzes human influence upon the reliability of a system, it includes traditional human reliability analysis, human error analysis, man-machine interface analysis, human character analysis, and others. A software development project in software engineering is successful or not to be completely determined by human factors. In this paper, we discuss the human factors intensions, declare the importance of human factors analysis for software engineering by listed some instances. At last, we probe preliminarily into the mentality that a practitioner in software engineering should possess.

  11. Factors Which Facilitate or Impede Interpersonal Interactions and Relationships after Spinal Cord Injury: A Scoping Review with Suggestions for Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Delena Amsters; Sarita Schuurs; Kiley Pershouse; Bettina Power; Yvonne Harestad; Melissa Kendall; Pim Kuipers

    2016-01-01

    Interpersonal interactions and relationships can influence an individual’s perceptions of health and quality of life in the presence of disability. In the case of people with spinal cord injury (SCI), positive interpersonal interactions and relationships have been shown to contribute to resilience and adaptability. Understanding factors which facilitate or impede the development and maintenance of relationships after SCI may form the basis for proactive relationship support for people with SC...

  12. A factor analysis to detect factors influencing building national brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including “cultural image of customers”, “exciting characteristics”, “competitive pricing strategies”, “perception image” and “previous perceptions”.

  13. Meta-analysis of breast cancer microarray studies in conjunction with conserved cis-elements suggest patterns for coordinate regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundberg Cathryn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression measurements from breast cancer (BrCa tumors are established clinical predictive tools to identify tumor subtypes, identify patients showing poor/good prognosis, and identify patients likely to have disease recurrence. However, diverse breast cancer datasets in conjunction with diagnostic clinical arrays show little overlap in the sets of genes identified. One approach to identify a set of consistently dysregulated candidate genes in these tumors is to employ meta-analysis of multiple independent microarray datasets. This allows one to compare expression data from a diverse collection of breast tumor array datasets generated on either cDNA or oligonucleotide arrays. Results We gathered expression data from 9 published microarray studies examining estrogen receptor positive (ER+ and estrogen receptor negative (ER- BrCa tumor cases from the Oncomine database. We performed a meta-analysis and identified genes that were universally up or down regulated with respect to ER+ versus ER- tumor status. We surveyed both the proximal promoter and 3' untranslated regions (3'UTR of our top-ranking genes in each expression group to test whether common sequence elements may contribute to the observed expression patterns. Utilizing a combination of known transcription factor binding sites (TFBS, evolutionarily conserved mammalian promoter and 3'UTR motifs, and microRNA (miRNA seed sequences, we identified numerous motifs that were disproportionately represented between the two gene classes suggesting a common regulatory network for the observed gene expression patterns. Conclusion Some of the genes we identified distinguish key transcripts previously seen in array studies, while others are newly defined. Many of the genes identified as overexpressed in ER- tumors were previously identified as expression markers for neoplastic transformation in multiple human cancers. Moreover, our motif analysis identified a collection of

  14. Genome-wide association study in multiple human prion diseases suggests genetic risk factors additional to PRNP

    OpenAIRE

    Mead, Simon; Uphill, James; Beck, John; Poulter, Mark; Campbell, Tracy; Lowe, Jessica; Adamson, Gary; Hummerich, Holger; Klopp, Norman; Rückert, Ina-Maria; Wichmann, H-Erich; Azazi, Dhoyazan; Plagnol, Vincent; Pako, Wandagi H.; Whitfield, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative diseases of humans and animals caused by the misfolding and aggregation of prion protein (PrP). Mammalian prion diseases are under strong genetic control but few risk factors are known aside from the PrP gene locus (PRNP). No genome-wide association study (GWAS) has been done aside from a small sample of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD). We conducted GWAS of sporadic CJD (sCJD), variant CJD (vCJD), iatrogenic CJD, inherited prion disease, kuru...

  15. Measurement Bias Detection through Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendse, M. T.; Oort, F. J.; Werner, C. S.; Ligtvoet, R.; Schermelleh-Engel, K.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement bias is defined as a violation of measurement invariance, which can be investigated through multigroup factor analysis (MGFA), by testing across-group differences in intercepts (uniform bias) and factor loadings (nonuniform bias). Restricted factor analysis (RFA) can also be used to detect measurement bias. To also enable nonuniform…

  16. ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING ENGLISH LEARNING AMONG RURAL SCHOOL STUDENTS AND SUGGESTED COUNTERMEASURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    1. Introduction The Lin Cang area lies in the southwest of Yunnan Province. Because of the high mountains and deep valleys, cultural, transportational and economic activities lag far behind those of many other areas in Yunnan Province, as well as the rest of China. With the development of a socialist market economy, the consequences of neglecting English learning among the students have become more serious than before.

  17. Expression analyses of human cleft palate tissue suggest a role for osteopontin and immune related factors in palatal development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Linda P; Borup, Rehannah; Vestergaard, Janni

    2009-01-01

    Cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) is a common congenital malformation with a complex etiology which is not fully elucidated yet. Epidemiological studies point to different etiologies in the cleft lip and palate subgroups, isolated cleft lip (CL), isolated cleft palate (CP) and combined cleft lip...... and palate (CLP). In order to understand the biological basis in these cleft lip and palate subgroups better we studied the expression profiles in human tissue from patients with CL/P. In each of the CL/P subgroups, samples were obtained from three patients and gene expression analysis was performed....... Moreover, selected differentially expressed genes were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR, and by immunohistochemical staining of craniofacial tissue from human embryos. Osteopontin (SPP1) and other immune related genes were significantly higher expressed in palate tissue from patients with CLP compared to CP...

  18. Expression analyses of human cleft palate tissue suggest a role for osteopontin and immune related factors in palatal development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, L.P.; Borup, R.; Vestergaard, J.;

    2009-01-01

    . Moreover, selected differentially expressed genes were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR, and by immunohistochemical staining of craniofacial tissue from human embryos. Osteopontin (SPP1) and other immune related genes were significantly higher expressed in palate tissue from patients with CLP compared to CP...... and palate (CLP). In order to understand the biological basis in these cleft lip and palate subgroups better we studied the expression profiles in human tissue from patients with CL/P. In each of the CL/P subgroups, samples were obtained from three patients and gene expression analysis was performed...... and immunostaining in palatal shelves against SPP1, chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and serglycin (PRG1) in human embryonic craniofacial tissue were positive, supporting a role for these genes in palatal development. However, gene expression profiles are subject to variations during growth and therefore we recommend...

  19. Analysis of origin and protein-protein interaction maps suggests distinct oncogenic role of nuclear EGFR during cancer evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharip, Ainur; Abdukhakimova, Diyora; Wang, Xiao; Kim, Alexey; Kim, Yevgeniy; Sharip, Aigul; Orakov, Askarbek; Miao, Lixia; Sun, Qinglei; Chen, Yue; Chen, Zhenbang; Xie, Yingqiu

    2017-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinase EGFR usually is localized on plasma membrane to induce progression of many cancers including cancers in children (Bodey et al. In Vivo. 2005, 19:931-41), but it contains a nuclear localization signal (NLS) that mediates EGFR nuclear translocation (Lin et al. Nat Cell Biol. 2001, 3:802-8). Here we report that NLS of EGFR has its old evolutionary origin. Protein-protein interaction maps suggests that nEGFR pathways are different from membrane EGFR and EGF is not found in nEGFR network while androgen receptor (AR) is found, which suggests the evolution of prostate cancer, a well-known AR driven cancer, through changes in androgen- or EGF-dependence. Database analysis suggests that nEGFR correlates with the tumor grades especially in prostate cancer patients. Structural predication analysis suggests that NLS can compromise the differential protein binding to EGFR through stretch linkers with evolutionary mutation from N to V. In experiment, elevation of nEGFR but not membrane EGFR was found in castration resistant prostate cancer cells. Finally, systems analysis of NLS and transmembrane domain (TM) suggests that NLS has old origin while NLS neighboring domain of TM has been undergone accelerated evolution. Thus nEGFR has an old origin resembling the cancer evolution but TM may interfere with NLS driven signaling for natural selection of survival to evade NLS induced aggressive cancers. Our data suggest NLS is a dynamic inducer of EGFR oncogenesis during evolution for advanced cancers. Our model provides novel insights into the evolutionary role of NLS of oncogenic kinases in cancers.

  20. Statistical inference of Minimum Rank Factor Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shapiro, A; Ten Berge, JMF

    2002-01-01

    For any given number of factors, Minimum Rank Factor Analysis yields optimal communalities for an observed covariance matrix in the sense that the unexplained common variance with that number of factors is minimized, subject to the constraint that both the diagonal matrix of unique variances and the

  1. Statistical inference of Minimum Rank Factor Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shapiro, A; Ten Berge, JMF

    For any given number of factors, Minimum Rank Factor Analysis yields optimal communalities for an observed covariance matrix in the sense that the unexplained common variance with that number of factors is minimized, subject to the constraint that both the diagonal matrix of unique variances and the

  2. PROGNOSTIC FACTORS ANALYSIS FOR STAGEⅠ RECTAL CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武爱文; 顾晋; 薛钟麒; 王怡; 徐光炜

    2001-01-01

    To explore the death-related factors of stageⅠrectal cancer patients. Methods: 89 cases of stage I rectal cancer patients between 1985 and 2000 were retrospectively studied for prognostic factors. Factors including age, gender, tumor size, circumferential occupation, gross type, pathological type, depth of tumor invasion, surgical procedure, adjuvant chemotherapy and postoperative complication were chosen for cox multivariate analysis (forward procedure) using Spss software (10.0 version). Results: multivariate analysis demonstrated that muscular invasion was an independent negative prognostic factor for stageⅠrectal cancer patients (P=0.003). Conclusion: Muscular invasion is a negative prognostic factor for stage I rectal cancer patients.

  3. Kernel Factor Analysis Algorithm with Varimax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Guoen; Jin Weidong; Zhang Gexiang

    2006-01-01

    Kernal factor analysis (KFA) with varimax was proposed by using Mercer kernel function which can map the data in the original space to a high-dimensional feature space, and was compared with the kernel principle component analysis (KPCA). The results show that the best error rate in handwritten digit recognition by kernel factor analysis with varimax (4.2%) was superior to KPCA (4.4%). The KFA with varimax could more accurately image handwritten digit recognition.

  4. Multiple factor analysis by example using R

    CERN Document Server

    Pagès, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Multiple factor analysis (MFA) enables users to analyze tables of individuals and variables in which the variables are structured into quantitative, qualitative, or mixed groups. Written by the co-developer of this methodology, Multiple Factor Analysis by Example Using R brings together the theoretical and methodological aspects of MFA. It also includes examples of applications and details of how to implement MFA using an R package (FactoMineR).The first two chapters cover the basic factorial analysis methods of principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple correspondence analysis (MCA). The

  5. Comprehensive expression analysis suggests overlapping and specific roles of rice glutathione S-transferase genes during development and stress responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharjee Annapurna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs are the ubiquitous enzymes that play a key role in cellular detoxification. Although several GSTs have been identified and characterized in various plant species, the knowledge about their role in developmental processes and response to various stimuli is still very limited. In this study, we report genome-wide identification, characterization and comprehensive expression analysis of members of GST gene family in crop plant rice, to reveal their function(s. Results A systematic analysis revealed the presence of at least 79 GST genes in the rice genome. Phylogenetic analysis grouped GST proteins into seven classes. Sequence analysis together with the organization of putative motifs indicated the potential diverse functions of GST gene family members in rice. The tandem gene duplications have contributed a major role in expansion of this gene family. Microarray data analysis revealed tissue-/organ- and developmental stage-specific expression patterns of several rice GST genes. At least 31 GST genes showed response to plant hormones auxin and cytokinin. Furthermore, expression analysis showed the differential expression of quite a large number of GST genes during various abiotic stress (20, arsenate stress (32 and biotic stress (48 conditions. Many of the GST genes were commonly regulated by developmental processes, hormones, abiotic and biotic stresses. Conclusion The transcript profiling suggests overlapping and specific role(s of GSTs during various stages of development in rice. Further, the study provides evidence for the role of GSTs in mediating crosstalk between various stress and hormone response pathways and represents a very useful resource for functional analysis of selected members of this family in rice.

  6. Pitfalls in the analysis of volatile breath biomarkers: suggested solutions and SIFT-MS quantification of single metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David; Spanel, Patrik

    2015-04-01

    The experimental challenges presented by the analysis of trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath with the objective of identifying reliable biomarkers are brought into focus. It is stressed that positive identification and accurate quantification of the VOCs are imperative if they are to be considered as discreet biomarkers. Breath sampling procedures are discussed and it is suggested that for accurate quantification on-line real time sampling and analysis is desirable. Whilst recognizing such real time analysis is not always possible and sample collection is often required, objective recognition of the pitfalls involved in this is essential. It is also emphasized that mouth-exhaled breath is always contaminated to some degree by orally generated compounds and so, when possible, analysis of nose-exhaled breath should be performed. Some difficulties in breath analysis are mitigated by the choice of analytical instrumentation used, but no single instrument can provide solutions to all the analytical challenges. Analysis and interpretation of breath analysis data, however acquired, needs to be treated circumspectly. In particular, the excessive use of statistics to treat imperfect mass spectrometry/mobility spectra should be avoided, since it can result in unjustifiable conclusions. It is should be understood that recognition of combinations of VOCs in breath that, for example, apparently describe particular cancer states, will not be taken seriously until they are replicated in other laboratories and clinics. Finally, the inhibiting notion that single biomarkers of infection and disease will not be identified and utilized clinically should be dispelled by the exemplary and widely used single biomarkers NO and H2 and now, as indicated by recent selected ion flow tube mass spectroscopy (SIFT-MS) results, triatomic hydrogen cyanide and perhaps pentane and acetic acid. Hopefully, these discoveries will provide encouragement to research workers to be

  7. Extensive in silico analysis of Mimivirus coded Rab GTPase homolog suggests a possible role in virion membrane biogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrutraj eZade

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rab GTPases are the key regulators of intracellular membrane trafficking in eukaryotes. Many viruses and intracellular bacterial pathogens have evolved to hijack the host Rab GTPase functions, mainly through activators and effector proteins, for their benefit. Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV is one of the largest viruses and belongs to the monophyletic clade of nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV. The inner membrane lining is integral to the APMV virion structure. APMV assembly involves extensive host membrane modifications, like vesicle budding and fusion, leading to the formation of a membrane sheet that is incorporated into the virion. Intriguingly, APMV and all group I members of the Mimiviridae family code for a putative Rab GTPase protein. APMV is the first reported virus to code for a Rab GTPase (encoded by R214 gene. Our thorough in silico analysis of the subfamily specific (SF region of Mimiviridae Rab GTPase sequences suggests that they are related to Rab5, a member of the group II Rab GTPases, of lower eukaryotes. Because of their high divergence from the existing three isoforms, A, B and C of the Rab5-family, we suggest that Mimiviridae Rabs constitute a new isoform, Rab5D. Phylogenetic analysis indicated probable horizontal acquisition from a lower eukaryotic ancestor followed by selection and divergence. Furthermore, interaction network analysis suggests that vps34 (a Class III P13K homolog, coded by APMV L615, Atg-8 and dynamin (host proteins are recruited by APMV Rab GTPase during capsid assembly. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that APMV Rab plays a role in the acquisition of inner membrane during virion assembly.

  8. Comprehensive analysis of cystatin family genes suggests their putative functions in sexual reproduction, embryogenesis, and seed formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Zhou, Xue-mei; Zou, Jie; Wang, Wei; Wang, Lu; Peng, Xiong-bo; Sun, Meng-xiang

    2014-09-01

    Cystatins are tightly bound and reversible inhibitors of cysteine proteases in C1A and C13 peptidase families, which have been identified in several species and shown to function in vegetative development and response to biotic/abiotic stresses in plants. Recent work revealed their critical role in regulating programmed cell death during embryogenesis in tobacco and suggested their more comprehensive roles in the process of sexual plant reproduction, although little is known about cystatin family genes in the processes. Here, 10 cystatin family genes in Nicotiana tabacum were identified using an expressed sequence tag (EST)-based gene clone strategy. Analysis of their biochemical properties showed that nine of them have the potency to inhibit the activities of both commercial cathepsin L-like proteases and extracted cysteine proteases from seeds, but with different K i values depending on the types of proteases and the developmental stages of the seed tested. This suggests that cystatin-dependent cathepsin L-like proteolytic pathways are probably important for early seed development. Comprehensive expression profile analysis revealed that cystatin family genes showed manifold variations in their transcription levels in different plant cell types, including the sperm, egg, and zygote, especially in the embryo and seed at different developmental stages. More interestingly, intracellular localization analysis of each cystatin revealed that most members of cystatin families are recognized as secretory proteins with signal peptides that direct them to the endoplasmic reticulum. These results suggest their widespread roles in cell fate determination and cell-cell communication in the process of sexual reproduction, especially in gamete and embryo development, as well as in seed formation.

  9. Functional Analysis of a Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Locus Implicates BCAR1 and Suggests a Causal Variant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boardman-Pretty, Freya; Smith, Andrew J. P.; Cooper, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis that can predict cardiovascular disease events over traditional risk factors. This study examined the BCAR1-CFDP1-TMEM170A locus on chromosome 16, associated with carotid IMT and coronary artery disease in the IMT...... associations of rs4888378 with BCAR1 in vascular tissues. Molecular studies suggest the lead SNP as a potentially causal SNP at the BCAR1-CFDP1-TMEM170A locus, and expression quantitative trait loci studies implicate BCAR1 as the causal gene. This variant showed stronger effects on common carotid IMT in women......, raising questions about the mechanism of the causal SNP on atherosclerosis....

  10. Gene expression analysis and microdialysis suggest hypothalamic triiodothyronine (T3) gates daily torpor in Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Jonathan H H; Cubuk, Ceyda; Wilson, Dana; Rijntjes, Eddy; Kemmling, Julia; Markovsky, Hanna; Barrett, Perry; Herwig, Annika

    2017-07-01

    Thyroid hormones play an important role in regulating seasonal adaptations of mammals. Several studies suggested that reduced availability of 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) in the hypothalamus is required for the physiological adaptation to winter in Djungarian hamsters. We have previously shown that T3 is involved in the regulation of daily torpor, but it remains unclear, whether T3 affects torpor by central or peripheral mechanisms. To determine the effect of T3 concentrations within the hypothalamus in regulating daily torpor, we tested the hypothesis that low hypothalamic T3 metabolism would favour torpor and high T3 concentrations would not. In experiment 1 gene expression in torpid hamsters was assessed for transporters carrying thyroid hormones between cerebrospinal fluid and hypothalamic cells and for deiodinases enzymes, activating or inactivating T3 within hypothalamic cells. Gene expression analysis suggests reduced T3 in hypothalamic cells during torpor. In experiment 2, hypothalamic T3 concentrations were altered via microdialysis and torpor behaviour was continuously monitored by implanted body temperature transmitters. Increased T3 concentrations in the hypothalamus reduced expression of torpor as well as torpor bout duration and depth. Subsequent analysis of gene expression in the ependymal layer of the third ventricle showed clear up-regulation of T3 inactivating deiodinase 3 but no changes in several other genes related to photoperiodic adaptations in hamsters. Finally, serum analysis revealed that increased total T3 serum concentrations were not necessary to inhibit torpor expression. Taken together, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that T3 availability within the hypothalamus significantly contributes to the regulation of daily torpor via a central pathway.

  11. Large-scale analysis of conserved rare codon clusters suggests an involvement in co-translational molecular recognition events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Matthieu; Gaudreault, Francis; Najmanovich, Rafael

    2012-06-01

    An increasing amount of evidence from experimental and computational analysis suggests that rare codon clusters are functionally important for protein activity. Most of the studies on rare codon clusters were performed on a limited number of proteins or protein families. In the present study, we present the Sherlocc program and how it can be used for large scale protein family analysis of evolutionarily conserved rare codon clusters and their relation to protein function and structure. This large-scale analysis was performed using the whole Pfam database covering over 70% of the known protein sequence universe. Our program Sherlocc, detects statistically relevant conserved rare codon clusters and produces a user-friendly HTML output. Statistically significant rare codon clusters were detected in a multitude of Pfam protein families. The most statistically significant rare codon clusters were predominantly identified in N-terminal Pfam families. Many of the longest rare codon clusters are found in membrane-related proteins which are required to interact with other proteins as part of their function, for example in targeting or insertion. We identified some cases where rare codon clusters can play a regulating role in the folding of catalytically important domains. Our results support the existence of a widespread functional role for rare codon clusters across species. Finally, we developed an online filter-based search interface that provides access to Sherlocc results for all Pfam families. The Sherlocc program and search interface are open access and are available at http://bcb.med.usherbrooke.ca

  12. Signs and symptoms of acute mania: a factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Silva Varuni A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major diagnostic classifications consider mania as a uni-dimensional illness. Factor analytic studies of acute mania are fewer compared to schizophrenia and depression. Evidence from factor analysis suggests more categories or subtypes than what is included in the classification systems. Studies have found that these factors can predict differences in treatment response and prognosis. Methods The sample included 131 patients consecutively admitted to an acute psychiatry unit over a period of one year. It included 76 (58% males. The mean age was 44.05 years (SD = 15.6. Patients met International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10 clinical diagnostic criteria for a manic episode. Patients with a diagnosis of mixed bipolar affective disorder were excluded. Participants were evaluated using the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS. Exploratory factor analysis (principal component analysis was carried out and factors with an eigenvalue > 1 were retained. The significance level for interpretation of factor loadings was 0.40. The unrotated component matrix identified five factors. Oblique rotation was then carried out to identify three factors which were clinically meaningful. Results Unrotated principal component analysis extracted five factors. These five factors explained 65.36% of the total variance. Oblique rotation extracted 3 factors. Factor 1 corresponding to 'irritable mania' had significant loadings of irritability, increased motor activity/energy and disruptive aggressive behaviour. Factor 2 corresponding to 'elated mania' had significant loadings of elevated mood, language abnormalities/thought disorder, increased sexual interest and poor insight. Factor 3 corresponding to 'psychotic mania' had significant loadings of abnormalities in thought content, appearance, poor sleep and speech abnormalities. Conclusions Our findings identified three clinically meaningful factors corresponding to 'elated mania', 'irritable mania

  13. Kernel parameter dependence in spatial factor analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2010-01-01

    feature space via the kernel function and then performing a linear analysis in that space. In this paper we shall apply a kernel version of maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) [7, 8] analysis to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemistry data from South Greenland and illustrate the dependence...

  14. Multistructure Statistical Model Applied To Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentler, Peter M.

    1976-01-01

    A general statistical model for the multivariate analysis of mean and covariance structures is described. Matrix calculus is used to develop the statistical aspects of one new special case in detail. This special case separates the confounding of principal components and factor analysis. (DEP)

  15. Genetic analysis of threatened Australian grayling Prototroctes maraena suggests recruitment to coastal rivers from an unstructured marine larval source population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, D J; Crook, D A; O'Connor, J P; Hughes, J M

    2011-01-01

    Population genetic variation of Australian grayling Prototroctes maraena was examined to determine whether the dispersal strategy of this amphidromous species favours retention of larvae and juveniles in close proximity to their natal river, or mixing of populations via marine dispersal. Variation in microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers was unstructured and differentiation was indistinguishable from zero across four coastal rivers spanning approximately one-quarter of the continental range of the species. This result indicates that the marine larval and juvenile phase probably facilitates extensive gene flow among coastal rivers and agrees with a previous analysis of otolith chemistry that suggested larvae probably move into the sea rather than remain in estuaries. It appears likely that the dispersal strategy of P. maraena would enable recolonization of rivers that experience localized extinction provided that connectivity between freshwater habitats and the sea is sufficient to permit migration and that enough source populations remain intact to support viability of the wider population.

  16. Meta-analysis of crowdsourced data compendia suggests pan-disease transcriptional signatures of autoimmunity [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Lau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The proliferation of publicly accessible large-scale biological data together with increasing availability of bioinformatics tools have the potential to transform biomedical research. Here we report a crowdsourcing Jamboree that explored whether a team of volunteer biologists without formal bioinformatics training could use OMiCC, a crowdsourcing web platform that facilitates the reuse and (meta- analysis of public gene expression data, to compile and annotate gene expression data, and design comparisons between disease and control sample groups. Methods: The Jamboree focused on several common human autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, multiple sclerosis (MS, type I diabetes (DM1, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and the corresponding mouse models. Meta-analyses were performed in OMiCC using comparisons constructed by the participants to identify 1 gene expression signatures for each disease (disease versus healthy controls at the gene expression and biological pathway levels, 2 conserved signatures across all diseases within each species (pan-disease signatures, and 3 conserved signatures between species for each disease and across all diseases (cross-species signatures. Results: A large number of differentially expressed genes were identified for each disease based on meta-analysis, with observed overlap among diseases both within and across species. Gene set/pathway enrichment of upregulated genes suggested conserved signatures (e.g., interferon across all human and mouse conditions. Conclusions: Our Jamboree exercise provides evidence that when enabled by appropriate tools, a "crowd" of biologists can work together to accelerate the pace by which the increasingly large amounts of public data can be reused and meta-analyzed for generating and testing hypotheses. Our encouraging experience suggests that a similar crowdsourcing approach can be used to explore other biological questions.

  17. Global analysis of lysine acetylation suggests the involvement of protein acetylation in diverse biological processes in rice (Oryza sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babi Ramesh Reddy Nallamilli

    Full Text Available Lysine acetylation is a reversible, dynamic protein modification regulated by lysine acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Recent advances in high-throughput proteomics have greatly contributed to the success of global analysis of lysine acetylation. A large number of proteins of diverse biological functions have been shown to be acetylated in several reports in human cells, E.coli, and dicot plants. However, the extent of lysine acetylation in non-histone proteins remains largely unknown in monocots, particularly in the cereal crops. Here we report the mass spectrometric examination of lysine acetylation in rice (Oryza sativa. We identified 60 lysine acetylated sites on 44 proteins of diverse biological functions. Immunoblot studies further validated the presence of a large number of acetylated non-histone proteins. Examination of the amino acid composition revealed substantial amino acid bias around the acetylation sites and the amino acid preference is conserved among different organisms. Gene ontology analysis demonstrates that lysine acetylation occurs in diverse cytoplasmic, chloroplast and mitochondrial proteins in addition to the histone modifications. Our results suggest that lysine acetylation might constitute a regulatory mechanism for many proteins, including both histones and non-histone proteins of diverse biological functions.

  18. Large-scale analysis of conserved rare codon clusters suggests an involvement in co-translational molecular recognition events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Matthieu; Gaudreault, Francis; Najmanovich, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: An increasing amount of evidence from experimental and computational analysis suggests that rare codon clusters are functionally important for protein activity. Most of the studies on rare codon clusters were performed on a limited number of proteins or protein families. In the present study, we present the Sherlocc program and how it can be used for large scale protein family analysis of evolutionarily conserved rare codon clusters and their relation to protein function and structure. This large-scale analysis was performed using the whole Pfam database covering over 70% of the known protein sequence universe. Our program Sherlocc, detects statistically relevant conserved rare codon clusters and produces a user-friendly HTML output. Results: Statistically significant rare codon clusters were detected in a multitude of Pfam protein families. The most statistically significant rare codon clusters were predominantly identified in N-terminal Pfam families. Many of the longest rare codon clusters are found in membrane-related proteins which are required to interact with other proteins as part of their function, for example in targeting or insertion. We identified some cases where rare codon clusters can play a regulating role in the folding of catalytically important domains. Our results support the existence of a widespread functional role for rare codon clusters across species. Finally, we developed an online filter-based search interface that provides access to Sherlocc results for all Pfam families. Availability: The Sherlocc program and search interface are open access and are available at http://bcb.med.usherbrooke.ca Contact: rafael.najmanovich@usherbrooke.ca Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:22467916

  19. Theories of Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W

    1928-02-01

    The word "suggestion" has been used in educational, scientific and medical literature in slightly different senses. In psychological medicine the use of suggestion has developed out of the earlier use of hypnotic influence.Charcot defined hypnosis as an artificial hysteria, Bernheim as an artificially increased suggestibility. The two definitions need to be combined to give an adequate account of hypnosis. Moreover, due allowance should be made for the factors of dissociation and of rapport in hypnotic phenomena.The relationships between dissociation, suggestibility, and hypnotizability.Theories of suggestion propounded by Pierre Janet, Freud, McDougall, Pawlow and others. Ernest Jones's theory of the nature of auto-suggestion. Janet explains suggestion in terms of ideo-motor action in which the suggested idea, because of the inactivity of competing ideas, produces its maximum effect. Freud explains rapport in terms of the sex instinct "inhibited in its aim" (transference) and brings in his distinction of "ego" and "ego-ideal" (or "super-ego") to supplement the theory. Jones explains auto-suggestion in terms of narcissism. McDougall explains hypnotic suggestion in terms of the instinct of self-abasement. But different instincts may supply the driving power to produce suggestion-effects in different circumstances. Such instincts as those of self-preservation (fear) and gregariousness may play their part. Auto-suggestion as a therapeutic factor is badly named. It supplements, but does not supplant the will, and makes complete volition possible.

  20. THE STRATEGIC PLANNING (SWOT ANALYSIS OUTCOMES AND SUGGESTIONS ACCORDING TO THE STUDENTS AND THE LECTURERS WITHIN THE DISTANCE EDUCATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba Yanpar YELKEN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, strategic planning has become one of the subjects that many institutions work on to ensure the intuitions’ appropriate management based on realistic results. Therefore, this planning has to be taken into account and should provide planning direction on the bases of its results. Basically, the manager of strategic planning, leadership and strategic thinking and to act to help planners designed the tools, processes and concepts is a group. At the same time, the organization of the development and effective strategies will help to place. The purpose of this research is to provide SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats analysis and to present new suggestions based on the opinions of students in the distance education system. In this work, we have applied Survey Method. The study group has consisted of 70 students and 11 instructors of Mersin Vocational School of Higher Education (MVSHE. All the data was surveyed during the spring semester of 2009. In the development of the questionnaire, a relevant literature has been investigated. Also, expert opinion has also been provided for the survey materials and survey articles. The questionnaire is finalized according to the expert’s opinion. The questionnaire was applied in the internet environment to both the students and the instructors. The outcomes of the survey have been evaluated quantatively along the direction of the survey’s fundamental question: “What are your views on strategic planning (SWOT of distance education?” The suggestions have been made about the distance learning education based on the findings of the survey.

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial and archaeal arsC gene sequences suggests an ancient, common origin for arsenate reductase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugas Sandra L

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ars gene system provides arsenic resistance for a variety of microorganisms and can be chromosomal or plasmid-borne. The arsC gene, which codes for an arsenate reductase is essential for arsenate resistance and transforms arsenate into arsenite, which is extruded from the cell. A survey of GenBank shows that arsC appears to be phylogenetically widespread both in organisms with known arsenic resistance and those organisms that have been sequenced as part of whole genome projects. Results Phylogenetic analysis of aligned arsC sequences shows broad similarities to the established 16S rRNA phylogeny, with separation of bacterial, archaeal, and subsequently eukaryotic arsC genes. However, inconsistencies between arsC and 16S rRNA are apparent for some taxa. Cyanobacteria and some of the γ-Proteobacteria appear to possess arsC genes that are similar to those of Low GC Gram-positive Bacteria, and other isolated taxa possess arsC genes that would not be expected based on known evolutionary relationships. There is no clear separation of plasmid-borne and chromosomal arsC genes, although a number of the Enterobacteriales (γ-Proteobacteria possess similar plasmid-encoded arsC sequences. Conclusion The overall phylogeny of the arsenate reductases suggests a single, early origin of the arsC gene and subsequent sequence divergence to give the distinct arsC classes that exist today. Discrepancies between 16S rRNA and arsC phylogenies support the role of horizontal gene transfer (HGT in the evolution of arsenate reductases, with a number of instances of HGT early in bacterial arsC evolution. Plasmid-borne arsC genes are not monophyletic suggesting multiple cases of chromosomal-plasmid exchange and subsequent HGT. Overall, arsC phylogeny is complex and is likely the result of a number of evolutionary mechanisms.

  2. Analysis of Economic Factors Affecting Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Linyin

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation concentrates on analysis of economic factors affecting Chinese stock market through examining relationship between stock market index and economic factors. Six economic variables are examined: industrial production, money supply 1, money supply 2, exchange rate, long-term government bond yield and real estate total value. Stock market comprises fixed interest stocks and equities shares. In this dissertation, stock market is restricted to equity market. The stock price in thi...

  3. Largescale Transcriptomics Analysis Suggests Over-Expression of BGH3, MMP9 and PDIA3 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuan; Shao, Fangyang; Pi, Weidong; Shi, Cong; Chen, Yujia; Gong, Diping; Wang, Bingjie; Cao, Zhiwei; Tang, Kailin

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been reported as the most prevalent cancer of the head and neck region, while early diagnosis remains challenging. Here we took a comprehensive bioinformatics study on microarray data of 326 OSCC clinical samples with control of 165 normal tissues. The cell interaction pathways of ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion were found to be significantly regulated in OSCC samples. Further analysis of the topological properties and expression consistency identified that three hub genes in the gene interaction network, MMP9, PDIA3 and BGH3, were consistently up-expressed in OSCC samples. When being validated on additional microarray datasets of 41 OSCC samples, the validation rate of over-expressed BGH3, MMP9, and PDIA3 reached 90%, 90% and 84% respectively. At last, immuno-histochemical assays were done to test the protein expression of the three genes on newly collected clinical samples of 35 OSCC, 20 samples of pre-OSCC stage, and 12 normal oral mucosa specimens. Their protein expression levels were also found to progressively increase from normal mucosa to pre-OSCC stage and further to OSCC (ANOVA p = 0.000), suggesting their key roles in OSCC pathogenesis. Based on above solid validation, we propose BGH3, MMP9 and PDIA3 might be further explored as potential biomarkers to aid OSCC diagnosis.

  4. Analysis of Three Sugarcane Homo/Homeologous Regions Suggests Independent Polyploidization Events of Saccharum officinarum and Saccharum spontaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Mariane de Mendonça; Del Bem, Luiz Eduardo; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; de Setta, Nathalia; Kitajima, João Paulo; Cruz, Guilherme Marcelo Queiroga; Sforça, Danilo Augusto; de Souza, Anete Pereira; Ferreira, Paulo Cavalcanti Gomes; Grativol, Clícia; Cardoso-Silva, Claudio Benicio; Vicentini, Renato

    2017-01-01

    Whole genome duplication has played an important role in plant evolution and diversification. Sugarcane is an important crop with a complex hybrid polyploid genome, for which the process of adaptation to polyploidy is still poorly understood. In order to improve our knowledge about sugarcane genome evolution and the homo/homeologous gene expression balance, we sequenced and analyzed 27 BACs (Bacterial Artificial Chromosome) of sugarcane R570 cultivar, containing the putative single-copy genes LFY (seven haplotypes), PHYC (four haplotypes), and TOR (seven haplotypes). Comparative genomic approaches showed that these sugarcane loci presented a high degree of conservation of gene content and collinearity (synteny) with sorghum and rice orthologous regions, but were invaded by transposable elements (TE). All the homo/homeologous haplotypes of LFY, PHYC, and TOR are likely to be functional, because they are all under purifying selection (dN/dS ≪ 1). However, they were found to participate in a nonequivalently manner to the overall expression of the corresponding gene. SNPs, indels, and amino acid substitutions allowed inferring the S. officinarum or S. spontaneum origin of the TOR haplotypes, which further led to the estimation that these two sugarcane ancestral species diverged between 2.5 and 3.5 Ma. In addition, analysis of shared TE insertions in TOR haplotypes suggested that two autopolyploidization may have occurred in the lineage that gave rise to S. officinarum, after its divergence from S. spontaneum. PMID:28082603

  5. Largescale Transcriptomics Analysis Suggests Over-Expression of BGH3, MMP9 and PDIA3 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan He

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC has been reported as the most prevalent cancer of the head and neck region, while early diagnosis remains challenging. Here we took a comprehensive bioinformatics study on microarray data of 326 OSCC clinical samples with control of 165 normal tissues. The cell interaction pathways of ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion were found to be significantly regulated in OSCC samples. Further analysis of the topological properties and expression consistency identified that three hub genes in the gene interaction network, MMP9, PDIA3 and BGH3, were consistently up-expressed in OSCC samples. When being validated on additional microarray datasets of 41 OSCC samples, the validation rate of over-expressed BGH3, MMP9, and PDIA3 reached 90%, 90% and 84% respectively. At last, immuno-histochemical assays were done to test the protein expression of the three genes on newly collected clinical samples of 35 OSCC, 20 samples of pre-OSCC stage, and 12 normal oral mucosa specimens. Their protein expression levels were also found to progressively increase from normal mucosa to pre-OSCC stage and further to OSCC (ANOVA p = 0.000, suggesting their key roles in OSCC pathogenesis. Based on above solid validation, we propose BGH3, MMP9 and PDIA3 might be further explored as potential biomarkers to aid OSCC diagnosis.

  6. A compilation of radionuclide transfer factors for the plant, meat, milk, and aquatic food pathways and the suggested default values for the RESRAD code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.Y.; Biwer, B.M.; Yu, C.

    1993-08-01

    The ongoing development and revision of the RESRAD computer code at Argonne National Laboratory requires update of radionuclide transfer factors for the plant, meat, milk, and aquatic food pathways. Default values for these transfer factors used in published radiological assessment reports are compiled and compared with values used in RESRAD. The differences among the reported default values used in different radiological assessment codes and reports are also discussed. In data comparisons, values used in more recent reports are given more weight because more recent experimental work tends to be conducted under better-defined laboratory or field conditions. A new default value is suggested for RESRAD if one of the following conditions is met: (1) values used in recent reports are an order of magnitude higher or lower than the default value currently used in RESRAD, or (2) the same default value is used in several recent radiological assessment reports.

  7. Combined gene expression and proteomic analysis of EGF induced apoptosis in A431 cells suggests multiple pathways trigger apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Ibrahim; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Hoffmann, Peter; Adelson, David L

    2013-11-01

    A431 cells, derived from epidermoid carcinoma, overexpress the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and when treated with a high dose of EGF will undergo apoptosis. We exploited microarray and proteomics techniques and network prediction to study the regulatory mechanisms of EGF-induced apoptosis in A431 cells. We observed significant changes in gene expression in 162 genes, approximately evenly split between pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes and identified 30 proteins from the proteomic data that had either pro or anti-apoptotic annotation. Our correlation analysis of gene expression and proteome modeled a number of distinct sub-networks that are associated with the onset of apoptosis, allowing us to identify specific pathways and components. These include components of the interferon signalling pathway, and down stream components, including cytokines and suppressors of cytokine signalling. A central component of almost all gene expression sub-networks identified was TP53, which is mutated in A431 cells, and was down regulated. This down regulation of TP53 appeared to be correlated with proteomic sub-networks of cytoskeletal or cell adhesion components that might induce apoptosis by triggering cytochrome C release. Of the only three genes also differentially expressed as proteins, only serpinb1 had a known association with apoptosis. We confirmed that up regulation and cleavage of serpinb1 into L-DNAaseII was correlated with the induction of apoptosis. It is unlikely that a single pathway, but more likely a combination of pathways is needed to trigger EGF induced apoptosis in A431cells.

  8. Risk Factors Analysis on Traumatic Brain Injury Prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-dong Qu; Resha Shrestha; Mao-de Wang

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the independent risk factors of traumatic brain injury (TBI) prognosis.Methods A retrospective analysis was performed in 885 hospitalized TEl patients from January 1,2003 to January 1, 2010 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Xi' an Jiaotong University. Single-factor and logistic regression analysis were conducted to evaluate the association of different variables with TBI outcome.Results The single-factor analysis revealed significant association between several variables and TEl outcome, including age (P=0.044 for the age group 40-60, P<0.001 for the age group ≥60), complications (P<0.001), cerebrospinal fluid leakage (P<0.001), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) (P<0.001), pupillary light reflex (P<0.001), shock (P<0.001), associated extra-cranial lesions (P=0.01), subdural hematoma (P<0.001), cerebral contusion (P<0.001), diffuse axonal injury (P<0.001), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (P<0.001), suggesting the influence of those factors on the prognosis of TBI. Furthermore, logistic regression analysis identified age, GCS score, pupillary light reflex, subdural hematoma, and subarachnoid hemorrhage as independent risk factors of TEl prognosis.Conclusion Age, GCS score, papillary light reflex, subdural hematoma, and subarachnoid hemorrhage may be risk factors influencing the prognosis of TEl. Paying attention to those factors might improve the outcome of TBI in clinical treatment.

  9. Developmental Coordination Disorder: Validation of a Qualitative Analysis Using Statistical Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Ahern

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates triangulation of the findings of a qualitative analysis by applying an exploratory factor analysis to themes identified in a phenomenological study. A questionnaire was developed from a phenomenological analysis of parents' experiences of parenting a child with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD. The questionnaire was administered to 114 parents of DCD children and data were analyzed using an exploratory factor analysis. The extracted factors provided support for the validity of the original qualitative analysis, and a commentary on the validity of the process is provided. The emerging description is of the compromises that were necessary to translate qualitative themes into statistical factors, and of the ways in which the statistical analysis suggests further qualitative study.

  10. What Is Rotating in Exploratory Factor Analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is one of the most commonly-reported quantitative methodology in the social sciences, yet much of the detail regarding what happens during an EFA remains unclear. The goal of this brief technical note is to explore what "rotation" is, what exactly is rotating, and why we use rotation when performing…

  11. Stepwise Variable Selection in Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Yutaka; Harada, Akira

    2000-01-01

    Takes several goodness-of-fit statistics as measures of variable selection and develops backward elimination and forward selection procedures in exploratory factor analysis. A newly developed variable selection program, SEFA, can print several fit measures for a current model and models obtained by removing an internal variable or adding an…

  12. Multilevel exploratory factor analysis of discrete data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendse, M.T.; Oort, F.J.; Jak, S.; Timmerman, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) can be used to determine the dimensionality of a set of items. When data come from clustered subjects, such as pupils within schools or children within families, the hierarchical structure of the data should be taken into account. Standard multilevel EFA is only sui

  13. Differential proteomic analysis of platelets suggested possible signal cascades network in platelets treated with salvianolic acid B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salvianolic acid B (SB is an active component isolated from Danshen, a traditional Chinese medicine widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. Previous study suggested that SB might inhibit adhesion as well as aggregation of platelets by a mechanism involving the integrin α2β1. But, the signal cascades in platelets after SB binding are still not clear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, a differential proteomic analysis (two-dimensional electrophoresis was conducted to check the protein expression profiles of rat platelets with or without treatment of SB. Proteins altered in level after SB exposure were identified by MALDI-TOF MS/MS. Treatment of SB caused regulation of 20 proteins such as heat shock-related 70 kDa protein 2 (hsp70, LIM domain protein CLP-36, copine I, peroxiredoxin-2, coronin-1 B and cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chain 2C. The regulation of SB on protein levels was confirmed by Western blotting. The signal cascades network induced by SB after its binding with integrin α2β1 was predicted. To certify the predicted network, binding affinity of SB to integrin α2β1 was checked in vitro and ex vivo in platelets. Furthermore, the effects of SB on protein levels of hsp70, coronin-1B and intracellular levels of Ca²+ and reactive oxygen species (ROS were checked with or without pre-treatment of platelets using antibody against integrin α2β1. Electron microscopy study confirmed that SB affected cytoskeleton structure of platelets. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Integrin α2β1 might be one of the direct target proteins of SB in platelets. The signal cascades network of SB after binding with integrin α2β1 might include regulation of intracellular Ca²+ level, cytoskeleton-related proteins such as coronin-1B and cytoskeleton structure of platelets.

  14. Differential Proteomic Analysis of Platelets Suggested Possible Signal Cascades Network in Platelets Treated with Salvianolic Acid B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chao; Yao, Yan; Yue, Qing-Xi; Zhou, Xin-Wen; Yang, Peng-Yuan; Wu, Wan-Ying; Guan, Shu-Hong; Jiang, Bao-Hong; Yang, Min; Liu, Xuan; Guo, De-An

    2011-01-01

    Background Salvianolic acid B (SB) is an active component isolated from Danshen, a traditional Chinese medicine widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. Previous study suggested that SB might inhibit adhesion as well as aggregation of platelets by a mechanism involving the integrin α2β1. But, the signal cascades in platelets after SB binding are still not clear. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, a differential proteomic analysis (two-dimensional electrophoresis) was conducted to check the protein expression profiles of rat platelets with or without treatment of SB. Proteins altered in level after SB exposure were identified by MALDI-TOF MS/MS. Treatment of SB caused regulation of 20 proteins such as heat shock-related 70 kDa protein 2 (hsp70), LIM domain protein CLP-36, copine I, peroxiredoxin-2, coronin-1 B and cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chain 2C. The regulation of SB on protein levels was confirmed by Western blotting. The signal cascades network induced by SB after its binding with integrin α2β1 was predicted. To certify the predicted network, binding affinity of SB to integrin α2β1 was checked in vitro and ex vivo in platelets. Furthermore, the effects of SB on protein levels of hsp70, coronin-1B and intracellular levels of Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were checked with or without pre-treatment of platelets using antibody against integrin α2β1. Electron microscopy study confirmed that SB affected cytoskeleton structure of platelets. Conclusions/Significance Integrin α2β1 might be one of the direct target proteins of SB in platelets. The signal cascades network of SB after binding with integrin α2β1 might include regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) level, cytoskeleton-related proteins such as coronin-1B and cytoskeleton structure of platelets. PMID:21379382

  15. Biogeochemical analysis of ancient Pacific Cod bone suggests Hg bioaccumulation was linked to paleo sea level rise and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribeth S. Murray

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Deglaciation at the end of the Pleistocene initiated major changes in ocean circulation and distribution. Within a brief geological time, large areas of land were inundated by sea-level rise and today global sea level is 120 m above its minimum stand during the last glacial maximum. This was the era of modern sea shelf formation; climate change caused coastal plain flooding and created broad continental shelves with innumerable consequences to marine and terrestrial ecosystems and human populations. In Alaska, the Bering Sea nearly doubled in size and stretches of coastline to the south were flooded, with regional variability in the timing and extent of submergence. Here we suggest how past climate change and coastal flooding are linked to mercury bioaccumulation that could have had profound impacts on past human populations and that, under conditions of continued climate warming, may have future impacts. Biogeochemical analysis of total mercury (tHg and 13C/15N ratios in the bone collagen of archaeologically recovered Pacific Cod (Gadus macrocephalus bone shows high levels of tHg during early/mid-Holocene. This pattern cannot be linked to anthropogenic activity or to food web trophic changes, but may result from natural phenomena such as increases in productivity, carbon supply and coastal flooding driven by glacial melting and sea-level rise. The coastal flooding could have led to increased methylation of Hg in newly submerged terrestrial land and vegetation. Methylmercury is bioaccumulated through aquatic food webs with attendant consequences for the health of fish and their consumers, including people. This is the first study of tHg levels in a marine species from the Gulf of Alaska to provide a time series spanning nearly the entire Holocene and we propose that past coastal flooding resulting from climate change had the potential to input significant quantities of Hg into marine food webs and subsequently to human consumers.

  16. Planktonic foraminiferal oxygen isotope analysis by ion microprobe technique suggests warm tropical sea surface temperatures during the Early Paleogene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozdon, Reinhard; Kelly, D. Clay; Kita, Noriko T.; Fournelle, John H.; Valley, John W.

    2011-09-01

    Cool tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are reported for warm Paleogene greenhouse climates based on the δ18O of planktonic foraminiferal tests. These results are difficult to reconcile with models of greenhouse gas-forced climate. It has been suggested that this "cool tropics paradox" arises from postdepositional alteration of foraminiferal calcite, yielding erroneously high δ18O values. Recrystallization of foraminiferal tests is cryptic and difficult to quantify, and the compilation of robust δ18O records from moderately altered material remains challenging. Scanning electron microscopy of planktonic foraminiferal chamber-wall cross sections reveals that the basal area of muricae, pustular outgrowths on the chamber walls of species belonging to the genus Morozovella, contain no mural pores and may be less susceptible to postdepositional alteration. We analyzed the δ18O in muricae bases of morozovellids from the central Pacific (Ocean Drilling Program Site 865) by ion microprobe using 10 μm pits with an analytical reproducibility of ±0.34‰ (2 standard deviations). In situ measurements of δ18O in these domains yield consistently lower values than those published for conventional multispecimen analyses. Assuming that the original δ18O is largely preserved in the basal areas of muricae, this new δ18O record indicates Early Paleogene (˜49-56 Ma) tropical SSTs in the central Pacific were 4°-8°C higher than inferred from the previously published δ18O record and that SSTs reached at least ˜33°C during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum. This study demonstrates the utility of ion microprobe analysis for generating more reliable paleoclimate records from moderately altered foraminiferal tests preserved in deep-sea sediments.

  17. An SPSSR -Menu for Ordinal Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Basto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory factor analysis is a widely used statistical technique in the social sciences. It attempts to identify underlying factors that explain the pattern of correlations within a set of observed variables. A statistical software package is needed to perform the calculations. However, there are some limitations with popular statistical software packages, like SPSS. The R programming language is a free software package for statistical and graphical computing. It offers many packages written by contributors from all over the world and programming resources that allow it to overcome the dialog limitations of SPSS. This paper offers an SPSS dialog written in theR programming language with the help of some packages, so that researchers with little or no knowledge in programming, or those who are accustomed to making their calculations based on statistical dialogs, have more options when applying factor analysis to their data and hence can adopt a better approach when dealing with ordinal, Likert-type data.

  18. A meta-analysis of relative crop yields in cereal/legume mixtures suggests options for management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Yang; Stomph, Tjeerd-Jan; Makowski, David; Zhang, Lizhen; Werf, van der Wopke

    2016-01-01

    Intercrops of cereals and legumes are grown worldwide, both in smallholder agriculture in developing countries and in organic farming systems in developed countries. The competitive balance between species is a key factor determining productivity in mixtures. Management factors, e.g. sowing time,

  19. ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE AVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BOGHEAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Productivity in agriculture most relevantly and concisely expresses the economic efficiency of using the factors of production. Labour productivity is affected by a considerable number of variables (including the relationship system and interdependence between factors, which differ in each economic sector and influence it, giving rise to a series of technical, economic and organizational idiosyncrasies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors of the average work productivity in agriculture, forestry and fishing. The analysis will take into account the data concerning the economically active population and the gross added value in agriculture, forestry and fishing in Romania during 2008-2011. The distribution of the average work productivity per factors affecting it is conducted by means of the u-substitution method.

  20. Modulation of p53 activity by IκBα: Evidence suggesting a common phylogeny between NF-κB and p53 transcription factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelfand Erwin W

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this work we present evidence that the p53 tumor suppressor protein and NF-κB transcription factors could be related through common descent from a family of ancestral transcription factors regulating cellular proliferation and apoptosis. P53 is a homotetrameric transcription factor known to interact with the ankyrin protein 53BP2 (a fragment of the ASPP2 protein. NF-κB is also regulated by ankyrin proteins, the prototype of which is the IκB family. The DNA binding sequences of the two transcription factors are similar, sharing 8 out of 10 nucleotides. Interactions between the two proteins, both direct and indirect, have been noted previously and the two proteins play central roles in the control of proliferation and apoptosis. Results Using previously published structure data, we noted a significant degree of structural alignment between p53 and NF-κB p65. We also determined that IκBα and p53 bind in vitro through a specific interaction in part involving the DNA binding region of p53, or a region proximal to it, and the amino terminus of IκBα independently or cooperatively with the ankyrin 3 domain of IκBα In cotransfection experiments, κBα could significantly inhibit the transcriptional activity of p53. Inhibition of p53-mediated transcription was increased by deletion of the ankyrin 2, 4, or 5 domains of IκBα Co-precipitation experiments using the stably transfected ankyrin 5 deletion mutant of κBα and endogenous wild-type p53 further support the hypothesis that p53 and IκBα can physically interact in vivo. Conclusion The aggregate results obtained using bacterially produced IκBα and p53 as well as reticulocyte lysate produced proteins suggest a correlation between in vitro co-precipitation in at least one of the systems and in vivo p53 inhibitory activity. These observations argue for a mechanism involving direct binding of IκBα to p53 in the inhibition of p53 transcriptional activity, analogous to

  1. Serum Levels of Human MIC-1/GDF15 Vary in a Diurnal Pattern, Do Not Display a Profile Suggestive of a Satiety Factor and Are Related to BMI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Wang-Wei Tsai

    Full Text Available The TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 circulates in the blood of healthy humans. Its levels rise substantially in cancer and other diseases and this may sometimes lead to development of an anorexia/cachexia syndrome. This is mediated by a direct action of MIC-1/GDF15 on feeding centres in the hypothalamus and brainstem. More recent studies in germline gene deleted mice also suggest that this cytokine may play a role in physiological regulation of energy homeostasis. To further characterize the role of MIC-1/GDF15 in physiological regulation of energy homeostasis in man, we have examined diurnal and food associated variation in serum levels and whether variation in circulating levels relate to BMI in human monozygotic twin pairs. We found that the within twin pair differences in serum MIC-1/GDF15 levels were significantly correlated with within twin pair differences in BMI, suggesting a role for MIC-1/GDF15 in the regulation of energy balance in man. MIC-1/GDF15 serum levels altered slightly in response to a meal, but comparison with variation its serum levels over a 24 hour period suggested that these changes are likely to be due to bimodal diurnal variation which can alter serum MIC-1/GDF15 levels by about plus or minus 10% from the mesor. The lack of a rapid and substantial postprandial increase in MIC-1/GDF15 serum levels suggests that MIC1/GDF15 is unlikely to act as a satiety factor. Taken together, our findings suggest that MIC-1/GDF15 may be a physiological regulator of energy homeostasis in man, most probably due to actions on long-term regulation of energy homeostasis.

  2. Analysis of knockout mice suggests a role for VGF in the control of fat storage and energy expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborty Tandra

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies of mixed background mice have demonstrated that targeted deletion of Vgf produces a lean, hypermetabolic mouse that is resistant to diet-, lesion-, and genetically-induced obesity. To investigate potential mechanism(s and site(s of action of VGF, a neuronal and endocrine secreted protein and neuropeptide precursor, we further analyzed the metabolic phenotypes of two independent VGF knockout lines on C57Bl6 backgrounds. Results Unlike hyperactive VGF knockout mice on a mixed C57Bl6-129/SvJ background, homozygous mutant mice on a C57Bl6 background were hypermetabolic with similar locomotor activity levels to Vgf+/Vgf+ mice, during day and night cycles, indicating that mechanism(s other than hyperactivity were responsible for their increased energy expenditure. In Vgf-/Vgf- knockout mice, morphological analysis of brown and white adipose tissues (BAT and WAT indicated decreased fat storage in both tissues, and decreased adipocyte perimeter and area in WAT. Changes in gene expression measured by real-time RT-PCR were consistent with increased fatty acid oxidation and uptake in BAT, and increased lipolysis, decreased lipogenesis, and brown adipocyte differentiation in WAT, suggesting that increased sympathetic nervous system activity in Vgf-/Vgf- mice may be associated with or responsible for alterations in energy expenditure and fat storage. In addition, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 and UCP2 protein levels, mitochondrial number, and mitochondrial cristae density were upregulated in Vgf-/Vgf- BAT. Using immunohistochemical and histochemical techniques, we detected VGF in nerve fibers innervating BAT and Vgf promoter-driven reporter expression in cervical and thoracic spinal ganglia that project to and innervate the chest wall and tissues including BAT. Moreover, VGF peptide levels were quantified by radioimmunoassay in BAT, and were found to be down-regulated by a high fat diet. Lastly, despite being hypermetabolic

  3. Heterogeneity of Capital Stocks in Japan: Classification by Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konomi Tonogi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the heterogeneity of capital stocks using financial statement data of publicly listed Japanese firms. We conduct factor analysis on investment rates among various capital goods and estimate factor loadings of each as its reactions to common factors like total factor productivity (TFP shocks. Then we estimate the uniqueness for each investment rate, which is the percentage of its variance that is not explained by the common factors. If the estimated factor loadings are similar between some of the heterogeneous capital goods, it may well imply that the adjustment cost structure of these investments is also similar. Further, if some of the estimated values of uniqueness are small, it suggests that certain theoretical models may track the dynamics of the investment rates well. Our estimation results show that Building and Structure have similar factor loadings as do Machinery & Equipment, Vehicles & Delivery Equipment, and Tools, Furniture, & Fixture. This suggests that we could remedy the Curse of Dimensionality by bundling the investments that have similar factor loadings together and that identifying the functional structures of each group of capital goods can greatly improve the performance of empirical investment equations.

  4. The Zygosaccharomyces bailii transcription factor Haa1 is required for acetic acid and copper stress responses suggesting subfunctionalization of the ancestral bifunctional protein Haa1/Cup2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Margarida; Dias, Paulo Jorge; Roque, Filipa de Canaveira; Luzia, Laura; Guerreiro, Joana Fernandes; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2017-01-13

    The food spoilage yeast species Zygosaccharomyces bailii exhibits an extraordinary capacity to tolerate weak acids, in particular acetic acid. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcription factor Haa1 (ScHaa1) is considered the main player in genomic expression reprogramming in response to acetic acid stress, but the role of its homologue in Z. bailii (ZbHaa1) is unknown. In this study it is demonstrated that ZbHaa1 is a ScHaa1 functional homologue by rescuing the acetic acid susceptibility phenotype of S. cerevisiae haa1Δ. The disruption of ZbHAA1 in Z. bailii IST302 and the expression of an extra ZbHAA1 copy confirmed ZbHAA1 as a determinant of acetic acid tolerance. ZbHaa1 was found to be required for acetic acid stress-induced transcriptional activation of Z. bailii genes homologous to ScHaa1-target genes. An evolutionary analysis of the Haa1 homologues identified in 28 Saccharomycetaceae species genome sequences, including Z bailii, was carried out using phylogenetic and gene neighbourhood approaches. Consistent with previous studies, this analysis revealed a group containing pre-whole genome duplication species Haa1/Cup2 single orthologues, including ZbHaa1, and two groups containing either Haa1 or Cup2 orthologues from post-whole genome duplication species. S. cerevisiae Cup2 (alias Ace1) is a transcription factor involved in response and tolerance to copper stress. Taken together, these observations led us to hypothesize and demonstrate that ZbHaa1 is also involved in copper-induced transcriptional regulation and copper tolerance. The transcription factor ZbHaa1 is required for adaptive response and tolerance to both acetic acid and copper stresses. The subfunctionalization of the single ancestral Haa1/Cup2 orthologue that originated Haa1 and Cup2 paralogues after whole genome duplication is proposed.

  5. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Wasiolek

    2005-04-28

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standards. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters, their development, and the relationship between the parameters and specific features events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. This analysis receives direct input from the outputs of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) and the five analyses that develop parameter values for the biosphere model (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172827]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169672]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169673]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169458]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459]). The results of this report are further analyzed in the ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis

  6. A kernel version of spatial factor analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2009-01-01

    . Schölkopf et al. introduce kernel PCA. Shawe-Taylor and Cristianini is an excellent reference for kernel methods in general. Bishop and Press et al. describe kernel methods among many other subjects. Nielsen and Canty use kernel PCA to detect change in univariate airborne digital camera images. The kernel...... version of PCA handles nonlinearities by implicitly transforming data into high (even infinite) dimensional feature space via the kernel function and then performing a linear analysis in that space. In this paper we shall apply kernel versions of PCA, maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis...

  7. What Is Rotating in Exploratory Factor Analysis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W. Osborne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory factor analysis (EFA is one of the most commonly-reported quantitative methodology in the social sciences, yet much of the detail regarding what happens during an EFA remains unclear. The goal of this brief technical note is to explore what - rotation- is, what exactly is rotating, and why we use rotation when performing EFAs. Some commentary about the relative utility and desirability of different rotation methods concludes the narrative.

  8. A Beginner’s Guide to Factor Analysis: Focusing on Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Gie Yong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The following paper discusses exploratory factor analysis and gives an overview of the statistical technique and how it is used in various research designs and applications. A basic outline of how the technique works and its criteria, including its main assumptions are discussed as well as when it should be used. Mathematical theories are explored to enlighten students on how exploratory factor analysis works, an example of how to run an exploratory factor analysis on SPSS is given, and finally a section on how to write up the results is provided. This will allow readers to develop a better understanding of when to employ factor analysis and how to interpret the tables and graphs in the output.

  9. Factor analysis identifies subgroups of constipation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Philip G Dinning; Mike Jones; Linda Hunt; Sergio E Fuentealba; Jamshid Kalanter; Denis W King; David Z Lubowski; Nicholas J Talley; Ian J Cook

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether distinct symptom groupings exist in a constipated population and whether such grouping might correlate with quantifiable pathophysiological measures of colonic dysfunction. METHODS: One hundred and ninety-one patients presenting to a Gastroenterology clinic with constipation and 32 constipated patients responding to a newspaper advertisement completed a 53-item, wide-ranging selfreport questionnaire. One hundred of these patients had colonic transit measured scintigraphically. Factor analysis determined whether constipation-related symptoms grouped into distinct aspects of symptomatology. Cluster analysis was used to determine whether individual patients naturally group into distinct subtypes. RESULTS: Cluster analysis yielded a 4 cluster solution with the presence or absence of pain and laxative unresponsiveness providing the main descriptors. Amongst all clusters there was a considerable proportion of patients with demonstrable delayed colon transit, irritable bowel syndrome positive criteria and regular stool frequency. The majority of patients with these characteristics also reported regular laxative use. CONCLUSION: Factor analysis identified four constipation subgroups, based on severity and laxative unresponsiveness, in a constipated population. However, clear stratification into clinically identifiable groups remains imprecise.

  10. A kernel version of spatial factor analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2009-01-01

    of PCA and related techniques. An interesting dilemma in reduction of dimensionality of data is the desire to obtain simplicity for better understanding, visualization and interpretation of the data on the one hand, and the desire to retain sufficient detail for adequate representation on the other hand......Based on work by Pearson in 1901, Hotelling in 1933 introduced principal component analysis (PCA). PCA is often used for general feature generation and linear orthogonalization or compression by dimensionality reduction of correlated multivariate data, see Jolliffe for a comprehensive description...... version of PCA handles nonlinearities by implicitly transforming data into high (even infinite) dimensional feature space via the kernel function and then performing a linear analysis in that space. In this paper we shall apply kernel versions of PCA, maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis...

  11. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Wasiolek

    2004-09-08

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standard. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters, their development, and the relationship between the parameters and specific features events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs for the groundwater exposure scenario for the three climate states considered in the TSPA-LA as well as conversion factors for evaluating compliance with the groundwater protection standard. The BDCFs will be used in performance assessment for calculating all-pathway annual doses for a given concentration of radionuclides in groundwater. The conversion factors will be used for calculating gross alpha particle

  12. Bifurcation Analysis of an Existing Mathematical Model Reveals Novel Treatment Strategies and Suggests Potential Cure for Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kenneth Hagde Mandrup; Ottesen, Johnny T.; Pociot, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a disease with serious personal and socioeconomic consequences that has attracted the attention of modellers recently. But as models of this disease tend to be complicated, there has been only limited mathematical analysis to date. Here we address this problem by providing...... a bifurcation analysis of a previously published mathematical model for the early stages of type 1 diabetes in diabetes-prone NOD mice, which is based on the data available in the literature. We also show positivity and the existence of a family of attracting trapping regions in the positive 5D cone, converging...... towards a smaller trapping region, which is the intersection over the family. All these trapping regions are compact sets, and thus, practical weak persistence is guaranteed. We conclude our analysis by proposing 4 novel treatment strategies: increasing the phagocytic ability of resting macrophages...

  13. Coupling otolith microstructure analysis and hydrographic backtracking suggests a mechanism for the 2000s North Sea herring recruitment failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Stine Dalmann; Payne, Mark; Worsøe Clausen, Lotte

    2012-01-01

    . Individual larval growth rates, averaged over the 30 days prior to capture, were estimated for 200 larval otoliths from four different years using a model‐based analysis of the ring widths. The otolith measurements were complemented with additional information derived from hydrographic backtracking models (e...... stock productivity) as taking place during the larval overwintering phase: however, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In this study we analysed archived larval samples captured both before and after the onset of the reduced survival to test the hypothesis of a reduction in the larval growth rate...... demonstrates how coupling two different techniques (otolith microstructure analysis and hydrographic modelling) can yield unique insights into fish ecology...

  14. Exploratory factor analysis in Rehabilitation Psychology: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Richard B; Elliott, Timothy R; Chang, Jessica E; Hill, Jessica N

    2014-11-01

    Our objective was to examine the use and quality of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) in articles published in Rehabilitation Psychology. Trained raters examined 66 separate exploratory factor analyses in 47 articles published between 1999 and April 2014. The raters recorded the aim of the EFAs, the distributional statistics, sample size, factor retention method(s), extraction and rotation method(s), and whether the pattern coefficients, structure coefficients, and the matrix of association were reported. The primary use of the EFAs was scale development, but the most widely used extraction and rotation method was principle component analysis, with varimax rotation. When determining how many factors to retain, multiple methods (e.g., scree plot, parallel analysis) were used most often. Many articles did not report enough information to allow for the duplication of their results. EFA relies on authors' choices (e.g., factor retention rules extraction, rotation methods), and few articles adhered to all of the best practices. The current findings are compared to other empirical investigations into the use of EFA in published research. Recommendations for improving EFA reporting practices in rehabilitation psychology research are provided.

  15. Personality and coping traits: A joint factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Eamonn

    2001-11-01

    OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this paper is to explore the structural similarities between Eysenck's model of personality and the dimensions of the dispositional COPE. Costa et al. {Costa P., Somerfield, M., & McCrae, R. (1996). Personality and coping: A reconceptualisation. In (pp. 44-61) Handbook of coping: Theory, research and applications. New York: Wiley} suggest that personality and coping behaviour are part of a continuum based on adaptation. If this is the case, there should be structural similarities between measures of personality and coping behaviour. This is tested using a joint factor analysis of personality and coping measures. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: The EPQ-R and the dispositional COPE were administered to 154 participants, and the data were analysed using joint factor analysis and bivariate associations. RESULTS: The joint factor analysis indicated that these data were best explained by a four-factor model. One factor was primarily unrelated to personality. There was a COPE-neurotic-introvert factor (NI-COPE) containing coping behaviours such as denial, a COPE-extroversion (E-COPE) factor containing behaviours such as seeking social support and a COPE-psychoticism factor (P-COPE) containing behaviours such as alcohol use. This factor pattern, especially for NI- and E-COPE, was interpreted in terms of Gray's model of personality {Gray, J. A. (1987) The psychology of fear and stress. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press}. NI-, E-, and P-COPE were shown to be related, in a theoretically consistent manner, to perceived coping success and perceived coping functions. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that there are indeed conceptual links between models of personality and coping. It is argued that future research should focus on identifying coping 'trait complexes'. Implications for practice are discussed.

  16. Listeria monocytogenes differential transcriptome analysis reveals temperature-dependent Agr regulation and suggests overlaps with other regulons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmyn, Dominique; Augagneur, Yoann; Gal, Laurent; Vivant, Anne-Laure; Piveteau, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous, opportunistic pathogenic organism. Environmental adaptation requires constant regulation of gene expression. Among transcriptional regulators, AgrA is part of an auto-induction system. Temperature is an environmental cue critical for in vivo adaptation. In order to investigate how temperature may affect AgrA-dependent transcription, we compared the transcriptomes of the parental strain L. monocytogenes EGD-e and its ΔagrA mutant at the saprophytic temperature of 25°C and in vivo temperature of 37°C. Variations of transcriptome were higher at 37°C than at 25°C. Results suggested that AgrA may be involved in the regulation of nitrogen transport, amino acids, purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways and phage-related functions. Deregulations resulted in a growth advantage at 37°C, but affected salt tolerance. Finally, our results suggest overlaps with PrfA, σB, σH and CodY regulons. These overlaps may suggest that through AgrA, Listeria monocytogenes integrates information on its biotic environment.

  17. Genome-wide gene expression analysis suggests an important role of hypoxia in the pathogenesis of endemic osteochondropathy Kashin-Beck disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang

    Full Text Available Kashin-Beck Disease (KBD is an endemic osteochondropathy, the pathogenesis of which remains unclear now. In this study, we compared gene expression profiles of articular cartilage derived respectively from KBD patients and normal controls. Total RNA were isolated, amplified, labeled and hybridized to Agilent human 1A 22 k whole genome microarray chip. qRT-PCR was conducted to validate our microarray data. We detected 57 up-regulated genes (ratios ≥2.0 and 24 down-regulated genes (ratios ≤0.5 in KBD cartilage. To further identify the key genes involved in the pathogenesis of KBD, Bayesian analysis of variance for microarrays (BAM software was applied and identified 12 potential key genes with an average ratio 6.64, involved in apoptosis, metabolism, cytokine & growth factor and cytoskeleton & cell movement. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA software was used to identify differently expressed gene ontology categories and pathways. GSEA found that a set of apoptosis, hypoxia and mitochondrial function related gene ontology categories and pathways were significantly up-regulated in KBD compared to normal controls. Based on the results of this study, we suggest that chronic hypoxia-induced mitochondrial damage and apoptosis might play an important role in the pathogenesis of KBD. Our efforts may help to understand the pathogenesis of KBD as well as other osteoarthrosis with similar articular cartilage lesions.

  18. Functional coupling analysis suggests link between the obesity gene FTO and the BDNF-NTRK2 signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rask-Andersen Mathias

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Fat mass and obesity gene (FTO has been identified through genome wide association studies as an important genetic factor contributing to a higher body mass index (BMI. However, the molecular context in which this effect is mediated has yet to be determined. We investigated the potential molecular network for FTO by analyzing co-expression and protein-protein interaction databases, Coxpresdb and IntAct, as well as the functional coupling predicting multi-source database, FunCoup. Hypothalamic expression of FTO-linked genes defined with this bioinformatics approach was subsequently studied using quantitative real time-PCR in mouse feeding models known to affect FTO expression. Results We identified several candidate genes for functional coupling to FTO through database studies and selected nine for further study in animal models. We observed hypothalamic expression of Profilin 2 (Pfn2, cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit beta (Prkacb, Brain derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf, neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 2 (Ntrk2, Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3, and Btbd12 to be co-regulated in concert with Fto. Pfn2 and Prkacb have previously not been linked to feeding regulation. Conclusions Gene expression studies validate several candidates generated through database studies of possible FTO-interactors. We speculate about a wider functional role for FTO in the context of current and recent findings, such as in extracellular ligand-induced neuronal plasticity via NTRK2/BDNF, possibly via interaction with the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ.

  19. DNA methylation analysis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease suggests distinct disease-specific and remodeling signatures after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Markus; Ammerpohl, Ole; von Schönfels, Witigo; Kolarova, Julia; Bens, Susanne; Itzel, Timo; Teufel, Andreas; Herrmann, Alexander; Brosch, Mario; Hinrichsen, Holger; Erhart, Wiebke; Egberts, Jan; Sipos, Bence; Schreiber, Stefan; Häsler, Robert; Stickel, Felix; Becker, Thomas; Krawczak, Michael; Röcken, Christoph; Siebert, Reiner; Schafmayer, Clemens; Hampe, Jochen

    2013-08-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disorder in industrialized countries. Liver samples from morbidly obese patients (n = 45) with all stages of NAFLD and controls (n = 18) were analyzed by array-based DNA methylation and mRNA expression profiling. NAFLD-specific expression and methylation differences were seen for nine genes coding for key enzymes in intermediate metabolism (including PC, ACLY, and PLCG1) and insulin/insulin-like signaling (including IGF1, IGFBP2, and PRKCE) and replicated by bisulfite pyrosequening (independent n = 39). Transcription factor binding sites at NAFLD-specific CpG sites were >1,000-fold enriched for ZNF274, PGC1A, and SREBP2. Intraindividual comparison of liver biopsies before and after bariatric surgery showed NAFLD-associated methylation changes to be partially reversible. Postbariatric and NAFLD-specific methylation signatures were clearly distinct both in gene ontology and transcription factor binding site analyses, with >400-fold enrichment of NRF1, HSF1, and ESRRA sites. Our findings provide an example of treatment-induced epigenetic organ remodeling in humans.

  20. Molecular and biochemical analysis of rainbow trout LCK suggests a conserved mechanism for T-cell signaling in gnathostomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, K.J.; Dutton, S.; Hansen, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Two genes were identified in rainbow trout that display high sequence identity to vertebrate Lck. Both of the trout Lck transcripts are associated with lymphoid tissues and were found to be highly expressed in IgM-negative lymphocytes. In vitro analysis of trout lymphocytes indicates that trout Lck mRNA is up-regulated by T-cell mitogens, supporting an evolutionarily conserved function for Lck in the signaling pathways of T-lymphocytes. Here, we describe the generation and characterization of a specific monoclonal antibody raised against the N-terminal domains of recombinant trout Lck that can recognize Lck protein(s) from trout thymocyte lysates that are similar in size (???57 kDa) to mammalian Lck. This antibody also reacted with permeabilized lymphocytes during FACS analysis, indicating its potential usage for cellular analyses of trout lymphocytes, thus representing an important tool for investigations of salmonid T-cell function.

  1. Analysis of Ultra Linguistic Factors in Interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚嘉

    2015-01-01

    The quality of interpretation is a dynamic conception, involving a good deal of variables, such as the participants, the situations, working conditions, cultures etc.. Therefore, in interpretation, those static elements, such as traditional grammars and certain linguistic rules can not be counted as the only criteria for the quality of interpretation. That is, there are many other non-language elements—Ultra-linguistic factors that play an important role in interpretation. Ultra-linguistic factors get rid of the bounding of traditional grammar and parole, and reveal the facts in an indirect way. This paper gives a brief analysis of Ultra Lin⁃guistic elements in interpretation in order to achieve better result in interpretation practice.

  2. Comparative analysis of mRNA targets for human PUF-family proteins suggests extensive interaction with the miRNA regulatory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Galgano

    Full Text Available Genome-wide identification of mRNAs regulated by RNA-binding proteins is crucial to uncover post-transcriptional gene regulatory systems. The conserved PUF family RNA-binding proteins repress gene expression post-transcriptionally by binding to sequence elements in 3'-UTRs of mRNAs. Despite their well-studied implications for development and neurogenesis in metazoa, the mammalian PUF family members are only poorly characterized and mRNA targets are largely unknown. We have systematically identified the mRNAs associated with the two human PUF proteins, PUM1 and PUM2, by the recovery of endogenously formed ribonucleoprotein complexes and the analysis of associated RNAs with DNA microarrays. A largely overlapping set comprised of hundreds of mRNAs were reproducibly associated with the paralogous PUM proteins, many of them encoding functionally related proteins. A characteristic PUF-binding motif was highly enriched among PUM bound messages and validated with RNA pull-down experiments. Moreover, PUF motifs as well as surrounding sequences exhibit higher conservation in PUM bound messages as opposed to transcripts that were not found to be associated, suggesting that PUM function may be modulated by other factors that bind conserved elements. Strikingly, we found that PUF motifs are enriched around predicted miRNA binding sites and that high-confidence miRNA binding sites are significantly enriched in the 3'-UTRs of experimentally determined PUM1 and PUM2 targets, strongly suggesting an interaction of human PUM proteins with the miRNA regulatory system. Our work suggests extensive connections between the RBP and miRNA post-transcriptional regulatory systems and provides a framework for deciphering the molecular mechanism by which PUF proteins regulate their target mRNAs.

  3. Comparative analysis of mRNA targets for human PUF-family proteins suggests extensive interaction with the miRNA regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgano, Alessia; Forrer, Michael; Jaskiewicz, Lukasz; Kanitz, Alexander; Zavolan, Mihaela; Gerber, André P

    2008-09-08

    Genome-wide identification of mRNAs regulated by RNA-binding proteins is crucial to uncover post-transcriptional gene regulatory systems. The conserved PUF family RNA-binding proteins repress gene expression post-transcriptionally by binding to sequence elements in 3'-UTRs of mRNAs. Despite their well-studied implications for development and neurogenesis in metazoa, the mammalian PUF family members are only poorly characterized and mRNA targets are largely unknown. We have systematically identified the mRNAs associated with the two human PUF proteins, PUM1 and PUM2, by the recovery of endogenously formed ribonucleoprotein complexes and the analysis of associated RNAs with DNA microarrays. A largely overlapping set comprised of hundreds of mRNAs were reproducibly associated with the paralogous PUM proteins, many of them encoding functionally related proteins. A characteristic PUF-binding motif was highly enriched among PUM bound messages and validated with RNA pull-down experiments. Moreover, PUF motifs as well as surrounding sequences exhibit higher conservation in PUM bound messages as opposed to transcripts that were not found to be associated, suggesting that PUM function may be modulated by other factors that bind conserved elements. Strikingly, we found that PUF motifs are enriched around predicted miRNA binding sites and that high-confidence miRNA binding sites are significantly enriched in the 3'-UTRs of experimentally determined PUM1 and PUM2 targets, strongly suggesting an interaction of human PUM proteins with the miRNA regulatory system. Our work suggests extensive connections between the RBP and miRNA post-transcriptional regulatory systems and provides a framework for deciphering the molecular mechanism by which PUF proteins regulate their target mRNAs.

  4. Factor Rotation and Standard Errors in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangjian; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we report a surprising phenomenon: Oblique CF-varimax and oblique CF-quartimax rotation produced similar point estimates for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations but different standard error estimates in an empirical example. Influences of factor rotation on asymptotic standard errors are investigated using a numerical…

  5. Analysis of complete genomes suggests that many prokaryotes do not rely on hairpin formation in transcription termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washio, T; Sasayama, J; Tomita, M

    1998-12-01

    Free energy values of mRNA tertiary structures around stop codons were systematically calculated to surmise the hairpin-forming potential for all genes in each of the 16 complete prokaryote genomes. Instead of trying to detect each individual hairpin, we averaged the free energy values around the stop codons over the entire genome to predict how extensively the organism relies on hairpin formation in the process of transcription termination. The free energy values of Escherichia coli K-12 shows a sharp drop, as expected, at 30 bp downstream of the stop codon, presumably due to hairpin-forming sequences. Similar drops are observed for Haemophilus influenzae Rd, Bacillus subtilis and Chlamydia trachomatis, suggesting that these organisms also form hairpins at their transcription termination sites. On the other hand, 12 other prokaryotes- Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Synechocystis PCC6803, Helicobacter pylori, Borrelia burgdorferi, Methanococcus jannaschii, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, Aquifex aeolicus, Pyrococcus horikoshii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Treponema pallidum -show no apparent decrease in free energy value at the corresponding regions. This result suggests that these prokaryotes, or at least some of them, may never form hairpins at their transcription termination sites.

  6. Suggestions for automatic quantitation of endoscopic image analysis to improve detection of small intestinal pathology in celiac disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaccio, Edward J; Bhagat, Govind; Lewis, Suzanne K; Green, Peter H

    2015-10-01

    Although many groups have attempted to develop an automated computerized method to detect pathology of the small intestinal mucosa caused by celiac disease, the efforts have thus far failed. This is due in part to the occult presence of the disease. When pathological evidence of celiac disease exists in the small bowel it is visually often patchy and subtle. Due to presence of extraneous substances such as air bubbles and opaque fluids, the use of computerized automation methods have only been partially successful in detecting the hallmarks of the disease in the small intestine-villous atrophy, fissuring, and a mottled appearance. By using a variety of computerized techniques and assigning a weight or vote to each technique, it is possible to improve the detection of abnormal regions which are indicative of celiac disease, and of treatment progress in diagnosed patients. Herein a paradigm is suggested for improving the efficacy of automated methods for measuring celiac disease manifestation in the small intestinal mucosa. The suggestions are applicable to both standard and videocapsule endoscopic imaging, since both methods could potentially benefit from computerized quantitation to improve celiac disease diagnosis.

  7. Biochemical analysis of three putative KaiC clock proteins from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 suggests their functional divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegard, Anika; Dörrich, Anja K; Deinzer, Hans-Tobias; Beck, Christian; Wilde, Annegret; Holtzendorff, Julia; Axmann, Ilka M

    2013-05-01

    Cyanobacteria have been shown to have a circadian clock system that consists mainly of three protein components: KaiA, KaiB and KaiC. This system is well understood in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, for which robust circadian oscillations have been shown. Like many other cyanobacteria, the chromosome of the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 contains additional kaiC and kaiB gene copies besides the standard kaiABC gene cluster. The respective gene products differ significantly in their amino acid sequences, especially in their C-terminal regions, suggesting different functional characteristics. Here, phosphorylation assays of the three Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 KaiC proteins revealed that KaiC1 phosphorylation depends on KaiA, as is well documented for the Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 KaiC protein, whereas KaiC2 and KaiC3 autophosphorylate independently of KaiA. This was confirmed by in vivo protein-protein interaction studies, which demonstrate that only KaiC1 interacts with KaiA. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the three different Kai proteins form only homomeric complexes in vivo. As only KaiC1 phosphorylation depends on KaiA, a prerequisite for robust oscillations, we suggest that the kaiAB1C1 gene cluster in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 controls circadian timing in a manner similar to the clock described in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942.

  8. Resected pN1 non-small cell lung cancer: recurrence patterns and nodal risk factors may suggest selection criteria for post-operative radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghetti, Paolo; Barbera, Fernando; Bonù, Marco Lorenzo; Trevisan, Francesca; Ciccarelli, Stefano; Vitali, Paola; Maddalo, Marta; Triggiani, Luca; Pasinetti, Nadia; Pedretti, Sara; Bonetti, Bartolomea; Pariscenti, Gianluca; Tironi, Andrea; Caprioli, Alberto; Buglione, Michela; Magrini, Stefano Maria

    2016-09-01

    To describe the pattern of recurrence in resected pN1 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to identify factors predicting an increased risk of locoregional recurrence (LR) or distant metastasis (DM) to define a selected population who may benefit from postoperative radiotherapy (PORT). 285 patients with resected pN1 NSCLC were identified. Patients with positive surgical margins, undergoing neoadjuvant treatment or PORT, were excluded. LR was defined as first event of recurrence at the surgical bed, ipsilateral hilum or mediastinum, and other sites were considered as DM. Kaplan-Meier actuarial estimates of overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), freedom from LR (FFLR) and freedom from DM (FFDM) in different subgroups were compared with the log-rank test. Multivariate analysis was calculated. 202 patients met the inclusion criteria, 24 % received adjuvant chemotherapy. The median follow-up was 39 months. The total number of recurrences was 118 (64.4 %): 44 (24 %) and 74 (40.4 %) for LR and DM, respectively. Five-year OS and PFS rates were 39.2 and 33.3 %, respectively. Extra capsular extension (ECE) (RR 2.10, p = 0.01) and lymph nodal ratio (LNR) >0:15 (RR 1.68, p = 0.015) were associated with a worse PFS. ECE and LNR >0.15 were significantly related to a worst FFLR (RR 3.04 and 4.42, respectively), and adenocarcinoma to an unfavorable FFDM (RR 1.97, p = 0.013). Nodal factors as high LNR and ECE can predict an increased risk of worse FFLR and PFS. Prospective data on selected patients, treated with modern radiotherapy techniques, need to be collected to re-evaluate the role of radiotherapy.

  9. Haplotype transmission analysis provides evidence of association for DISC1 to schizophrenia and suggests sex-dependent effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennah, William; Varilo, Teppo; Kestilä, Marjo; Paunio, Tiina; Arajärvi, Ritva; Haukka, Jari; Parker, Alex; Martin, Rory; Levitzky, Steve; Partonen, Timo; Meyer, Joanne; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Peltonen, Leena; Ekelund, Jesper

    2003-12-01

    We have previously reported a linkage peak on 1q42 in a Finnish schizophrenia sample. In this study we genotyped 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 1q42 covering the three candidate genes TRAX, DISC1 and DISC2, using a study sample of 458 Finnish families ascertained for schizophrenia. Two-point and haplotype association analysis revealed a significant region of interest within the DISC1 gene. A common haplotype (HEP3) was observed to be significantly under-transmitted to affected individuals (P=0.0031). HEP3 represents a two SNP haplotype spanning from intron 1 to exon 2 of DISC1. This haplotype also displayed sex differences in transmission distortion, the under-transmission being significant only to affected females (P=0.00024). Three other regions of interest were observed in the TRAX and DISC genes. However, analysis of only those families with complete genotype information specifically highlights the HEP3 haplotype as a true observation. The finding of a common under-transmitted SNP haplotype might imply that this particular allele offers some protection from the development of schizophrenia. Analysis of component-traits of schizophrenia, derived from the Operational Criteria Checklist of Psychotic Illness (OCCPI), displayed association of HEP3 to features of the general phenotype of schizophrenia, including traits representing delusions, hallucinations and negative symptoms. This study provides further evidence for the hypothesis that the DISC1 gene is involved in the aetiology of schizophrenia, and implies a putative sex difference for the effect of the gene. Our findings would also encourage more detailed analyses of the effect of DISC1 on the component-traits of schizophrenia.

  10. Model correction factor method for system analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Johannesen, Johannes M.

    2000-01-01

    The Model Correction Factor Method is an intelligent response surface method based on simplifiedmodeling. MCFM is aimed for reliability analysis in case of a limit state defined by an elaborate model. Herein it isdemonstrated that the method is applicable for elaborate limit state surfaces on which...... severallocally most central points exist without there being a simple geometric definition of the corresponding failuremodes such as is the case for collapse mechanisms in rigid plastic hinge models for frame structures. Taking as simplifiedidealized model a model of similarity with the elaborate model...... surface than existing in the idealized model....

  11. Exploratory factor analysis of the Oral Health Impact Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, M T; Reissmann, D R; Feuerstahler, L; Waller, N; Baba, K; Larsson, P; Celebić, A; Szabo, G; Rener-Sitar, K

    2014-09-01

    Although oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) as measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) is thought to be multidimensional, the nature of these dimensions is not known. The aim of this report was to explore the dimensionality of the OHIP using the Dimensions of OHRQoL (DOQ) Project, an international study of general population subjects and prosthodontic patients. Using the project's Learning Sample (n = 5173), we conducted an exploratory factor analysis on the 46 OHIP items not specifically referring to dentures for 5146 subjects with sufficiently complete data. The first eigenvalue (27·0) of the polychoric correlation matrix was more than ten times larger than the second eigenvalue (2·6), suggesting the presence of a dominant, higher-order general factor. Follow-up analyses with Horn's parallel analysis revealed a viable second-order, four-factor solution. An oblique rotation of this solution revealed four highly correlated factors that we named Oral Function, Oro-facial Pain, Oro-facial Appearance and Psychosocial Impact. These four dimensions and the strong general factor are two viable hypotheses for the factor structure of the OHIP.

  12. Transcriptome Analysis Suggests That Starch Synthesis May Proceed via Multiple Metabolic Routes in High Yielding Potato Cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaminski, Kacper Piotr; Høgh Petersen, Annabeth; Sønderkær, Mads

    2012-01-01

    Background: Glucose-6-phosphate is imported into the amyloplast of potato tubers and thought to constitute the precursor for starch synthesis in potato tubers. However, recently it was shown that glucose-1-phosphate can also be imported into the amyloplast and incorporated into starch via an ATP...... independent mechanism under special conditions. Nonetheless, glucose 6-phosphate is believed to be the quantitatively important precursor for starch synthesis in potato. Principal Finding: Potato tubers of the high yielding cv Kuras had low gene expression of plastidial phophoglucomutase (PGM) and normal...... to expectations, this combination lead to a higher level of intracellular glucose-1-phosphate (G1P) in Kuras suggesting that G1P is directly imported into plastids and can be quantitatively important for starch synthesis under normal conditions in high yielding cultivars. Significance: This could open entirely...

  13. 中国化肥消费分析及建议%Analysis and Suggestion on Fertilizers Usage in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代瑞熙; 郝晓燕

    2015-01-01

    通过对中国化肥的生产和消费情况进行分析,指出中国化肥供求中存在的主要问题,并总结和借鉴发达国家减施化肥的政策经验,提出促进中国化肥减施和产业发展的建议。%Through analyzing the present conditions of fertilizers consumption and production in China, the authors pointed out the problems existing in the supply and demand of China's fertilizers, summarized and borrowed from developed countries in policies and experience about reducing fertilizing, and put forward some suggestions to promote the reduce of fertilizing and the development of fertilizer industry in China.

  14. Three-Dimensional Analysis of Budding Sites and Released Virus Suggests a Revised Model for HIV-1 Morphogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, L.; Simon, M.; Briggs, J. A. G.; Glass, B.; Riches, J. D.; Johnson, M. C.; Muller, B.; Grunewald, K.; Krausslich, H.-G.

    2008-12-11

    Current models of HIV-1 morphogenesis hold that newly synthesized viral Gag polyproteins traffic to and assemble at the cell membrane into spherical protein shells. The resulting late-budding structure is thought to be released by the cellular ESCRT machinery severing the membrane tether connecting it to the producer cell. Using electron tomography and scanning transmission electron microscopy, we find that virions have a morphology and composition distinct from late-budding sites. Gag is arranged as a continuous but incomplete sphere in the released virion. In contrast, late-budding sites lacking functional ESCRT exhibited a nearly closed Gag sphere. The results lead us to propose that budding is initiated by Gag assembly, but is completed in an ESCRT-dependent manner before the Gag sphere is complete. This suggests that ESCRT functions early in HIV-1 release - akin to its role in vesicle formation - and is not restricted to severing the thin membrane tether.

  15. Unusual flux-distance relationship for pulsars suggested by analysis of the Australia national telescopy facility pulsar catalogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Perez, M R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Singleton, J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ardavan, H [UNIV OF CAMBRIDGE; Ardavan, A [UNIV OF OXFORD

    2009-01-01

    We analyze pulsar fluxes at 1400 MHz (S(1400)) and distances d taken from the Australia National Telescope Facility (ATNF) Pulsar Catalogue. Under the assumption that pulsar populations in different parts of the Galaxy are similar, we find that either (a) pulsar fluxes diminish with distance according to a non-standard power law (we suggest S(1400){proportional_to} 1/d rather than {proportional_to} 1/d{sup 2}) or (b) that there are very significant (i.e. order of magnitude) errors in the distance estimates quoted in the ATNF Catalogue. The former conclusion (a) supports a recent model for pulsar emission that has also successfully explained the frequency spectrum of the Crab pulsar over 16 orders of magnitude of frequency, whilst alternative (b) would necessitate a radical re-evaluation of both the dispersion method for estimating pulsar distances and current ideas about the distribution of pulsars within our Galaxy.

  16. Scalable group level probabilistic sparse factor analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrich, Jesper Løve; Nielsen, Søren Føns Vind; Riis, Nicolai Andre Brogaard

    2017-01-01

    Many data-driven approaches exist to extract neural representations of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, but most of them lack a proper probabilistic formulation. We propose a scalable group level probabilistic sparse factor analysis (psFA) allowing spatially sparse maps, component...... pruning using automatic relevance determination (ARD) and subject specific heteroscedastic spatial noise modeling. For task-based and resting state fMRI, we show that the sparsity constraint gives rise to components similar to those obtained by group independent component analysis. The noise modeling...... shows that noise is reduced in areas typically associated with activation by the experimental design. The psFA model identifies sparse components and the probabilistic setting provides a natural way to handle parameter uncertainties. The variational Bayesian framework easily extends to more complex...

  17. Disruptive Event Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Wasiolek

    2004-09-08

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the volcanic ash exposure scenario, and the development of dose factors for calculating inhalation dose during volcanic eruption. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the Biosphere Model Report in Figure 1-1, contain detailed descriptions of the model input parameters, their development and the relationship between the parameters and specific features, events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the volcanic ash exposure scenario. This analysis receives direct input from the outputs of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) and from the five analyses that develop parameter values for the biosphere model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169671]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169672]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169673]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169458]; and BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459]). The results of this report are further analyzed in the ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis''. The objective of this

  18. Distinctive Sediment and Adjacent Groundwater Microbial Communities in Bangladesh Aquifers Suggested Through Microbial Lipid Distribution and δ13C Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, K. J. W.; van Geen, A.; Bostick, B. C.; Mailloux, B. J.; Ahmed, K. M.; Choudhury, I.; Slater, G.

    2016-12-01

    Arsenic groundwater contamination throughout shallow aquifer sediments in Southern Asia has resulted in a large-scale human health crisis. There is a strong consensus that microbial iron reduction coupled to organic carbon oxidation is the predominant mechanism driving this arsenic release. However, limited research has examined the composition and functioning of the indigenous microbial communities. Further, such research has varied between studies targeting microbial communities associated with groundwater versus those associated with sediments. The overall aim of this research study was to use microbial lipid biomarkers of bacterial and micro-eukaryal (phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA)) and archaea (di- and tetra- bound ether lipids) distributions and δ13C analysis to compare the indigenous sedimentary-associated microbial communities with the groundwater-associated microbial communities in Bangladesh aquifers. Field sampling was carried out at four locations (Site B, F, SAM and CAT) in the Araihazar Upazila, Bangladesh in 2013 and 2015. A significant difference (parsenic release in these systems.

  19. Continuous wavelet analysis of postprandial EGGs suggests sustained gastric slow waves may be slow to develop in infants with colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, G W; Lentle, R G; Janssen, P W M; Hulls, C M

    2017-03-01

    Electrogastrography in conjunction with Fast Fourier transform has limited success in detecting low grade abnormalities in gastric electrophysiological activity owing to the non-stationarity of the signal. Analysis by continuous wavelet transform is suitable for non-stationary signals and was used to analyse EGG activity in babies with and without colic. Thirty minute postprandial EGG recordings were obtained from 23 sleeping breast-fed infants with clinically validated recurrent colic and 26 breast-fed non-colicky infants. Continuous wavelet transform analysis (CWT) identified three principal frequency components. The mean, standard deviation, and the number of frequency maxima that fell below one standard deviation from the mean were determined for each infant and each frequency. Three component frequencies in the ranges 1.4-2.5 cpm, 2.5-4.0 cpm, and 4.0-15 cpm were found in all EGGs. Pairwise comparisons of the characteristics of each of the frequency ranges by univariate analyses showed significant differences between colicky and non-colicky subjects only in the number of maxima in the mid range of frequencies that lay below one standard deviation from the mean. However, CWT based on all frequencies allowed discrimination of the EGGS of colicky from non-colicky babies on a basis of number of frequency maxima below one standard deviation from the mean in the midrange of frequencies and in the mean and standard deviation in the low range of frequencies that was likely a harmonic of the midrange. CWT allowed distinction of EGG signals from colicky and healthy babies. The results indicate that colic may result from tardiness in the establishment of coherent propagation of the gastric slow wave in colicky babies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Analysis of educational research at a medical faculty in Germany and suggestions for strategic development - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prediger, Sarah; Harendza, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based medical education is playing an increasingly important role in the choice of didactic methods and the development of medical curricula and assessments. In Germany, a growing number of educational research projects has accompanied an ongoing change in the medical education process. The aim of this project was to assess medical education research activities at one medical faculty to develop procedural recommendations for the support and development of best evidence medical education. Methods: Using a newly developed online questionnaire, the 65 institutes and departments of the medical faculty of Hamburg University at Hamburg University Medical-Center (UKE) were asked to report their medical education research and service projects, medical education publications, medical education theses, financial support for educational projects, and supportive structures that they would consider helpful in the future. The data were grouped, and a SWOT analysis was performed. Results: In total, 60 scientists who were involved in 112 medical education research publications between 1998 and 2014 were identified at the UKE. Twenty-five of them had published at least one manuscript as first or last author. Thirty-three UKE institutions were involved in educational service or research projects at the time of the study, and 75.8% of them received internal or external funding. Regular educational research meetings and the acquisition of co-operation partners were mentioned most frequently as beneficial supportive structures for the future. Conclusion: An analysis to define the status quo of medical education research at a medical faculty seems to be a helpful first step for the development of a strategy and structure to further support researchers in medical education.

  1. Transcriptome analysis suggests that starch synthesis may proceed via multiple metabolic routes in high yielding potato cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacper Piotr Kaminski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glucose-6-phosphate is imported into the amyloplast of potato tubers and thought to constitute the precursor for starch synthesis in potato tubers. However, recently it was shown that glucose-1-phosphate can also be imported into the amyloplast and incorporated into starch via an ATP independent mechanism under special conditions. Nonetheless, glucose-6-phosphate is believed to be the quantitatively important precursor for starch synthesis in potato. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Potato tubers of the high yielding cv Kuras had low gene expression of plastidial phophoglucomutase (PGM and normal levels of transcripts for other enzymes involved in starch metabolism in comparison with medium and low yielding cultivars as determined by DeepSAGE transcriptome profiling. The decrease in PGM activity in Kuras was confirmed by measuring the enzyme activity from potato tuber extracts. Contrary to expectations, this combination lead to a higher level of intracellular glucose-1-phosphate (G1P in Kuras suggesting that G1P is directly imported into plastids and can be quantitatively important for starch synthesis under normal conditions in high yielding cultivars. SIGNIFICANCE: This could open entirely new possibilities for metabolic engineering of the starch metabolism in potato via the so far uncharacterized G1P transporter. The perspectives are to increase yield and space efficiency of this important crop. In the light of the increasing demands imposed on agriculture to support a growing global population this presents an exciting new possibility.

  2. Analysis of the beta-tubulin gene and morphological changes of the microsporidium Anncaliia algerae both suggest albendazole sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiana, Marianita; Pau, Cyrilla; Takvorian, Peter M; Cali, Ann

    2015-01-01

    The Microsporidium, Anncaliia algerae, an obligate intracellular parasite, has been identified as an opportunistic human pathogen, but treatment has not been evaluated for infections with this organism. Albendazole, an antitubulin polymerization drug used against parasitic worm infections, has been the medication of choice used to treat some microsporidial infections affecting humans, with varying results ranging from clearing infection (Encephalitozoon) to resistance (Enterocytozoon). This study illustrates the effect of albendazole treatment on A. algerae infection in Rabbit Kidney (RK13) cells and Human Fetal Lung (HFL-1) fibroblasts. Albendazole appears to have an attenuating effect on A. algerae infection and albendazole's IC50 in RK13 cells is 0.1 μg/ml. Long-term treatment inhibits up to 98% of spore production, but interrupting treatment reestablishes the infection without new exposure to the parasite as supported by microscopic observations. The parasite's beta-tubulin gene was purified, cloned, and sequenced. Five of the six specific amino acids, associated with benzimidazole sensitivity, are conserved in A. algerae. These findings suggest that A. algerae is sensitive to albendazole; however, the organism is not completely cleared from cultures.

  3. Characteristics of health IT outage and suggested risk management strategies: an analysis of historical incident reports in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jianbo; Guan, Pengcheng; Gao, Kaihua; Lu, Xueqin; Chen, Yunan; Li, Yuefeng; Meng, Qun; Zhang, Jiajie; Sittig, Dean F; Zheng, Kai

    2014-02-01

    The healthcare industry has become increasingly dependent on using information technology (IT) to manage its daily operations. Unexpected downtime of health IT systems could therefore wreak havoc and result in catastrophic consequences. Little is known, however, regarding the nature of failures of health IT. To analyze historical health IT outage incidents as a means to better understand health IT vulnerabilities and inform more effective prevention and emergency response strategies. We studied news articles and incident reports publicly available on the internet describing health IT outage events that occurred in China. The data were qualitatively analyzed using a deductive grounded theory approach based on a synthesized IT risk model developed in the domain of information systems. A total of 116 distinct health IT incidents were identified. A majority of them (69.8%) occurred in the morning; over 50% caused disruptions to the patient registration and payment collection functions of the affected healthcare facilities. The outpatient practices in tertiary hospitals seem to be particularly vulnerable to IT failures. Software defects and overcapacity issues, followed by malfunctioning hardware, were among the principal causes. Unexpected health IT downtime occurs more and more often with the widespread adoption of electronic systems in healthcare. Risk identification and risk assessments are essential steps to developing preventive measures. Equally important is institutionalization of contingency plans as our data show that not all failures of health IT can be predicted and thus effectively prevented. The results of this study also suggest significant future work is needed to systematize the reporting of health IT outage incidents in order to promote transparency and accountability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Beta-globin haplotype analysis suggests that a major source of Malagasy ancestry is derived from Bantu-speaking Negroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, R; Krause, A; Goldman, A; Campbell, G; Jenkins, T

    1996-06-01

    The origins of the inhabitants of Madagascar have not been fully resolved. Anthropological studies and preliminary genetic data point to two main sources of ancestry of the Malagasy, namely, Indonesian and African, with additional contributions from India and Arabia. The sickle-cell (beta s) mutation is found in populations of African and Indian origin. The frequency of the beta s-globin gene, derived from 1,425 Malagasy individuals, varies from 0 in some highland populations to .25 in some coastal populations. The beta s mutation is thought to have arisen at least five times, on the basis of the presence of five distinct beta s-associated haplotypes, each found in a separate geographic area. Twenty-five of the 35 Malagasy beta s haplotypes were of the typical "Bantu" type, 1 "Senegal" haplotype was found, and 2 rare or atypical haplotypes were observed; the remaining 7 haplotypes were consistent with the Bantu haplotype. The Bantu beta s mutation is thought to have been introduced into Madagascar by Bantu-speaking immigrants (colonists or slaves) from central or east Africa. The Senegal beta s mutation may have been introduced to the island via Portuguese naval explorers. This study provides the first definitive biological evidence that a major component of Malagasy ancestry is derived from African populations, in particular, Bantu-speaking Negroids. beta A haplotypes are also consistent with the claim for a significant African contribution to Malagasy ancestry but are also suggestive of Asian/Oceanic and Caucasoid admixture within the Malagasy population.

  5. Ancient DNA Analysis Suggests Negligible Impact of the Wari Empire Expansion in Peru's Central Coast during the Middle Horizon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Valverde

    Full Text Available The analysis of ancient human DNA from South America allows the exploration of pre-Columbian population history through time and to directly test hypotheses about cultural and demographic evolution. The Middle Horizon (650-1100 AD represents a major transitional period in the Central Andes, which is associated with the development and expansion of ancient Andean empires such as Wari and Tiwanaku. These empires facilitated a series of interregional interactions and socio-political changes, which likely played an important role in shaping the region's demographic and cultural profiles. We analyzed individuals from three successive pre-Columbian cultures present at the Huaca Pucllana archaeological site in Lima, Peru: Lima (Early Intermediate Period, 500-700 AD, Wari (Middle Horizon, 800-1000 AD and Ychsma (Late Intermediate Period, 1000-1450 AD. We sequenced 34 complete mitochondrial genomes to investigate the potential genetic impact of the Wari Empire in the Central Coast of Peru. The results indicate that genetic diversity shifted only slightly through time, ruling out a complete population discontinuity or replacement driven by the Wari imperialist hegemony, at least in the region around present-day Lima. However, we caution that the very subtle genetic contribution of Wari imperialism at the particular Huaca Pucllana archaeological site might not be representative for the entire Wari territory in the Peruvian Central Coast.

  6. Analysis and modeling of heat-labile enterotoxins of Escherichia coli suggests a novel space with insights into receptor preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Raja, M; Ghosh, Asit Ranjan; Vino, S; Sajitha Lulu, S

    2015-01-01

    Features of heat-labile enterotoxins of Escherichia coli which make them fit to use as novel receptors for antidiarrheals are not completely explored. Data-set of 14 different serovars of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli producing heat-labile toxins were taken from NCBI Genbank database and used in the study. Sequence analysis showed mutations in different subunits and also at their interface residues. As these toxins lack crystallography structures, homology modeling using Modeller 9.11 led to the structural approximation for the E. coli producing heat-labile toxins. Interaction of modeled toxin subunits with proanthocyanidin, an antidiarrheal showed several strong hydrogen bonding interactions at the cost of minimized energy. The hits were subsequently characterized by molecular dynamics simulation studies to monitor their binding stabilities. This study looks into novel space where the ligand can choose the receptor preference not as a whole but as an individual subunit. Mutation at interface residues and interaction among subunits along with the binding of ligand to individual subunits would help to design a non-toxic labile toxin and also to improve the therapeutics.

  7. Confirmatory factor analysis for the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire: Evidence supporting a three-factor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jennifer; Prescott, Tim; Muncer, Steven

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the goodness-of-fit of a one factor model with the four factor model proposed by Fairburn (2008) and the three factor model proposed by Peterson and colleagues (2007) for the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q 6.0) (Fairburn and Beglin, 1994). Using a cross-sectional design, the EDE-Q was completed by 569 adults recruited from universities and eating disorder charities in the UK. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was carried out for both the student and non-student groups. CFA indicated that Peterson et al.'s (2007) three factor model was the best fit for both groups within the current data sample. Acceptable levels of internal reliability were observed and there was clear evidence for a hierarchical factor of eating disorder. The results of this study provide support for the three factor model of the EDE-Q suggested by Peterson and colleagues (2007) in that this model was appropriate for both the student and non-student sample populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Transcriptome analysis and RNA interference of cockroach phototransduction indicate three opsins and suggest a major role for TRPL channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S French

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of insect phototransduction is based on a small number of species, but insects occupy many different visual environments. We created the retinal transcriptome of a nocturnal insect, the cockroach, Periplaneta americana to identify proteins involved in the earliest stages of compound eye phototransduction, and test the hypothesis that different visual environments are reflected in different molecular contributions to function. We assembled five novel mRNAs: two green opsins, one UV opsin, and one each TRP and TRPL ion channel homologs. One green opsin mRNA (pGO1 was 100-1000 times more abundant than the other opsins (pGO2 and pUVO, while pTRPL mRNA was 10 times more abundant than pTRP, estimated by transcriptome analysis or quantitative PCR (qPCR. Electroretinograms were used to record photoreceptor responses. Gene-specific in vivo RNA interference (RNAi was achieved by injecting long (596-708 bp double-stranded RNA into head hemolymph, and verified by qPCR. RNAi of the most abundant green opsin reduced both green opsins by more than 97% without affecting UV opsin, and gave a maximal reduction of 75% in ERG amplitude seven days after injection that persisted for at least 19 days. RNAi of pTRP and pTRPL genes each specifically reduced the corresponding mRNA by 90%. Electroretinogram reduction by pTRPL RNAi was slower than for opsin, reaching 75% attenuation by 21 days, without recovery at 29 days. pTRP RNAi attenuated ERG much less; only 30% after 21 days. Combined pTRP plus pTRPL RNAi gave only weak evidence of any cooperative interactions. We conclude that silencing retinal genes by in vivo RNAi using long dsRNA is effective, that visible light transduction in Periplaneta is dominated by pGO1, and that pTRPL plays a major role in cockroach phototransduction.

  9. Attitude Exploration Using Factor Analysis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Raghuvanshi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Attitude is a psychological variable that contains positive or negative evaluation about people or an environment. The growing generation possesses learning skills, so if positive attitude is inculcated at the right age, it might therefore become habitual. Students in the age group 14-20 years from the city of Bikaner, India, are the target population for this study. An inventory of 30Likert-type scale statements was prepared in order to measure attitude towards the environment and matters related to conservation. The primary data is collected though a structured questionnaire, using cluster sampling technique and analyzed using the IBM SPSS 23 statistical tool. Factor analysis is used to reduce 30 variables to a smaller number of more identifiable groups of variables. Results show that students “need more regulation and voluntary participation to protect the environment”, “need conservation of water and electricity”, “are concerned for undue wastage of water”, “need visible actions to protect the environment”, “need strengthening of the public transport system”, “are a little bit ignorant about the consequences of global warming”, “want prevention of water pollution by industries”, “need changing of personal habits to protect the environment”, and “don’t have firsthand experience of global warming”. Analysis revealed that nine factors obtained could explain about 58.5% variance in the attitude of secondary school students towards the environment in the city of Bikaner, India. The remaining 39.6% variance is attributed to other elements not explained by this analysis. A global campaign for improvement in attitude about environmental issues and its utility in daily lives may boost positive youth attitudes, potentially impacting worldwide. A cross-disciplinary approach may be developed by teaching along with other related disciplines such as science, economics, and social studies etc.

  10. Factorized molecular wave functions: Analysis of the nuclear factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefebvre, R., E-mail: roland.lefebvre@u-psud.fr [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’ Orsay, Bâtiment 350, UMR8214, CNRS- Université. Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay, France and Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UFR925, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-06-07

    The exact factorization of molecular wave functions leads to nuclear factors which should be nodeless functions. We reconsider the case of vibrational perturbations in a diatomic species, a situation usually treated by combining Born-Oppenheimer products. It was shown [R. Lefebvre, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 074106 (2015)] that it is possible to derive, from the solutions of coupled equations, the form of the factorized function. By increasing artificially the interstate coupling in the usual approach, the adiabatic regime can be reached, whereby the wave function can be reduced to a single product. The nuclear factor of this product is determined by the lowest of the two potentials obtained by diagonalization of the potential matrix. By comparison with the nuclear wave function of the factorized scheme, it is shown that by a simple rectification, an agreement is obtained between the modified nodeless function and that of the adiabatic scheme.

  11. PRE VACCINATION MEASLES OUTBREAKS IN ENGLAND AND WALES: NONLINEAR ASSOCIATION ANALYSIS SUGGESTS A LEADING ROLE FOR PRESTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Hernández Martinez

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMeasles data from pre-vaccination era in England and Wales were submitted to nonlinear association analysis. The method's rationale lies on the supposal that strong association between two time series when one of them is shifted in time respect to the other might be taken as an evidence for spatial-temporal causality. A threshold value for the nonlinear determination coefficient ( was set as criterion of strong association ( > 0.55.The common pattern for most of the cities was that outbreaks in a given place might be anticipated by some cities whereas followed by others. Only Preston preceded other cities and never followed any other. This result might be plausible since this port is an important node of human exchange with other cities. The associations respect to Preston were markedly nonlinear and the spread from there was slower, perhaps due to climatic causes. We conclude that nonlinear association approach is a promising way of exploring spatial-temporal epidemics data. RESUMEN:Se estudiaron, mediante un método de análisis de asociación no lineal, datos de incidencia de sarampión en Inglaterra y Gales correspondientes a la era pre-vacunación. La idea del método se centra en suponer que una asociación fuerte entre dos series temporales cuando una esta desplazada en el eje del tiempo respecto a la otra puede ser tomada como evidencia de causalidad. Se predeterminó un valor umbral para el coeficiente de determinación no lineal ( como criterio de asociación fuerte ( > 0.55.Para la mayor parte de las ciudades los brotes epidémicos se anticipaban a los de otras ciudades, pero eran posteriores a unas terceras. Solamente Preston precedía a otras ciudades y nunca siguió a otra. Este resultado pudiera ser relevante por cuanto este puerto es un nodo importante de intercambio humano con otras ciudades. Las asociaciones respecto a Preston eran marcadamente no lineales y la propagación desde Preston era más lenta, quizás debido

  12. Molecular multiproxy analysis of ancient root systems suggests strong alteration of deep subsoil organic matter by rhizomicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocke, Martina; Huguet, Arnaud; Derenne, Sylvie; Kolb, Steffen; Wiesenberg, Guido L. B.

    2013-04-01

    decreasing contents of archeal GDGTs from rhizolith via rhizosphere towards root-free loess. Furthermore, the bacterial fingerprint revealed - similar to modern root systems - higher taxonomic diversity in rhizosphere compared to rhizoliths and reference loess. This argues for microorganisms benefiting from root deposits and exudates. Highest concentrations of branched GDGTs in rhizoliths suggest that their source organisms feed on root remains. Incorporation of rhizomicrobial remains as represented by RNA and GDGTs usually affected the sediment at maximum to a distance of 2-3 cm from the former root. FA contents in rhizosphere showed strong scatter and were in part depleted compared to reference loess or, especially in deeper transects, enriched. This indicates the presence of degradation products originating from former rhizosphere processes. Especially at larger depth not affected by modern pedogenic processes, portions of mainly microbial derived C16 homologues were higher in rhizosphere loess up to distances of 10 cm, revealing that the possible extension of the rhizosphere was underestimated so far. In Corg poor subsoil, the occurence of diverse rhizosphere microorganisms and degradation processes even in several centimeters distant from roots point to a strong alteration of OM, possibly contributing to carbon mineralisation.

  13. Correspondence factor analysis of steroid libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojasoo, T; Raynaud, J P; Doré, J C

    1995-06-01

    The receptor binding of a library of 187 steroids to five steroid hormone receptors (estrogen, progestin, androgen, mineralocorticoid, and glucocorticoid) has been analyzed by correspondence factor analysis (CFA) in order to illustrate how the method could be used to derive structure-activity-relationships from much larger libraries. CFA is a cartographic multivariate technique that provides objective distribution maps of the data after reduction and filtering of redundant information and noise. The key to the analysis of very complex data tables is the formation of barycenters (steroids with one or more common structural fragments) that can be introduced into CFA analyses used as mathematical models. This is possible in CFA because the method uses X2-metrics and is based on the distributional equivalence of the rows and columns of the transformed data matrix. We have thus demonstrated, in purely objective statistical terms, the general conclusions on the specificity of various functional and other groups derived from prior analyses by expert intuition and reasoning. A finer analysis was made of a series of A-ring phenols showing the high degree of glucocorticoid receptor and progesterone receptor binding that can be generated by certain C-11-substitutions despite the presence of the phenolic A-ring characteristic of estrogen receptor-specific binding.

  14. Factorial invariance in multilevel confirmatory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ehri

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a procedure to test factorial invariance in multilevel confirmatory factor analysis. When the group membership is at level 2, multilevel factorial invariance can be tested by a simple extension of the standard procedure. However level-1 group membership raises problems which cannot be appropriately handled by the standard procedure, because the dependency between members of different level-1 groups is not appropriately taken into account. The procedure presented in this article provides a solution to this problem. This paper also shows Muthén's maximum likelihood (MUML) estimation for testing multilevel factorial invariance across level-1 groups as a viable alternative to maximum likelihood estimation. Testing multilevel factorial invariance across level-2 groups and testing multilevel factorial invariance across level-1 groups are illustrated using empirical examples. SAS macro and Mplus syntax are provided.

  15. Physiological Factors Analysis in Unpressurized Aircraft Cabins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrao, Luis; Zorro, Sara; Silva, Jorge

    2016-11-01

    Amateur and sports flight is an activity with growing numbers worldwide. However, the main cause of flight incidents and accidents is increasingly pilot error, for a number of reasons. Fatigue, sleep issues and hypoxia, among many others, are some that can be avoided, or, at least, mitigated. This article describes the analysis of psychological and physiological parameters during flight in unpressurized aircraft cabins. It relates cerebral oximetry and heart rate with altitude, as well as with flight phase. The study of those parameters might give clues on which variations represent a warning sign to the pilot, thus preventing incidents and accidents due to human factors. Results show that both cerebral oximetry and heart rate change along the flight and altitude in the alert pilot. The impaired pilot might not reveal these variations and, if this is detected, he can be warned in time.

  16. Practical Considerations for Using Exploratory Factor Analysis in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Amy S.; Lounsbury, John W.; Richards, Jennifer K.; Huck, Schuyler W.; Skolits, Gary J.; Esquivel, Shelley L.

    2013-01-01

    The uses and methodology of factor analysis are widely debated and discussed, especially the issues of rotational use, methods of confirmatory factor analysis, and adequate sample size. The variety of perspectives and often conflicting opinions can lead to confusion among researchers about best practices for using factor analysis. The focus of the…

  17. A simple metric of promoter architecture robustly predicts expression breadth of human genes suggesting that most transcription factors are positive regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Laurence D; Sachenkova, Oxana; Daub, Carsten; Forrest, Alistair R R; Huminiecki, Lukasz

    2014-07-31

    Conventional wisdom holds that, owing to the dominance of features such as chromatin level control, the expression of a gene cannot be readily predicted from knowledge of promoter architecture. This is reflected, for example, in a weak or absent correlation between promoter divergence and expression divergence between paralogs. However, an inability to predict may reflect an inability to accurately measure or employment of the wrong parameters. Here we address this issue through integration of two exceptional resources: ENCODE data on transcription factor binding and the FANTOM5 high-resolution expression atlas. Consistent with the notion that in eukaryotes most transcription factors are activating, the number of transcription factors binding a promoter is a strong predictor of expression breadth. In addition, evolutionarily young duplicates have fewer transcription factor binders and narrower expression. Nonetheless, we find several binders and cooperative sets that are disproportionately associated with broad expression, indicating that models more complex than simple correlations should hold more predictive power. Indeed, a machine learning approach improves fit to the data compared with a simple correlation. Machine learning could at best moderately predict tissue of expression of tissue specific genes. We find robust evidence that some expression parameters and paralog expression divergence are strongly predictable with knowledge of transcription factor binding repertoire. While some cooperative complexes can be identified, consistent with the notion that most eukaryotic transcription factors are activating, a simple predictor, the number of binding transcription factors found on a promoter, is a robust predictor of expression breadth.

  18. Menstrual Factors, Reproductive Factors 
and Lung Cancer Risk: A Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue ZHANG

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Epidemiological studies have suggested that menstrual and reproductive factors may influence lung cancer risk, but the results are controversial. We therefore carried out a meta-analysis aiming to examine the associations of lung cancer in women with menstrual and reproductive factors. 
Methods Relevant studies were searched from PubMed database, CNKI, WANFANG DATA and VIP INFORMATION up to January 2012, with no language restrictions. References listed from selected papers were also reviewed. We included studies that reported the estimates of relative risks (RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for the association between menstrual and reproductive factors and lung cancer risk. The pooled RRs were calculated after the heterogeneity test with the software Stata 11, and publication bias and sensitivity were evaluated at the same time. 
Results Twenty-five articles, representing 24 independent studies, were included in this meta-analysis. Older age at menarche in North America women (RR=0.83; 95%CI: 0.73-0.94 was associated with a significant decreased risk of lung cancer. Longer length of menstrual cycle was also associated with decreased lung cancer risk (RR=0.72; 95%CI: 0.57-0.90. Other exposures were not significantly associated. 
Conclusions Our analysis provides evidence of the hypothesis that female sex hormones influence the risk of lung cancer in women, yet additional studies are warranted to extend this finding and to clarify the underlying mechanisms.

  19. Design of financial results on the basis of factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Sidorov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Approaches are presented in the article, qualificatory the design of financial results on the basis of factor analysis. Connection marks between development of enterprises and scientific and technical progress. It is shown that potential of enterprises can be based on the design of financial results. Actuality of this direction of research marks on a background the entered approvals against Russia. A control role is indicated at the effective use of resources. It is well-proven that a key moment in forming of profit of enterprise is a design of financial results. A factor analysis is reasonable at the estimation of activity of organization, which exposed an application of this determined model domain. is sent to capital augmentation. The role of the financial system and separate elements is shown in to financially-economic activity. Connection is set between a design and structure of the investigated object. A design cannot come true without determination of structure of the investigated object, because a structure characterizes steady connections between elements. The components of elements are able in totality to counteract to external influences. For expansion of the system to distinguish the most meaningful factors. To distinguish integrating connections from appropriate. Distinguished, that factors due to co-operating with each other can create a synergistically or extinguishing effect or neutralize each other. Factors will organize or will disorganize work of organization. The design of objects is built on the certain terms, and separate parties of object are examined at abandonment from the less meaningful elements of the system. The role of empiric and theoretical level of research in the design of activity of organization is shown. An author suggested to use the determined model for determination of functional connections between a resulting index and factor signs. Exposed an application of this determined model domain.

  20. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  1. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Sport Organizational Effectiveness Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karteroliotis, Konstantinos; Papadimitriou, Dimitra

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factorial validity of the 5-factor model of sport organizational effectiveness developed by Papadimitriou and Taylor. This questionnaire has 33 items which assess five composite effectiveness dimensions pertinent to the operation of sport organizations: calibre of the board and external liaisons, interest in athletes, internal procedures, long term planning, and sport science support. The multiple constituency approach was used as a theoretical framework for developing this scale. Data were obtained from respondents affiliated with 20 Greek national sport organizations with a questionnaire. Analysis indicated that the 5-factor model of effectiveness is workable in assessing the organizational performance of nonprofit sport organizations. The application of the multiple constituency approach in studying sport organizational effectiveness was also suggested.

  2. The Prevalence of Risk Factors of Coronary Artery Disease in the Patients who Underwent Coronary Artery Bypass Graft, Shiraz, Iran: Suggesting a Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ostovan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of 40% of deaths in Iran annually. Many patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery have previous cardiovascular risk factors which could be prevented. Objectives: The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional (descriptive – analytical study, a data collecting form was used. A total of 246 patients were selected from six hospitals of Shiraz using random stratification. Descriptive statistics were presented through figures and tables and t-test was used to analyze the continuous variables. All the statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical software (version 15.0. Besides, P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Among the study patients, only 11.67% had no risk factors and 88.33% had one or more risk factors. The most common risk factors observed in the patients were hypertension, obesity and overweight, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus. The results showed a significant difference between males and females regarding the prevalence of hypertension (P = 0.001, diabetes (P = 0.028, hypercholesterolemia (P = 0.020, and cigarette smoking (P = 0.001. In addition, the patients' mean levels of cholesterol, LDL, triglyceride, and fasting blood sugar were higher than the acceptable level, while that of HDL was lower than the accepted level. Conclusions:: These patients are recommended to be trained regarding lifestyle changes. Also, prevention strategies can play an important role in reducing patient morbidity and mortality.

  3. Housing price forecastability: A factor analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Lasse; Møller, Stig Vinther

    of the model stays high at longer horizons. The estimated factors are strongly statistically signi…cant according to a bootstrap resampling method which takes into account that the factors are estimated regressors. The simple three-factor model also contains substantial out-of-sample predictive power...

  4. A Second Generation Nonlinear Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etezadi-Amoli, Jamshid; McDonald, Roderick P.

    1983-01-01

    Nonlinear common factor models with polynomial regression functions, including interaction terms, are fitted by simultaneously estimating the factor loadings and common factor scores, using maximum likelihood and least squares methods. A Monte Carlo study gives support to a conjecture about the form of the distribution of the likelihood ratio…

  5. Factor Analysis of the DePaul Symptom Questionnaire: Identifying Core Domains

    OpenAIRE

    Jason, Leonard A.; Sunnquist, Madison; Brown, Abigail; Furst, Jacob; Cid, Marjoe; Farietta, Jillianna; Kot, Bobby; Bloomer, Craig; Nicholson, Laura; Williams, Yolonda; Jantke, Rachel; Newton, Julia L.; Strand, Elin Bolle

    2015-01-01

    The present study attempted to identify critical symptom domains of individuals with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Using patient and control samples collected in the United States, Great Britain, and Norway, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to establish the underlying factor structure of ME and CFS symptoms. The EFA suggested a four-factor solution: post-exertional malaise, cognitive dysfunction, sleep difficulties, and a combined factor consisti...

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF CRITICAL SSCM ACTIVITIES THROUGH CONFIRMATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Narasimham

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As a developing country, economic and environmental performance has to be balanced in India. Green supply chain management (GSCM is emerging as an important proactive approach for Indian enterprises for improving environmental performance of processes and products in accordance with the requirements of environmental regulations. This study examines the consistency approaches by confirmatory factor analysis that determines the construct validity, convergent validity,construct reliability and internal consistency of the items of Sustainable supply chain management (SSCM requirements. This study examines the consistency approaches by Confirmatory factor analysis that determines the adoption and implementation of Sustainable supply chain management activities in small & medium scale industries. The requirements include Management commitment, customer coordination, sustainable design & production, green procurement and eco logistics for sustainable supply chains. This study suggested that the five factor model with eighteen items of the sustainable supply chain design had a good fit. Further, the study showed a valid and reliable measurement to identify critical items among the requirements of sustainable supply chains.

  7. Disruptive Event Biosphere Doser Conversion Factor Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Wasiolek

    2000-12-28

    The purpose of this report was to document the process leading to, and the results of, development of radionuclide-, exposure scenario-, and ash thickness-specific Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for the postulated postclosure extrusive igneous event (volcanic eruption) at Yucca Mountain. BDCF calculations were done for seventeen radionuclides. The selection of radionuclides included those that may be significant dose contributors during the compliance period of up to 10,000 years, as well as radionuclides of importance for up to 1 million years postclosure. The approach documented in this report takes into account human exposure during three different phases at the time of, and after, volcanic eruption. Calculations of disruptive event BDCFs used the GENII-S computer code in a series of probabilistic realizations to propagate the uncertainties of input parameters into the output. The pathway analysis included consideration of different exposure pathway's contribution to the BDCFs. BDCFs for volcanic eruption, when combined with the concentration of radioactivity deposited by eruption on the soil surface, allow calculation of potential radiation doses to the receptor of interest. Calculation of radioactivity deposition is outside the scope of this report and so is the transport of contaminated ash from the volcano to the location of the receptor. The integration of the biosphere modeling results (BDCFs) with the outcomes of the other component models is accomplished in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA), in which doses are calculated to the receptor of interest from radionuclides postulated to be released to the environment from the potential repository at Yucca Mountain.

  8. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Wasiolek

    2000-12-21

    The purpose of this report was to document the process leading to development of the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for the postclosure nominal performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. BDCF calculations concerned twenty-four radionuclides. This selection included sixteen radionuclides that may be significant nominal performance dose contributors during the compliance period of up to 10,000 years, five additional radionuclides of importance for up to 1 million years postclosure, and three relatively short-lived radionuclides important for the human intrusion scenario. Consideration of radionuclide buildup in soil caused by previous irrigation with contaminated groundwater was taken into account in the BDCF development. The effect of climate evolution, from the current arid conditions to a wetter and cooler climate, on the BDCF values was evaluated. The analysis included consideration of different exposure pathway's contribution to the BDCFs. Calculations of nominal performance BDCFs used the GENII-S computer code in a series of probabilistic realizations to propagate the uncertainties of input parameters into the output. BDCFs for the nominal performance, when combined with the concentrations of radionuclides in groundwater allow calculation of potential radiation doses to the receptor of interest. Calculated estimates of radionuclide concentration in groundwater result from the saturated zone modeling. The integration of the biosphere modeling results (BDCFs) with the outcomes of the other component models is accomplished in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) to calculate doses to the receptor of interest from radionuclides postulated to be released to the environment from the potential repository at Yucca Mountain.

  9. Analysis of school authorities´ concepts and suggestions on bullying - doi: 10.4025/actascieduc.v36i1.21940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Leon Crochík

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Interviews by school authorities from five public primary schools inSão Paulo,São Paulo State,Brazilwere analyzed. The contents of the interviews by school principals and pedagogical coordinators investigated (1 the manner they understood bullying, especially with regard to their determinations; (2 their proposals for combating the problem; (3 the relationship between their understanding of the phenomenon and the suggestions against it. Results showed that the authorities that perceived the social determination on school violence had the best structured suggestions against the phenomenon, with regard to its understanding by students and teachers. On the other hand, others, foregrounded on a more reductionist stance which made difficult the perception of bulling within the school milieu, suggested activities which were not relevant to the factors that produced it and thus not efficacious in their attacking the phenomenon.

  10. Factor analysis of serogroups botanica and aurisina of Leptospira biflexa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinco, M

    1977-11-01

    Factor analysis is performed on serovars of Botanica and Aurisina serogroup of Leptospira biflexa. The results show the arrangement of main factors serovar and serogroup specific, as well as the antigens common with serovars of heterologous serogroups.

  11. An Item Factor Analysis of the Mooney Problem Check List

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David W.; Deiker, Thomas

    1976-01-01

    Explores the factor structure of the Mooney Problem Check List (MPCL) at the junior and senior high school level by undertaking a large obverse factor analysis of item responses in three adolescent criterion groups. (Author/DEP)

  12. Riflessioni e Proposte sulle Unita' di Analisi per l'Analisi del Discorso (Didattico) (Reflections and Suggestions Concerning the Units of Analysis for Discourse Analysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolfi, Liliana

    1995-01-01

    After reviewing units of discourse analysis generally used by sociolinguists, this article reports on a study conducted in university English-as-a-Second-Language classes in Los Angeles to show differences between interactions in and outside of class and proposes a broader frame of analysis to include both the turn and the exchange systems. (CFM)

  13. Full Information Item Factor Analysis of the FCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Eric

    2010-02-01

    Traditional factor analytical methods, principal factors or principal components analysis, are inappropriate techniques for analyzing dichotomously scored responses to standardized tests or concept inventories because they lead to artifactual factors often referred to as ``difficulty factors.'' Full information item factor analysis (Bock, Gibbons and Muraki, 1988) based on Thurstone's multiple factor model and calculated using marginal maximum likelihood estimation, is an appropriate technique for such analyses. Force Concept Inventory (Hestenes, Wells and Swackhamer, 1992) data from 1582 university students completing an introductory physics course, was analyzed using the full information item factor analysis software TESTFACT v. 4. Analyzing the statistical significance of successive factors added to the model, using chi-squared statistics, led to a six factor model interpretable in terms of the conceptual dimensions of the FCI. )

  14. Exploratory matrix factorization for PET image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodewitz, A; Keck, I R; Tomé, A M; Lang, E W

    2010-01-01

    Features are extracted from PET images employing exploratory matrix factorization techniques such as nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF). Appropriate features are fed into classifiers such as a support vector machine or a random forest tree classifier. An automatic feature extraction and classification is achieved with high classification rate which is robust and reliable and can help in an early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

  15. Sexual behaviour and risk factors for the acquisition of human papillomavirus infections in young people in Italy: suggestions for future vaccination policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panatto Donatella

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection. The main risk factors correlated with HPV infection are: early sexual debut, the number of partners, frequency and type of sexual contact and partner’s sexual histories. We surveyed sexual habits among young people in order to provide information that might orient decision-makers in adopting HPV multi-cohort vaccination policies. Methods We administered a questionnaire to students (14–24 years old in five Italian cities. Results 7298 questionnaires were analyzed (4962 females and 2336 males; 55.3% of females (95% CI 53.9–56.7 and 52.5% of males (95% CI 50.5–54.5 reported regular sexual activity. The mean age at sexual debut was 15.7 ± 1.6 and 15.6 ± 1.6 for females and males, respectively, and the median age was 16 for both sexes. With regard to contraceptive use during the last year, 63.6% of males and 62.8% of females responded affirmatively; 42.6% of males and 42.8% of females used condoms. Conclusion The results reveal precocious sexual activity among respondents, with the mean age at first intercourse declining as age decreases. Condom use proved to be scant. Considering lifestyle-related risk factors, males appear to have a higher probability of acquiring HPV infection than females. These data support the importance of promoting multi-cohort HPV vaccination strategies for females up to 25 years of age. It is essential to improve vaccination coverage through different broad-spectrum strategies, including campaigns to increase awareness of sexually transmitted diseases and their prevention.

  16. Analysis of Factors Affecting the Quality of an E-commerce Website Using Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Mishra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify factors which affect the quality and effectiveness of an e commerce website which also majorly affect customer satisfaction and ultimately customer retention and loyalty. This research paper examines a set of 23 variables and integrates them into 4 factors which affect the quality of a website. An online questionnaire survey was conducted to generate statistics regarding the preferences of the e-commerce website users.The 23 variables taken from customer survey are generalized into 4 major factors using exploratory factor analysis which are content, navigation, services and interface design. The research majorly consists of the responses of students between the age group of 18-25 years and considers different B2C commercial websites. Identified variables are important with respect to the current competition in the market as service of an e-commerce website also play a major role in ensuring customer satisfaction. Further research in this domain can be done for websites’ version for mobile devices.

  17. Exploring Technostress: Results of a Large Sample Factor Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Steponas Jonušauskas; Agota Giedre Raisiene

    2016-01-01

    With reference to the results of a large sample factor analysis, the article aims to propose the frame examining technostress in a population. The survey and principal component analysis of the sample consisting of 1013 individuals who use ICT in their everyday work was implemented in the research. 13 factors combine 68 questions and explain 59.13 per cent of the answers dispersion. Based on the factor analysis, questionnaire was reframed and prepared to reasonably analyze the respondents’ an...

  18. Identification of noise in linear data sets by factor analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscoe, B.A.; Hopke, Ph.K. (Illinois Univ., Urbana (USA))

    1982-01-01

    A technique which has the ability to identify bad data points, after the data has been generated, is classical factor analysis. The ability of classical factor analysis to identify two different types of data errors make it ideally suited for scanning large data sets. Since the results yielded by factor analysis indicate correlations between parameters, one must know something about the nature of the data set and the analytical techniques used to obtain it to confidentially isolate errors.

  19. Effect Factors of Liquid Scintillation Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Over the past decades, the liquid scintillation analysis (LSA) technique remains one of the most popular experimental tools used for the quantitative analysis of radionuclide, especially low-energy β

  20. Transcriptome analysis of a respiratory Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain suggests the expression of its phenotype is glucose insensitive and predominantly controlled by Hap4, Cat8 and Mig1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonander Nicklas

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously described the first respiratory Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, KOY.TM6*P, by integrating the gene encoding a chimeric hexose transporter, Tm6*, into the genome of an hxt null yeast. Subsequently we transferred this respiratory phenotype in the presence of up to 50 g/L glucose to a yeast strain, V5 hxt1-7Δ, in which only HXT1-7 had been deleted. In this study, we compared the transcriptome of the resultant strain, V5.TM6*P, with that of its wild-type parent, V5, at different glucose concentrations. Results cDNA array analyses revealed that alterations in gene expression that occur when transitioning from a respiro-fermentative (V5 to a respiratory (V5.TM6*P strain, are very similar to those in cells undergoing a diauxic shift. We also undertook an analysis of transcription factor binding sites in our dataset by examining previously-published biological data for Hap4 (in complex with Hap2, 3, 5, Cat8 and Mig1, and used this in combination with verified binding consensus sequences to identify genes likely to be regulated by one or more of these. Of the induced genes in our dataset, 77% had binding sites for the Hap complex, with 72% having at least two. In addition, 13% were found to have a binding site for Cat8 and 21% had a binding site for Mig1. Unexpectedly, both the up- and down-regulation of many of the genes in our dataset had a clear glucose dependence in the parent V5 strain that was not present in V5.TM6*P. This indicates that the relief of glucose repression is already operable at much higher glucose concentrations than is widely accepted and suggests that glucose sensing might occur inside the cell. Conclusion Our dataset gives a remarkably complete view of the involvement of genes in the TCA cycle, glyoxylate cycle and respiratory chain in the expression of the phenotype of V5.TM6*P. Furthermore, 88% of the transcriptional response of the induced genes in our dataset can be related to the potential

  1. Interaction of p190A RhoGAP with eIF3A and Other Translation Preinitiation Factors Suggests a Role in Protein Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasuraman, Prasanna; Mulligan, Peter; Walker, James A; Li, Bihua; Boukhali, Myriam; Haas, Wilhelm; Bernards, Andre

    2017-02-17

    The negative regulator of Rho family GTPases, p190A RhoGAP, is one of six mammalian proteins harboring so-called FF motifs. To explore the function of these and other p190A segments, we identified interacting proteins by tandem mass spectrometry. Here we report that endogenous human p190A, but not its 50% identical p190B paralog, associates with all 13 eIF3 subunits and several other translational preinitiation factors. The interaction involves the first FF motif of p190A and the winged helix/PCI domain of eIF3A, is enhanced by serum stimulation and reduced by phosphatase treatment. The p190A/eIF3A interaction is unaffected by mutating phosphorylated p190A-Tyr(308), but disrupted by a S296A mutation, targeting the only other known phosphorylated residue in the first FF domain. The p190A-eIF3 complex is distinct from eIF3 complexes containing S6K1 or mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and appears to represent an incomplete preinitiation complex lacking several subunits. Based on these findings we propose that p190A may affect protein translation by controlling the assembly of functional preinitiation complexes. Whether such a role helps to explain why, unique among the large family of RhoGAPs, p190A exhibits a significantly increased mutation rate in cancer remains to be determined.

  2. Validation of the Adolescent Concerns Measure (ACM): Evidence from Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Chong, Wan Har; Huan, Vivien S.; Yeo, Lay See

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the development and initial validation of scores obtained from the Adolescent Concerns Measure (ACM), a scale which assesses concerns of Asian adolescent students. In Study 1, findings from exploratory factor analysis using 619 adolescents suggested a 24-item scale with four correlated factors--Family Concerns (9 items), Peer…

  3. Menstrual Factors,Reproductive Factors and Lung Cancer Risk:A Meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue ZHANG; Zhihua YIN; Li SHEN; Yan WAN; Baosen ZHOU

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective Epidemiological studies have suggested that menstrual and reproductive factors may influence lung cancer risk,but the results are controversial.We therefore carried out a meta-analysis aiming to examine the associations of lung cancer in women with menstrual and reproductive factors.Methods Relevant studies were searched from PubMed database,CNKI,WANFANG DATA and VIP INFORMATION up to January 2012,with no language restrictions.References listed from selected papers were also reviewed.We included studies that reported the estimates of relative risks(RRs)with 95% confidence intervals(CIs)for the association between menstrual and reproductive factors and lung cancer risk.The pooled RRs were calculated after the heterogeneity test with the software Stata 11,and publication bias and sensitivity were evaluated at the same time.Results Twenty-five articles,representing 24 independent studies,were included in this meta-analysis.Older age at menarche in North America women(RR=0.83;95%CI:0.73-0.94)was associated with a significant decreased risk of lung cancer.Longer length of menstrual cycle was also associated with decreased lung cancer risk(RR=0.72;95%CI:0.57-0.90).Other exposures were not significantly associated.Conclusions Our analysis provides evidence of the hypothesis that female sex hormones influence the risk of lung cancer in women,yet additional studies are warranted to extend this finding and to clarify the underlying mechanisms.

  4. Transcriptional, translational, and physiological signatures of undernourished honey bees (Apis mellifera) suggest a role for hormonal factors in hypopharyngeal gland degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corby-Harris, Vanessa; Meador, Charlotte A D; Snyder, Lucy A; Schwan, Melissa R; Maes, Patrick; Jones, Beryl M; Walton, Alexander; Anderson, Kirk E

    2016-02-01

    Honey bee colonies function as a superorganism, where facultatively sterile female workers perform various tasks that support the hive. Nurse workers undergo numerous anatomical and physiological changes in preparation for brood rearing, including the growth of hypopharyngeal glands (HGs). These glands produce the major protein fraction of a protein- and lipid-rich jelly used to sustain developing larvae. Pollen intake is positively correlated with HG growth, but growth in the first three days is similar regardless of diet, suggesting that initial growth is a pre-determined process while later HG development depends on nutrient availability during a critical window in early adulthood (>3 d). It is unclear whether the resultant size differences in nurse HG are simply due to growth arrest or active degradation of the tissue. To determine what processes cause such differences in HG size, we catalogued the differential expression of both gene transcripts and proteins in the HGs of 8 d old bees that were fed diets containing pollen or no pollen. 3438 genes and 367 proteins were differentially regulated due to nutrition. Of the genes and proteins differentially expressed, undernourished bees exhibited more gene and protein up-regulation compared to well-nourished bees, with the affected processes including salivary gland apoptosis, oogenesis, and hormone signaling. Protein secretion was virtually the only process up-regulated in well-nourished bees. Further assays demonstrated that inhibition of ultraspiracle, one component of the ecdysteroid receptor, in the fat body caused larger HGs. Undernourished bees also had higher acid phosphatase activity, a physiological marker of cell death, compared to well-nourished bees. These results support a connection between poor nutrition, hormonal signaling, and HG degradation.

  5. Comprehensive analysis of plant rapid alkalization factor (RALF) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arti; Hussain, Adil; Mun, Bong-Gyu; Imran, Qari Muhammad; Falak, Noreen; Lee, Sang-Uk; Kim, Jae Young; Hong, Jeum Kyu; Loake, Gary John; Ali, Asad; Yun, Byung-Wook

    2016-09-01

    Receptor mediated signal carriers play a critical role in the regulation of plant defense and development. Rapid alkalization factor (RALF) proteins potentially comprise important signaling components which may have a key role in plant biology. The RALF gene family contains large number of genes in several plant species, however, only a few RALF genes have been characterized to date. In this study, an extensive database search identified 39, 43, 34 and 18 RALF genes in Arabidopsis, rice, maize and soybean, respectively. These RALF genes were found to be highly conserved across the 4 plant species. A comprehensive analysis including the chromosomal location, gene structure, subcellular location, conserved motifs, protein structure, protein-ligand interaction and promoter analysis was performed. RALF genes from four plant species were divided into 7 groups based on phylogenetic analysis. In silico expression analysis of these genes, using microarray and EST data, revealed that these genes exhibit a variety of expression patterns. Furthermore, RALF genes showed distinct expression patterns of transcript accumulation in vivo following nitrosative and oxidative stresses in Arabidopsis. Predicted interaction between RALF and heme ligand also showed that RALF proteins may contribute towards transporting or scavenging oxygen moieties. This suggests a possible role for RALF genes during changes in cellular redox status. Collectively, our data provides a valuable resource to prime future research in the role of RALF genes in plant growth and development.

  6. Phylogenetic Analyses Suggest that Factors Other Than the Capsid Protein Play a Role in the Epidemic Potential of GII.2 Norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohma, Kentaro; Lepore, Cara J.; Ford-Siltz, Lauren A.

    2017-01-01

    variants. Over the last three seasons, minor genotypes have displaced the GII.4 viruses as the predominant strains. One of these genotypes, GII.2, reemerged as predominant during 2016 to 2017. Here we show that factors such as minor changes in the polymerase may have driven the reemergence of GII.2 during the last season. A better understanding of norovirus diversity is important for the development of effective treatments against noroviruses. PMID:28529975

  7. FACTOR ANALYSIS OF THE ELKINS HYPNOTIZABILITY SCALE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Gary; Johnson, Aimee K.; Johnson, Alisa J.; Sliwinski, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of hypnotizability can provide important information for hypnosis research and practice. The Elkins Hypnotizability Scale (EHS) consists of 12 items and was developed to provide a time-efficient measure for use in both clinical and laboratory settings. The EHS has been shown to be a reliable measure with support for convergent validity with the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (r = .821, p < .001). The current study examined the factor structure of the EHS, which was administered to 252 adults (51.3% male; 48.7% female). Average time of administration was 25.8 minutes. Four factors selected on the basis of the best theoretical fit accounted for 63.37% of the variance. The results of this study provide an initial factor structure for the EHS. PMID:25978085

  8. ANALYSIS OF EXTERNAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Kiseleva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The external factors influencing the process of formation of tariffs of commercial services are considered in the article. External environment is known to be very diverse and changeable. Currently, pricing has become one of the key processes of strategic development of a company. Pricing in the service sector, in turn, is highly susceptible to changes in the external environment. Its components directly or indirectly affect the market of services, changing it adopted economic processes. As a rule, firms providing services can’t influence the changes in external factors. However, the service market is very flexible, which enables businesses to reshape pricing strategy, to adapt it to the new environment.

  9. Weightlifter Lumbar Physiology Health Influence Factor Analysis of Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Chinese women's weightlifting project has been in the advanced world level, suggests that the Chinese coaches and athletes have many successful experience in the weight lifting training. Little weight lifting belongs to high-risk sports, however, to the lumbar spine injury, some young good athletes often due to lumbar trauma had to retire, and the national investment and athletes toil is regret things. This article from the perspective of sports medicine, weightlifting athletes training situation analysis and put forward Suggestions, aimed at avoiding lumbar injury, guarantee the health of athletes. In this paper, first of all to 50 professional women's weightlifting athletes doing investigation, found that 82% of the athletes suffer from lumbar disease symptoms, the reason is mainly composed of lumbar strain, intensity is too large, motion error caused by three factors. From the Angle of sports medicine and combined with the characteristics of the structure of human body skeleton athletes lumbar structural mechanics analysis, find out the lumbar force's two biggest technical movement, study, and regulate the action standard, so as to minimize lumbar force, for athletes to contribute to the health of the lumbar spine.

  10. Factor Analysis for Spectral Reconnaissance and Situational Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-11

    reviewed journals: Final Report: Factor Analysis for Spectral Reconnaissance and Situational Understanding Report Title The Army has a critical need for...based NP-hard design problems, by associating them with corresponding estimation problems. 1 Factor Analysis for Spectral Reconnaissance and Situational ...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The Army has a critical need for enhancing situational understanding for dismounted soldiers and rapidly deployed tactical

  11. A Factor Analysis of the BSRI and the PAQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Teresa A.; And Others

    Factor analysis of the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Personality Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) was undertaken to study the independence of the masculine and feminine scales within each instrument. Both instruments were administered to undergraduate education majors. Analysis of primary first and second order factors of the BSRI indicated…

  12. Exploratory Factor Analysis of African Self-Consciousness Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, Ranjit; Kelly, Shalonda; Lambert, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    This study replicates and extends prior studies of the dimensionality, convergent, and external validity of African Self-Consciousness Scale scores with appropriate exploratory factor analysis methods and a large gender balanced sample (N = 348). Viable one- and two-factor solutions were cross-validated. Both first factors overlapped significantly…

  13. Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis: Locating the Invariant Referent Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Brian F.; Finch, W. Holmes

    2008-01-01

    Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) is a popular method for the examination of measurement invariance and specifically, factor invariance. Recent research has begun to focus on using MCFA to detect invariance for test items. MCFA requires certain parameters (e.g., factor loadings) to be constrained for model identification, which are…

  14. Factor Analysis of People Rather than Variables: Q and Other Two-Mode Factor Analytic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Brigitte N.

    Factor analysis attempts to study how different objects group together to form factors with the purposes of: (1) reducing the number of factorable entities (e.g., variables) with which the researcher needs to deal; (2) searching data for qualitative and quantitative differences; and (3) testing hypotheses (R. Gorsuch, 1983). While most factor…

  15. Chiral analysis of baryon form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gail, T.A.

    2007-11-08

    This work presents an extensive theoretical investigation of the structure of the nucleon within the standard model of elementary particle physics. In particular, the long range contributions to a number of various form factors parametrizing the interactions of the nucleon with an electromagnetic probe are calculated. The theoretical framework for those calculations is chiral perturbation theory, the exact low energy limit of Quantum Chromo Dynamics, which describes such long range contributions in terms of a pion-cloud. In this theory, a nonrelativistic leading one loop order calculation of the form factors parametrizing the vector transition of a nucleon to its lowest lying resonance, the {delta}, a covariant calculation of the isovector and isoscalar vector form factors of the nucleon at next to leading one loop order and a covariant calculation of the isoscalar and isovector generalized vector form factors of the nucleon at leading one loop order are performed. In order to perform consistent loop calculations in the covariant formulation of chiral perturbation theory an appropriate renormalization scheme is defined in this work. All theoretical predictions are compared to phenomenology and results from lattice QCD simulations. These comparisons allow for a determination of the low energy constants of the theory. Furthermore, the possibility of chiral extrapolation, i.e. the extrapolation of lattice data from simulations at large pion masses down to the small physical pion mass is studied in detail. Statistical as well as systematic uncertainties are estimated for all results throughout this work. (orig.)

  16. Analytic standard errors for exploratory process factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangjian; Browne, Michael W; Ong, Anthony D; Chow, Sy Miin

    2014-07-01

    Exploratory process factor analysis (EPFA) is a data-driven latent variable model for multivariate time series. This article presents analytic standard errors for EPFA. Unlike standard errors for exploratory factor analysis with independent data, the analytic standard errors for EPFA take into account the time dependency in time series data. In addition, factor rotation is treated as the imposition of equality constraints on model parameters. Properties of the analytic standard errors are demonstrated using empirical and simulated data.

  17. A replication of a factor analysis of motivations for trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan; Fulton, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Using a 2013 sample of Minnesota trappers, we employed confirmatory factor analysis to replicate an exploratory factor analysis of trapping motivations conducted by Daigle, Muth, Zwick, and Glass (1998).  We employed the same 25 items used by Daigle et al. and tested the same five-factor structure using a recent sample of Minnesota trappers. We also compared motivations in our sample to those reported by Daigle et el.

  18. Risk factors for PTSD after birth in a normal population: A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ayers, S; Bond, R.; Wijma, K

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that a proportion of women report posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childbirth, with between 1 and 3% of women developing the disorder as a direct result of birth (Alcorn, O'Donovan, Patrick, Creedy, & Devilly). A range of factors are associated with postpartum PTSD, including prepartum, birth and postpartum factors. This meta-analysis synthesizes research on posttraumatic stress symptoms after childbirth in order to identify key vulnerability and risk factors. ...

  19. Analysis of Interaction Factors Between Two Piles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Ming; CHEN Long-zhu

    2008-01-01

    A rigorous analytical method is presented for calculating the interaction factor between two identical piles subjected to vertical loads. Following the technique proposed by Muki and Sternberg, the problem is decomposed into an extended soil mass and two fictitious piles characterized respectively by Young's modulus of the soil and that of the difference between the pile and soil. The unknown axial forces along fictitious piles are determined by solving a Fredholm integral equation of the second kind, which imposes the compatibility condition that the axial strains of the fictitious piles are equal to those corresponding to the centroidal axes of the extended soil. The real pile forces and displacements can subequally be calculated based on the determined fictitious pile forces, and finally, the desired pile interaction factors may be obtained. Results confirm the validity of the proposed approach and portray the influence of the governing parameters on the pile interaction.

  20. 316例Bell's面瘫患者注意力与暗示性影响因素研究%Influencing Factors of Attention and Suggestibility of Patients with Bell's Palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄波; 徐沙贝; 张晨艳; 王伟

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the attention and suggestibility of patients with Bell's palsy and to explore the influencing factors. Methods: Three hundred and sixteen Bell's palsy patients were recruited in this study. House-Brackmann (HB) grading scale was used to assess the severity of facial paralysis; Cancellation test and Suggestibility test were used to evaluate the attention and suggestibility of patients. The cases were divided into acute phase group (^ 72 hour) and sub-acute group (72~168 hour) according to the course of the disease; and mild group (HB graded I -M) and severe group (HB graded IV~VI) according to the severity of the disease. Independent samples t-test was employed to compare the mean HB scores, attention scores, and suggestibility scores of patients in different groups; Spearman rank correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were employed to explore the influence factors for attention and suggestibility. Results: The attention scores of the patients in the acute phase group and the mild group were higher than those in the sub-acute phase group and the severe group; HB scores were negatively related to the attention and positively related to the suggestibility; The HB scores, course of the disease, educational level, and age were the main influencing factors for the attention of patients with facial paralysis; The: severity of disease, course of disease, gender, and educational level were the main influencing factors for the suggestibility of facial paralysis patients.Conclusion: The decline of attention and the increase of suggestibility for patients with facial paralysis are mainly related to the severity of facial paralysis, course of disease* education level, age, and gender.%目的:评价Bell's面瘫患者注意力及暗示性程度并探讨其影响因素.方法:Bell's面瘫患者316例,采用House Brackmann(HB)分级量表评估患者面瘫程度,划消实验、暗示性测验评估面瘫患者注意力和暗示性程度.根据

  1. Analysis of factors affecting fattening of chickens

    OpenAIRE

    OBERMAJEROVÁ, Barbora

    2013-01-01

    Poultry meat belongs to the basic assortment of human nutrition. The meat of an intensively fattened poultry is a source of easily digestible proteins, lipids, mineral substances and vitamins. The aim of this bachelor´s thesis was to write out a literature review, which is focused on the intensity of growth, carcass yield, quality and composition of broiler chickens meat. The following describes the internal and external factors that affect them, i.e. genetic foundation, hybrid combination, s...

  2. Sterol content analysis suggests altered eburicol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51) activity in isolates of Mycosphaerella graminicola adapted to azole fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Tim P; Cools, Hans J; Lucas, John A; Hawkins, Nathaniel D; Ward, Jane L; Shaw, Michael W; Fraaije, Bart A

    2009-06-01

    The recent decline in the effectiveness of some azole fungicides in controlling the wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola has been associated with mutations in the CYP51 gene encoding the azole target, the eburicol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51), an essential enzyme of the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. In this study, analysis of the sterol content of M. graminicola isolates carrying different variants of the CYP51 gene has revealed quantitative differences in sterol intermediates, particularly the CYP51 substrate eburicol. Together with CYP51 gene expression studies, these data suggest that mutations in the CYP51 gene impact on the activity of the CYP51 protein.

  3. Investigating product development strategy in beverage industry using factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Selecting a product development strategy that is associated with the company's current service or product innovation, based on customers’ needs and changing environment, plays an important role in increasing demand, increasing market share, increasing sales and profits. Therefore, it is important to extract effective variables associated with product development to improve performance measurement of firms. This paper investigates important factors influencing product development strategies using factor analysis. The proposed model of this paper investigates 36 factors and, using factor analysis, we extract six most influential factors including information sharing, intelligence information, exposure strategy, differentiation, research and development strategy and market survey. The first strategy, partnership, includes five sub-factor including product development partnership, partnership with foreign firms, customers’ perception from competitors’ products, Customer involvement in product development, inter-agency coordination, customer-oriented approach to innovation and transmission of product development change where inter-agency coordination has been considered the most important factor. Internal strengths are the most influential factors impacting the second strategy, intelligence information. The third factor, introducing strategy, introducing strategy, includes four sub criteria and consumer buying behavior is the most influencing factor. Differentiation is the next important factor with five components where knowledge and expertise in product innovation is the most important one. Research and development strategy with four sub-criteria where reducing product development cycle plays the most influential factor and finally, market survey strategy is the last important factor with three factors and finding new market plays the most important role.

  4. [Adipocytokines: factors with various suggested functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ye; Huang, Dejia

    2010-04-01

    Fat accumulation has been shown to play important roles in the development of obesity-related disorders such as atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Recent studies have shown that fat tissue is not a simple energy storage organ, but exerts important endocrine functions. These are achieved predominantly through release of adipocytokines, which include several novel molecules released by adipocytes like leptin, resistin, adiponectin or visfatin, as well as some more classical cytokines released possibly by inflammatory cells, like TNF-alpha and IL-6. Adipocytokines may affect cardiovascular, hepatic, muscular and metabolic function. In this review, the recent research work of adipocytokines will be discussed.

  5. Housing Price Forecastability: A Factor Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Lasse; Møller, Stig Vinther

    2016-01-01

    We examine U.S. housing price forecastability using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS), and sparse PLS (SPLS). We incorporate information from a large panel of 128 economic time series and show that macroeconomic fundamentals have strong predictive power for future...

  6. Housing price forecastability: A factor analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Stig Vinther; Bork, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    We examine U.S. housing price forecastability using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS), and sparse PLS (SPLS). We incorporate information from a large panel of 128 economic time series and show that macroeconomic fundamentals have strong predictive power for future...

  7. Suggested safeguards an

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    ... COORDINATION. (FACILITATION OR CASE MANAGEMENT) IN SOUTH AFRICA ... SUGGESTED SAFEGUARDS AND LIMITATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE AND .... professional practice.27 They have to assess the situation; educate the parents.

  8. Central European parasitic flatworms of the family Renicolidae Dollfus, 1939 (Trematoda: Plagiorchiida): molecular and comparative morphological analysis rejects the synonymization of Renicola pinguis complex suggested by Odening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneberg, Petr; Sitko, Jiljí; Bizos, Jiří; Horne, Elizabeth C

    2016-10-01

    The Renicolidae are digenean parasites of piscivorous and molluscivorous birds. Although they exhibit few morphological autapomorphies and are highly variable, the numerous suggested re-classifications within the family have never been supported by any molecular analyses. We address the possible synonymization of species within the Renicola pinguis complex suggested previously by Odening. We provide and analyse sequences of two nuclear (ITS2, 28S rDNA) and two mitochondrial (CO1, ND1) DNA loci of central European species of the Renicolidae, namely Renicola lari, Renicola pinguis and Renicola sternae sp. n., and we also provide first sequences of Renicola sloanei. The combined molecular and comparative morphological analysis confirms the previously questioned validity of the three Renicola spp. of highly similar morphology, which display strict niche separation in terms of host specificity and selectivity. We identify two previously unreported clades within the genus Renicola; however, only one of them is supported by the analysis of adult worms. We also provide comparative measurements of the three examined closely related central European renicolids, and describe the newly proposed tern-specialized species Renicola sternae sp. n., which was previously repeatedly misidentified as Renicola paraquinta. Based on the extensive dataset collected in 1962-2015, we update the host spectrum of Renicolidae parasitizing central European birds (Renicola bretensis, R. lari, Renicola mediovitellata, R. pinguis, Renicola secunda and R. sternae sp. n.) and discuss their host-specific prevalence and intensity of infections.

  9. Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenkranz, S.

    2003-01-01

    Based on arguments of the `reference- dependent' theory of consumer choice we assume that a retailer's discount of a manufacturer's suggested retail price changes consumers' demand. We can show that the producer benefits from suggesting a retail price. If consumers are additionally sufficiently `los

  10. Factors Effecting Unemployment: A Cross Country Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurangzeb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates macroeconomic determinants of the unemployment for India, China and Pakistan for the period 1980 to 2009. The investigation was conducted through co integration, granger causality and regression analysis. The variables selected for the study are unemployment, inflation, gross domestic product, exchange rate and the increasing rate of population. The results of regression analysis showed significant impact of all the variables for all three countries. GDP of Pakistan showed positive relation with the unemployment rate and the reason of that is the poverty level and underutilization of foreign investment. The result of granger causality showed that bidirectional causality does not exist between any of the variable for all three countries. Co integration result explored that long term relationship do exist among the variables for all the models. It is recommended that distribution of income needs to be improved for Pakistan in order to have positive impact of growth on the employment rate.

  11. GWAS analysis of QTL for enteric septicemia of catfish and their involved genes suggest evolutionary conservation of a molecular mechanism of disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Liu, Shikai; Geng, Xin; Jin, Yulin; Jiang, Chen; Bao, Lisui; Yao, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jiaren; Sun, Luyang; Wang, Xiaozhu; Li, Ning; Tan, Suxu; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2017-02-01

    Disease problems cause major economic losses for the aquaculture industries. In catfish, enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by the bacterial pathogen Edwardsiella ictaluri, is the leading disease problem, causing tens of millions of dollars of annual economic losses. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study to determine quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance against ESC using an interspecific hybrid system. Five hundred fish were used in the analysis and 192 phenotypic extremes were used for genotyping with the catfish 250K SNP arrays. A genomic region on linkage group (LG) 1 was found significantly associated with ESC disease resistance. In addition, two suggestively associated QTL for ESC resistance were identified on LG 12 and LG 16. The nlrc3 duplicates were identified within all the three QTL, suggesting their importance in association with the QTL. Within the significant QTL on LG 1, 16 genes with known functions in immunity were identified. Of particular interest is the nck1 gene nearby the most significantly associated SNP. Nck1 was known to function as an adaptor to facilitating the pathogenesis of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) in humans. E. ictaluri and EPEC pathogens belong to the same bacterial family and share many common characteristics. The fact that nck1 is mapped in the QTL and that it was significantly upregulated in channel catfish intestine after ESC challenge suggested its candidacy of being involved in resistance/susceptibility of ESC.

  12. ANALYSIS OF RISK FACTORS ECTOPIC PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Santoso

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy with extrauterine implantation. This situation is gynecologic emergency that contributes to maternal mortality. Therefore, early recognition, based on identification of the causes of ectopic pregnancy risk factors, is needed. Methods: The design descriptive observational. The samples were pregnant women who had ectopic pregnancy at Maternity Room, Emergency Unit, Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya, from 1 July 2008 to 1 July 2010. Sampling technique was total sampling using medical records. Result: Patients with ectopic pregnancy were 99 individuals out of 2090 pregnant women who searched for treatment in Dr. Soetomo Hospital. However, only 29 patients were accompanied with traceable risk factors. Discussion:. Most ectopic pregnancies were in the age group of 26-30 years, comprising 32 patients (32.32%, then in age groups of 31–35 years as many as 25 patients (25.25%, 18 patients in age group 21–25 years (18.18%, 17 patients in age group 36–40 years (17.17%, 4 patients in age group 41 years and more (4.04%, and the least was in age group of 16–20 years with 3 patients (3.03%. A total of 12 patients with ectopic pregnancy (41.38% had experience of abortion and 6 patients (20.69% each in groups of patients with ectopic pregnancy who used family planning, in those who used family planning as well as ectopic pregnancy patients with history of surgery. There were 2 patients (6.90% of the group of patients ectopic pregnancy who had history of surgery and history of abortion. The incidence rate of ectopic pregnancy was 4.73%, mostly in the second gravidity (34.34%, whereas the nulliparous have the highest prevalence of 39.39%. Acquired risk factors, i.e. history of operations was 10.34%, patients with family planning 20.69%, patients with history of abortion 41.38%, patients with history of abortion and operation 6.90% patients with family and history of abortion was 20.69%.

  13. An Analysis of Key Factors Affecting Chinese ESL Students’ Listening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏君; 郭润玉

    2012-01-01

      With the proposal of Internet-based CET, more emphasis need be attached to listening skill. In order to improve stu⁃dents’ listening skill, linguistic knowledge, psychological factors and cultural background knowledge, as three key factors affect⁃ing Chinese ESL students, have been analyzed and the improving solutions have been suggested.

  14. Research Suggestions for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.

    1974-01-01

    Describes how to perform accurate research. Also includes suggestions for specific research projects under such headings as: (1) types; (2) environments; (3) interactions; (4) classification; (5) hexagonal model; and (6) differentiation. (HMV)

  15. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Contributors offer suggestions concerning parents as reading stimulators, book discussions, a test bank for the secondary school/college reading lab, standardized reading tests, television reading, plagiarism, vocabulary development, and book reports. (FL)

  16. Open To Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Suggests class activities in three short articles including: (1) "Students Evaluate Reading," by Lenore Sandel; (2) "Solving Verbal Analogies," by Edward J. Dwyer; and (3) "Becoming Testwise," by Dean Schoen. (RS)

  17. Examining evolving performance on the Force Concept Inventory using factor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semak, M. R.; Dietz, R. D.; Pearson, R. H.; Willis, C. W.

    2017-06-01

    The application of factor analysis to the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has proven to be problematic. Some studies have suggested that factor analysis of test results serves as a helpful tool in assessing the recognition of Newtonian concepts by students. Other work has produced at best ambiguous results. For the FCI administered as a pre- and post-test, we see factor analysis as a tool by which the changes in conceptual associations made by our students may be gauged given the evolution of their response patterns. This analysis allows us to identify and track conceptual linkages, affording us insight as to how our students have matured due to instruction. We report on our analysis of 427 pre- and post-tests. The factor models for the pre- and post-tests are explored and compared along with the methodology by which these models were fit to the data. The post-test factor pattern is more aligned with an expert's interpretation of the questions' content, as it allows for a more readily identifiable relationship between factors and physical concepts. We discuss this evolution in the context of approaching the characteristics of an expert with force concepts. Also, we find that certain test items do not significantly contribute to the pre- or post-test factor models and attempt explanations as to why this is so. This may suggest that such questions may not be effective in probing the conceptual understanding of our students.

  18. Molecular analysis of endo-β-mannanase genes upon seed imbibition suggest a cross-talk between radicle and micropylar endosperm during germination of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Fernández, Raquel; del Carmen Rodríguez-Gacio, María; Barrero-Sicilia, Cristina; Carbonero, Pilar

    2011-01-01

    The endo-β-mannanase (MAN) family is represented in the Arabidopsis genome by eight members, all with canonical signal peptides and only half of them being expressed in germinating seeds. The transcripts of these genes were localized in the radicle and micropylar endosperm (ME) before radicle protrusion and this expression disappears as soon as the endosperm is broken by the emerging radicle tip. However, only three of these MAN genes, AtMAN5, AtMAN7 and especially AtMAN6 influence the germination time (t50) as assessed by the analysis of the corresponding knock-out lines. The data suggest a possible interaction between embryo and ME regarding the role of MAN during the Arabidopsis germination process. PMID:21301215

  19. Analysis of Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Farmers' Adoption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Farmers' Adoption of Rice ... Farming experience, household size, farm size and extension contact ... gender, market availability, education, extension contact, labour availability and farm size.

  20. Exploring Technostress: Results of a Large Sample Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steponas Jonušauskas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With reference to the results of a large sample factor analysis, the article aims to propose the frame examining technostress in a population. The survey and principal component analysis of the sample consisting of 1013 individuals who use ICT in their everyday work was implemented in the research. 13 factors combine 68 questions and explain 59.13 per cent of the answers dispersion. Based on the factor analysis, questionnaire was reframed and prepared to reasonably analyze the respondents’ answers, revealing technostress causes and consequences as well as technostress prevalence in the population in a statistically validated pattern. A key elements of technostress based on factor analysis can serve for the construction of technostress measurement scales in further research.

  1. Risk Factor Analysis for Oral Precancer among Slum Dwellers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rajasthan Dental College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, 1Dental Wing, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Bhopal,. 4Department of Public ... Keywords: Oral cancer, Risk factor analysis, Slum dwellers. Access this .... hygiene aid used in India.

  2. Meta analysis of risk factors for colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Chen; Jiong-Liang Qiu; Yang Zhang; Yu-Wan Zhao

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the risk factors for colorectal cancer in China.METHODS: A meta-analysis of the risk factors of colorectal cancer was conducted for 14 case-control studies, and reviewed 14 reports within 13 years which included 5034cases and 5205 controls. Dersimonian and Laird random effective models were used to process the results.RESULTS: Meta analysis of the 14 studies demonstrated that proper physical activites and dietary fibers were protective factors (pooled OR<0.8), while fecal mucohemorrhage,chronic diarrhea and polyposis were highly associated with colorectal cancer (all pooled OR>4). The stratified results showed that different OR values of some factors were due to geographic factors or different resourses.CONCLUSION: Risks of colorectal cancer are significantly associated with the histories of intestinal diseases or relative symptoms, high lipid diet, emotional trauma and family history of cancers. The suitable physical activities and dietary fibers are protective factors.

  3. Text mining factor analysis (TFA) in green tea patent data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, Sela; Suprijadi, Jadi; Zulhanif

    2017-03-01

    Factor analysis has become one of the most widely used multivariate statistical procedures in applied research endeavors across a multitude of domains. There are two main types of analyses based on factor analysis: Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Both EFA and CFA aim to observed relationships among a group of indicators with a latent variable, but they differ fundamentally, a priori and restrictions made to the factor model. This method will be applied to patent data technology sector green tea to determine the development technology of green tea in the world. Patent analysis is useful in identifying the future technological trends in a specific field of technology. Database patent are obtained from agency European Patent Organization (EPO). In this paper, CFA model will be applied to the nominal data, which obtain from the presence absence matrix. While doing processing, analysis CFA for nominal data analysis was based on Tetrachoric matrix. Meanwhile, EFA model will be applied on a title from sector technology dominant. Title will be pre-processing first using text mining analysis.

  4. Some Suggestions to Rock and Mineral Analysis (the 4th Edition)%对岩石矿物分析第四版一书的建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑大中; 赵芳芳; 陈琳玲; 郑若锋

    2013-01-01

    对书中一些特殊样品的制备方法提出建议;对切乔特经验缩分公式的科学性提出质疑,建议吐故纳新;指出HF-HCIO4法测二氧化硅存在严重的缺陷,建议用HF、H2SO4-V2O5法代替;指出酸溶-亚铁容量法测钒主要反应式不当,建议更正;在稀王水、稀盐酸介质中,活性炭吸附的金是单质金(为还原吸附),而不是AuCl4-,建议改正。%This paper makes some suggestions to Rock and Mineral Analysis (the 4th Edition). Query the Qeqott formula. Make a suggestion on determination of SiO2 by HF and H2SO4-V2O5 other than HF-HCIO4. The main chemical reaction formula for determination of Vanadium by acid pasting and ferrous ammonium sulfate volumetry should be changed. Au adsorbed by activated carbon in dilute hydrochloric acid and dilute aqua regia is Au as simple substance other than AuCl4-.

  5. Multilocus sequence analysis of the marine bacterial genus Tenacibaculum suggests parallel evolution of fish pathogenicity and endemic colonization of aquaculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Christophe; Houel, Armel; Lunazzi, Aurélie; Bernardet, Jean-François; Olsen, Anne Berit; Nilsen, Hanne; Toranzo, Alicia E; Castro, Nuria; Nicolas, Pierre; Duchaud, Eric

    2014-09-01

    The genus Tenacibaculum, a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae, is an abundant component of marine bacterial ecosystems that also hosts several fish pathogens, some of which are of serious concern for marine aquaculture. Here, we applied multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) to 114 representatives of most known species in the genus and of the worldwide diversity of the major fish pathogen Tenacibaculum maritimum. Recombination hampers precise phylogenetic reconstruction, but the data indicate intertwined environmental and pathogenic lineages, which suggests that pathogenicity evolved independently in several species. At lower phylogenetic levels recombination is also important, and the species T. maritimum constitutes a cohesive group of isolates. Importantly, the data reveal no trace of long-distance dissemination that could be linked to international fish movements. Instead, the high number of distinct genotypes suggests an endemic distribution of strains. The MLSA scheme and the data described in this study will help in monitoring Tenacibaculum infections in marine aquaculture; we show, for instance, that isolates from tenacibaculosis outbreaks in Norwegian salmon farms are related to T. dicentrarchi, a recently described species.

  6. Analysis of biosurfactants from industrially-viable Pseudomonas strain isolated from crude oil suggests how rhamnolipids congeners affect on emulsification property and antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palashpriya eDas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced mainly by Pseudomonas sp. had been reported to possess a wide range of potential industrial application. These biosurfactants are produced as monorhamnolipid (MRL and di-rhamnolipid (DRL congeners. The present study deals with rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced by three bacterial isolates from crude oil. Biosurfactants produced by one of the strains (named as IMP67 was found to be very efficacious based on its critical micelle concentration (CMC value and hydrocarbon emulsification property. Strikingly, antimicrobial and anti-biofilm potential of this biosurfactant were higher than biosurfactants produced by other two strains. Thin layer chromatography (TLC analysis and rhamnose quantification showed that the rhamnolipids of IMP67 had more MRL congeners than biosurfactants of the other two strains. Emulsification and antimicrobial actions were affected by manual change of MRL and DRL congener proportions. Increase of MRL proportion enhanced emulsification index and antimicrobial property to Gram negative bacteria. This result indicated that the ratio of MRL and DRL affect the emulsification potentials of rhamnolipids, and suggested that high emulsification potentials might enhance rhamnolipids to penetrate the cell wall of Gram negative bacteria. In consistent, rhamnolipids of IMP67 reduced the MIC of some antibiotics against bacteria, suggesting the potential of biosurfactant as antibiotics synergist.

  7. Analysis of biosurfactants from industrially viable Pseudomonas strain isolated from crude oil suggests how rhamnolipids congeners affect emulsification property and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Palashpriya; Yang, Xin-Ping; Ma, Luyan Z

    2014-01-01

    Rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced mainly by Pseudomonas sp. had been reported to possess a wide range of potential industrial application. These biosurfactants are produced as monorhamnolipid (MRL) and di-rhamnolipid (DRL) congeners. The present study deals with rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced by three bacterial isolates from crude oil. Biosurfactants produced by one of the strains (named as IMP67) was found to be very efficacious based on its critical micelle concentration value and hydrocarbon emulsification property. Strikingly, antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm potential of this biosurfactant were higher than biosurfactants produced by other two strains. Thin layer chromatography analysis and rhamnose quantification showed that the rhamnolipids of IMP67 had more MRL congeners than biosurfactants of the other two strains. Emulsification and antimicrobial actions were affected by manual change of MRL and DRL congener proportions. Increase of MRL proportion enhanced emulsification index and antimicrobial property to Gram negative bacteria. This result indicated that the ratio of MRL and DRL affected the emulsification potentials of rhamnolipids, and suggested that high emulsification potentials might enhance rhamnolipids to penetrate the cell wall of Gram negative bacteria. In line with this finding, rhamnolipids of IMP67 also reduced the MIC of some antibiotics against bacteria, suggesting their synergistic role with the antibiotics.

  8. Allelotyping analysis suggesting a consecutive progression from intratubular germ cell neoplasia to seminoma and then to embryonal carcinoma of the adult testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyai, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Sohei; Iwaya, Keiichi; Asano, Tomohiko; Tamai, Seiichi; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Matsubara, Osamu

    2013-10-01

    Among adult testicular germ cell tumors, the pathogenesis of embryonal carcinoma remains a matter of debate. Some studies suggest a single consecutive progression from intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified (IGCNU), to seminoma and then to embryonal carcinoma; others suggest that seminoma and embryonal carcinoma derive independently from IGCNU. This allelotyping study aimed to clarify the genetic relationship between embryonal carcinoma components and coexisting seminoma and/or IGCNU components. From a cohort of 18 patients with embryonal carcinoma, 11 coexisting seminoma components and 14 coexisting IGCNUs were identified. DNA isolated from each laser-microdissected tissue was subjected to polymerase chain reaction and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis, using 20 polymorphic markers located on 12 chromosome arms (3q, 5q, 6p, 9p, 10q, 11p, 12p, 12q, 13q, 17p, 17q, and 18q). The concordance rate for allelic patterns was 82% between IGCNU and the coexisting seminoma components, 71% between IGCNU and the coexisting embryonal carcinoma components, and 80% between seminoma components and the coexisting embryonal carcinoma components. Estimation of probability indicated that these events were very unlikely to have occurred by chance. The total frequency of LOH increased progressively from IGCNU to seminoma and then to embryonal carcinoma, with statistically significant differences. In 7 cases with 3 histologic components, 28 chromosomal loci that showed LOH in the seminoma and embryonal carcinoma components were identified, and 15 (54%) retained heterozygosity in the coexisting IGCNUs. These findings suggest that a consecutive progression from IGCNU to seminoma, and ultimately, to embryonal carcinoma mainly occurred in the testicular germ cell tumor cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Pain Behaviour Checklist: factor analysis and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anciano, D

    1986-11-01

    A factor analysis was performed on Philips & Hunter's (1981) Pain Behaviour Checklist for headache sufferers. Three intuitively meaningful factors emerged. All were similarly associated with overall intensity; pain severity does not determine type of pain behaviour. Differences in pain behaviour emerged between migraine and tension headache groups.

  10. Determining Dimensionality of Exercise Readiness Using Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Strohacker, Rebecca A. Zakrajsek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of “exercise readiness” is a central component to the flexible non-linear periodization (FNLP method of organizing training workloads, but the underlying factor structure of this construct has not been empirically determined. The purpose of this study was to assess construct dimensionality of exercise readiness using exploratory factor analysis. The result of which serve as initial steps of developing a brief measure of exercise readiness. Participants consisted of students recruited from undergraduate Kinesiology courses at a racially diverse, southern University. Independent, anonymous online survey data were collected across three stages: 1 generation of item pool (n = 290, 2 assessment of face validity and refinement of item pool (n = 168, and 3 exploratory factor analysis (n = 684. A principal axis factor analysis was conducted with 41 items using oblique rotation (promax. Four statistically significant factors, as determined through parallel analysis, explained 61.5% of the variance in exercise readiness. Factor 1 contained items that represented vitality (e.g., lively, revived. Factor 2 items related to physical fatigue (e.g. tired, drained. Factors 3 and 4 were descriptive of, discomfort (e.g. pain, sick and health (i.e. healthy, fit, respectively. This inductive approach indicates that exercise readiness is comprised of four dimensions: vitality, physical fatigue, discomfort, and health. This finding supports readiness assessment techniques currently recommended for practitioners according to the FNLP model. These results serve as a theoretical foundation upon which to further develop and refine a brief survey instrument to measure exercise readiness.

  11. 48 CFR 2115.404-71 - Profit analysis factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... account in assigning a plus weight. (5) Cost control. This factor is based on the Contractor's previously... TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 2115.404-71 Profit analysis factors. (a) The OPM... receive a plus weight, and poor performance or failure to comply with contract terms and conditions a zero...

  12. Analysis on Family Factor in Construction of New Socialist Countryside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the family factor in the construction of new socialist countryside. It is believed that the family plays both the positive role and negative role in new socialist countryside construction. Based on this analysis,it puts forward corresponding countermeasures,including bringing into play the effect of family in promoting production and carrying forward excellent factors of family culture.

  13. Exploratory Tobit factor analysis for multivariate censored data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamakura, WA; Wedel, M

    2001-01-01

    We propose Multivariate Tobit models with a factor structure on the covariance matrix. Such models are particularly useful in the exploratory analysis of multivariate censored data and the identification of latent variables from behavioral data. The factor structure provides a parsimonious

  14. Connectivism in Postsecondary Online Courses: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Nanette; Lomicky, Carol S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores 465 postsecondary students' experiences in online classes through the lens of connectivism. Downes' 4 properties of connectivism (diversity, autonomy, interactivity, and openness) were used as the study design. An exploratory factor analysis was performed. This study found a 4-factor solution. Subjects indicated that autonomy…

  15. Normal science and its tools: Reviewing the effects of exploratory factor analysis in management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Rossoni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to investigate how different methods of extraction, factor definition, and rotation of exploratory factor analysis affect the fit of measurement scales. For this purpose, we undertook a meta-analysis of 23 studies. Our results indicate that the Principal Components method provides greater explained variance, while the Maximum Likelihood method increases reliability. Of the rotations methods, Varimax provides greater reliability while Quartimax provides lower correlation between factors. In conclusion, this study highlights implications for quantitative research and suggests potential new studies.

  16. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Career Factors Inventory on a Community College Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Merril A.; Tovar, Esau

    2004-01-01

    A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using AMOS 4.0 to validate the 21-item Career Factors Inventory on a community college student sample. The multidimensional inventory assesses types and levels of career indecision antecedents. The sample consisted of 512 ethnically diverse freshmen students; 46% were men and 54% were women.…

  17. Genomic analysis suggests that mRNA destabilization by the microprocessor is specialized for the auto-regulation of Dgcr8.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Shenoy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Microprocessor, containing the RNA binding protein Dgcr8 and RNase III enzyme Drosha, is responsible for processing primary microRNAs to precursor microRNAs. The Microprocessor regulates its own levels by cleaving hairpins in the 5'UTR and coding region of the Dgcr8 mRNA, thereby destabilizing the mature transcript. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine whether the Microprocessor has a broader role in directly regulating other coding mRNA levels, we integrated results from expression profiling and ultra high-throughput deep sequencing of small RNAs. Expression analysis of mRNAs in wild-type, Dgcr8 knockout, and Dicer knockout mouse embryonic stem (ES cells uncovered mRNAs that were specifically upregulated in the Dgcr8 null background. A number of these transcripts had evolutionarily conserved predicted hairpin targets for the Microprocessor. However, analysis of deep sequencing data of 18 to 200nt small RNAs in mouse ES, HeLa, and HepG2 indicates that exonic sequence reads that map in a pattern consistent with Microprocessor activity are unique to Dgcr8. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the Microprocessor's role in directly destabilizing coding mRNAs is likely specifically targeted to Dgcr8 itself, suggesting a specialized cellular mechanism for gene auto-regulation.

  18. Analysis of striatal transcriptome in mice overexpressing human wild-type alpha-synuclein supports synaptic dysfunction and suggests mechanisms of neuroprotection for striatal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabeza-Arvelaiz Yofre

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alpha synuclein (SNCA has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases (synucleinopathies that include Parkinson's disease (PD. Although the primary neurodegeneration in PD involves nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, more extensive yet regionally selective neurodegeneration is observed in other synucleinopathies. Furthermore, SNCA is ubiquitously expressed in neurons and numerous neuronal systems are dysfunctional in PD. Therefore it is of interest to understand how overexpression of SNCA affects neuronal function in regions not directly targeted for neurodegeneration in PD. Results The present study investigated the consequences of SNCA overexpression on cellular processes and functions in the striatum of mice overexpressing wild-type, human SNCA under the Thy1 promoter (Thy1-aSyn mice by transcriptome analysis. The analysis revealed alterations in multiple biological processes in the striatum of Thy1-aSyn mice, including synaptic plasticity, signaling, transcription, apoptosis, and neurogenesis. Conclusion The results support a key role for SNCA in synaptic function and revealed an apoptotic signature in Thy1-aSyn mice, which together with specific alterations of neuroprotective genes suggest the activation of adaptive compensatory mechanisms that may protect striatal neurons in conditions of neuronal overexpression of SNCA.

  19. A systematic computational analysis of the rRNA–3′ UTR sequence complementarity suggests a regulatory mechanism influencing post-termination events in metazoan translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pánek, Josef; Kolář, Michal; Herrmannová, Anna; Valášek, Leoš Shivaya

    2016-01-01

    Nucleic acid sequence complementarity underlies many fundamental biological processes. Although first noticed a long time ago, sequence complementarity between mRNAs and ribosomal RNAs still lacks a meaningful biological interpretation. Here we used statistical analysis of large-scale sequence data sets and high-throughput computing to explore complementarity between 18S and 28S rRNAs and mRNA 3′ UTR sequences. By the analysis of 27,646 full-length 3′ UTR sequences from 14 species covering both protozoans and metazoans, we show that the computed 18S rRNA complementarity creates an evolutionarily conserved localization pattern centered around the ribosomal mRNA entry channel, suggesting its biological relevance and functionality. Based on this specific pattern and earlier data showing that post-termination 80S ribosomes are not stably anchored at the stop codon and can migrate in both directions to codons that are cognate to the P-site deacylated tRNA, we propose that the 18S rRNA–mRNA complementarity selectively stabilizes post-termination ribosomal complexes to facilitate ribosome recycling. We thus demonstrate that the complementarity between 18S rRNA and 3′ UTRs has a non-random nature and very likely carries information with a regulatory potential for translational control. PMID:27190231

  20. A Genome-Wide SNP Linkage Analysis Suggests a Susceptibility Locus on 6p21 for Ankylosing Spondylitis and Inflammatory Back Pain Trait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanli; Liao, Zetao; Wei, Qiujing; Pan, Yunfeng; Wang, Xinwei; Cao, Shuangyan; Guo, Zishi; Wu, Yuqiong; Rong, Ju; Jin, Ou; Xu, Manlong; Gu, Jieruo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To screen susceptibility loci for ankylosing spondylitis (AS) using an affected-only linkage analysis based on high-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a genome-wide manner. Patients and Methods AS patients from ten families with Cantonese origin of China were enrolled in the study. Blood samples were genotyped using genomic DNA derived from peripheral blood leukocytes by Illumina HumanHap 610-Quad SNP Chip. Genotype data were generated using the Illumina BeadStudio 3.2 software. PLINK package was used to remove non-autosomal SNPs and to further eliminate markers of typing errors. An affected-only linkage analysis was carried out using both non-parametric and parametric linkage analyses, as implemented in MERLIN. Result Seventy-eight AS patients (48 males and 30 females, mean age: 39±16 years) were enrolled in the study. The mean age of onset was 23±10 years and mean duration of disease was 16.7±12.2 years. Iritis (2/76, 2.86%), dactylitis (5/78, 6.41%), hip joint involvement (9/78, 11.54%), peripheral arthritis (22/78, 28.21%), inflammatory back pain (IBP) (69/78, 88.46%) and HLA-B27 positivity (70/78, 89.74%) were observed in these patients. Using non-parameter linkage analysis, we found one susceptibility locus for AS, IBP and HLA-B27 in 6p21 respectively, spanning about 13.5Mb, 20.9Mb and 21.2Mb, respectively No significant results were found in the other clinical trait groups including dactylitis, hip involved and arthritis. The identical susceptibility locus region spanning above 9.44Mb was detected in AS IBP and HLA-B27 by the parametric linkage analysis. Conclusion Our genome-wide SNP linkage analysis in ten families with ankylosing spondylitis suggests a susceptibility locus on 6p21 in AS, which is a risk locus for IBP in AS patients. PMID:27973620

  1. Attitudes to Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PETER; JOHNSON

    2007-01-01

    As an Australian expat teaching English in China for over four years, I often encourage my students to not only learn the English language but also try to understand Western culture. This includes the fact that Westerners frequently initiate proactive suggestions on any aspects of soci-

  2. A Detailed Analysis of the BR1 Locus Suggests a New Mechanism for Bolting after Winter in Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tränkner, Conny; Lemnian, Ioana M; Emrani, Nazgol; Pfeiffer, Nina; Tiwari, Surya P; Kopisch-Obuch, Friedrich J; Vogt, Sebastian H; Müller, Andreas E; Schilhabel, Markus; Jung, Christian; Grosse, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) is a biennial, sucrose-storing plant, which is mainly cultivated as a spring crop and harvested in the vegetative stage before winter. For increasing beet yield, over-winter cultivation would be advantageous. However, bolting is induced after winter and drastically reduces yield. Thus, post-winter bolting control is essential for winter beet cultivation. To identify genetic factors controlling bolting after winter, a F2 population was previously developed by crossing the sugar beet accessions BETA 1773 with reduced bolting tendency and 93161P with complete bolting after winter. For a mapping-by-sequencing analysis, pools of 26 bolting-resistant and 297 bolting F2 plants were used. Thereby, a single continuous homozygous region of 103 kb was co-localized to the previously published BR1 QTL for post-winter bolting resistance (Pfeiffer et al., 2014). The BR1 locus was narrowed down to 11 candidate genes from which a homolog of the Arabidopsis CLEAVAGE AND POLYADENYLATION SPECIFICITY FACTOR 73-I (CPSF73-I) was identified as the most promising candidate. A 2 bp deletion within the BETA 1773 allele of BvCPSF73-Ia results in a truncated protein. However, the null allele of BvCPSF73-Ia might partially be compensated by a second BvCPSF73-Ib gene. This gene is located 954 bp upstream of BvCPSF73-Ia and could be responsible for the incomplete penetrance of the post-winter bolting resistance allele of BETA 1773. This result is an important milestone for breeding winter beets with complete bolting resistance after winter.

  3. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Oral Health Impact Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, M T; Feuerstahler, L; Waller, N; Baba, K; Larsson, P; Celebić, A; Kende, D; Rener-Sitar, K; Reissmann, D R

    2014-09-01

    Previous exploratory analyses suggest that the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) consists of four correlated dimensions and that individual differences in OHIP total scores reflect an underlying higher-order factor. The aim of this report is to corroborate these findings in the Dimensions of Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (DOQ) Project, an international study of general population subjects and prosthodontic patients. Using the project's Validation Sample (n = 5022), we conducted confirmatory factor analyses in a sample of 4993 subjects with sufficiently complete data. In particular, we compared the psychometric performance of three models: a unidimensional model, a four-factor model and a bifactor model that included one general factor and four group factors. Using model-fit criteria and factor interpretability as guides, the four-factor model was deemed best in terms of strong item loadings, model fit (RMSEA = 0·05, CFI = 0·99) and interpretability. These results corroborate our previous findings that four highly correlated factors - which we have named Oral Function, Oro-facial Pain, Oro-facial Appearance and Psychosocial Impact - can be reliably extracted from the OHIP item pool. However, the good fit of the unidimensional model and the high interfactor correlations in the four-factor solution suggest that OHRQoL can also be sufficiently described with one score.

  4. Factor Analysis of the DePaul Symptom Questionnaire: Identifying Core Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A; Sunnquist, Madison; Brown, Abigail; Furst, Jacob; Cid, Marjoe; Farietta, Jillianna; Kot, Bobby; Bloomer, Craig; Nicholson, Laura; Williams, Yolonda; Jantke, Rachel; Newton, Julia L; Strand, Elin Bolle

    2015-09-01

    The present study attempted to identify critical symptom domains of individuals with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Using patient and control samples collected in the United States, Great Britain, and Norway, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to establish the underlying factor structure of ME and CFS symptoms. The EFA suggested a four-factor solution: post-exertional malaise, cognitive dysfunction, sleep difficulties, and a combined factor consisting of neuroendocrine, autonomic, and immune dysfunction symptoms. The use of empirical methods could help better understand the fundamental symptom domains of this illness.

  5. Isolation and functional analysis of CONSTANS-LIKE genes suggests that a central role for CONSTANS in flowering time control is not evolutionarily conserved in Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert eWong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The zinc finger transcription factor CONSTANS has a well-established central role in the mechanism for photoperiod sensing in Arabidopsis, integrating light and circadian clock signals to upregulate the florigen gene FT under long-day but not short-day conditions. Although CONSTANS-like (COL genes in other species have also been shown to regulate flowering time, it is not clear how widely this central role in photoperiod sensing is conserved.Legumes are a major plant group and various legume species show significant natural variation for photoperiod responsive flowering. Orthologs of several Arabidopsis genes have been shown to participate in photoperiodic flowering in legumes, but the possible function of COL genes as integrators of the photoperiod response has not yet been examined in detail. Here we characterize the COL family in the temperate long-day legume Medicago truncatula, using expression analyses, reverse genetics, transient activation assays and Arabidopsis transformation. Our results provide several lines of evidence suggesting that COL genes are unlikely to have a central role in the photoperiod response mechanism in this species.

  6. Conditioning Analysis of Incomplete Cholesky Factorizations with Orthogonal Dropping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napov, Artem [Free Univ. of Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-08-01

    The analysis of preconditioners based on incomplete Cholesky factorization in which the neglected (dropped) components are orthogonal to the approximations being kept is presented. General estimate for the condition number of the preconditioned system is given which only depends on the accuracy of individual approximations. The estimate is further improved if, for instance, only the newly computed rows of the factor are modified during each approximation step. In this latter case it is further shown to be sharp. The analysis is illustrated with some existing factorizations in the context of discretized elliptic partial differential equations.

  7. Conditioning Analysis of Incomplete Cholesky Factorizations with Orthogonal Dropping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napov, Artem [Free Univ. of Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-08-01

    The analysis of preconditioners based on incomplete Cholesky factorization in which the neglected (dropped) components are orthogonal to the approximations being kept is presented. General estimate for the condition number of the preconditioned system is given which only depends on the accuracy of individual approximations. The estimate is further improved if, for instance, only the newly computed rows of the factor are modified during each approximation step. In this latter case it is further shown to be sharp. The analysis is illustrated with some existing factorizations in the context of discretized elliptic partial differential equations.

  8. Analysis of cultural development of Isfahan city Using Factor analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Mohammadi

    2013-01-01

    development of districtswas determined. These five factors all together specify 93.11 percent of variance. The first factor alone calculates and describes 53.12 percent and other factors 17.22, 11, 4.38 and 4.38 percent of variance respectively.4 – ConclusionBased on performed analyses, 35 selected indices of cultural development have been reduced to 5, via factor analysis model and the share of each factor in the development was determined. 5 created factors are able to calculate and describe 93.11 percent of variance. The first factor alone calculates 53.12 percent and the other factors calculate and describe 17.22, 11, 4.38, and 4.38 percent of variance, respectively. The results of this analysis declare that to develop cultural services for the districts, the first, third and the second factors are suggested as first priorities for developing Isfahan urban districts for much disprivileged, disprivileged, semi privileged, privileged and much privileged districts respectively. The fourth factor can be effective in second priority to increase semi privileged development level.The fifth factor can be effective in the third priority to increase the development level of disprivileged and muchdisprivileged districts.5 – SuggestionsSince the aim of such studies is to identify the status quo in terms of cultural development factors, plentiful and various proceedings are needed to correctly and precisely plan for districts in order to reach social justices and remove disprivileged situation from different districts. So, in order to be responsive to the increasing cultural needs of Isfahan urban districts, people's contribution and participation and agencies cooperation and the most important of all private sectors help interested in investment are needed. Also, the development and improvement of information technology in the pattern of reinforcing and developing institutions, structural amendments in rules and laws and making benefit of new achievements in providing cultural

  9. Suggestions for Teaching Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Na-na

    2013-01-01

    Teacher development and teaching practice(TP) have caught the eyes of researchers at home and abroad for many years. Many western scholars hold that reflective teaching is an efficient way to promote teacher development, but traditional TP is prevailing in China. Based on the merits and demerits of traditional TP and reflective TP, the author hopes to provide some suggestions for the people involved to promote the development of teacher education.

  10. Analysis on total factor productivity of Chinese provincial economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Qingwang; ZHAO Zhiyun; JIA Junxue

    2006-01-01

    This paper applies the nonparametric DEA-Malmquist index approach to estimate total factor productivity growth,efficiency change and the rate of technological progress from 1979 to 2003.This is done to conduct analysis on the total factor productivity of China's provincial economy.Analysis on the evolution of distribution dynamics of relative labor productivity,relative total factor productivity,relative efficiency and relative technological progress is done by using kernel density estimation flor the period from 1979 to 2003 in 29 provinces of China.Our analysis indicates that disparities of provincial economic growth are large and have been increasing owing to the relatively large and increasing disparities of total factor productivity growth especially the rate of technological progress.

  11. Analysis of related risk factors for pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Song Yu; He-Chao Huang; Feng Ding; Xin-Bo Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the related risk factors for pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy to provide a theoretical evidence for effectively preventing the occurrence of pancreatic fistula.Methods:A total of 100 patients who were admitted in our hospital from January, 2012 to January, 2015 and had performed pancreaticoduodenectomy were included in the study. The related risk factors for developing pancreatic fistula were collected for single factor and Logistic multi-factor analysis.Results:Among the included patients, 16 had pancreatic fistula, and the total occurrence rate was 16% (16/100). The single-factor analysis showed that the upper abdominal operation history, preoperative bilirubin, pancreatic texture, pancreatic duct diameter, intraoperative amount of bleeding, postoperative hemoglobin, and application of somatostatin after operation were the risk factors for developing pancreatic fistula (P<0.05). The multi-factor analysis showed that the upper abdominal operation history, the soft pancreatic texture, small pancreatic duct diameter, and low postoperative hemoglobin were the dependent risk factors for developing pancreatic fistula (OR=4.162, 6.104, 5.613, 4.034,P<0.05).Conclusions:The occurrence of pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy is closely associated with the upper abdominal operation history, the soft pancreatic texture, small pancreatic duct diameter, and low postoperative hemoglobin; therefore, effective measures should be taken to reduce the occurrence of pancreatic fistula according to the patients’own conditions.

  12. Environmental Performance in Countries Worldwide: Determinant Factors and Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Gallego-Alvarez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the environmental performance of countries and the variables that can influence it. At the same time, we performed a multivariate analysis using the HJ-biplot, an exploratory method that looks for hidden patterns in the data, obtained from the usual singular value decomposition (SVD of the data matrix, to contextualize the countries grouped by geographical areas and the variables relating to environmental indicators included in the environmental performance index. The sample used comprises 149 countries of different geographic areas. The findings obtained from the empirical analysis emphasize that socioeconomic factors, such as economic wealth and education, as well as institutional factors represented by the style of public administration, in particular control of corruption, are determinant factors of environmental performance in the countries analyzed. In contrast, no effect on environmental performance was found for factors relating to the internal characteristics of a country or political factors.

  13. Determining Dimensionality of Exercise Readiness Using Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohacker, Kelley; Zakrajsek, Rebecca A

    2016-06-01

    Assessment of "exercise readiness" is a central component to the flexible non-linear periodization (FNLP) method of organizing training workloads, but the underlying factor structure of this construct has not been empirically determined. The purpose of this study was to assess construct dimensionality of exercise readiness using exploratory factor analysis. The result of which serve as initial steps of developing a brief measure of exercise readiness. Participants consisted of students recruited from undergraduate Kinesiology courses at a racially diverse, southern University. Independent, anonymous online survey data were collected across three stages: 1) generation of item pool (n = 290), 2) assessment of face validity and refinement of item pool (n = 168), and 3) exploratory factor analysis (n = 684). A principal axis factor analysis was conducted with 41 items using oblique rotation (promax). Four statistically significant factors, as determined through parallel analysis, explained 61.5% of the variance in exercise readiness. Factor 1 contained items that represented vitality (e.g., lively, revived). Factor 2 items related to physical fatigue (e.g. tired, drained). Factors 3 and 4 were descriptive of, discomfort (e.g. pain, sick) and health (i.e. healthy, fit), respectively. This inductive approach indicates that exercise readiness is comprised of four dimensions: vitality, physical fatigue, discomfort, and health. This finding supports readiness assessment techniques currently recommended for practitioners according to the FNLP model. These results serve as a theoretical foundation upon which to further develop and refine a brief survey instrument to measure exercise readiness. Key pointsAssessment of exercise readiness is a key component in implementing an exercise program based on flexible nonlinear periodization, but the dimensionality of this concept has not been empirically determined.Based on a series of surveys and a robust exploratory factor analysis

  14. Analysis of problems during molybdenum resources development in China and suggestions%中国钼矿资源开发问题分析及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫兴虎

    2013-01-01

    针对中国钼矿资源开发所存在的地质勘查过度投入、产能盲目扩涨、采选产品附加值低、产品市场恶性竞争、企业抗风险能力较弱、矿山安全环境问题突出等问题,提出坚持中国钼采选业的可持续发展政策的建议,包括:健全钼矿资源可供性分析,实行钼矿资源勘查差别化政策;提高钼行业准入条件,严格生产配额管理;出台兼并重组政策,提高行业集中度;鼓励技术创新,提高产品附加值;坚持开发与环境保护协调发展。%Aiming at the problems during molybdenum resources development ,such as excessive investment in geological exploration ,blind expansion of production capacity ,mining products with low added value ,vicious competition in product markets ,enterprise weak anti-risk capability ,mine safety and environment problems etc .,corresponding suggestions were put out ,which promote sustainable development policy of molybdenum mining industry in China .The suggestions include improve the analysis of availability of molybdenum resources ,implement differentiated policies in molybdenum exploration ,increase access conditions and implement quota management in molybdenum industry ,increase the industry concentration , encourage technological innovation to increase additional products value ,and geological exploration and environment protection develop coordinately .

  15. DNA sequence analysis suggests that cytb-nd1 PCR-RFLP may not be applicable to sandfly species identification throughout the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanes-Acevedo, Ivonne Pamela; Arcones, Carolina; Gálvez, Rosa; Martin, Oihane; Checa, Rocío; Montoya, Ana; Chicharro, Carmen; Cruz, Susana; Miró, Guadalupe; Cruz, Israel

    2016-03-01

    Molecular methods are increasingly used for both species identification of sandflies and assessment of their population structure. In general, they are based on DNA sequence analysis of targets previously amplified by PCR. However, this approach requires access to DNA sequence facilities, and in some circumstances, it is time-consuming. Though DNA sequencing provides the most reliable information, other downstream PCR applications are explored to assist in species identification. Thus, it has been recently proposed that the amplification of a DNA region encompassing partially both the cytochrome-B (cytb) and the NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nd1) genes followed by RFLP analysis with the restriction enzyme Ase I allows the rapid identification of the most prevalent species of phlebotomine sandflies in the Mediterranean region. In order to confirm the suitability of this method, we collected, processed, and molecularly analyzed a total of 155 sandflies belonging to four species including Phlebotomus ariasi, P. papatasi, P. perniciosus, and Sergentomyia minuta from different regions in Spain. This data set was completed with DNA sequences available at the GenBank for species prevalent in the Mediterranean basin and the Middle East. Additionally, DNA sequences from 13 different phlebotomine species (P. ariasi, P. balcanicus, P. caucasicus, P. chabaudi, P. chadlii, P. longicuspis, P. neglectus, P. papatasi, P. perfiliewi, P. perniciosus, P. riouxi, P. sergenti, and S. minuta), from 19 countries, were added to the data set. Overall, our molecular data revealed that this PCR-RFLP method does not provide a unique and specific profile for each phlebotomine species tested. Intraspecific variability and similar RFLP patterns were frequently observed among the species tested. Our data suggest that this method may not be applicable throughout the Mediterranean region as previously proposed. Other molecular approaches like DNA barcoding or phylogenetic analyses would allow a more

  16. ANALYSIS OF RISK FACTORS IN 3901 PATIENTS WITH STROKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Feng Liu; Guy van Melle; Julien Bogousslavsky

    2005-01-01

    Objective To estimate the frequency of various risk factors for overall stroke and to identify risk factors for cerebral infarction (CI) versus intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in a large hospital-based stroke registry.Methods Data from a total of 3901 patients, consisting of 3525 patients with CI and 376 patients with ICH were prospectively coded and entered into a computerized data bank.Results Hypertension and smoking were the most prominent factors affecting overall stroke followed by mild internal carotid artery stenosis (< 50%), hypercholesterolemia, transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), diabetes mellitus, and cardiac ischemia. Univariate analysis showed that factors in male significantly associated with CI versus ICH were old age, a family history of stroke, and intermittent claudication; whereas in female the factors were oral contraception and migraine. By multivariate analysis, in all patients, the factors significantly associated with CI as opposed to ICH were smoking, hypercholesterolemia, migraine, TIAs, atrial fibrillation, structural heart disease, and arterial disease. Hypertension was the only significant factor related with ICH versus CI.Conclusions The factors for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke are not exactly the same. Cardiac and arterial disease are the most powerful factors associated with CI rather than ICH.

  17. Analysis of effect factors-based stochastic network planning model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Looking at all the indeterminate factors as a whole and regarding activity durations as independent random variables,the traditional stochastic network planning models ignore the inevitable relationship and dependence among activity durations when more than one activity is possibly affected by the same indeterminate factors.On this basis of analysis of indeterminate effect factors of durations,the effect factors-based stochastic network planning (EFBSNP) model is proposed,which emphasizes on the effects of not only logistic and organizational relationships,but also the dependent relationships,due to indeterminate factors among activity durations on the project period.By virtue of indeterminate factor analysis the model extracts and describes the quantitatively indeterminate effect factors,and then takes into account the indeterminate factors effect schedule by using the Monte Carlo simulation technique.The method is flexible enough to deal with effect factors and is coincident with practice.A software has been developed to simplify the model-based calculation,in VisualStudio.NET language.Finally,a case study is included to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model and comparison is made with some advantages over the existing models.

  18. Comprehensive Behavioral Analysis of Activating Transcription Factor 5-Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Mariko; Ogura, Tae; Matsuzaki, Ayako; Nakano, Haruo; Takao, Keizo; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Yuji

    2017-01-01

    Activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) is a member of the CREB/ATF family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors. We previously reported that ATF5-deficient (ATF5(-/-)) mice demonstrated abnormal olfactory bulb development due to impaired interneuron supply. Furthermore, ATF5(-/-) mice were less aggressive than ATF5(+/+) mice. Although ATF5 is widely expressed in the brain, and involved in the regulation of proliferation and development of neurons, the physiological role of ATF5 in the higher brain remains unknown. Our objective was to investigate the physiological role of ATF5 in the higher brain. We performed a comprehensive behavioral analysis using ATF5(-/-) mice and wild type littermates. ATF5(-/-) mice exhibited abnormal locomotor activity in the open field test. They also exhibited abnormal anxiety-like behavior in the light/dark transition test and open field test. Furthermore, ATF5(-/-) mice displayed reduced social interaction in the Crawley's social interaction test and increased pain sensitivity in the hot plate test compared with wild type. Finally, behavioral flexibility was reduced in the T-maze test in ATF5(-/-) mice compared with wild type. In addition, we demonstrated that ATF5(-/-) mice display disturbances of monoamine neurotransmitter levels in several brain regions. These results indicate that ATF5 deficiency elicits abnormal behaviors and the disturbance of monoamine neurotransmitter levels in the brain. The behavioral abnormalities of ATF5(-/-) mice may be due to the disturbance of monoamine levels. Taken together, these findings suggest that ATF5(-/-) mice may be a unique animal model of some psychiatric disorders.

  19. Haplotype analysis suggest common founders in carriers of the recurrent BRCA2 mutation, 3398delAAAAG, in French Canadian hereditary breast and/ovarian cancer families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foulkes William D

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 3398delAAAAG mutation in BRCA2 was recently found to recur in breast and/or ovarian cancer families from the French Canadian population of Quebec, a population that has genetic attributes consistent with a founder effect. To characterize the contribution of this mutation in this population, this study established the frequency of this mutation in breast and ovarian cancer cases unselected for family history of cancer, and determined if mutation carriers shared a common ancestry. Methods The frequency was estimated by assaying the mutation in series of French Canadian breast cancer cases diagnosed before age 41 (n = 60 or 80 (n = 127 years of age, and ovarian cancer cases (n = 80 unselected for family history of cancer by mutation analysis. Haplotype analysis was performed to determine if mutation carriers shared a common ancestry. Members from 11 families were analyzed using six polymorphic microsatellite markers (cen-D13S260-D13S1699-D13S1698-D13S1697-D13S1701-D13S171-tel spanning approximately a 3.6 cM interval at the chromosomal region 13q13.1, which contains BRCA2. Allele frequencies were estimated by genotyping 47 unaffected female individuals derived from the same population. Haplotype reconstruction of unaffected individuals was performed using the program PHASE. Results The recurrent BRCA2 mutation occurred in 1 of 60 (1.7% women diagnosed with breast cancer before 41 years of age and one of 80 (1.3% women with ovarian cancer. No mutation carriers were identified in the series of breast cancer cases diagnosed before age 80. Mutation carriers harboured one of two haplotypes, 7-3-9-3 – [3/4]-7, that varied with marker D13S1701 and which occurred at a frequency of 0.001. The genetic analysis of D13S1695, a polymorphic marker located approximately 0.3 cM distal to D13S171, did not favour a genetic recombination event to account for the differences in D13S1701 alleles within the haplotype. Although mutation carriers

  20. FISH and array-CGH analysis of a complex chromosome 3 aberration suggests that loss of CNTN4 and CRBN contributes to mental retardation in 3pter deletions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkhuizen, Trijnie; van Essen, Ton; van der Vlies, Pieter; Verheij, Joke B G M; Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; van der Veen, Anneke Y; Gerssen-Schoorl, Klasien B J; Buys, Charles H C M; Kok, Klaas

    2006-11-15

    Imbalances of 3p telomeric sequences cause 3p- and trisomy 3p syndrome, respectively, showing distinct, but also shared clinical features. No causative genes have been identified in trisomy 3p patients, but for the 3p- syndrome, there is growing evidence that monosomy for one or more of four genes at 3pter, CHL1, CNTN4, CRBN, and MEGAP/srGAP3, may play a causative role. We describe here an analysis of a complex chromosome 3p aberration in a severely mentally retarded patient that revealed two adjacent segments with different copy number gains and a distal deletion. The deletion in this patient included the loci for CHL1, CNTN4, and CRBN, and narrowed the critical segment associated with the 3p- syndrome to 1.5 Mb, including the loci for CNTN4 and CRBN. We speculate that the deletion contributes more to this patient's phenotype than the gains that were observed. We suggest that 3p- syndrome associated features are primarily caused by loss of CNTN4 and CRBN, with loss of CHL1 probably having an additional detrimental effect on the cognitive functioning of the present patient.

  1. Analysis of multi-domain hypothetical proteins containing iron-sulphur clusters and fad ligands reveal rieske dioxygenase activity suggesting their plausible roles in bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanarayanan, Nitish; Nagendra, Holenarasipur Gundurao

    2012-01-01

    'Conserved hypothetical' proteins pose a challenge not just for functional genomics, but also to biology in general. As long as there are hundreds of conserved proteins with unknown function in model organisms such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis or Saccharomyces cerevisiae, any discussion towards a 'complete' understanding of these biological systems will remain a wishful thinking. Insilico approaches exhibit great promise towards attempts that enable appreciating the plausible roles of these hypothetical proteins. Among the majority of genomic proteins, two-thirds in unicellular organisms and more than 80% in metazoa, are multi-domain proteins, created as a result of gene duplication events. Aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases, also called Rieske dioxygenases (RDOs), are class of multi-domain proteins that catalyze the initial step in microbial aerobic degradation of many aromatic compounds. Investigations here address the computational characterization of hypothetical proteins containing Ferredoxin and Flavodoxin signatures. Consensus sequence of each class of oxidoreductase was obtained by a phylogenetic analysis, involving clustering methods based on evolutionary relationship. A synthetic sequence was developed by combining the consensus, which was used as the basis to search for their homologs via BLAST. The exercise yielded 129 multidomain hypothetical proteins containing both 2Fe-2S (Ferredoxin) and FNR (Flavodoxin) domains. In the current study, 40 proteins with N-terminus 2Fe-2S domain and C-terminus FNR domain are characterized, through homology modelling and docking exercises which suggest dioxygenase activity indicating their plausible roles in degradation of aromatic moieties.

  2. 浅谈影响忻州市粮食发展的主要因素与建议%Introduction of the main factors affecting the development of grain In Xinzhou city and the suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾眉中

    2013-01-01

    Main factors influenced the grain development in Xinzou city consisted of both natural factors and social factors. Natural factors included declined cultivated acreage, severe soil erosion, low soil fertility, soil diversity, and low resistance against natural surroundings. Social factors included rising prices of agricultural production materi-als, high grain production cost, and low profits.By analyzing these factors, suggestions improving present grain de-velopment in Xinzhou city were put forward.%影响忻州市粮食发展的主要因素包括耕地面积锐减、水土流失严重、土壤肥力不足、土质多样、抵抗防御自然能力差等自然因素及涉农生产资料不断上涨、粮食生产成本高、收益低等社会因素。通过对影响因素的分析,提出改善忻州市粮食发展现状的建议。

  3. Identification of noise in linear data sets by factor analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscoe, B.A.; Hopke, P.K.

    1981-01-01

    The approach to classical factor analysis described in this paper, i.e. doing the analysis for varying numbers of factors without prior assumptions to the number of factors, prevents one from getting eroneous results by inherent computer code assumptions. Identification of a factor containing most of the variance of one variable with little variance of other variables, pinpoints a possible difficulty in the data, if the singularity has no obvious physical significance. Examination of the factor scores will determine whether the problem is isolated to a few samples or over all the samples. Having this information, one may then go back to the raw data and take the appropriate corrective action. Classical factor analysis has the ability to identify several types of errors in data after it has been generated. It is then ideally suited for scanning large data sets. The ease of the identification technique makes it a beneficial tool to use before reduction and analysis of large data sets and should, in the long run, save time and effort.

  4. MULTIVARIATE STEPWISE LOGISTIC REGRESSION ANALYSIS ON RISK FACTORS OF VENTILATOR-ASSOCIATED PNEUMONIA IN COMPREHENSIVE ICU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管军; 杨兴易; 赵良; 林兆奋; 郭昌星; 李文放

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence, crude mortality and independent risk factors of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in comprehensive ICU in China.Methods The clinical and microbiological data were retrospectively collected and analysed of all the 97 patients receiving mechanical ventilation (>48hr) in our comprehensive ICU during 1999. 1 - 2000. 12. Firstly several statistically significant risk factors were screened out with univariate analysis, then independent risk factors were determined with multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis.Results The incidence of VAP was 54. 64% (15. 60 cases per 1000 ventilation days), the crude mortality 47.42% . Interval between the establishment of artificial airway and diagnosis of VAP was 6.9 ± 4.3 d. Univariate analysis suggested that indwelling naso-gastric tube, corticosteroid, acid inhibitor, third-generation cephalosporin/ imipenem, non - infection lung disease, and extrapulmonary infection were the statistically significant risk factors of

  5. Biological risk factors for suicidal behaviors: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, B P; Franklin, J C; Ribeiro, J D; Fox, K R; Bentley, K H; Kleiman, E M; Nock, M K

    2016-09-13

    Prior studies have proposed a wide range of potential biological risk factors for future suicidal behaviors. Although strong evidence exists for biological correlates of suicidal behaviors, it remains unclear if these correlates are also risk factors for suicidal behaviors. We performed a meta-analysis to integrate the existing literature on biological risk factors for suicidal behaviors and to determine their statistical significance. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, PsycInfo and Google Scholar for studies that used a biological factor to predict either suicide attempt or death by suicide. Inclusion criteria included studies with at least one longitudinal analysis using a biological factor to predict either of these outcomes in any population through 2015. From an initial screen of 2541 studies we identified 94 cases. Random effects models were used for both meta-analyses and meta-regression. The combined effect of biological factors produced statistically significant but relatively weak prediction of suicide attempts (weighted mean odds ratio (wOR)=1.41; CI: 1.09-1.81) and suicide death (wOR=1.28; CI: 1.13-1.45). After accounting for publication bias, prediction was nonsignificant for both suicide attempts and suicide death. Only two factors remained significant after accounting for publication bias-cytokines (wOR=2.87; CI: 1.40-5.93) and low levels of fish oil nutrients (wOR=1.09; CI: 1.01-1.19). Our meta-analysis revealed that currently known biological factors are weak predictors of future suicidal behaviors. This conclusion should be interpreted within the context of the limitations of the existing literature, including long follow-up intervals and a lack of tests of interactions with other risk factors. Future studies addressing these limitations may more effectively test for potential biological risk factors.

  6. Retinopathy risk factors in type II diabetic patients using factor analysis and discriminant analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tazhibi, Mahdi; Sarrafzade, Sheida; Amini, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world. Incidence and prevalence of diabetes are increasing in developing countries as well as in Iran. Retinopathy is the most common chronic disorder in diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: In this study, we used the information of diabetic patients’ reports that refer to endocrine and metabolism research center of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences to determine diabetic retinopathy risk factors. We used factor...

  7. Identification of noise in linear data sets by factor analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscoe, B.A.; Hopke, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    With the use of atomic and nuclear methods to analyze samples for a multitude of elements, very large data sets have been generated. Due to the ease of obtaining these results with computerized systems, the elemental data acquired are not always as thoroughly checked as they should be leading to some, if not many, bad data points. It is advantageous to have some feeling for the trouble spots in a data set before it is used for further studies. A technique which has the ability to identify bad data points, after the data has been generated, is classical factor analysis. The ability of classical factor analysis to identify two different types of data errors make it ideally suited for scanning large data sets. Since the results yielded by factor analysis indicate correlations between parameters, one must know something about the nature of the data set and the analytical techniques used to obtain it to confidentially isolate errors.

  8. Psychometric properties of the AHRQ Community Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture: a factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboneh, Ephrem A; Look, Kevin A; Stone, Jamie A; Lester, Corey A; Chui, Michelle A

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) developed a hospital patient safety culture survey in 2004 and has adapted this survey to other healthcare settings, such as nursing homes and medical offices, and most recently, community pharmacies. However, it is unknown whether safety culture dimensions developed for hospitals can be transferred to community pharmacies. The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Community Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture. The survey was administered to 543 community pharmacists in Wisconsin, USA. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the fit of our data with the proposed AHRQ model. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the underlying factor structure. Internal consistency reliabilities were calculated. A total of 433 usable surveys were returned (response rate 80%). Results from the confirmatory factor analysis showed inadequate model fit for the original 36 item, 11-factor structure. Exploratory factor analysis showed that a modified 27-item, four-factor structure better reflected the underlying safety culture dimensions in community pharmacies. The communication openness factor, with three items, dropped in its entirety while six items dropped from multiple factors. The remaining 27 items redistributed to form the four-factor structure: safety-related communication, staff training and work environment, organisational response to safety events, and staffing, work pressure and pace. Cronbach's α of 0.95 suggested good internal consistency. Our findings suggest that validation studies need to be conducted before applying safety dimensions from other healthcare settings into community pharmacies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. The application of Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to eco-efficiency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiaying; Wu, Zhijun; Holländer, Robert

    2012-05-15

    A new method for weighting and aggregating eco-efficiency indicators is of the utmost importance, if researchers in the field are to provide simplified and physically meaningful information to policy makers. To date, there is still considerable debate over which weighting and aggregating methods to use in this context. We apply a new variant of factor analysis, Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), to a simple eco-efficiency analysis case study. PMF constrains its solutions to be non-negative, providing two important advantages over traditional factor analysis (FA) or principal component analysis (PCA): the rotational ambiguity of the solution space is reduced, and all the results are guaranteed to be physically meaningful. We suggest that PMF is better choice than either FA or PCA for eco-efficiency indicators, especially when dealing with complex social-economic and environmental data.

  10. Comparative analysis of the mosaic genomes of tailed archaeal viruses and proviruses suggests common themes for virion architecture and assembly with tailed viruses of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupovic, Mart; Forterre, Patrick; Bamford, Dennis H

    2010-03-19

    Tailed double-stranded DNA viruses (order Caudovirales) represent the dominant morphotype among viruses infecting bacteria. Analysis and comparison of complete genome sequences of tailed bacterial viruses provided insights into their origin and evolution. Structural and genomic studies have unexpectedly revealed that tailed bacterial viruses are evolutionarily related to eukaryotic herpesviruses. Organisms from the third domain of life, Archaea, are also infected by viruses that, in their overall morphology, resemble tailed viruses of bacteria. However, high-resolution structural information is currently unavailable for any of these viruses, and only a few complete genomes have been sequenced so far. Here we identified nine proviruses that are clearly related to tailed bacterial viruses and integrated into chromosomes of species belonging to four different taxonomic orders of the Archaea. This more than doubled the number of genome sequences available for comparative studies. Our analyses indicate that highly mosaic tailed archaeal virus genomes evolve by homologous and illegitimate recombination with genomes of other viruses, by diversification, and by acquisition of cellular genes. Comparative genomics of these viruses and related proviruses revealed a set of conserved genes encoding putative proteins similar to virion assembly and maturation, as well as genome packaging proteins of tailed bacterial viruses and herpesviruses. Furthermore, fold prediction and structural modeling experiments suggest that the major capsid proteins of tailed archaeal viruses adopt the same topology as the corresponding proteins of tailed bacterial viruses and eukaryotic herpesviruses. Data presented in this study strongly support the hypothesis that tailed viruses infecting archaea share a common ancestry with tailed bacterial viruses and herpesviruses.

  11. Biochemical Analysis of Pathogenic Ligand-Dependent FGFR2 Mutations Suggests Distinct Pathophysiological Mechanisms for Craniofacial and Limb Abnormalities in Human Skeletal Disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahimi,O.; Zhang, F.; Eliseenkova, A.; Itoh, N.; Linhardt, R.; Mohammadi, M.

    2004-01-01

    Gain-of-function missense mutations in FGF receptor 2 (FGFR2) are responsible for a variety of craniosynostosis syndromes including Apert syndrome (AS), Pfeiffer syndrome (PS) and Crouzon syndrome (CS). Unlike the majority of FGFR2 mutations, S252W and P253R AS mutations and a D321A PS mutation retain ligand-dependency and are also associated with severe limb pathology. In addition, a recently identified ligand-dependent S252L/A315S double mutation in FGFR2 was shown to cause syndactyly in the absence of craniosynostosis. Here, we analyze the effect of the canonical AS mutations, the D321A PS mutation and the S252L/A315S double mutation on FGFR2 ligand binding affinity and specificity using surface plasmon resonance. Both AS mutations and the D321A PS mutation, but not the S252L/A315S double mutation, increase the binding affinity of FGFR2c to multiple FGFs expressed in the cranial suture. Additionally, all four pathogenic mutations also violate FGFR2c ligand binding specificity and enable this receptor to bind FGF10. Based on our data, we propose that an increase in mutant FGFR2c binding to multiple FGFs results in craniosynostosis, whereas binding of mutant FGFR2c to FGF10 results in severe limb pathology. Structural and biophysical analysis shows that AS mutations in FGFR2b also enhance and violate FGFR2b ligand binding affinity and specificity, respectively. We suggest that elevated AS mutant FGFR2b signaling may account for the dermatological manifestations of AS.

  12. Crystal structure of Pyrococcus horikoshii tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase and structure-based phylogenetic analysis suggest an archaeal origin of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xianchi; Zhou, Minyun; Zhong, Chen; Yang, Bei; Shen, Ning; Ding, Jianping

    2010-03-01

    The ancient and ubiquitous aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases constitute a valuable model system for studying early evolutionary events. So far, the evolutionary relationship of tryptophanyl- and tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS and TyrRS) remains controversial. As TrpRS and TyrRS share low sequence homology but high structural similarity, a structure-based method would be advantageous for phylogenetic analysis of the enzymes. Here, we present the first crystal structure of an archaeal TrpRS, the structure of Pyrococcus horikoshii TrpRS (pTrpRS) in complex with tryptophanyl-5' AMP (TrpAMP) at 3.0 A resolution which demonstrates more similarities to its eukaryotic counterparts. With the pTrpRS structure, we perform a more complete structure-based phylogenetic study of TrpRS and TyrRS, which for the first time includes representatives from all three domains of life. Individually, each enzyme shows a similar evolutionary profile as observed in the sequence-based phylogenetic studies. However, TyrRSs from Archaea/Eucarya cluster with TrpRSs rather than their bacterial counterparts, and the root of TrpRS locates in the archaeal branch of TyrRS, indicating the archaeal origin of TrpRS. Moreover, the short distance between TrpRS and archaeal TyrRS and that between bacterial and archaeal TrpRS, together with the wide distribution of TrpRS, suggest that the emergence of TrpRS and subsequent acquisition by Bacteria occurred at early stages of evolution.

  13. Comparative analysis of protocadherin-11 X-linked expression among postnatal rodents, non-human primates, and songbirds suggests its possible involvement in brain evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Matsunaga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protocadherin-11 is a cell adhesion molecule of the cadherin superfamily. Since, only in humans, its paralog is found on the Y chromosome, it is expected that protocadherin-11X/Y plays some role in human brain evolution or sex differences. Recently, a genetic mutation of protocadherin-11X/Y was reported to be associated with a language development disorder. Here, we compared the expression of protocadherin-11 X-linked in developing postnatal brains of mouse (rodent and common marmoset (non-human primate to explore its possible involvement in mammalian brain evolution. We also investigated its expression in the Bengalese finch (songbird to explore a possible function in animal vocalization and human language faculties. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Protocadherin-11 X-linked was strongly expressed in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, amygdala and brainstem. Comparative analysis between mice and marmosets revealed that in certain areas of marmoset brain, the expression was clearly enriched. In Bengalese finches, protocadherin-11 X-linked was expressed not only in nuclei of regions of the vocal production pathway and the tracheosyringeal hypoglossal nucleus, but also in areas homologous to the mammalian amygdala and hippocampus. In both marmosets and Bengalese finches, its expression in pallial vocal control areas was developmentally regulated, and no clear expression was seen in the dorsal striatum, indicating a similarity between songbirds and non-human primates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that the enriched expression of protocadherin-11 X-linked is involved in primate brain evolution and that some similarity exists between songbirds and primates regarding the neural basis for vocalization.

  14. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of interferon beta-1b as treatment for patients with clinically isolated syndrome suggestive of multiple sclerosis in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñol, C

    2016-05-01

    The BENEFIT study has demonstrated the benefits of early treatment with interferon beta 1b (IFNβ-1b). The objective of this study was to estimate the efficiency of early vs delayed IFNβ-1b treatment in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Spain. A Markov model reflecting the social perspective was developed with time horizons ranging from 2 years to lifetime. A cohort of 1000 patients with CIS, whose health status had been measured on the Expanded Disability Symptom Scale (EDSS), included patients who received early IFNβ-1b treatment and those who did not. Data from the BENEFIT study were used to model EDSS progression and transitions to MS. Costs were estimated from published literature. Patient utilities were derived from EQ-5D data and published data. Mortality was estimated using life tables and EDSS data. Costs (€ at 2013 rates) and outcomes were discounted at 3% per annum. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed. In the base case, both the incremental cost utility ratio (ICUR) and the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of IFNβ-1b versus no treatment were dominant (more effective and less costly) from a social perspective. From the perspective of the Spanish Health System, the ICUR was € 40,702/QALY and the ICER was € 13/relapse avoided. Early treatment with IFNβ-1b after a CIS versus delayed treatment is efficient from a social perspective, but it may not be efficient from the perspective of the NHS which does not take non health-related costs into account. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors Associated with Sexual Behavior among Adolescents: A Multivariate Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, S. Marie; Spigner, Clarence

    1995-01-01

    A self-administered survey examining multiple factors associated with engaging in sexual intercourse was completed by 1,026 high school students in a classroom setting. Findings suggest that effective interventions to address teenage pregnancy need to utilize a multifaceted approach to the prevention of high-risk behaviors. (JPS)

  16. INFLUENCE FACTOR ANALYSIS OF CHINESE STUDENTS' LERANING STYLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周平

    2009-01-01

    Learning style, aiming at language learner, is a hot issue of second language acquisition. The article first reviews the various definitions of learning style. From the perspective of cognition, three influence factors of Chinese students' learning styles are analyzed. Suggestions are proposed for teachers to help students develop learning styles.

  17. Emotional experiences and motivating factors associated with fingerprint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, David; Fraser-Mackenzie, Peter A F; Dror, Itiel E

    2010-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the emotional and motivational factors involved in fingerprint analysis in day-to-day routine case work and in significant and harrowing criminal investigations. Thematic analysis was performed on interviews with 13 experienced fingerprint examiners from a variety of law enforcement agencies. The data revealed factors relating to job satisfaction and the use of skill. Individual satisfaction related to catching criminals was observed; this was most notable in solving high profile, serious, or long-running cases. There were positive emotional effects associated with matching fingerprints and apparent fear of making errors. Finally, we found evidence for a need of cognitive closure in fingerprint examiner decision-making.

  18. Unascertained Factor Method of Dynamic Characteristic Analysis for Antenna Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zeng-qing; LIANG Zhen-tao; CHEN Jian-jun

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic characteristic analysis model of antenna structures is built, in which the structural physical parameters and geometrical dimensions are all considered as unascertained variables, And a structure dynamic characteristic analysis method based on the unascertained factor method is given. The computational expression of structural characteristic is developed by the mathematics expression of unascertained factor and the principles of unascertained rational numbers arithmetic. An example is given, in which the possible values and confidence degrees of the unascertained structure characteristics are obtained. The calculated results show that the method is feasible and effective.

  19. Using Factor Analysis to Identify Topic Preferences Within MBA Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earl Chrysler

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the role of a principal components factor analysis in conducting a gap analysis as to the desired characteristics of business alumni. Typically, gap analyses merely compare the emphases that should be given to areas of inquiry with perceptions of actual emphases. As a result, the focus is upon depth of coverage. A neglected area in need of investigation is the breadth of topic dimensions and their differences between the normative (should offer and the descriptive (actually offer. The implications of factor structures, as well as traditional gap analyses, are developed and discussed in the context of outcomes assessment.

  20. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Procrastination Assessment Scale for Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald D. Yockey

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The relative fit of one- and two-factor models of the Procrastination Assessment Scale for Students (PASS was investigated using confirmatory factor analysis on an ethnically diverse sample of 345 participants. The results indicated that although the two-factor model provided better fit to the data than the one-factor model, neither model provided optimal fit. However, a two-factor model which accounted for common item theme pairs used by Solomon and Rothblum in the creation of the scale provided good fit to the data. In addition, a significant difference by ethnicity was also found on the fear of failure subscale of the PASS, with Whites having significantly lower scores than Asian Americans or Latino/as. Implications of the results are discussed and recommendations made for future work with the scale.

  1. Analysis of Factors Influencing Farmers’ Identification of Entrepreneurial Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; GAO; Fang; YANG

    2013-01-01

    Based on the survey data of entrepreneurship concerning farmers in China,this article uses the multivariate adjustment regression analysis method,to analyze the factors influencing farmers’ identification of entrepreneurial opportunity and the mechanism. The results show that demographic characteristics are still an important factor influencing farmers’ identification of entrepreneurial opportunity,but the extent of its influence is weaker than entrepreneurs’ trait. The new trait theory is verified in farmers’ entrepreneurship opportunity behavior; entrepreneurship environment is becoming an important factor influencing entrepreneurial opportunity identification,whose regulation effect on entrepreneurs’ social network and previous experience is stronger than the regulation effect on entrepreneurs’ psychological trait.

  2. A factor analysis to find critical success factors in retail brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present exploratory study aims to find critical components of retail brand among some retail stores. The study seeks to build a brand name in retail level and looks to find important factors affecting it. Customer behavior is largely influenced when the first retail customer experience is formed. These factors have direct impacts on customer experience and satisfaction in retail industry. The proposed study performs an empirical investigation on two well-known retain stores located in city of Tehran, Iran. Using a sample of 265 people from regular customers, the study uses factor analysis and extracts four main factors including related brand, product benefits, customer welfare strategy and corporate profits using the existing 31 factors in the literature.

  3. Ranking insurance firms using AHP and Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Insurance industry includes a significant part of economy and it is important to learn more about the capabilities of different firms, which are active in this industry. In this paper, we present an empirical study to rank the insurance firms using analytical hierarchy process as well as factor analysis. The study considers four criteria including capital adequacy, quality of earning, quality of cash flow and quality of firms’ assets. The results of the implementation of factor analysis (FA have been verified using Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO=0.573 and Bartlett's Chi-Square (443.267 P-value=0.000 tests. According to the results FA, the first important factor, capital adequacy, represents 21.557% of total variance, the second factor, quality of income, represents 20.958% of total variance. In addition, the third factor, quality of cash flow, represents 19.417% of total variance and the last factor, quality of assets, represents 18.641% of total variance. The study has also used analytical hierarchy process (AHP to rank insurance firms. The results of our survey indicate that capital adequacy (0.559 is accounted as the most important factor followed by quality of income (0.235, quality of cash flow (0.144 and quality of assets (0.061. The results of AHP are consistent with the results of FA, which somewhat validates the overall study.

  4. Workplace Innovation: Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis for Construct Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wipulanusat Warit

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Workplace innovation enables the development and improvement of products, processes and services leading simultaneously to improvement in organisational performance. This study has the purpose of examining the factor structure of workplace innovation. Survey data, extracted from the 2014 APS employee census, comprising 3,125 engineering professionals in the Commonwealth of Australia’s departments were analysed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. EFA returned a two-factor structure explaining 69.1% of the variance of the construct. CFA revealed that a two-factor structure was indicated as a validated model (GFI = 0.98, AGFI = 0.95, RMSEA = 0.08, RMR = 0.02, IFI = 0.98, NFI = 0.98, CFI = 0.98, and TLI = 0.96. Both factors showed good reliability of the scale (Individual creativity: α = 0.83, CR = 0.86, and AVE = 0.62; Team Innovation: α = 0.82, CR = 0.88, and AVE = 0.61. These results confirm that the two factors extracted for characterising workplace innovation included individual creativity and team innovation.

  5. Analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle utility factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Thomas H.; Quinn, Casey W.

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are hybrid electric vehicles that can be fueled from both conventional liquid fuels and grid electricity. To represent the total contribution of both of these fuels to the operation, energy use, and environmental impacts of PHEVs, researchers have developed the concept of the utility factor. As standardized in documents such as SAE J1711 and SAE J2841, the utility factor represents the proportion of vehicle distance travelled that can be allocated to a vehicle test condition so as to represent the real-world driving habits of a vehicle fleet. These standards must be used with care so that the results are understood within the context of the assumptions implicit in the standardized utility factors. This study analyzes and derives alternatives to the standard utility factors from the 2001 National Highway Transportation Survey, so as to understand the sensitivity of PHEV performance to assumptions regarding charging frequency, vehicle characteristics, driver characteristics, and means of defining the utility factor. Through analysis of these alternative utility factors, this study identifies areas where analysis, design, and policy development for PHEVs can be improved by alternative utility factor calculations.

  6. Bone dynamic study. Evaluation for factor analysis of hip joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Kotaro; Toyama, Hinako; Ishikawa, Nobuyoshi; Hatakeyama, Rokuro; Akisada, Masayoshi; Miyagawa, Shunpei

    1989-02-01

    Factor analysis was applied to dynamic study of Tc-99m MDP for the evaluation of hip joint disorders. Fifteen patients were examined; eight were normal, six was osteoarthritis in which one accompanied synovitis was included, and one was aseptic necrosis on the head of the femur. In normals, according to the Tc-99m MDP kinetics, three factor images and time-activity curves were obtained which were named as blood vessel, soft tissue, and bone factor images and curves. In the patient with osteoarthritis, increased accumulation of the hip joint was shown in bone factor image only. But in one patient, who took osteoarthritis with synovitis, marked accumulations of the Tc-99m MDP appeared not only on the bone factor image but also on the soft tissue. Operation revealed thickening synovial tissue around the hip joint, caused by inflammatory process. In follow-up studies of the patient with aseptic necrosis on the head of the left femur, exessive accumulations, which were seemed in his left hip joint on both bone and soft tissue factor images at first, were decreased respondently to the treatment of this lesion. In conclusion, the factor analysis was useful for differential diagnosis of the hip joint disorders and observation of the clinical course of the hip joint disorders.

  7. A Brief History of the Philosophical Foundations of Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulaik, Stanley A.

    1987-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis derives its key ideas from many sources, including Aristotle, Francis Bacon, Descartes, Pearson and Yule, and Kant. The conclusions of exploratory factor analysis are never complete without subsequent confirmatory factor analysis. (Author/GDC)

  8. 抗疟疾中药专利申请现状分析和建议%Analysis and Suggestions of Patent TCM for Anti-malaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕茂平; 刘瑞华

    2016-01-01

    This article concluded application number of patent TCM, law condition, applicant distribution, patent types, authorized patent condition and covered TCM types by searching patent applications about patent TCM for anti-malaria in Chinese patent retrieval system. By means of general analysis on patent applications about patent TCM for anti-malaria, this article believed that some problems existed in the application, such as small quantity of application because of lack of attention, poor-quality application (few authorized patent), weak basic research foundation for anti-malaria TCM, and few profound research. Therefore, it proposed the suggestions of enhancing patent portfolio, improving innovation ability and strengthening material basis research, with a purpose to promote the development and research of anti-malaria TCM.%本文通过检索中国专利检索系统公开的抗疟疾中药发明专利申请,总结了我国目前抗疟疾中药专利申请的数量、法律状态、申请人分布、专利类型、授权专利状况以及涉及的中药种类。通过对抗疟疾中药专利申请的总体分析认为,抗疟疾中药专利申请存在由于关注度不够因而申请数量少、专利申请质量低,尤其表现为授权专利少以及对抗疟疾中药基础研究缺乏、深入研究不足等问题,相应从加强专利布局、提高创新能力和加强物质基础研究方面提出了促进我国的抗疟疾中药研发的建议。

  9. Analysis of antisense expression by whole genome tiling microarrays and siRNAs suggests mis-annotation of Arabidopsis orphan protein-coding genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey R Richardson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs and trans-acting small-interfering RNAs (tasi-RNAs are small (20-22 nt long RNAs (smRNAs generated from hairpin secondary structures or antisense transcripts, respectively, that regulate gene expression by Watson-Crick pairing to a target mRNA and altering expression by mechanisms related to RNA interference. The high sequence homology of plant miRNAs to their targets has been the mainstay of miRNA prediction algorithms, which are limited in their predictive power for other kingdoms because miRNA complementarity is less conserved yet transitive processes (production of antisense smRNAs are active in eukaryotes. We hypothesize that antisense transcription and associated smRNAs are biomarkers which can be computationally modeled for gene discovery. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We explored rice (Oryza sativa sense and antisense gene expression in publicly available whole genome tiling array transcriptome data and sequenced smRNA libraries (as well as C. elegans and found evidence of transitivity of MIRNA genes similar to that found in Arabidopsis. Statistical analysis of antisense transcript abundances, presence of antisense ESTs, and association with smRNAs suggests several hundred Arabidopsis 'orphan' hypothetical genes are non-coding RNAs. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found novel Arabidopsis homologues of some MIRNA genes on the antisense strand of previously annotated protein-coding genes. A Support Vector Machine (SVM was applied using thermodynamic energy of binding plus novel expression features of sense/antisense transcription topology and siRNA abundances to build a prediction model of miRNA targets. The SVM when trained on targets could predict the "ancient" (deeply conserved class of validated Arabidopsis MIRNA genes with an accuracy of 84%, and 76% for "new" rapidly-evolving MIRNA genes. CONCLUSIONS: Antisense and smRNA expression features and computational methods may identify novel MIRNA genes and other non

  10. Identifying Items to Assess Methodological Quality in Physical Therapy Trials: A Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Greta G.; Fuentes, Jorge; Saltaji, Humam; Ha, Christine; Chisholm, Annabritt; Pasichnyk, Dion; Rogers, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous tools and individual items have been proposed to assess the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The frequency of use of these items varies according to health area, which suggests a lack of agreement regarding their relevance to trial quality or risk of bias. Objective The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the underlying component structure of items and (2) to determine relevant items to evaluate the quality and risk of bias of trials in physical therapy by using an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Design A methodological research design was used, and an EFA was performed. Methods Randomized controlled trials used for this study were randomly selected from searches of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Two reviewers used 45 items gathered from 7 different quality tools to assess the methodological quality of the RCTs. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted using the principal axis factoring (PAF) method followed by varimax rotation. Results Principal axis factoring identified 34 items loaded on 9 common factors: (1) selection bias; (2) performance and detection bias; (3) eligibility, intervention details, and description of outcome measures; (4) psychometric properties of the main outcome; (5) contamination and adherence to treatment; (6) attrition bias; (7) data analysis; (8) sample size; and (9) control and placebo adequacy. Limitation Because of the exploratory nature of the results, a confirmatory factor analysis is needed to validate this model. Conclusions To the authors' knowledge, this is the first factor analysis to explore the underlying component items used to evaluate the methodological quality or risk of bias of RCTs in physical therapy. The items and factors represent a starting point for evaluating the methodological quality and risk of bias in physical therapy trials. Empirical evidence of the association among these items with treatment effects and a confirmatory factor

  11. Identifying items to assess methodological quality in physical therapy trials: a factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Cummings, Greta G; Fuentes, Jorge; Saltaji, Humam; Ha, Christine; Chisholm, Annabritt; Pasichnyk, Dion; Rogers, Todd

    2014-09-01

    Numerous tools and individual items have been proposed to assess the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The frequency of use of these items varies according to health area, which suggests a lack of agreement regarding their relevance to trial quality or risk of bias. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the underlying component structure of items and (2) to determine relevant items to evaluate the quality and risk of bias of trials in physical therapy by using an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). A methodological research design was used, and an EFA was performed. Randomized controlled trials used for this study were randomly selected from searches of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Two reviewers used 45 items gathered from 7 different quality tools to assess the methodological quality of the RCTs. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted using the principal axis factoring (PAF) method followed by varimax rotation. Principal axis factoring identified 34 items loaded on 9 common factors: (1) selection bias; (2) performance and detection bias; (3) eligibility, intervention details, and description of outcome measures; (4) psychometric properties of the main outcome; (5) contamination and adherence to treatment; (6) attrition bias; (7) data analysis; (8) sample size; and (9) control and placebo adequacy. Because of the exploratory nature of the results, a confirmatory factor analysis is needed to validate this model. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first factor analysis to explore the underlying component items used to evaluate the methodological quality or risk of bias of RCTs in physical therapy. The items and factors represent a starting point for evaluating the methodological quality and risk of bias in physical therapy trials. Empirical evidence of the association among these items with treatment effects and a confirmatory factor analysis of these results are needed to validate these items.

  12. Landslides geotechnical analysis. Qualitative assessment by valuation factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuanalo Oscar, Sc D.; Oliva Aldo, Sc D.; Polanco Gabriel, M. E.

    2012-04-01

    In general, a landslide can cause a disaster when it is combined a number of factors such as an extreme event related to a geological phenomenon, vulnerable elements exposed in a specific geographic area, and the probability of loss and damage evaluated in terms of lives and economic assets, in a certain period of time. This paper presents the qualitative evaluation of slope stability through of Valuation Factors, obtained from the characterization of the determinants and triggers factors that influence the instability; for the first the morphology and topography, geology, soil mechanics, hydrogeology and vegetation to the second, the rain, earthquakes, erosion and scour, human activity, and ultimately dependent factors of the stability analysis, and its influence ranges which greatly facilitate the selection of construction processes best suited to improve the behavior of a slope or hillside. The Valuation Factors are a set of parameters for assessing the influence of conditioning and triggering factors that influence the stability of slopes and hillsides. The characteristics of each factor must be properly categorized to involve its effect on behavior; a way to do this is by assigning a weighted value range indicating its effect on the stability of a slope. It is proposed to use Valuation Factors with weighted values between 0 and 1 (arbitrarily selected but common sense and logic), the first corresponds to no or minimal effect on stability (no effect or very little influence) and the second, the greatest impact on it (has a significant influence). The meddle effects are evaluated with intermediate values.

  13. Exploratory factor analysis of the Brazilian OHIP for edentulous subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, R F; Leles, C R; Guyatt, G H; Pontes, C B; Della Vecchia, M P; Neves, F D

    2010-03-01

    The use of seven domains for the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP)-EDENT was not supported for its Brazilian version, making data interpretation in clinical settings difficult. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess patients' responses for the translated OHIP-EDENT in a group of edentulous subjects and to develop factor scales for application in future studies. Data from 103 conventional and implant-retained complete denture wearers (36 men, mean age of 69.1 +/- 10.3 years) were assessed using the Brazilian version of the OHIP-EDENT. Oral health-related quality of life domains were identified by factor analysis using principal component analysis as the extraction method, followed by varimax rotation. Factor analysis identified four factors that accounted for 63% of the 19 items total variance, named masticatory discomfort and disability (four items), psychological discomfort and disability (five items), social disability (five items) and oral pain and discomfort (five items). Four factors/domains of the Brazilian OHIP-EDENT version represent patient-important aspects of oral health-related quality of life.

  14. Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis for Construct Validation: An Empirical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Christine; Hess, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the psychological assessment literature to determine what applied researchers are using and reporting from confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) studies for evidence of construct validation. One hundred and one articles published in four major psychological assessment journals between 1990 and 2002 were systematically…

  15. Modular Open-Source Software for Item Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritikin, Joshua N.; Hunter, Micheal D.; Boker, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces an item factor analysis (IFA) module for "OpenMx," a free, open-source, and modular statistical modeling package that runs within the R programming environment on GNU/Linux, Mac OS X, and Microsoft Windows. The IFA module offers a novel model specification language that is well suited to programmatic generation…

  16. Modular Open-Source Software for Item Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritikin, Joshua N.; Hunter, Micheal D.; Boker, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces an item factor analysis (IFA) module for "OpenMx," a free, open-source, and modular statistical modeling package that runs within the R programming environment on GNU/Linux, Mac OS X, and Microsoft Windows. The IFA module offers a novel model specification language that is well suited to programmatic generation…

  17. A Factor Analysis of Barriers to Effective Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golen, Steven

    1990-01-01

    Conducts a factor analysis to determine listening barriers perceived as most frequently affecting the listening effectiveness among business college students. Finds the presence of six listening barriers, with the barrier "listen primarily for details or facts" as the most frequently encountered barrier perceived by students. (MM)

  18. A Comparison of Imputation Methods for Bayesian Factor Analysis Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Edgar C.

    2011-01-01

    Imputation methods are popular for the handling of missing data in psychology. The methods generally consist of predicting missing data based on observed data, yielding a complete data set that is amiable to standard statistical analyses. In the context of Bayesian factor analysis, this article compares imputation under an unrestricted…

  19. The Effects of Overextraction on Factor and Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, J L; Velicer, W F

    1992-07-01

    The effects of overextracting factors and components within and between the methods of maximum likelihood factor analysis (MLFA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were examined. Computer-simulated data sets were generated to represent a range of factor and component patterns. Saturation (aij = .8, .6 & .4), sample size (N = 75, 150,225,450), and variable-to-component (factor) ratio (p:m = 12:1,6:1, & 4:1) were conditions manipulated. In Study 1, scores based on the incorrect patterns were correlated with correct scores within each method after each overextraction. In Study 2, scores were correlated between the methods of PCAand MLFA after each overextraction. Overextraction had a negative effect, but scores based on strong component and factor patterns displayed robustness to the effects of overextraction. Low item saturation and low sample size resulted in degraded score reproduction. Degradation was strongest for patterns that combined low saturation and low sample size. Component and factor scores were highly correlated even at maximal levels of overextraction. Dissimilarity between score methods was the greatest in conditions that combined low saturation and low sample size. Some guidelines for researchers concerning the effects of overextraction are noted, as well as some cautions in the interpretation of results.

  20. Evaluating Exploratory Factor Analysis: Which Initial-Extraction Techniques Provide the Best Factor Fidelity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buley, Jerry L.

    1995-01-01

    States that attacks by communication scholars have cast doubt on the validity of exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Tests EFA's ability to produce results that replicate known dimensions in a data set. Concludes that EFA should be viewed with cautious optimism and be evaluated according to the findings of this and similar studies. (PA)

  1. Factor analysis improves the selection of prescribing indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Hanne Marie Skyggedal; Søndergaard, Jens; Sokolowski, Ineta

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test a method for improving the selection of indicators of general practitioners' prescribing. METHODS: We conducted a prescription database study including all 180 general practices in the County of Funen, Denmark, approximately 472,000 inhabitants. Principal factor analysis was used...... indicators directly quantifying choice of coxibs, indicators measuring expenditure per Defined Daily Dose, and indicators taking risk aspects into account, (2) "Frequent NSAID prescribing", comprising indicators quantifying prevalence or amount of NSAID prescribing, and (3) "Diverse NSAID choice", comprising...... appropriate and inappropriate prescribing, as revealed by the correlation of the indicators in the first factor. CONCLUSION: Correlation and factor analysis is a feasible method that assists the selection of indicators and gives better insight into prescribing patterns....

  2. Identifying influential factors of business process performance using dependency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzstein, Branimir; Leitner, Philipp; Rosenberg, Florian; Dustdar, Schahram; Leymann, Frank

    2011-02-01

    We present a comprehensive framework for identifying influential factors of business process performance. In particular, our approach combines monitoring of process events and Quality of Service (QoS) measurements with dependency analysis to effectively identify influential factors. The framework uses data mining techniques to construct tree structures to represent dependencies of a key performance indicator (KPI) on process and QoS metrics. These dependency trees allow business analysts to determine how process KPIs depend on lower-level process metrics and QoS characteristics of the IT infrastructure. The structure of the dependencies enables a drill-down analysis of single factors of influence to gain a deeper knowledge why certain KPI targets are not met.

  3. Epigenetic clock analysis of diet, exercise, education, and lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Austin; Levine, Morgan E; Tanaka, Toshiko; Lu, Ake T; Chen, Brian H; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ritz, Beate; Bandinelli, Stefania; Neuhouser, Marian L; Beasley, Jeannette M; Snetselaar, Linda; Wallace, Robert B; Tsao, Philip S; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles L; Stewart, James D; Li, Yun; Hou, Lifang; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Whitsel, Eric A; Horvath, Steve

    2017-02-14

    Behavioral and lifestyle factors have been shown to relate to a number of health-related outcomes, yet there is a need for studies that examine their relationship to molecular aging rates. Toward this end, we use recent epigenetic biomarkers of age that have previously been shown to predict all-cause mortality, chronic conditions, and age-related functional decline. We analyze cross-sectional data from 4,173 postmenopausal female participants from the Women's Health Initiative, as well as 402 male and female participants from the Italian cohort study, Invecchiare nel Chianti.Extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration (EEAA) exhibits significant associations with fish intake (p=0.02), moderate alcohol consumption (p=0.01), education (p=3x10(-5)), BMI (p=0.01), and blood carotenoid levels (p=1x10(-5))-an indicator of fruit and vegetable consumption, whereas intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration (IEAA) is associated with poultry intake (p=0.03) and BMI (p=0.05). Both EEAA and IEAA were also found to relate to indicators of metabolic syndrome, which appear to mediate their associations with BMI. Metformin-the first-line medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes-does not delay epigenetic aging in this observational study. Finally, longitudinal data suggests that an increase in BMI is associated with increase in both EEAA and IEAA.Overall, the epigenetic age analysis of blood confirms the conventional wisdom regarding the benefits of eating a high plant diet with lean meats, moderate alcohol consumption, physical activity, and education, as well as the health risks of obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  4. Analysis of Recurrence Factor of Postoperative Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XING Lan-lan;CHEN Song;LI Ya-ming

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the factors that influences the recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer,69 patients with papillary thyroid cancer since January 1, 2011 to march 30, 2013 were analyzed respectively. They meet the inclusion criteria and complete clinical data, 18 males and 51 females,average age: 40.17±12.97.Thyroid ultrasonography, thyroid function test, thyroglobulin and antibody measurement were performed on all patients and thyroid function were checked three or more times on the premise of continuously levothyroxine. Single factor analysis were performed using SPSS17.0 in these respects including patients' gender, age, tumor size, type of opetation, the inhibition degree of TSH with taking levothyroxine postoperative and whether to perform 131I thyroid remnant ablation. Binary Logistic regression analysis were used for studying recurrence factors in multivariate analysis. The ROC curve were drawn, and then determine the threshold of TSH to evaluate tumor recurrence using Youden index method. Unvaried analysis showed that there was no statistically significance between papillary thyroid cancer recurrence and patients' age, surgical approach (P =0.373, P = 0.226,but were related to patient's gender, tumor size, postoperative TSH suppression degree and the removal of residual thyroid tissue postoperative(P= 0.031, P = 0.004, P = 0.000 01, P = 0.000 05. Males, large tumors, high postoperative TSH values and patients who didn't remove the residual thyroid tissue after surgery had higher recurrence rate. Logistic regression analysis showed that tumor size, postoperative TSH suppression degree and whether to remove the residual thyroid tissue were the influencing factors of tumor recurrence. The postoperative TSH supressive degree evaluation of critical point of tumor recurrence was determined by 0.223 5 mU/L using the Yueden index method. Large tumors, high postoperative TSH values,and no removal of the residual thyroid tissue had more influence

  5. 儿童口腔疾病相关因素分析及预防建议%Suggestion on the related factors and Prevention for Children's oral disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘惠萍

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨儿童乳牙龋的发病相关饮食及预防措施.方法 采用病例对照研究,136例为乳牙龋患儿为病例组,同时选择100例口腔健康的儿童为对照组,采用单因素与多因素非条件的Logistic分析儿童乳牙龋发病的相关饮食.结果 经过单因素和多因素分析结果显示父亲学历高中以下,进食糖果每周>7次,喝碳酸饮料>7次,睡前经常吃甜点,每天刷牙的次数≤1次是乳牙龋发病的相关危险因素,而开始刷牙年龄<2岁是乳牙龋发病的保护性因素.结论 应加强对家长的口腔知识宣教,主动采取利于口腔健康的行为,以达到建立儿童的口腔健康行为的目的.%OBJECTIVE To explore the related factors and prevention measures of dental caries. METHODS A case-control study was conducted, 136 children with deciduous caries were selected as case group, and 100 oral health were selected as control group. The single factor and multiple factors of Logistic analysis were conducted in children with deciduous caries. RESULTS After single factor and multiple factors analysis, father with health education below high school and eating candy > 7 times/weekly, drink carbonated > 7 times/weekly, eating dessert before going to bed, and daily brushing times less than 1 were related to the morbidity of dental caries risk factors, Age of first brush < 2 years was deciduous caries incidence of protective factors. CONCLUSION We should strengthen their oral knowledge, take the initiative to oral health behavior, so as to achieve the establishment of children's oral health behavior.

  6. Confirmatory factor analysis of the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdnack, James A; Xiaobin Zhou; Larrabee, Glenn J; Millis, Scott R; Salthouse, Timothy A

    2011-06-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-fourth edition (WMS-IV) were co-developed to be used individually or as a combined battery of tests. The independent factor structure of each of the tests has been identified; however, the combined factor structure has yet to be determined. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV Adult battery (i.e., age 16-69 years) co-norming sample (n = 900) to test 13 measurement models. The results indicated that two models fit the data equally well. One model is a seven-factor solution without a hierarchical general ability factor: Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, Auditory Working Memory, Visual Working Memory, Auditory Memory, and Visual Memory. The second model is a five-factor model composed of Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, Working Memory, and Memory with a hierarchical general ability factor. Interpretative implications for each model are discussed.

  7. An exploratory analysis of personality factors contributed to suicide attempts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Suresh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: People who attempt suicide have certain individual predispositions, part of which is contributed by personality traits. Aims: The present study was conducted to identify the psycho-sociodemographic and personality related factors contributing to suicide attempts. Materials and Methods: 104 suicide attempters admitted in various departments and referred to the department of psychiatry of IQRAA Hospital formed the study sample. They were evaluated with a self designed socio-demographic proforma, Eysenck′s Personality Questionnaire Revised, Albert Einstein College of Medicine-Impulsivity Coping Scale, and Past Feelings and Acts of Violence Scale. Statistics Analysis: The data was initially analyzed by percentage of frequencies. Association between socio-demographic and selected psychological factors was analyzed using t-test and Chi-square test. Intercorrelation among psychological factors was calculated by Pearson′s correlation coefficient "r". Results and Conclusion: Factors such as young age, being married, nuclear family, feeling lonely and burden to family, inability to solve the problems of day to day life, and presence of psychiatric diagnosis and personality traits such as neuroticism, impulsivity, and violence were contributed to suicide attempt. A significant positive relationship between these factors was also identified. Findings of the present study call the attention of mental health professionals to identify these high risk factors in susceptible individuals and to modify these factors to prevent them from attempting suicide.

  8. Replication Analysis in Exploratory Factor Analysis: What It Is and Why It Makes Your Analysis Better

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W. Osborne

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA is a powerful and commonly-used tool for investigating the underlying variable structure of a psychometric instrument. However, there is much controversy in the social sciences with regard to the techniques used in EFA (Ford, MacCallum, & Tait, 1986; Henson & Roberts, 2006 and the reliability of the outcome. Simulations by Costello and Osborne (2005, for example, demonstrate how poorly some EFA analyses replicate, even with clear underlying factor structures and large samples. Thus, we argue that researchers should routinely examine the stability or volatility of their EFA solutions to gain more insight into the robustness of their solutions and insight into how to improve their instruments while still at the exploratory stage of development.

  9. Exploratory Factor Analysis of SCL90-R Symptoms Relevant to Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Amini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: Inconsistent results have been reported regarding the symptom dimensions relevant to psychosis in symptoms check list revised (SCL90-R, i.e., "psychoticism" and "paranoid ideation". Therefore, some studies have suggested different factor structures for questions of these two dimensions, and proposed two newly defined dimensions of "schizotypal signs" and "schizophrenia nuclear symptoms". We conducted an exploratory factor analysis on the items of these two dimensions in a general population sample in Iran. "nMethod: A total of 2158 subjects residing in Southern Tehran (capital of Iran were interviewed using the psychoticism and paranoid ideation questions in SCL90-R to assess severity of these symptom dimensions. Factor analysis was done through SAS 9.1.3 PROC FACTOR using Promax rotation (power=3 on the matrix of "polychoric correlations among variables" as the input data. "nResults: Two factors were retained by the proportion criterion. Considering loadings >= 0.5 as minimum criteria for factor loadings, 7 out of 10 questions  from psychoticism ,and 3 out of 6 questions from paranoid ideation were retained, and others were eliminated. The factor labels proposed by the questionnaire suited the extracted factors and were retained. Internal consistency for each of the dimensions was acceptable (Cronbach's alpha 0.7 and 0.74 for paranoid ideation and psychoticism respectively. Composite scores showed a half-normal distribution for both dimensions which is predictable for instruments that detect psychotic symptoms. "nConclusion: Results were in contrast with similar studies, and questioned them by suggesting a different factor structure obtained from a statistically large population. The population in a developing nation (Iran in this study and the socio-cultural differences in developed settings are the potential sources for discrepancies between this analysis and previous reports.

  10. 对企业管理案例分析的几点建议%About business management case analysis several suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱民

    2012-01-01

    This article case reading and the analysis method has carried on the preliminary discussion to the university industry and commerce management science curriculum, stressed carries on to the case reading step and the analysis basic mentality has combed. Based on this proposed management case reading and analysis several skills, the coach pupils carry on the management case discussion and the analysis by the time to the teacher in the case teaching have the help.%探讨高校企业管理学课程中案例的阅读与分析方法,梳理案例阅读步骤和分析的基本思路,提出管理案例阅读与分析的几个技巧。

  11. Testing the number of required dimensions in exploratory factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim, Andr\\'e

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While maximum likelihood exploratory factor analysis (EFA provides a statistical test that $k$ dimensions are sufficient to account for the observed correlations among a set of variables, determining the required number of factors in least-squares based EFA has essentially relied on heuristic procedures. Two methods, Revised Parallel Analysis (R-PA and Comparison Data (CD, were recently proposed that generate surrogate data based on an increasing number of principal axis factors in order to compare their sequence of eigenvalues with that from the data. The latter should be unremarkable among the former if enough dimensions are included. While CD looks for a balance between efficiency and parsimony, R-PA strictly test that $k$ dimensions are sufficient by ranking the next eigenvalue, i.e. at rank $k+1$, of the actual data among those from the surrogate data. Importing two features of CD into R-PA defines four variants that are here collectively termed Next Eigenvalue Sufficiency Tests (NESTs. Simulations implementing 144 sets of parameters, including correlated factors and presence of a doublet factor, show that all four NESTs largely outperform CD, the standard Parallel Analysis, the Mean Average Partial method and even the maximum likelihood approach, in identifying the correct number of common factors. The recommended, most successful NEST variant is also the only one that never overestimates the correct number of dimensions beyond its nominal $\\alpha$ level. This variant is made available as R and MATLAB code as well as a complement incorporated in a Microsoft Excel file.

  12. Analysis of the determinative factors for energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vanderley Herrero Sola

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study energy efficiency in productive sector. The main objective is to analyze determinative factors to Energy Efficiency, identifying how external forces influence those factors as weel as energy efficiency, in order to subsidize a future scenery planning in energy management. The result of this analysis, based on scientific works, case study in universities, research in companies, studies by Brazilian Federal Government and studies by specialists, shows that energy efficiency depends on: effectiveness governmental actions for the technological development; technological development; initiative by universities for technology transfer to the companies; the relationship between individuals and small companies to create a corporative structure.

  13. Performance analysis of parallel supernodal sparse LU factorization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigori, Laura; Li, Xiaoye S.

    2004-02-05

    We investigate performance characteristics for the LU factorization of large matrices with various sparsity patterns. We consider supernodal right-looking parallel factorization on a bi-dimensional grid of processors, making use of static pivoting. We develop a performance model and we validate it using the implementation in SuperLU-DIST, the real matrices and the IBM Power3 machine at NERSC. We use this model to obtain performance bounds on parallel computers, to perform scalability analysis and to identify performance bottlenecks. We also discuss the role of load balance and data distribution in this approach.

  14. Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechmann, J L; Heard, J; Martin, G; Reuber, L; Jiang, C; Keddie, J; Adam, L; Pineda, O; Ratcliffe, O J; Samaha, R R; Creelman, R; Pilgrim, M; Broun, P; Zhang, J Z; Ghandehari, D; Sherman, B K; Yu, G

    2000-12-15

    The completion of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence allows a comparative analysis of transcriptional regulators across the three eukaryotic kingdoms. Arabidopsis dedicates over 5% of its genome to code for more than 1500 transcription factors, about 45% of which are from families specific to plants. Arabidopsis transcription factors that belong to families common to all eukaryotes do not share significant similarity with those of the other kingdoms beyond the conserved DNA binding domains, many of which have been arranged in combinations specific to each lineage. The genome-wide comparison reveals the evolutionary generation of diversity in the regulation of transcription.

  15. Analysis of predictor factors of limb amputation in patients with high-voltage electrical burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo García Álvarez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Limb amputation is considered one of the most devastating consequences of electrical injury. Any factors that correlate with the degree of muscle damage can be used to predict the necessity of limb amputation. The aim of this study was to determine the factors that can be used to predict limb amputation in high-voltage electrically injured patients. Methods: Eighty-two high-voltage electrically injured patients were admitted to the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Burns of National Arzobispo Loayza Hospital on a 5 year period. A retrospective analysis of the possible related risk factors between amputation and non-amputation patients was performed. Results: A total of 68 patients were enrolled for analysis. Thirteen patients underwent limb amputations. Multivariate analysis of the risk factors between amputation and non-amputation groups showed statistical significance for first 24 hour creatine kinase-isoenzyme MB (CKMB level. A serum CK-MB level above 14,955 U/L predicted high risk of limb amputation with high specificity (84% and sensitivity (77%. Only one patient with a remarkable decrease of creatine kinase (CPKt and CK-MB levels after fasciotomy avoided a major limb amputation. Conclusion: Our results suggest that CPK-MB level is an independent factor for prediction of limb amputation in patients with high-voltage electrical burns. We suggest that the addition of CPK-MB evaluation to clinical symptom screening may be a valuable method for early detection of muscle damage.

  16. Fusion protein gene nucleotide sequence similarities, shared antigenic sites and phylogenetic analysis suggest that phocid distemper virus 2 and canine distemper virus belong to the same virus entity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.K.G. Visser (Ilona); R.W.J. van der Heijden (Roger); M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco); M.J.H. Kenter (Marcel); C. Örvell; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractNucleotide sequencing of the fusion protein (F) gene of phocid distemper virus-2 (PDV-2), recently isolated from Baikal seals (Phoca sibirica), revealed an open reading frame (nucleotides 84 to 2075) with two potential in-frame ATG translation initiation codons. We suggest that the secon

  17. Anticoagulation duration in heterozygous factor V Leiden: a decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Anna K; Smith, Kenneth J; Ragni, Margaret V

    2013-01-01

    Current anticoagulation guidelines suggest that optimal anticoagulation duration for unprovoked venous thromboembolism is determined by an individual risk assessment, balancing risks of anticoagulation bleeding with venous thromboembolism recurrence. Among individuals heterozygous for the factor V Leiden mutation, while venous thromboembolism recurrence risk is greater, the risk for bleeding is recognized to be lower, suggesting longer duration anticoagulation could be considered. The objective of this study was to compare standard vs. lifelong anticoagulation in 20-year-old factor V Leiden heterozygotes with unprovoked venous thromboembolism. A Markov state-transition model was used, incorporating risks of major, minor, and fatal anticoagulation bleeding, bleeding and thromboembolism morbidity and mortality, and quality of life utilities. Model parameter values favoring lifelong anticoagulation in factor V Leiden heterozygotes were determined in sensitivity analyses. Outcomes were in quality-adjusted life years, discounted at 3% per year. In general population groups with odds ratios for venous thromboembolism recurrence and anticoagulation bleeding of 1.0, a short-term anticoagulation strategy gained 0.09 quality-adjusted life years more than a lifelong anticoagulation strategy. By contrast, in factor V Leiden heterozygotes, lifetime anticoagulation was favored if their relative risk of venous thromboembolism was greater than 1.07 or their relative risk for bleeding was less than 0.91. Results were relatively insensitive to individual variation in other parameter values. Lifelong anticoagulation may benefit individuals heterozygous for factor V Leiden and previous idiopathic venous thromboembolism. Studies assessing bleeding risk with anticoagulation in factor V Leiden heterozygotes and the costs of indefinite anticoagulation are needed to determine if lifelong anticoagulation is the optimal strategy. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Factor analysis and predictive validity of microcomputer-based tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, R. S.; Baltzley, D. R.; Turnage, J. J.; Jones, M. B.

    1989-01-01

    11 tests were selected from two microcomputer-based performance test batteries because previously these tests exhibited rapid stability (less than 10 min, of practice) and high retest reliability efficiencies (r greater than 0.707 for each 3 min. of testing). The battery was administered three times to each of 108 college students (48 men and 60 women) and a factor analysis was performed. Two of the three identified factors appear to be related to information processing ("encoding" and "throughput/decoding"), and the third named an "output/speed" factor. The spatial, memory, and verbal tests loaded on the "encoding" factor and included Grammatical Reasoning, Pattern Comparison, Continuous Recall, and Matrix Rotation. The "throughput/decoding" tests included perceptual/numerical tests like Math Processing, Code Substitution, and Pattern Comparison. The output speed factor was identified by Tapping and Reaction Time tests. The Wonderlic Personnel Test was group administered before the first and after the last administration of the performance tests. The multiple Rs in the total sample between combined Wonderlic as a criterion and less than 5 min. of microcomputer testing on Grammatical Reasoning and Math Processing as predictors ranged between 0.41 and 0.52 on the three test administrations. Based on these results, the authors recommend a core battery which, if time permits, would consist of two tests from each factor. Such a battery is now known to permit stable, reliable, and efficient assessment.

  19. Human Factors in Financial Trading: An Analysis of Trading Incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver, Meghan; Reader, Tom W

    2016-09-01

    This study tests the reliability of a system (FINANS) to collect and analyze incident reports in the financial trading domain and is guided by a human factors taxonomy used to describe error in the trading domain. Research indicates the utility of applying human factors theory to understand error in finance, yet empirical research is lacking. We report on the development of the first system for capturing and analyzing human factors-related issues in operational trading incidents. In the first study, 20 incidents are analyzed by an expert user group against a referent standard to establish the reliability of FINANS. In the second study, 750 incidents are analyzed using distribution, mean, pathway, and associative analysis to describe the data. Kappa scores indicate that categories within FINANS can be reliably used to identify and extract data on human factors-related problems underlying trading incidents. Approximately 1% of trades (n = 750) lead to an incident. Slip/lapse (61%), situation awareness (51%), and teamwork (40%) were found to be the most common problems underlying incidents. For the most serious incidents, problems in situation awareness and teamwork were most common. We show that (a) experts in the trading domain can reliably and accurately code human factors in incidents, (b) 1% of trades incur error, and (c) poor teamwork skills and situation awareness underpin the most critical incidents. This research provides data crucial for ameliorating risk within financial trading organizations, with implications for regulation and policy. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  20. Impact factors of fractal analysis of porous structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Characterization of pore structure is one of the key problems for fabrication and application research on porous materials. But, complexity of pore structure makes it difficult to characterize pore structure by Euclidean geometry and traditional experimental methods. Fractal theory has been proved effective to characterize the complex pore structure. The box dimension method based on fractal theory was applied to characterizing the pore structure of fiber porous materials by analyzing the electronic scanning microscope (SEM) images of the porous materials in this paper. The influences of image resolution, threshold value, and image magnification on fractal analysis were investigated. The results indicate that such factors greatly affect fractal analysis process and results. The appropriate magnification threshold and fractal analysis are necessary for fractal analysis.

  1. Exploratory factor analysis of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (German version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Bruin Eling D

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI is a validated, self-report questionnaire which is widely used as an outcome measure. Previous studies supported the multidimensionality of the DHI, but not the original subscale structure. The objectives of this survey were to explore the dimensions of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory - German version, and to investigate the associations of the retained factors with items assessing functional disability and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Secondly we aimed to explore the retained factors according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF. Methods Patients were recruited from a tertiary centre for vertigo, dizziness or balance disorders. They filled in two questionnaires: (1 The DHI assesses precipitating physical factors associated with dizziness/unsteadiness and functional/emotional consequences of symptoms. (2 The HADS assesses non-somatic symptoms of anxiety and depression. In addition, patients answered the third question of the University of California Los Angeles-Dizziness Questionnaire which covers the impact of dizziness and unsteadiness on everyday activities. Principal component analysis (PCA was performed to explore the dimensions of the DHI. Associations were estimated by Spearman correlation coefficients. Results One hundred ninety-four patients with dizziness or unsteadiness associated with a vestibular disorder, mean age (standard deviation of 50.6 (13.6 years, participated. Based on eigenvalues greater one respectively the scree plot we analysed diverse factor solutions. The 3-factor solution seems to be reliable, clinically relevant and can partly be explained with the ICF. It explains 49.2% of the variance. Factor 1 comprises the effect of dizziness and unsteadiness on emotion and participation, factor 2 informs about specific activities or effort provoking dizziness and unsteadiness, and factor 3 focuses on self

  2. Tensor-Dictionary Learning with Deep Kruskal-Factor Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Andrew J.; Pu, Yunchen; Sun, Yannan; Spell, Gregory; Carin, Lawrence

    2017-04-20

    We introduce new dictionary learning methods for tensor-variate data of any order. We represent each data item as a sum of Kruskal decomposed dictionary atoms within the framework of beta-process factor analysis (BPFA). Our model is nonparametric and can infer the tensor-rank of each dictionary atom. This Kruskal-Factor Analysis (KFA) is a natural generalization of BPFA. We also extend KFA to a deep convolutional setting and develop online learning methods. We test our approach on image processing and classification tasks achieving state of the art results for 2D & 3D inpainting and Caltech 101. The experiments also show that atom-rank impacts both overcompleteness and sparsity.

  3. Risk factors for progressive ischemic stroke A retrospective analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Progressive ischemic stroke has higher fatality rate and disability rate than common cerebral infarction, thus it is very significant to investigate the early predicting factors related to the occurrence of progressive ischemic stroke, thc potential pathological mechanism and the risk factors of early intervention for preventing the occurrence of progressive ischemic stroke and ameliorating its outcome.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the possible related risk factors in patients with progressive ishcemic stroke, so as to provide reference for the prevention and treatment of progressive ishcemic stroke.DESIGN: A retrospective analysis.SETTING: Department of Neurology, General Hospital of Beijing Coal Mining Group.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 280 patients with progressive ischemic stroke were selected from the Department of Neurology, General Hospital of Beijing Coal Mining Group from March 2002 to June 2006, including 192 males and 88 females, with a mean age of (62±7) years old. They were all accorded with the diagnostic standards for cerebral infarction set by the Fourth National Academic Meeting for Cerebrovascular Disease in 1995, and confired by CT or MRI, admitted within 24 hours after attack, and the neurological defect progressed gradually or aggravated in gradients within 72 hours after attack, and the aggravation of neurological defect was defined as the neurological deficit score decreased by more than 2 points. Meanwhile,200 inpatients with non-progressive ischemic stroke (135 males and 65 females) were selected as the control group.METHODS: After admission, a univariate analysis of variance was conducted using the factors of blood pressure, history of diabetes mellitus, fever, leukocytosis, levels of blood lipids, fibrinogen, blood glucose and plasma homocysteine, cerebral arterial stenosis, and CT symptoms of early infarction, and the significant factors were involved in the multivariate non-conditional Logistic regression analysis.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

  4. Analysis of risk factors for postoperative pancreatic fistula following pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi-Yu; Zhang, Wen-Zhi; Xia, Hong-Tian; Leng, Jian-Jun; Wan, Tao; Liang, Bin; Yang, Tao; Dong, Jia-Hong

    2014-12-14

    To explore the morbidity and risk factors of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) following pancreaticoduodenectomy. The data from 196 consecutive patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy, performed by different surgeons, in the General Hospital of the People's Liberation Army between January 1(st), 2013 and December 31(st), 2013 were retrospectively collected for analysis. The diagnoses of POPF and clinically relevant (CR)-POPF following pancreaticoduodenectomy were judged strictly by the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula Definition. Univariate analysis was performed to analyze the following factors: patient age, sex, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, diabetes mellitus, serum CA19-9 level, history of jaundice, serum albumin level, blood loss volume, pancreatic duct diameter, pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy, pancreatic drainage and pancreaticojejunostomy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the main independent risk factors for POPF. POPF occurred in 126 (64.3%) of the patients, and the incidence of CR-POPF was 32.7% (64/196). Patient characteristics of age, sex, BMI, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, serum CA19-9 level, history of jaundice, serum albumin level, blood loss volume, pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy and pancreaticojejunostomy showed no statistical difference related to the morbidity of POPF or CR-POPF. Pancreatic duct diameter was found to be significantly correlated with POPF rates by univariate analysis and multivariate regression analysis, with a pancreatic duct diameter ≤ 3 mm being an independent risk factor for POPF (OR = 0.291; P = 0.000) and CR-POPF (OR = 0.399; P = 0.004). The CR-POPF rate was higher in patients without external pancreatic stenting, which was found to be an independent risk factor for CR-POPF (OR = 0.394; P = 0.012). Among the entire patient series, there were three postoperative deaths, giving a total mortality rate of 1.5% (3/196), and the mortality

  5. ANALYSIS OF FACTORS WHICH AFFECTING THE ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparna Wijaya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available High economic growth and sustainable process are main conditions for sustainability of economic country development. They are also become measures of the success of the country's economy. Factors which tested in this study are economic and non-economic factors which impacting economic development. This study has a goal to explain the factors that influence on macroeconomic Indonesia. It used linear regression modeling approach. The analysis result showed that Tax Amnesty, Exchange Rate, Inflation, and interest rate, they jointly can bring effect which amounted to 77.6% on economic growth whereas the remaining 22.4% is the influenced by other variables which not observed in this study. Keywords: tax amnesty, exchange rates, inflation, SBI and economic growth

  6. Empirical Analysis on Factors Influencing Distribution of Vegetal Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjie; WU

    2015-01-01

    Since the reform and opening-up,there has been a great change in spatial pattern of China’s vegetable production. This paper studied vegetable production in provinces of China in 1978- 2013. From the sequential characteristics,China’s vegetable production area is constantly growing and takes on stage characteristic. From the spatial distribution,China’s vegetable production takes on the trend of " going down the south" and " marching the west". In order to grasp rules of changes of vegetable production and the influence factors,this paper made theoretical and empirical analysis on factors possibly influencing distribution of vegetable production. Results show that major factors influencing distribution of China’s vegetable production include irrigation condition,non-agricultural employment,market demand,knowledge spillover,comparative effectiveness,rural road and government policies.

  7. A Bayesian semiparametric factor analysis model for subtype identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiehuan; Warren, Joshua L; Zhao, Hongyu

    2017-04-25

    Disease subtype identification (clustering) is an important problem in biomedical research. Gene expression profiles are commonly utilized to infer disease subtypes, which often lead to biologically meaningful insights into disease. Despite many successes, existing clustering methods may not perform well when genes are highly correlated and many uninformative genes are included for clustering due to the high dimensionality. In this article, we introduce a novel subtype identification method in the Bayesian setting based on gene expression profiles. This method, called BCSub, adopts an innovative semiparametric Bayesian factor analysis model to reduce the dimension of the data to a few factor scores for clustering. Specifically, the factor scores are assumed to follow the Dirichlet process mixture model in order to induce clustering. Through extensive simulation studies, we show that BCSub has improved performance over commonly used clustering methods. When applied to two gene expression datasets, our model is able to identify subtypes that are clinically more relevant than those identified from the existing methods.

  8. Phylogenetic Analysis of Human Parvovirus B19 Sequences from Eleven Different Countries Confirms the Predominance of Genotype 1 and Suggests the Spread of Genotype 3b▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübschen, Judith M.; Mihneva, Zefira; Mentis, Andreas F.; Schneider, François; Aboudy, Yair; Grossman, Zehava; Rudich, Hagit; Kasymbekova, Kalia; Sarv, Inna; Nedeljkovic, Jasminka; Tahita, Marc C.; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco; Gerasimova, A. G.; Moskaleva, T. N.; Tikhonova, Nina T.; Chitadze, Nazibrola; Forbi, J. C.; Faneye, Adedayo O.; Otegbayo, Jesse A.; Charpentier, Emilie; Muller, Claude P.

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of 166 human parvovirus B19 sequences from 11 different countries attributed 91.57% to genotype 1, 5.42% to genotype 3b, and 3.01% to genotype 3a. Very similar viruses of genotype 1 circulated widely in Europe and Israel. Genotype 3b seems to show an increasing spread outside of Africa. PMID:19741071

  9. Meta-analysis of gene expression patterns in animal models of prenatal alcohol exposure suggests role for protein synthesis inhibition and chromatin remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogic, Sanja; Wong, Albertina; Pavlidis, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can result in an array of morphological, behavioural and neurobiological deficits that can range in their severity. Despite extensive research in the field and a significant progress made, especially in understanding the range of possible malformations and neurobehavioral abnormalities, the molecular mechanisms of alcohol responses in development are still not well understood. There have been multiple transcriptomic studies looking at the changes in gene expression after PAE in animal models, however there is a limited apparent consensus among the reported findings. In an effort to address this issue, we performed a comprehensive re-analysis and meta-analysis of all suitable, publically available expression data sets. Methods We assembled ten microarray data sets of gene expression after PAE in mouse and rat models consisting of samples from a total of 63 ethanol-exposed and 80 control animals. We re-analyzed each data set for differential expression and then used the results to perform meta-analyses considering all data sets together or grouping them by time or duration of exposure (pre- and post-natal, acute and chronic, respectively). We performed network and Gene Ontology enrichment analysis to further characterize the identified signatures. Results For each sub-analysis we identified signatures of differential expressed genes that show support from multiple studies. Overall, the changes in gene expression were more extensive after acute ethanol treatment during prenatal development than in other models. Considering the analysis of all the data together, we identified a robust core signature of 104 genes down-regulated after PAE, with no up-regulated genes. Functional analysis reveals over-representation of genes involved in protein synthesis, mRNA splicing and chromatin organization. Conclusions Our meta-analysis shows that existing studies, despite superficial dissimilarity in findings, share features that allow us

  10. Analysis of Factors Influencing English Listening Teaching and the Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Tian

    2013-01-01

    English teaching focuses on cultivating and improving students’listening, speaking, reading, writing and translating skills, which are complementary to each other. Among these five skills, listening, as an important basic skill, should be put into top priority in English teaching. Mainly based on the analysis of factors influencing English listening teaching, the paper puts for-ward some effective countermeasures in improving teaching effectiveness.

  11. Analysis on some factors affecting MIMO in tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hong-dang; Nie, Xiao-Yan; Xu, Zhao

    2009-07-01

    Based on the 3D-GBSB (three-dimensional Geometrically Based Single-Bounce) model and MIMO channel capacity function, by geometric analysis, it is analyzed that transceiver antenna arrays, antenna spacing, antenna array angle, SNR and Rician K-factor and so on impact on the frequency-nonselective fading MIMO channel capacity. Monte Carlo method can be applied to stimulate the wireless fading channel and demonstrate Cumulative Distribution Function of above.

  12. Creative Uses of Factor Analysis in Psychotherapy Research: Past Examples and Future Possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, James M.

    Factor analysis is a statistical method of reducing a set number of variables by finding similarities between them. This paper reviews the potential of factor analysis, focusing on exploratory factor analysis, in research on psychotherapy. Within the field of psychotherapy, the use of factor analysis can be classified into three groups. The first…

  13. An analysis of risk factors for asymptomatic cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Tomoko; Owada, Kiyoshi; Hoshino, Tatsuo; Nagahara, Hikaru; Shiratori, Keiko

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify risk factors for asymptomatic cerebral infarction (ACI) in the general Japanese population. A total of 634 subjects (272 men aged 55.4+/-8.8 years and 362 women aged 55.2+/-8.5 years) who visited the Health Management Center at Aoyama Hospital (Tokyo, Japan) from January 2004 through January 2005 for an annual brain dry dock examination were analyzed. We evaluated 21 risk factors for ACI by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Abnormal or potentially abnormal conditions were detected in 258 subjects (40.7% of all subjects who had an annual check-up program for brain disease). The most frequent abnormal finding was ACI, which was observed in 208 subjects. The significant risk factors for ACI, as determined by multivariate logistic analysis, were age (P <0.01), hypertension (P <0.01), and hypertensive vascular changes in the fundus (P <0.05). The hypertensive vascular abnormalities in the fundus might be a risk factor for ACI independent of age and hypertension.

  14. Exploratory Analysis of the Factors Affecting Consumer Choice in E-Commerce: Conjoint Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mazurova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available According to previous studies of online consumer behaviour, three factors are the most influential on purchasing behavior - brand, colour and position of the product on the screen. However, a simultaneous influence of these three factors on the consumer decision making process has not been investigated previously. In this particular work we aim to execute a comprehensive study of the influence of these three factors. In order to answer our main research questions, we conducted an experiment with 96 different combinations of the three attributes, and using statistical analysis, such as conjoint analysis, t-test analysis and Kendall analysis we identified that the most influential factor to the online consumer decision making process is brand, the second most important attribute is the colour, which was estimated half as important as brand, and the least important attribute is the position on the screen. Additionally, we identified the main differences regarding consumers stated and revealed preferences regarding these three attributes.

  15. Y chromosome analysis of dingoes and southeast asian village dogs suggests a neolithic continental expansion from Southeast Asia followed by multiple Austronesian dispersals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Benjamin N; Brown, Sarah K; Stephens, Danielle; Pedersen, Niels C; Wu, Jui-Te; Berry, Oliver

    2013-05-01

    Dogs originated more than 14,000 BP, but the location(s) where they first arose is uncertain. The earliest archeological evidence of ancient dogs was discovered in Europe and the Middle East, some 5-7 millennia before that from Southeast Asia. However, mitochondrial DNA analyses suggest that most modern dogs derive from Southeast Asia, which has fueled the controversial hypothesis that dog domestication originated in this region despite the lack of supporting archeological evidence. We propose and investigate with Y chromosomes an alternative hypothesis for the proximate origins of dogs from Southeast Asia--a massive Neolithic expansion of dogs from this region that largely replaced more primitive dogs to the west and north. Previous attempts to test matrilineal findings with independent patrilineal markers have lacked the necessary genealogical resolution and mutation rate estimates. Here, we used Y chromosome genotypes, composed of 29 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and 5 single tandem repeats (STRs), from 338 Australian dingoes, New Guinea singing dogs, and village dogs from Island Southeast Asia, along with modern European breed dogs, to estimate the evolutionary mutation rates of Y chromosome STRs based on calibration to the independently known age of the dingo population. Dingoes exhibited a unique haplogroup characterized by a single distinguishing SNP mutation and 14 STR haplotypes. The age of the European haplogroup was estimated to be only 1.7 times older than that of the dingo population, suggesting an origin during the Neolithic rather than the Paleolithic (as predicted by the Southeast Asian origins hypothesis). We hypothesize that isolation of Neolithic dogs from wolves in Southeast Asia was a key step accelerating their phenotypic transformation, enhancing their value in trade and as cargo, and enabling them to rapidly expand and replace more primitive dogs to the West. Our findings also suggest that dingoes could have arrived in Australia

  16. The influence factors on the rural pregnant women taking folic acid behavior and the countermeasures and suggestions%农村孕产妇服用叶酸的影响因素及对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴菁

    2014-01-01

    It is an important guarantee for the women of childbearing age to effectively take folic acid in order to prevent the neural tube defects. This article reviews the status of the rural women of childbearing age taking folic acid, and the influence factors and puts forward the countermeasures and suggestions for the promotion of folic acid supplementation for the rural women of childbearing age.%育龄妇女有效服用叶酸是预防神经管缺陷的重要保证。文章综述了农村育龄妇女叶酸服用的现状、影响因素;提出了推广农村育龄妇女增补叶酸的对策意见。

  17. Genome-wide Gene Expression Analysis of Mucosal Colonic Biopsies and Isolated Colonocytes Suggests a Continuous Inflammatory State in the Lamina Propria of Patients with Quiescent Ulcerative Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten; Hansen, Morten; Olsen, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    colonocytes from UC patients and controls in order to identify the cell types responsible for the continuous inflammatory state. Methods: Adjacent mucosal colonic biopsies were obtained endoscopically from the descending colon in patients with active UC (n = 8), quiescent UC (n = 9), and with irritable bowel......Background: Genome-wide gene expression (GWGE) profiles of mucosal colonic biopsies have suggested the existence of a continuous inflammatory state in quiescent ulcerative colitis (UC). The aim of this study was to use DNA microarray-based GWGE profiling of mucosal colonic biopsies and isolated...

  18. Dispersion-theoretical analysis of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belushkin, M.

    2007-09-29

    The structure of the proton and the neutron is of fundamental importance for the study of the strong interaction dynamics over a wide range of momentum transfers. The nucleon form factors encode information on the internal structure of the nucleon as probed by the electromagnetic interaction, and, to a certain extent, reflect the charge and magnetisation distributions within the proton and the neutron. In this thesis we report on our investigation of the electromagnetic form factors of the proton and the neutron with dispersion relation techniques, including known experimental input on the {pi}{pi}, K anti K and the {rho}{pi} continua and perturbative QCD constraints. We include new experimental data on the pion form factor and the nucleon form factors in our simultaneous analysis of all four form factors in both the space- and the timelike regions for all momentum transfers, and perform Monte- Carlo sampling in order to obtain theoretical uncertainty bands. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results on the pion cloud of the nucleon, the nucleon radii and the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka rule, and present our results of a model-independent approach to estimating two-photon effects in elastic electron-proton scattering. (orig.)

  19. Dispersion-theoretical analysis of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belushkin, M.

    2007-09-29

    The structure of the proton and the neutron is of fundamental importance for the study of the strong interaction dynamics over a wide range of momentum transfers. The nucleon form factors encode information on the internal structure of the nucleon as probed by the electromagnetic interaction, and, to a certain extent, reflect the charge and magnetisation distributions within the proton and the neutron. In this thesis we report on our investigation of the electromagnetic form factors of the proton and the neutron with dispersion relation techniques, including known experimental input on the {pi}{pi}, K anti K and the {rho}{pi} continua and perturbative QCD constraints. We include new experimental data on the pion form factor and the nucleon form factors in our simultaneous analysis of all four form factors in both the space- and the timelike regions for all momentum transfers, and perform Monte- Carlo sampling in order to obtain theoretical uncertainty bands. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results on the pion cloud of the nucleon, the nucleon radii and the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka rule, and present our results of a model-independent approach to estimating two-photon effects in elastic electron-proton scattering. (orig.)

  20. A Bayes factor meta-analysis of Bem's ESP claim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouder, Jeffrey N; Morey, Richard D

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, statisticians and psychologists have provided the critique that p-values do not capture the evidence afforded by data and are, consequently, ill suited for analysis in scientific endeavors. The issue is particular salient in the assessment of the recent evidence provided for ESP by Bem (2011) in the mainstream Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Wagenmakers, Wetzels, Borsboom, and van der Maas (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 426-432, 2011) have provided an alternative Bayes factor assessment of Bem's data, but their assessment was limited to examining each experiment in isolation. We show here that the variant of the Bayes factor employed by Wagenmakers et al. is inappropriate for making assessments across multiple experiments, and cannot be used to gain an accurate assessment of the total evidence in Bem's data. We develop a meta-analytic Bayes factor that describes how researchers should update their prior beliefs about the odds of hypotheses in light of data across several experiments. We find that the evidence that people can feel the future with neutral and erotic stimuli to be slight, with Bayes factors of 3.23 and 1.57, respectively. There is some evidence, however, for the hypothesis that people can feel the future with emotionally valenced nonerotic stimuli, with a Bayes factor of about 40. Although this value is certainly noteworthy, we believe it is orders of magnitude lower than what is required to overcome appropriate skepticism of ESP.

  1. Exploratory Factor Analysis of Self-Reported Symptoms in a Large, Population-Based Military Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    requiring dialysis, lupus, and Crohn’s disease. In order to mitigate potential biases in correlation estimates, those who endorsed all 39 medical diagnosis ...55,020 participants who completed the first follow-up survey, the 34 individuals who endorsed all 39 self-reported medical diagnosis questions and the...analysis suggests that it could be a manifestation of it or another condition associated with anxiety such as fibromyalgia [33]. Factor 3

  2. Estimating end-use emissions factors for policy analysis: the case of space cooling and heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Grant D

    2014-06-17

    This paper provides the first estimates of end-use specific emissions factors, which are estimates of the amount of a pollutant that is emitted when a unit of electricity is generated to meet demand from a specific end-use. In particular, this paper provides estimates of emissions factors for space cooling and heating, which are two of the most significant end-uses. The analysis is based on a novel two-stage regression framework that estimates emissions factors that are specific to cooling or heating by exploiting variation in cooling and heating demand induced by weather variation. Heating is associated with similar or greater CO2 emissions factor than cooling in all regions. The difference is greatest in the Midwest and Northeast, where the estimated CO2 emissions factor for heating is more than 20% larger than the emissions factor for cooling. The minor differences in emissions factors in other regions, combined with the substantial difference in the demand pattern for cooling and heating, suggests that the use of overall regional emissions factors is reasonable for policy evaluations in certain locations. Accurately quantifying the emissions factors associated with different end-uses across regions will aid in designing improved energy and environmental policies.

  3. Factor analysis of the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire in a Spanish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, M J; Peralta, V; Irigoyen, I

    1996-01-01

    The Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ) is a self-assessment instrument designed to evaluate the subjective experiences (SE) of psychotic patients. It is composed of 98 yes-no items grouped in ten phenomenological subscales. The original validation of the FCQ included a factor analysis with a four-factor structure. No further studies of factor validity have been carried out. The present study aimed to replicate the factor structure of the FCQ in a Spanish sample. The sample was composed of 286 consecutively admitted patients due to a recrudescence of their psychotic symptoms. They were evaluated through a semistructured interview for schizophrenia and diagnosed according to DSM-III-R criteria. Organic mental disorders were excluded. Sixteen patients who failed to fulfill the FCQ were excluded. The sample finally comprised 270 patients. A factor structure of FCQ items comprising 25 factors was found. The first factor obtained the highest explained variance, and most items obtained their highest load on the first factor. These results strongly suggest a unidimensionality underlying FCQ items. A new scale composed of 18 items was derived from those with higher weights in the first factor. The new scale of SE was presented in a Likert format to demonstrate their frequency and intensity more clearly.

  4. [Morbidity, mortality and analysis of prognostic factors for colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauer, U; Schäfer, J; Roder, J

    2015-06-01

    This study analyzed morbidity, mortality and prognostic factors for patient survival in a single center collective of patients with colorectal cancer and a high follow-up rate. A total of 698 consecutive patients were included in this study. Data were collected prospectively. Descriptive and survival analyses as well as Cox regression analyses were performed to identify factors for morbidity, mortality and prognostic factors for survival. At presentation 78.8 % of the colon cancer patients and 83.5 % of rectal cancer patients showed symptomatic disease and 6.5 % of patients underwent an emergency procedure. Mortality was 3.6 %, morbidity was 42.7 % and 4.3 % of patients developed an anastomotic leakage with the need of reoperation. In spite of the regular application of a fast-track program, 10 % of patients had a prolonged duration of bowel paralysis. In patients with colon cancer there were no differences between overall survival (OAS) and disease-free survival, whereas there was a significant difference in patients with rectal cancer. The mean survival of all patients was 65.39 ± 1.722 months. The ASA score, cardiovascular disease, number of metastatic lymph nodes, lymph node ratio, residual tumor and general or surgery-associated complications were strongly independent influencing factors on OAS. A Cox analysis revealed age at diagnosis and microscopic residual tumor (TNM R1) as highly significant influencing factors on OAS. Other significant factors of influence on OAS were development of general or surgery-associated complications and the presence of cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular disease leads to a higher morbidity rate whereas age, International Union Against Cancer (UICC) stage, R-status, lymphatic spread and occurrence of complications are important prognostic factors for survival.

  5. Gene expression analysis of parthenogenetic embryonic development of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, suggests that aphid parthenogenesis evolved from meiotic oogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayalan G Srinivasan

    Full Text Available Aphids exhibit a form of phenotypic plasticity, called polyphenism, in which genetically identical females reproduce sexually during one part of the life cycle and asexually (via parthenogenesis during the remainder of the life cycle. The molecular basis for aphid parthenogenesis is unknown. Cytological observations of aphid parthenogenesis suggest that asexual oogenesis evolved either through a modification of meiosis or from a mitotic process. As a test of these alternatives, we assessed the expression levels and expression patterns of canonical meiotic recombination and germline genes in the sexual and asexual ovaries of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. We observed expression of all meiosis genes in similar patterns in asexual and sexual ovaries, with the exception that some genes encoding Argonaute-family members were not expressed in sexual ovaries. In addition, we observed that asexual aphid tissues accumulated unspliced transcripts of Spo11, whereas sexual aphid tissues accumulated primarily spliced transcripts. In situ hybridization revealed Spo11 transcript in sexual germ cells and undetectable levels of Spo11 transcript in asexual germ cells. We also found that an obligately asexual strain of pea aphid produced little spliced Spo11 transcript. Together, these results suggest that parthenogenetic oogenesis evolved from a meiosis-like, and not a mitosis-like, process and that the aphid reproductive polyphenism may involve a modification of Spo11 gene activity.

  6. 参保人员异地就医影响因素分析--兼谈有序就医的对策%The Factors Influencing Insured People Seeking Remote Medical Treatment--the Suggestion for Orderly seeking Medical Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鸿蕴; 王虎峰

    2014-01-01

    参保人员异地就医影响因素是制定有序就医政策的重要依据。本文以广州、上海、盐城三个城市五家医院的参保患者为对象,开展问卷调查,从有无异地就医经历、户籍类型及收入水平三个角度对影响不同人群就医选择的因素进行对比分析。结果:医疗技术水平最受关注,就医成本最不受关注。对策:要保障资源配置和基本医疗服务均等化;提高就诊便利性;发挥医保的杠杆作用。%The factors influencing insured people seeking remote medical treatment is a critical reference for policy decision for orderly seeking medical treatment. Based on the investigation on the insured patients from Guangzhou, Shanghai and Yancheng, and from three aspects, such as, with or without remote medical experience, the types of household registration and the level of income, the factors influencing the subjects to seek medical services are compared and analyzed. The result shows that the level of medical technology is the most important factor and the level of medical cost is the least important one influencing the insured persons to seek medical service. Therefore, to response to these situations, equal allocating of resources and basic medical services, increasing service convenience, and improving the insurance policy are suggested.

  7. Phasor analysis of binary diffraction gratings with different fill factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MartInez, Antonio [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Optica y TecnologIa Electronica, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Spain); Sanchez-Lopez, Ma del Mar [Instituto de BioingenierIa y Departamento de Fisica y Arquitectura de Computadores, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Spain); Moreno, Ignacio [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Optica y TecnologIa Electronica, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Spain)

    2007-09-11

    In this work, we present a simple analysis of binary diffraction gratings with different slit widths relative to the grating period. The analysis is based on a simple phasor technique directly derived from the Huygens principle. By introducing a slit phasor and a grating phasor, the intensity of the diffracted orders and the grating's resolving power can be easily obtained without applying the usual Fourier transform operations required for these calculations. The proposed phasor technique is mathematically equivalent to the Fourier transform calculation of the diffraction order amplitude, and it can be useful to explain binary diffraction gratings in a simple manner in introductory physics courses. This theoretical analysis is illustrated with experimental results using a liquid crystal device to display diffraction gratings with different fill factors.

  8. Biosphere dose conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Wasiolek

    2004-10-15

    This report presents importance and sensitivity analysis for the environmental radiation model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN). ERMYN is a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis concerns the output of the model, biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater, and the volcanic ash exposure scenarios. It identifies important processes and parameters that influence the BDCF values and distributions, enhances understanding of the relative importance of the physical and environmental processes on the outcome of the biosphere model, includes a detailed pathway analysis for key radionuclides, and evaluates the appropriateness of selected parameter values that are not site-specific or have large uncertainty.

  9. Association factor analysis between osteoporosis with cerebral artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Eun-Sun; Jeong, Je Hoon; Lee, Bora; Im, Soo Bin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical association factors between osteoporosis and cerebral artery disease in Korean population. Two hundred nineteen postmenopausal women and men undergoing cerebral computed tomography angiography were enrolled in this study to evaluate the cerebral artery disease by cross-sectional study. Cerebral artery disease was diagnosed if there was narrowing of 50% higher diameter in one or more cerebral vessel artery or presence of vascular calcification. History of osteoporotic fracture was assessed using medical record, and radiographic data such as simple radiography, MRI, and bone scan. Bone mineral density was checked by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We reviewed clinical characteristics in all patients and also performed subgroup analysis for total or extracranial/ intracranial cerebral artery disease group retrospectively. We performed statistical analysis by means of chi-square test or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and Student's t-test or Wilcoxon's rank sum test for continuous variables. We also used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the factors associated with the prevalence of cerebral artery disease. A two-tailed p-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. All statistical analyses were performed using R (version 3.1.3; The R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria) and SPSS (version 14.0; SPSS, Inc, Chicago, Ill, USA). Of the 219 patients, 142 had cerebral artery disease. All vertebral fracture was observed in 29 (13.24%) patients. There was significant difference in hip fracture according to the presence or absence of cerebral artery disease. In logistic regression analysis, osteoporotic hip fracture was significantly associated with extracranial cerebral artery disease after adjusting for multiple risk factors. Females with osteoporotic hip fracture were associated with total calcified

  10. Risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors: A meta-analysis of 50 years of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Joseph C; Ribeiro, Jessica D; Fox, Kathryn R; Bentley, Kate H; Kleiman, Evan M; Huang, Xieyining; Musacchio, Katherine M; Jaroszewski, Adam C; Chang, Bernard P; Nock, Matthew K

    2017-02-01

    Suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs) are major public health problems that have not declined appreciably in several decades. One of the first steps to improving the prevention and treatment of STBs is to establish risk factors (i.e., longitudinal predictors). To provide a summary of current knowledge about risk factors, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies that have attempted to longitudinally predict a specific STB-related outcome. This included 365 studies (3,428 total risk factor effect sizes) from the past 50 years. The present random-effects meta-analysis produced several unexpected findings: across odds ratio, hazard ratio, and diagnostic accuracy analyses, prediction was only slightly better than chance for all outcomes; no broad category or subcategory accurately predicted far above chance levels; predictive ability has not improved across 50 years of research; studies rarely examined the combined effect of multiple risk factors; risk factors have been homogenous over time, with 5 broad categories accounting for nearly 80% of all risk factor tests; and the average study was nearly 10 years long, but longer studies did not produce better prediction. The homogeneity of existing research means that the present meta-analysis could only speak to STB risk factor associations within very narrow methodological limits-limits that have not allowed for tests that approximate most STB theories. The present meta-analysis accordingly highlights several fundamental changes needed in future studies. In particular, these findings suggest the need for a shift in focus from risk factors to machine learning-based risk algorithms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Factor analysis of nursing students' perception of patient safety education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the factor structure of the Health Care Professionals Patient Safety Assessment Curriculum Survey (HPPSACS) when completed by a group of nursing students from one University in the UK. The quality, content and delivery of nursing education can have a significant impact on the future students' safety behaviours in clinical settings. The Health Care Professionals Patient Safety Assessment Curriculum Survey HPPSACS has been developed in the US to establish undergraduate nursing students' perceived awareness, skills, and attitudes toward patient safety education. The instrument has not been reported to be used elsewhere; therefore, some psychometric properties remain untested. Pre-registration nursing students (n=272) from three campuses of a university in East of England completed the HPPSACS in 2012. Principal component analysis was conducted to explore the factors emerging from the students' responses. 222 students (82%) returned the questionnaires. Constraining data to a 4-factor solution explained 52% of the variance. Factors identified were: "Willingness to disclose errors", "Recognition and management of medical errors", "The Perceived interprofessional context of patient safety" and "The perceived support and understanding for improving patient safety". The overall Cronbach's alpha was 0.64, indicating moderate internal consistency of the instrument. Some demographical and descriptive questions on the HPPSACS instrument were modified to accommodate the participants' educational context. However, all items in the HPPSACS which were included in the factor analysis remain identical to the original tool. The study offers empirical findings of how patient safety education is contextualised in the undergraduate, pre-registration nursing curriculum. Further research is required to refine and improve the overall reliability of the Health Care Professionals Patient Safety Assessment Curriculum Survey (HPPSACS' instrument

  12. Analysis of GSCM Practices Factors and Sub Factors for Implementation of GSCM in Manufacturing Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rituraj Chandraker; Rajesh Kumar ; Apoorv Tiwari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing activities are the major contributions to world’s environmental degradation. But it has been very difficult to understand and analyse the effect of individual activities and its corresponding contribution in the act of environmental degradation. Effects have been made of the analysis to understand the drivers and barriers of the green supply chain. Methodology has been evolving to analyse the existing scenario in an organisation and to suggest possible remedial measures.

  13. Analysis of the ACTN3 heterozygous genotype suggests that α-actinin-3 controls sarcomeric composition and muscle function in a dose-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Marshall W; Garton, Fleur C; Houweling, Peter J; Tukiainen, Taru; Lek, Monkol; Macarthur, Daniel G; Seto, Jane T; Quinlan, Kate G R; Yang, Nan; Head, Stewart I; North, Kathryn N

    2016-03-01

    A common null polymorphism (R577X) in ACTN3 causes α-actinin-3 deficiency in ∼ 18% of the global population. There is no associated disease phenotype, but α-actinin-3 deficiency is detrimental to sprint and power performance in both elite athletes and the general population. However, despite considerable investigation to date, the functional consequences of heterozygosity for ACTN3 are unclear. A subset of studies have shown an intermediate phenotype in 577RX individuals, suggesting dose-dependency of α-actinin-3, while others have shown no difference between 577RR and RX genotypes. Here, we investigate the effects of α-actinin-3 expression level by comparing the muscle phenotypes of Actn3(+/-) (HET) mice to Actn3(+/+) [wild-type (WT)] and Actn3(-/-) [knockout (KO)] littermates. We show reduction in α-actinin-3 mRNA and protein in HET muscle compared with WT, which is associated with dose-dependent up-regulation of α-actinin-2, z-band alternatively spliced PDZ-motif and myotilin at the Z-line, and an incremental shift towards oxidative metabolism. While there is no difference in force generation, HET mice have an intermediate endurance capacity compared with WT and KO. The R577X polymorphism is associated with changes in ACTN3 expression consistent with an additive model in the human genotype-tissue expression cohort, but does not influence any other muscle transcripts, including ACTN2. Overall, ACTN3 influences sarcomeric composition in a dose-dependent fashion in mouse skeletal muscle, which translates directly to function. Variance in fibre type between biopsies likely masks this phenomenon in human skeletal muscle, but we suggest that an additive model is the most appropriate for use in testing ACTN3 genotype associations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. 国内冷链物流发展现状与对策%Simple Analysis on Status and Suggestion on Domestic Cold Chain Logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    漆莼

    2012-01-01

    With the development of economy and the rise of living level, people's concern has turned to the quality of the product from the previous quantity. To better satisfy people's demand on food, cold chain logistics is playing a more and more important role. In this article, the basic meaning of cold chain logistics was initially introduced. Then, with cold chain logistics measurements from abroad, aiming the existing prob- lems at home, in terms of "cold" and "chain", the paper put forward some reasonable suggestions. And in the "chain" perspective, detailed suggestions are offered to the government, industry organization and companies themselves respectively.%随着经济的发展和人们生活水平的提高,人们的消费观念逐渐从原来的单一数量化向如今的多元质量化转变,为了满足消费者需求,保证食品的新鲜、营养和安全,冷链物流体系发挥着越来越重要的作用。首先介绍了冷链物流的基本内涵,然后阐述了目前国内冷链物流的特征,之后结合国外发展冷链物流的一些具体做法.针对国内冷链物流存在的问题从“冷”和“链”两方面提出了一些对策,其中在“链”的角度上,重点从政府、行业组织和企业自身三个方面给出了具体的对策建议。

  15. Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna B. Costello

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory factor analysis (EFA is a complex, multi-step process. The goal of this paper is..to collect, in one article, information that will allow researchers and practitioners to..understand the various choices available through popular software packages, and to make..decisions about - best practices- in exploratory factor analysis. In particular, this paper..provides practical information on making decisions regarding (a extraction, (b rotation, (c..the number of factors to interpret, and (d sample size.

  16. Factor Analysis of Enterprise Internet+ Impetus Based on System Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Haiwang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet+ plays an important role in the transition and upgrading of enterprises in this era. To promote enterprise Internet+ implementation, this paper studies the influencing factors in enterprise Internet+ impetus. First, based on system dynamics, the influencing factors of enterprise Internet+ impetus are analyzed as well as their relationships. Then, a system dynamics model is established and Vensim PLE is utilized to simulate the model. Finally, some suggestions about the Internet+ implementation are given. The simulation results show that technological environment, government policy and information asymmetry all have different influence on the enterprise Internet+ impetus and different strategies can be taken to change their influence. This study is helpful for enterprises to understand the Internet+ impetus mechanism thus promote Internet+ implementation.

  17. Statistical Analysis of Risk Factors for Cardiovascular disease in Malakand Division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahud Din

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been conducted to investigate the incidence of cardiovascular disease and to determine the possible risk factors for the disease. In this study, a Statistical method of odds ratio analysis was performed to look at the association of one of the type of cardiovascular disease known as myocardial infarction with various risk factors such as diabetes, cholesterol, hypertension, sex, smoking, obesity, family history and age in Malakand division. A total of 700 patients were examined and their personal and medical data were collected. For each patient, the phenomenon of myocardial infarction was studied in relation to different risk factors. The analyses suggest that hypertension, smoking, diabetes, cholesterol level and family history were important risk factors for the occurrence of myocardial infarction.

  18. The Measurement and Analysis Risk Factors Dependence Correlation in Software Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianjie, Ding; Hong, Hou; Kegang, Hao; Xiaoqun, Guo

    The complexity of software process leads to that there are all kinds of fuzzy correlations among different process management risk factors, such as dependence correlation among software risk factors. It’s difficult to analyze risk data directly by mathematic tools because that risk data is uncertain and rough. Based on the rough set theory and the data in risk management library, the risk factors dependence correlation analysis system(RFDCAS) is established, and the dependence coefficient and its calculate formula on the base of equivalence class is suggested. The RFDCAS unveils the dependence correlation among risk factors contribute to risk management, and can help discover the problems in the software process improvement management.

  19. Sensitivity Analysis to Select the Most Influential Risk Factors in a Logistic Regression Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jassim N. Hussain

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional variable selection methods for survival data depend on iteration procedures, and control of this process assumes tuning parameters that are problematic and time consuming, especially if the models are complex and have a large number of risk factors. In this paper, we propose a new method based on the global sensitivity analysis (GSA to select the most influential risk factors. This contributes to simplification of the logistic regression model by excluding the irrelevant risk factors, thus eliminating the need to fit and evaluate a large number of models. Data from medical trials are suggested as a way to test the efficiency and capability of this method and as a way to simplify the model. This leads to construction of an appropriate model. The proposed method ranks the risk factors according to their importance.

  20. Immunohistochemical and western blot analysis suggest that the soluble forms of FGF1-2 and FGFR1-2 sustain tail regeneration in the lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2017-08-18

    Fibroblast Growth Factors 1-2 (FGF1-2) stimulate tail regeneration in lizards and therefore the distribution of their receptors, FGFR1-2, in the regenerating tail of the lizard. Podarcis muralis has been studied using immunofluorescence and western blotting. Immunoreactive protein bands at 15-16kDa for FGF1-2 in addition to those at 50-65kDa are detected in the regenerating epidermis, but weak bands at 35, 45 and 50kDa appear from the regenerating connective tissues. Strongly immunolabeled bands for FGFR1 at 32, 60, and 80kDa and less intense for FGFR2 only appear in the regenerating tail. In normal tail epidermis and dermis, higher MW forms are present at 80 and 115-140kDa, respectively, but they disappear in the regenerating epidermis and dermis where low MW forms of FGFR1-2 are found at 50-70kDa. Immunolocalization confirms that most FGFR1-2 are present in the wound epidermis, Apical Epidermal Peg, ependymal tube while immunolabeling lowers in regenerating muscles, blastema cells, cartilage and connectives tissues. The likely release of FGFs from the Apical Epidermal Peg and ependyma and the presence of their receptors in these tissues may determine the autocrine stimulation of proliferation and a paracrine stimulation of the blastema cells through their FGF Receptors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. 论推进农业机械化的对策和建议%An Analysis of Countermeasures and Suggestions to promote the Mechanization of Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous acceleration of the modernization of agriculture,the level of mechanization of agriculture has become the important factors that affect the modernization of agriculture,at the same time,the mechanization level of agriculture also represents the industrialization level of a country's agriculture and its modernization level.Further promoting the mechanization of agriculture, therefore,is the only way to accelerate the process of the modernization of agriculture in our country,improve the development level of agriculture and improve the competitiveness of the agricultural products.%随着我国现代化农业步伐不断加快,农业机械化水平的高低已经影响农业现代化的重要因素,同时,农业机械化水平高低也代表着一个国家农业工业化和现代化水平的高低.因此,进一步推进农业机械化,是加快我国农业现代化建设进程、提高农业发展水平、提升农产品竞争力的必由之路.

  2. Analysis of random factors of the self-education process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Solodov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is the statistical description of the random factors of the self-educationт process, namely that stage of the process of continuous education, in which there is no meaningful impact on the student’s educational organization and the development of algorithms for estimating these factors. It is assumed that motivations of self-education are intrinsic factors that characterize the individual learner and external, associated with the changing environment and emerging challenges. Phenomena available for analysis a self-learning process (observed data are events relevant to this process, which are modeled by points on the time axis, the number and position of which is assumed to be random. Each point can be mapped with the unknown and unobserved random or nonrandom factor (parameter which affects the intensity of formation of dots. The purpose is to describe observable and unobservable data and developing algorithms for optimal evaluation. Further, such evaluations can be used for the individual characteristics of the process of self-study or for comparison of different students. For the analysis of statistical characteristics of the process of selfeducation applied mathematical apparatus of the theory of point random processes, which allows to determine the key statistical characteristics of unknown random factors of the process of self-education. The work consists of a logically complete model including the following components.• Study the basic statistical model of the appearance of points in the process of self-education in the form of a Poisson process, the only characteristic is the intensity of occurrence of events• Methods of testing the hypothesis about Poisson distribution of observed events.• Generalization of the basic model to the case where the intensity function depends on the time and unknown factor (variable can be both random and not random. Such factors are interpreted as

  3. A comparison study on detection of key geochemical variables and factors through three different types of factor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinzade, Zohre; Mokhtari, Ahmad Reza

    2017-10-01

    Large numbers of variables have been measured to explain different phenomena. Factor analysis has widely been used in order to reduce the dimension of datasets. Additionally, the technique has been employed to highlight underlying factors hidden in a complex system. As geochemical studies benefit from multivariate assays, application of this method is widespread in geochemistry. However, the conventional protocols in implementing factor analysis have some drawbacks in spite of their advantages. In the present study, a geochemical dataset including 804 soil samples collected from a mining area in central Iran in order to search for MVT type Pb-Zn deposits was considered to outline geochemical analysis through various fractal methods. Routine factor analysis, sequential factor analysis, and staged factor analysis were applied to the dataset after opening the data with (additive logratio) alr-transformation to extract mineralization factor in the dataset. A comparison between these methods indicated that sequential factor analysis has more clearly revealed MVT paragenesis elements in surface samples with nearly 50% variation in F1. In addition, staged factor analysis has given acceptable results while it is easy to practice. It could detect mineralization related elements while larger factor loadings are given to these elements resulting in better pronunciation of mineralization.

  4. Gene expression analysis of overwintering mountain pine beetle larvae suggests multiple systems involved in overwintering stress, cold hardiness, and preparation for spring development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne A. Robert

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold-induced mortality has historically been a key aspect of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, population control, but little is known about the molecular basis for cold tolerance in this insect. We used RNA-seq analysis to monitor gene expression patterns of mountain pine beetle larvae at four time points during their overwintering period—early-autumn, late-autumn, early-spring, and late-spring. Changing transcript profiles over the winter indicates a multipronged physiological response from larvae that is broadly characterized by gene transcripts involved in insect immune responses and detoxification during the autumn. In the spring, although transcripts associated with developmental process are present, there was no particular biological process dominating the transcriptome.

  5. Mucopolysaccharidosis type I in 21 Czech and Slovak patients: Mutation analysis suggests a functional importance of C-terminus of the IDUA protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazna, Alzbeta; Beesley, Clare; Berna, Linda; Stolnaja, Larisa; Myskova, Helena; Bouckova, Michaela; Vlaskova, Hana; Poupetova, Helena; Zeman, Jiri; Magner, Martin; Hlavata, Anna; Winchester, Bryan; Hrebicek, Martin; Dvorakova, Lenka

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder that is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme α-l-iduronidase (IDUA). Of the 21 Czech and Slovak patients who have been diagnosed with MPS I in the last 30 years, 16 have a severe clinical presentation (Hurler syndrome), 2 less severe manifestations (Scheie syndrome), and 3 an intermediate severity (Hurler/Scheie phenotype). Mutation analysis was performed in 20 MPS I patients and 39 mutant alleles were identified. There was a high prevalence of the null mutations p.W402X (12 alleles) and p.Q70X (7 alleles) in this cohort. Four of the 13 different mutations were novel: p.V620F (3 alleles), p.W626X (1 allele), c.1727 + 2T > G (1 allele) and c.1918_1927del (2 alleles). The pathogenicity of the novel mutations was verified by transient expression studies in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Seven haplotypes were observed in the patient alleles using 13 intragenic polymorphisms. One of the two haplotypes associated with the mutation p.Q70X was not found in any of the controls. Haplotype analysis showed, that mutations p.Q70X, p.V620F, and p.D315Y probably have more than one ancestor. Missense mutations localized predominantly in the hydrophobic core of the enzyme are associated with the severe phenotype, whereas missense mutations localized to the surface of the enzyme are usually associated with the attenuated phenotypes. Mutations in the 130 C-terminal amino acids lead to clinical manifestations, which indicates a functional importance of the C-terminus of the IDUA protein. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19396826

  6. 浅析食品监测中数据的信息管理和建议%Analysis of Data Informatics Management and Suggestions in Food Supervision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹进; 张庆生; 李晓瑜

    2015-01-01

    The data analysis of food supervision needs to reflect the integration of food safety and possible trend based on the fun-damental test data of stressed foods and their products. With the assessment and analysis on potential resources of hazard elements, the integrate management support of food safety could be achieved. The data management could be organized and evaluated through plan, collection, treatment and display, which might be assisted to establish data-link with process mining to enforce the prospect of food safety background and trend and to provide the support of food safety management.%食品监测数据分析是通过对重点食品进行针对性检测获取基础数据结果的基础上,反映出食品整体的安全状态和可能的发展走势,并通过潜在危害因子来源的预测和分析,实现对食品安全的整体管理支持. 其数据管理需要通过计划、采集、处理和呈现等步骤进行管理和评估,通过过程剖析的方式进行数据链的建立,从而实现对食品安全本底和走势的预测,为食品安全监管提供技术支撑.

  7. A model-based telecoupling analysis for the Patagonian shelf: a new suggested template on how to study global seabirds-fisheries interactions for sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettmann, F.; Raya Rey, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Southwest Atlantic Ocean, and the extended Patagonian shelf in particular, presents us with a very complex ecosystem of global relevance for food security and global peace. It is a highly productive area and it maintains a great diversity and abundance of seabird species. Fisheries have been identified as a main stressor for the marine ecosystems and as one of the main causes of seabird population declines. Using the framework of telecoupling - a sophisticated description of natural and socioeconomic interactions over large distances - here we present a fresh holistic look at the dynamic fisheries and (endangered) seabird interactions for the Patagonian shelf. While data are sparse, we employ machine learning-based predictions for a more holistic overview. We found that these waters of the Patagonian Shelf are significantly affected by many nations and outside players. We found that the input, output and spill-over of the Patagonian shelf ecosystem are distributed virtually all over the globe. In addition, we also found `losers' (=nations and their citizens that are left out entirely from this global resource and its governance). Our findings are based on best-available public trade and fish harvest analysis for this region, linked with predictive modeling (machine learning and geographic information systems GIS) to generalize for nine seabird species. We conveniently extend this analysis with a perspective from the financial sector and policy that enables the Patagonian fisheries as international investment and development projects. As increasingly recognized elsewhere, we believe that telecoupling can serve as a new but rather sophisticated study template highlighting wider complexities, bottlenecks and sensitivities for a vastly improved conservation research on oceans and global sustainability questions.

  8. Dimensionality of an Early Childhood Scale Using Rasch Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, Madhabi; Smith, Richard M.; Dedrick, Robert F.

    1997-01-01

    This paper explores the use of Rasch analysis and linear confirmatory factor analysis to investigate the dimensionality of an early childhood test, the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test (F. Ilg and others, 1978). Discusses empirical analyses of results from 523 kindergarten students using both methods. (SLD)

  9. Analysis of Social Cohesion in Health Data by Factor Analysis Method: The Ghanaian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Bashiru I. I.; Xicang, Zhao; Musah, A. A. I.; Abdul-Aziz, A. R.; Yawson, Alfred; Karim, Azumah

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the study of the overall social cohesion of Ghanaians. In this study, we considered the paramount interest of the involvement of Ghanaians in their communities, their views of other people and institutions, and their level of interest in both local and national politics. The factor analysis method was employed for analysis using R…

  10. Learning From Hidden Traits: Joint Factor Analysis and Latent Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Fu, Xiao; Sidiropoulos, Nicholas D.

    2017-01-01

    Dimensionality reduction techniques play an essential role in data analytics, signal processing and machine learning. Dimensionality reduction is usually performed in a preprocessing stage that is separate from subsequent data analysis, such as clustering or classification. Finding reduced-dimension representations that are well-suited for the intended task is more appealing. This paper proposes a joint factor analysis and latent clustering framework, which aims at learning cluster-aware low-dimensional representations of matrix and tensor data. The proposed approach leverages matrix and tensor factorization models that produce essentially unique latent representations of the data to unravel latent cluster structure -- which is otherwise obscured because of the freedom to apply an oblique transformation in latent space. At the same time, latent cluster structure is used as prior information to enhance the performance of factorization. Specific contributions include several custom-built problem formulations, corresponding algorithms, and discussion of associated convergence properties. Besides extensive simulations, real-world datasets such as Reuters document data and MNIST image data are also employed to showcase the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  11. Dietary Factors Affecting Thyroid Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Ae; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors are proposed to affect thyroid carcinogenesis, but previous studies have reported inconsistent findings. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis, including 18 eligible studies, to clarify the role of dietary factors in the risk of thyroid cancer. The relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated to assess the association and heterogeneity tests and subgroup and sensitivity analyses, and bias assessments were performed. When the results from all studies were combined, dietary iodine, fish, and cruciferous vegetable intake were not associated with thyroid cancer. However, when the data were divided by geographic location based on iodine availability, a slight increase in the risk of thyroid cancer was observed among those consuming a high total amount of fish in iodine nondeficient areas (RR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.03-1.35; P for heterogeneity = 0.282). When excluding the studies examining a single food item and hospital-based controls, a high intake of cruciferous vegetables was associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer in iodine-deficient areas (RR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.18-1.74; P for heterogeneity = 0.426). This meta-analysis implies that the role of dietary factors, such as fish and cruciferous vegetables, in thyroid cancer risk can differ based on iodine availability.

  12. Bayes factor design analysis: Planning for compelling evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbrodt, Felix D; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2017-03-01

    A sizeable literature exists on the use of frequentist power analysis in the null-hypothesis significance testing (NHST) paradigm to facilitate the design of informative experiments. In contrast, there is almost no literature that discusses the design of experiments when Bayes factors (BFs) are used as a measure of evidence. Here we explore Bayes Factor Design Analysis (BFDA) as a useful tool to design studies for maximum efficiency and informativeness. We elaborate on three possible BF designs, (a) a fixed-n design, (b) an open-ended Sequential Bayes Factor (SBF) design, where researchers can test after each participant and can stop data collection whenever there is strong evidence for either [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text], and (c) a modified SBF design that defines a maximal sample size where data collection is stopped regardless of the current state of evidence. We demonstrate how the properties of each design (i.e., expected strength of evidence, expected sample size, expected probability of misleading evidence, expected probability of weak evidence) can be evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations and equip researchers with the necessary information to compute their own Bayesian design analyses.

  13. Comparing 3 dietary pattern methods--cluster analysis, factor analysis, and index analysis--With colorectal cancer risk: The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, Jill; Wirfält, Elisabet; Flood, Andrew; Mitrou, Panagiota N; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Kipnis, Victor; Midthune, Douglas; Leitzmann, Michael; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur; Subar, Amy F

    2010-02-15

    The authors compared dietary pattern methods-cluster analysis, factor analysis, and index analysis-with colorectal cancer risk in the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study (n = 492,306). Data from a 124-item food frequency questionnaire (1995-1996) were used to identify 4 clusters for men (3 clusters for women), 3 factors, and 4 indexes. Comparisons were made with adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals, distributions of individuals in clusters by quintile of factor and index scores, and health behavior characteristics. During 5 years of follow-up through 2000, 3,110 colorectal cancer cases were ascertained. In men, the vegetables and fruits cluster, the fruits and vegetables factor, the fat-reduced/diet foods factor, and all indexes were associated with reduced risk; the meat and potatoes factor was associated with increased risk. In women, reduced risk was found with the Healthy Eating Index-2005 and increased risk with the meat and potatoes factor. For men, beneficial health characteristics were seen with all fruit/vegetable patterns, diet foods patterns, and indexes, while poorer health characteristics were found with meat patterns. For women, findings were similar except that poorer health characteristics were seen with diet foods patterns. Similarities were found across methods, suggesting basic qualities of healthy diets. Nonetheless, findings vary because each method answers a different question.

  14. Medical and psychosocial factors associated with antibiotic prescribing in primary care: survey questionnaire and factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tau-Hong; Wong, Joshua Gx; Lye, David Cb; Chen, Mark Ic; Loh, Victor Wk; Leo, Yee-Sin; Lee, Linda K; Chow, Angela Lp

    2017-03-01

    Acute upper respiratory infections (AURI) are the leading causes of antibiotic prescribing in primary care although antibiotics are often not indicated. To gain an understanding of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of GPs in Singapore and the associated latent factors to guide the implementation of an effective programme to reduce antibiotic use in primary care. An anonymous survey on the KAP of antibiotic use in AURI of GPs in Singapore. KAP survey questionnaires were posted to all GPs from a database. To ascertain the latent factors affecting prescribing patterns, exploratory factor analysis was performed. Among 427 responses, 351 (82.2%) were from GPs working in private practice. It was found that 58.4% of GPs in the private versus 72.4% of those in the public sector recognised that >80% of AURIs were caused by viruses (P = 0.02). The majority of GPs (353/427; 82.7%) felt that antibiotics were overprescribed in primary care. Significant factors associated with low antibiotic prescribing were good medical knowledge and clinical competency (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.4 to 4.3), good clinical practice (aOR 2.7 [95% CI = 2.0 to 3.6]), availability of diagnostic tests (aOR 1.4 [95% CI = 1.1 to 1.8]), and desire to improve clinical practice (aOR 1.5 [95% CI = 1.2 to 1.9]). The conservative practice of giving antibiotics 'to be on the safe side' is significantly less likely to be associated with low antibiotic prescribing (aOR 0.7 [95% CI = 0.5 to 0.9]). This is the first KAP survey on antibiotic prescribing for AURI among GPs in Singapore. With the latent factors identified, future interventions should be directed at addressing these factors to reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  15. Computational Analysis of AMPK-Mediated Neuroprotection Suggests Acute Excitotoxic Bioenergetics and Glucose Dynamics Are Regulated by a Minimal Set of Critical Reactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamh M C Connolly

    Full Text Available Loss of ionic homeostasis during excitotoxic stress depletes ATP levels and activates the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, re-establishing energy production by increased expression of glucose transporters on the plasma membrane. Here, we develop a computational model to test whether this AMPK-mediated glucose import can rapidly restore ATP levels following a transient excitotoxic insult. We demonstrate that a highly compact model, comprising a minimal set of critical reactions, can closely resemble the rapid dynamics and cell-to-cell heterogeneity of ATP levels and AMPK activity, as confirmed by single-cell fluorescence microscopy in rat primary cerebellar neurons exposed to glutamate excitotoxicity. The model further correctly predicted an excitotoxicity-induced elevation of intracellular glucose, and well resembled the delayed recovery and cell-to-cell heterogeneity of experimentally measured glucose dynamics. The model also predicted necrotic bioenergetic collapse and altered calcium dynamics following more severe excitotoxic insults. In conclusion, our data suggest that a minimal set of critical reactions may determine the acute bioenergetic response to transient excitotoxicity and that an AMPK-mediated increase in intracellular glucose may be sufficient to rapidly recover ATP levels following an excitotoxic insult.

  16. 苏宁云商商业模式分析及发展建议%Analysis of Commercial Model and Developing Suggestions about Suning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喆薇

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of online shopping and the rise of electronic commerce, more and more enterprises into the internet. At the same time, with the rapid development of e-commerce, the online retail industry has also brought impact onto the traditional retail industry, promoting the innovation of the business model. Suning was produced under such a background. Firstly, analyzing Suning model, found the innovation and mode of operation, and then discusses the existing cloud business model, and finally development suggestions are put forward.%随着网购的兴起和电子商务的蓬勃发展,越来越多的企业涌上互联网。在电子商务快速发展的同时,网上零售业也给传统零售业带来了冲击,促使其创新商业模式。苏宁云商就是在这样一种背景下产生的。文章首先对苏宁云商的商业模式进行分析,发现其创新点和运作方式,然后探讨云商模式存在的问题,最后对苏宁云商的未来提出发展建议。

  17. Analysis of transcriptional regulation and tissue-specific expression of Avicennia marina Plasma Membrane Protein 3 suggests it contributes to Na(+) transport and homoeostasis in A. marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Rajalakshmi; Venkataraman, Gayatri; Parida, Ajay

    2015-07-01

    Plasma membrane proteins (PMP3) play a role in cation homoeostasis. The 5' flanking sequence of stress inducible, Avicennia marina PMP3 (AmPMP3prom) was transcriptionally fused to (a) GUS or (b) GFP-AmPMP3 and analyzed in transgenic tobacco. Tissue-histochemical GUS and GFP:AmPMP3 localization are co-incident under basal and stress conditions. AmPMP3prom directed GUS activity is highest in roots. Basal transcription is conferred by a 388bp segment upstream of the translation start site. A 463bp distal enhancer in the AmPMP3prom confers enhanced expression under salinity in all tissues and also responds to increases in salinity. The effect of a central, stem-specific negative regulatory region is suppressed by the distal enhancer. The A. marina rhizosphere encounters dynamic changes in salinity at the inter-tidal interface. The complex, tissue-specific transcriptional responsiveness of AmPMP3 to salinity appears to have evolved in response to these changes. Under salinity, guard cell and phloem-specific expression of GFP:AmPMP3 is highly enhanced. Mesophyll, trichomes, bundle sheath, parenchymatous cortex and xylem parenchyma also show GFP:AmPMP3 expression. Cis-elements conferring stress, root and vascular-specific expression are enriched in the AmPMP3 promoter. Pronounced vascular-specific AmPMP3 expression suggests a role in salinity induced Na(+) transport, storage, and secretion in A. marina.

  18. Large-scale analysis of secondary structure changes in proteins suggests a role for disorder-to-order transitions in nucleotide binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Adi; Ofran, Yanay; Kliger, Yossef

    2010-02-01

    Conformational changes in proteins often involve secondary structure transitions. Such transitions can be divided into two types: disorder-to-order changes, in which a disordered segment acquires an ordered secondary structure (e.g., disorder to alpha-helix, disorder to beta-strand), and order-to-order changes, where a segment switches from one ordered secondary structure to another (e.g., alpha-helix to beta-strand, alpha-helix to turn). In this study, we explore the distribution of these transitions in the proteome. Using a comprehensive, yet highly conservative method, we compared solved three-dimensional structures of identical protein sequences, looking for differences in the secondary structures with which they were assigned. Protein chains in which such secondary structure transitions were detected, were classified into two sets according to the type of transition that is involved (disorder-to-order or order-to-order), allowing us to characterize each set by examining enrichment of gene ontology terms. The results reveal that the disorder-to-order set is significantly enriched with nucleotide binding proteins, whereas the order-to-order set is more diverse. Remarkably, further examination reveals that >22% of the purine nucleotide binding proteins include segments which undergo disorder-to-order transitions, suggesting that such transitions play an important role in this process.

  19. Empirical analysis suggests continuous and homogeneous circulation of Newcastle disease virus in a wide range of wild bird species in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelle, J; Caron, A; Servan De Almeida, R; Gil, P; Pedrono, M; Mundava, J; Fofana, B; Balança, G; Dakouo, M; Ould El Mamy, A B; Abolnik, C; Maminiaina, O F; Cumming, G S; De Visscher, M-N; Albina, E; Chevalier, V; Gaidet, N

    2015-04-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important poultry diseases worldwide and can lead to annual losses of up to 80% of backyard chickens in Africa. All bird species are considered susceptible to ND virus (NDV) infection but little is known about the role that wild birds play in the epidemiology of the virus. We present a long-term monitoring of 9000 wild birds in four African countries. Overall, 3·06% of the birds were PCR-positive for NDV infection, with prevalence ranging from 0% to 10% depending on the season, the site and the species considered. Our study shows that ND is circulating continuously and homogeneously in a large range of wild bird species. Several genotypes of NDV circulate concurrently in different species and are phylogenetically closely related to strains circulating in local domestic poultry, suggesting that wild birds may play several roles in the epidemiology of different NDV strains in Africa. We recommend that any strategic plan aiming at controlling ND in Africa should take into account the potential role of the local wild bird community in the transmission of the disease.

  20. Military Demand Analysis and Suggestions about Submarine Torpedo Launching System%潜艇鱼雷发射系统军事需求及对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马亮; 李伟; 于大方

    2011-01-01

    潜艇鱼雷发射系统是潜艇武器系统的重要组成部分,其战技性能直接影响潜艇整体作战效能.本文针对潜艇鱼雷发射系统研究与建设现状,结合未来海战中潜艇作战行动的特点,分析了潜艇鱼雷发射系统的最新军事需求.通过分析鱼雷发射系统的综合指标要求,指出了其未来的发展趋势和涉及的关键技术,特别强调了鱼雷发射系统的整体性要求,并提出了几点建议.%Torpedo launching system is a key component of submarine weapon system, and its performance influences submarine's operational effectiveness. Considering the current research and development situations of submarine torpedo launching system, the new military demand for the submarine torpedo launching system in accordance with the future submarine combat is analyzed in this paper. By analyzing the composite index for torpedo launching system, the developing trend and the key technologies of the system are pointed out with emphasis on integrity demand, and some suggestions are offered.

  1. Analysis of the Salmonella regulatory network suggests involvement of SsrB and H-NS in σ(E)-regulated SPI-2 gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Overall, Christopher C; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Kidwai, Afshan S; Jones, Marcus B; Johnson, Rudd C; Nguyen, Nhu T; McDermott, Jason E; Ansong, Charles; Heffron, Fred; Cambronne, Eric D; Adkins, Joshua N

    2015-01-01

    The extracytoplasmic functioning sigma factor σ(E) is known to play an essential role for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to survive and proliferate in macrophages and mice. However, its regulatory network is not well-characterized, especially during infection. Here we used microarray to identify genes regulated by σ(E) in Salmonella grown in three conditions: a nutrient-rich condition and two others that mimic early and late intracellular infection. We found that in each condition σ(E) regulated different sets of genes, and notably, several global regulators. When comparing nutrient-rich and infection-like conditions, large changes were observed in the expression of genes involved in Salmonella pathogenesis island (SPI)-1 type-three secretion system (TTSS), SPI-2 TTSS, protein synthesis, and stress responses. In total, the expression of 58% of Salmonella genes was affected by σ(E) in at least one of the three conditions. An important finding is that σ(E) up-regulates SPI-2 genes, which are essential for Salmonella intracellular survival, by up-regulating SPI-2 activator ssrB expression at the early stage of infection and down-regulating SPI-2 repressor hns expression at a later stage. Moreover, σ(E) is capable of countering the silencing of H-NS, releasing the expression of SPI-2 genes. This connection between σ(E) and SPI-2 genes, combined with the global regulatory effect of σ(E), may account for the lethality of rpoE-deficient Salmonella in murine infection.

  2. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Nidhi, E-mail: nidhi.gupta@wur.nl; Fischer, Arnout R. H., E-mail: arnout.fischer@wur.nl; Lans, Ivo A. van der, E-mail: Ivo.vanderLans@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Marketing and Consumer Behaviour Group (Netherlands); Frewer, Lynn J., E-mail: lynn.frewer@newcastle.ac.uk [Newcastle University, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  3. Exploring leadership styles for innovation: an exploratory factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wipulanusat Warit

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Leadership plays a vital role in building the process, structures, and climate for an organisation to become innovative and to motivate team expectations toward innovations. This study explores the leadership styles that engineers regard as significant for innovation in the public sector. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA was conducted to identify the principal leadership styles influencing innovation in the Australian Public Service (APS, using survey data extracted from the 2014 APS employee census comprising 3 125 engineering professionals in Commonwealth of Australia departments. EFA returned a two-factor structure explaining 77.6% of the variance of the leadership for innovation construct. In this study, the results from the EFA provided a clear estimation of the factor structure of the measures for leadership for innovation. From the results, the two factors extracted were transformational leadership and consideration leadership. In transformational leadership, a leader values organisational objectives, inspires subordinates to perform, and motivates followers beyond expected levels of work standards. Consideration leadership refers to the degree to which a leader shows concern and expressions of support for subordinates, takes care of their welfare, treats members as equals, and displays warmth and approachability. These findings highlight the role of leadership as the most critical predictor when considering the degree to which subordinates strive for creativity and innovation. Both transformational and consideration leadership styles are recommended to be incorporated into management training and development programs. This study also recommends that Commonwealth departments recruit supervisors who have both of these leadership styles before implementing innovative projects.

  4. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R H; van der Lans, Ivo A; Frewer, Lynn J

    2012-05-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11051-012-0857-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  5. [Analysis of risk factors for perinatal brachial plexus palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosk, Jerzy; Rutowski, Roman

    2005-04-01

    Risk factors of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy include: (1) large birth weight, (2) shoulder dystocia and prolonged second stage of labour, (3) instrumental vaginal delivery (forceps delivery, vacuum extraction), (4) diabetes mellitus and mother's obesity, (5) breech presentation, (6) delivery and infant with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy in antecedent delivery. The purpose was analysis of the classical risk factors for brachial plexus palsy based on our own clinical material. Clinical material consists of 83 children with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy treated at the Department of Trauma and Hand Surgery (surgically--54, conservatively--29). Control group consists of 56 healthy newborns. Data recorded included: birth weight, body length, head and chest circumference, Apgar test at 1 min., type of brachial palsy and side affected, type of birth, presentation, duration of delivery (II stage), age of mother, mother's diseases, parity. The infants treated surgically have had a significantly higher birth weight, body height, head and chest circumference, in compression with control group and group treated conservatively. The differences were statistically important. Shoulder dystocia occurred in 32.9% of all vaginal delivery. Instrumental vaginal delivery was observed in 11.3% and breech presentation in 4.9% cases. There were no incidences of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy recurrence. Diabetes mellitus and mother's obesity was found in 3 cases. (1) Fetal macrosomia is the important risk factor of the obstetrical brachial plexus palsy. (2) Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy may occur also in the absence of the classical risk factors.

  6. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; van der Lans, Ivo A.; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2012-05-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  7. Improving Your Exploratory Factor Analysis for Ordinal Data: A Demonstration Using FACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Baglin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory factor analysis (EFA methods are used extensively in the field of assessment and evaluation. Due to EFA's widespread use, common methods and practices have come under close scrutiny. A substantial body of literature has been compiled highlighting problems with many of the methods and practices used in EFA, and, in response, many guidelines have been proposed with the aim to improve application. Unfortunately, implementing recommended EFA practices has been restricted by the range of options available in commercial statistical packages and, perhaps, due to an absence of clear, practical - how-to' demonstrations. Consequently, this article describes the application of methods recommended to get the most out of your EFA. The article focuses on dealing with the common situation of analysing ordinal data as derived from Likert-type scales. These methods are demonstrated using the free, stand-alone, easy-to-use and powerful EFA package FACTOR (http://psico.fcep.urv.es/utilitats/factor/, Lorenzo-Seva & Ferrando, 2006. The demonstration applies the recommended techniques using an accompanying dataset, based on the Big 5 personality test. The outcomes obtained by the EFA using the recommended procedures through FACTOR are compared to the default techniques currently available in SPSS.

  8. Phenotypic factor analysis of psychopathology reveals a new body-related transdiagnostic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, Patrizia; Antfolk, Jan; Santtila, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    Comorbidity challenges the notion of mental disorders as discrete categories. An increasing body of literature shows that symptoms cut across traditional diagnostic boundaries and interact in shaping the latent structure of psychopathology. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, we reveal the latent sources of covariation among nine measures of psychopathological functioning in a population-based sample of 13024 Finnish twins and their siblings. By implementing unidimensional, multidimensional, second-order, and bifactor models, we illustrate the relationships between observed variables, specific, and general latent factors. We also provide the first investigation to date of measurement invariance of the bifactor model of psychopathology across gender and age groups. Our main result is the identification of a distinct "Body" factor, alongside the previously identified Internalizing and Externalizing factors. We also report relevant cross-disorder associations, especially between body-related psychopathology and trait anger, as well as substantial sex and age differences in observed and latent means. The findings expand the meta-structure of psychopathology, with implications for empirical and clinical practice, and demonstrate shared mechanisms underlying attitudes towards nutrition, self-image, sexuality and anger, with gender- and age-specific features.

  9. Expertly validated models and phylogenetically-controlled analysis suggests responses to climate change are related to species traits in the order lagomorpha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Leach

    Full Text Available Climate change during the past five decades has impacted significantly on natural ecosystems, and the rate of current climate change is of great concern among conservation biologists. Species Distribution Models (SDMs have been used widely to project changes in species' bioclimatic envelopes under future climate scenarios. Here, we aimed to advance this technique by assessing future changes in the bioclimatic envelopes of an entire mammalian order, the Lagomorpha, using a novel framework for model validation based jointly on subjective expert evaluation and objective model evaluation statistics. SDMs were built using climatic, topographical, and habitat variables for all 87 lagomorph species under past and current climate scenarios. Expert evaluation and Kappa values were used to validate past and current models and only those deemed 'modellable' within our framework were projected under future climate scenarios (58 species. Phylogenetically-controlled regressions were used to test whether species traits correlated with predicted responses to climate change. Climate change is likely to impact more than two-thirds of lagomorph species, with leporids (rabbits, hares, and jackrabbits likely to undertake poleward shifts with little overall change in range extent, whilst pikas are likely to show extreme shifts to higher altitudes associated with marked range declines, including the likely extinction of Kozlov's Pika (Ochotona koslowi. Smaller-bodied species were more likely to exhibit range contractions and elevational increases, but showing little poleward movement, and fecund species were more likely to shift latitudinally and elevationally. Our results suggest that species traits may be important indicators of future climate change and we believe multi-species approaches, as demonstrated here, are likely to lead to more effective mitigation measures and conservation management. We strongly advocate studies minimising data gaps in our knowledge of

  10. Candidate gene analysis of tooth agenesis identifies novel mutations in six genes and suggests significant role for WNT and EDA signaling and allele combinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirpa Arte

    Full Text Available Failure to develop complete dentition, tooth agenesis, is a common developmental anomaly manifested most often as isolated but also as associated with many developmental syndromes. It typically affects third molars or one or few other permanent teeth but severe agenesis is also relatively prevalent. Here we report mutational analyses of seven candidate genes in a cohort of 127 probands with non-syndromic tooth agenesis. 82 lacked more than five permanent teeth excluding third molars, called as oligodontia. We identified 28 mutations, 17 of which were novel. Together with our previous reports, we have identified two mutations in MSX1, AXIN2 and EDARADD, five in PAX9, four in EDA and EDAR, and nine in WNT10A. They were observed in 58 probands (44%, with a mean number of missing teeth of 11.7 (range 4 to 34. Almost all of these probands had severe agenesis. Only few of the probands but several relatives with heterozygous genotypes of WNT10A or EDAR conformed to the common type of non-syndromic tooth agenesis, incisor-premolar hypodontia. Mutations in MSX1 and PAX9 affected predominantly posterior teeth, whereas both deciduous and permanent incisors were especially sensitive to mutations in EDA and EDAR. Many mutations in EDAR, EDARADD and WNT10A were present in several families. Biallelic or heterozygous genotypes of WNT10A were observed in 32 and hemizygous or heterozygous genotypes of EDA, EDAR or EDARADD in 22 probands. An EDARADD variant were in seven probands present together with variants in EDAR or WNT10A, suggesting combined phenotypic effects of alleles in distinct genes.

  11. Microarray analysis and functional tests suggest the involvement of expansins in the early stages of symbiosis of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermatsev, Vladimir; Weingarten-Baror, Carmiya; Resnick, Nathalie; Gadkar, Vijay; Wininger, Smadar; Kolotilin, Igor; Mayzlish-Gati, Einav; Zilberstein, Avia; Koltai, Hinanit; Kapulnik, Yoram

    2010-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis occurs between fungi of the phylum Glomeromycota and most terrestrial plants. However, little is known about the molecular symbiotic signalling between AM fungi (AMFs) and non-leguminous plant species. We sought to further elucidate the molecular events occurring in tomato, a non-leguminous host plant, during the early, pre-symbiotic stage of AM symbiosis, i.e. immediately before and after contact between the AMF (Glomus intraradices) and the host. We adopted a semi-synchronized AMF root infection protocol, followed by genomic-scale, microarray-based, gene expression profiling at several defined time points during pre-symbiotic AM stages. The microarray results suggested differences in the number of differentially expressed genes and in the differential regulation of several functional groups of genes at the different time points examined. The microarray results were validated and one of the genes induced during contact between AMF and tomato, the expansin-like EXLB1, was functionally analysed. Expansins, encoded by a large multigene family, facilitate plant cell expansion. However, no biological or biochemical function has yet been established for plant-originated expansin-like proteins. EXLB1 transcripts were localized early during the association to cells that may perceive the fungal signal, and later during the association in close proximity to sites of AMF hypha-root colonization. Moreover, in transgenic roots, we demonstrated that a reduction in the steady-state level of EXLB1 transcript was correlated with a reduced rate of infection, reduced arbuscule expansion and reduced AMF spore formation.

  12. Biogeographical distribution analysis of hydrocarbon degrading and biosurfactant producing genes suggests that near-equatorial biomes have higher abundance of genes with potential for bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jorge S; Araújo, Wydemberg J; Figueiredo, Ricardo M; Silva-Portela, Rita C B; de Brito Guerra, Alaine; da Silva Araújo, Sinara Carla; Minnicelli, Carolina; Carlos, Aline Cardoso; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Freitas, Ana Teresa; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F

    2017-07-27

    Bacterial and Archaeal communities have a complex, symbiotic role in crude oil bioremediation. Their biosurfactants and degradation enzymes have been in the spotlight, mainly due to the awareness of ecosystem pollution caused by crude oil accidents and their use. Initially, the scientific community studied the role of individual microbial species by characterizing and optimizing their biosurfactant and oil degradation genes, studying their individual distribution. However, with the advances in genomics, in particular with the use of New-Generation-Sequencing and Metagenomics, it is now possible to have a macro view of the complex pathways related to the symbiotic degradation of hydrocarbons and surfactant production. It is now possible, although more challenging, to obtain the DNA information of an entire microbial community before automatically characterizing it. By characterizing and understanding the interconnected role of microorganisms and the role of degradation and biosurfactant genes in an ecosystem, it becomes possible to develop new biotechnological approaches for bioremediation use. This paper analyzes 46 different metagenome samples, spanning 20 biomes from different geographies obtained from different research projects. A metagenomics bioinformatics pipeline, focused on the biodegradation and biosurfactant-production pathways, genes and organisms, was applied. Our main results show that: (1) surfactation and degradation are correlated events, and therefore should be studied together; (2) terrestrial biomes present more degradation genes, especially cyclic compounds, and less surfactation genes, when compared to water biomes; and (3) latitude has a significant influence on the diversity of genes involved in biodegradation and biosurfactant production. This suggests that microbiomes found near the equator are richer in genes that have a role in these processes and thus have a higher biotechnological potential. In this work we have focused on the

  13. Ancient DNA analysis might suggest external origin of individuals from chamber graves placed in medieval cemetery in Pień, Central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płoszaj, Tomasz; Jędrychowska-Dańska, Krystyna; Zamerska, Alicja; Drozd-Lipińska, Alicja; Poliński, Dariusz; Janowski, Andrzej; Witas, Henryk

    2017-08-11

    The participation of immigrants during early days in Poland of Piast's dynasty is a debated issue among archaeologists and anthropologists alike. Such hypotheses were formulated on the basis of, amongst others, the discovery of early medieval chamber graves characterized by construction features typical of the Scandinavian culture area. Archaeological and anthropological studies to date have not provided an unequivocal answer as to whether the individuals interred in those graves were autochthons who adopted a different burial rite, or perhaps immigrants from foreign lands. To characterize the gene pool of this population we analyzed the C/T allele of the nuclear gene LCT-13910 as well as fragments of the mitochondrial genome from individuals buried in very richly furnished chamber graves at the medieval cemetery in Pień. The obtained results for the nuclear allele and mtDNA do not corroborate the Scandinavian origin of the analyzed population. Moreover, we did not find haplogroup I, which is the one typical of populations that historically inhabited the north of Europe; and the frequency of the LCT-13910 T allele was similar to that of past and present Polish populations. On the other hand, we identified the atypical haplogroup C5c1, which suggests Asian origin of the studied individuals and confirms our previous reports concerning ancient human migrations from Asia to the territory of present-day Poland. While our findings do not conclusively disprove a Scandinavian lineage of the studied population, they certainly shed some new light on the origin of the individuals buried in chamber graves, which may be very different from the one initially proposed by archaeologists.

  14. 物联网感知层信息安全分析与建议%Analysis and suggestion on information security of Internet of Things perceptual layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马纪丰; 梁浩

    2012-01-01

    Internet of Things (IOT) , with the help of perception technology, aims to build a total connection network between human and things. Since the conception of IOT was proposed, IOT has been largely promoted and actively developed by the governments, research institutions and enterprises. As perception layer is the major source of IOT information, its information security is the most important issue during the development of IOT. This paper studies the key information technologies and security threats of perception layer, and then analyzes and summarizes the existing security mechanism. Finally, this paper gives security measures and suggestions on the current security concerns on the perception layer.%物联网是以感知为目的,实现人与人、人与物、物与人全面互联的网络.其概念一经提出,得到了各国政府、科研机构以及各类企业的大力推广和积极发展.感知层作为物联网信息获取的主要来源,其信息安全问题是物联网发展所面临的首要问题.对物联网感知层的信息获取方式以及存在的安全威胁进行了研究,并对现有的安全防护机制进行了分析和总结.最后,针对感知层目前存在的信息安全问题及其技术的发展趋势,提出了相应的应对建议措施.

  15. Physics Metacognition Inventory Part II: Confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Bailey, MarLynn; Farley, John

    2015-11-01

    The Physics Metacognition Inventory was developed to measure physics students' metacognition for problem solving. In one of our earlier studies, an exploratory factor analysis provided evidence of preliminary construct validity, revealing six components of students' metacognition when solving physics problems including knowledge of cognition, planning, monitoring, evaluation, debugging, and information management. The college students' scores on the inventory were found to be reliable and related to students' physics motivation and physics grade. However, the results of the exploratory factor analysis indicated that the questionnaire could be revised to improve its construct validity. The goal of this study was to revise the questionnaire and establish its construct validity through a confirmatory factor analysis. In addition, a Rasch analysis was applied to the data to better understand the psychometric properties of the inventory and to further evaluate the construct validity. Results indicated that the final, revised inventory is a valid, reliable, and efficient tool for assessing student metacognition for physics problem solving.

  16. A confirmatory factor analysis of the PTSD checklist 5 in veteran and college student samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R Eddinger, Jasmine; E McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan

    2017-09-01

    An important change in the conceptualization of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been the shift from a three-factor model used in the DSM-IV-TR to the current four-factor model used in DSM-5. Early research initially supported the three-factor model, but most recent data suggest a four-factor model provides the best fit. Still other research has examined evidence for a five-factor model that would include depression sequelae. By way of a confirmatory factor analysis, we demonstrate the reliability of DSM-5 PTSD criteria clustering in a sample of 124 OEF/OIF/OND Veterans treated at a VAMC (49% white, 89% men) and a sample of 737 college students (48% white, 78% women). All participants were trauma-exposed, and completed the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5. The current study shows both samples best support a five-factor model over two four factor models considered for the DSM-5, though none provided better than moderate fit. Implications of the current findings regarding the reliability of the new DSM-5 criteria of PTSD will be discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Recent Male-Mediated Gene Flow over a Linguistic Barrier in Iberia, Suggested by Analysis of a Y-Chromosomal DNA Polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurles, Matthew E.; Veitia, Reiner; Arroyo, Eduardo; Armenteros, Manuel; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Pérez-Lezaun, Anna; Bosch, Elena; Shlumukova, Maria; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; McElreavey, Ken; López de Munain, Adolfo; Röhl, Arne; Wilson, Ian J.; Singh, Lalji; Pandya, Arpita; Santos, Fabrício R.; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Jobling, Mark A.

    1999-01-01

    Summary We have examined the worldwide distribution of a Y-chromosomal base-substitution polymorphism, the T/C transition at SRY-2627, where the T allele defines haplogroup 22; sequencing of primate homologues shows that the ancestral state cannot be determined unambiguously but is probably the C allele. Of 1,191 human Y chromosomes analyzed, 33 belong to haplogroup 22. Twenty-nine come from Iberia, and the highest frequencies are in Basques (11%; n=117) and Catalans (22%; n=32). Microsatellite and minisatellite (MSY1) diversity analysis shows that non-Iberian haplogroup-22 chromosomes are not significantly different from Iberian ones. The simplest interpretation of these data is that haplogroup 22 arose in Iberia and that non-Iberian cases reflect Iberian emigrants. Several different methods were used to date the origin of the polymorphism: microsatellite data gave ages of 1,650, 2,700, 3,100, or 3,450 years, and MSY1 gave ages of 1,000, 2,300, or 2,650 years, although 95% confidence intervals on all of these figures are wide. The age of the split between Basque and Catalan haplogroup-22 chromosomes was calculated as only 20% of the age of the lineage as a whole. This study thus provides evidence for direct or indirect gene flow over the substantial linguistic barrier between the Indo-European and non–Indo-European–speaking populations of the Catalans and the Basques, during the past few thousand years. PMID:10521311

  18. Detailed analysis of variants in FTO in association with body composition in a cohort of 70-year-olds suggests a weakened effect among elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsson, Josefin A; Almén, Markus Sällman; Benedict, Christian; Hedberg, Lilia A; Michaëlsson, Karl; Brooks, Samantha; Kullberg, Joel; Axelsson, Tomas; Johansson, Lars; Ahlström, Håkan; Fredriksson, Robert; Lind, Lars; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2011-01-01

    The rs9939609 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the fat mass and obesity (FTO) gene has previously been associated with higher BMI levels in children and young adults. In contrast, this association was not found in elderly men. BMI is a measure of overweight in relation to the individuals' height, but offers no insight into the regional body fat composition or distribution. To examine whether the FTO gene is associated with overweight and body composition-related phenotypes rather than BMI, we measured waist circumference, total fat mass, trunk fat mass, leg fat mass, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, and daily energy intake in 985 humans (493 women) at the age of 70 years. In total, 733 SNPs located in the FTO gene were genotyped in order to examine whether rs9939609 alone or the other SNPs, or their combinations, are linked to obesity-related measures in elderly humans. Cross-sectional analysis of the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort. Neither a single SNP, such as rs9939609, nor a SNP combination was significantly linked to overweight, body composition-related measures, or daily energy intake in elderly humans. Of note, these observations hold both among men and women. Due to the diversity of measurements included in the study, our findings strengthen the view that the effect of FTO on body composition appears to be less profound in later life compared to younger ages and that this is seemingly independent of gender.

  19. Econometric Analysis of Factors Affecting Special Purpose Forests in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lanhui; Cai Fei

    2003-01-01

    The forest estate is one of our most important natural resources. It is also the material foundation for sustainable forestry development in China. It is a timely topic of concern within the forestry community and touches the entire society. From a social economic point of view, the sustainable development has been promoted by the efficient use of the forest resources in a continuing improvement of the environment. The objective of the present analysis is to measure the effect of various factors, such as population, economic development and related policies on the use of the forest resources. The 29 provinces of Mainland China are classified in three regions, based largely on their level of economic development. For each region, the factors which affect the area of special purpose forests (SPF) are analyzed. Some recommendations are made for further improvement.

  20. Pareto analysis of critical factors affecting technical institution evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Gambhir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available With the change of education policy in 1991, more and more technical institutions are being set up in India. Some of these institutions provide quality education, but others are merely concentrating on quantity. These stakeholders are in a state of confusion about decision to select the best institute for their higher educational studies. Although various agencies including print media provide ranking of these institutions every year, but their results are controversial and biased. In this paper, the authors have made an endeavor to find the critical factors for technical institution evaluation from literature survey. A Pareto analysis has also been performed to find the intensity of these critical factors in evaluation. This will not only help the stake holders in taking right decisions but will also help the management of institutions in benchmarking for identifying the most important critical areas to improve the existing system. This will in turn help Indian economy.

  1. Flavor Analysis of Nucleon, Δ , and Hyperon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmoser, Martin; Choi, Ki-Seok; Plessas, Willibald

    2017-03-01

    By the analysis of the world data base of elastic electron scattering on the proton and the neutron (for the latter, in fact, on ^2H and ^3He) important experimental insights have recently been gained into the flavor compositions of nucleon electromagnetic form factors. We report on testing the Graz Goldstone-boson-exchange relativistic constituent-quark model in comparison to the flavor contents in low-energy nucleons, as revealed from electron-scattering phenomenology. It is found that a satisfactory agreement is achieved between theory and experiment for momentum transfers up to Q^2˜ 4 GeV^2, relying on three-quark configurations only. Analogous studies have been extended to the Δ and the hyperon electromagnetic form factors. For them we here show only some sample results in comparison to data from lattice quantum chromodynamics.

  2. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Social Interest Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary K. Leak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Social interest was Alfred Adler’s most important personality trait, and it reflects one’s genuine concern for the welfare of all individuals. Several measures of social interest are available, and the Social Interest Index (SII is one of the most popular in current use. This study is the first to report the results of a confirmatory factor analysis of the SII. Using college students, three models were tested in an effort to find support for the factorial validity of this scale. All analyses showed a poor fit between the theoretical model and scale items. The results paint a fairly negative picture of the factor structure of this important scale.

  3. Multivariate factor analysis of Girgentana goat milk composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Giaccone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of the several variables that contribute to defining milk quality is difficult due to the high degree of  correlation among them. In this case, one of the best methods of statistical processing is factor analysis, which belongs  to the multivariate groups; for our study this particular statistical approach was employed.  A total of 1485 individual goat milk samples from 117 Girgentana goats, were collected fortnightly from January to July,  and analysed for physical and chemical composition, and clotting properties. Milk pH and tritable acidity were within the  normal range for fresh goat milk. Morning milk yield resulted 704 ± 323 g with 3.93 ± 1.23% and 3.48±0.38% for fat  and protein percentages, respectively. The milk urea content was 43.70 ± 8.28 mg/dl. The clotting ability of Girgentana  milk was quite good, with a renneting time equal to 16.96 ± 3.08 minutes, a rate of curd formation of 2.01 ± 1.63 min-  utes and a curd firmness of 25.08 ± 7.67 millimetres.  Factor analysis was performed by applying axis orthogonal rotation (rotation type VARIMAX; the analysis grouped the  milk components into three latent or common factors. The first, which explained 51.2% of the total covariance, was  defined as “slow milks”, because it was linked to r and pH. The second latent factor, which explained 36.2% of the total  covariance, was defined as “milk yield”, because it is positively correlated to the morning milk yield and to the urea con-  tent, whilst negatively correlated to the fat percentage. The third latent factor, which explained 12.6% of the total covari-  ance, was defined as “curd firmness,” because it is linked to protein percentage, a30 and titatrable acidity. With the aim  of evaluating the influence of environmental effects (stage of kidding, parity and type of kidding, factor scores were anal-  ysed with the mixed linear model. Results showed significant effects of the season of

  4. Reliability estimation in a multilevel confirmatory factor analysis framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldhof, G John; Preacher, Kristopher J; Zyphur, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    Scales with varying degrees of measurement reliability are often used in the context of multistage sampling, where variance exists at multiple levels of analysis (e.g., individual and group). Because methodological guidance on assessing and reporting reliability at multiple levels of analysis is currently lacking, we discuss the importance of examining level-specific reliability. We present a simulation study and an applied example showing different methods for estimating multilevel reliability using multilevel confirmatory factor analysis and provide supporting Mplus program code. We conclude that (a) single-level estimates will not reflect a scale's actual reliability unless reliability is identical at each level of analysis, (b) 2-level alpha and composite reliability (omega) perform relatively well in most settings, (c) estimates of maximal reliability (H) were more biased when estimated using multilevel data than either alpha or omega, and (d) small cluster size can lead to overestimates of reliability at the between level of analysis. We also show that Monte Carlo confidence intervals and Bayesian credible intervals closely reflect the sampling distribution of reliability estimates under most conditions. We discuss the estimation of credible intervals using Mplus and provide R code for computing Monte Carlo confidence intervals.

  5. Systems analysis of multiple regulator perturbations allows discovery of virulence factors in Salmonella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyunjin; Ansong, Charles; McDermott, Jason E.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Smith, Richard D.; Heffron, Fred; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2011-06-28

    Background: Systemic bacterial infections are highly regulated and complex processes that are orchestrated by numerous virulence factors. Genes that are coordinately controlled by the set of regulators required for systemic infection are potentially required for pathogenicity. Results: In this study we present a systems biology approach in which sample-matched multi-omic measurements of fourteen virulence-essential regulator mutants were coupled with computational network analysis to efficiently identify Salmonella virulence factors. Immunoblot experiments verified network-predicted virulence factors and a subset was determined to be secreted into the host cytoplasm, suggesting that they are virulence factors directly interacting with host cellular components. Two of these, SrfN and PagK2, were required for full mouse virulence and were shown to be translocated independent of either of the type III secretion systems in Salmonella or the type III injectisome-related flagellar mechanism. Conclusions: Integrating multi-omic datasets from Salmonella mutants lacking virulence regulators not only identified novel virulence factors but also defined a new class of translocated effectors involved in pathogenesis. The success of this strategy at discovery of known and novel virulence factors suggests that the approach may have applicability for other bacterial pathogens.

  6. Systems analysis of multiple regulator perturbations allows discovery of virulence factors in Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heffron Fred

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic bacterial infections are highly regulated and complex processes that are orchestrated by numerous virulence factors. Genes that are coordinately controlled by the set of regulators required for systemic infection are potentially required for pathogenicity. Results In this study we present a systems biology approach in which sample-matched multi-omic measurements of fourteen virulence-essential regulator mutants were coupled with computational network analysis to efficiently identify Salmonella virulence factors. Immunoblot experiments verified network-predicted virulence factors and a subset was determined to be secreted into the host cytoplasm, suggesting that they are virulence factors directly interacting with host cellular components. Two of these, SrfN and PagK2, were required for full mouse virulence and were shown to be translocated independent of either of the type III secretion systems in Salmonella or the type III injectisome-related flagellar mechanism. Conclusions Integrating multi-omic datasets from Salmonella mutants lacking virulence regulators not only identified novel virulence factors but also defined a new class of translocated effectors involved in pathogenesis. The success of this strategy at discovery of known and novel virulence factors suggests that the approach may have applicability for other bacterial pathogens.

  7. Spinal appearance questionnaire: factor analysis, scoring, reliability, and validity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreon, Leah Y; Sanders, James O; Polly, David W; Sucato, Daniel J; Parent, Stefan; Roy-Beaudry, Marjolaine; Hopkins, Jeffrey; McClung, Anna; Bratcher, Kelly R; Diamond, Beverly E

    2011-08-15

    Cross sectional. This study presents the factor analysis of the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ) and its psychometric properties. Although the SAQ has been administered to a large sample of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) treated surgically, its psychometric properties have not been fully evaluated. This study presents the factor analysis and scoring of the SAQ and evaluates its psychometric properties. The SAQ and the Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) were administered to AIS patients who were being observed, braced or scheduled for surgery. Standard demographic data and radiographic measures including Lenke type and curve magnitude were also collected. Of the 1802 patients, 83% were female; with a mean age of 14.8 years and mean initial Cobb angle of 55.8° (range, 0°-123°). From the 32 items of the SAQ, 15 loaded on two factors with consistent and significant correlations across all Lenke types. There is an Appearance (items 1-10) and an Expectations factor (items 12-15). Responses are summed giving a range of 5 to 50 for the Appearance domain and 5 to 20 for the Expectations domain. The Cronbach's α was 0.88 for both domains and Total score with a test-retest reliability of 0.81 for Appearance and 0.91 for Expectations. Correlations with major curve magnitude were higher for the SAQ Appearance and SAQ Total scores compared to correlations between the SRS Appearance and SRS Total scores. The SAQ and SRS-22 Scores were statistically significantly different in patients who were scheduled for surgery compared to those who were observed or braced. The SAQ is a valid measure of self-image in patients with AIS with greater correlation to curve magnitude than SRS Appearance and Total score. It also discriminates between patients who require surgery from those who do not.

  8. Dedifferentiated liposarcoma with "homologous" lipoblastic (pleomorphic liposarcoma-like) differentiation: clinicopathologic and molecular analysis of a series suggesting revised diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño-Enríquez, Adrián; Fletcher, Christopher D M; Dal Cin, Paola; Hornick, Jason L

    2010-08-01

    Dedifferentiated liposarcoma (LPS) is a malignant adipocytic neoplasm defined as the transition from well-differentiated LPS to a nonlipogenic sarcoma. Heterologous differentiation is seen in 5% to 10% of dedifferentiated LPS, usually with myogenic or osteo/chondrosarcomatous elements. Adipocytic differentiation in the dedifferentiated component is incompatible with the current definition of dedifferentiated LPS. Pleomorphic LPS is a high-grade sarcoma containing lipoblasts. At least in areas, pleomorphic LPS can be indistinguishable from dedifferentiated LPS, except for the presence of lipoblasts in pleomorphic LPS and well-differentiated LPS areas in dedifferentiated LPS. We evaluated 12 unusual liposarcomas: 11 cases with pleomorphic LPS-like morphology affecting patients with concomitant or previous well-differentiated/dedifferentiated LPS, and 1 case resembling inflammatory "MFH" with scattered lipoblasts. Clinical and histologic features were reviewed. Immunohistochemistry for MDM2 and CDK4 was carried out. Amplification of 12q13 to q15 was studied by FISH analysis of the HMGA2 locus. The tumors arose in the retroperitoneum (7), proximal lower extremity (3), chest wall (1), and neck (1) of 9 males and 3 females (median age 66 y; range 49 to 76). Size ranged from 9 to 32 cm (median 23 cm). In 3 cases, there was an abrupt transition between well-differentiated LPS and sheets of pleomorphic lipoblasts, indistinguishable from pleomorphic LPS. Four cases consisted of otherwise typical dedifferentiated LPS (with adjacent well-differentiated LPS), except for the presence of lipoblasts in the high-grade component. One case contained both nonlipogenic spindle cell areas and an inflammatory "MFH"-like component with numerous admixed lipoblasts. Four cases were composed exclusively of pleomorphic LPS-like areas developing in 1 of the recurrences or metastases of a prior typical dedifferentiated LPS. Two cases also showed heterologous smooth muscle differentiation. MDM2

  9. Detailed analysis of variants in FTO in association with body composition in a cohort of 70-year-olds suggests a weakened effect among elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefin A Jacobsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rs9939609 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the fat mass and obesity (FTO gene has previously been associated with higher BMI levels in children and young adults. In contrast, this association was not found in elderly men. BMI is a measure of overweight in relation to the individuals' height, but offers no insight into the regional body fat composition or distribution. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the FTO gene is associated with overweight and body composition-related phenotypes rather than BMI, we measured waist circumference, total fat mass, trunk fat mass, leg fat mass, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, and daily energy intake in 985 humans (493 women at the age of 70 years. In total, 733 SNPs located in the FTO gene were genotyped in order to examine whether rs9939609 alone or the other SNPs, or their combinations, are linked to obesity-related measures in elderly humans. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS cohort. RESULTS: Neither a single SNP, such as rs9939609, nor a SNP combination was significantly linked to overweight, body composition-related measures, or daily energy intake in elderly humans. Of note, these observations hold both among men and women. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the diversity of measurements included in the study, our findings strengthen the view that the effect of FTO on body composition appears to be less profound in later life compared to younger ages and that this is seemingly independent of gender.

  10. Probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Makran considering recently suggested larger maximum magnitudes and sensitivity analysis for GNSS-based early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, N.; Hoechner, A.; Babeyko, A. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Iran and Pakistan are countries frequently affected by destructive earthquakes, as for instance, the magnitude 6.6 Bam earthquake in 2003 in Iran with about 30 000 casualties, or the magnitude 7.6 Kashmir earthquake 2005 in Pakistan with about 80'000 casualties. Both events took place inland, but in terms of magnitude, even significantly larger events can be expected to happen offshore, at the Makran subduction zone. This small subduction zone is seismically rather quiescent, nevertheless a tsunami caused by a thrust event in 1945 (Balochistan earthquake) led to about 4000 casualties. Nowadays, the coastal regions are more densely populated and vulnerable to similar events. Furthermore, some recent publications discuss the possiblity of rather rare huge magnitude 9 events at the Makran subduction zone. We analyze the seismicity at the subduction plate interface and generate various synthetic earthquake catalogs spanning 100000 years. All the events are projected onto the plate interface using scaling relations and a tsunami model is run for every scenario. The tsunami hazard along the coast is computed and presented in the form of annual probability of exceedance, probabilistic tsunami height for different time periods and other measures. We show how the hazard reacts to variation of the Gutenberg-Richter parameters and maximum magnitudes.We model the historic Balochistan event and its effect in terms of coastal wave heights. Finally, we show how an effective tsunami early warning could be achieved by using an array of high-precision real-time GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) receivers along the coast by applying it to the 1945 event and by performing a sensitivity analysis.

  11. An analysis of apparent polar wander path for southwest Japan suggests no relative movement with respect to Eurasia during the Cretaceous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Koji; Furukawa, Kuniyuki; Hatanaka, Yuri

    2017-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that southwest Japan was involved in large-scale tectonic movement with southward translation as far as 2000 km with respect to Eurasia during the Cretaceous, we examined Cretaceous paleomagnetic poles from southwest Japan to compare with those from Eurasia. Red and gray sandstone samples from the Upper Cretaceous Onogawa Group were collected from twelve sites in the Onogawa Basin in the western part of southwest Japan for paleomagnetic analysis. This group formed over the time span in which the proposed tectonic event is hypothesized to have occurred. A characteristic remanent magnetization component was isolated from red sandstone at ten sites; it is interpreted to be of primary Late Cretaceous origin. The primary directions combined with previously reported data provide a mean direction (D = 76.8°, I = 44.6°, α95 = 11.1°, N = 15) and a paleomagnetic pole (24.4°N, 202.6°E, A95 = 11.0°) for the Onogawa area. This pole is consistent with other Late Cretaceous poles from a wide area of southwest Japan, and a mean Late Cretaceous pole (28.4°N, 202.5°E, A95 = 7.5°, N = 6) is calculated and regarded as representative of this region. The Late Cretaceous pole, together with mid- and Early Cretaceous poles, constitutes an apparent polar wander path (APWP) for southwest Japan during the Cretaceous. After restoration of post-Cretaceous tectonic rotation, each Cretaceous pole for southwest Japan shows agreement with the coeval poles for Eurasia; therefore, it is unlikely that the previously proposed tectonic model that includes southward translation of southwest Japan occurred in the Late Cretaceous. Southwest Japan is considered to have behaved as a stable part of the Eurasian continental margin during the Cretaceous.

  12. Analysis of Immune Response Markers in Jorge Lobo's Disease Lesions Suggests the Occurrence of Mixed T Helper Responses with the Dominance of Regulatory T Cell Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Michelle de C. S.; Rosa, Patricia S.; Soares, Cleverson T.; Fachin, Luciana R. V.; Baptista, Ida Maria F. D.; Woods, William J.; Garlet, Gustavo P.

    2015-01-01

    Jorge Lobo’s disease (JLD) is a chronic infection that affects the skin and subcutaneous tissues. Its etiologic agent is the fungus Lacazia loboi. Lesions are classified as localized, multifocal, or disseminated, depending on their location. Early diagnosis and the surgical removal of lesions are the best therapeutic options currently available for JLD. The few studies that evaluate the immunological response of JLD patients show a predominance of Th2 response, as well as a high frequency of TGF-β and IL-10 positive cells in the lesions; however, the overall immunological status of the lesions in terms of their T cell phenotype has yet to be determined. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the pattern of Th1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory T cell (Treg) markers mRNA in JLD patients by means of real-time PCR. Biopsies of JLD lesions (N = 102) were classified according to their clinical and histopathological features and then analyzed using real-time PCR in order to determine the expression levels of TGF-β1, FoxP3, CTLA4, IKZF2, IL-10, T-bet, IFN-γ, GATA3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-33, RORC, IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22 and to compare these levels to those of healthy control skin (N = 12). The results showed an increased expression of FoxP3, CTLA4, TGF-β1, IL-10, T-bet, IL-17F, and IL-17A in lesions, while GATA3 and IL-4 levels were found to be lower in diseased skin than in the control group. When the clinical forms were compared, TGF-β1 was found to be highly expressed in patients with a single localized lesion while IL-5 and IL-17A levels were higher in patients with multiple/disseminated lesions. These results demonstrate the occurrence of mixed T helper responses and suggest the dominance of regulatory T cell activity, which could inhibit Th-dependent protective responses to intracellular fungi such as L. loboi. Therefore, Tregs may play a key role in JLD pathogenesis. PMID:26700881

  13. Phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 mutants affected in homoserine lactone and diffusible signal factor-based quorum sensing systems suggests interplay between both types of systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Udine

    Full Text Available Many putative virulence factors of Burkholderia cenocepacia are controlled by various quorum sensing (QS circuits. These QS systems either use N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHL or cis-2-dodecenoic acid ("Burkholderia diffusible signal factor", BDSF as signalling molecules. Previous work suggested that there is little cross-talk between both types of systems. We constructed mutants in B. cenocepacia strain J2315, in which genes encoding CepI (BCAM1870, CciI (BCAM0239a and the BDSF synthase (BCAM0581 were inactivated, and also constructed double (ΔcepIΔBCAM0581, ΔcciIΔBCAM0581 and ΔcepIΔcciI mutants and a triple (ΔcepIΔcciIΔBCAM0581 mutant. Subsequently we investigated phenotypic properties (antibiotic susceptibility, biofilm formation, production of AHL and BDSF, protease activity and virulence in Caenorhabditis elegans and measured gene expression in these mutants, and this in the presence and absence of added BDSF, AHL or both. The triple mutant was significantly more affected in biofilm formation, antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence in C. elegans, and protease production than either the single or double mutants. The ΔBCAM0581 mutant and the ΔcepIΔBCAM0581 and ΔcciIΔBCAM0581 double mutants produced significantly less AHL compared to the WT strain and the ΔcepI and ΔcciI single mutant, respectively. The expression of cepI and cciI in ΔBCAM0581, was approximately 3-fold and 7-fold (p<0.05 lower than in the WT, respectively. The observed differences in AHL production, expression of cepI and cciI and QS-controlled phenotypes in the ΔBCAM0581 mutant could (at least partially be restored by addition of BDSF. Our data suggest that, in B. cenocepacia J2315, AHL and BDSF-based QS systems co-regulate the same set of genes, regulate different sets of genes that are involved in the same phenotypes and/or that the BDSF system controls the AHL-based QS system. As the expression of the gene encoding the C6-HSL synthase CciI (and to a

  14. Replica Analysis for Portfolio Optimization with Single-Factor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzato, Takashi

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we use replica analysis to investigate the influence of correlation among the return rates of assets on the solution of the portfolio optimization problem. We consider the behavior of an optimal solution for the case where the return rate is described with a single-factor model and compare the findings obtained from our proposed methods with correlated return rates with those obtained with independent return rates. We then analytically assess the increase in the investment risk when correlation is included. Furthermore, we also compare our approach with analytical procedures for minimizing the investment risk from operations research.

  15. Determination of selectivity of HPLC systems by correspondence factor analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Wang; Jun Yang; Xin Lu; Guo Wang Xu

    2007-01-01

    Correspondence factor analysis (CFA) was employed to study the selectivity of 14 HPLC systems, The tested LC systems were classified as reversed-phase (RP), ion-exchange (IE) and hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) modes. It was found that the retentions of the hydrophilic solutes on HILIC column were significantly influenced by the second-order effects besides their hydrophilic properties. Organic modifiers and residue silanol groups on silica surface both participated in retention. HypersilTM amino column performed separation in the HILIC mode at appropriate conditions, and its retention mechanism was more similar to that of HILIC silica column than that of HILIC column coating poly(aspartamide) groups.

  16. The FIRO model of family therapy: implications of factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, R J; Ross, M W

    1989-11-01

    Schutz's FIRO model contains three main elements: inclusion, control, and affection. It is used widely in mental health research and practice, but has received little empirical validation. The present study is based on factor analysis of the resources to FIRO questionnaire of 120 normal couples and 191 couples who were attending a clinic for marital/psychiatric problems. Results confirmed the validity of the FIRO model for women only. The differences between the sexes reflected a considerable degree of sex-role stereotyping, the clinical implications of which are discussed.

  17. Critical Analysis of Factors Contributing to the Formation of Interlanguage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵栩

    2015-01-01

    Interlanguage is a common phenomenon in foreign language learning process.It refers to the language system which is formed in a certain period in learners' second language or foreign language learning process.In the past,behaviorist learning theory and mentalist learning theory has dominated language learning for a long period of time,but both of them have some deficiencies.This paper is to make a critical analysis on the factors contributing to the formation of interlanguage,which reflects the practical importance of interlanguage to language teaching and learning.

  18. Critical Analysis of Factors Contributing to the Formation of Interlanguage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵栩

    2015-01-01

    Interlanguage is a common phenomenon in foreign language learning process.It refers to the language system which is formed in a certain period in learners’ second language or foreign language learning process.In the past,behaviorist learning theory and mentalist learning theory has dominated language learning for a long period of time,but both of them have some deficiencies.This paper is to make a critical analysis on the factors contributing to the formation of interlanguage,which reflects the practical importance of interlanguage to language teaching and learning.

  19. 中国铋供需形势分析及对策建议%The analysis and suggestions of the bismuth' s supply and demand in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙涛; 陈其慎; 于汶加; 余倩; 张艳松

    2016-01-01

    Bismuth is a kind of "green metal"which can be used safely .This fact is now acknowledged widely in the world . At present , bismuth is widely applied in bismuth oxide industry , pharmaceutical industry ,bismuth alloy ,solder and metallurgical additive ,etc .Although China is now the largest bismuth resources keeper , producer , consumer and exporter , it is not a powerful bismuth industry country . Therefore ,recognizing timely the supply and demand situation of bismuth is the basement of the country and the enterprises to develop strategies . This paper which is based on the global view firstly took a comprehensive analysis about bismuth resources ,production ,supply ,demand ,trade and other status .And then by combining with the development trend of bismuth in China ,it made a judgment that is the demand of bismuth in China will peak to 18000t around 2030 .Considering the prominent problems bismuth industry faced ,this paper finally putted forward several measures and advices respectively from resource development ,resource recovery ,technology improvement and reducing international market risks to ensure the healthy development of bismuth industry in China .%铋(Bismuth)是全球公认的一种可安全使用的"绿色金属".目前,铋广泛应用于氧化铋行业、医药行业、铋合金及焊料和冶金添加剂等领域.中国是全球最大的铋资源国、生产国、消费国和出口国,但不是铋产业强国,因此及时认清当前中国铋的供需形势,是国家和企业制定发展战略的基础.本文在全球视野下,首先对中国铋的资源状况、生产供应、需求现状、贸易等进行综合分析,然后结合中国铋未来发展趋势,作出了2030年左右中国铋的需求量将达到峰值18000 t的判断.文章最后针对中国铋产业面临的突出问题,分别从资源开发、资源回收、技术提高和降低国际市场风险等方面提出了中国铋产业健康发展的对策建议.

  20. Tuck Jump Assessment: An Exploratory Factor Analysis in a College Age Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lininger, Monica R; Smith, Craig A; Chimera, Nicole J; Hoog, Philipp; Warren, Meghan

    2017-03-01

    Lininger, MR, Smith, CA, Chimera, NJ, Hoog, P, and Warren, M. Tuck Jump Assessment: An exploratory factor analysis in a college age population. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 653-659, 2017-Due to the high rate of noncontact lower extremity injuries that occur in the collegiate setting, medical personnel are implementing screening mechanisms to identify those athletes that may be at risk for certain injuries before starting a sports season. The tuck jump assessment (TJA) was created as a "clinician friendly" tool to identify lower extremity landing technique flaws during a plyometric activity. There are 10 technique flaws that are assessed as either having the apparent deficit or not during the TJA. Technique flaws are then summed up for an overall score. Through expert consensus, these 10 technique flaws have been grouped into 5 modifiable risk factors: ligament dominance, quadriceps dominance, leg dominance or residual injury deficits, trunk dominance ("core" dysfunction), and technique perfection. Research has not investigated the psychometric properties of the TJA technique flaws or the modifiable risk factors. The present study is a psychometric analysis of the TJA technique flaws to measure the internal structure using an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using data from collegiate athletes (n = 90) and a general college cohort (n = 99). The EFA suggested a 3 factor model accounting for 46% of the variance. The 3 factors were defined as fatigue, distal landing pattern, and proximal control. The results differ from the 5 modifiable risk categories as previously suggested. These results may question the use of a single score, a unidimensional construct, of the TJA for injury screening.

  1. Analysis of significant factors for dengue fever incidence prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriyasatien, Padet; Phumee, Atchara; Ongruk, Phatsavee; Jampachaisri, Katechan; Kesorn, Kraisak

    2016-04-16

    Many popular dengue forecasting techniques have been used by several researchers to extrapolate dengue incidence rates, including the K-H model, support vector machines (SVM), and artificial neural networks (ANN). The time series analysis methodology, particularly ARIMA and SARIMA, has been increasingly applied to the field of epidemiological research for dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and other infectious diseases. The main drawback of these methods is that they do not consider other variables that are associated with the dependent variable. Additionally, new factors correlated to the disease are needed to enhance the prediction accuracy of the model when it is applied to areas of similar climates, where weather factors such as temperature, total rainfall, and humidity are not substantially different. Such drawbacks may consequently lower the predictive power for the outbreak. The predictive power of the forecasting model-assessed by Akaike's information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), and the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE)-is improved by including the new parameters for dengue outbreak prediction. This study's selected model outperforms all three other competing models with the lowest AIC, the lowest BIC, and a small MAPE value. The exclusive use of climate factors from similar locations decreases a model's prediction power. The multivariate Poisson regression, however, effectively forecasts even when climate variables are slightly different. Female mosquitoes and seasons were strongly correlated with dengue cases. Therefore, the dengue incidence trends provided by this model will assist the optimization of dengue prevention. The present work demonstrates the important roles of female mosquito infection rates from the previous season and climate factors (represented as seasons) in dengue outbreaks. Incorporating these two factors in the model significantly improves the predictive power of dengue hemorrhagic fever forecasting

  2. ANALYSIS FACTORS THAT AFFECTING THE WORK COMMITMENT OF TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsofiyati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyze the factors that affecting the work commitment of teachers.The research use descriptive quantitative method. The problem are the teachers who work without commitment, just to teach according to what was ordered by the principal. By having a high work commitment that is evident in the behavior of painstaking work, passionate, integrity of the work, responsibility, and maintain morale as educators. The results are: commitment to working both seen from the achievement an average score of 71.61, completion of the task is the highest factor in teachers' work commitment with an average score of 79.67, and development of self-efficacy is the lowest factor in teachers' work commitment with an average score of 73.00.Suggestions are: schools should give rewards to the teachers who complete the task on time and to sanction teachers who did not complete the task on time, provide education and training to the teachers continuously and sustainably as efforts to develop self-efficacy ofteachers, the teacher involvement in school activities further improved, so that the visible concern for the fate of school teachers and Teacher work program should be set up and executed in accordance with a predetermined plan.

  3. Information technology portfolio in supply chain management using factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jaafarnejad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of information technology (IT along with supply chain management (SCM has become increasingly a necessity among most businesses. This enhances supply chain (SC performance and helps companies achieve the organizational competitiveness. IT systems capture and analyze information and enable management to make decisions by considering a global scope across the entire SC. This paper reviews the existing literature on IT in SCM and considers pertinent criteria. Using principal component analysis (PCA of factor analysis (FA, a number of related criteria are divided into smaller groups. Finally, SC managers can develop an IT portfolio in SCM using mean values of few extracted components on the relevance –emergency matrix. A numerical example is provided to explain details of the proposed method.

  4. Analysis of Factors Affecting Inflation in Indonesia: an Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Ratna Wulan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the factors affecting inflation. The research is descriptive quantitative in nature. The data used are reported exchange rates, interest rates, money supply and inflation during 2008-2012. The research data was analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. The results showed in the year 2008-2012 the condition of each variable are (1 the rate of inflation has a negative trend, (2 the interest rate has a negative trend, (3 the money supply has a positive trend, (4 the value of exchange rate has a positive trend. The test results by using multiple linear regression analysis result that variable interest rates, the money supply and the exchange rate of the rupiah significant effect on the rate of inflation.

  5. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2 in the Pacific oyster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Baoyu; Zhang, Linlin; Du, Yishuai; Li, Li; Tang, Xueying; Zhang, Guofan

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factors (TRAFs) are a family of crucial adaptors, playing vital roles in mediating signal transduction in immune signaling pathways, including RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) signaling pathway. In the present study, a new TRAF family member (CgTRAF2) was identified in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. Comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that CgTRAF2 could be a new member of the invertebrate TRAF2 family. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that CgTRAF2 mRNA was highly expressed in the digestive gland, gills, and hemocytes, and it was significantly up-regulated after Vibrio alginolyticus and ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) challenge. The CgTRAF2 mRNA expression profile in different developmental stages of oyster larvae suggested that CgTRAF2 could function in early larval development. CgTRAF2 mRNA expression pattern, after the silence of CgMAVS (Mitochondrial Antiviral Signaling) -like, indicated that CgTRAF2 might function downstream of CgMAVS-like. Moreover, the subcellular localization analysis revealed that CgTRAF2 was localized in cytoplasm, and it may play predominately important roles in signal transduction. Collectively, these results demonstrated that CgTRAF2 might play important roles in the innate immunity and larval development of the Pacific oyster.

  6. The nuclear retention of transcription factor FOXO3a correlates with a DNA damage response and increased glutamine synthetase expression by astrocytes suggesting a neuroprotective role in the ageing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluteau, Adeline; Ince, Paul G; Minett, Thais; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol; Garwood, Claire J; Ratcliffe, Laura E; Morgan, Sarah; Heath, Paul R; Shaw, Pamela J; Wharton, Stephen B; Simpson, Julie E

    2015-11-16

    The accumulation of reactive oxygen species leading to oxidative damage and cell death plays an important role in a number of neurodegenerative disorders. FOXO3a, the main isoform of FOXO transcription factors, mediates the cellular response to oxidative stress by regulating the expression of genes involved in DNA repair and glutamine metabolism, including glutamine synthetase (GS). Immunohistochemical investigation of the population-based neuropathology cohort of the Medical Research Council's Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC CFAS) demonstrates that nuclear retention of FOXO3a significantly correlates with a DNA damage response and with GS expression by astrocytes. Furthermore, we show that GS expression correlates with increasing Alzheimer-type pathology in this ageing cohort. Our findings suggest that in response to oxidative stress, the nuclear retention of FOXO3a in astrocytes upregulates expression of GS as a neuroprotective mechanism. However, the activity of GS may be compromised by increasing levels of oxidative stress in the ageing brain resulting in dysfunctional enzyme activity, neuronal excitotoxic damage and cognitive impairment.

  7. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of WAIS-IV in a Clinical Sample: Examining a Bi-Factor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Collinson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of studies that have examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale IV (WAIS-IV using the standardization sample. In this study, we investigate its factor structure on a clinical neuropsychology sample of mixed aetiology. Correlated factor, higher-order and bi-factor models are all tested. Overall, the results suggest that the WAIS-IV will be suitable for use with this population.

  8. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of WAIS-IV in a Clinical Sample: Examining a Bi-Factor Model

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel Collinson; Stephen Evans; Miranda Wheeler; Don Brechin; Jenna Moffitt; Geoff Hill; Steven Muncer

    2016-01-01

    There have been a number of studies that have examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale IV (WAIS-IV) using the standardization sample. In this study, we investigate its factor structure on a clinical neuropsychology sample of mixed aetiology. Correlated factor, higher-order and bi-factor models are all tested. Overall, the results suggest that the WAIS-IV will be suitable for use with this population.

  9. Risk Factors for Gambling Problems: An Analysis by Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex; Tolchard, Barry; Nower, Lia

    2016-06-01

    Differences in problem gambling rates between males and females suggest that associated risk factors vary by gender. Previous combined analyses of male and female gambling may have obscured these distinctions. This study aimed to develop separate risk factor models for gambling problems for males and for females, and identify gender-based similarities and differences. It analysed data from the largest prevalence study in Victoria Australia (N = 15,000). Analyses determined factors differentiating non-problem from at-risk gamblers separately for women and men, then compared genders using interaction terms. Separate multivariate analyses determined significant results when controlling for all others. Variables included demographics, gambling behaviour, gambling motivations, money management, and mental and physical health. Significant predictors of at-risk status amongst female gamblers included: 18-24 years old, not speaking English at home, living in a group household, unemployed or not in the workforce, gambling on private betting, electronic gaming machines (EGMs), scratch tickets or bingo, and gambling for reasons other than social reasons, to win money or for general entertainment. For males, risk factors included: 18-24 years old, not speaking English at home, low education, living in a group household, unemployed or not in the workforce, gambling on EGMs, table games, races, sports or lotteries, and gambling for reasons other than social reasons, to win money or for general entertainment. High risk groups requiring appropriate interventions comprise young adults, especially males; middle-aged female EGM gamblers; non-English speaking populations; frequent EGM, table games, race and sports gamblers; and gamblers motivated by escape.

  10. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the ISB - Burnout Syndrome Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria T. Benevides-Pereira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available AimBurnout is a dysfunctional reaction to chronic occupational stress. The present study analysis the psychometric qualities of the Burnout Syndrome Inventory (ISB through Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA.MethodEmpirical study in a multi-centre and multi-occupational sample (n = 701 using the ISB. The Part I assesses antecedent factors: Positive Organizational Conditions (PC and Negative Organizational Conditions (NC. The Part II assesses the syndrome: Emotional Exhaustion (EE, Dehumanization (DE, Emotional Distancing (ED and Personal Accomplishment (PA.ResultsThe highest means occurred in the positive scales CP (M = 23.29, SD = 5.89 and PA (M = 14.84, SD = 4.71. Negative conditions showed the greatest variability (SD = 6.03. Reliability indexes were reasonable, with the lowest rate at .77 for DE and the highest rate .91 for PA. The CFA revealed RMSEA = .057 and CFI = .90 with all scales regressions showing significant values (β = .73 until β = .92.ConclusionThe ISB showed a plausible instrument to evaluate burnout. The two sectors maintained the initial model and confirmed the theoretical presupposition. This instrument makes possible a more comprehensive idea of the labour context, and one or another part may be used separately according to the needs and the aims of the assessor.

  11. Difficult mask ventilation in obese patients: analysis of predictive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoni, A; Arlati, S; Ghisi, D; Verwej, M; Lugani, D; Ghisi, P; Cappelleri, G; Cedrati, V; El Tantawi Ali Alsheraei, A; Pocar, M; Ceriani, V; Aldegheri, G

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the accuracy of commonly used preoperative difficult airway indices as predictors of difficult mask ventilation (DMV) in obese patients (BMI >30 kg/m2). In 309 consecutive obese patients undergoing general surgery, the modified Mallampati test, patient's Height/Thyromental distance ratio, Inter-Incisor Distance, Protruding Mandible (PM), history of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Neck Circumference (NC) were recorded preoperatively. DMV was defined as Grade 3 mask ventilation (MV) by the Han's scale (MV inadequate, unstable or requiring two practitioners). Data are shown as means±SD or number and proportions. Independent DMV predictors were identified by multivariate analysis. The discriminating capacity of the model (ROC curve area) and adjusted weights for the risk factors (odds ratios) were also determined. BMI averaged 42.5±8.3 kg/m2. DMV was reported in 27 out of 309 patients (8.8%; 95%CI 5.6-11.9%). The multivariate analysis retained NC (OR 1.17; P2 associated factors as the best discriminating point for DMV. Obese patients show increased incidence of DMV with respect to the undifferentiated surgical population. Limited PM, Mallampati test and NC are important DMV predictors.

  12. Determining the Number of Factors to Retain in an Exploratory Factor Analysis Using Comparison Data of Known Factorial Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, John; Roche, Brendan

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is used routinely in the development and validation of assessment instruments. One of the most significant challenges when one is performing EFA is determining how many factors to retain. Parallel analysis (PA) is an effective stopping rule that compares the eigenvalues of randomly generated data with those for…

  13. Analysis of transfer reactions: determination of spectroscopic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeley, N. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique, de Physique des Particules de Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee (DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN), 91- Gif sur Yvette (France); The Andrzej So an Institute for Nuclear Studies, Dept. of Nuclear Reactions, Warsaw (Poland)

    2007-07-01

    An overview of the most popular models used for the analysis of direct reaction data is given, concentrating on practical aspects. The 4 following models (in order of increasing sophistication): the distorted wave born approximation (DWBA), the adiabatic model, the coupled channels born approximation, and the coupled reaction channels are briefly described. As a concrete example, the C{sup 12}(d,p)C{sup 13} reaction at an incident deuteron energy of 30 MeV is analysed with progressively more physically sophisticated models. The effect of the choice of the reaction model on the spectroscopic information extracted from the data is investigated and other sources of uncertainty in the derived spectroscopic factors are discussed. We have showed that the choice of the reaction model can significantly influence the nuclear structure information, particularly the spectroscopic factors or amplitudes but occasionally also the spin-parity, that we wish to extract from direct reaction data. We have also demonstrated that the DWBA can fail to give a satisfactory description of transfer data but when the tenets of the theory are fulfilled DWBA can work very well and will yield the same results as most sophisticated models. The use of global rather than fitted optical potentials can also lead to important differences in the extracted spectroscopic factors.

  14. An Analysis of Key Factors in Developing a Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidana Šiurytė

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept Smart City is used widely but it is perceived differently as well. Literature review reveals key elements of the Smart City – Information and Communication Technologies and Smart Citizens. Nevertheless, raising public awareness is not a priority of local municipalities which are trying to develop cities. Focus group discussion aims to analyse citizens’ insights in regards to the Smart City and their contribution to creation of it. Case study of Vilnius examines a position of mu-nicipality in developing city as smart. Study contains suggestions for the improvement of communication in the city. Methods employed: comparative literature analysis, focus group investigation, case study.

  15. A Demonstration of the Impact of Outliers on the Decisions about the Number of Factors in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Wu, Amery D.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have rarely examined the impact of outliers on the decisions about the number of factors to extract in an exploratory factor analysis. The few studies that have investigated this issue have arrived at contradictory conclusions regarding whether outliers inflated or deflated the number of factors extracted. By systematically…

  16. Factor Structure of the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale for Norwegian School-Age Children Explored with Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drugli, May Britt; Hjemdal, Odin

    2013-01-01

    The validity of the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS) was examined in a national sample of 863 Norwegian schoolchildren in grades 1-7 (aged 6-13). The original factor structure of the STRS was tested by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The CFA results did not support the original three-factor structure of the STRS. Subsequent CFA of the…

  17. Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies and Network Analysis-Based Integration with Gene Expression Data Identify New Suggestive Loci and Unravel a Wnt-Centric Network Associated with Dupuytren’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kerstin; Siegert, Sabine; Toliat, Mohammad Reza; Du, Juanjiangmeng; Casper, Ramona; Dolmans, Guido H.; Werker, Paul M.; Tinschert, Sigrid; Franke, Andre; Gieger, Christian; Strauch, Konstantin; Nothnagel, Michael; Nürnberg, Peter; Hennies, Hans Christian

    2016-01-01

    Dupuytren´s disease, a fibromatosis of the connective tissue in the palm, is a common complex disease with a strong genetic component. Up to date nine genetic loci have been found to be associated with the disease. Six of these loci contain genes that code for Wnt signalling proteins. In spite of this striking first insight into the genetic factors in Dupuytren´s disease, much of the inherited risk in Dupuytren´s disease still needs to be discovered. The already identified loci jointly explain ~1% of the heritability in this disease. To further elucidate the genetic basis of Dupuytren´s disease, we performed a genome-wide meta-analysis combining three genome-wide association study (GWAS) data sets, comprising 1,580 cases and 4,480 controls. We corroborated all nine previously identified loci, six of these with genome-wide significance (p-value Dupuytren´s disease. PMID:27467239

  18. [Analysis of predisposing factors for pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, You-yi; Sun, Bei; Jiang, Hong-chi

    2013-08-01

    To analyze the predisposing factors for pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy. The clinical data of 323 patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy from January 2007 to March 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. There were 185 male and 138 female patients, aging from 27 to 82 years. All the patients were devided into pancreatic fistula group (n = 52) and non-pancreatic fistula group (n = 271). Twenty variables, such as age, sex, primary disease, alcohol abuse, cholangitis, bilirubin, albumin, hemoglobin, operating time, blood loss, transfusion, texture of the remnant pancreas, diameter of wirsung, drainages of pancreatic duct, specialized group which potentially affect the incidence, were analyzed by t test for continuous variables and χ(2) test for discrete variables. The variables with significance (P fistula rate was 16.1% (52/323), 7 patients died for pancreatic fistula PF. In univariate analysis, primary disease, preoperative high bilirubin level, intraoperative blood loss and transfusion, texture of the remnant pancreas, diameter of wirsung, drainages of pancreatic duct, specialized group had significant difference between two groups (χ(2) = 4.072 to 9.008, P analysis revealed that primary disease (OR = 2.091, P = 0.001), texture of the remnant pancreas (OR = 7.715, P = 0.040), diameter of wirsung (OR = 5.405, P = 0.006), pancreatic duct stent (OR = 4.313, P = 0.001) and specialized group (OR = 6.404, P = 0.006) were independent risk factors in pancreatic fistula. Primary disease, texture of the remnant pancreas, diameter of wirsung, pancreatic duct stent and specialized group are independent risk factors in pancreatic fistula. With the purpose of decreasing pancreatic fistula rate after PD, it is necessary to operate meticulously and precisely, place external pancreatic duct stent and establish pancreatic center or specialized group.

  19. Microscopic image analysis techniques for the morphological characterization of pharmaceutical particles: influence of the software, and the factor algorithms used in the shape factor estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Prieto, Sergio; Blanco-Méndez, José; Otero-Espinar, Francisco J

    2007-11-01

    The present report highlights the difficulties of particle shape characterizations of multiparticulate systems obtained using different image analysis techniques. The report describes and discusses a number of shape factors that are widely used in pharmaceutical research. Using photographs of 16 pellets of different shapes, obtained by extrusion-spheronization, we investigated how shape factor estimates vary depending on method of calculation, and among different software packages. The results obtained indicate that the algorithms used (both for estimation of basic dimensions such as perimeter and maximum diameter, and for estimation of shape factors on the basis of these basic dimensions) have marked influences on the shape factor values obtained. These findings suggest that care is required when comparing results obtained using different image analysis programs.

  20. Latent physiological factors of complex human diseases revealed by independent component analysis of clinarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen David P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis and treatment of patients in the clinical setting is often driven by known symptomatic factors that distinguish one particular condition from another. Treatment based on noticeable symptoms, however, is limited to the types of clinical biomarkers collected, and is prone to overlooking dysfunctions in physiological factors not easily evident to medical practitioners. We used a vector-based representation of patient clinical biomarkers, or clinarrays, to search for latent physiological factors that underlie human diseases directly from clinical laboratory data. Knowledge of these factors could be used to improve assessment of disease severity and help to refine strategies for diagnosis and monitoring disease progression. Result