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Sample records for factor acetylhydrolase paf-ah

  1. Biological role of Trichoderma harzianum-derived platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) on stress response and antagonism.

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    Yu, Chuanjin; Fan, Lili; Wu, Qiong; Fu, Kehe; Gao, Shigang; Wang, Meng; Gao, Jinxin; Li, Yaqian; Chen, Jie

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the properties of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) derived from Trichoderma harzianum. The enzyme, comprised of 572 amino acids, shares high homology with PAF-AH proteins from T. koningii and other microbial species. The optimum enzymatic activity of PAF-AH occurred at pH 6 in the absence of Ca2+ and it localized in the cytoplasm, and we observed the upregulation of PAF-AH expression in response to carbon starvation and strong heat shock. Furthermore, PAF-AH knockout transformant growth occurred more slowly than wild type cells and over-expression strains grown in SM medium at 37°C and 42°C. In addition, PAF-AH expression significantly increased under a series of maize root induction assay. Eicosanoic acid and ergosterol levels decreased in the PAF-AH knockouts compared to wild type cells, as revealed by GC/MS analysis. We also determined stress responses mediated by PAF-AH were related to proteins HEX1, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, and cytochrome c. Finally, PAF-AH exhibited antagonistic activity against Rhizoctonia solani in plate confrontation assays. Our results indicate PAF-AH may play an important role in T. harzianum stress response and antagonism under diverse environmental conditions.

  2. Atividade da enzima acetil-hidrolase do fator ativador de plaquetas (PAF-AH em pacientes com diabete melito tipo 1 Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH activity in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

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    Simone Henriques de Castro

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a atividade da acetil-hidrolase do fator ativador de plaquetas (PAF-AH e sua relação com variáveis clinicodemográficas, com o controle metabólico, os níveis de apolipoproteínas A e B e a suscetibilidade da lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL à oxidação in vitro em pacientes com DM tipo 1 (DM 1. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 42 pacientes com DM1 (27 mulheres e 48 não-diabéticos (16 mulheres, pareados por sexo, idade e índice de massa corporal (IMC. Os exames realizados foram: glicemia de jejum (GJ e pós-prandial (GPP, lipidograma, ácido úrico (AU, hemoglobina glicosilada (HbA1c e coeficiente de oxidação da lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL por espectrofotometria. A análise da atividade da PAF-AH foi realizada por espectrofotometria (Cayman Chemical. RESULTADOS: A análise da atividade da PAF-AH mostrou haver maior atividade enzimática nos pacientes com DM 1 do que nos não-diabéticos (0,0150 ± 0,0051 versus 0,0116 ± 0,0041; p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH activity and its relationship with clinical and demographic variables, metabolic control, apolipoprotein A and B levels and the susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein (LDL to in vitro oxidation in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM 1. METHODS: Forty two patients with DM 1 (27 females and 48 control subjects (16 females matched for gender, age and body mass index (BMI were evaluated. The following tests were performed: fast plasma glucose (FG and postprandial plasma glucose (PPG, lipid profile, uric acid (UA, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation rate using colorimetric assay. The PAF-AH activity was analyzed using colorimetric assay (Cayman Chemical. RESULTS: The analysis of PAF-AH activity showed a higher enzyme activity in patients with DM 1 than in control subjects (0.0150 ± 0.0051 vs. 0.0116 ± 0.0041; p < 0.001. In patients with DM 1, a direct correlation

  3. Paraoxonase lactonase activity (PON-HTLase), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and platelet activating factor-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) activity in non-obese women with PCOS.

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    Bayrak, Tulin; Dursun, Polat; Bayrak, Ahmet; Gültekin, Murat; Kolusarı, Ali; Cakır, Erdinç; Ozyurt, Merve; Zeyneloğlu, Hulusi B

    2012-11-01

    Paraoxonase1 (PON1), exhibits both esterase activity (PON1-AREase) and homocysteine thiolactonase activity (PON1-HTLase) which respectively prevent LDL oxidation and detoxify homocysteine thiolactone (HTL). Platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) is an antioxidant enzyme preventing LDL oxidation by hydrolysis of oxidized phospholipids. Both of these enzymes exhibit a proatherogenic role. ADMA is an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis causing endothelial dysfunction. The aim was to compare non-obese PCOS patients with a BMI matched control group using the following characteristics: serum PON1-HTLase, ADMA, PAF-AH, and lipid and hormonal parameters. 77 women with PCOS and 25 healthy subject were recruited for this study, The controls were non-obese BMI and age matched with the patients. There were no significant differences with respect to age, BMI, FSH, free testosterone, DHEA, androstenadion, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, VLDL, fasting glucose/insulin ratio and HOMA-IR among the groups (p > 0.05). However, total testosterone and fasting glucose levels were significantly higher in the PCOS group (p PCOS group while ADMA levels (1.14 ± 0.6 vs. 3.37 ± 6.4, p = 0.004) were significantly higher in the PCOS group. However, there was no significant difference in PAF-AH activity among the groups. Decreased PON1-HTLase and increased ADMA levels might be a relevant marker for the development of future atherosclerotic heart disease (AHD) in non-obese PCOS patients. Further studies are needed to confirm our results.

  4. Regulating inflammation through the anti-inflammatory enzyme platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase

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    Hugo C Castro Faria Neto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-activating factor (PAF is one of the most potent lipid mediators involved in inflammatory events. The acetyl group at the sn-2 position of its glycerol backbone is essential for its biological activity. Deacetylation induces the formation of the inactive metabolite lyso-PAF. This deacetylation reaction is catalyzed by PAF-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH, a calcium independent phospholipase A2 that also degrades a family of PAF-like oxidized phospholipids with short sn-2 residues. Biochemical and enzymological evaluations revealed that at least three types of PAF-AH exist in mammals, namely the intracellular types I and II and a plasma type. Many observations indicate that plasma PAF AH terminates signals by PAF and oxidized PAF-like lipids and thereby regulates inflammatory responses. In this review, we will focus on the potential of PAF-AH as a modulator of diseases of dysregulated inflammation.

  5. Antibody production of wild-type and enzyme V279F variants of PAF-AH as a risk factor for Cardiovascular disease

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    Ramadhani, Anggia N.; Puspitarini, Sapti; Sari, Anissa N.; Widodo

    2017-11-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) has emerged as a leading cause of death in Indonesia nowadays. WHO data in 2012 revealed that 37% of the Indonesian population died from this disease. CAD occurs because of endothelial dysfunction in the arteries. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), also known as platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), is a phospholipase A2 enzyme, encoded by the PLA2G7 gene. This protein is predicted to be involved in inflammatory phospholipid metabolism so it can be used as a biomarker of CAD in the early phase. Thus, the purpose of this research is to discover the difference in antibody production between wild-type and mutant V279F. The PAF-AH enzyme was isolated from mice lymphocyte cells in order to develop this enzyme as a biomarker of cardiovascular disease. PAF-AH migrates at 55kDa according to SDS-PAGE analysis. Flow cytometry analysis showed that mutant PAF-AH (V279F) is more antigenic than wild-type PAF-AH. The missense mutation of V279F PAF-AH means this enzyme cannot catabolize the acetyl group at the sn-2 position of PAF.

  6. Dual Roles of Endogenous Platelet-activating Factor Acetylhydrolase in a Murine Model of Necrotizing Enterocolitis

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    Lu, Jing; Pierce, Marissa; Franklin, Andrew; Jilling, Tamas; Stafforini, Diana M.; Caplan, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Human preterm infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) have increased circulating and luminal levels of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and decreased serum PAF-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), the enzyme that inactivates PAF. Formula supplemented with recombinant PAF-AH decreases NEC in a neonatal rat model. We hypothesized that endogenous PAF-AH contributes to neonatal intestinal homeostasis, and therefore developed PAF-AH−/− mice using standard approaches to study the role of this enzyme in the neonatal NEC model. Following exposure to a well-established NEC model, intestinal tissues were evaluated for histology, pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA synthesis, and death using standard techniques. We found that mortality rates were significantly lower in PAF-AH−/− pups compared to wild-type controls before 24 hours of life but surviving PAF-AH−/− animals were more susceptible to NEC development compared to wild-type controls. Increased NEC incidence was associated with prominent inflammation characterized by elevated intestinal mRNA expression of sPLA2, iNOS and CXCL1. In conclusion, the data support a protective role for endogenous PAF-AH in the development of NEC, and since preterm neonates have endogenous PAF-AH deficiency, this may place them at increased risk for disease. PMID:20531249

  7. The proangiogenic phenotype of tumor-derived endothelial cells is reverted by the overexpression of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase.

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    Doublier, Sophie; Ceretto, Monica; Lupia, Enrico; Bravo, Stefania; Bussolati, Benedetta; Camussi, Giovanni

    2007-10-01

    We previously reported that human tumor-derived endothelial cells (TEC) have an angiogenic phenotype related to the autocrine production of several angiogenic factors. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether an enhanced synthesis of platelet-activating factor (PAF) might contribute to the proangiogenic characteristics of TEC and whether its inactivation might inhibit angiogenesis. To address the potential role of PAF in the proangiogenic characteristics of TEC, we engineered TEC to stably overexpress human plasma PAF-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), the major PAF-inactivating enzyme, and we evaluated in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis. TECs were able to synthesize a significantly enhanced amount of PAF compared with normal human microvascular endothelial cells when stimulated with thrombin, vascular endothelial growth factor, or soluble CD154. Transfection of TEC with PAF-AH (TEC-PAF-AH) significantly inhibited apoptosis resistance and spontaneous motility of TEC. In addition, PAF and vascular endothelial growth factor stimulation enhanced the motility and adhesion of TEC but not of TEC-PAF-AH. In vitro, TEC-PAF-AH lost the characteristic ability of TEC to form vessel-like structures when plated on Matrigel. Finally, when cells were injected s.c. within Matrigel in severe combined immunodeficiency mice or coimplanted with a renal carcinoma cell line, the overexpression of PAF-AH induced a significant reduction of functional vessel formation. These results suggest that inactivation of PAF, produced by TEC, by the overexpression of plasma PAF-AH affects survival, migration, and the angiogenic response of TEC both in vitro and in vivo.

  8. Significance of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase in patients with non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes mellitus.

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    Serban, M; Tanaseanu, Cristina; Kosaka, T; Vidulescu, Cristina; Stoian, Irina; Marta, Daciana S; Tanaseanu, S; Moldoveanu, Elena

    2002-01-01

    Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) represents an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), being characterized by a continuous low-grade inflammation and endothelial activation state. Plasma platelet - activating factor - acetylhydrolases (PAF-AHs) are a subgroup of Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A(2) family (also known as lipoprotein-associated phospholipases A(2)) that hydrolyze and inactivate the lipid mediator platelet-activating factor (PAF) and/or oxidized phospholipids. This enzyme is considered to play an important role in inflammatory diseases and atherosclerosis. The present study aims to investigate the relations between the levels of PAF-AH activity and LDL-cholesterol / HDL-cholesterol (LDL-ch / HDL-ch) ratio in NIDDM patients as compared to controls. serum PAF-AH activity was measured in 50 patients with dyslipidemia, in 50 NIDDM patients and in 50 controls (normal lipid and glucose levels). Total cholesterol, LDL-ch, HDL-ch, triglyceride and blood glucose were determined in all subjects. All NIDDM patients display hiperlipidemia, with increased LDL-ch and triglyceride levels. There is a significant correlation between LDL-ch levels (especially LDL-ch / HDL-ch ratio) and PAF-AH activity in dyslipidemic and NIDDM patients. Diabetic and dyslipidemic patients have an increased plasma PAF-AH activity correlated with their LDL-ch levels and mainly with LDL-ch / HDL-ch ratio. Plasma PAF-AH high levels appear to be important as a risk marker for endothelial dysfunction in patients with NIDDM.

  9. The platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase gene derived from Trichoderma harzianum induces maize resistance to Curvularia lunata through the jasmonic acid signaling pathway.

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    Yu, Chuanjin; Fan, Lili; Gao, Jinxin; Wang, Meng; Wu, Qiong; Tang, Jun; Li, Yaqian; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) derived from Trichoderma harzianum was upregulated by the interaction of T. harzianum with maize roots or the foliar pathogen Curvularia lunata. PAF-AH was associated with chitinase and cellulase expressions, but especially with chitinase, because its activity in the KO40 transformant (PAF-AH disruption transformant) was lower, compared with the wild-type strain T28. The result demonstrated that the colonization of maize roots by T. harzianum induced systemic protection of leaves inoculated with C. lunata. Such protection was associated with the expression of inducible jasmonic acid pathway-related genes. Moreover, the data from liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry confirmed that the concentration of jasmonic acid in maize leaves was associated with the expression level of defense-related genes, suggesting that PAF-AH induced resistance to the foliar pathogen. Our findings showed that PAF-AH had an important function in inducing systemic resistance to maize leaf spot pathogen.

  10. Hepatic regulation of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase biliary and plasma output in rats exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide.

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    Svetlov, S I; Sturm, E; Olson, M S; Crawford, J M

    1999-07-01

    Normal rat bile contains secretory platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), the enzyme capable of hydrolyzing the inflammatory mediator platelet-activating factor (PAF), and phospholipids containing oxidized truncated fatty acids. Because lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) possesses intrinsic PAF-AH-like activity, it also may represent a potential anti-inflammatory enzyme. The behavior of PAF-AH and LCAT in hepatobiliary inflammatory responses in vivo has not been characterized. We therefore investigated the biliary and plasma secretion and pharmacological characteristics of these enzymes in rats subjected to intraportal bacterial endotoxin exposure (lipopolysaccharide [LPS], Escherichia coli, 055:B5). Portal vein LPS infusion (1 mg/kg, bolus) resulted in a maximal 4- to 5-fold increase in bile PAF-AH-specific activity with a gradual decline to baseline by 18 hours. Biliary PAF-AH hydrolyzed also the truncated sn-2-succinoyl and sn-2-glutaroyl analogs of PAF, indicating a broader activity of PAF-AH in bile toward byproducts of glycerophospholipid peroxidation. Plasma PAF-AH activity was not altered 5 hours after LPS injection compared with saline injection, but it was significantly elevated 18 hours after endotoxin exposure. The levels of LCAT in bile were low and declined to nearly undetectable values by 5 hours after cannulation in both control and LPS-exposed rats. Plasma LCAT activity was significantly increased after 5 hours and decreased 18 hours after LPS injection. In summary, hepatic exposure to endotoxin results in a rapid increase in biliary secretion of PAF-AH followed by elevation of LCAT and PAF-AH levels in plasma. We propose that biliary secretion of PAF-AH may be involved in the hepatic response to endotoxic insult by counteracting potential inflammatory damage in the biliary tree and gastrointestinal tract, whereas plasma increases in LCAT and PAF-AH may promote elimination of excess PAF and oxidized phospholipids in the

  11. Intracellular Erythrocyte Platelet-activating Factor Acetylhydrolase I Inactivates Aspirin in Blood*

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    Zhou, Gang; Marathe, Gopal K.; Willard, Belinda; McIntyre, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) prophylaxis suppresses major adverse cardiovascular events, but its rapid turnover limits inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase activity and thrombosis. Despite its importance, the identity of the enzyme(s) that hydrolyzes the acetyl residue of circulating aspirin, which must be an existing enzyme, remains unknown. We find that circulating aspirin was extensively hydrolyzed within erythrocytes, and chromatography indicated these cells contained a single hydrolytic activity. Purification by over 1400-fold and sequencing identified the PAFAH1B2 and PAFAH1B3 subunits of type I platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase, a phospholipase A2 with selectivity for acetyl residues of PAF, as a candidate for aspirin acetylhydrolase. Western blotting showed that catalytic PAFAH1B2 and PAFAH1B3 subunits of the type I enzyme co-migrated with purified erythrocyte aspirin hydrolytic activity. Recombinant PAFAH1B2, but not its family member plasma PAF acetylhydrolase, hydrolyzed aspirin, and PAF competitively inhibited aspirin hydrolysis by purified or recombinant erythrocyte enzymes. Aspirin was hydrolyzed by HEK cells transfected with PAFAH1B2 or PAFAH1B3, and the competitive type I PAF acetylhydrolase inhibitor NaF reduced erythrocyte hydrolysis of aspirin. Exposing aspirin to erythrocytes blocked its ability to inhibit thromboxane A2 synthesis and platelet aggregation. Not all individuals or populations are equally protected by aspirin prophylaxis, the phenomenon of aspirin resistance, and erythrocyte hydrolysis of aspirin varied 3-fold among individuals, which correlated with PAFAH1B2 and not PAFAH1B3. We conclude that intracellular type I PAF acetylhydrolase is the major aspirin hydrolase of human blood. PMID:21844189

  12. Intracellular erythrocyte platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase I inactivates aspirin in blood.

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    Zhou, Gang; Marathe, Gopal K; Willard, Belinda; McIntyre, Thomas M

    2011-10-07

    Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) prophylaxis suppresses major adverse cardiovascular events, but its rapid turnover limits inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase activity and thrombosis. Despite its importance, the identity of the enzyme(s) that hydrolyzes the acetyl residue of circulating aspirin, which must be an existing enzyme, remains unknown. We find that circulating aspirin was extensively hydrolyzed within erythrocytes, and chromatography indicated these cells contained a single hydrolytic activity. Purification by over 1400-fold and sequencing identified the PAFAH1B2 and PAFAH1B3 subunits of type I platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase, a phospholipase A(2) with selectivity for acetyl residues of PAF, as a candidate for aspirin acetylhydrolase. Western blotting showed that catalytic PAFAH1B2 and PAFAH1B3 subunits of the type I enzyme co-migrated with purified erythrocyte aspirin hydrolytic activity. Recombinant PAFAH1B2, but not its family member plasma PAF acetylhydrolase, hydrolyzed aspirin, and PAF competitively inhibited aspirin hydrolysis by purified or recombinant erythrocyte enzymes. Aspirin was hydrolyzed by HEK cells transfected with PAFAH1B2 or PAFAH1B3, and the competitive type I PAF acetylhydrolase inhibitor NaF reduced erythrocyte hydrolysis of aspirin. Exposing aspirin to erythrocytes blocked its ability to inhibit thromboxane A(2) synthesis and platelet aggregation. Not all individuals or populations are equally protected by aspirin prophylaxis, the phenomenon of aspirin resistance, and erythrocyte hydrolysis of aspirin varied 3-fold among individuals, which correlated with PAFAH1B2 and not PAFAH1B3. We conclude that intracellular type I PAF acetylhydrolase is the major aspirin hydrolase of human blood.

  13. A study on single nucleotide polymorphism of exon 7 T/C (locus 593 of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase gene in healthy Han population in the Shanghai region

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    Tian-bao XIA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the distribution of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH gene exon 7 T/C (locus 593 in healthy Han population in Shanghai region and the features different from other races. Methods The SNP in PAF-AH gene exon 7 T/C (locus 593 was detected and analyzed by PCR and sequencing in 110 healthy Han people from Shanghai areas. The genotype and allele frequency were then calculated and compared with that in other races in combination with review of relevant literature. Results The amplified product of the SNP in PAF-AH gene exon 7 T/C (locus 593 was 240 bp in 110 healthy Han people, of whom 97 were with TT genotype and 13 with TC genotype, but no CC genotype was found. As to the allele frequency distribution, T type allele took the highest position, and C type followed. The genotype frequency of TT and TC was 88.2% and 11.8%, respectively, and they were markedly different from that in German population (0.95%, while not statistically significant different from that in British population (7.67%. Conclusions There exists SNP in PAF-AH gene exon 7 T/C (position 593 in healthy Han people in Shanghai region, with a higher frequency of T→C mutation. The mutational genotype frequency is found to be located at the locus 593 is 11.81%, and it is markedly different from that in German population, but not significantly different from that in British population.

  14. Class A CpG Oligonucleotide Priming Rescues Mice from Septic Shock via Activation of Platelet-Activating Factor Acetylhydrolase

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    Yoshinari Yamamoto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a life-threatening, overwhelming immune response to infection with high morbidity and mortality. Inflammatory response and blood clotting are caused by sepsis, which induces serious organ damage and death from shock. As a mechanism of pathogenesis, platelet-activating factor (PAF induces excessive inflammatory responses and blood clotting. In this study, we demonstrate that a Class A CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-A1585 strongly induced PAF acetylhydrolase, which generates lyso-PAF. CpG-A1585 rescued mice from acute lethal shock and decreased fibrin deposition, a hallmark of PAF-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation. Furthermore, CpG-A1585 improved endotoxin shock induced by lipopolysaccharide, which comprises the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria and inhibits inflammatory responses induced by cytokines such as interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. These results suggest that CpG-A1585 is a potential therapeutic target to prevent sepsis-related induction of PAF.

  15. Effect of Robola and Cabernet Sauvignon extracts on platelet activating factor enzymes activity on U937 cells.

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    Xanthopoulou, M N; Asimakopoulos, D; Antonopoulou, S; Demopoulos, C A; Fragopoulou, E

    2014-12-15

    A number of studies support the anti-atherogenic effect of wine compounds. The scope of this study was to examine the effect of a red (Cabernet Sauvignon-CS) and a white (Robola-R) wine, as well as resveratrol and quercetin, on the platelet activating factor (PAF) biosynthetic enzymes, acetyl-CoA:lyso-PAF acetyltransferase (lyso-PAF-AT) and DTT-insensitive CDP-choline 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol cholinephosphotransferase (PAF-CPT), and its main catabolic enzyme (PAF acetylhydrolase; PAF-AH), on U937 cells, in cell free and in intact cell experiments. In cell free experiments, phenolic compounds and wine extracts inhibited PAF biosynthetic enzymes, however in higher concentrations than intact cell experiments. In the latter cases, polar lipids of both wines inhibited in the same order of magnitude the action of lyso-PAF-AT and of PAF-CPT. The water fractions possessed a dual action, in lower concentrations they activated both enzymes, while in higher concentrations only inhibited PAF-CPT. All fractions either did not affect or slightly activated PAF-AH activity. In conclusion, wine compounds may exert their anti-inflammatory activity by reducing PAF levels through modulation of the PAF metabolic enzymes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Platelet-activating factor synthesis and receptor-mediated signaling are downregulated in ovine newborn lungs: relevance in postnatal pulmonary adaptation and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.

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    Renteria, L S; Cruz, E; Ibe, B O

    2013-12-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a phospholipid with a wide range of biological activities. We studied PAF metabolism and PAF receptor (PAFR) signaling in perinatal ovine lungs to understand PAF's role in transition of the perinatal pulmonary hemodynamics and pathophysiology of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. We hypothesized that downregulation of PAF synthesis with upregulation of PAF catabolism by acetylhydrolase (PAF-Ah) in the newborn lung is needed for fetus-to-newborn pulmonary adaptation. Studies were conducted on fetal and newborn lamb pulmonary arteries (PA), veins (PV) and smooth muscle cells (SMC). PAF metabolism, PAFR binding and cell proliferation were studied by cell culture; gene expression was studied by qPCR. Fetal lungs synthesized 60% more PAF than newborn lungs. Compared with the fetal PVs and SMCs, PAF-Ah activity in newborn was 40-60% greater. PAF-Ah mRNA expression in newborn vessels was different from the expression by fetal PA. PAF-Ah gene clone activity confirmed deletion of hypoxia-sensitive site. PAFR mRNA expression by the PVs and SMC-PV of the fetus and newborn was greater than by corresponding PAs and SMC-PA. Q-PCR study of PAFR expression by the SMC-PV of both groups was greater than SMC-PA. Fetal SMCs bound more PAF than the newborn SMCs. PAFR antagonist, CV-3988, inhibited PAFR binding and DNA synthesis by the fetal SMCs, but augmented binding and DNA synthesis by newborn cells. We show different PAF-PAFR mediated effects in perinatal lungs, suggesting both transcriptional and translational regulation of PAF-Ah and PAFR expression in the perinatal lamb lungs. These indicate that the downregulation of PAF-mediated effects postnatally protects against persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.

  17. Role of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase in the metabolism of oxidized phospholipids in plasma: studies with platelet-activating factor-acetyl hydrolase-deficient plasma.

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    Subramanian, V S; Goyal, J; Miwa, M; Sugatami, J; Akiyama, M; Liu, M; Subbaiah, P V

    1999-07-09

    To determine the relative importance of platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) in the hydrolysis of oxidized phosphatidylcholines (OXPCs) to lyso-phosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC), we studied the formation and metabolism of OXPCs in the plasma of normal and PAF-AH-deficient subjects. Whereas the loss of PC following oxidation was similar in the deficient and normal plasmas, the formation of lyso-PC was significantly lower, and the accumulation of OXPC was higher in the deficient plasma. Isolated LDL from the PAF-AH-deficient subjects was more susceptible to oxidation, and stimulated adhesion molecule synthesis in endothelial cells, more than the normal LDL. Oxidation of 16:0-[1-14C]-18:2 PC, equilibrated with plasma PC, resulted in the accumulation of labeled short- and long-chain OXPCs, in addition to the labeled aqueous products. The formation of the aqueous products decreased by 80%, and the accumulation of short-chain OXPC increased by 110% in the deficient plasma, compared to the normal plasma, showing that PAF-AH is predominantly involved in the hydrolysis of the truncated OXPCs. Labeled sn-2-acyl group from the long-chain OXPC was not only hydrolyzed to free fatty acid, but was preferentially transferred to diacylglycerol, in both the normal and deficient plasmas. In contrast, the acyl group from unoxidized PC was transferred only to cholesterol, showing that the specificity of LCAT is altered by OXPC. It is concluded that, while PAF-AH carries out the hydrolysis of mainly truncated OXPCs, LCAT hydrolyzes and transesterifies the long-chain OXPCs.

  18. Lipoxin A4 and platelet activating factor are involved in E. coli or LPS-induced lung inflammation in CFTR-deficient mice.

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    Haiya Wu

    Full Text Available CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator is expressed by both neutrophils and platelets. Lack of functional CFTR could lead to severe lung infection and inflammation. Here, we found that mutation of CFTR (F508del or inhibition of CFTR in mice led to more severe thrombocytopenia, alveolar neutrocytosis and bacteriosis, and lower lipoxin A4/MIP-2 (macrophage inhibitory protein-2 or lipoxin A4/neutrophil ratios in the BAL (bronchoalveolar lavage during acute E. coli pneumonia. In vitro, inhibition of CFTR promotes MIP-2 production in LPS-stimulated neutrophils; however, lipoxin A4 could dose-dependently suppress this effect. In LPS-induced acute lung inflammation, blockade of PSGL-1 (P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 or P-selectin, antagonism of PAF by WEB2086, or correction of mutated CFTR trafficking by KM11060 could significantly increase plasma lipoxin A4 levels in F508del relevant to wildtype mice. Concurrently, F508del mice had higher plasma platelet activating factor (PAF levels and PAF-AH activity compared to wildtype under LPS challenge. Inhibiting hydrolysis of PAF by a specific PAF-AH (PAF-acetylhydrolase inhibitor, MAFP, could worsen LPS-induced lung inflammation in F508del mice compared to vehicle treated F508del group. Particularly, depletion of platelets in F508del mice could significantly decrease plasma lipoxin A4 and PAF-AH activity and deteriorate LPS-induced lung inflammation compared to control F508del mice. Taken together, lipoxin A4 and PAF are involved in E. coli or LPS-induced lung inflammation in CFTR-deficient mice, suggesting that lipoxin A4 and PAF might be therapeutic targets for ameliorating CFTR-deficiency deteriorated lung inflammation.

  19. Novel function of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase. Hydrolysis of oxidized polar phospholipids generated during lipoprotein oxidation.

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    Goyal, J; Wang, K; Liu, M; Subbaiah, P V

    1997-06-27

    Although the major function of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is cholesterol esterification, our previous studies showed that it can also hydrolyze platelet-activating factor (PAF). Because of the structural similarities between PAF and the truncated phosphatidylcholines (polar PCs) generated during lipoprotein oxidation, we investigated the possibility that LCAT may also hydrolyze polar PCs to lyso-PC during the oxidation of plasma. PAF acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), which is known to hydrolyze polar PCs in human plasma, was completely inhibited by 0.2 mM p-aminoethyl benzenesulfonyl fluoride (Pefabloc), a new serine esterase inhibitor, which had no effect on LCAT at this concentration. On the other hand, 1 mM diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) completely inhibited LCAT but had no effect on PAF-AH. Polar PC accumulation during the oxidation of plasma increased by 44% in the presence of 0.2 mM Pefabloc and by 30% in the presence of 1 mM DFP. The formation of lyso-PC was concomitantly inhibited by both of the inhibitors. The combination of the two inhibitors resulted in the maximum accumulation of polar PCs, suggesting that both PAF-AH and LCAT are involved in their breakdown. Oxidation of chicken plasma, which has no PAF-AH activity, also resulted in the formation of lyso-PC from the hydrolysis of polar PC, which was inhibited by DFP. Polar PCs, either isolated from oxidized plasma or by oxidation of labeled synthetic PCs, were hydrolyzed by purified LCAT, which had no detectable PAF-AH activity. These results demonstrate a novel function for LCAT in the detoxification of polar PCs generated during lipoprotein oxidation, especially when the PAF-AH is absent or inactivated.

  20. Hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine during LDL oxidation is mediated by platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase.

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    Steinbrecher, U P; Pritchard, P H

    1989-03-01

    Degradation of phosphatidylcholine to lysophosphatidylcholine occurs during oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins (LDL). In this study, we have shown that this phospholipid hydrolysis is brought about by an LDL-associated phospholipase A2 that can hydrolyze oxidized but not intact LDL phosphatidylcholine. The chemical nature of the oxidized phospholipids that can act as substrates for this enzyme was not fully characterized, but we hypothesized that the specificity of the enzyme for oxidized LDL phosphatidylcholine might be explained by fragmentation of polyunsaturated sn-2 fatty acyl groups in LDL phosphatidylcholine during oxidation. To facilitate characterization of this enzyme, we therefore selected a fluorescent phosphatidylcholine substrate that had a short-chain, polar residue in the sn-2 position: 1-palmitoyl 2-(6-[7-nitrobenzoxadiazolyl]amino) caproyl phosphatidylcholine, (C6NBD PC). This substrate was efficiently hydrolyzed by LDL, but the dodecanoyl analogue of C6NBD PC, which differed only in that a 12-carbon rather than a 6-carbon acyl derivative was present in the sn-2 position, was not hydrolyzed. The phospholipase activity was heat-stable, calcium-independent, and was inhibited by the serine esterase inhibitors phenylmethylsulfonyl-fluoride and diisopropylfluorophosphate, but was resistant to p-bromophenacylbromide and dithiobisnitrobenzoic acid. The phospholipid hydrolysis could not be attributed to the action of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase or lipoprotein lipase. Nearly all of the activity in EDTA-anticoagulated normal plasma was physically associated with apoB-containing lipoproteins, but this apoprotein was not essential as enzyme activity was present in plasma from abetalipoproteinemic patients. These properties are very similar to those recently reported for human plasma platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase. In the present study, we found that acylhydrolase activity against C6NBD PC, PAF, and oxidized

  1. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor-binding antagonist activity of Malaysian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantan, I; Rafi, I A A; Jalil, J

    2005-01-01

    Forty-nine methanol extracts of 37 species of Malaysian medicinal plants were investigated for their inhibitory effects on platelet-activating factor (PAF) binding to rabbit platelets, using 3H-PAF as a ligand. Among them, the extracts of six Zingiberaceae species (Alpinia galanga Swartz., Boesenbergia pandurata Roxb., Curcuma ochorrhiza Val., C. aeruginosa Roxb., Zingiber officinale Rosc. and Z. zerumbet Koenig.), two Cinnamomum species (C. altissimum Kosterm. and C. pubescens Kochummen.), Goniothalamus malayanus Hook. f. Momordica charantia Linn. and Piper aduncum L. are potential sources of new PAF antagonists, as they showed significant inhibitory effects with IC50 values ranging from 1.2 to 18.4 microg ml(-1).

  2. PAF53 is essential in mammalian cells: CRISPR/Cas9 fails to eliminate PAF53 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothblum, Lawrence I; Rothblum, Katrina; Chang, Eugenie

    2017-05-15

    When mammalian cells are nutrient and/or growth factor deprived, exposed to inhibitors of protein synthesis, stressed by heat shock or grown to confluence, rDNA transcription is essentially shut off. Various mechanisms are available to accomplish this downshift in ribosome biogenesis. Muramatsu's laboratory (Hanada et al., 1996) first demonstrated that mammalian PAF53 was essential for specific rDNA transcription and that PAF53 levels were regulated in response to growth factors. While S. cerevisae A49, the homologue of vertebrate PAF53, is not essential for viability (Liljelund et al., 1992), deletion of yA49 results in colonies that grow at 6% of the wild type rate at 25°C. Experiments described by Wang et al. (2015) identified PAF53 as a gene "essential for optimal proliferation". However, they did not discriminate genes essential for viability. Hence, in order to resolve this question, we designed a series of experiments to determine if PAF53 was essential for cell survival. We set out to delete the gene product from mammalian cells using CRISPR/CAS9 technology. Human 293 cells were transfected with lentiCRISPR v2 carrying genes for various sgRNA that targeted PAF53. In some experiments, the cells were cotransfected in parallel with plasmids encoding FLAG-tagged mouse PAF53. After treating the transfected cells with puromycin (to select for the lentiCRISPR backbone), cells were cloned and analyzed by western blots for PAF53 expression. Genomic DNA was amplified across the "CRISPRd" exon, cloned and sequenced to identify mutated PAF53 genes. We obtained cell lines in which the endogenous PAF53 gene was "knocked out" only when we rescued with FLAG-PAF53. DNA sequencing demonstrated that in the absence of ectopic PAF53 expression, cells demonstrated unique means of surviving; including recombination or the utilization of alternative reading frames. We never observed a clone in which one PAF53 gene is expressed, unless there was also ectopic expression In the

  3. Drosophila PAF1 Modulates PIWI/piRNA Silencing Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Josef P; Rahman, Reazur; Yang, Nachen; Yang, Linda H; Lau, Nelson C

    2017-09-11

    To test the directness of factors in initiating PIWI-directed gene silencing, we employed a Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA)-targeted reporter assay in Drosophila ovary somatic sheet (OSS) cells [1]. This assay confirmed direct silencing roles for piRNA biogenesis factors and PIWI-associated factors [2-12] but suggested that chromatin-modifying proteins may act downstream of the initial silencing event. Our data also revealed that RNA-polymerase-II-associated proteins like PAF1 and RTF1 antagonize PIWI-directed silencing. PAF1 knockdown enhances PIWI silencing of reporters when piRNAs target the transcript region proximal to the promoter. Loss of PAF1 suppresses endogenous transposable element (TE) transcript maturation, whereas a subset of gene transcripts and long-non-coding RNAs adjacent to TE insertions are affected by PAF1 knockdown in a similar fashion to piRNA-targeted reporters. Additionally, transcription activation at specific TEs and TE-adjacent loci during PIWI knockdown is suppressed when PIWI and PAF1 levels are both reduced. Our study suggests a mechanistic conservation between fission yeast PAF1 repressing AGO1/small interfering RNA (siRNA)-directed silencing [13, 14] and Drosophila PAF1 opposing PIWI/piRNA-directed silencing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Platelet-activating factor acether (PAF-acether) involvement in acute inflammatory and pain processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, J; Loiseau, A M; Orvoen, M; Bessin, P

    1981-12-01

    PAF-acether is a potent aggregating agent released by various cells involved in acute inflammatory process. In this paper, exogenous PAF-acether has been investigated for its ability to generate signs of inflammation (edema measured by plethysmometry) and hyperalgesia (Randall-Sellito test) by standard subplantar injection in the rat paw. From 0.005 microgram. PAF-acether induced significant edema of the paw, maximal 1 hour after injection; it was dose-dependent from 0.1 to 5 microgram. Significant dose-dependent hyperalgesia occurred from 1.25 microgram; it reached a plateau from 2 to 4 hours after injection. Both phenomena were long-lasting (greater than 6 h). PAF-acether was 1.5 to 10 times stronger than PGI2 and PGE2 in inducing edema, pain, and in increasing vascular permeability. We investigated the interaction of miscellaneous drugs with the edema and the hyperalgesia caused by 2.5 microgram of PAF-acether. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAI) drugs exerted only moderate effects on the edema without affecting hyperalgesia. Edema was highly reduced by various agents: prednisolone, L-cysteine, anti-calcic drugs, theophylline, PGI2, salbutamol, clonidine. All of them, except clonidine, and in contrast to NSAI drugs, were more potent on PAF-acether edema than on kaolin edema; a possible link between these agents is their ability to increase cyclic AMP levels in the cells and consequently to reduce lysosomal enzyme release. PAF-acether itself, injected intra-peritoneally, inhibited PAF-acether edema without preventing pain, at doses inactive on arterial pressure and hematocrit, but inducing marked gastric mucosal damage. Among the drugs tested, including analgesics, only PGI2 and imidazole improved PAF-induced hyperalgesia, showing a dissociation between edema and hyperalgesia not only in their induction (doses of PAF required, time course of the phenomena), but in the drugs able to antagonize their development too.

  5. PAF receptor structure: a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroid, J J; Dive, G; Lamotte-Brasseur, J; Batt, J P; Heymans, F

    1991-12-01

    Different hypotheses of the structure of platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor based on structure-activity relationships of agonists and antagonists are reviewed. For an agonistic effect, strong hydrophobic interactions and an ether function are required in position-1 of the glycerol backbone; chain length limitations and steric hindrance demand a small group in position-2. The unusual structural properties of non-PAF-like antagonists required 3-D electrostatic potential calculations. This method applied to seven potent antagonists suggests a strong "Cache-orielles" (ear-muff) effect, i.e., two strong electronegative wells (isocontour at -10 Kcal/mole) are located at 180 degrees to each other and at a relatively constant distance. Initial consideration of the "Cache-oreilles" effect implied the structure of a bipolarized cylinder of 10-12 A diameter for the receptor. However, very recent results on studies with agonists and antagonists structurally similar to PAF suggest that the receptor may in fact be a multi-polarized cylinder.

  6. Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R)-dependent pathways control tumour growth and tumour response to chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Soraya I de; Andrade, Luciana NS; Onuchic, Ana C; Nonogaki, Sueli; Fernandes, Patrícia D; Pinheiro, Mônica C; Rohde, Ciro BS; Chammas, Roger; Jancar, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages induces a suppressor phenotype. Previous data from our group suggested that this occurs via Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R)-mediated pathways. In the present study, we investigated the impact of apoptotic cell inoculation or induction by a chemotherapeutic agent (dacarbazine, DTIC) on tumour growth, microenvironmental parameters and survival, and the effect of treatment with a PAF-R antagonist (WEB2170). These studies were performed in murine tumours: Ehrlich Ascitis Tumour (EAT) and B16F10 melanoma. Tumour growth was assessed by direct counting of EAT cells in the ascitis or by measuring the volume of the solid tumour. Parameters of the tumour microenvironment, such as the frequency of cells expressing cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), caspase-3 and galectin-3, and microvascular density, were determined by immunohistochemistry. Levels of vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were determined by ELISA, and levels of nitric oxide (NO) by Griess reaction. PAF-R expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Inoculation of apoptotic cells before EAT implantation stimulated tumour growth. This effect was reversed by in vivo pre-treatment with WEB2170. This treatment also reduced tumour growth and modified the microenvironment by reducing PGE2, VEGF and NO production. In B16F10 melanoma, WEB2170 alone or in association with DTIC significantly reduced tumour volume. Survival of the tumour-bearing mice was not affected by WEB2170 treatment but was significantly improved by the combination of DTIC with WEB2170. Tumour microenvironment elements were among the targets of the combination therapy since the relative frequency of COX-2 and galectin-3 positive cells and the microvascular density within the tumour mass were significantly reduced by treatment with WEB2170 or DTIC alone or in combination. Antibodies to PAF-R stained the cells from inside the tumour, but not the

  7. Determination of PAF-2-acylhydrolase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickard, R.N.; Ludwig, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    A simple and rapid procedure has been developed to determine the PAF-2-acylhydrolase activity in various biological fluids. The assay was based upon the following biophysical properties of PAF (1-O-hexadecyl-2- 3 H-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 10 Ci/mMole). In aqueous solution PAF is not soluble below its critical micellar concentration (1.1 μM) unless albumin (2.5 mg/ml) is present which binds and stabilizes PAF in solution. However, upon precipitation of the albumin with trichloroacetic acid (TCA), 100% of the PAF also co-precipitates. Thus, in a reaction mixture to assess PAF-2-acylhydrolase activity conducted in the presence of albumin, termination of the reaction by the addition of TCA (10% final concentration) precipitates all residual PAF and also inactivates all PAF-2-acylhydrolase activity. Under these conditions 100% of the released 3 H-acetate is recovered in the supernatant after centrifugation, 10,000 x g for 60 sec. Therefore, determination of released 3 H-acetate provides a highly accurate and reproducible measurement of both substrate (PAF) and product ( 3 H-acetate) concentrations. Kinetic studies assessing the PAF-2-acylhydrolase in human serum diluted in Hank's balance salt solution containing 2.5 mg/ml human albumin, pH 7.20 yielded an apparent Km = 5 nM

  8. PAF-Myc-Controlled Cell Stemness Is Required for Intestinal Regeneration and Tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon Jong; Xia, Bo; Suh, Han Na; Lee, Sung Ho; Jun, Sohee; Lien, Esther M; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Kaifu; Park, Jae-Il

    2018-03-12

    The underlying mechanisms of how self-renewing cells are controlled in regenerating tissues and cancer remain ambiguous. PCNA-associated factor (PAF) modulates DNA repair via PCNA. Also, PAF hyperactivates Wnt/β-catenin signaling independently of PCNA interaction. We found that PAF is expressed in intestinal stem and progenitor cells (ISCs and IPCs) and markedly upregulated during intestinal regeneration and tumorigenesis. Whereas PAF is dispensable for intestinal homeostasis, upon radiation injury, genetic ablation of PAF impairs intestinal regeneration along with the severe loss of ISCs and Myc expression. Mechanistically, PAF conditionally occupies and transactivates the c-Myc promoter, which induces the expansion of ISCs/IPCs during intestinal regeneration. In mouse models, PAF knockout inhibits Apc inactivation-driven intestinal tumorigenesis with reduced tumor cell stemness and suppressed Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity, supported by transcriptome profiling. Collectively, our results unveil that the PAF-Myc signaling axis is indispensable for intestinal regeneration and tumorigenesis by positively regulating self-renewing cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The human RNA polymerase II-associated factor 1 (hPaf1: a new regulator of cell-cycle progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Moniaux

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The human PAF (hPAF complex is part of the RNA polymerase II transcription apparatus and regulates multiple steps in gene expression. Further, the yeast homolog of hPaf1 has a role in regulating the expression of a subset of genes involved in the cell-cycle. We therefore investigated the role of hPaf1 during progression of the cell-cycle.Herein, we report that the expression of hPaf1, a subunit of the hPAF complex, increases with cell-cycle progression and is regulated in a cell-cycle dependant manner. hPaf1 specifically regulates a subclass of genes directly implicated in cell-cycle progression during G1/S, S/G2, and G2/M. In prophase, hPaf1 aligns in filament-like structures, whereas in metaphase it is present within the pole forming a crown-like structure, surrounding the centrosomes. Moreover, hPaf1 is degraded during the metaphase to anaphase transition. In the nucleus, hPaf1 regulates the expression of cyclins A1, A2, D1, E1, B1, and Cdk1. In addition, expression of hPaf1 delays DNA replication but favors the G2/M transition, in part through microtubule assembly and mitotic spindle formation.Our results identify hPaf1 and the hPAF complex as key regulators of cell-cycle progression. Mutation or loss of stoichiometry of at least one of the members may potentially lead to cancer development.

  10. Biosynthesis of platelet activating factor (PAF) via alternate pathways: subcellular distribution of products in HL-60 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Record, M.; Snyder, F.

    1986-01-01

    Final steps in the biosynthesis of PAF can be catalyzed by two different routes: CDP-choline:1-alkyl-2-acetyl-Gro cholinephosphotransferase [dithiothrietol (DTT)-insensitive] or acetyl-CoA:1-alkyl-2-lyso-GroPCho acetyltransferase. The authors have investigated the conversion of tritium-labeled 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-Gro and 1-alkyl-2-lyso-GroPCho (lyso-PAF) to PAF and other lipid products in HL-60 cells and in subcellular organelles isolated by centrifugation in a Percoll gradient. When cells are incubated with the labeled precursors (2 μM) the total amount of labeled PAF and 1-alkyl-2-acyl-GroPCho formed was similar from both precursors (60 pmol from 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-Gro and 50 pmol from lyso-PAF). However, PAF formed from 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-Gro represented 70% of the total products, whereas with lyso-PAF the major labeled product was 1-alkyl-2-acyl-GroPCho. Formation of PAF from 1-[ 3 H]alkyl-2-acetyl-Gro was linear to at least 30 min at 20 0 C. After a 15-min incubation of this neutral lipid with HL-60 cells, the labeled PAF produced was located exclusively in the plasma membrane fraction as opposed to the label in the 1-alkyl-2-acyl-GroPCho, which was found only in the endoplasmic reticulum; none of the labeled PAF product was released to the media. The authors results suggest PAF might be synthesized by the DTT-insensitive cholinephosphotransferase at the site of the plasma membrane in HL-60 cells

  11. Clinical Significance and Expression of PAF and TNF-alpha in Seminal Plasma of Leukocytospermic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaodong Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Discuss the changes and roles of PAF in the reproductive tract infection by observing the expression of platelet activating factor (PAF and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α in seminal plasma of patients with leukocytospermia. Methods. The seminal plasma was obtained from 22 cases of leukocytospermia and 15 cases of normal males; the peroxidase dyeing method was adopted for seminal plasma white blood count; the ELISA was adopted to test PAF and TNF-α concentration in seminal plasma. Result. PAF concentration ( ng/mL of leukocytospermia group was significantly lower than the normal group ( ng/mL, while TNF-α ( ng/mL was significantly higher than that of normal group ( ng/mL. There was negative correlation between PAF and TNF-α , (, ; the same situation existed in PAF and WBC (, ; but TNF-α was positively correlated to WBC (, . Conclusion. (1 Low expression of PAF and high expression of TNF-α in leukocytospermia affect the sperm motility, which is one of the reasons that leads to infertility. (2 Lower expression of PAF has its particularity during the reproductive tract infection.

  12. MARS Simulation of Air Cooling Heat Exchanger Connected with PAFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Seong-Su; Hong, Soon-Joon [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sung-Won; Kwon, Tae-Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Current working time of PAFS cannot meet the required 72 hours cooling capability for the long term Station Black-Out (SBO) situation. Therefore, it is required to improve the design of PAFS for the long term cooling. In order to ensure the long term cooling of PAFS, the heat exchanger tube should be submerged in the water of the PAFS pool. It can be achieved by condensing the steam vented from the PAFS pool. The Air Cooling Heat Exchanger (ACHX) is installed above the PAFS pool. It is expected that the ACHX condenses the steam vented from the PAFS pool and delays the depletion time of the water in the PCCT. Therefore, this paper introduces the MARS-KS1.4 modeling of the ACHX and the performance analysis results on the PAFS connected with the ACHX. For the long term cooling with PAFS, KAERI proposed a new passive air-water combined cooling system. In this study, the modeling of the ACHX and the performance analysis on the PAFS connected with the ACHX were carried out with MARS. MARS predicted the behavior of main thermal-hydraulic variables of ACHX reasonably. Then, it was found that the long term cooling of PAFS could be achieved by the installation of the ACHX in which the tube length is 6 m and the number of tubes is 8000.

  13. Nucleolar targeting of proteins by the tandem array of basic amino acid stretches identified in the RNA polymerase I-associated factor PAF49

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushijima, Ryujiro; Matsuyama, Toshifumi; Nagata, Izumi; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence to indicate that the regulation of subnuclear compartmentalization plays important roles in cellular processes. The RNA polymerase I-associated factor PAF49 has been shown to accumulate in the nucleolus in growing cells, but disperse into the nucleoplasm in growth-arrested cells. Serial deletion analysis revealed that amino acids 199-338 were necessary for the nucleolar localization of PAF49. Combinatorial point mutation analysis indicated that the individual basic amino acid stretches (BS) within the central (BS1-4) and the C-terminal (BS5 and 6) regions may cooperatively confer the nucleolar localization of PAF49. Addition of the basic stretches in tandem to a heterologous protein, such as the interferon regulatory factor-3, translocated the tagged protein into the nucleolus, even in the presence of an intrinsic nuclear export sequence. Thus, tandem array of the basic amino acid stretches identified here functions as a dominant nucleolar targeting sequence

  14. The PCNA-associated factor KIAA0101/p15PAF binds the potential tumor suppressor product p33ING1b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Fiona; Lammerts van Bueren, Kelly; Butterfield, Natalie; Bennetts, Jennifer S.; Bowles, Josephine; Adolphe, Christelle; Simms, Lisa A.; Young, Joanne; Walsh, Michael D.; Leggett, Barbara; Fowles, Lindsay F.; Wicking, Carol

    2006-01-01

    The KIAA0101/p15 PAF /OEATC-1 protein was initially isolated in a yeast two-hybrid screen for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) binding partners, and was shown to bind PCNA competitively with the cell cycle regulator p21 WAF . PCNA is involved in DNA replication and damage repair. Using polyclonal antisera raised against a p15 PAF fusion protein, we have shown that in a range of mammalian tumor and non-tumor cell lines the endogenous p15 PAF protein localises to the nucleus and the mitochondria. Under normal conditions no co-localisation with PCNA could be detected, however following exposure to UV it was possible to co-immunoprecipitate p15 PAF and PCNA from a number of cell lines, suggesting a UV-enhanced association of the two proteins. Overexpression of p15 PAF in mammalian cells was also found to protect cells from UV-induced cell death. Based on similarities between the behaviour of p15 PAF and the potential tumor suppressor product p33ING1b, we have further shown that these two proteins interact in the same complex in cell cultures. This suggests that p15 PAF forms part of a larger protein complex potentially involved in the regulation of DNA repair, apoptosis and cell cycle progression

  15. Effect of selected natural products, thioproline and pegasys on hepatic platelet activating factor (PAF) in CCL4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badria, Farid A.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate hepatic levels of platelet activating factor (PAF) in liver fibrosis induced by CCl4 in rats. A group of selected natural products; boswellic acids, curcumin and glycrrhizin (preparation named OMNI; a drug under clinical trials for treatment of hepatitis C virus), Mirazid (a commercially available schistomicidal drug), Thioproline (a commercially available hepatoprotective agent) and Pegasys (peg interferon alpha-2a; a commercially available therapy for treatment of Hepatitis C virus) were examined for their effect on hepatic PAF groups each comprised 9 rats. Group 1 was treated only with CCl4, group 2 to 5 were treated with OMNI, Mirazid, Thioproline and Pegasys, respectively whereas the 6th group was the normal control group (with no treatment, except an injection of the vehicle). Liver damage was induced in all groups except normal control group (groups 1 to 5) by i.p. injection of 40% CCl4 in corn oil (0.375 ml/kg) 3 times a week for 3 weeks. One week after CCl4 intoxication, all tested drugs were injected i.p. daily for 3 weeks. Hepatic PAF concentration was estimated by HPTLC (high performance thin layer chromatography), while levels of serum transminases (ALT, AST), hepatic hydroxyproline (as marker of liver fibrosis), serum malondialdehyde and catalase (as markers of oxidative stress) were estimated sepctrophotometrically. The hepatic PAF levels were significantly higher in CCl4 group (24.24+-2.01 pmol equiv. /mg) (p<0.001). Treatment with OMNI, Mirazid, Thioproline and Pegasys reduced hepatic PAF significantly to be 11.84+-0.22, 14.5+-1.00, 13.17+-0, 54 and 14.26+-1.09pmol equiv. /mg respectively. This study may add further rational to the anti-fibrotic activity of the tested drugs via reduction of hepatic PAF. (author)

  16. Ubiquitome Analysis Reveals PCNA-Associated Factor 15 (PAF15) as a Specific Ubiquitination Target of UHRF1 in Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karg, Elisabeth; Smets, Martha; Ryan, Joel; Forné, Ignasi; Qin, Weihua; Mulholland, Christopher B; Kalideris, Georgia; Imhof, Axel; Bultmann, Sebastian; Leonhardt, Heinrich

    2017-12-08

    Ubiquitination is a multifunctional posttranslational modification controlling the activity, subcellular localization and stability of proteins. The E3 ubiquitin ligase ubiquitin-like PHD and RING finger domain-containing protein 1 (UHRF1) is an essential epigenetic factor that recognizes repressive histone marks as well as hemi-methylated DNA and recruits DNA methyltransferase 1. To explore enzymatic functions of UHRF1 beyond epigenetic regulation, we conducted a comprehensive screen in mouse embryonic stem cells to identify novel ubiquitination targets of UHRF1 and its paralogue UHRF2. We found differentially ubiquitinated peptides associated with a variety of biological processes such as transcriptional regulation and DNA damage response. Most prominently, we identified PCNA-associated factor 15 (PAF15; also known as Pclaf, Ns5atp9, KIAA0101 and OEATC-1) as a specific ubiquitination target of UHRF1. Although the function of PAF15 ubiquitination in translesion DNA synthesis is well characterized, the respective E3 ligase had been unknown. We could show that UHRF1 ubiquitinates PAF15 at Lys 15 and Lys 24 and promotes its binding to PCNA during late S-phase. In summary, we identified novel ubiquitination targets that link UHRF1 to transcriptional regulation and DNA damage response. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Patient Assessment File (PAF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Patient Assessment File (PAF) database compiles the results of the Patient Assessment Instrument (PAI) questionnaire filled out for intermediate care Veterans...

  18. Mycobacterium smegmatis PafBC is involved in regulation of DNA damage response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudrini Olivencia, Begonia; Müller, Andreas U; Roschitzki, Bernd; Burger, Sibylle; Weber-Ban, Eilika; Imkamp, Frank

    2017-10-25

    Two genes, pafB and pafC, are organized in an operon with the Pup-ligase gene pafA, which is part of the Pup-proteasome system (PPS) present in mycobacteria and other actinobacteria. The PPS is crucial for Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance towards reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI). However, pafB and pafC apparently play only a minor role in RNI resistance. To characterize their function, we generated a pafBC deletion in Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm). Proteome analysis of the mutant strain revealed decreased cellular levels of various proteins involved in DNA damage repair, including recombinase A (RecA). In agreement with this finding, Msm ΔpafBC displayed increased sensitivity to DNA damaging agents. In mycobacteria two pathways regulate DNA repair genes: the LexA/RecA-dependent SOS response and a predominant pathway that controls gene expression via a LexA/RecA-independent promoter, termed P1. PafB and PafC feature winged helix-turn-helix DNA binding motifs and we demonstrate that together they form a stable heterodimer in vitro, implying a function as a heterodimeric transcriptional regulator. Indeed, P1-driven transcription of recA was decreased in Msm ΔpafBC under standard conditions and induction of recA expression upon DNA damage was strongly impaired. Taken together, our data indicate an important regulatory function of PafBC in the mycobacterial DNA damage response.

  19. Assessment of Flow Instability in Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS) Using RELAP5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Seong-Su; Hong, Soon-Joon [FNC Tech., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Jong; Kim, Han-Gon [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, the occurrence possibility of both instabilities in PAFS is assessed with the best-estimate thermal hydraulic code, RELAP5. From the RELAP5 code analysis, the Ledinegg instability might not occur in PAFS. The DWO might occur in PAFS but the effect of the oscillation on the heat removal capacity of PAFS was not large. Therefore, it is concluded that PAFS is safe in terms of flow instabilities. Since PAFS is two-phase flow system, flow instabilities may occur. Flow instabilities may cause the severe deterioration of heat removal capability of PAFS due to the reduction of the condensate flow. For the reliable operation of PAFS, it is required to assess the flow instabilities in PAFS. The Ledinegg-type instability and the Density Wave Oscillation (DWO) are the representative static flow instability and the dynamic flow instability, respectively.

  20. Platelet activating factor-acylhydrolase (PAF-ase) activity is higher in serum of men than women and is related to levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farr, R.S.; Howell, S.E.; Wardlow, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    PAF-ase is a specific serum enzyme that inactivates PAF by hydrolyzing acetate from the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone. A reproducible PAF-ase activity assay was developed. A unit is based on the amount of serum required to release 3.61 +/- 0.042 pm 3 H-acetate from 10 pm 3 H-labeled PAF after incubation for 1 hr at 37 0 C. Assays on two single reference serums repeated 7 days were 0.63 +/- 0.013 U and 1.33 +/- 0.031 U. Serum from 20 normal men and 20 normal premenopausal women had significantly different (p = <0.001) levels of 1.32 +/- 0.072 U and 0.97 +/- 0.051 U respectively. They previously reported that PAF-ase is associated with B-lipoprotein. Therefore, total cholesterol (TC), LDL and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were determined on these 40 serums. Regression analysis revealed PAF-ase units were correlated with LDL (r = 0.740; p = < 0.001) and, parenthetically, with the TC (r = 0.620; p = < 0.001) but not with HDL. These correlations were similar for men and women. Thus, serum PAF-ase was partially controlled by serum LDL levels and the higher PAF-ase levels in serum from men were due in part to higher (p = < 0.01) LDL levels in men (147.6 +/- 6.9 mg/dl) as contrasted to women (119.0 +/- 7.6 mg/dl). PAF is a potent inflammatory, bronchoconstrictive and hypotensive agent. These data indicate that sex and serum LDL levels of subjects must be considered during future studies of the role of PAF vs PAF-ase in different disease states

  1. Interference of WEB 2086 and BN 52021 with Paf-induced effects on guinea-pig trachea.

    OpenAIRE

    Brunelleschi, S.; Renzi, D.; Ledda, F.; Giotti, A.; Fantozzi, R.; Brink, C.; Benveniste, J.

    1989-01-01

    1. The thienotriazolodiazepine WEB 2086 and the gingkolide BN52021 have been evaluated as antagonists of Paf-acether (Paf) by studying their effects on Paf-induced relaxation and Paf-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in histamine-contracted guinea-pig tracheal preparations. 2. Relaxation induced by Paf 4 microM in histamine-contracted guinea-pig tracheal preparations was 39.67 +/- 3.5% (n = 30). At the same concentration, Paf significantly increased PGE2 production from histamine-con...

  2. IL-1β-specific recruitment of GCN5 histone acetyltransferase induces the release of PAF1 from chromatin for the de-repression of inflammatory response genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nari; Sun, Hwa-Young; Youn, Min-Young; Yoo, Joo-Yeon

    2013-04-01

    To determine the functional specificity of inflammation, it is critical to orchestrate the timely activation and repression of inflammatory responses. Here, we explored the PAF1 (RNA polymerase II associated factor)-mediated signal- and locus-specific repression of genes induced through the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β. Using microarray analysis, we identified the PAF1 target genes whose expression was further enhanced by PAF1 knockdown in IL-1β-stimulated HepG2 hepatocarcinomas. PAF1 bound near the transcription start sites of target genes and dissociated on stimulation. In PAF1-deficient cells, more elongating RNA polymerase II and acetylated histones were observed, although IL-1β-mediated activation and recruitment of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) were not altered. Under basal conditions, PAF1 blocked histone acetyltransferase general control non-depressible 5 (GCN5)-mediated acetylation on H3K9 and H4K5 residues. On IL-1β stimulation, activated GCN5 discharged PAF1 from chromatin, allowing productive transcription to occur. PAF1 bound to histones but not to acetylated histones, and the chromatin-binding domain of PAF1 was essential for target gene repression. Moreover, IL-1β-induced cell migration was similarly controlled through counteraction between PAF1 and GCN5. These results suggest that the IL-1β signal-specific exchange of PAF1 and GCN5 on the target locus limits inappropriate gene induction and facilitates the timely activation of inflammatory responses.

  3. p15PAF is an intrinsically disordered protein with nonrandom structural preferences at sites of interaction with other proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Biasio, Alfredo; Ibáñez de Opakua, Alain; Cordeiro, Tiago N; Villate, Maider; Merino, Nekane; Sibille, Nathalie; Lelli, Moreno; Diercks, Tammo; Bernadó, Pau; Blanco, Francisco J

    2014-02-18

    We present to our knowledge the first structural characterization of the proliferating-cell-nuclear-antigen-associated factor p15(PAF), showing that it is monomeric and intrinsically disordered in solution but has nonrandom conformational preferences at sites of protein-protein interactions. p15(PAF) is a 12 kDa nuclear protein that acts as a regulator of DNA repair during DNA replication. The p15(PAF) gene is overexpressed in several types of human cancer. The nearly complete NMR backbone assignment of p15(PAF) allowed us to measure 86 N-H(N) residual dipolar couplings. Our residual dipolar coupling analysis reveals nonrandom conformational preferences in distinct regions, including the proliferating-cell-nuclear-antigen-interacting protein motif (PIP-box) and the KEN-box (recognized by the ubiquitin ligase that targets p15(PAF) for degradation). In accordance with these findings, analysis of the (15)N R2 relaxation rates shows a relatively reduced mobility for the residues in these regions. The agreement between the experimental small angle x-ray scattering curve of p15(PAF) and that computed from a statistical coil ensemble corrected for the presence of local secondary structural elements further validates our structural model for p15(PAF). The coincidence of these transiently structured regions with protein-protein interaction and posttranslational modification sites suggests a possible role for these structures as molecular recognition elements for p15(PAF). Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. In vivo application of a small molecular weight antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum (PAF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palicz, Zoltán; Jenes, Ágnes; Gáll, Tamás [Department of Physiology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Miszti-Blasius, Kornél [Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Pathology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Kollár, Sándor; Kovács, Ilona [Department of Pathology, Kenézy Hospital LTD, Debrecen (Hungary); Emri, Miklós; Márián, Teréz [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Leiter, Éva; Pócsi, István [Department of Microbial Biotechnology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Centre of Arts, Humanities and Sciences, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Csősz, Éva; Kalló, Gergő [Proteomics Core Facility, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Hegedűs, Csaba; Virág, László [Department of Medical Chemistry, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Csernoch, László [Department of Physiology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Szentesi, Péter, E-mail: szentesi.peter@med.unideb.hu [Department of Physiology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2013-05-15

    The antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum (PAF) inhibits the growth of important pathogenic filamentous fungi, including members of the Aspergillus family and some dermatophytes. Furthermore, PAF was proven to have no toxic effects on mammalian cells in vitro. To prove that PAF could be safely used in therapy, experiments were carried out to investigate its in vivo effects. Adult mice were inoculated with PAF intranasally in different concentrations, up to 2700 μg·kg{sup −1} daily, for 2 weeks. Even at the highest concentration – a concentration highly toxic in vitro for all affected molds – used, animals neither died due to the treatment nor were any side effects observed. Histological examinations did not find pathological reactions in the liver, in the kidney, and in the lungs. Mass spectrometry confirmed that a measurable amount of PAF was accumulated in the lungs after the treatment. Lung tissue extracts from PAF treated mice exerted significant antifungal activity. Small-animal positron emission tomography revealed that neither the application of physiological saline nor that of PAF induced any inflammation while the positive control lipopolysaccharide did. The effect of the drug on the skin was examined in an irritative dermatitis model where the change in the thickness of the ears following PAF application was found to be the same as in control and significantly less than when treated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate used as positive control. Since no toxic effects of PAF were found in intranasal application, our result is the first step for introducing PAF as potential antifungal drug in therapy. - Highlights: • PAF, the antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum, was not toxic in mice. • Its intranasal application didn't induce pathological reactions in the lung. • PAF retained its antifungal activity in lung extracts. • Its application on the skin did not cause inflammation.

  5. In vivo application of a small molecular weight antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum (PAF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palicz, Zoltán; Jenes, Ágnes; Gáll, Tamás; Miszti-Blasius, Kornél; Kollár, Sándor; Kovács, Ilona; Emri, Miklós; Márián, Teréz; Leiter, Éva; Pócsi, István; Csősz, Éva; Kalló, Gergő; Hegedűs, Csaba; Virág, László; Csernoch, László; Szentesi, Péter

    2013-01-01

    The antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum (PAF) inhibits the growth of important pathogenic filamentous fungi, including members of the Aspergillus family and some dermatophytes. Furthermore, PAF was proven to have no toxic effects on mammalian cells in vitro. To prove that PAF could be safely used in therapy, experiments were carried out to investigate its in vivo effects. Adult mice were inoculated with PAF intranasally in different concentrations, up to 2700 μg·kg −1 daily, for 2 weeks. Even at the highest concentration – a concentration highly toxic in vitro for all affected molds – used, animals neither died due to the treatment nor were any side effects observed. Histological examinations did not find pathological reactions in the liver, in the kidney, and in the lungs. Mass spectrometry confirmed that a measurable amount of PAF was accumulated in the lungs after the treatment. Lung tissue extracts from PAF treated mice exerted significant antifungal activity. Small-animal positron emission tomography revealed that neither the application of physiological saline nor that of PAF induced any inflammation while the positive control lipopolysaccharide did. The effect of the drug on the skin was examined in an irritative dermatitis model where the change in the thickness of the ears following PAF application was found to be the same as in control and significantly less than when treated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate used as positive control. Since no toxic effects of PAF were found in intranasal application, our result is the first step for introducing PAF as potential antifungal drug in therapy. - Highlights: • PAF, the antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum, was not toxic in mice. • Its intranasal application didn't induce pathological reactions in the lung. • PAF retained its antifungal activity in lung extracts. • Its application on the skin did not cause inflammation

  6. Role of endogenous nitric oxide on PAF-induced vascular and respiratory effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Clement

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of endogenous nitric oxide (NO on vascular and respiratory smooth muscle basal tone was evaluated in six anaesthetized, paralysed, mechanically ventilated pigs. The involvement of endogenous NO in PAF-induced shock and airway hyperresponsiveness was also studied. PAF (50 ng/kg, i.v. was administered before and after pretreatment with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10 mg/kg, i.v., an NO synthesis inhibitor. PAF was also administered to three of these pigs after indomethacin infusion (3 mg/kg, i.v.. In normal pigs, L-NAME increased systemic and pulmonary vascular resistances, caused pulmonary hypertension and reduced cardiac output and stroke volume. The pulmonary vascular responses were correlated with the increase in static and dynamic lung elastances, without changing lung resistance. Inhibition of NO synthesis enhanced the PAF-dependent increase in total, intrinsic and viscoelastic lung resistances, without affecting lung elastances or cardiac activity. The systemic hypotensive effect of PAF was not abolished by pretreatment with L-NAME or indomethacin. This indicates that systemic hypotension is not correlated with the release of endogenous NO or prostacyclines. Indomethacin completely abolished the PAF-dependent respiratory effects.

  7. PAF-receptor is preferentially expressed in a distinct synthetic phenotype of smooth muscle cells cloned from human internal thoracic artery: Functional implications in cell migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stengel, Dominique; O'Neil, Caroline; Brocheriou, Isabelle; Karabina, Sonia-Athina; Durand, Herve; Caplice, Noel M.; Pickering, J. Geoffrey; Ninio, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    Platelet-activating-Factor (PAF) and its structural analogues formed upon low density lipoprotein oxidation are involved in atherosclerotic plaque formation and may signal through PAF-receptor (PAF-R) expressed in human macrophages and in certain smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the media, but rarely in the intima of human plaques. Our aim was to determine which SMC phenotype expresses PAF-R and whether this receptor is functional in cell migration. Circulating SMC progenitors and two phenotypically distinct clones of proliferative, epithelioid phenotype vs contractile, spindle-shaped SMCs from the media of adult internal thoracic artery were studied for the presence of PAF-receptor (PAF-R). The levels of specific mRNA were obtained by reverse transcription/real-time PCR, the protein expression was deduced from immunohistochemistry staining, and the functional transmigration assay was performed by Boyden chamber-type chemotaxis assay. Only SMCs of spindle-shape and synthetic phenotype expressed both mRNA and PAF-R protein and in the functional test migrated at low concentrations of PAF. Two unrelated, specific PAF-R antagonists inhibited PAF-induced migration, but did not modify the migration initiated by PDGF. The presence of functional PAF-R in arterial spindle-shaped SMCs of synthetic phenotype may be important for their migration from the media into the intima and atherosclerotic plaques formation

  8. LysoPC and PAF Trigger Arachidonic Acid Release by Divergent Signaling Mechanisms in Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Oestvang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDLs play an important role during the development of atherosclerosis characterized by intimal inflammation and macrophage accumulation. A key component of LDL is lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC. LysoPC is a strong proinflammatory mediator, and its mechanism is uncertain, but it has been suggested to be mediated via the platelet activating factor (PAF receptor. Here, we report that PAF triggers a pertussis toxin- (PTX- sensitive intracellular signaling pathway leading to sequential activation of sPLA2, PLD, cPLA2, and AA release in human-derived monocytes. In contrast, lysoPC initiates two signaling pathways, one sequentially activating PLD and cPLA2, and a second parallel PTX-sensitive pathway activating cPLA2 with concomitant activation of sPLA2, all leading to AA release. In conclusion, lysoPC and PAF stimulate AA release by divergent pathways suggesting involvement of independent receptors. Elucidation of monocyte lysoPC-specific signaling mechanisms will aid in the development of novel strategies for atherosclerosis prevention, diagnosis, and therapy.

  9. HIV-1 Tat reduces nephrin in human podocytes: a potential mechanism for enhanced glomerular permeability in HIV-associated nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doublier, Sophie; Zennaro, Cristina; Spatola, Tiziana; Lupia, Enrico; Bottelli, Antonella; Deregibus, Maria Chiara; Carraro, Michele; Conaldi, Pier Giulio; Camussi, Giovanni

    2007-02-19

    To determine whether HIV-1 Tat may directly alter glomerular permeability in HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). Heavy proteinuria is a hallmark of HIVAN. The slit diaphragm is the ultimate glomerular filtration barrier critical for maintaining the efficiency of the ultrafiltration unit of the kidney. In this study, we evaluated the direct effect of Tat protein on the permeability of isolated glomeruli and on the expression of nephrin, the main slit diaphragm component, by human cultured podocytes. Permeability was studied by measuring the permeability to albumin in isolated rat glomeruli. We also evaluated the expression of nephrin in human cultured podocytes by using immunofluorescence and Western blot. We found that Tat increased albumin permeability in isolated glomeruli, and rapidly induced the redistribution and loss of nephrin in cultured podocytes. Pretreatment of glomeruli and podocytes with blocking antibodies showed that Tat reduced nephrin expression by engaging vascular endothelial growth factor receptors types 2 and 3 and the integrin alphavbeta3. Pre-incubation of podocytes with two platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonists prevented the loss and redistribution of nephrin induced by Tat, suggesting that PAF is an intracellular mediator of Tat action. Tat induced a rapid PAF synthesis by podocytes. When podocytes transfected to overexpress PAF-acetylhydrolase, the main catabolic enzyme of PAF, were stimulated with Tat, the redistribution and loss of nephrin was abrogated. The present results define a mechanism by which Tat may reduce nephrin expression in podocytes, thus increasing glomerular permeability. This provides new insights in the understanding of HIVAN pathogenesis.

  10. The platelet activating factor acetyl hydrolase, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, paraoxonase 1 and arylesterase levels in treated and untreated patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlioglu, Ayse; Kaygusuz, Ikbal; Karakurt, Feridun; Gumus, Ilknur Inegol; Uysal, Aysel; Kasapoglu, Benan; Armutcu, Ferah; Uysal, Sema; Keskin, Esra Aktepe; Koca, Cemile

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the platelet activating factor acetyl hydrolyze (PAF-AH), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), paraoxonase 1 (PON1), arylesterase (ARE) levels and the effects of metformin and Diane-35 (ethinyl oestradiol + cyproterone acetate) therapies on these parameters and to determine the PON1 polymorphisms among PCOS patients. Ninety patients with PCOS, age 30, and body mass index-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Patients were divided into three groups: metformin treatment, Diane-35 treatment and no medication groups. The treatment with metformin or Diane-35 was continued for 6 months and all subjects were evaluated with clinical and biochemical parameters 6 months later. One-way Anova test, t test and non-parametric Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical analysis. PAF-AH and ox-LDL levels were statistically significantly higher in untreated PCOS patients than controls, and they were statistically significantly lower in patients treated with metformin or Diane-35 than untreated PCOS patients. In contrast, there were lower PON1 (not statistically significant) and ARE (statistically significant) levels in untreated PCOS patients than the control group and they significantly increased after metformin and Diane-35 treatments. In PCOS patients serum PON1 levels for QQ, QR and RR phenotypes were statistically significantly lower than the control group. In patients with PCOS, proatherogenic markers increase. The treatment of PCOS with metformin or Diane-35 had positive effects on lipid profile, increased PON1 level, which is a protector from atherosclerosis and decreased the proatherogenic PAF-AH and ox-LDL levels.

  11. Activation of PAF-synthesizing enzymes in rat brain stem slices after LTP induction in the medial vestibular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francescangeli, Ermelinda; Grassi, Silvarosa; Pettorossi, Vito E; Goracci, Gianfrancesco

    2002-11-01

    LysoPAF acetyltransferase (lysoPAF-AT) and PAF-synthesizing phosphocholinetransferase (PAF-PCT) are the two enzymes which catalyze the final reactions for the synthesis of PAF. Their activities, assayed in the homogenate of rat brain stem slices and under their optimal conditions, increased 5 min after high frequency stimulation of vestibular afferents, inducing LTP in the medial vestibular nuclei. The activity of phosphatidylcholine-synthesizing phosphocholinetransferase, was not affected. Sixty minutes from the induction of LTP, PAF-PCT activity, but not that of lysoPAF-AT, was still significantly higher with respect to 5 min test stimulated control. We used AP-5 to verify whether this increase was strictly dependent upon LTP induction, which requires NMDA receptor activation. In AP-5 treated slices, lysoPAF-acetyltransferase and PAF-synthesizing phosphocholinetransferase activities increased, but they were reduced after high frequency stimulation under AP-5. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the activities of PAF-synthesizing enzymes are activated soon after the induction of LTP and that this effect is linked to the activation of NMDA-receptors. We suggest that the enzyme activation by AP-5, preventing LTP, might be due to glutamate enhancement but, in neurons showing LTP and under normal conditions, the activation of potentiation mechanisms is critical for the enhancement of enzyme activities.

  12. Evaluation of a Design Concept for the Combined Air-water Passive Cooling PAFS+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Sung Won; Kwon, Taesoon

    2014-01-01

    The APR+ system provides the Passive Auxiliary Feed-water System (PAFS) for the passive cooling capability. However, the current design requirement for working time for the PAFS is about 8 hours only. Thus, current working time of PAFS can not meet the required 72 hours cooling capability for the long term SBO situation. To meet the 72 hours cooling, the pool capacity should be almost 3∼4 times larger than that of current water cooling tank. In order to continue the PAFS operation for 72 hours, a new passive air-water combined cooling system is proposed. This paper provides the feasibility study on the combined passive air-water cooling system. Figure 1 and 2 show the conceptual difference of the PAFS and combined passive air-water cooling system, respectively. Simple performance evaluation of the passive air cooling heat exchanger has been conducted by the MARS calculation. For the postulated FLB scenario, 4800 heat exchanger tubes and 5 m/s air velocity are not sufficient to sustain the PCCT pool level for 72 hour cooling. Further works on the system design and performance enhancing plan are required to fulfill the 72 hours long term passive cooling

  13. Two functional motifs define the interaction, internalization and toxicity of the cell-penetrating antifungal peptide PAF26 on fungal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Muñoz

    Full Text Available The synthetic, cell penetrating hexapeptide PAF26 (RKKWFW is antifungal at low micromolar concentrations and has been proposed as a model for cationic, cell-penetrating antifungal peptides. Its short amino acid sequence facilitates the analysis of its structure-activity relationships using the fungal models Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and human and plant pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium digitatum, respectively. Previously, PAF26 at low fungicidal concentrations was shown to be endocytically internalized, accumulated in vacuoles and then actively transported into the cytoplasm where it exerts its antifungal activity. In the present study, two PAF26 derivatives, PAF95 (AAAWFW and PAF96 (RKKAAA, were designed to characterize the roles of the N-terminal cationic and the C-terminal hydrophobic motifs in PAF26's mode-of-action. PAF95 and PAF96 exhibited substantially reduced antifungal activity against all the fungi analyzed. PAF96 localized to fungal cell envelopes and was not internalized by the fungi. In contrast, PAF95 was taken up into vacuoles of N. crassa, wherein it accumulated and was trapped without toxic effects. Also, the PAF26 resistant Δarg1 strain of S. cerevisiae exhibited increased PAF26 accumulation in vacuoles. Live-cell imaging of GFP-labelled nuclei in A. fumigatus showed that transport of PAF26 from the vacuole to the cytoplasm was followed by nuclear breakdown and dissolution. This work demonstrates that the amphipathic PAF26 possesses two distinct motifs that allow three stages in its antifungal action to be defined: (i its interaction with the cell envelope; (ii its internalization and transport to vacuoles mediated by the aromatic hydrophobic domain; and (iii its transport from vacuoles to the cytoplasm. Significantly, cationic residues in PAF26 are important not only for the electrostatic attraction and interaction with the fungal cell but also for transport from the vacuole to the

  14. Investigation of genes coding for inflammatory components in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Anna; Westberg, Lars; Nilsson, Staffan; Buervenich, Silvia; Carmine, Andrea; Holmberg, Björn; Sydow, Olof; Olson, Lars; Johnels, Bo; Eriksson, Elias; Nissbrandt, Hans

    2005-05-01

    Several findings obtained recently indicate that inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis in Parkinson's disease (PD). Genetic variants of genes coding for components involved in immune reactions in the brain might therefore influence the risk of developing PD or the age of disease onset. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes coding for interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma; T874A in intron 1), interferon-gamma receptor 2 (IFN-gamma R2; Gln64Arg), interleukin-10 (IL-10; G1082A in the promoter region), platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH; Val379Ala), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1; Lys469Glu) were genotyped, using pyrosequencing, in 265 patients with PD and 308 controls. None of the investigated SNPs was found to be associated with PD; however, the G1082A polymorphism in the IL-10 gene promoter was found to be related to the age of disease onset. Linear regression showed a significantly earlier onset with more A-alleles (P = 0.0095; after Bonferroni correction, P = 0.048), resulting in a 5-year delayed age of onset of the disease for individuals having two G-alleles compared with individuals having two A-alleles. The results indicate that the IL-10 G1082A SNP could possibly be related to the age of onset of PD. Copyright 2005 Movement Disorder Society.

  15. Potential role of Arabidopsis PHP as an accessory subunit of the PAF1 transcriptional cofactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunchung; Ek-Ramos, Maria Julissa; Oh, Sookyung; van Nocker, Steven

    2011-08-01

    Paf1C is a transcriptional cofactor that has been implicated in various transcription-associated mechanisms spanning initiation, elongation and RNA processing, and is important for multiple aspects of development in Arabidopsis. Our recent studies suggest Arabidopsis Paf1C is crucial for proper regulation of genes within H3K27me3-enriched chromatin, and that a protein named PHP may act as an accessory subunit of Paf1C that promotes this function.

  16. Evaluation of Advanced Models for PAFS Condensation Heat Transfer in SPACE Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Byoung-Uhn; Kim, Seok; Park, Yu-Sun; Kang, Kyung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Tae-Hwan; Yun, Byong-Jo [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) is operated by the natural circulation to remove the core decay heat through the PCHX (Passive Condensation Heat Exchanger) which is composed of the nearly horizontal tubes. For validation of the cooling and operational performance of the PAFS, PASCAL (PAFS Condensing Heat Removal Assessment Loop) facility was constructed and the condensation heat transfer and natural convection phenomena in the PAFS was experimentally investigated at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). From the PASCAL experimental result, it was found that conventional system analysis code underestimated the condensation heat transfer. In this study, advanced condensation heat transfer models which can treat the heat transfer mechanisms with the different flow regimes in the nearly horizontal heat exchanger tube were analyzed. The models were implemented in a thermal hydraulic safety analysis code, SPACE (Safety and Performance Analysis Code for Nuclear Power Plant), and it was evaluated with the PASCAL experimental data. With an aim of enhancing the prediction capability for the condensation phenomenon inside the PCHX tube of the PAFS, advanced models for the condensation heat transfer were implemented into the wall condensation model of the SPACE code, so that the PASCAL experimental result was utilized to validate the condensation models. Calculation results showed that the improved model for the condensation heat transfer coefficient enhanced the prediction capability of the SPACE code. This result confirms that the mechanistic modeling for the film condensation in the steam phase and the convection in the condensate liquid contributed to enhance the prediction capability of the wall condensation model of the SPACE code and reduce conservatism in prediction of condensation heat transfer.

  17. Oxalic acid biosynthesis and oxalacetate acetylhydrolase activity in Streptomyces cattleya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, D.R.; Inamine, E.

    1987-01-01

    In addition to producing the antibiotic thienamycin, Streptomyces cattleya accumulates large amounts of oxalic acid during the course of a fermentation. Washed cell suspensions were utilized to determine the specific incorporation of carbon-14 into oxalate from a number of labeled organic and amino acids. L-[U- 14 C]aspartate proved to be the best precursor, whereas only a small percentage of label from [1,5- 14 C]citrate was found in oxalate. Cell-free extracts catalyzed the formation of [ 14 C]oxalate and [ 14 C]acetate from L-[U- 14 C]aspartate. When L-[4- 14 C]aspartate was the substrate only [ 14 C]acetate was formed. The cell-free extracts were found to contain oxalacetate acetylhydrolase, the enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of oxalacetate to oxalate and acetate. The enzyme is constitutive and is analogous to enzymes in fungi that produce oxalate from oxalacetate. Properties of the crude enzyme were examined

  18. Structure of p15PAF-PCNA complex and implications for clamp sliding during DNA replication and repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Biasio, Alfredo; de Opakua, Alain Ibáñez; Mortuza, Gulnahar B

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsically disordered protein p15(PAF) regulates DNA replication and repair by binding to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) sliding clamp. We present the structure of the human p15(PAF)-PCNA complex. Crystallography and NMR show the central PCNA-interacting protein motif (PIP...... the DNA and facilitates the switch from replicative to translesion synthesis polymerase binding....... free and PCNA-bound p15(PAF) binds DNA mainly through its histone-like N-terminal tail, while PCNA does not, and a model of the ternary complex with DNA inside the PCNA ring is consistent with electron micrographs. We propose that p15(PAF) acts as a flexible drag that regulates PCNA sliding along...

  19. Ctr9, a Key Component of the Paf1 Complex, Affects Proliferation and Terminal Differentiation in the Developing Drosophila Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Bahrampour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Paf1 protein complex (Paf1C is increasingly recognized as a highly conserved and broadly utilized regulator of a variety of transcriptional processes. These include the promotion of H3K4 and H3K36 trimethylation, H2BK123 ubiquitination, RNA Pol II transcriptional termination, and also RNA-mediated gene silencing. Paf1C contains five canonical protein components, including Paf1 and Ctr9, which are critical for overall complex integrity, as well as Rtf1, Leo1, and Cdc73/Parafibromin(Hrpt2/Hyrax. In spite of a growing appreciation for the importance of Paf1C from yeast and mammalian studies, there has only been limited work in Drosophila. Here, we provide the first detailed phenotypic study of Ctr9 function in Drosophila. We found that Ctr9 mutants die at late embryogenesis or early larval life, but can be partly rescued by nervous system reexpression of Ctr9. We observed a number of phenotypes in Ctr9 mutants, including increased neuroblast numbers, increased nervous system proliferation, as well as downregulation of many neuropeptide genes. Analysis of cell cycle and regulatory gene expression revealed upregulation of the E2f1 cell cycle factor, as well as changes in Antennapedia and Grainy head expression. We also found reduction of H3K4me3 modification in the embryonic nervous system. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis points to additional downstream genes that may underlie these Ctr9 phenotypes, revealing gene expression changes in Notch pathway target genes, cell cycle genes, and neuropeptide genes. In addition, we find significant effects on the gene expression of metabolic genes. These findings reveal that Ctr9 is an essential gene that is necessary at multiple stages of nervous system development, and provides a starting point for future studies of the Paf1C in Drosophila.

  20. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-associated KIAA0101/PAF15 protein is a cell cycle-regulated anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuele, Michael J; Ciccia, Alberto; Elia, Andrew E H; Elledge, Stephen J

    2011-06-14

    The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls the degradation of substrate proteins at mitotic exit and throughout the G1 phase. We have identified an APC/C substrate and cell cycle-regulated protein, KIAA0101/PAF15. PAF15 protein levels peak in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle and drop rapidly at mitotic exit in an APC/C- and KEN-box-dependent fashion. PAF15 associates with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and depletion of PAF15 decreases the number of cells in S phase, suggesting a role for it in cell cycle regulation. Following irradiation, PAF15 colocalized with γH2AX foci at sites of DNA damage through its interaction with PCNA. Finally, PAF15 depletion led to an increase in homologous recombination-mediated DNA repair, and overexpression caused sensitivity to UV-induced DNA damage. We conclude that PAF15 is an APC/C-regulated protein involved in both cell cycle progression and the DNA damage response.

  1. D19S Mutation of the Cationic, Cysteine-Rich Protein PAF: Novel Insights into Its Structural Dynamics, Thermal Unfolding and Antifungal Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Sonderegger

    Full Text Available The cysteine-rich, cationic, antifungal protein PAF is abundantly secreted into the culture supernatant of the filamentous Ascomycete Penicillium chrysogenum. The five β-strands of PAF form a compact β-barrel that is stabilized by three disulphide bonds. The folding of PAF allows the formation of four surface-exposed loops and distinct charged motifs on the protein surface that might regulate the interaction of PAF with the sensitive target fungus. The growth inhibitory activity of this highly stable protein against opportunistic fungal pathogens provides great potential in antifungal drug research. To understand its mode of action, we started to investigate the surface-exposed loops of PAF and replaced one aspartic acid at position 19 in loop 2 that is potentially involved in PAF active or binding site, with a serine (Asp19 to Ser19. We analysed the overall effects, such as unfolding, electrostatic changes, sporadic conformers and antifungal activity when substituting this specific amino acid to the fairly indifferent amino acid serine. Structural analyses revealed that the overall 3D solution structure is virtually identical with that of PAF. However, PAFD19S showed slightly increased dynamics and significant differences in the surface charge distribution. Thermal unfolding identified PAFD19S to be rather a two-state folder in contrast to the three-state folder PAF. Functional comparison of PAFD19S and PAF revealed that the exchange at residue 19 caused a dramatic loss of antifungal activity: the binding and internalization of PAFD19S by target cells was reduced and the protein failed to trigger an intracellular Ca2+ response, all of which are closely linked to the antifungal toxicity of PAF. We conclude that the negatively charged residue Asp19 in loop 2 is essential for full function of the cationic protein PAF.

  2. The influence of social-cognitive factors on personal hygiene practices to protect against influenzas: using modelling to compare avian A/H5N1 and 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 influenzas in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qiuyan; Cowling, Benjamin J; Lam, Wendy Wing Tak; Fielding, Richard

    2011-06-01

    Understanding population responses to influenza helps optimize public health interventions. Relevant theoretical frameworks remain nascent. To model associations between trust in information, perceived hygiene effectiveness, knowledge about the causes of influenza, perceived susceptibility and worry, and personal hygiene practices (PHPs) associated with influenza. Cross-sectional household telephone surveys on avian influenza A/H5N1 (2006) and pandemic influenza A/H1N1 (2009) gathered comparable data on trust in formal and informal sources of influenza information, influenza-related knowledge, perceived hygiene effectiveness, worry, perceived susceptibility, and PHPs. Exploratory factor analysis confirmed domain content while confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the extracted factors. The hypothesized model, compiled from different theoretical frameworks, was optimized with structural equation modelling using the A/H5N1 data. The optimized model was then tested against the A/H1N1 dataset. The model was robust across datasets though corresponding path weights differed. Trust in formal information was positively associated with perceived hygiene effectiveness which was positively associated with PHPs in both datasets. Trust in formal information was positively associated with influenza worry in A/H5N1 data, and with knowledge of influenza cause in A/H1N1 data, both variables being positively associated with PHPs. Trust in informal information was positively associated with influenza worry in both datasets. Independent of information trust, perceived influenza susceptibility associated with influenza worry. Worry associated with PHPs in A/H5N1 data only. Knowledge of influenza cause and perceived PHP effectiveness were associated with PHPs. Improving trust in formal information should increase PHPs. Worry was significantly associated with PHPs in A/H5N1.

  3. Ecological risk assessment of mixtures of radiological and chemical stressors: Methodology to implement an msPAF approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumelle, Léa; Della Vedova, Claire; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Gilbin, Rodolphe

    2017-01-01

    A main challenge in ecological risk assessment is to account for the impact of multiple stressors. Nuclear facilities can release both radiological and chemical stressors in the environment. This study is the first to apply species sensitivity distribution (SSD) combined with mixture models (concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA)) to derive an integrated proxy of the ecological impact of combined radiological and chemical stressors: msPAF (multisubstance potentially affected fraction of species). The approach was tested on the routine liquid effluents from nuclear power plants that contain both radioactive and stable chemicals. The SSD of ionising radiation was significantly flatter than the SSD of 8 stable chemicals (namely Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, B, chlorides and sulphates). This difference in shape had strong implications for the selection of the appropriate mixture model: contrarily to the general expectations the IA model gave more conservative (higher msPAF) results than the CA model. The msPAF approach was further used to rank the relative potential impact of radiological versus chemical stressors. - Highlights: • msPAF methodology was applied on mixtures of radiological and chemical stressors. • A consistent set of chronic SSDs was collected for ionising radiation and 8 stable chemicals. • The SSD of ionising radiation had lower steepness than the SSD of stable chemicals. • This resulted in higher msPAF values based on the IA than on the CA mixture model. - The msPAF approach combining SSD and mixture models was used for the first time on mixtures of radiological and chemical stressors.

  4. Plasma phospholipase, γ-CEHC and antioxidant capacity in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Antonella; Cacace, Enrico; Atzori, Luigi; Era, Benedetta; Ruggiero, Valeria

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies have suggested a possible role of high levels of plasma lysophosphocholines (lysoPCs) in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of plasma phospholipases (e.g., Platelet Activating Factor Acetyl Hydrolase [PAF-AH], secretory Phospholipase A 2 [sPLA 2 ], Total Antioxidant Capacity [TAOC] and 2,7,8-trimethyl-2-(2-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxy chroman [γ-CEHC]) in FMS patients and their association with clinical status and quality of life. Thirty-six females meeting the 2011 American College of Rheumatology criteria for the classification of FMS and thirty-four healthy females were enrolled for the study. Plasma enzyme levels were quantified using commercial enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay (ELISA). In order to assess the disease severity and the functional status of patients, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnarie (FIQ) was used. Higher levels of sPLA 2 and lower PAF-AH and γ-CEHC were observed in the plasma of FMS patients compared to the controls. A decrease in PAF-AH and TAOC levels were found in severe FMS (S-FMS) compared to mild/slight (MS-FMS) forms. The results of the study indicate a possible involvement of phospholipases and γ-CEHC in fibromyalgia syndrome. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Nitric oxide mediates angiogenesis induced in vivo by platelet-activating factor and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrucchio, G.; Lupia, E.; de Martino, A.; Battaglia, E.; Arese, M.; Tizzani, A.; Bussolino, F.; Camussi, G.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the role of an endogenous production of nitric oxide (NO) in the in vitro migration of endothelial cells and in the in vivo angiogenic response elicited by platelet-activating factor (PAF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The NO synthase inhibitor, N omega-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME), but not its enantiomer D-NAME, prevented chemotaxis of endothelial cells induced in vitro by PAF and by TNF. The motogenic activity of TNF was also inhibited by WEB 2170, a specific PAF-receptor antagonist. In contrast, chemotaxis induced by bFGF was not prevented by L-NAME or by WEB 2170. Angiogenesis was studied in vivo in a murine model in which Matrigel was used as a vehicle for the delivery of mediators. In this model, the angiogenesis induced by PAF and TNF was inhibited by WEB 2170 and L-NAME but not by D-NAME. In contrast, angiogenesis induced by bFGF was not affected by L-NAME or by WEB 2170. TNF, but not bFGF, induced PAF synthesis within Matrigel. These results suggest that NO mediates the angiogenesis induced by PAF as well as that induced by TNF, which is dependent on the production of PAF. In contrast, the angiogenic effect of bFGF appears to be both PAF and NO independent. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9250168

  6. 1-O-alkyl-2-(omega-oxo)acyl-sn-glycerols from shark oil and human milk fat are potential precursors of PAF mimics and GHR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Karsten; Ravandi, A.; Harkewicz, R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the feasibility that peroxidation and lipolysis of 1-O-alkyl-2,3-diacyl-sn-glycerols (DAGE) found in shark liver oil and human milk fat constitutes a potential source of dietary precursors of platelet activating factor (PAF) mimics and of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). Purified...... yielded 1-O-octadecyl-2-(9-oxo)nonanoyl-sn-glycerol, as the major core aldehyde. Because diradylglycerols with short fatty chains are absorbed in the intestine and react with cytidine diphosphate-choline in the enterocytes, it is concluded that formation of such PAF mimics as 1-O-alkyl-2-(omega...

  7. Integral effect test and code analysis on the cooling performance of the PAFS (passive auxiliary feedwater system) during an FLB (feedwater line break) accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Byoung-Uhn; Kim, Seok; Park, Yu-Sun; Kang, Kyoung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This study focuses on the experimental validation of the operational performance of the PAFS (passive auxiliary feedwater system). • A transient simulation of the FLB (feedwater line break) in the integral effect test facility, ATLAS-PAFS, was performed to investigate thermal hydraulic behavior during the PAFS actuation. • The test result confirmed that the APR+ has the capability of coping with the FLB scenario by adopting the PAFS and proper set-points for its operation. • The experimental result was utilized to evaluate the prediction capability of a thermal hydraulic system analysis code, MARS-KS. - Abstract: APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus), which is a GEN-III+ nuclear power plant developed in Korea, adopts PAFS (passive auxiliary feedwater system) as an advanced safety feature. The PAFS can completely replace an active auxiliary feedwater system by cooling down the secondary side of steam generators with a natural convection mechanism. This study focuses on experimental and analytical investigation for cooling and operational performance of the PAFS during an FLB (feedwater line break) transient with an integral effect test facility, ATLAS-PAFS. To realistically simulate the FLB accident of the APR+, the three-level scaling methodology was taken into account to design the test facility and determine the test condition. From the test result, the PAFS was actuated to successfully cool down the decay heat of the reactor core by the condensation heat transfer at the PCHX (passive condensation heat exchanger), and thus it could be confirmed that the APR+ has the capability of coping with a FLB scenario by adopting the PAFS and proper set-points for its operation. This integral effect test data were used to evaluate the prediction capability of a thermal hydraulic system analysis code, MARS-KS. The code analysis result proved that it could reasonably predict the FLB transient including the actuation of the PAFS and the natural convection

  8. The crystal structure of the AhRR-ARNT heterodimer reveals the structural basis of the repression of AhR-mediated transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Shunya; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Ohto, Umeharu

    2017-10-27

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin and related compounds are extraordinarily potent environmental toxic pollutants. Most of the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin toxicities are mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor belonging to the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS) family. Upon ligand binding, AhR forms a heterodimer with AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) and induces the expression of genes involved in various biological responses. One of the genes induced by AhR encodes AhR repressor (AhRR), which also forms a heterodimer with ARNT and represses the activation of AhR-dependent transcription. The control of AhR activation is critical for managing AhR-mediated diseases, but the mechanisms by which AhRR represses AhR activation remain poorly understood, because of the lack of structural information. Here, we determined the structure of the AhRR-ARNT heterodimer by X-ray crystallography, which revealed an asymmetric intertwined domain organization presenting structural features that are both conserved and distinct among bHLH-PAS family members. The structures of AhRR-ARNT and AhR-ARNT were similar in the bHLH-PAS-A region, whereas the PAS-B of ARNT in the AhRR-ARNT complex exhibited a different domain arrangement in this family reported so far. The structure clearly disclosed that AhRR competitively represses AhR binding to ARNT and target DNA and further suggested the existence of an AhRR-ARNT-specific repression mechanism. This study provides a structural basis for understanding the mechanism by which AhRR represses AhR-mediated gene transcription. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Role of PAF receptor in proinflammatory cytokine expression in the dorsal root ganglion and tactile allodynia in a rodent model of neuropathic pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeo Hasegawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain is a highly debilitating chronic pain following damage to peripheral sensory neurons and is often resistant to all treatments currently available, including opioids. We have previously shown that peripheral nerve injury induces activation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2 (cPLA(2 in injured dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons that contribute to tactile allodynia, a hallmark of neuropathic pain. However, lipid mediators downstream of cPLA(2 activation to produce tactile allodynia remain to be determined. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we provide evidence that platelet-activating factor (PAF is a potential candidate. Pharmacological blockade of PAF receptors (PAFRs reduced the development and expression of tactile allodynia following nerve injury. The expression of PAFR mRNA was increased in the DRG ipsilateral to nerve injury, which was seen mainly in macrophages. Furthermore, mice lacking PAFRs showed a reduction of nerve injury-induced tactile allodynia and, interestingly, a marked suppression of upregulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta expression in the injured DRG, crucial proinflammatory cytokines involved in pain hypersensitivity. Conversely, a single injection of PAF near the DRG of naïve rats caused a decrease in the paw withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulation in a dose-dependent manner and an increase in the expression of mRNAs for TNFalpha and IL-1beta, both of which were inhibited by pretreatment with a PAFR antagonist. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the PAF/PAFR system has an important role in production of TNFalpha and IL-1beta in the DRG and tactile allodynia following peripheral nerve injury and suggest that blocking PAFRs may be a viable therapeutic strategy for treating neuropathic pain.

  10. Aspirin hydrolysis in plasma is a variable function of butyrylcholinesterase and platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b2 (PAFAH1b2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Marathe, Gopal K; Hartiala, Jaana; Hazen, Stanley L; Allayee, Hooman; Tang, W H Wilson; McIntyre, Thomas M

    2013-04-26

    Aspirin is rapidly hydrolyzed within erythrocytes by a heterodimer of PAFAH1b2/PAFAH1b3 but also in plasma by an unidentified activity. Hydrolysis in both compartments was variable, with a 12-fold variation in plasma among 2226 Cleveland Clinic GeneBank patients. Platelet inhibition by aspirin was suppressed in plasma that rapidly hydrolyzed aspirin. Plasma aspirin hydrolysis was significantly higher in patients with coronary artery disease compared with control subjects (16.5 ± 4.4 versus 15.1 ± 3.7 nmol/ml/min; p = 3.4 × 10(-8)). A genome-wide association study of 2054 GeneBank subjects identified a single locus immediately adjacent to the BCHE (butyrylcholinesterase) gene associated with plasma aspirin hydrolytic activity (lead SNP, rs6445035; p = 9.1 × 10(-17)). However, its penetrance was low, and plasma from an individual with an inactivating mutation in BCHE still effectively hydrolyzed aspirin. A second aspirin hydrolase was identified in plasma, the purification of which showed it to be homomeric PAFAH1b2. This is distinct from the erythrocyte PAFAH1b2/PAFAH1b3 heterodimer. Inhibitors showed that both butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and PAFAH1b2 contribute to aspirin hydrolysis in plasma, with variation primarily reflecting non-genetic variation of BChE activity. Therefore, aspirin is hydrolyzed in plasma by two enzymes, BChE and a new extracellular form of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, PAFAH1b2. Hydrolytic effectiveness varies widely primarily from non-genetic variation of BChE activity that affects aspirin bioavailability in blood and the ability of aspirin to inhibit platelet aggregation.

  11. Aspirin Hydrolysis in Plasma Is a Variable Function of Butyrylcholinesterase and Platelet-activating Factor Acetylhydrolase 1b2 (PAFAH1b2)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Marathe, Gopal K.; Hartiala, Jaana; Hazen, Stanley L.; Allayee, Hooman; Tang, W. H. Wilson; McIntyre, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Aspirin is rapidly hydrolyzed within erythrocytes by a heterodimer of PAFAH1b2/PAFAH1b3 but also in plasma by an unidentified activity. Hydrolysis in both compartments was variable, with a 12-fold variation in plasma among 2226 Cleveland Clinic GeneBank patients. Platelet inhibition by aspirin was suppressed in plasma that rapidly hydrolyzed aspirin. Plasma aspirin hydrolysis was significantly higher in patients with coronary artery disease compared with control subjects (16.5 ± 4.4 versus 15.1 ± 3.7 nmol/ml/min; p = 3.4 × 10−8). A genome-wide association study of 2054 GeneBank subjects identified a single locus immediately adjacent to the BCHE (butyrylcholinesterase) gene associated with plasma aspirin hydrolytic activity (lead SNP, rs6445035; p = 9.1 × 10−17). However, its penetrance was low, and plasma from an individual with an inactivating mutation in BCHE still effectively hydrolyzed aspirin. A second aspirin hydrolase was identified in plasma, the purification of which showed it to be homomeric PAFAH1b2. This is distinct from the erythrocyte PAFAH1b2/PAFAH1b3 heterodimer. Inhibitors showed that both butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and PAFAH1b2 contribute to aspirin hydrolysis in plasma, with variation primarily reflecting non-genetic variation of BChE activity. Therefore, aspirin is hydrolyzed in plasma by two enzymes, BChE and a new extracellular form of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, PAFAH1b2. Hydrolytic effectiveness varies widely primarily from non-genetic variation of BChE activity that affects aspirin bioavailability in blood and the ability of aspirin to inhibit platelet aggregation. PMID:23508960

  12. Overexpression of Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) AhERF or AhDOF Transcription Factors in Arabidopsis thaliana Increases Water Deficit- and Salt-Stress Tolerance, Respectively, via Contrasting Stress-Amelioration Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massange-Sánchez, Julio A.; Palmeros-Suárez, Paola A.; Espitia-Rangel, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Arévalo, Isaac; Sánchez-Segura, Lino; Martínez-Gallardo, Norma A.; Alatorre-Cobos, Fulgencio; Tiessen, Axel; Délano-Frier, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Two grain amaranth transcription factor (TF) genes were overexpressed in Arabidopsis plants. The first, coding for a group VII ethylene response factor TF (i.e., AhERF-VII) conferred tolerance to water-deficit stress (WS) in transgenic Arabidopsis without affecting vegetative or reproductive growth. A significantly lower water-loss rate in detached leaves coupled to a reduced stomatal opening in leaves of plants subjected to WS was associated with this trait. WS tolerance was also associated with an increased antioxidant enzyme activity and the accumulation of putative stress-related secondary metabolites. However, microarray and GO data did not indicate an obvious correlation between WS tolerance, stomatal closure, and abscisic acid (ABA)-related signaling. This scenario suggested that stomatal closure during WS in these plants involved ABA-independent mechanisms, possibly involving reactive oxygen species (ROS). WS tolerance may have also involved other protective processes, such as those employed for methyl glyoxal detoxification. The second, coding for a class A and cluster I DNA binding with one finger TF (i.e., AhDof-AI) provided salt-stress (SS) tolerance with no evident fitness penalties. The lack of an obvious development-related phenotype contrasted with microarray and GO data showing an enrichment of categories and genes related to developmental processes, particularly flowering. SS tolerance also correlated with increased superoxide dismutase activity but not with augmented stomatal closure. Additionally, microarray and GO data indicated that, contrary to AhERF-VII, SS tolerance conferred by AhDof-AI in Arabidopsis involved ABA-dependent and ABA-independent stress amelioration mechanisms. PMID:27749893

  13. Overexpression of Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus AhERF or AhDOF Transcription Factors in Arabidopsis thaliana Increases Water Deficit- and Salt-Stress Tolerance, Respectively, via Contrasting Stress-Amelioration Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A Massange-Sánchez

    Full Text Available Two grain amaranth transcription factor (TF genes were overexpressed in Arabidopsis plants. The first, coding for a group VII ethylene response factor TF (i.e., AhERF-VII conferred tolerance to water-deficit stress (WS in transgenic Arabidopsis without affecting vegetative or reproductive growth. A significantly lower water-loss rate in detached leaves coupled to a reduced stomatal opening in leaves of plants subjected to WS was associated with this trait. WS tolerance was also associated with an increased antioxidant enzyme activity and the accumulation of putative stress-related secondary metabolites. However, microarray and GO data did not indicate an obvious correlation between WS tolerance, stomatal closure, and abscisic acid (ABA-related signaling. This scenario suggested that stomatal closure during WS in these plants involved ABA-independent mechanisms, possibly involving reactive oxygen species (ROS. WS tolerance may have also involved other protective processes, such as those employed for methyl glyoxal detoxification. The second, coding for a class A and cluster I DNA binding with one finger TF (i.e., AhDof-AI provided salt-stress (SS tolerance with no evident fitness penalties. The lack of an obvious development-related phenotype contrasted with microarray and GO data showing an enrichment of categories and genes related to developmental processes, particularly flowering. SS tolerance also correlated with increased superoxide dismutase activity but not with augmented stomatal closure. Additionally, microarray and GO data indicated that, contrary to AhERF-VII, SS tolerance conferred by AhDof-AI in Arabidopsis involved ABA-dependent and ABA-independent stress amelioration mechanisms.

  14. Application of the partitive analytical forecasting (PAF) technique to the United States controlled thermonuclear research effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, S.P.

    1975-01-01

    The Partitive Analytical Forecasting (PAF) technique is applied to the overall long-term program plans for the Division of Controlled Thermonuclear Research (DCTR) of the United States Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). As part of the PAF technique, the Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERTS) IIIZ computer code is used to perform simulations on a logic network describing the DCTR long-term program plan. Logic networks describing the tokamak, mirror, and theta-pinch developments are simulated individually and then together to form an overall DCTR program network. The results of the simulation of the overall network using various funding schemes and strategies are presented. An economic sensitivity analysis is provided for the tokamak logic networks. An analysis is also performed of the fusion-fission hybrid concept in the context of the present DCTR goals. The results mentioned above as well as the PAF technique itself are evaluated, and recommendations for further research are discussed

  15. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 21 is a novel target gene of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Xingguo, E-mail: chengx@stjohns.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. John' s University, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Queens, NY 11439 (United States); Vispute, Saurabh G. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. John' s University, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Queens, NY 11439 (United States); Liu, Jie [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Cheng, Christine; Kharitonenkov, Alexei [Lilly Research Laboratories, Division of Eli Lilly and Co., Indianapolis, IN 46285 (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: curtisklaassenphd@gmail.com [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The toxic effects of dioxins, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), mainly through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) are well documented. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 21 plays critical roles in metabolic adaptation to fasting by increasing lipid oxidation and ketogenesis in the liver. The present study was performed to determine whether activation of the AhR induces Fgf21 expression. In mouse liver, TCDD increased Fgf21 mRNA in both dose- and time-dependent manners. In addition, TCDD markedly increased Fgf21 mRNA expression in cultured mouse and human hepatocytes. Moreover, TCDD increased mRNA (in liver) and protein levels (in both liver and serum) of Fgf21 in wild-type mice, but not in AhR-null mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that TCDD increased AhR protein binding to the Fgf21 promoter (− 105/+ 1 base pair). Fgf21-null mice administered 200 μg/kg of TCDD died within 20 days, whereas wild-type mice receiving the same treatment were still alive at one month after administration. This indicates that TCDD-induced Fgf21 expression protects against TCDD toxicity. Diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) pretreatment attenuated TCDD-induced Fgf21 expression in mouse liver and white adipose tissue, which may explain a previous report that DEHP pretreatment decreases TCDD-induced wasting. In conclusion, Fgf21 appears to be a target gene of AhR-signaling pathway in mouse and human liver. - Highlights: • TCDD induced Fgf21 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. • Fgf21 induction by TCDD is AhR-dependent. • DEHP attenuated TCDD-induced Fgf21 expression.

  16. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 21 is a novel target gene of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Xingguo; Vispute, Saurabh G.; Liu, Jie; Cheng, Christine; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2014-01-01

    The toxic effects of dioxins, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), mainly through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) are well documented. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 21 plays critical roles in metabolic adaptation to fasting by increasing lipid oxidation and ketogenesis in the liver. The present study was performed to determine whether activation of the AhR induces Fgf21 expression. In mouse liver, TCDD increased Fgf21 mRNA in both dose- and time-dependent manners. In addition, TCDD markedly increased Fgf21 mRNA expression in cultured mouse and human hepatocytes. Moreover, TCDD increased mRNA (in liver) and protein levels (in both liver and serum) of Fgf21 in wild-type mice, but not in AhR-null mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that TCDD increased AhR protein binding to the Fgf21 promoter (− 105/+ 1 base pair). Fgf21-null mice administered 200 μg/kg of TCDD died within 20 days, whereas wild-type mice receiving the same treatment were still alive at one month after administration. This indicates that TCDD-induced Fgf21 expression protects against TCDD toxicity. Diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) pretreatment attenuated TCDD-induced Fgf21 expression in mouse liver and white adipose tissue, which may explain a previous report that DEHP pretreatment decreases TCDD-induced wasting. In conclusion, Fgf21 appears to be a target gene of AhR-signaling pathway in mouse and human liver. - Highlights: • TCDD induced Fgf21 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. • Fgf21 induction by TCDD is AhR-dependent. • DEHP attenuated TCDD-induced Fgf21 expression

  17. Metabolomics analysis and modeling suggest a lysophosphocholines-PAF receptor interaction in fibromyalgia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Caboni

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS is a chronic disease characterized by widespread pain, and difficult to diagnose and treat. We analyzed the plasma metabolic profile of patients with FMS by using a metabolomics approach combining Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time Of Flight/Mass Spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF/MS with multivariate statistical analysis, aiming to discriminate patients and controls. LC-Q-TOF/MS analysis of plasma (FMS patients: n = 22 and controls: n = 21 identified many lipid compounds, mainly lysophosphocholines (lysoPCs, phosphocholines and ceramides. Multivariate statistical analysis was performed to identify the discriminating metabolites. A protein docking and molecular dynamic (MD study was then performed, using the most discriminating lysoPCs, to validate the binding to Platelet Activating Factor (1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, PAF Receptor (PAFr. Discriminating metabolites between FMS patients and controls were identified as 1-tetradecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [PC(14:0/0:0] and 1-hexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [PC(16:0/0:0]. MD and docking indicate that the ligands investigated have similar potentialities to activate the PAFr receptor. The application of a metabolomic approach discriminated FMS patients from controls, with an over-representation of PC(14:0/0:0 and PC(16:0/0:0 compounds in the metabolic profiles. These results and the modeling of metabolite-PAFr interaction, allowed us to hypothesize that lipids oxidative fragmentation might generate lysoPCs in abundance, that in turn will act as PAF-like bioactivators. Overall results suggest disease biomarkers and potential therapeutical targets for FMS.

  18. RASIONALITAS KONVERSI BANK KONVENSIONAL KE BANK SYARI’AH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Damanuri

    2016-02-01

    Aji Damanuri   Abstract: Shari>’ah banking, for the last ten years, has increased in prosperity not only at the quantity of conventional banks but also at the count of assets and customers. This economical opportunity drives amount of conventional banks both to convert their institutions to be shari>’ah banks and to open officially shari>’ah platform units with their own assets. This system takes a significant question, is the conversion effected by both banker ideological factor and capitalists or pure economical rational calculation? Is a religious consideration linked to economical rationality? This paper is to elaborate the conversion using not only ‘choice theory’ (teori pilihan but also ‘rational action’ (tindakan rasional to seek religious action possibility in a reasonable way of shari>’ah banking.   Keywords: shari>’ah bank, conversion, rational action, religiosity.

  19. Use of steroidal antiinflammatory drug provides further evidence for a potential role of PAF-acether in bronchial anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chignard, M; Le Còuedic, J P; Andersson, P; Brange, C

    1986-01-01

    We presently demonstrate that PAF-acether (1-O-alkyl-2-O-acetyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphoryl-choline) is formed by sensitized guinea pig lungs upon in vitro antigenic challenge. Pretreatment of the animals with a steroidal antiinflammatory drug, budesonide, almost totally suppresses this biosynthesis. Since budesonide inhibits the anaphylactic bronchoconstriction in actively sensitized guinea pigs, these data strongly support the assumption that PAF-acether is a mediator of bronchial anaphylaxis.

  20. A whole genome screen for HIV restriction factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Li

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upon cellular entry retroviruses must avoid innate restriction factors produced by the host cell. For human immunodeficiency virus (HIV human restriction factors, APOBEC3 (apolipoprotein-B-mRNA-editing-enzyme, p21 and tetherin are well characterised. Results To identify intrinsic resistance factors to HIV-1 replication we screened 19,121 human genes and identified 114 factors with significant inhibition of infection. Those with a known function are involved in a broad spectrum of cellular processes including receptor signalling, vesicle trafficking, transcription, apoptosis, cross-nuclear membrane transport, meiosis, DNA damage repair, ubiquitination and RNA processing. We focused on the PAF1 complex which has been previously implicated in gene transcription, cell cycle control and mRNA surveillance. Knockdown of all members of the PAF1 family of proteins enhanced HIV-1 reverse transcription and integration of provirus. Over-expression of PAF1 in host cells renders them refractory to HIV-1. Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses and HIV-2 are also restricted in PAF1 expressing cells. PAF1 is expressed in primary monocytes, macrophages and T-lymphocytes and we demonstrate strong activity in MonoMac1, a monocyte cell line. Conclusions We propose that the PAF1c establishes an anti-viral state to prevent infection by incoming retroviruses. This previously unrecognised mechanism of restriction could have implications for invasion of cells by any pathogen.

  1. Inhibition of PAF-induced expression of CD11b and shedding of L-selectin on human neutrophils and eosinophils by the type IV selective PDE inhibitor, rolipram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, B; deMonchy, JGR; Dubois, AEJ; Gerritsen, J; Kauffman, HF

    We quantitatively determined whether the selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor, rolipram, inhibits changes in the adhesion molecules CD11b and L-selectin on platelet-activating factor (PAF)-stimulated human neutrophils and eosinophils in vitro. Incubations were performed in human whole blood

  2. PLANT HOMOLOGOUS TO PARAFIBROMIN is a component of the PAF1 complex and assists in regulating expression of genes within H3K27ME3-enriched chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunchung; Oh, Sookyung; Ek-Ramos, Julissa; van Nocker, Steven

    2010-06-01

    The human Paf1 complex (Paf1C) subunit Parafibromin assists in mediating output from the Wingless/Int signaling pathway, and dysfunction of the encoding gene HRPT2 conditions specific cancer-related disease phenotypes. Here, we characterize the organismal and molecular roles of PLANT HOMOLOGOUS TO PARAFIBROMIN (PHP), the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) homolog of Parafibromin. PHP resides in an approximately 670-kD protein complex in nuclear extracts, and physically interacts with other known Paf1C-related proteins in vivo. In striking contrast to the developmental pleiotropy conferred by mutation in other plant Paf1C component genes in Arabidopsis, loss of PHP specifically conditioned accelerated phase transition from vegetative growth to flowering and resulted in misregulation of a very limited subset of genes that included the flowering repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C. Those genes targeted by PHP were distinguished from the bulk of Arabidopsis genes and other plant Paf1C targets by strong enrichment for trimethylation of lysine-27 on histone H3 (H3K27me3) within chromatin. These findings suggest that PHP is a component of a plant Paf1C protein in Arabidopsis, but has a more specialized role in modulating expression of a subset of Paf1C targets.

  3. CLA does not impair endothelial function and decreases body weight as compared with safflower oil in overweight and obese male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeuffer, Maria; Fielitz, Kerstin; Laue, Christiane; Winkler, Petra; Rubin, Diana; Helwig, Ulf; Giller, Katrin; Kammann, Julia; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Böger, Rainer H; Bub, Achim; Bell, Doris; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2011-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) showed a wide range of beneficial biological effects with relevance for cardiovascular health in animal models and humans. Most human studies used olive oil as a reference. This study assessed the effect of CLA as compared with safflower oil on endothelial function and markers of cardiovascular risk in overweight and obese men. Heated safflower oil and olive oil were given for additional descriptive control. Eighty-five overweight men (aged 45-68 years, body mass index 25-35 kg/m(2)) were randomized to receive 4.5 g/d of the CLA isomeric mixture, safflower oil, heated safflower oil, or olive oil in a 4-week double-blind study. Endothelial function was assessed by peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) index determination in the fasting and postprandial state (i.e., 4 hours after consumption of a fat- and sucrose-rich meal). CLA as compared with safflower oil consumption did not impair fasting or postprandial PAT index but decreased body weight. CLA as compared with safflower oil did not change total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol; triglycerides; insulin sensitivity indices; C-reactive protein; soluble adhesion molecules; oxidized LDL; lipoprotein a (Lp[a]); paraoxonase; or platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) activity, but significantly reduced arylesterase activity and increased concentrations of the F(2)-isoprostane 8-iso-prostaglandin F (PGF)(2α). CLA did not impair endothelial function. Other parameters associated with metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress were not changed or were slightly improved. Results suggest that CLA does not increase cardiovascular risk. Increased F(2)-isoprostane concentrations in this context may not indicate increased oxidative stress.

  4. Simulation studies for wells AH-4bis/AH-17 and AH-18, Ahuachapan Geothermal Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monterrosa, Manuel Ernesto

    1996-01-24

    Well AH-4bis, at the Ahuachapan Geothermal Field is planned to be drilled on the same pad as the former AH-4. A simulation study was carried out for two casing dameters 13 5/8 and 9 5/8” in order to estimate its production and to know its economic feasibility. The simulation results indcate a high probability of production in the range of 7 Mwe, equivalent to 120 kg/s total mass flow rate, 1250 kJ/kg at 6 bar-a for the new well AH-4bis. Well AH- 17 is good producer, during 1991 after ten years of production, the well was shut-in due to silica scaling problems. A wellbore simulation was carried out in order to predict the new production conditions after the work-over, mainly to estimate the water flow rate in order to reduce the silica scaling. The results indicate a very low water flow rate. The match between the simulated and measured production curves after the work-over was successful. The well AH-18 is located at the southern part of the actual bore field. CEL is planning to expand the borefield at this area and it is neccessary to estimate the possible production condtions at that zone. The results indicate a high probabilty of production at that area. The power potential is estimated at 3.5 Mwe per well at WHP 6 bar-a and the wells will not require induction.

  5. Intra-plaque production of platelet-activating factor correlates with neoangiogenesis in human carotid atherosclerotic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupia, Enrico; Pucci, Angela; Peasso, Paolo; Merlo, Maurizio; Baron, Paolo; Zanini, Cristina; Del Sorbo, Lorenzo; Rizea-Savu, Simona; Silvestro, Luigi; Forni, Marco; Emanuelli, Giorgio; Camussi, Giovanni; Montrucchio, Giuseppe

    2003-09-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a phospholipid mediator synthesized by activated inflammatory and endothelial cells. Recently PAF has been shown to contribute to neoangiogenesis in several experimental models. Here we evaluated the presence of PAF and its potential role in neovascularization within human atherosclerotic plaques. The amount of PAF extracted from 18 carotid plaques (266.65+/-40.07 pg/100 mg dry tissue; mean +/- SE) was significantly higher than that extracted from 18 normal arterial specimens (6 from carotid artery and 12 from aorta) (4.72+/-2.31 pg/100 mg dry tissue; mean +/- SE). The levels of PAF significantly correlated with the infiltration of CD68-positive monocytes and the extent of neovascularization, detected as von Willebrand Factor-positive cells. The amount of PAF also correlated with the area occupied by TNF-alpha-expressing cells. The absence of enhanced level of PAF in the circulation of atherosclerotic patients suggests a local production of this mediator within the plaque. The lipid extracts of atherosclerotic plaques containing high levels of PAF-bioactivity, but not those of control arteries, were angiogenic in a murine Matrigel model. WEB 2170, a specific PAF receptor antagonist, significantly prevented angiogenesis induced by the lipid extracts of atherosclerotic plaques. Our results indicate a local production of PAF within the atherosclerotic plaques and suggest that it may contribute to intra-plaque neoangiogenesis.

  6. Characterization of cutaneous vascular permeability induced by platelet-activating factor in guinea pigs and rats and its inhibition by a platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S.B.; Li, C.L.; Lam, M.H.; Shen, T.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Mechanisms of platelet-activating factor (PAF)-induced increases of cutaneous vascular permeability in guinea pigs and in rats were further explored. PAF so far is the most potent vasoactive mediator, being more than 1000-fold more potent than histamine and bradykinin in both species. In guinea pigs, there is a time delay of 5 to 10 minutes before PAF action, whereas, in the rat, the increased vasopermeability occurs immediately following the intradermal PAF injection. Relative vasoactive potencies of PAF and several structure-related analogues in both species correlate very well with their relative inhibition of the binding of 3 H-PAF to specific receptor sites on isolated rabbit platelet plasma membranes and their aggregatory abilities of rabbit platelets. Furthermore, the PAF-induced cutaneous vascular permeability is inhibitable by a competitive specific PAF receptor antagonist, kadsurenone, suggesting that binding of PAF to its specific receptor site is the first step to initiate its action of increased cutaneous vascular permeability. Several pure cyclooxygenase inhibitors, including indomethacin, diflunisal, and flurbiprofen, and the dual cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase inhibitor, BW755C, but not the histamine antagonists, inhibit the PAF-induced vasopermeability in guinea pigs. The inhibition by indomethacin or BW755C can be fully reversed by coinjection intradermally with PAF and prostaglandin E1 but not leukotriene B4. Also, prostaglandin E1 but not leukotriene B4 enhances the guinea pig in vivo response to PAF in this model. However, in rats, none of the cyclooxygenase inhibitors, histamine antagonists, or BW755C inhibit the PAF effect of cutaneous phenomena

  7. Potential Angiogenic Role of Platelet-Activating Factor in Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrucchio, Giuseppe; Sapino, Anna; Bussolati, Benedetta; Ghisolfi, Gianpiero; Rizea-Savu, Simona; Silvestro, Luigi; Lupia, Enrico; Camussi, Giovanni

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in the lipid extracts of 18 primary breast carcinomas and 20 control breast tissues. The amount of PAF detected in breast carcinomas was significantly higher than in controls. The mass spectrometric analysis of PAF-bioactive lipid extract from breast carcinomas showed the presence of several molecular species of PAF, including C16-alkylPAF, C18-lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), C16-LPC, lyso-PAF, and C16-acylPAF. The amount of bioactive PAF extracted from breast specimens significantly correlated with tumor vascularization revealed by the number of CD34- and CD31-positive cells. As C16-alkylPAF was previously shown to induce angiogenesis in vivo, we evaluated whether the thin layer chromatography-purified lipid extracts of breast specimens elicited neoangiogenesis in a murine model of subcutaneous Matrigel injection. The lipid extracts from specimens of breast carcinoma containing high levels of PAF bioactivity, but not from breast carcinomas containing low levels of PAF bioactivity or from normal breast tissue, induced a significant angiogenic response. This angiogenic response was significantly inhibited by the PAF receptor antagonist WEB 2170. T47D and MCF7 breast cancer cell lines, but not an immortalized nontumor breast cell line (MCF10), released PAF in the culture medium. A significant in vivo neoangiogenic response, inhibited by WEB 2170, was elicited by T47D and MCF7 but not by MCF10 culture medium. These results indicate that an increased concentration of PAF is present in tumors with high microvessel density and that PAF may account for the neoangiogenic activity induced in mice by the lipid extracts obtained from breast cancer. A contribution of PAF in the neovascularization of human breast cancer is suggested. PMID:9811351

  8. Great Prospects for PAF-1 and its derivatives

    KAUST Repository

    Pei, Cuiying

    2015-01-01

    © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015. In materials design and preparative chemistry, it is imperative to understand the thought and logic behind synthesizing a particular kind of material. Computational modelling can help in this regard by not only optimizing the materials but also by simulating their properties. Furthermore, the experimental results fill the gap addressing complicated practical conditions that can\\'t be covered using theoretical calculations. In this work, we focus on PAF-1 and its derivatives in order to analyse the correlations between the nature of the material (e.g. pore size, surface area, pore volume, functional groups, metal sites, interpenetrated frameworks) and their properties such as gas sorption capacity, molecular recognition and separation.

  9. Platelet activating factor activity in the phospholipids of bovine spermatozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, J.E.; Hough, S.; Elrod, C. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) has been detected in sperm from several mammalian species and can affect sperm motility and fertilization. Because bovine sperm contain a high percentage of ether-linked phospholipid precursors required for PAF synthesis, a study was undertaken to determine the PAF activity of bovine sperm phospholipids. Total lipids of washed, ejaculated bull sperm were extracted, and phospholipids were fractionated by thin-layer chromatography. Individual phospholipid fractions were assayed for PAF activity on the basis of (3H)serotonin release from equine platelets. PAF activity was detected in the PAF fraction (1.84 pmol/mumol total phospholipid) and in serine/inositol (PS/PI), choline (CP), and ethanolamine phosphoglyceride (EP) and cardiolipin (CA) fractions. Activity was highest in the CP fraction (8.05 pmol/mumol total phospholipid). Incomplete resolution of PAF and neutral lipids may have contributed to the activity in the PS/PI and CA fractions, respectively. Phospholipids from nonsperm sources did not stimulate serotonin release. Platelet activation by purified PAF and by sperm phospholipid fractions was inhibited by the receptor antagonist SRI 63-675. These results indicate that bovine sperm contain PAF and that other sperm phospholipids, especially CP and EP, which are high in glycerylether components, are capable of receptor-mediated platelet activation.

  10. Platelet-activating factor receptor agonists mediate xeroderma pigmentosum A photosensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yongxue; Harrison, Kathleen A; Al-Hassani, Mohammed; Murphy, Robert C; Rezania, Samin; Konger, Raymond L; Travers, Jeffrey B

    2012-03-16

    To date, oxidized glycerophosphocholines (Ox-GPCs) with platelet-activating factor (PAF) activity produced non-enzymatically have not been definitively demonstrated to mediate any known disease processes. Here we provide evidence that these Ox-GPCs play a pivotal role in the photosensitivity associated with the deficiency of the DNA repair protein xeroderma pigmentosum type A (XPA). It should be noted that XPA-deficient cells are known to have decreased antioxidant defenses. These studies demonstrate that treatment of human XPA-deficient fibroblasts with the pro-oxidative stressor ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation resulted in increased reactive oxygen species and PAF receptor (PAF-R) agonistic activity in comparison with gene-corrected cells. The UVB irradiation-generated PAF-R agonists were inhibited by antioxidants. UVB irradiation of XPA-deficient (Xpa-/-) mice also resulted in increased PAF-R agonistic activity and skin inflammation in comparison with control mice. The increased UVB irradiation-mediated skin inflammation and TNF-α production in Xpa-/- mice were blocked by systemic antioxidants and by PAF-R antagonists. Structural characterization of PAF-R-stimulating activity in UVB-irradiated XPA-deficient fibroblasts using mass spectrometry revealed increased levels of sn-2 short-chain Ox-GPCs along with native PAF. These studies support a critical role for PAF-R agonistic Ox-GPCs in the pathophysiology of XPA photosensitivity.

  11. Interaction of Diuron and Related Substituted Phenylureas with the Ah Receptor Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Baston, David S.; Hammock, Bruce; Denison, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates many of the biological and toxicological actions of structurally diverse chemicals, including the ubiquitous environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Here, we have examined the ability of diuron, a widely used herbicide, and several structurally related substituted phenylureas to bind to and activate/inhibit the AhR and AhR signal transduction. Diuron induced CYP1A1 mRNA levels in mouse hepatoma (Hepa1c1c7) cells and AhR-dependent luciferase reporter gene expression in stably transfected mouse, rat, guinea pig, and human cell lines. In addition, ligand binding and gel retardation analysis demonstrated the ability of diuron to competitively bind to and stimulate AhR transformation and DNA binding in vitro and in intact cells. Several structurally related substituted phenylureas competitively bound to the guinea pig hepatic cytosolic AhR, inhibited 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced AhR-dependent luciferase reporter gene expression in a species-specific manner and stimulated AhR transformation and DNA binding, consistent with their role as partial AhR agonists. These results demonstrate not only that diuron and related substituted phenylureas are AhR ligands but also that exposure to these chemicals could induce/inhibit AhR-dependent biological effects. PMID:16788953

  12. [3H]52770 RP, a platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist, and tritiated platelet-activating factor label a common specific binding site in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquis, O.; Robaut, C.; Cavero, I.

    1988-01-01

    In human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), the tritiated platelet activating factor ([ 3 H]PAF) labels in a saturable manner a single class of binding sites with a Kd of 3.5 +/- 0.5 nM (n = 7) and a maximum binding capacity (Bmax) of 206 +/- 13 fmol/2.5 X 10(6) PMNs (n = 7). 52770 RP, a nonphospholipid antagonist of PAF receptors, fully and competitively displaced the [ 3 H]PAF from its binding sites with a Ki of 7.0 +/- 0.7 nM (n = 4). The high potency and the low solubility in cellular membranes of this compound led us to prepare [ 3 H]52770 RP. This ligand was characterized by a binding which was rapid, reversible, confined to a single site, saturable, specific and stereoselective. Its Kd and Bmax were 4.2 +/- 0.3 nM and 181 +/- 11 fmol/2.5 X 10(6) PMNs, respectively. The stereoselectivity of the binding was suggested by the 600- and 1050-fold higher potency of the d-enantiomer with respect to l-52770 RP in displacing [ 3 H]52770 RP or [ 3 H]PAF, respectively. Several PAF analogs (e.g., lyso-PAF, 2-O-methyl-lyso-PAF), which are poorly active as PAF receptor agonists in functional tests, were weak displacers of [ 3 H]PAF and [ 3 H]52770 RP. Furthermore, for a series of 14 known PAF receptor agonists or antagonists belonging to different chemical families, there was an excellent correlation (r = 0.98) between their ability to displace [ 3 H]PAF and [ 3 H]52770 RP. Thus, [ 3 H]52770 RP and [ 3 H]PAF appear to interact with the same binding site on human PMNs which is proposed to be the PAF receptor mediating functional responses

  13. Aminoflavone, a ligand of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR), inhibits HIF-1α expression in an AhR-independent fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzuoli, Erika; Puppo, Maura; Rapisarda, Annamaria; Uranchimeg, Badarch; Cao, Liang; Burger, Angelika M.; Ziche, Marina; Melillo, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Aminoflavone (AF), the active component of a novel anticancer agent (AFP464) in phase I clinical trials, is a ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). AhR dimerizes with HIF-1β/ARNT, which is shared with HIF-1α, a transcription factor critical for the response of cells to oxygen deprivation. To address whether pharmacological activation of the AhR pathway might be a potential mechanism for inhibition of HIF-1, we tested the effects of AF on HIF-1 expression. AF inhibited HIF-1α transcriptional activity and protein accumulation in MCF-7 cells. However, inhibition of HIF-1α by AF was independent from a functional AhR pathway. Indeed, AF inhibited HIF-1α expression in AhR100 cells, in which the AhR pathway is functionally impaired, yet did not induce cytotoxicity, providing evidence that these effects are mediated by distinct signaling pathways. Moreover, AF was inactive in MDA-MB-231 cells, yet inhibited HIF-1α in MDA-MB-231 cells transfected with the SULT1A1 gene. AF inhibited HIF-1α mRNA expression by approximately 50%. Notably, actinomycin-D completely abrogated the ability of AF to down-regulate HIF-1α mRNA, indicating that active transcription was required for the inhibition of HIF-1α expression. Finally, AF inhibited HIF-1α protein accumulation and the expression of HIF-1-target genes in MCF-7 xenografts. These results demonstrate that AF inhibits HIF-1α in an AhR-independent fashion and they unveil additional activities of AF that may be relevant for its further clinical development. PMID:20736373

  14. dbPAF: an integrative database of protein phosphorylation in animals and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Shahid; Lin, Shaofeng; Xu, Yang; Deng, Wankun; Ma, Lili; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Zexian; Xue, Yu

    2016-03-24

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications (PTMs) and regulates a broad spectrum of biological processes. Recent progresses in phosphoproteomic identifications have generated a flood of phosphorylation sites, while the integration of these sites is an urgent need. In this work, we developed a curated database of dbPAF, containing known phosphorylation sites in H. sapiens, M. musculus, R. norvegicus, D. melanogaster, C. elegans, S. pombe and S. cerevisiae. From the scientific literature and public databases, we totally collected and integrated 54,148 phosphoproteins with 483,001 phosphorylation sites. Multiple options were provided for accessing the data, while original references and other annotations were also present for each phosphoprotein. Based on the new data set, we computationally detected significantly over-represented sequence motifs around phosphorylation sites, predicted potential kinases that are responsible for the modification of collected phospho-sites, and evolutionarily analyzed phosphorylation conservation states across different species. Besides to be largely consistent with previous reports, our results also proposed new features of phospho-regulation. Taken together, our database can be useful for further analyses of protein phosphorylation in human and other model organisms. The dbPAF database was implemented in PHP + MySQL and freely available at http://dbpaf.biocuckoo.org.

  15. Promiscuous ligand-dependent activation of the Ah receptor: chemicals in crude extracts from commercial and consumer products bind to and activate the Ah receptor and Ah receptor-dependent gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denison, M.; Rogers, W.; Bohonowych, J.; Zhao, B. [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Univ. of California, Davis (United States)

    2004-09-15

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, dioxin) and related halogenated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs and PAHs) produce a variety of toxic and biological effects, the majority of which are mediated by their ability to bind to and activate the Ah receptor (AhR) and AhR-dependent gene expression. While previous studies suggested that the physiochemical characteristics of AhR ligands (i.e. HAH and PAH agonists) must meet a defined set of criteria, it has recently become abundantly clear that the AhR can be bound and activated by structurally diverse range of synthetic and naturally occurring chemicals. Based on the spectrum of AhR ligands identified to date, the structural promiscuity of AhR ligands is significantly more diverse than that observed for other liganddependent nuclear receptors. However, a detailed understanding of the structural diversity of AhR ligands and their respective biological and toxicological activities remains to be established and could provide insights into the identity of endogenous ligands. Over the past several years we have developed and utilized several AhR-based in vitro and cell-based bioassay systems to screen pure chemicals and chemical libraries as well as mixtures of chemicals with the goal of defining the spectrum of chemicals that can bind to and activate/inhibit the AhR and AhR-dependent gene expression. In addition, demonstration of the presence of AhR agonists/antagonists in extracts containing complex mixtures of chemicals from a variety of biological and environmental samples, coupled with AhR bioassay-based fractionation procedures, provides an avenue in which to identify novel AhR ligands. In previous preliminary screening studies we demonstrated the presence of AhR agonists in extracts of commercial and consumer products using an in vitro guinea pig hepatic AhR DNA binding and mouse gene induction assays. Here we have extended these studies and have examined the ability of crude DMSO and ethanol extracts

  16. Regulation of platelet activating factor receptor coupled phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The major objectives of this study were two-fold. The first was to establish whether binding of platelet activating factor (PAF) to its receptor was integral to the stimulation of polyphosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) in rabbit platelets. The second was to determine regulatory features of this receptor-coupled mechanism. [ 3 H]PAF binding demonstrated two binding sites, a high affinity site with a inhibitory constant (Ki) of 2.65 nM and a low affinity site with a Ki of 0.80 μM. PAF receptor coupled activation of phosphoinositide-specific PLC was studied in platelets which were made refractory, by short term pretreatments, to either PAF or thrombin. Saponin-permeabilized rabbit platelets continue to regulate the mechanism(s) coupling PAF receptors to PLC stimulation. However, TRPγS and GDPβS, which affect guanine nucleotide regulatory protein functions, were unable to modulate the PLC activity to any appreciable extent as compared to PAF. The possible involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) activation in regulating PAF-stimulated PLC activity was studied in rabbit platelets pretreated with staurosporine followed by pretreatments with PAF or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)

  17. The Volatility of Indonesia Shari’ah Capital Market Stock Price Toward Macro Economics Variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helma Malini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Shari’ah stock market is also affected by many highly interrelated economic, social, political andother factor, same as the conventional stock market, the interaction between macroeconomic variablesand Shari’ah stock market creating volatility in the stock price as a response towards severalshocks. The sensitivity of Shari’ah stock market towards shocks happened related with the futureexpectation of micro and macro factor in one country which can be predict or unpredictable.There are six macroeconomic variables that used in this research; inflation, exchange rate, interestrate, dow jones index, crude oil palm price, and FED rate. Using vector error correction model(VECM, the result shows that domestic macroeconomic variables that significantly affect IndonesiaShari’ah compliance for long term, while for international macroeconomic variables the selectedvariable such as FED rate and Dow Jones Index are not significantly affected Indonesia Shari’ahcompliance both in short term and long term. Keywords: Indonesia Shari’ah compliance, Macro Economic Indicators, Impulse Response Function,Stock Price Volatility

  18. Deciphering Dimerization Modes of PAS Domains: Computational and Experimental Analyses of the AhR:ARNT Complex Reveal New Insights Into the Mechanisms of AhR Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrada, Dario; Soshilov, Anatoly A; Denison, Michael S; Bonati, Laura

    2016-06-01

    The Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor that mediates the biochemical response to xenobiotics and the toxic effects of a number of environmental contaminants, including dioxins. Recently, endogenous regulatory roles for the AhR in normal physiology and development have also been reported, thus extending the interest in understanding its molecular mechanisms of activation. Since dimerization with the AhR Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) protein, occurring through the Helix-Loop-Helix (HLH) and PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) domains, is needed to convert the AhR into its transcriptionally active form, deciphering the AhR:ARNT dimerization mode would provide insights into the mechanisms of AhR transformation. Here we present homology models of the murine AhR:ARNT PAS domain dimer developed using recently available X-ray structures of other bHLH-PAS protein dimers. Due to the different reciprocal orientation and interaction surfaces in the different template dimers, two alternative models were developed for both the PAS-A and PAS-B dimers and they were characterized by combining a number of computational evaluations. Both well-established hot spot prediction methods and new approaches to analyze individual residue and residue-pairwise contributions to the MM-GBSA binding free energies were adopted to predict residues critical for dimer stabilization. On this basis, a mutagenesis strategy for both the murine AhR and ARNT proteins was designed and ligand-dependent DNA binding ability of the AhR:ARNT heterodimer mutants was evaluated. While functional analysis disfavored the HIF2α:ARNT heterodimer-based PAS-B model, most mutants derived from the CLOCK:BMAL1-based AhR:ARNT dimer models of both the PAS-A and the PAS-B dramatically decreased the levels of DNA binding, suggesting this latter model as the most suitable for describing AhR:ARNT dimerization. These novel results open new research directions focused at elucidating basic molecular mechanisms underlying the

  19. Deciphering Dimerization Modes of PAS Domains: Computational and Experimental Analyses of the AhR:ARNT Complex Reveal New Insights Into the Mechanisms of AhR Transformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Corrada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR is a transcription factor that mediates the biochemical response to xenobiotics and the toxic effects of a number of environmental contaminants, including dioxins. Recently, endogenous regulatory roles for the AhR in normal physiology and development have also been reported, thus extending the interest in understanding its molecular mechanisms of activation. Since dimerization with the AhR Nuclear Translocator (ARNT protein, occurring through the Helix-Loop-Helix (HLH and PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS domains, is needed to convert the AhR into its transcriptionally active form, deciphering the AhR:ARNT dimerization mode would provide insights into the mechanisms of AhR transformation. Here we present homology models of the murine AhR:ARNT PAS domain dimer developed using recently available X-ray structures of other bHLH-PAS protein dimers. Due to the different reciprocal orientation and interaction surfaces in the different template dimers, two alternative models were developed for both the PAS-A and PAS-B dimers and they were characterized by combining a number of computational evaluations. Both well-established hot spot prediction methods and new approaches to analyze individual residue and residue-pairwise contributions to the MM-GBSA binding free energies were adopted to predict residues critical for dimer stabilization. On this basis, a mutagenesis strategy for both the murine AhR and ARNT proteins was designed and ligand-dependent DNA binding ability of the AhR:ARNT heterodimer mutants was evaluated. While functional analysis disfavored the HIF2α:ARNT heterodimer-based PAS-B model, most mutants derived from the CLOCK:BMAL1-based AhR:ARNT dimer models of both the PAS-A and the PAS-B dramatically decreased the levels of DNA binding, suggesting this latter model as the most suitable for describing AhR:ARNT dimerization. These novel results open new research directions focused at elucidating basic molecular mechanisms

  20. American Housing Survey (AHS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The AHS is the largest, regular national housing sample survey in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the AHS to obtain up-to-date housing statistics...

  1. AL-KAFA’AH FI AL-NIKAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmah Sayuti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Kafa'ah in marriage is basically equality, suitability and proportionality between the prospective couples getting married. Humans are required to kafa'ah in religion and religiosity. Non-Muslims can't kafa'ah with Muslims because of inequalities in beliefe. Some kafa'ah that should be considered in marriage is nasab, religion, belief or religiosity, profession, liberty and property.

  2. Shari’ah Auditing: A Review of Shari’ah Audit Practices in Islamic Financial Institution (IFIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid Azwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With its increasing number of Islamic Financial Institutions (IFIs in the country, Malaysia has emerged as a leading hub when benchmarked against the other Islamic countries of the world. Unlike its conventional counterpart, the Islamic financial system focuses on the achievement of societal justice as evaluated within its own framework and uses its own criteria in order to achieve the objective of the Maqasid Ash-Shari’ah. To help achieve this objective, the Islamic finance industry is in need of Shari’ah auditors who are not only knowledgeable and competent in ensuring that the IFIs operate in accordance with Shari’ah principles, but also adequate in supply, in order to cater for the increasing number of IFIs in the country. Therefore, a major aim of this study is to conduct a comprehensive review of the auditing process performed by Shari’ah auditors in determining the achievement of the Maqasid Ash-Shari’ah by the IFIs. Another aim of this study is to assess the existing Shari’ah auditing framework and standards practiced by IFIs in Malaysia. The results of this study could serve as a reference point for the regulatory and professional bodies in assessing the implementation of a comprehensive Shari’ah auditing framework.

  3. Role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and platelet-activating factor in neoangiogenesis induced by synovial fluids of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupia, E; Montrucchio, G; Battaglia, E; Modena, V; Camussi, G

    1996-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate in vivo in a mouse model the stimulation of neoangiogenesis by synovial fluids of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to determine the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and platelet-activating factor (PAF) in the formation of new vessels. Angiogenesis was studied in a mouse model in which Matrigel, injected subcutaneously, was used as a vehicle for the delivery of potential angiogenic stimuli. Synovial fluids of patients with RA but not with osteoarthritis (OA) were shown to induce neoangiogenesis. Since synovial fluid of patients with RA contained significantly higher levels of TNF-alpha-like bioactivity and of PAF than that of patients with OA, the role of these mediators was evaluated by using an anti-TNF-alpha neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) and a PAF receptor antagonist, WEB 2170. When added to Matrigel, anti-TNF-alpha mAb and particularly WEB 2170 significantly reduced neoangiogenesis induced by synovial fluids of RA patients. Moreover, PAF extracted and purified from synovial fluid induced angiogenesis. These results suggest that the neoangiogenesis observed in rheumatoid synovitis may be due, at least in part, to the angiogenic effect of locally produced TNF-alpha and PAF.

  4. Role of platelet-activating factor in long-term potentiation of the rat medial vestibular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, S; Francescangeli, E; Goracci, G; Pettorossi, V E

    1998-06-01

    In rat brain stem slices, we investigated the role of platelet activating factor (PAF) in long-term potentiation (LTP) induced in the ventral part of the medial vestibular nuclei (MVN) by high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the primary vestibular afferent. The synaptosomal PAF receptor antagonist, BN-52021 was administered before and after HFS. BN-52021 did not modify the vestibular potentials under basal conditions, but it reduced the magnitude of potentiation induced by HFS, which completely developed after the drug wash-out. The same effect was obtained by using CV-62091, a more potent PAF antagonist at microsomal binding sites, but with concentrations higher than those of BN-52021. By contrast both BN-52021 and CV-6209 had no effect on the potentiation once induced. This demonstrates that PAF is involved in the induction but not in the maintenance of vestibular long-term effect through activation of synaptosomal PAF receptors. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the PAF analogue, 1-O-hexadecyl-2-O- (methylcarbamyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocoline (MC-PAF) and the inactive PAF metabolite, 1-O-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocoline (Lyso-PAF) on vestibular responses. Our results show that MC-PAF, but not Lyso-PAF induced potentiation. This potentiation was prevented by D,L-2-amino 5-phosphonopentanoic acid, suggesting an involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Furthermore, under BN-52021 and CV-6209, the MC-PAF potentiation was reduced or abolished. The dose-effect curve of MC-PAF showed a shift to the right greater under BN-52021 than under CV-6209, confirming the main dependence of MC-PAF potentiation on the activation of synaptosomal PAF receptors. Our results suggest that PAF can be released in the MVN after the activation of postsynaptic mechanisms triggering LTP, and it may act as a retrograde messenger which activates the presynaptic mechanisms facilitating synaptic plasticity.

  5. Syari’ah, Fiqih dan Sebuah Perspektif tentang Tarjîh

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    Miftahul Huda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes into account the very fact that Syari’ah has been a subject of controversy over centuries. Its interpretation in the form of fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence is a strong indication that Syari’ah is not immune from personal subjectivication. Fiqh is quite personal whereby a jurist would read the message of Syari’ah and attempt to give his personal and subjective interpretation of it. Nonetheless, the paper is also of the argument that this controversy is in itself a source of the dynamics of Syari’ah. It is due to this controversy–otherwise known as the legal dispute- that fiqh is capable of being developed over times. Some substances of fiqh are responses to the opposing views on some issues. Not less important than this is to delve into the factors that triggered such controversy and dispute. The paper speaks of three factors, namely the nature of subject-matter, the way the jurists interpret it, and the social circumstances that surround the jurists and help shape their way of thinking. The first is epistemological, the second methodological, whereas the third to sociological. The three factors are inter-related and form as it were the comprehensive legal products which the Muslims currently inherited. The Tarjih in the meantime, is a form of a legal product, which serves both as a social and intellectual modality for the Muslims in their daily lives.

  6. Platelet-activating factor increases platelet-dependent glycoconjugate secretion from tracheal submucosal gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, T.; Shimura, S.; Ikeda, K.; Sasaki, H.; Takishima, T.

    1989-01-01

    Using isolated glands from feline trachea, we examined the effect of platelet-activating factor (PAF) on radiolabeled glycoconjugate release and glandular contraction by measuring induced tension in the absence or presence of platelets. PAF alone did not produce any significant glandular contraction nor any significant change in glycoconjugate release from isolated glands. In the presence of purified platelets containing no plasma, PAF (10(-8) to 10(-5) M) produced significant glycoconjugate secretion in a dose-dependent fashion, but it produced no significant glandular contraction. PAF-evoked glycoconjugate secretion was time dependent, reaching a peak response of 277% of control 15-30 min after the exposure of isolated glands to 10(-5) M PAF in the presence of platelets and returning to 135% of controls at 2 h. Platelets alone did not produce any significant stimulation in glycoconjugate release. CV-3988, a known PAF antagonist, inhibited the secretory response to PAF. Methysergide, a known antagonist to receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine, did not alter PAF-evoked glycoconjugate secretion. Both indomethacin and SQ 29,548, a thromboxane receptor antagonist, abolished the PAF-evoked glycoconjugate secretion from isolated submucosal glands. Epithiomethanothromboxane A2, a stable thromboxane A2 analogue, produced a significant increase in glycoconjugate secretion in a dose-dependent fashion. These findings indicate that PAF increases glycoconjugate release in the presence of platelets and that the increase is dependent on some aspect of platelet function, namely thromboxane generation

  7. Introducing the "TCDD-inducible AhR-Nrf2 gene battery".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Ronnie L; Reisman, Scott A; Aleksunes, Lauren M; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2009-10-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces genes via the transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), including Cyp1a1, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Nqo1), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1a6 (Ugt1a6), and glutathione S-transferase a1 (Gsta1). These genes are referred to as the "AhR gene battery." However, Nqo1 is also considered a prototypical target gene of the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). In mice, TCDD induction of Nrf2 and Nrf2 target, Nqo1, is dependent on AhR, and thus TCDD induction of drug-processing genes may be routed through an AhR-Nrf2 sequence. There has been speculation that Nrf2 may be involved in the TCDD induction of drug-processing genes; however, the data are not definitive. Therefore, to address whether TCDD induction of Nqo1, Ugts, and Gsts is dependent on Nrf2, we conducted the definitive experiment by administering TCDD (50 mug/kg, ip) to Nrf2-null and wild-type (WT) mice and collecting livers 24 h later to quantify the mRNA of drug-processing genes. TCDD induction of Cyp1a1 and Ugt1a1 was similar in WT and Nrf2-null mice, whereas TCDD induction of Ugt1a5 and 1a9 was blunted in Nrf2-null mice. TCDD induced Nqo1, Ugt1a6, 2b34, 2b35, 2b36, UDP-glucuronic acid-synthesizing gene UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, and Gsta1, m1, m2, m3, m6, p2, t2, and microsomal Gst1 in WT mice but not in Nrf2-null mice. Therefore, the present study demonstrates the novel finding that Nrf2 is required for TCDD induction of classical AhR battery genes Nqo1, Ugt1a6, and Gsta1, as well as most Ugt and Gst isoforms in livers of mice.

  8. The effect of topical application of the platelet-activating factor-antagonist, Ro 24-0238, in psoriasis vulgaris--a clinical and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbers, M E; Gerritsen, M J; van de Kerkhof, P C

    1994-11-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is considered to be one of the most potent lipid mediators in allergic and inflammatory reactions. Suggestions that PAF is produced by cutaneous cells, and cells infiltrating the skin from the blood, have been reported. PAF has been identified in allergic cutaneous reactions and also in psoriatic lesions. The biological activity of PAF is thought to be mediated by cell membrane receptors. Studies revealed that PAF-antagonists can be active in animal models of cutaneous inflammation. In humans PAF-antagonists showed minimal therapeutic improvement in studies of antigen-induced cutaneous responses in atopic subjects. No data are available on the effects of PAF-antagonists in psoriasis. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a potent PAF-antagonist (Ro 24-0238, 10% solution in diethylene glycol monoethyl ether) in 10 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis, a placebo-controlled double-blind study. Clinical response was evaluated and markers of inflammation, differentiation and proliferation were studied immunohistochemically on punch biopsies taken from actively treated and placebo-treated lesions, before and after treatment. This study demonstrated that a 10% solution of the PAF-antagonist Ro 24-0238 was not effective at the clinical or cell biological level after a 4-week treatment period. The most likely explanation for these negative observations is that PAF is not a significant factor in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  9. RESPON PERBANKAN SYARI’AH DAN LEMBAGA KEUANGAN SYARIAH DI PAMEKASAN TERHADAP PEMBUKAAN PROGRAM STUDI PERBANKAN SYARI’AH DI STAIN PAMEKASAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Haryanto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are three focuses becoming study in this research that is: a Response ( appresiation Syari'ah Bangking and Financial Institution of Syari'ah in Pamekasan, b Expectation of Syari'ah Bangking and Financial Institution of Syari'Ah in Pamekasan to grad, c Elementary compentence which must be had by grad. This research uses the approach qualitative trying to watch closely the response of the head Syari'ah Bangking and Financial Institution of Moslem law in Pamekasan to opening of Study Program of Syari’ah Banking in STAIN Pamekasan. Result of this research showing that: Response of Financial Institution and Syari’ah Banking in Pamekasan to opening the Study Program of Syari’ah Banking in STAIN Pamekasan is very good, and they are also ready for cooperating in powering the Study Program of Syari’ah Banking in STAIN Pamekasan. Expectation of Syari’ah Banking and Financial Institution of Syari'ah in Pamekasan to grad of Study Program of Syari’ah Banking in STAIN Pamekasan, that is; the grad of Study Program of Syari’ah Banking STAIN Pamekasan next, absolute mastering the conception of Syari’ah Banking supported with knowledge of conventional banking concept and domination of information Technology Skill. Elementary compentence which must be had by the grad of Study Program of Syari’ah Banking in STAIN Pamekasan, that is; some of responders assess is competent, and some of other assess still many conventional banking payload, less payload of syari’ah banking, and still less subjects which uplift the skill and practice because the next grad have to ready to work in banking area.

  10. The novel role of platelet-activating factor in protecting mice against lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Il Jeong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Platelet-activating factor (PAF has been long believed to be associated with many pathophysiological processes during septic shock. Here we present novel activities for PAF in protecting mice against LPS-mediated endotoxic shock. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In vivo PAF treatment immediately after LPS challenge markedly improved the survival rate against mortality from endotoxic shock. Administration of PAF prominently attenuated LPS-induced organ injury, including profound hypotension, excessive polymorphonuclear neutrophil infiltration, and severe multiple organ failure. In addition, PAF treatment protects against LPS-induced lymphocytes apoptosis. These protective effects of PAF was correlated with significantly decreases in the production of the inflammatory mediators such as TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-12, and IFN-gamma, while increasing production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results suggest that PAF may protect mice against endotoxic shock via a complex mechanism involving modulation of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators.

  11. Identification of a second putative receptor of platelet activating factor on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    Due to multiple molecular species of platelet activating factor (PAF) and the existence of high affinity binding sites in a variety of cells and tissues, possible existence of PAF receptor subtypes has been suggested. This report shows differences between specific PAF receptors on human leukocytes and platelets. Human PMN leukocyte membranes showed high affinity binding sites for PAF with an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 4.7 (+/- 1.4) x 10 -10 M. The maximal number (B/sub max/) of receptor sites was estimated to be 3.13 (+/- 1.4) x 10 -13 mol/mg protein. They compared the relative potencies of several PAF agonists and receptor antagonists between human platelet and human leukocyte membranes. One antagonist (Ono-6240) was found to be 8 times less potent at inhibiting the [ 3 H]PAF specific receptor binding to human leukocytes than to human platelets. Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ and K + ions potentiated the [ 3 H]PAF specific binding in both systems. Na + ions inhibited the [ 3 H]PAF specific binding to human platelets but showed no effects in human leukocytes. K + ions decreased the Mg 2+ -potentiated [ 3 H]PAF binding in human leukocytes but showed no effects in human platelets. These results suggest that the PAF specific receptors in human leukocytes are different structurally and possibly functionally from the receptors identified in human platelets

  12. Rupatadine inhibits inflammatory mediator release from human laboratory of allergic diseases 2 cultured mast cells stimulated by platelet-activating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alevizos, Michail; Karagkouni, Anna; Vasiadi, Magdalini; Sismanopoulos, Nikolaos; Makris, Michael; Kalogeromitros, Dimitrios; Theoharides, Theoharis C

    2013-12-01

    Mast cells are involved in allergy and inflammation by the secretion of multiple mediators, including histamine, cytokines, and platelet-activating factor (PAF), in response to different triggers, including emotional stress. PAF has been associated with allergic inflammation, but there are no clinically available PAF inhibitors. To investigate whether PAF could stimulate human mast cell mediator release and whether rupatadine (RUP), a dual histamine-1 and PAF receptor antagonist, could inhibit the effect of PAF on human mast cells. Laboratory of allergic diseases 2 cultured mast cells were stimulated with PAF (0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 μmol/L) and substance P (1 μmol/L) with or without pretreatment with RUP (2.5 and 25 μmol/L), which was added 10 minutes before stimulation. Release of β-hexosaminidase was measured in supernatant fluid by spectrophotoscopy, and histamine, interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PAF stimulated a statistically significant release of histamine, interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor (0.001-0.1 μmol/L) that was comparable to that stimulated by substance P. Pretreatment with RUP (25 μmol/L) for 10 minutes inhibited this effect. In contrast, pretreatment of laboratory of allergic diseases 2 cells with diphenhydramine (25 μmol/L) did not inhibit mediator release, suggesting that the effect of RUP was not due to its antihistaminic effect. PAF stimulates human mast cell release of proinflammatory mediators that is inhibited by RUP. This action endows RUP with additional properties in treating allergic inflammation. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Platelet activating factor induces transient blood-brain barrier opening to facilitate edaravone penetration into the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Weirong; Zhang, Rui; Sha, Lan; Lv, Peng; Shang, Erxin; Han, Dan; Wei, Jie; Geng, Xiaohan; Yang, Qichuan; Li, Yunman

    2014-03-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) greatly limits the efficacy of many neuroprotective drugs' delivery to the brain, so improving drug penetration through the BBB has been an important focus of research. Here we report that platelet activating factor (PAF) transiently opened BBB and facilitated neuroprotectant edaravone penetration into the brain. Intravenous infusion with PAF induced a transient BBB opening in rats, reflected by increased Evans blue leakage and mild edema formation, which ceased within 6 h. Furthermore, rat regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) declined acutely during PAF infusion, but recovered slowly. More importantly, this transient BBB opening significantly increased the penetration of edaravone into the brain, evidenced by increased edaravone concentrations in tissue interstitial fluid collected by microdialysis and analyzed by Ultra-performance liquid chromatograph combined with a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS). Similarly, incubation of rat brain microvessel endothelial cells monolayer with 1 μM PAF for 1 h significantly increased monolayer permeability to (125)I-albumin, which recovered 1 h after PAF elimination. However, PAF incubation with rat brain microvessel endothelial cells for 1 h did not cause detectable cytotoxicity, and did not regulate intercellular adhesion molecule-1, matrix-metalloproteinase-9 and P-glycoprotein expression. In conclusion, PAF could induce transient and reversible BBB opening through abrupt rCBF decline, which significantly improved edaravone penetration into the brain. Platelet activating factor (PAF) transiently induces BBB dysfunction and increases BBB permeability, which may be due to vessel contraction and a temporary decline of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) triggered by PAF. More importantly, the PAF induced transient BBB opening facilitates neuroprotectant edaravone penetration into brain. The results of this study may provide a new approach to improve drug delivery into

  14. Platelet-activating factor dilates efferent arterioles through glomerulus-derived nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, S; Ren, Y; Juncos, L A; Ito, S

    1996-01-01

    Despite evidence that platelet-activating factor (PAF) is produced by the glomerulus, its direct action on the glomerular microcirculation is poorly understood. It was recently reported that at picomolar concentrations, PAF dilates isolated microperfused afferent arterioles (Af-Art) via nitric oxide (NO). The present study tested the hypothesis that PAF acts on the glomerulus to release NO, which in turn controls the resistance of the efferent arteriole (Ef-Art). Rabbit Ef-Art were perfused from the distal end (retrograde perfusion [RP]) to eliminate the influence of the glomerulus, or through the glomerulus from the end of the Af-Art (orthograde perfusion [OP]) to maintain the influence of the glomerulus. Ef-Art were preconstricted by approximately 40% with norepinephrine and increasing doses of PAF were added to both the arteriolar perfusate and bath. Only with OP did PAF at picomolar concentrations cause significant dilation: at 400 pmol, the diameter increased by 64 +/- 11% from the preconstricted level (N = 6, P Art. At nanomolar concentrations, PAF constricted Ef-Art similarly in both RP and OP: at 40 nM, the diameter decreased by 24 +/- 4% (N = 6, P OP (10 +/- 2%, N = 6; P Art; and (2) at nanomolar concentrations, PAF constricts the Ef-Art partly through release of cyclooxygenase metabolites. Thus, PAF may play a role in glomerular hemodynamics under various physiological and pathological conditions.

  15. Normal mast cell numbers in the tissues of AhR-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Caroline; Feyerabend, Thorsten; Sonner, Jana; Redaelli, Chiara; Peter, Katharina; Kunze, Anja; Haas, Katharina; Esser, Charlotte; Schäkel, Knut; Wick, Wolfgang; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Lanz, Tobias V; Platten, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) acts as an immunomodulatory molecule in several immune cell lineages. Recently, it has been implicated in development and maintenance of immune cells in barrier tissues such as skin and mucosa. To investigate its role on mast cell development and maintenance in skin, peritoneal exudate cells (PECs) and lymph nodes, we studied in depth their phenotype in AhR-deficient mice. Our findings do not provide any evidence for a suspected role of the AhR in mast cell homeostasis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Natural co-infection of influenza A/H3N2 and A/H1N1pdm09 viruses resulting in a reassortant A/H3N2 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rith, Sareth; Chin, Savuth; Sar, Borann; Y, Phalla; Horm, Srey Viseth; Ly, Sovann; Buchy, Philippe; Dussart, Philippe; Horwood, Paul F

    2015-12-01

    Despite annual co-circulation of different subtypes of seasonal influenza, co-infections between different viruses are rarely detected. These co-infections can result in the emergence of reassortant progeny. We document the detection of an influenza co-infection, between influenza A/H3N2 with A/H1N1pdm09 viruses, which occurred in a 3 year old male in Cambodia during April 2014. Both viruses were detected in the patient at relatively high viral loads (as determined by real-time RT-PCR CT values), which is unusual for influenza co-infections. As reassortment can occur between co-infected influenza A strains we isolated plaque purified clonal viral populations from the clinical material of the patient infected with A/H3N2 and A/H1N1pdm09. Complete genome sequences were completed for 7 clonal viruses to determine if any reassorted viruses were generated during the influenza virus co-infection. Although most of the viral sequences were consistent with wild-type A/H3N2 or A/H1N1pdm09, one reassortant A/H3N2 virus was isolated which contained an A/H1N1pdm09 NS1 gene fragment. The reassortant virus was viable and able to infect cells, as judged by successful passage in MDCK cells, achieving a TCID50 of 10(4)/ml at passage number two. There is no evidence that the reassortant virus was transmitted further. The co-infection occurred during a period when co-circulation of A/H3N2 and A/H1N1pdm09 was detected in Cambodia. It is unclear how often influenza co-infections occur, but laboratories should consider influenza co-infections during routine surveillance activities. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. American Housing Survey (AHS) 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The AHS is the largest, regular national housing sample survey in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the AHS to obtain up-to-date housing statistics...

  18. Platelet-activating factor induces TLR4 expression in intestinal epithelial cells: implication for the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Soliman

    Full Text Available Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units, however its pathogenesis is not completely understood. We have previously shown that platelet activating factor (PAF, bacteria and TLR4 are all important factors in the development of NEC. Given that Toll-like receptors (TLRs are expressed at low levels in enterocytes of the mature gastrointestinal tract, but were shown to be aberrantly over-expressed in enterocytes in experimental NEC, we examined the regulation of TLR4 expression and signaling by PAF in intestinal epithelial cells using human and mouse in vitro cell lines, and the ex vivo rat intestinal loop model. In intestinal epithelial cell (IEC lines, PAF stimulation yielded upregulation of both TLR4 mRNA and protein expression and led to increased IL-8 secretion following stimulation with LPS (in an otherwise LPS minimally responsive cell line. PAF stimulation resulted in increased human TLR4 promoter activation in a dose dependent manner. Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis showed PAF induced STAT3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation in IEC, and PAF-induced TLR4 expression was inhibited by STAT3 and NFκB Inhibitors. Our findings provide evidence for a mechanism by which PAF augments inflammation in the intestinal epithelium through abnormal TLR4 upregulation, thereby contributing to the intestinal injury of NEC.

  19. RELEVANSI KAFĀ’AH TERHADAP KEHARMONISAN RUMAH TANGGA PERSPEKTIF NORMATIF DAN YURIDIS

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    Asrizal Saiin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Kafā’ah is a concept of equivalence between the couples who want to get married to create family which is sakinah, mawaddah and rahmah. Religious elements is the main and most important in equality while the others just as a supporting factor, such as: education, offspring, position and economic degree. In determining the partner, every one should understand the kafa’ah concepts and criteria in integrated, inductive and comprehensive, what intended to avoid mistakes in choosing a good couple. This article examine the equality relevance on household harmony in terms of normative and juridical value. [Kafā’ah merupakan suatu konsep kesepadanan antara calon suami dan isteri yang ingin menikah untuk membentuk keluarga sakinah, mawaddah dan rahmah. Unsur agama merupakan unsur utama dan terpenting dalam kafā’ah sedangkan unsur yang lain hanya sebagai pendukung, seperti pendidikan, keturunan, kedudukan dan ekonomi. Dalam menentukan pasangan hidup, perlu dipahami konsep kafā’ah dan kriteria-kriteria yang ada di dalamnya secara integratif, induktif dan konprehensif, yang ditujukan agar tidak terjadi kesalahan dalam memilih jodoh yang baik. Artikel ini mencoba mengkaji relevansi kafā’ah terhadap keharmonisan rumah tangga ditinjau dari nilai normatif dan yuridis.

  20. Expression of a splice variant of the platelet-activating factor receptor transcript 2 in various human cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtissam Youlyouz

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R transcripts were analysed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in five human cancer cell lines derived from the breast (BT20, SKBR3 and T47D cells, the pancreas (Miapaca cells and the bladder (5637 cells in order to confirm the existence of a splice variant of the PAF-R transcript 2. After cloning and sequencing, we confirmed its existence in all cell lines. It consisted of the PAF-R transcript 2 lengthening with 82 nucleotides from the 3' end of exon 1 of the PAF-R gene. The role of this elongated form of the tissue-type PAF-R transcript in cell physiology remains to be elucidated.

  1. Retinoids repress Ah receptor CYP1A1 induction pathway through the SMRT corepressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallone, Frederique; Villard, Pierre-Henri; Seree, Eric; Rimet, Odile; Nguyen, Quock Binh; Bourgarel-Rey, Veronique; Fouchier, Francis; Barra, Yves; Durand, Alain; Lacarelle, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    CYP1A1 isoform is mainly regulated by the transcription factor AhR and to a lesser extent by the nuclear receptor RAR. The effect of a coexposure with 3MC, a AhR ligand, and RA, a RAR ligand, which are, respectively, strong and weak CYP1A1 inducers, is poorly known. We showed in Caco-2 cells that addition of RA significantly decreased 3MC-induced CYP1A1 expression by -55% for mRNA level and -30% for promoter and enzymatic activities. We further showed that RA decreased AhR protein level. Moreover, a physical interaction between AhR and the RAR-corepressor SMRT has been described in vitro. Using the corepressor inhibitor TSA, transfected-cells with SMRT cDNA, and coimmunoprecipitation experiments, we demonstrated that RA addition repressed AhR function through a marked AhR/SMRT physical interaction. This interaction explains the decrease of 3MC-induced CYP1A1 expression. This new mechanism involving the repression of AhR-induced CYP1A1 expression by retinoids allows better knowledge of the CYP1A1 regulation

  2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin ExoU induces a PAF-dependent impairment of alveolar fibrin turnover secondary to enhanced activation of coagulation and increased expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in the course of mice pneumosepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suassuna José HR

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ExoU, a Pseudomonas aeruginosa cytotoxin with phospholipase A2 activity, was shown to induce vascular hyperpermeability and thrombus formation in a murine model of pneumosepsis. In this study, we investigated the toxin ability to induce alterations in pulmonary fibrinolysis and the contribution of the platelet activating factor (PAF in the ExoU-induced overexpression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1. Methods Mice were intratracheally instilled with the ExoU producing PA103 P. aeruginosa or its mutant with deletion of the exoU gene. After 24 h, animal bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF were analyzed and lung sections were submitted to fibrin and PAI-1 immunohistochemical localization. Supernatants from A549 airway epithelial cells and THP-1 macrophage cultures infected with both bacterial strains were also analyzed at 24 h post-infection. Results In PA103-infected mice, but not in control animals or in mice infected with the bacterial mutant, extensive fibrin deposition was detected in lung parenchyma and microvasculature whereas mice BALF exhibited elevated tissue factor-dependent procoagulant activity and PAI-1 concentration. ExoU-triggered PAI-1 overexpression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. In in vitro assays, PA103-infected A549 cells exhibited overexpression of PAI-1 mRNA. Increased concentration of PAI-1 protein was detected in both A549 and THP-1 culture supernatants. Mice treatment with a PAF antagonist prior to PA103 infection reduced significantly PAI-1 concentrations in mice BALF. Similarly, A549 cell treatment with an antibody against PAF receptor significantly reduced PAI-1 mRNA expression and PAI-1 concentrations in cell supernatants, respectively. Conclusion ExoU was shown to induce disturbed fibrin turnover, secondary to enhanced procoagulant and antifibrinolytic activity during P. aeruginosa pneumosepsis, by a PAF-dependent mechanism. Besides its possible pathophysiological relevance, in

  3. Human RNA polymerase II associated factor 1 complex promotes tumorigenesis by activating c-MYC transcription in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi, Xiuyi; Giroux-Leprieur, Etienne; Wislez, Marie; Hu, Mu; Zhang, Yi; Shi, Huaiyin; Du, Kaiqi; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Human RNA polymerase II (RNAPII)-associated factor 1 complex (hPAF1C) plays a crucial role in protein-coding gene transcription. Overexpression of hPAF1C has been implicated in the initiation and progression of various human cancers. However, the molecular pathways involved in tumorigenesis through hPAF1C remain to be elucidated. The current study suggested hPAF1C expression as a prognostic biomarker for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and patients with low hPAF1C expression levels had significantly better overall survival. Furthermore, the expression of hPAF1C was found to be positively correlated with c-MYC expression in patient tumor samples and in cancer cell lines. Mechanistic studies indicated that hPAF1C could promote lung cancer cell proliferation through regulating c-MYC transcription. These results demonstrated the prognostic value of hPAF1C in early-stage NSCLC and the role of hPAF1C in the transcriptional regulation of c-MYC oncogene during NSCLC tumorigenesis. - Highlights: • hPAF1C expression is a prognostic biomarker for early stage non-small cell lung cancer. • The expression of hPAF1C was positively correlated with c-MYC in tumor samples of patients and in several NSCLC cell lines. • hPAF1C could promote lung cancer cell proliferation through regulating c-MYC transcription.

  4. Andrographolide interferes with binding of nuclear factor-κB to DNA in HL-60-derived neutrophilic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, María A; Romero, Alex; Figueroa, Jaime; Cortés, Patricia; Concha, Ilona I; Hancke, Juan L; Burgos, Rafael A

    2005-01-01

    Andrographolide, the major active component from Andrographis paniculata, has shown to possess anti-inflammatory activity. Andrographolide inhibits the expression of several proinflammatory proteins that exhibit a nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) binding site in their gene. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of andrographolide on the activation of NF-κB induced by platelet-activating factor (PAF) and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) in HL-60 cells differentiated to neutrophils. PAF (100 nM) and fMLP (100 nM) induced activation of NF-κB as determined by degradation of inhibitory factor B α (IκBα) using Western blotting in cytosolic extracts and by binding to DNA using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) in nuclear extracts. Andrographolide (5 and 50 μM) inhibited the NF-κB-luciferase activity induced by PAF. However, andrographolide did not reduce phosphorylation of p38 MAPK or ERK1/2 and did not change IκBα degradation induced by PAF and fMLP. Andrographolide reduced the DNA binding of NF-κB in whole cells and in nuclear extracts induced by PAF and fMLP. Andrographolide reduced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression induced by PAF and fMLP in HL-60/neutrophils. It is concluded that andrographolide exerts its anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting NF-κB binding to DNA, and thus reducing the expression of proinflammatory proteins, such as COX-2. PMID:15678086

  5. INDONESIA SHARI'AH COMPLIANCE STOCK RETURN BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helma Malini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to measures the behaviour of Indonesia Shari'ah compliance stock return. The measurement of return behaviour toward volatility will proved the capability of Indonesia Shari'ah compliance toward volatility that happened in Indonesia during the period of observation. Investing in Shari'ah compliance is quite different than investing in conventional stock which followed the capital market set of rules and law, Shari'ah compliance follows not only the capital market set of laws and but also the Islamic principles of principles. Most of the previous studies examine issues related to the conventional stocks and market. The present study take one step further by investigating issue related to Shari'ah compliance instrument. In the case of Shari'ah stock price in Indonesia, the dynamics volatility of the stock price can be minimized by taking an integrated screening process to the listed company, as precautions steps toward volatility

  6. BAY‘ AL-MURABAHAH: Mendudukkan Kembali Posisinya dalam Perbankan Syari’ah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luhur Prasetiyo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BAY‘ AL-MURAbah}ah transaction becomes the most popular product which shari>’ah banking uses to sell its assets for amount of reasons. Total amount of shari>’ah banks store and transact their assets (fund in mura>bah}ah system. The reason is that this product has not only small risk but also ease to manage related to muz}a>rabah and musha>rakah system. In the other hand, Many people don’t understand mura>bah}ah mechanism precisely. They often think that mura>bah}ah mechanism is as credit as well. It is, in fact, that mura>bah}ah system is a cash transaction which shari>’ah banks have. This paper is to elaborate mura>bah}ah system as a product of shari>’ah banking.   Keywords: Perbankan Syariah, mura>bah}ah, margin keuntungan, kredit

  7. Effect of platelet activating factor on endothelial permeability to plasma macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handley, D.A.; Arbeeny, C.M.; Lee, M.L.; Van Valen, R.G.; Saunders, R.N.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of intrajugular administration of platelet activating factor (PAF-C16) on vascular permeability was examined in the guinea pig. To examine the loss of selective endothelial permeability, the extravasative effect of PAF was assessed by monitoring hemoconcentration and the plasma loss of 125 I-albumin (6.7 nm), 125 I-low density lipoproteins (22.0 nm) or 125 I-very low density lipoproteins (62.1 nm). Extravasation was dose-dependent and began 1 min after PAF administration, continuing for 5-7 min. During extravasation, there was no evidence for selective plasma retention of any of the labeled plasma tracers, as measured by plasma radioactivity. These results suggest that PAF-induced extravasation is dose-dependent, with increases in vascular permeability sufficient to permit similar plasma efflux rates of albumin, low density lipoproteins and very low density lipoproteins

  8. Platelet activating factor-induced ceramide micro-domains drive endothelial NOS activation and contribute to barrier dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Predescu

    Full Text Available The spatial and functional relationship between platelet activating factor-receptor (PAF-R and nitric oxide synthase (eNOS in the lateral plane of the endothelial plasma membrane is poorly characterized. In this study, we used intact mouse pulmonary endothelial cells (ECs as well as endothelial plasma membrane patches and subcellular fractions to define a new microdomain of plasmalemma proper where the two proteins colocalize and to demonstrate how PAF-mediated nitric oxide (NO production fine-tunes ECs function as gatekeepers of vascular permeability. Using fluorescence microscopy and immunogold labeling electron microscopy (EM on membrane patches we demonstrate that PAF-R is organized as clusters and colocalizes with a subcellular pool of eNOS, outside recognizable vesicular profiles. Moreover, PAF-induced acid sphingomyelinase activation generates a ceramide-based microdomain on the external leaflet of plasma membrane, inside of which a signalosome containing eNOS shapes PAF-stimulated NO production. Real-time measurements of NO after PAF-R ligation indicated a rapid (5 to 15 min increase in NO production followed by a > 45 min period of reduction to basal levels. Moreover, at the level of this new microdomain, PAF induces a dynamic phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of Ser, Thr and Tyr residues of eNOS that correlates with NO production. Altogether, our findings establish the existence of a functional partnership PAF-R/eNOS on EC plasma membrane, at the level of PAF-induced ceramide plasma membrane microdomains, outside recognized vesicular profiles.

  9. Decrease in platelet activating factor stimulated phosphoinositide turnover during storage of human platelets in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.G.; Shukla, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    Human platelet concentrate from the American Red Cross Blood Center was stored at 24 degree C in a shaker and aliquots were taken out at time intervals aseptically. Platelet activating factor (PAF) stimulated turnover of phosphoinositide (PPI) was monitored by assaying 32 P incorporation into phosphoinositides using platelet rich plasma (PRP). Platelets in PRP were incubated with 1 x 10 -7 M PAF at 37 degree C with gentle shaking and after 5 min their lipids were extracted and analysed by TLC for 32 P-phosphoinositides. The percent stimulation of 32 P incorporation by PAF (over control) into PPI was approximately 250, 100, 60, 25 and 20 on days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6, respectively. This indicated a dramatic decrease in PAF responsive turnover of platelet PPI during storage. These findings have important implications in relation to PAF receptor activity and viability of platelets at different periods of storage

  10. ITE Suppresses Angiogenic Responses in Human Artery and Vein Endothelial Cells: Differential Roles of AhR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wang, Kai; Zou, Qing-Yun; Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Zhou, Chi; Zheng, Jing

    2017-12-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor is involved in regulation of many essential biological processes including vascular development and angiogenesis. 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE) is an AhR ligand, which regulates immune responses and cancer cell growth. However, the roles of the ITE/AhR pathway in mediating placental angiogenesis remains elusive. Here, we determined if ITE affected placental angiogenic responses via AhR in human umbilical vein (HUVECs) and artery endothelial (HUAECs) cells in vitro. We observed that ITE dose- and time-dependently inhibited proliferation and viability of HUAECs and HUVECs, whereas it inhibited migration of HUAECs, but not HUVECs. While AhR siRNA significantly suppressed AhR protein expression in HUVECs and HUAECs, it attenuated the ITE-inhibited angiogenic responses of HUAECs, but not HUVECs. Collectively, ITE suppressed angiogenic responses of HUAECs and HUVECs, dependent and independent of AhR, respectively. These data suggest that ITE may regulate placental angiogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Staurosporine potentiates platelet activating factor stimulated phospholipase C activity in rabbit platelets but does not block desensitization by platelet activating factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, W.J.; Dhar, A.; Shukla, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    The possible involvement of protein kinase C activation in regulating PAF-stimulated PLC activity was studied in rabbit platelets. PAF stimulated incorporation of 32 P into proteins and caused [ 3 H]InsP 3 levels to increase about 260% of control. These responses were compared after platelets were pretreated with either PAF, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or staurosporine and also after pretreatments with staurosporine followed by PAF or PMA. Pretreating platelets with staurosporine potentiated PAF-stimulated [ 3 H]InsP 3 levels by 54% and blocked protein phosphorylation. Pretreatments with PAF and PMA caused PAF-stimulated [ 3 H]InsP 3 levels to decrease to 115 and 136%, respectively. Staurosporine pretreatment blocked the decrease caused by the PMA pretreatment but not that by PAF. This study demonstrates that PAF-stimulated PLC activity is negatively affected by protein kinase C (PKC) activation and that inhibition of PKC activity did not prevent desensitization of PLC by PAF

  12. Palliation of bone cancer pain by antagonists of platelet-activating factor receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Morita

    Full Text Available Bone cancer pain is the most severe among cancer pain and is often resistant to current analgesics. Thus, the development of novel analgesics effective at treating bone cancer pain are desired. Platelet-activating factor (PAF receptor antagonists were recently demonstrated to have effective pain relieving effects on neuropathic pain in several animal models. The present study examined the pain relieving effect of PAF receptor antagonists on bone cancer pain using the femur bone cancer (FBC model in mice. Animals were injected with osteolytic NCTC2472 cells into the tibia, and subsequently the effects of PAF receptor antagonists on pain behaviors were evaluated. Chemical structurally different type of antagonists, TCV-309, BN 50739 and WEB 2086 ameliorated the allodynia and improved pain behaviors such as guarding behavior and limb-use abnormalities in FBC model mice. The pain relieving effects of these antagonists were achieved with low doses and were long lasting. Blockade of spinal PAF receptors by intrathecal injection of TCV-309 and WEB 2086 or knockdown of the expression of spinal PAF receptor protein by intrathecal transfer of PAF receptor siRNA also produced a pain relieving effect. The amount of an inducible PAF synthesis enzyme, lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 2 (LPCAT2 protein significantly increased in the spinal cord after transplantation of NCTC 2472 tumor cells into mouse tibia. The combination of morphine with PAF receptor antagonists develops marked enhancement of the analgesic effect against bone cancer pain without affecting morphine-induced constipation. Repeated administration of TCV-309 suppressed the appearance of pain behaviors and prolonged survival of FBC mice. The present results suggest that PAF receptor antagonists in combination with, or without, opioids may represent a new strategy for the treatment of persistent bone cancer pain and improve the quality of life of patients.

  13. No Major Host Genetic Risk Factor Contributed to A(H1N12009 Influenza Severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koldo Garcia-Etxebarria

    Full Text Available While most patients affected by the influenza A(H1N1 pandemic experienced mild symptoms, a small fraction required hospitalization, often without concomitant factors that could explain such a severe course. We hypothesize that host genetic factors could contribute to aggravate the disease. To test this hypothesis, we compared the allele frequencies of 547,296 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs between 49 severe and 107 mild confirmed influenza A cases, as well as against a general population sample of 549 individuals. When comparing severe vs. mild influenza A cases, only one SNP was close to the conventional p = 5×10-8. This SNP, rs28454025, sits in an intron of the GSK233 gene, which is involved in a neural development, but seems not to have any connections with immunological or inflammatory functions. Indirectly, a previous association reported with CD55 was replicated. Although sample sizes are low, we show that the statistical power in our design was sufficient to detect highly-penetrant, quasi-Mendelian genetic factors. Hence, and assuming that rs28454025 is likely to be a false positive, no major genetic factor was detected that could explain poor influenza A course.

  14. Novel cellular targets of AhR underlie alterations in neutrophilic inflammation and iNOS expression during influenza virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head Wheeler, Jennifer L.; Martin, Kyle C.; Lawrence, B. Paige

    2012-01-01

    The underlying reasons for variable clinical outcomes from respiratory viral infections remain uncertain. Several studies suggest that environmental factors contribute to this variation, but limited knowledge of cellular and molecular targets of these agents hampers our ability to quantify or modify their contribution to disease and improve public health. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an environment sensing transcription factor that binds many anthropogenic and natural chemicals. The immunomodulatory properties of AhR ligands are best characterized with extensive studies of changes in CD4+ T cell responses. Yet, AhR modulates other aspects of immune function. We previously showed that during influenza virus infection, AhR activation modulates neutrophil accumulation in the lung, and this contributes to increased mortality in mice. Enhanced levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in infected lungs are observed during the same timeframe as AhR-mediated increased pulmonary neutrophilia. In this study, we evaluated whether these two consequences of AhR activation are causally linked. Reciprocal inhibition of AhR-mediated elevations in iNOS and pulmonary neutrophilia reveal that, although they are contemporaneous, they are not causally related. We show using Cre/loxP technology that elevated iNOS levels and neutrophil number in the infected lung result from separate, AhR-dependent signaling in endothelial and respiratory epithelial cells, respectively. Studies using mutant mice further reveal that AhR-mediated alterations in these innate responses to infection require a functional nuclear localization signal and DNA binding domain. Thus, gene targets of AhR in non-hematopoietic cells are important new considerations for understanding AhR-mediated changes in innate anti-viral immunity. PMID:23233726

  15. Platelet activating factor enhances synaptic vesicle exocytosis via PKC, elevated intracellular calcium, and modulation of synapsin 1 dynamics and phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennetta W Hammond

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet activating factor (PAF is an inflammatory phospholipid signaling molecule implicated in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory and neurotoxicity during neuroinflammation. However, little is known about the intracellular mechanisms mediating PAF’s physiological or pathological effects on synaptic facilitation. We show here that PAF receptors are localized at the synapse. Using fluorescent reporters of presynaptic activity we show that a non-hydrolysable analogue of PAF (cPAF enhances synaptic vesicle release from individual presynaptic boutons by increasing the size or release of the readily releasable pool and the exocytosis rate of the total recycling pool. cPAF also activates previously silent boutons resulting in vesicle release from a larger number of terminals. The underlying mechanism involves elevated calcium within presynaptic boutons and protein kinase C (PKC activation. Furthermore, cPAF increases synapsin I phosphorylation at sites 1 and 3, and increases dispersion of synapsin I from the presynaptic compartment during stimulation, freeing synaptic vesicles for subsequent release. These findings provide a conceptual framework for how PAF, regardless of its cellular origin, can modulate synapses during normal and pathologic synaptic activity.

  16. Mechanism by which nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-kB regulates ovine fetal pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchenna D. Ogbozor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Platelet activating factor (PAF modulates ovine fetal pulmonary hemodynamic. PAF acts through its receptors (PAFR in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells (PVSMC to phosphorylate and induce nuclear translocation of NF-kB p65 leading to PVSMC proliferation. However, the interaction of NF-kB p65 and PAF in the nuclear domain to effect PVSMC cell growth is not clearly defined. We used siRNA-dependent translation initiation arrest to study a mechanism by which NF-kB p65 regulates PAF stimulation of PVSMC proliferation. Our hypotheses are: (a PAF induces NF-kB p65 DNA binding and (b NF-kB p65 siRNA attenuates PAF stimulation of PVSMC proliferation. For DNA binding, cells were fed 10 nM PAF with and without PAFR antagonists WEB 2170, CV 3988 or BN 52021 and incubated for 12 h. DNA binding was measured by specific ELISA. For NF-kB p65 siRNA effect, starved cells transfected with the siRNA were incubated for 24 h with and without 10 nM PAF. Cell proliferation was measured by DNA synthesis while expression of NF-kB p65 and PAFR protein was measured by Western blotting. In both studies, the effect of 10% FBS alone was used as the positive control. In general, PAF stimulated DNA binding which was inhibited by PAFR antagonists. siRNAs to NF-kB p65 and PAFR significantly attenuated cell proliferation compared to 10% FBS and PAF effect. Inclusion of PAF in siRNA-treated cells did not reverse inhibitory effect of NF-kB p65 siRNA on DNA synthesis. PAFR expression was inhibited in siRNA-treated cells. These data show that PAF-stimulation of PVSMC proliferation occurs via a PAFR-NF-kB p65 linked pathway.

  17. Mechanism by which nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-kB) regulates ovine fetal pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbozor, Uchenna D; Opene, Michael; Renteria, Lissette S; McBride, Shaemion; Ibe, Basil O

    2015-09-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) modulates ovine fetal pulmonary hemodynamic. PAF acts through its receptors (PAFR) in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells (PVSMC) to phosphorylate and induce nuclear translocation of NF-kB p65 leading to PVSMC proliferation. However, the interaction of NF-kB p65 and PAF in the nuclear domain to effect PVSMC cell growth is not clearly defined. We used siRNA-dependent translation initiation arrest to study a mechanism by which NF-kB p65 regulates PAF stimulation of PVSMC proliferation. Our hypotheses are: (a) PAF induces NF-kB p65 DNA binding and (b) NF-kB p65 siRNA attenuates PAF stimulation of PVSMC proliferation. For DNA binding, cells were fed 10 nM PAF with and without PAFR antagonists WEB 2170, CV 3988 or BN 52021 and incubated for 12 h. DNA binding was measured by specific ELISA. For NF-kB p65 siRNA effect, starved cells transfected with the siRNA were incubated for 24 h with and without 10 nM PAF. Cell proliferation was measured by DNA synthesis while expression of NF-kB p65 and PAFR protein was measured by Western blotting. In both studies, the effect of 10% FBS alone was used as the positive control. In general, PAF stimulated DNA binding which was inhibited by PAFR antagonists. siRNAs to NF-kB p65 and PAFR significantly attenuated cell proliferation compared to 10% FBS and PAF effect. Inclusion of PAF in siRNA-treated cells did not reverse inhibitory effect of NF-kB p65 siRNA on DNA synthesis. PAFR expression was inhibited in siRNA-treated cells. These data show that PAF-stimulation of PVSMC proliferation occurs via a PAFR-NF-kB p65 linked pathway.

  18. Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Hospitalized Patients with Pneumonia Due to Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Toshie; Higuera Iglesias, Anjarath Lorena; Vazquez Manriquez, Maria Eugenia; Martinez Valadez, Eduarda Leticia; Ramos, Leticia Alfaro; Izumi, Shinyu; Takasaki, Jin; Kudo, Koichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background In addition to clinical aspects and pathogen characteristics, people's health-related behavior and socioeconomic conditions can affect the occurrence and severity of diseases including influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. Methodology and Principal Findings A face-to-face interview survey was conducted in a hospital in Mexico City at the time of follow-up consultation for hospitalized patients with pneumonia due to influenza virus infection. In all, 302 subjects were enrolled and divided into two groups based on the period of hospitalization. Among them, 211 tested positive for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus by real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction during the pandemic period (Group-pdm) and 91 tested positive for influenza A virus in the post-pandemic period (Group-post). All subjects were treated with oseltamivir. Data on the demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, living environment, and information relating to A(H1N1)pdm09, and related clinical data were compared between subjects in Group-pdm and those in Group-post. The ability of household income to pay for utilities, food, and health care services as well as housing quality in terms of construction materials and number of rooms revealed a significant difference: Group-post had lower socioeconomic status than Group-pdm. Group-post had lower availability of information regarding H1N1 influenza than Group-pdm. These results indicate that subjects in Group-post had difficulty receiving necessary information relating to influenza and were more likely to be impoverished than those in Group-pdm. Possible factors influencing time to seeking health care were number of household rooms, having received information on the necessity of quick access to health care, and house construction materials. Conclusions Health-care-seeking behavior, poverty level, and the distribution of information affect the occurrence and severity of pneumonia due to H1N1 virus from a socioeconomic point of view. These

  19. LAA~Ah

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    411<0 = 1000 dalton, 1 dalton = 1.66024 x 10-24 g. ______ LAA~Ah ... energy use. These changes led to a reduction in food intake and the percentage of body fat, along with an ... of the brain called the hypothalamus may be important in ...

  20. RhoA–Rho kinase and Platelet Activating Factor Stimulation of Ovine Fetal Pulmonary Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, Lissette S.; Austin, Monique; Lazaro, Mariecon; Andrews, Mari Ashley; Lustina, Jennessee; Raj, J. Usha; Ibe, Basil O.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Platelet Activating Factor (PAF) is produced by pulmonary vascular smooth muscle Cells (PVSMC). We studied effect of Rho kinase on PAF stimulation of PVSMC proliferation in an attempt to understand a role for RhoA/Rho kinase on PAF-induced ovine fetal pulmonary vascular remodeling. Our hypothesis is that PAF acts through Rho kinase, as one of its downstream signaling, to induce arterial (SMC-PA) and venous (SMC-PV) growth in the hypoxic lung environment of the fetus in utero. Materials and methods Rho kinase and MAPK effects on PAF receptor (PAFR)-mediated cell growth and PAFR expression were studied by DNA synthesis, Western and immunocytochemistry. Effects of constructs T19N and G14V on PAF-induced cell proliferation was also studied. Results Hypoxia increased PVSMC proliferation and the Rho kinase inhibitors, Y-27632 and Fasudil (HA-1077) as well as MAPK inhibitors PD 98059 and SB 203580 attenuated PAF stimulation of cell proliferation. RhoA T19N and G14V stimulated cell proliferation, but co-incubation with PAF did not affect proliferative effects of the constructs. PAFR protein expression was significantly down-regulated in both cell types by both Y-27632 and HA-1077 with comparable profiles. Also cells treated with Y-27632 showed less PAF receptor fluorescence with significant disruption of the cell morphology. Conclusions Our results show that Rho kinase nonspecifically modulates PAFR-mediated responses via a translational modification of PAFR protein and suggest that, in vivo, activation of Rho kinase by PAF may be one other pathway to sustain PAFR-mediated PVSMC growth. PMID:24033386

  1. RhoA-Rho kinase and platelet-activating factor stimulation of ovine foetal pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, L S; Austin, M; Lazaro, M; Andrews, M A; Lustina, J; Raj, J U; Ibe, B O

    2013-10-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is produced by pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells (PVSMC). We studied effects of Rho kinase on PAF stimulation of PVSMC proliferation in an attempt to understand the role of RhoA/Rho kinase on PAF-induced ovine foetal pulmonary vascular remodelling. Our hypothesis is that PAF acts through Rho kinase, as one of its downstream signals, to induce arterial (SMC-PA) and venous (SMC-PV) cell proliferation in the hypoxic lung environment of the foetus, in utero. Rho kinase and MAPK effects on PAF receptor (PAFR)-mediated cell population expansion, and PAFR expression, were studied by DNA synthesis, western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. Effects of constructs T19N and G14V on PAF-induced cell proliferation were also investigated. Hypoxia increased PVSMC proliferation and Rho kinase inhibitors, Y-27632 and Fasudil (HA-1077) as well as MAPK inhibitors PD 98059 and SB 203580 attenuated PAF stimulation of cell proliferation. RhoA T19N and G14V stimulated cell proliferation, but co-incubation with PAF did not affect proliferative effects of the constructs. PAFR protein expression was significantly downregulated in both cell types by both Y-27632 and HA-1077, with comparable profiles. Also, cells treated with Y-27632 had less PAF receptor fluorescence with significant disruption of cell morphology. Our results show that Rho kinase non-specifically modulated PAFR-mediated responses by a translational modification of PAFR protein, and suggest that, in vivo, activation of Rho kinase by PAF may be a further pathway to sustain PAFR-mediated PVSMC proliferation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. AH Cancri: a contact binary in M67

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, J.A.J.; Worden, S.P.; Rucinski, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    The W UMa-type contact binary system AH Cnc, which is a member of the old galactic cluster M67, has been studied spectroscopically and photometrically. Estimates of masses, radii, effective temperature and luminosity of AH Cnc have been derived from these data and from cluster membership considerations. The results suggest that AH Cnc is a typical evolved W-type W UMa contact system, although whether the system has evolved as a contact system or has recently become so, could not be determined. The properties of AH Cnc are similar to those of TX Cnc in Praesepe. Information provided by the existence of a gap in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for M67 has been coupled with the AH Cnc results to provide further estimates of the chemical composition of M67. (author)

  3. Platelet activating factor receptor binding plays a critical role in jet fuel-induced immune suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Gerardo; Kazimi, Nasser; Nghiem, Dat X.; Walterscheid, Jeffrey P.; Ullrich, Stephen E.

    2004-01-01

    Applying military jet fuel (JP-8) or commercial jet fuel (Jet-A) to the skin of mice suppresses the immune response in a dose-dependant manner. The release of biological response modifiers, particularly prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ), is a critical step in activating immune suppression. Previous studies have shown that injecting selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors into jet fuel-treated mice blocks immune suppression. Because the inflammatory phospholipid mediator, platelet-activating factor (PAF), up-regulates cyclooxygenase-2 production and PGE 2 synthesis by keratinocytes, we tested the hypothesis that PAF-receptor binding plays a role in jet fuel-induced immune suppression. Treating keratinocyte cultures with PAF and/or jet fuel (JP-8 and Jet-A) stimulates PGE 2 secretion. Jet fuel-induced PGE 2 production was suppressed by treating the keratinocytes with specific PAF-receptor antagonists. Injecting mice with PAF, or treating the skin of the mice with JP-8, or Jet-A, induced immune suppression. Jet fuel-induced immune suppression was blocked when the jet fuel-treated mice were injected with PAF-receptor antagonists before treatment. Jet fuel treatment has been reported to activate oxidative stress and treating the mice with anti-oxidants (Vitamins C, or E or beta-hydroxy toluene), before jet fuel application, interfered with immune suppression. These findings confirm previous studies showing that PAF-receptor binding can modulate immune function. Furthermore, they suggest that PAF-receptor binding may be an early event in the induction of immune suppression by immunotoxic environmental agents that target the skin

  4. No Major Host Genetic Risk Factor Contributed to A(H1N1)2009 Influenza Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Etxebarria, Koldo; Bracho, María Alma; Galán, Juan Carlos; Pumarola, Tomàs; Castilla, Jesús; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl; Rodríguez-Dominguez, Mario; Quintela, Inés; Bonet, Núria; Garcia-Garcerà, Marc; Domínguez, Angela; González-Candelas, Fernando; Calafell, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    While most patients affected by the influenza A(H1N1) pandemic experienced mild symptoms, a small fraction required hospitalization, often without concomitant factors that could explain such a severe course. We hypothesize that host genetic factors could contribute to aggravate the disease. To test this hypothesis, we compared the allele frequencies of 547,296 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between 49 severe and 107 mild confirmed influenza A cases, as well as against a general population sample of 549 individuals. When comparing severe vs. mild influenza A cases, only one SNP was close to the conventional p = 5×10-8. This SNP, rs28454025, sits in an intron of the GSK233 gene, which is involved in a neural development, but seems not to have any connections with immunological or inflammatory functions. Indirectly, a previous association reported with CD55 was replicated. Although sample sizes are low, we show that the statistical power in our design was sufficient to detect highly-penetrant, quasi-Mendelian genetic factors. Hence, and assuming that rs28454025 is likely to be a false positive, no major genetic factor was detected that could explain poor influenza A course.

  5. The effects of platelet activating factor and retinoic acid on the expression of ELAM-1 and ICAM-1 and the functions of neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Feng Chen

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Preincubation of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs with platelet-activating factor (PAF for 3.5 h increased the adhesion rate of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs to PMVECs from 57.3% to 72.8% (p < 0.01. Preincubation of PMNs with PAF also increased PMN-PMVEC adhesion rate. All-trans retinoic acid (RA blocked the adherence of untreated PMNs to PAF-pretreated PMVECs but not the adherence of PAF-pretreated PMNs to untreated PMVECs. PAF increased the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and E-selection (ELAM-1 on PMVECs, PMN chemotaxis to zymosan-activated serum and histamine, and PMN aggregation and the release of acid phosphatase from PMNs. Co-incubation of RA inhibited PAF-induced PMN aggregation, the release of acid phosphatase from PMNs, and PMN chemotaxis to zymosan-activated serum and histamine while the expression of ICAM-1 and ELAM-1 did not change. Our results suggest that RA can be used to ameliorate PMN-mediated inflammation.

  6. NIKAH WISATA; PENDEKATAN MAQASHID AL-SYARI’AH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtiar Bakhtiar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The tour marriage as is done in a certain time basically it seems nothing wrong and there is no terms of harmonious violated from the fulfillment side of harmonious and requirements. However, in terms of the purpose of marriage, the law and maqasid al-syari'ah contain marriage problem. In addition, there can also be equated with  mut'ah marriage that is allowed by syi'i. The type of this marriage is not appropriate with the maqasid al-syariah, not only ashliyah but also tabi'iyah. Then the impact could be on the implications of the worst  neglect.Keywords : The tour marriage, maqasid al-Syari'ah and mudharatCopyright © 2012 by Kafa`ah All right reservedDOI : 10.15548/jk.v2i2.56

  7. Outcomes of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynfield, Ruth; Davey, Richard; Dwyer, Dominic E

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data from prospectively planned cohort studies on risk of major clinical outcomes and prognostic factors for patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus are limited. In 2009, in order to assess outcomes and evaluate risk factors for progression of illness, two cohort studies were...

  8. Characterization of the transgenic CA-AhR mouse - cell specific expression of the CA-AhR using CYP1A1 as a marker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunnberg, S.; Lindstam, M.; Andersson, P.; Hanberg, A. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Poellinger, L. [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    The risk assessments of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs performed by WHO and EU lead to major concerns. The tolerable daily intake for humans has been assessed to be within the range of human exposures occurring in the general population today. Dioxins are known to adversely impair reproduction and affect development of reproductive organs, as well as the early development of the immune and the nervous systems. The Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) mediates most toxic effects of dioxins, such as 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and PCBs. In order to study the mechanisms of toxicity of ligands of the Ah receptor we have created a transgenic mouse model expressing a constitutively active Ah receptor (CA-AhR). The mutant Ah receptor is expressed and functionally active in most (or all) organs. Consequently, the CA-AhR mice show several of the well-known effects of dioxin exposure. Since the CA-AhR is continuously active at a relatively low level and from early development, this model resembles the human exposure scenario and is thus suitable for studies on mechanisms of action of Ah receptor ligands.

  9. Identification and analysis of novel flavonoid agonists and antagonists for the AH and estrogen receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, B.; Nagy, S.; Rogers, J.; Denison, M. [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Univ. of California, Davis (United States); Nantz, M.; Kurth, M.; Springsteel, M. [Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of California, Davis (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates many of the biological and toxicological effects in a diverse range of species, tissues, and cell types. The most studied effect is induction of gene expression, and, the majority of AhR responsive genes, such as cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1), utilize AhR dependent mechanism of action. While halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the prototypical ligands of the Ah receptor, it has recently identified that the AhR is activated by a structurally diverse array of hydrophobic natural and synthetic chemicals. Given the structural diversity in AhR ligands, the physiochemical characteristics for high and low affinity ligands seems to be established. Environmental contaminants that can disrupt the endocrine homeostasis of an organism have also gained widespread attention in recent years and numerous chemicals have been identified as having either hormone or anti-hormone properties. However, like the AhR, the structural diversity and characteristics of endocrine disrupters that exert their action via nuclear receptors also seems to be depended on the estrogen receptor (ER). The flavonoids are a diverse family of chemicals commonly found in fruits and vegetables. Members of this family exert cytostatic, apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic activities. In addition, several flavonoids are potent modulators of both the expression and activities of specific cytochrome P450 genes/proteins and somel others have estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity. Accordingly flavonoids have attracted attention as possible chemoprotective or chemotherapeutic agents. We have previously developed and analyzed a novel chemical library of flavonoids which contained {proportional_to}200 compounds. The ability of these compounds to activate and/or inhibit AhR- and ER- dependent gene expression was examined by using our recently developed AhR- and ER

  10. Socioeconomic factors influencing hospitalized patients with pneumonia due to influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshie Manabe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In addition to clinical aspects and pathogen characteristics, people's health-related behavior and socioeconomic conditions can affect the occurrence and severity of diseases including influenza A(H1N1pdm09. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A face-to-face interview survey was conducted in a hospital in Mexico City at the time of follow-up consultation for hospitalized patients with pneumonia due to influenza virus infection. In all, 302 subjects were enrolled and divided into two groups based on the period of hospitalization. Among them, 211 tested positive for influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus by real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction during the pandemic period (Group-pdm and 91 tested positive for influenza A virus in the post-pandemic period (Group-post. All subjects were treated with oseltamivir. Data on the demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, living environment, and information relating to A(H1N1pdm09, and related clinical data were compared between subjects in Group-pdm and those in Group-post. The ability of household income to pay for utilities, food, and health care services as well as housing quality in terms of construction materials and number of rooms revealed a significant difference: Group-post had lower socioeconomic status than Group-pdm. Group-post had lower availability of information regarding H1N1 influenza than Group-pdm. These results indicate that subjects in Group-post had difficulty receiving necessary information relating to influenza and were more likely to be impoverished than those in Group-pdm. Possible factors influencing time to seeking health care were number of household rooms, having received information on the necessity of quick access to health care, and house construction materials. CONCLUSIONS: Health-care-seeking behavior, poverty level, and the distribution of information affect the occurrence and severity of pneumonia due to H1N1 virus from a socioeconomic

  11. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of the AH of FRW Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi-Huan, Wei

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the work made out by the apparent horizon (AH) of the Friedmann–Robertson–Walker (FRW) universe and the heat flux through the AH from the first law of thermodynamics. We discuss the mechanical properties of the AH and analyze the universe model for which the mechanical properties can change. Finally, the thermal properties of the AH of FRW universe are discussed

  12. A PAF receptor antagonist inhibits acute airway inflammation and late-phase responses but not chronic airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in a primate model of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Gundel

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available We have examined the effects of a PAF receptor antagonist, WEB 2170, on several indices of acute and chronic airway inflammation and associated changes in lung function in a primate model of allergic asthma. A single oral administration WEB 2170 provided dose related inhibition of the release of leukotriene C4 (LTC4 and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2 recovered and quantified in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid obtained during the acute phase response to inhaled antigen. In addition, oral WEB 2170 treatment in dual responder primates blocked the acute influx of neutrophils into the airways as well as the associated late-phase airway obstruction occurring 6 h after antigen inhalation. In contrast, a multiple dosing regime with WEB 2170 (once a day for 7 consecutive days failed to reduce the chronic airway inflammation (eosinophilic and associated airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled methacholine that is characteristic of dual responder monkeys. Thus, we conclude that the generation of PAF following antigen inhalation contributes to the development of lipid mediators, acute airway inflammation and associated late-phase airway obstruction in dual responder primates; however, PAF does not play a significant role in the maintenance of chronic airway inflammation and associated airway hyperresponsiveness in this primate model.

  13. Morbid obesity as a risk factor for hospitalization and death due to 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1 disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver W Morgan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Severe illness due to 2009 pandemic A(H1N1 infection has been reported among persons who are obese or morbidly obese. We assessed whether obesity is a risk factor for hospitalization and death due to 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1, independent of chronic medical conditions considered by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP to increase the risk of influenza-related complications. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a case-cohort design to compare cases of hospitalizations and deaths from 2009 pandemic A(H1N1 influenza occurring between April-July, 2009, with a cohort of the U.S. population estimated from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; pregnant women and children or=20 year olds, hospitalization was associated with being morbidly obese (BMI>or=40 for individuals with ACIP-recognized chronic conditions (OR = 4.9, 95% CI 2.4-9.9 and without ACIP-recognized chronic conditions (OR = 4.7, 95%CI 1.3-17.2. Among 2-19 year olds, hospitalization was associated with being underweight (BMIor=20 years without ACIP-recognized chronic medical conditions death was associated with obesity (OR = 3.1, 95%CI: 1.5-6.6 and morbid obesity (OR = 7.6, 95%CI 2.1-27.9. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings support observations that morbid obesity may be associated with hospitalization and possibly death due to 2009 pandemic H1N1 infection. These complications could be prevented by early antiviral therapy and vaccination.

  14. Binding Mode and Structure-Activity Relationships of ITE as an Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) Agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolciami, Daniela; Gargaro, Marco; Cerra, Bruno; Scalisi, Giulia; Bagnoli, Luana; Servillo, Giuseppe; Fazia, Maria Agnese Della; Puccetti, Paolo; Quintana, Francisco J; Fallarino, Francesca; Macchiarulo, Antonio

    2018-02-06

    Discovered as a modulator of the toxic response to environmental pollutants, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has recently gained attention for its involvement in various physiological and pathological pathways. AhR is a ligand-dependent transcription factor activated by a large array of chemical compounds, which include metabolites of l-tryptophan (l-Trp) catabolism as endogenous ligands of the receptor. Among these, 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE) has attracted interest in the scientific community, being endowed with nontoxic, immunomodulatory, and anticancer AhR-mediated functions. So far, no information about the binding mode and interactions of ITE with AhR is available. In this study, we used docking and molecular dynamics to propose a putative binding mode of ITE into the ligand binding pocket of AhR. Mutagenesis studies were then instrumental in validating the proposed binding mode, identifying His 285 and Tyr 316 as important key residues for ligand-dependent receptor activation. Finally, a set of ITE analogues was synthesized and tested to further probe molecular interactions of ITE to AhR and characterize the relevance of specific functional groups in the chemical structure for receptor activity. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Ah receptor mediated suppression of the antibody response in mice is primarily dependent on the Ah phenotype of lymphoid tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silkworth, J.B.; Antrim, L.A.; Sack, G.

    1986-01-01

    Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons act through the aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor in mice to produce a series of toxic effects of the immune system. The receptor protein is a product of the Ah gene locus. Ah responsive (Ahb/Ahb) mice express a high affinity receptor in both lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues whereas nonresponsive Ahd/Ahd mice express a poor affinity receptor. To determine the role of the Ah receptor of lymphoid tissue relative to that of nonlymphoid tissue in the induction of immune impairment, bone marrow was used to reconstitute lethally irradiated mice of the same or opposite Ah phenotype. All mice were given 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (35 and 350 mumol/kg) ip 2 days before immunization with sheep erythrocytes (SRBC). The immune response to this T dependent antigen and organ weights were determined 5 or 7 days later in normal or chimeric mice, respectively. Monoclonal Lyt 1.1 and Lyt 1.2 antibodies were used to establish the origin of the cells which repopulated the chimeric thymuses. The immune responses of both BALB/cBy (Ahb/Ahb) and the BALB/cBy X DBA/2 hybrid, CByD2F1 (Ahb/Ahd), were significantly suppressed but DBA/2 mice were unaffected. The immune responses of chimeric BALB/cBy----BALB/cBy and BALB/cBy----DBA/2 (donor----recipient) mice were also significantly suppressed and thymic atrophy was observed in both cases. The serum anti-SRBC antibody titers of DBA/2----BALB/cBy chimeras were also significantly decreased although not to the same extent as in BALB/cBy----DBA/2 mice. Chimeric DBA/2----DBA/2 mice were not affected. These results indicate that the sensitivity to Ah receptor mediated suppression of the antibody response is primarily determined by the Ah phenotype of the lymphoid tissue

  16. Effect of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Ventilation on Platelet-activating Factor and Blood Coagulation Function in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea-hypopnea Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiangkun; Sheng Chunyong

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect of continuous positive airway pressure ventilation (CPAP) on platelet-activating factor (PAF) expression and blood coagulation function in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAS), the blood sample of 40 patients with OSAS were taken before treatment and on the day 30 after treatment respectively. PAF, thromboxane B 2 (TXB2), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and fibrin(FIB) in patients and 37 health controls were detected. The results showed that PAF, TXB2, FIB in OSAS patients before treatment were significantly higher than those of after treatment and control group (P 0.05). There were abnormal expression of PAF and hypercoagulability in OSAS patients. CPAP could effectively decrease the expression of PAF, TXB 2 and could also correct dysfunction of blood coagulation. It had certain effect in lightening the clinical symptoms in OSAS patients. (authors)

  17. Different contributions of platelet-activating factor and nitric oxide in long-term potentiation of the rat medial vestibular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Grassi, S

    2001-01-01

    In rat brainstem slices, we investigated the differential role of nitric oxide (NO) and platelet-activating factor (PAF) in long-term potentiation (LTP) induced in the ventral portion of the medial vestibular nuclei (MVN) by high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the primary vestibular afferents. The NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (carboxy-PTIO) and the PAF receptor antagonist ginkgolide B (BN-52021) were administered before and after induction of potentiation. The effect of carboxy-PTIO was to completely prevent LTP. By contrast, BN-52021 only reduced the amplitude of HFS potentiation, which could develop fully at the drug washout or decline to zero, becoming a short-term phenomenon, in the case of long-lasting PAF receptor block. Both drugs, when given after HFS, had no effect on the already established potentiation, but whilst BN-52021 showed an influence within 5 min of the LTP induction, carboxy-PTIO did not affect the response once HFS was delivered. Moreover, we showed that the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside, and methylcarbamyl PAF (mc-PAF) induced LTP which was associated with an increase in glutamate release as shown by reduction in the paired-pulse facilitation ratio. The mc-PAF LTP was prevented by the NO scavenger, while NO LTP was only reduced by BN-52021. We suggest that NO and PAF are implicated as retrograde messengers in two different phases of vestibular LTP: NO in the induction phase; and PAF in the full expression phase.

  18. PEMIKIRAN ISLAM DALAM PERSPEKTIF SUNNI DAN SYI’AH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh. Shohibul Itmam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available THE ISLAMIC THINKING IN SUNNI AND SYI’AH PERSPECTIVES. This paper attempts to describe the problems associated with Islam in particular with regard to Sunni and Syi’ah teachings. The number of  streams that developed in Islam today has resulted Islam got claims from various clerical community, such as terrorism and others, resulting in the ruination image of  Islam in the constellation of  the religions of  man. As the flow and the teachings of  the most dominating civilization of  the world religions, Sunni and Syiah, including the Wahhabi, are necessary to clarify the existence or clarified the diversity in the constellation of  Islam, considering the number of streams that are currently claiming truth on themselves. Iran as the country becoming a reference in the world of  developing Syi’ah should be used as a reference in the study of  understanding associated with Sunni and Syi’ah. From this country, the world of  Islam knows the concept ofgoverning “Wilayatul Faqih”. The concept was pioneered by the government of Imam Khomeini who became known after Islamic Revolution in Iran 1979 and continues to be developed up to now. Every year Iran is celebrated with a huge demonstration with the slogan in Persian, “Islam Pyruz ast, ast Nabud Istikbar”, Islam is victorious, crushed the vanity of the islam enemy. keywords: Islam, Sunni, Syi’ah, Perspective, Differences, Similarities. Tulisan ini mencoba mengurai persoalan yang berhubungan dengan Islam secara khusus yang berkaitan dengan ajaran Sunni dan Syi’ah. Banyaknya aliran yang berkembang dalam Islam dewasa ini telah mengakibatkan Islam mendapat klaim dari berbagai komunitas agamawan, seperti teroris dan lainnya, yang mengakibatkan redupnya citra Islam dalam percaturan agama-agama manusia. Sebagai aliran dan ajaran yang paling mendominasi peradaban agama dunia, Sunni dan  Syi’ah,  termasuk  Wahabi,  perlu  memperjelas  eksistensinya atau diperjelas

  19. Characterizing the role of endothelin-1 in the progression of cardiac hypertrophy in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) null mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Amie K.; Goens, M. Beth; Nunez, Bethany A.; Walker, Mary K.

    2006-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor characterized to play a role in detection and adaptation to environmental stimuli. Genetic deletion of AhR results in hypertension, and cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, associated with elevated plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) and endothelin-1 (ET-1), thus AhR appears to contribute to cardiovascular homeostasis. In these studies, we tested the hypothesis that ET-1 mediates cardiovascular pathology in AhR null mice via ET A receptor activation. First, we determine the time courses of cardiac hypertrophy, and of plasma and tissue ET-1 expression in AhR wildtype and null mice. AhR null mice exhibited increases in heart-to-body weight ratio and age-related expression of cardiac hypertrophy markers, β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC), and atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), which were significant at 2 months. Similarly, plasma and tissue ET-1 expression was significantly elevated at 2 months and increased further with age. Second, AhR null mice were treated with ET A receptor antagonist, BQ-123 (100 nmol/kg/day), for 7, 28, or 58 days and blood pressure, cardiac fibrosis, and cardiac hypertrophy assessed, respectively. BQ-123 for 7 days significantly reduced mean arterial pressure in conscious, catheterized mice. BQ-123 for 28 days significantly reduced the histological appearance of cardiac fibrosis. Treatment for 58 days significantly reduced cardiac mass, assessed by heart weight, echocardiography, and β-MHC and ANF expression; and reduced cardiac fibrosis as determined by osteopontin and collagen I mRNA expression. These findings establish ET-1 and the ET A receptor as primary determinants of hypertension and cardiac pathology in AhR null mice

  20. Epidemiology of human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in Guangdong, 2016 to 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min; Lau, Eric H Y; Guan, Wenda; Yang, Yuwei; Song, Tie; Cowling, Benjamin J; Wu, Jie; Peiris, Malik; He, Jianfeng; Mok, Chris Ka Pun

    2017-07-06

    We describe the epidemiology of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H7N9) based on poultry market environmental surveillance and laboratory-confirmed human cases (n = 9) in Guangdong, China. We also compare the epidemiology between human cases of high- and low-pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) (n = 51) in Guangdong. Case fatality and severity were similar. Touching sick or dead poultry was the most important risk factor for HPAI A(H7N9) infections and should be highlighted for the control of future influenza A(H7N9) epidemics. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  1. Development of biochip for risk factors of atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Teak; Lee, Jeung Hee; Bae, Sung Kyun; Lee, Cho Rong; Jun, Mi Sun

    2010-05-01

    Establishment of the detection technology on vascular disease and relative risk factors through measuring the activity of Lp-PLA2 in blood using [ 3 H]plateletactivating factor(PAF,1-O-alkyl-2-[ 3 H-acetyl]-sn-glycero-3-phospho choline) labeled by radioactive isotope

  2. Platelet-activating factor stimulation of tyrosine kinase and its relationship to phospholipase C in rabbit platelets: Studies with genistein and monoclonal antibody to phosphotyrosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, A.; Paul, A.K.; Shukla, S.D.

    1990-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a proinflammatory lipid that has platelet-stimulating property. PAF receptor-coupled activation of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) and phosphorylation of several proteins has already been established in our laboratory. To investigate further the molecular mechanism and relationship between activation of PLC and protein phosphorylation, we have used Genistein (a putative inhibitor of tyrosine-specific protein kinases), phosphotyrosine antibody, and phosphoamino acid analysis to probe the involvement of tyrosine kinase in this process. Washed rabbit platelets were loaded with myo-[2-3H]inositol and challenged with PAF (100 nM) after pretreatment with Genistein. PLC-mediated production of radioactive inositol monophosphate, inositol diphosphate, and inositol triphosphate was monitored. PAF alone caused stimulation of PLC activity [( 3H]inositol triphosphate production), whereas pretreatment with Genistein (0.5 mM) diminished PAF-stimulated PLC activity to basal level. Genistein also blocked PAF-stimulated platelet aggregation at this dose. In contrast to Genistein, staurosporine which inhibits protein kinase C, potentiated PAF-stimulated [3H]inositol triphosphate production. Genistein substantially inhibited the combined effects of staurosporine and PAF on inositol triphosphate production. Genistein also reduced PAF-induced phosphorylation of Mr 20,000 and 50,000 proteins. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced Mr 40,000 protein phosphorylation was also affected by Genistein. The above results suggested that Genistein inhibited tyrosine kinase at an early stage of signal transduction by inhibiting PLC. This, in turn, decreased the activation of protein kinase C and, therefore, caused a reduction in Mr 40,000 protein phosphorylation

  3. Radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies is associated with increased salivary platelet-activating factor content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlavaty, T.E.; Fisher, R.; Robbins, M.E.C.; Wheeler, J.; Funk, G.; Hussey, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Oral mucositis, characterized by pronounced erythema, edema, atrophy, and ulceration, remains a common complication of radiotherapeutic treatment of head and neck malignancies. These radiation-induced morbidities can cause a temporary cessation or indeed reduction in the extent of radiotherapy dose employed, compromising the likelihood of tumor cure. The precise pathogenic mechanisms involved in the development of radiation mucositis remain ill-defined. Platelet-activating factor (PAF), a pivotal mediator of acute inflammatory reactions, has been implicated in radiation-induced mucositis (McManus et al Lab Invest 68:118-124 1993). However, these data are limited in terms both of patient numbers, and time-course. The present study evaluated saliva PAF levels in patients receiving radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies in terms of levels prior to, during, and after the completion of radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Saliva samples (1-2 mL) were obtained from 14 patients with oral cancer, and from 14 control non-malignant individuals. Saliva samples from the oral cancer patients were collected prior to the initiation of treatment, after the administration of 30 Gy, and at the completion of the course of radiotherapy. PAF was extracted from the saliva samples using a chloroform methanol mixture (2:1). Further purification was accomplished by washing the extracts through silica minicolumns. Measurements of PAF content were performed using a scintillation proximity assay system (Amersham, UK). This combined the use of a high specific activity 3 H-PAF with an antibody specific for PAF. Results: The PAF content of saliva obtained from patients prior to the initiation of radiotherapy was 226 ± 55 ng/mL, (mean ± SE). This was significantly greater than the value of 25 ± 11 ng/mL (p value = 0.003; 2-tail t test) measured in the saliva from the control individuals. Irradiation was associated with a significant increase in the PAF content of saliva

  4. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR-mediated perturbations in gene expression during early stages of CD4+ T-cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana eRohlman

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR by its prototypic ligand, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, mediates potent suppression of T-cell dependent immune responses. The suppressive effects of TCDD occur early during CD4+ T-cell differentiation in the absence of effects on proliferation and have recently been associated with the induction of AhR-dependent regulatory T-cells (Treg. Since AhR functions as a ligand-activated transcription factor, changes in gene expression induced by TCDD during the early stages of CD4+ T-cell differentiation are likely to reflect fundamental mechanisms of AhR action. A custom panel of genes associated with T-cell differentiation was used to query changes in gene expression induced by exposure to 1 nM TCDD. CD4+ T-cells from AhR+/+ and AhR-/- mice were cultured with cytokines known to polarize the differentiation of T-cells to various effector lineages. Treatment with TCDD induced expression of Cyp1a1, Cyp1b1 and Ahrr in CD4+ T-cells from AhR+/+ mice under all culture conditions, validating the presence and activation of AhR in these cells. The highest levels of AhR activation occurred under Th17 conditions at 24 hours and Tr1 conditions at 48 hours. Unexpectedly, expression levels of most genes associated with early T-cell differentiation were unaltered by AhR activation, including lineage-specific genes that drive CD4+ T-cell polarization. The major exception was AhR-dependent up-regulation of Il22 that was seen under all culture conditions. Independent of TCDD, AhR down-regulated the expression of Il17a and Rorc based on increased expression of these genes in AhR-deficient cells across culture conditions. These findings are consistent with a role for AhR in down-regulation of inflammatory immune responses and implicate IL-22 as a potential contributor to the immunosuppressive effects of TCDD.

  5. Functional conservation and divergence of four ginger AP1/AGL9 MADS-box genes revealed by analysis of their expression and protein-protein interaction, and ectopic expression of AhFUL gene in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiumei Li

    Full Text Available Alpinia genus are known generally as ginger-lilies for showy flowers in the ginger family, Zingiberaceae, and their floral morphology diverges from typical monocotyledon flowers. However, little is known about the functions of ginger MADS-box genes in floral identity. In this study, four AP1/AGL9 MADS-box genes were cloned from Alpinia hainanensis, and protein-protein interactions (PPIs and roles of the four genes in floral homeotic conversion and in floral evolution are surveyed for the first time. AhFUL is clustered to the AP1 lineage, AhSEP4 and AhSEP3b to the SEP lineage, and AhAGL6-like to the AGL6 lineage. The four genes showed conserved and divergent expression patterns, and their encoded proteins were localized in the nucleus. Seven combinations of PPI (AhFUL-AhSEP4, AhFUL-AhAGL6-like, AhFUL-AhSEP3b, AhSEP4-AhAGL6-like, AhSEP4-AhSEP3b, AhAGL6-like-AhSEP3b, and AhSEP3b-AhSEP3b were detected, and the PPI patterns in the AP1/AGL9 lineage revealed that five of the 10 possible combinations are conserved and three are variable, while conclusions cannot yet be made regarding the other two. Ectopic expression of AhFUL in Arabidopsis thaliana led to early flowering and floral organ homeotic conversion to sepal-like or leaf-like. Therefore, we conclude that the four A. hainanensis AP1/AGL9 genes show functional conservation and divergence in the floral identity from other MADS-box genes.

  6. Aa Ah Nak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tha, Na Gya; Wus, Thay

    2017-01-01

    In this article, Aa Ah Nak, the authors' methodology presents not only various reflections but also diverse contradictions about the Aa Nii language as well as language revitalization. This article explores language foundation and how the Aa Nii language revitalization is inextricably linked to the genocide and resulting historic trauma pervasive…

  7. Characterization of MCF mammary epithelial cells overexpressing the Arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Patrick S; Li, Wen; Vogel, Christoph F; Matsumura, Fumio

    2009-01-01

    Recent reports indicate the existence of breast cancer cells expressing very high levels of the Arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ubiquitous intracellular receptor best known for mediating toxic action of dioxin and related pollutants. Positive correlation between the degree of AhR overexpression and states of increasing transformation of mammary epithelial cells appears to occur in the absence of any exogenous AhR ligands. These observations have raised many questions such as why and how AhR is overexpressed in breast cancer and its physiological roles in the progression to advanced carcinogenic transformation. To address those questions, we hypothesized that AhR overexpression occurs in cells experiencing deficiencies in normally required estrogen receptor (ER) signaling, and the basic role of AhR in such cases is to guide the affected cells to develop orchestrated cellular changes aimed at substituting the normal functions of ER. At the same time, the AhR serves as the mediator of the cell survival program in the absence of ER signaling. We subjected two lines of Michigan Cancer Foundation (MCF) mammary epithelial cells to 3 different types ER interacting agents for a number of passages and followed the changes in the expression of AhR mRNA. The resulting sublines were analyzed for phenotypical changes and unique molecular characteristics. MCF10AT1 cells continuously exposed to 17-beta-estradiol (E2) developed sub-lines that show AhR overexpression with the characteristic phenotype of increased proliferation, and distinct resistance to apoptosis. When these chemically selected cell lines were treated with a specific AhR antagonist, 3-methoxy-4-nitroflavone (MNF), both of the above abnormal cellular characteristics disappeared, indicating the pivotal role of AhR in expressing those cellular phenotypes. The most prominent molecular characteristics of these AhR overexpressing MCF cells were found to be overexpression of ErbB2 and COX-2. Furthermore, we could

  8. Development of a platoon driving AHS; AHS jikkensha ni okeru gunsoko seigyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seto, Y; Inoue, H [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Nissan and the Public Work Research Institute of the Ministry of Construction are developing an Automated Highway System. We are investigating a longitudinal control system in AHS. In this paper, a vehicle control method using two actuators an engine and a brake, is described. Experimental and simulated results are shown. A Platoon driving control method using road-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-vehicle communication is described. And the influence of the communication on the control performance is shown by experiments and simulation. The effects of the communication device and control device mentioned above are verified by experimental results in an AHS field test conducted in September 1996 on a dosed highway. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Melanization and Pathogenicity in the Insect, Tenebrio molitor, and the Crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus, by Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonin, Chadanat; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Söderhäll, Irene; Merino, Susana; Tomás, Juan M.; Söderhäll, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the most common Aeromonas species causing infections in human and other animals such as amphibians, reptiles, fish and crustaceans. Pathogenesis of Aeromonas species have been reported to be associated with virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), bacterial toxins, bacterial secretion systems, flagella, and other surface molecules. Several mutant strains of A. hydrophila AH-3 were initially used to study their virulence in two animal species, Pacifastacus leniusculus (crayfish) and Tenebrio molitor larvae (mealworm). The AH-3 strains used in this study have mutations in genes involving the synthesis of flagella, LPS structures, secretion systems, and some other factors, which have been reported to be involved in A. hydrophila pathogenicity. Our study shows that the LPS (O-antigen and external core) is the most determinant A. hydrophila AH-3 virulence factor in both animals. Furthermore, we studied the immune responses of these hosts to infection of virulent or non-virulent strains of A. hydrophila AH-3. The AH-3 wild type (WT) containing the complete LPS core is highly virulent and this bacterium strongly stimulated the prophenoloxidase activating system resulting in melanization in both crayfish and mealworm. In contrast, the ΔwaaE mutant which has LPS without O-antigen and external core was non-virulent and lost ability to stimulate this system and melanization in these two animals. The high phenoloxidase activity found in WT infected crayfish appears to result from a low expression of pacifastin, a prophenoloxidase activating enzyme inhibitor, and this gene expression was not changed in the ΔwaaE mutant infected animal and consequently phenoloxidase activity was not altered as compared to non-infected animals. Therefore we show that the virulence factors of A. hydrophila are the same regardless whether an insect or a crustacean is infected and the O-antigen and external core is essential for activation of the proPO system

  10. Melanization and pathogenicity in the insect, Tenebrio molitor, and the crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus, by Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadanat Noonin

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is the most common Aeromonas species causing infections in human and other animals such as amphibians, reptiles, fish and crustaceans. Pathogenesis of Aeromonas species have been reported to be associated with virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS, bacterial toxins, bacterial secretion systems, flagella, and other surface molecules. Several mutant strains of A. hydrophila AH-3 were initially used to study their virulence in two animal species, Pacifastacus leniusculus (crayfish and Tenebrio molitor larvae (mealworm. The AH-3 strains used in this study have mutations in genes involving the synthesis of flagella, LPS structures, secretion systems, and some other factors, which have been reported to be involved in A. hydrophila pathogenicity. Our study shows that the LPS (O-antigen and external core is the most determinant A. hydrophila AH-3 virulence factor in both animals. Furthermore, we studied the immune responses of these hosts to infection of virulent or non-virulent strains of A. hydrophila AH-3. The AH-3 wild type (WT containing the complete LPS core is highly virulent and this bacterium strongly stimulated the prophenoloxidase activating system resulting in melanization in both crayfish and mealworm. In contrast, the ΔwaaE mutant which has LPS without O-antigen and external core was non-virulent and lost ability to stimulate this system and melanization in these two animals. The high phenoloxidase activity found in WT infected crayfish appears to result from a low expression of pacifastin, a prophenoloxidase activating enzyme inhibitor, and this gene expression was not changed in the ΔwaaE mutant infected animal and consequently phenoloxidase activity was not altered as compared to non-infected animals. Therefore we show that the virulence factors of A. hydrophila are the same regardless whether an insect or a crustacean is infected and the O-antigen and external core is essential for activation of the

  11. Comparing introduction to Europe of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses A(H5N8) in 2014 and A(H5N1) in 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlhoch, C; Gossner, C; Koch, G; Brown, I; Bouwstra, R; Verdonck, F; Penttinen, P; Harder, T

    2014-12-18

    Since the beginning of November 2014, nine outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) A(H5N8) in poultry have been detected in four European countries. In this report, similarities and differences between the modes of introduction of HPAIV A(H5N1) and A(H5N8) into Europe are described. Experiences from outbreaks of A(H5N1) in Europe demonstrated that early detection to control HPAIV in poultry has proven pivotal to minimise the risk of zoonotic transmission and prevention of human cases.

  12. The membrane attack complex of complement contributes to plasmin-induced synthesis of platelet-activating factor by endothelial cells and neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupia, Enrico; Del Sorbo, Lorenzo; Bergerone, Serena; Emanuelli, Giorgio; Camussi, Giovanni; Montrucchio, Giuseppe

    2003-08-01

    Thrombolytic agents, used to restore blood flow to ischaemic tissues, activate several enzymatic systems with pro-inflammatory effects, thus potentially contributing to the pathogenesis of ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Platelet-activating factor (PAF), a phospholipid mediator of inflammation, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of this process. We previously showed that the infusion of streptokinase (SK) induces the intravascular release of PAF in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and that cultured human endothelial cells (EC) synthesized PAF in response to SK and plasmin (PLN). In the present study, we investigated the role of the membrane attack complex (MAC) of complement in the PLN-induced synthesis of PAF. In vivo, we showed a correlation between the levels of soluble terminal complement components (sC5b-9) and the concentrations of PAF detected in blood of patients with AMI infused with SK. In vitro both EC and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), incubated in the presence of PLN and normal human serum, showed an intense staining for the MAC neoepitope, while no staining was detected when they were incubated with PLN in the presence of heat-inactivated normal human serum. Moreover, the insertion of MAC on EC and PMN plasmamembrane elicited the synthesis of PAF. In conclusion, our results elucidate the mechanisms involved in PAF production during the activation of the fibrinolytic system, showing a role for complement products in this setting. The release of PAF may increase the inflammatory response, thus limiting the beneficial effects of thrombolytic therapy. Moreover, it may have a pathogenic role in other pathological conditions, such as transplant rejection, tumoral angiogenesis, and septic shock, where fibrinolysis is activated.

  13. A historical perspective of influenza A(H1N2) virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komadina, Naomi; McVernon, Jodie; Hall, Robert; Leder, Karin

    2014-01-01

    The emergence and transition to pandemic status of the influenza A(H1N1)A(H1N1)pdm09) virus in 2009 illustrated the potential for previously circulating human viruses to re-emerge in humans and cause a pandemic after decades of circulating among animals. Within a short time of the initial emergence of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, novel reassortants were isolated from swine. In late 2011, a variant (v) H3N2 subtype was isolated from humans, and by 2012, the number of persons infected began to increase with limited person-to-person transmission. During 2012 in the United States, an A(H1N2)v virus was transmitted to humans from swine. During the same year, Australia recorded its first H1N2 subtype infection among swine. The A(H3N2)v and A(H1N2)v viruses contained the matrix protein from the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, raising the possibility of increased transmissibility among humans and underscoring the potential for influenza pandemics of novel swine-origin viruses. We report on the differing histories of A(H1N2) viruses among humans and animals.

  14. Role of endocrine disrupting chemicals on the tissue levels of AhR and sex steroid receptors in breast tumours

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    Sepideh Arbabi Bidgoli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer affects Iranian women at least one decade younger than their counterparts in other countries and the incidence of breast fibroadenoma is growing in the last two decades in Tehran. This study aimed to compare the AhR levels in premenopausal breast cancer and breast fibroadnemo with appropriate normal groups. Possible associations of AhR with lifestyle and reproductive risk factors and other fundamental genes of breast cancer and reproductive disorders were the other major goals of present study. To conduct the comparisons all possible reproductive, environmental and lifestyle risk factors of mentioned diseases were recorded in 100 breast cancer, 100 breast fibroadenoma and compared with 400 women in normal group from 2009 to 2011. AhR overexpression in epithelial cells of premenopausal patients emphasized the susceptibility of these cells to environmental induced reproductive disorders. The AhR overexpression was contributed to ER-/PgR- immunophenotype in malignant tissues. Weight gain (after 18 and after pregnancy, long term (>5yrs OCP consumption, smoking, severe stress ,history of ovarian cysts, hormonal deregulations, living near PAHs producing sources, were correlated with increased risk of breast cancer and reproductive disorders and were correlated with elevated tissue levels of AhR. It seems that increased risk of breast cancer and other reproductive tumours in Tehran may be the result of exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors. Long term exposure to environmental estrogens can increase the tissue levels of AhR and deregulate the expression pattern of sex steroid receptors and other genes in target tissues.

  15. A study of analysis PB1-F2 protein of Influenza Viruses A/H1N1pdm09, A/ H3N2, and A/H5N1

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    Hana Apsari Pawestri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Tujuan. Protein PB1-F2 (polymerase basic 1-frame 2 adalah protein terbaru yang ditemukan pada virus Influenza dan telah terbukti berperan dalam induksi kematian sel dan patogenitas. Tujuan dari tulisan ini adalah untuk menganalisis protein PB1-F2 pada virus Influenza A/H5N1 dan A/H1N1pdm09. Metode. Kami melakukan pencarian data yang relevan yaitu sekuens gen virus Influenza A/H5N1 dan A/H1N1pdm09 dari Gen Bank National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI selama tahun 1997-2015. Data yang digunakan adalah data sekuens nukleotida gen PB1 (polymerase basic1 virus influenza A/H5N1 dan A/H1N1pdm09. Kemudian dilakukan analisis alignment untuk mengetahui variasi protein dan mutasi yang berhubungan dengan patogenitas dan virulensi. Hasil. Kami melakukan penelitian terhadap sekuens PB1-F2 sebanyak 3262 influenza A/H5N1 dan 2472 Influenza A/H1N1pdm09. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa semua sekuens A/H5N1 memiliki panjang yang penuh sebanyak 90 asam amino, kecuali influenza pandemi 2009 hanya memiliki panjang 87 asam amino. Kemudian, ditemukan mutasi yang berhubungan dengan virulensi yang ditunjukan dengan perubahan asam amino Asparagin (N menjadi Serin (S. Mutasi tersebut terjadi pada Influenza A/H5N1 sebanyak 8.5% dan Influenza A/H1N1pdm09 sebanyak 0.5%. Kesimpulan. Ditemukan beberapa variasi panjang asam amino dan mutasi penting pada sekuens PB1-F2 dari subtipe yang berbeda yaitu influenza A/H5N1 dan A/H1N1pdm09  yang mengindikasikan seleksi spesifik karena introduksi dan adaptasi terhadap inang yang berbeda. Diperlukan penelitian lanjutan untuk lebih memahami variasi dan kontribusi protein PB1-F2 tersebut terhadap virulensi dan patogenitas virus Influenza. Kata kunci : Patogenesis, Virus Influenza, Protein  PB1-F2 Abstract Aim. Influenza virus PB1-F2 (polymerase basic 1-frame 2 protein is a novel protein previously shown to be involved in cell death induction and pathogenesis. Here we analysis the PB1-F2 protein of Influenza virus A/H

  16. A study of analysis PB1-F2 protein of Influenza Viruses A/H1N1pdm09, A/ H3N2, and A/H5N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Apsari Pawestri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Tujuan. Protein PB1-F2 (polymerase basic 1-frame 2 adalah protein terbaru yang ditemukan pada virus Influenza dan telah terbukti berperan dalam induksi kematian sel dan patogenitas. Tujuan dari tulisan ini adalah untuk menganalisis protein PB1-F2 pada virus Influenza A/H5N1 dan A/H1N1pdm09. Metode. Kami melakukan pencarian data yang relevan yaitu sekuens gen virus Influenza A/H5N1 dan A/H1N1pdm09 dari Gen Bank National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI selama tahun 1997-2015. Data yang digunakan adalah data sekuens nukleotida gen PB1 (polymerase basic1 virus influenza A/H5N1 dan A/H1N1pdm09. Kemudian dilakukan analisis alignment untuk mengetahui variasi protein dan mutasi yang berhubungan dengan patogenitas dan virulensi. Hasil. Kami melakukan penelitian terhadap sekuens PB1-F2 sebanyak 3262 influenza A/H5N1 dan 2472 Influenza A/H1N1pdm09. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa semua sekuens A/H5N1 memiliki panjang yang penuh sebanyak 90 asam amino, kecuali influenza pandemi 2009 hanya memiliki panjang 87 asam amino. Kemudian, ditemukan mutasi yang berhubungan dengan virulensi yang ditunjukan dengan perubahan asam amino Asparagin (N menjadi Serin (S. Mutasi tersebut terjadi pada Influenza A/H5N1 sebanyak 8.5% dan Influenza A/H1N1pdm09 sebanyak 0.5%. Kesimpulan. Ditemukan beberapa variasi panjang asam amino dan mutasi penting pada sekuens PB1-F2 dari subtipe yang berbeda yaitu influenza A/H5N1 dan A/H1N1pdm09  yang mengindikasikan seleksi spesifik karena introduksi dan adaptasi terhadap inang yang berbeda. Diperlukan penelitian lanjutan untuk lebih memahami variasi dan kontribusi protein PB1-F2 tersebut terhadap virulensi dan patogenitas virus Influenza. Kata kunci : Patogenesis, Virus Influenza, Protein  PB1-F2 Abstract Aim. Influenza virus PB1-F2 (polymerase basic 1-frame 2 protein is a novel protein previously shown to be involved in cell death induction and pathogenesis. Here we analysis the PB1-F2 protein of Influenza virus A/H

  17. Factors Affecting Intention among Students to Be Vaccinated against A/H1N1 Influenza: A Health Belief Model Approach

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    Sharon Teitler-Regev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of A/H1N1 influenza (henceforth, swine flu in 2009 was characterized mainly by morbidity rates among young people. This study examined the factors affecting the intention to be vaccinated against the swine flu among students in Israel. Questionnaires were distributed in December 2009 among 387 students at higher-education institutions. The research questionnaire included sociodemographic characteristics and Health Belief Model principles. The results show that the factors positively affecting the intention to take the swine flu vaccine were past experience with seasonal flu shot and three HBM categories: higher levels of perceived susceptibility for catching the illness, perceived seriousness of illness, and lower levels of barriers. We conclude that offering the vaccine at workplaces may raise the intention to take the vaccine among young people in Israel.

  18. ANALISIS POTENSI PENERIMAAN KUALITAS ALUMNI PROGRAM STUDI EKONOMI SYARI’AH STAIN KUDUS DITINJAU DARI PERSPEKTIF STAKEHOLDER

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    Ekawati Rahayu Ningsih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available GRADUATES RECEPTION QUALITYANALYSIS OF THE POTENTIAL ECONOMIC STUDIES SYARI’AH IN STAIN KUDUS VIEWED FROM THE PERSPECTIVE STAKEHOLDER. The first aim of  this study was to determine the potential reception of  graduates quality in Shariah Economic Studiesof  STAINKudus in the world of  work. Second, to determine the motivations and needs of  stakeholders on the acceptance of  the quality of  graduates in Economics   Shariah STAIN Kudus.And third, to determine what factors which are supporting and inhibiting the absorption of graduates of the Department of Shariah Economics STAIN Kudus in working world. The theory that was developed as a basis for the analysis is the pyramid theory of  motivation and needs of  Abraham Maslow. By using qualitative research approach, the analysis and discussion of this study are:First, the potential acceptance of  Shariah Economy graduates in the working world, especially in the banking and financial institutions Shari’ah is still very large and potentially growing along with the rapid growth in the number of  banking and financial institutions Shari’ah in Indonesia. Second, motivation and needs of  stakeholders for the graduates reception of Shariah Economic STAIN Kudus is because it is the only college in the state of  religion around the Pantura area having Shariah Economic Studies Program and easily accessible. In addition, in order to establish a more synergistic relationship with the STAIN kudus then either the shari’a banking and financial institutions are willing to accept graduates of  Shariah Economic Studies Program as employees, of course, with the various criteria established in the job requirements. Keywords:Potential,  Quality  Admissions,  Graduates, Economic Shariah, Stakeholder. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah: Pertama, untuk mengetahui potensi penerimaan kualitas alumni Program Studi Ekonomi Syari’ah STAIN Kudus di dunia kerja. Kedua, untuk mengetahui motivasi dan

  19. Comparing introduction to Europe of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses A(H5N8) in 2014 and A(H5N1) in 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adlhoch, C.; Gossner, C.; Koch, G.; Brown, I.; Bouwstra, R.J.; Verdonck, F.; Penttinen, P.; Harder, T.

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of November 2014, nine outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) A(H5N8) in poultry have been detected in four European countries. In this report, similarities and differences between the modes of introduction of HPAIV A(H5N1) and A(H5N8) into Europe are

  20. Antithrombotic and Antiatherosclerotic Properties of Olive Oil and Olive Pomace Polar Extracts in Rabbits

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    Nektaria Tsantila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil polar lipid (OOPL extract has been reported to inhibit atherosclerosis development on rabbits. Olive pomace polar lipid (PPL extract inhibits PAF activity in vitro and the most potent antagonist has been identified as a glycerylether-sn-2-acetyl glycolipid with common structural characteristics with the respective potent antagonist of OOPL. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PPL on early atherosclerosis development on rabbits and to compare it with the antiatherosclerotic effect of OOPL. OOPL and PPL inhibition potency, towards both PAF action and PAF binding, was tested in vitro on washed rabbit platelets. Consequently, rabbits were divided into three groups (A, B, and C. All groups were fed atherogenic diet for 22 days. Atherogenic diets in groups B and C were enriched with OOPL and PPL, respectively. At the end of the experimental time, rabbits were euthanized and aortic samples were examined histopathologically. OOPL and PPL inhibited PAF-induced aggregation, as well as specific PAF binding, with PPL being more potent. Free and bound PAF levels and PAF-AH activity were significantly elevated at the end of the experimental time. Plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides levels were also found increased. Groups B and C exhibited significantly increased values of EC50 compared to group A. Histopathological examination revealed that the development of early atherosclerosis lesions in groups B and C were significantly inhibited compared to group A. Significant differences were noted in the early atherosclerosis lesions between groups B and C, thus indicating that PPL exhibit its anti-atherosclerotic activity by blocking PAF receptor. Specific PAF antagonists with similar in vitro and in vivo bioactivity to those that have been previously reported in OOPL exist in PPL.

  1. Effect of Follicular Fluid and Platelet-Activating Factor on Lactate Dehydrogenase C Expression in Human Asthenozoospermic Samples

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    Tahereh Esmaeilpour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Application of follicular fluid (FF and platelet-activating factor (PAF in artificial insemination improves sperm motility. Lactate dehydrogenase C (LDH-C is a key enzyme for sperm motility. In this study, the effects of FF and PAF on the sperm motility index and LDH-C expression were investigated. Moreover, LDH-C expression was compared between asthenozoospermic and normozoospermic samples. Methods: The expression of LDH-C was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-RT PCR and western blotting after it was treated with optimized concentrations of FF and PAF in twenty asthenozoospermic samples. Also, LDH-C expression was evaluated in five normozoospermic samples. Results: Samples with 75% FF and 100 nM of PAF had an increase in their percentages of progressive and slowly motile sperms and a decrease in their percentages of non-progressive and non-motile sperms. Moreover, LDH-C mRNA transcripts were not changed following PAF and FF treatment, and LDH-C protein was detected in highly progressive motile specimens treated with FF in the asthenozoospermic samples. Furthermore, LDH-C expression was more detectable in the normal sperms. Conclusion: Our results indicated that PAF had more beneficial effects than FF on sperm motility in the asthenozoospermic samples (P=0.0001, although the LDH-C expressions of the sperms were not changed significantly in both groups. We found no association between LDH-C expression and sperm motility after FF and PAF actions. This finding, however, requires further investigation. The fact that LDH-C protein was detected in the normozoospermic, but not asthenozoospermic, samples could be cited as a reason for the infertility in these patients.

  2. PEMBARUAN MASLAḤAH DALAM MAQĀṢID AL- SHARĪ‘AH: TELAAH HUMANISTIS TENTANG AL-KULLIYYĀT AL-KHAMSAH

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    Zaenuddin Mansyur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:   In order to answer a variety of issues faced by human being in the current era, such as human rights abuses, social disintegration, and terrorism, the renewal of Islamic law in the level of theoretical and practical aspects is very urgent. This paper aims to examine one of the Islamic legal reform efforts, namely to build a more technical understanding of the concept of maṣlaḥah contained in the maqāṣīd sharī‘ah, called the al-kulliyat al-khamsah. Therefore, the concept of maṣlaḥah in ḥifẓ al-dīn is technically defined as al-ḥurriyah al-i‘tiqād (freedom of religion and schools; in ḥifẓ al-nafs as al-karamat al-insān (human being breeding; in ḥifẓ al-nasl as ḥifẓ al-usrah (wholeness and harmony of the family; in ḥifẓ al-māl as al-taḍammun al-insān (social solidarity , and in ḥifẓ al-‘aql as al-ḥuqūq as al-tarbiyāt (increasing human resources quality.Abstrak: Demi menjawab aneka persoalan zaman yang dihadapi manusia era sekarang, seperti penyelewengan terhadap HAM, disintegrasi sosial, dan terorisme, maka pembaharuan hukum Islam dalam tataran teoretis dan praktis urgen dilakukan. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji salah satu upaya pembaruan hukum Islam, yaitu membangun pemahaman yang lebih teknis terhadap konsep maṣlaḥah yang terkandung dalam maqāṣīd sharī‘ah, yang disebut dengan al-kulliyāt al-khamsah. Oleh karena itu, konsep maṣlaḥah dalam ḥifẓu al-dīn secara teknis dimaknai sebagai ḥurriyah al-i‘tiqād (kebebasan untuk beragama dan beraliran; dalam ḥifẓu al-nafs sebagai al-karāmāt al-insān (pemuliaan kemanusiaan; dalam ḥifẓu al-nasl sebagai ḥifẓu al-usrah (keutuhan dan keharmonisan keluarga; dalam ḥifẓu al-māl sebagai al-taḍammun al-insān (solidaritas sosial; dan dalam ḥifẓu al-‘aql sebagai al-ḥuqūq al-tarbiyāt (peningkatan sumber daya manusia.

  3. Low levels of the AhR in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-derived lung cells increases COX-2 protein by altering mRNA stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Michela; Sheridan, Jared A; Traboulsi, Hussein; Hecht, Emelia; Zhang, Yelu; Guerrina, Necola; Matthews, Jason; Nair, Parameswaran; Eidelman, David H; Hamid, Qutayba; Baglole, Carolyn J

    2017-01-01

    Heightened inflammation, including expression of COX-2, is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) pathogenesis. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is reduced in COPD-derived lung fibroblasts. The AhR also suppresses COX-2 in response to cigarette smoke, the main risk factor for COPD, by destabilizing the Cox-2 transcript by mechanisms that may involve the regulation of microRNA (miRNA). Whether reduced AhR expression is responsible for heightened COX-2 in COPD is not known. Here, we investigated the expression of COX-2 as well as the expression of miR-146a, a miRNA known to regulate COX-2 levels, in primary lung fibroblasts derived from non-smokers (Normal) and smokers (At Risk) with and without COPD. To confirm the involvement of the AhR, AhR knock-down via siRNA in Normal lung fibroblasts and MLE-12 cells was employed as were A549-AhRko cells. Basal expression of COX-2 protein was higher in COPD lung fibroblasts compared to Normal or Smoker fibroblasts but there was no difference in Cox-2 mRNA. Knockdown of AhR in lung structural cells increased COX-2 protein by stabilizing the Cox-2 transcript. There was less induction of miR-146a in COPD-derived lung fibroblasts but this was not due to the AhR. Instead, we found that RelB, an NF-κB protein, was required for transcriptional induction of both Cox-2 and miR-146a. Therefore, we conclude that the AhR controls COX-2 protein via mRNA stability by a mechanism independent of miR-146a. Low levels of the AhR may therefore contribute to the heightened inflammation common in COPD patients.

  4. Case-control study of risk factors for human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in Shanghai, China, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Chen, J; Yang, G; Zheng, Y X; Mao, S H; Zhu, W P; Yu, X L; Gao, Y; Pan, Q C; Yuan, Z A

    2015-07-01

    The first human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus was reported in Shanghai, China in March 2013. An additional 32 cases of human H7N9 infection were identified in the following months from March to April 2013 in Shanghai. Here we conducted a case-control study of the patients with H7N9 infection (n = 25) using controls matched by age, sex, and residence to determine risk factors for H7N9 infection. Our findings suggest that chronic disease and frequency of visiting a live poultry market (>10 times, or 1-9 times during the 2 weeks before illness onset) were likely to be significantly associated with H7N9 infection, with the odds ratios being 4.07 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-12.56], 10.61 (95% CI 1.85-60.74), and 3.76 (95% CI 1.31-10.79), respectively. Effective strategies for live poultry market control should be reinforced and ongoing education of the public is warranted to promote behavioural changes that can help to eliminate direct or indirect contact with influenza A(H7N9) virus.

  5. TABUNGAN: IMPLEMENTASI AKAD WADI’AH ATAU QARD? (Kajian Praktik Wadi’ah di Perbankan Indonesia

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    Mufti Afif

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There are no discussion about banking usury in classic Fikh books, because there were no banks, which nowadays they are needed by society to save their worth. As the research of classic Fiqh, there are differences in ulamas’ instructions, based on their understanding. However, they agree to state that bank interest is a usury or forbidden in Islam. Qardul Hasan is another term of qard, that is interpreted by the most of Indonesian people as social engagement, or bequest. Financial department must be careful in understanding the instructions, related to the implementation in the real life. Banks and financial departments claim that money saving is as akad wadi’ah yad dhamanah, whereas the meaning of dhomanah is responsibility. Fiqh ulamas decide that actually, wadi’ah is responsible. Yad dhamanah is irresponsible.

  6. Tannase production by Penicillium purpurogenum PAF6 in solid state fermentation of tannin-rich plant residues following OVAT and RSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Arijit; Maity, Chiranjit; Halder, Suman Kumar; Mondal, Keshab Chandra; Pati, Bikash Ranjan; Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar Das

    2012-07-01

    Tannase production by newly isolated Penicillium purpurogenum PAF6 was investigated by 'one variable at a time' (OVAT) approach followed by response surface methodology (RSM). Tannin-rich plant residues were used as supporting solid substrate and sole carbon source and, among them, tamarind seed was found to be the most favorable substrate than haritaki, pomegranate, tea leaf waste and arjun fruit. Physicochemical parameters were initially optimized using OVAT methodology and some important factors like incubation time, incubation temperature, substrate:moisture ratio as well as carbon, nitrogen and phosphate concentrations were verified with Box-Behken design of response surface methodology. Phosphate source, nitrogen source and temperature were found as the most favorable variables in the maximization of production. Tannase production was enhanced from 1.536 U/g to 5.784 U/g using tamarind seed OVAT optimization and further enhancement up to 6.15 U/g following RSM. An overall 3.76- and 4.0-fold increases in tannase production were achieved in OVAT and RSM, respectively.

  7. DESAKAN SOSIOPOLITIK MUNCULNYA GAGASAN EVOLUSI SYARÎ'AH OLEH AN-NA’IM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hefni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Semenjak abad ke-19 M, telah tumbuh perjumpaan intensifantara dunia Muslim dengan peradaban Barat, yangmelahirkan implikasi yang cukup mencengangkan bagiperubahan struktur sosial dunia Muslim. Ketika dunia Muslimmeraih kembali independensinya secara politik daricengkeraman imperialisme dan hegemoni Barat pada abad ke-20 M, salah satu persoalan yang muncul kemudian adalahbagaimana memosisikan syarî'ah dan menjabarkannya kedalam sebuah formulasi yang ideal dan aktual agar mampumengakomodasikan seluruh warga negara dengan latarbelakang suku dan agama yang heterogen. Karenanya, iamenawarkan gagasan evolusi syarî'ah yang meniscayakansyarî'ah dapat menyahuti isu-isu penting bagi masa depankemanusiaan. Dalam membangun gagasannya tentang evolusisyarî’ah, An-Na’im menggunakan teori naskh. Naskh, menurutAn-Na’im, adalah menghapus ayat-ayat Madâniyah denganayat-ayat Makkiyah. Gagasan evolusi syarî’ah dilatarbelakangioleh setting sosiopolitik Sudan sebelum pecah menjadi SudanUtara dan Sudan Selatan.

  8. Oxidative response of neutrophils to platelet-activating factor is altered during acute ruminal acidosis induced by oligofructose in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Claudia; Carretta, María Daniella; Alarcón, Pablo; Conejeros, Ivan; Gallardo, Diego; Hidalgo, Alejandra Isabel; Tadich, Nestor; Cáceres, Dante Daniel; Hidalgo, María Angélica; Burgos, Rafael Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is one of the main mechanisms used to kill microbes during innate immune response. D-lactic acid, which is augmented during acute ruminal acidosis, reduces platelet activating factor (PAF)-induced ROS production and L-selectin shedding in bovine neutrophils in vitro. This study was conducted to investigate whether acute ruminal acidosis induced by acute oligofructose overload in heifers interferes with ROS production and L-selectin shedding in blood neutrophils. Blood neutrophils and plasma were obtained by jugular venipuncture, while ruminal samples were collected using rumenocentesis. Lactic acid from plasma and ruminal samples was measured by HPLC. PAF-induced ROS production and L-selectin shedding were measured in vitro in bovine neutrophils by a luminol chemiluminescence assay and flow cytometry, respectively. A significant increase in ruminal and plasma lactic acid was recorded in these animals. Specifically, a decrease in PAF-induced ROS production was observed 8 h after oligofructose overload, and this was sustained until 48 h post oligofructose overload. A reduction in PAF-induced L-selectin shedding was observed at 16 h and 32 h post oligofructose overload. Overall, the results indicated that neutrophil PAF responses were altered in heifers with ruminal acidosis, suggesting a potential dysfunction of the innate immune response.

  9. Anti-Restriction Protein, KlcAHS, Promotes Dissemination of Carbapenem Resistance

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    Xiaofei Jiang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC has emerged and spread throughout the world. A retrospective analysis was performed on carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolated at our teaching hospital during the period 2009–2010, when the initial outbreak occurred. To determine the mechanism(s that underlies the increased infectivity exhibited by KPC, Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST was conducted. A series of plasmids was also extracted, sequenced and analyzed. Concurrently, the complete sequences of blaKPC−2-harboring plasmids deposited in GenBank were summarized and aligned. The blaKPC−2 and KlcAHS genes in the carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates were examined. E. coli strains, carrying different Type I Restriction and Modification (RM systems, were selected to study the interaction between RM systems, anti-RM systems and horizontal gene transfer (HGT. The ST11 clone predominated among 102 carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates, all harbored the blaKPC−2 gene; 98% contained the KlcAHS gene. KlcAHS was one of the core genes in the backbone region of most blaKPC−2 carrying plasmids. Type I RM systems in the host bacteria reduced the rate of pHS10842 plasmid transformation by 30- to 40-fold. Presence of the anti-restriction protein, KlcAHS, on the other hand, increased transformation efficiency by 3- to 6-fold. These results indicate that RM systems can significantly restrict HGT. In contrast, KlcAHS can disrupt the RM systems and promote HGT by transformation. These findings suggest that the anti-restriction protein, KlcAHS, represents a novel mechanism that facilitates the increased transfer of blaKPC-2 and KlcAHS-carrying plasmids among K. pneumoniae strains.

  10. Permeability of blood-tear barrier to fluorescein and albumin after application of platelet-activating factor to the eye of the guinea pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Van Delft

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the inflammatory responses of the eye to local application of platelet-activating factor (PAF is oedema of the conjunctiva, caused by extravasation of plasma. Aim of the study was to investigate if fluorescein would leak from the blood into the tears together with plasma protein after application of PAF to the eye. Fluorescein was given intraperitoneally 30 min prior to application of 25 μl of 0.1% solution of PAF. Thirty min after PAF the tear film was collected by washing the surface of the eye with 25 μl of phosphate buffered saline (PBS. Fluorescein in eye washings and in plasma was measured by fluorophotometry and albumin by immunodiffusion. Both fluorescein and albumin appeared in a related fashion in tears, being absent in washings of placebo-treated control eyes. Extravasation of fluorescein can be used as a measure for plasma leakage in the conjunctiva with the advantage over the Evans Blue method that the former is a non-invasive method.

  11. Infection of mice with a human influenza A/H3N2 virus induces protective immunity against lethal infection with influenza A/H5N1 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreijtz, J H C M; Bodewes, R; van den Brand, J M A; de Mutsert, G; Baas, C; van Amerongen, G; Fouchier, R A M; Osterhaus, A D M E; Rimmelzwaan, G F

    2009-08-06

    The transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A viruses of the H5N1 subtype from poultry to man and the high case fatality rate fuels the fear for a pandemic outbreak caused by these viruses. However, prior infections with seasonal influenza A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 viruses induce heterosubtypic immunity that could afford a certain degree of protection against infection with the HPAI A/H5N1 viruses, which are distantly related to the human influenza A viruses. To assess the protective efficacy of such heterosubtypic immunity mice were infected with human influenza virus A/Hong Kong/2/68 (H3N2) 4 weeks prior to a lethal infection with HPAI virus A/Indonesia/5/05 (H5N1). Prior infection with influenza virus A/Hong Kong/2/68 reduced clinical signs, body weight loss, mortality and virus replication in the lungs as compared to naive mice infected with HPAI virus A/Indonesia/5/05. Priming by infection with respiratory syncytial virus, a non-related virus did not have a beneficial effect on the outcome of A/H5N1 infections, indicating that adaptive immune responses were responsible for the protective effect. In mice primed by infection with influenza A/H3N2 virus cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) specific for NP(366-374) epitope ASNENMDAM and PA(224-232) SCLENFRAYV were observed. A small proportion of these CTL was cross-reactive with the peptide variant derived from the influenza A/H5N1 virus (ASNENMEVM and SSLENFRAYV respectively) and upon challenge infection with the influenza A/H5N1 virus cross-reactive CTL were selectively expanded. These CTL, in addition to those directed to conserved epitopes, shared by the influenza A/H3N2 and A/H5N1 viruses, most likely contributed to accelerated clearance of the influenza A/H5N1 virus infection. Although also other arms of the adaptive immune response may contribute to heterosubtypic immunity, the induction of virus-specific CTL may be an attractive target for development of broad protective vaccines. Furthermore the

  12. The potential impact of a social redistribution of specific risk factors on socioeconomic inequalities in mortality: illustration of a method based on population attributable fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Rasmus; Eikemo, Terje Andreas; Kulhánová, Ivana; Dahl, Espen; Deboosere, Patrick; Dzúrová, Dagmar; van Oyen, Herman; Rychtaríková, Jitka; Strand, Bjørn Heine; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic differences in health are a major challenge for public health. However, realistic estimates to what extent they are modifiable are scarce. This problem can be met through the systematic application of the population attributable fraction (PAF) to socioeconomic health inequalities. The authors used cause-specific mortality data by educational level from Belgium, Norway and Czech Republic and data on the prevalence of smoking, alcohol, lack of physical activity and high body mass index from national health surveys. Information on the impact of these risk factors on mortality comes from the epidemiological literature. The authors calculated PAFs to quantify the impact on socioeconomic health inequalities of a social redistribution of risk factors. The authors developed an Excel tool covering a wide range of possible scenarios and the authors compare the results of the PAF approach with a conventional regression. In a scenario where the whole population gets the risk factor prevalence currently seen among the highly educated inequalities in mortality can be reduced substantially. According to the illustrative results, the reduction of inequality for all risk factors combined varies between 26% among Czech men and 94% among Norwegian men. Smoking has the highest impact for both genders, and physical activity has more impact among women. After discussing the underlying assumptions of the PAF, the authors concluded that the approach is promising for estimating the extent to which health inequalities can be potentially reduced by interventions on specific risk factors. This reduction is likely to differ substantially between countries, risk factors and genders.

  13. Response to platelet-activating factor in human platelets stored and aged in plasma. Decrease in aggregation, phosphoinositide turnover, and receptor affinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, S.D.; Morrison, W.J.; Klachko, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Human platelet concentrates were stored in polyolefin bags at 22 to 24 degrees C on a horizontal shaker for up to 8 days. At different intervals, aliquots of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) were removed aseptically and five variables, i.e., platelet counts, morphology, platelet-activating factor (PAF)-stimulated aggregation, phosphoinositide turnover, and [3H]PAF binding to platelet receptors, were studied. The number of platelets did not change during the 8 days of storage. Scanning electron microscopy of the platelets revealed a gradual morphologic change from biconcave flat discs to irregular, crenated forms. The PAF-induced aggregation of platelets declined with time of storage. A decrease to 50 percent of the Day 1 aggregatory response to PAF was evident on Day 2, and there was a further decline to about 20 percent by Day 6. Similarly, PAF receptor-coupled phosphoinositide turnover, as monitored by 32P incorporation into individual phosphoinositides, decreased dramatically with storage. After 2 to 3 days of storage, the phosphoinositide turnover was reduced to 50 percent of the original response, and it continued to decline to about 25 percent of original response by Day 5 or 6. The binding of [3H]PAF to washed human platelets indicated subtle changes between Days 2 and 4, which became more noticeable by Day 6. These results have raised the possibility of changes in the number of the receptors and/or their affinity for the ligand during storage. We conclude that although the number of platelets was maintained during storage for 8 days, a general deterioration of their responses to PAF occurred at the levels of cell surface receptor, transmembrane signaling (phosphoinositide turnover), and response (aggregation)

  14. MAC-1 Glycoprotein Family mediates adherence of neutrophils to endothelial cells stimulated by leukotriene B/sub 4/ and platelet activating factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonnesen, M.G.; Anderson, D.C.; Springer, T.A.; Knedler, A.; Avdi, N.; Henson, P.M.

    1986-03-01

    The process of neutrophil (N) adhesion to and migration through endothelium (EC), an early event in the induction of the acute inflammatory response, has been attributed to the generation of extravascular chemoattractant peptides and lipids. Although both leukotriene B/sub 4/ (LTB/sub 4/) and platelet activating factor (PAF) enhance N adherence to EC, the mechanisms involved in this interaction are still not completely understood. Since the MAC-1 Glycoprotein (GP) Family has recently been shown to be required for a variety of adherence-dependent functions of stimulated N, the authors questioned whether these adherence-associated GP might be involved in N adherence to EC stimulated by LTB/sub 4/ or PAF. Using a microtiter adherence assay with /sup 111/In labeled N, they assessed the ability of N from patients with MAC-1, LFA-1 Deficiency to adhere to monolayers of human omental microvascular or umbilical vein EC as well as to serum-coated plastic. Patient N exhibited markedly diminished adherence in response to LTB/sub 4/ or PAF compared to normal controls. LTB/sub 4/ and PAF enhanced expression of the MAC-1 GP Family on the surface of normal N as determined by flow cytofluorimetry using a monoclonal antibody (TS1/18) to the GP common beta subunit. In addition TS1/18 (20 ..mu..g/ml) completely inhibited N adherence stimulated by either LTB/sub 4/ (10/sup -8/M) or PAF(10/sup -11/M). Thus, the MAC-1 GP Family appears to be important in chemotactic factor regulation of N adherence to EC.

  15. Activation of the Ah receptor by extracts of dietary herbal supplements, vegetables and fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuken, A.; Keser, B.J.G.; Khan, E.; Brouwer, A.; Koeman, J.; Denison, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that can be activated by a structurally diverse range of synthetic and natural chemicals, and it mediates the toxic and biological effects of environmental contaminants such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD).

  16. Activation of the Ah receptor by extracts of dietary herbal supplements, vegetables, and fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuken, A.; Keser, B.J.G.; Khan, E.; Brouwer, A.; Koeman, J.H.; Denison, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that can be activated by a structurally diverse range of synthetic and natural chemicals, and it mediates the toxic and biological effects of environmental contaminants such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD).

  17. Shari’ah-Compliant E-Commerce Models and Consumer Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kholifatul I Ardiansyah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at finding out the real picture of Shari’ah-compliant E-commerce model and consumer trust in e-commerce today, analyzing its drawbacks, and finding out how they influence each other. Shari'ah-compliant E-commerce model is a model that describes how e-commerce should run in accordance with the provisions of the Shari’ah. Broadly speaking, e-commerce in the perspective of Shari’ah must comply with some rules, namely: 1. the form of the offer and transaction agreement; 2. the transacting parties (buyers and sellers; 3. Objects and prices in the transaction; 4. Free from major prohibitions in transactions. The sample in this study is Indonesian citizen who are consumers of e-commerce. This research uses descriptive and statistical methods with multiple linear regression model. This model is considered relevant and good to be studied in order to enlighten how e-commerce is currently in the perspective of IslamDOI: 10.15408/aiq.v8i2.2913

  18. Determination of preventive behaviors for pandemic influenza A/H1N1 based on protection motivation theory among female high school students in Isfahan, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Yarmohammadi, Parastoo; Sharifabad, Mohammad Ali Morowati; Rahaei, Zohreh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Influenza A/H1N1 pandemic has recently threatened the health of world's population more than ever. Non-pharmaceutical measures are important to prevent the spread of influenza A/H1N1 and to prevent a pandemic. Effective influenza pandemic management requires understanding of the factors influencing preventive behavioral. This study reports on predictors of students’ preventive behaviors for pandemic influenza A/H1N1 using variables based on the protection motivation theory (PMT)...

  19. Evaluation of Parallel Analysis Methods for Determining the Number of Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Aaron V.; Green, Samuel B.; Levy, Roy; Lo, Wen-Juo; Scott, Lietta; Svetina, Dubravka; Thompson, Marilyn S.

    2010-01-01

    Population and sample simulation approaches were used to compare the performance of parallel analysis using principal component analysis (PA-PCA) and parallel analysis using principal axis factoring (PA-PAF) to identify the number of underlying factors. Additionally, the accuracies of the mean eigenvalue and the 95th percentile eigenvalue criteria…

  20. PENILAIAN KINERJA FISIK (MATERI KOPERASI SYARI’AH MENURUT PERSPEKTIF SHARI’ATE ENTERPRISE THEORY DENGAN NILAI TAMBAH SYARI’AH DAN ZAKAT SEBAGAI INDIKATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvyra Handayani Soedarso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the assessment on the performance of sharia cooperatives are strongly influenced by the analytical tools used. Analyzes that have been there only focused on a mere financial perspective with the meaning of finances limited to property or material. Whereas should the assessment of Sharia cooperative performance should be more comprehensive and comprehensive considering the role and function of Shari'ah cooperative which is not only limited to profit oriented but also non profit oriented. Assessment of Shari'ah cooperative performance according to shari'ate enterprise theory perspective assesses the performance of three forms of reality: physical reality, psychic reality and spiritual reality. Performance appraisal of physical reality is viewed from the perspective of financial piety, mental and social reality seen from the perspective of mental and social piety and spiritual reality seen from the perspective of spiritual piety. In this study, the discussion is limited only to the assessment of the physical performance of Shari'ah cooperatives by using the added value of Shariah and Zakat as an indicator of its assessment. The results showed that Sharia Added Value as the first indicator used to assess the physical performance of Shari'ah cooperatives assessed performance based on economic added value, mental added value and spiritual added value. While zakat as the second indicator of physical performance of Shari'ah cooperative is the transformation from the achievement of net profit to the achievement of zalcat, by using the object of zakat appraisal that is optimum.

  1. OPTIMALISASI BANK SYARI’AH MENUJU GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrur Ulum Fahrur Ulum

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Syarî’ah banking must be optimized earnestly to fulfill the stakeholders interest. The effective implementation of cooporate governance would realize the goal of fairness, accountability, and transparancy.  There are several prior focus of this system manager: basic concept and problems of cooperate governance in syarî’ah banking, the pillars of implementation, and the mechanism.  As a result, to create an effective  cooperate governance of syariah banking, the following aspects must be urgently required: a contract clarity, market discipline, moral dimension, socio-political atmosphere,  law enforcement, and institution. Board of directors, senior management, stockholders, and depositors have important roles to establish the  harmony of syariah banking development. The stakeholders  are directly connected to the mechanism of cooperate governance of syariah banking. Key Words: corporate governance, bank syari’ah, stakeholders, dan mudlârabah

  2. Evolutionary trends of A(H1N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin since 1918.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Shen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Pandemic (H1N1 2009 is spreading to numerous countries and causing many human deaths. Although the symptoms in humans are mild at present, fears are that further mutations in the virus could lead to a potentially more dangerous outbreak in subsequent months. As the primary immunity-eliciting antigen, hemagglutinin (HA is the major agent for host-driven antigenic drift in A(H3N2 virus. However, whether and how the evolution of HA is influenced by existing immunity is poorly understood for A(H1N1. Here, by analyzing hundreds of A(H1N1 HA sequences since 1918, we show the first evidence that host selections are indeed present in A(H1N1 HAs. Among a subgroup of human A(H1N1 HAs between 1918 approximately 2008, we found strong diversifying (positive selection at HA(1 156 and 190. We also analyzed the evolutionary trends at HA(1 190 and 225 that are critical determinants for receptor-binding specificity of A(H1N1 HA. Different A(H1N1 viruses appeared to favor one of these two sites in host-driven antigenic drift: epidemic A(H1N1 HAs favor HA(1 190 while the 1918 pandemic and swine HAs favor HA(1 225. Thus, our results highlight the urgency to understand the interplay between antigenic drift and receptor binding in HA evolution, and provide molecular signatures for monitoring future antigenically drifted 2009 pandemic and seasonal A(H1N1 influenza viruses.

  3. Micropore engineering of carbonized porous aromatic framework (PAF-1) for supercapacitors application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanqiang; Roy, Soumyajit; Ben, Teng; Xu, Shixian; Qiu, Shilun

    2014-07-07

    Micropore engineering of porous carbons on the effect of capacitance was explored using a carbonized porous aromatic framework (PAF-1). The porous carbons obtained through different carbonization methods show different pore structures enabling us to do this. The capacitance was measured both in aqueous electrolyte and different organic electrolytes. The porous carbons prepared by KOH activation show both high microporous volume, which is beneficial for charge storage, and mesoporous volume, which is devoted to fast ion diffusion in the pores; properties which are highly desirable. It shows a capacitance as high as 280 F g(-1) and 203 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1) in 6.0 M KOH and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (EMImTFSI), respectively. We also demonstrate the effect of diffusion and that of geometric packing of the electrolyte ions in the pores, where a commensurate match of the electrolyte ions with the pores of carbonized materials control and influence significantly the capacitance of these materials.

  4. AhR transcription serum activity of Inuit´s across Greenlandic districts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Manhai; Deutch, Bente; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2007-01-01

    . The individual is exposed to a complex mixture of POPs being life-long beginning during critical developmental windows. Exposure to POPs elicits a number of species- and tissue-specific toxic responses, many of which involve the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). The aim of this study was to compare the actual...... was similar in the different districts. For the combined data the order of the median AhR-TEQ was Tasiilaq > Nuuk > Sisimiut > Qaanaaq possibly being related to the different composition of POPs. In overall, the AhR transactivity was inversely correlated to the levels of sum POPs, age and /or intake of marine......-PCBs; ii) The inverse association between the integrated serum AhR transactivity and sum of POPs might be explained by the higher level of compounds antagonizing the AhR function probably due to selective POP bioaccumulation in the food chain....

  5. Avian influenza A/H7N9 risk perception, information trust and adoption of protective behaviours among poultry farmers in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Bin; Liao, Qiuyan; Lam, Wendy Wing Tak; Liu, Zong Ping; Fielding, Richard

    2017-05-18

    Poultry farmers are at high-risk from avian influenza A/H7N9 infection due to sustained occupational exposures to live poultry. This study examined factors associated with poultry farmers' adoption of personal protective behaviours (PPBs) based on Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). Totally, 297 poultry farmers in three cities of Jiangsu Province, China were interviewed during November 2013-January 2014. Data on PMT constructs, perceived trustworthiness of A/H7N9 information from mass media (formal sources), friends and family (informal sources), intention to adopt and actual adoption of PPBs and respondents' demographics were collected. Structural equation modeling (SEM) identified associations between demographic factors and PMT constructs associated with A/H7N9-oriented PPB intention. Moderated mediation analysis examined how demographics moderated the effects of information trust on PPB intention via risk perceptions of A/H7N9. Respondents generally perceived low vulnerability to A/H7N9 infection. The SEM found that male respondents perceived lower severity of (β = -0.23), and lower vulnerability to (β = -0.15) A/H7N9 infection; age was positively associated with both perceived personal vulnerability to (β = 0.21) and perceived self-efficacy (β = 0.24) in controlling A/H7N9; education was positively associated with perceived response efficacy (β = 0.40). Furthermore, perceived vulnerability (β = 0.16), perceived self-efficacy (β = 0.21) and response efficacy (β = 0.67) were positively associated with intention to adopt PPBs against A/H7N9. More trust in informal information (TII) was only significantly associated with greater PPB intention through its positive association with perceived response efficacy. Age significantly moderated the associations of TII with perceived Self-efficacy and perceived response efficacy, with younger farmers who had greater TII perceiving lower self-efficacy but higher response efficacy. Poultry farmers

  6. Avian influenza A/H7N9 risk perception, information trust and adoption of protective behaviours among poultry farmers in Jiangsu Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Cui

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poultry farmers are at high-risk from avian influenza A/H7N9 infection due to sustained occupational exposures to live poultry. This study examined factors associated with poultry farmers’ adoption of personal protective behaviours (PPBs based on Protection Motivation Theory (PMT. Methods Totally, 297 poultry farmers in three cities of Jiangsu Province, China were interviewed during November 2013-January 2014. Data on PMT constructs, perceived trustworthiness of A/H7N9 information from mass media (formal sources, friends and family (informal sources, intention to adopt and actual adoption of PPBs and respondents’ demographics were collected. Structural equation modeling (SEM identified associations between demographic factors and PMT constructs associated with A/H7N9-oriented PPB intention. Moderated mediation analysis examined how demographics moderated the effects of information trust on PPB intention via risk perceptions of A/H7N9. Results Respondents generally perceived low vulnerability to A/H7N9 infection. The SEM found that male respondents perceived lower severity of (β = −0.23, and lower vulnerability to (β = -0.15 A/H7N9 infection; age was positively associated with both perceived personal vulnerability to (β = 0.21 and perceived self-efficacy (β = 0.24 in controlling A/H7N9; education was positively associated with perceived response efficacy (β = 0.40. Furthermore, perceived vulnerability (β = 0.16, perceived self-efficacy (β = 0.21 and response efficacy (β = 0.67 were positively associated with intention to adopt PPBs against A/H7N9. More trust in informal information (TII was only significantly associated with greater PPB intention through its positive association with perceived response efficacy. Age significantly moderated the associations of TII with perceived Self-efficacy and perceived response efficacy, with younger farmers who had greater TII perceiving lower self

  7. Trivalent influenza vaccine in patients on haemodialysis: impaired seroresponse with differences for A-H3N2 and A-H1N1 vaccine components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.E.Ph. Beyer (Walter); D.J. Versluis; P. Kramer; P.P.N.M. Diderich (Philip); W. Weimar (Willem); N. Masurel (Nic)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractOne hundred and one patients on haemodialysis, 21 patients on peritoneal dialysis and 30 healthy controls received a trivalent split vaccine containing 15 micrograms haemagglutinin of a recent influenza A-H3N2, influenza A-H1N1 and influenza B strain, respectively. Antibody production

  8. Genetic structure of human A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 influenza virus on Corsica Island: phylogenetic analysis and vaccine strain match, 2006-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Falchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyse the genetic patterns of Hemagglutinin (HA genes of influenza A strains circulating on Corsica Island during the 2006-2009 epidemic seasons and the 2009-2010 pandemic season. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal samples from 371 patients with influenza-like illness (ILI were collected by General Practitioners (GPs of the Sentinelles Network through a randomised selection routine. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analysis of HA revealed that A/H3N2 strains circulating on Corsica were closely related to the WHO recommended vaccine strains in each analyzed season (2006-2007 to 2008-2009. Seasonal Corsican influenza A/H1N1 isolated during the 2007-2008 season had drifted towards the A/Brisbane/59/2007 lineage, the A/H1N1 vaccine strain for the 2008-2009 season. The A/H1N1 2009 (A/H1N1pdm strains isolated on Corsica Island were characterized by the S220T mutation specific to clade 7 isolates. It should be noted that Corsican isolates formed a separate sub-clade of clade 7 as a consequence of the presence of the fixed substitution D222E. The percentages of the perfect match vaccine efficacy, estimated by using the p(epitope model, against influenza viruses circulating on Corsica Island varied substantially across the four seasons analyzed, and tend to be highest for A/H1N1 compared with A/H3N2 vaccines, suggesting that cross-immunity seems to be stronger for the H1 HA gene. CONCLUSION: The molecular analysis of the HA gene of influenza viruses that circulated on Corsica Island between 2006-2010 showed for each season the presence of a dominant lineage characterized by at least one fixed mutation. The A/H3N2 and A/H1N1pdm isolates were characterized by multiples fixation at antigenic sites. The fixation of specific mutations at each outbreak could be explained by the combination of a neutral phenomenon and a founder effect, favoring the presence of a dominant lineage in a closed environment such as Corsica Island.

  9. Konversi Agama dan Pemahaman Nilai Islam Santri Pondok Itikaf Jama’ah Ngaji Lelaku Lawang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Redhani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pondok Itikaf Jama'ah Ngaji Lelaku, Lawang is one of the containers to learn and understand Islam, the background of santri like people who have a black background, such as ex-thugs, gamblers, drunkards, people who have problems of life and people who want to learn religion But have limitations in Arabic. The way santri learn religion, that is by trying to understand the holy verses of the Qur'an and hadith, one of his understanding that is belief in performing the congregational prayer accompanied by the language translation of his people, this is contrary to the prevailing Islamic law. The purpose of the research is to find out 1 why the subject is interested to join the Pondok Itikaf Jama'ah Ngaji Lelaku, Lawang, 2 the psychological factors that cause the students of Pondok Itikaf Jama'ah Ngaji Lelaku, Lawang change beliefs bergama, 3 how the process of belief change students santri Itikaf Jama'ah Ngaji Lelaku, Lawang, and 4 how the understanding of Islamic values of Santri Pondok Itikaf Jam'ah Ngaji Lelaku, Lawang. The research method used is single case study method. Data collection is done through interview, observation, and documentation. Data analysis is done by using descriptive analysis, that is using words to describe what the purpose of this research. The results showed that 1 subjects interested in joining and believing to implement the teachings received in the cottage because the subject is acceptable as it is by the manager of the cottage, the manager also patient and painstaking provide guidance on the subject, the subjects at least get the peace of mind and can change the attitude of the subject, At least get the peace of mind and can change the attitude of the subject to a better direction, there is a common background between students who are with each other. 2 psychological factors causing the subject to change beliefs, subjects experiencing symptoms of inner pressure caused by the emotional attitudes of the subject, it

  10. Attributable causes of cancer in Japan in 2005--systematic assessment to estimate current burden of cancer attributable to known preventable risk factors in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, M; Sawada, N; Matsuda, T; Iwasaki, M; Sasazuki, S; Shimazu, T; Shibuya, K; Tsugane, S

    2012-05-01

    To contribute to evidence-based policy decision making for national cancer control, we conducted a systematic assessment to estimate the current burden of cancer attributable to known preventable risk factors in Japan in 2005. We first estimated the population attributable fractions (PAFs) of each cancer attributable to known risk factors from relative risks derived primarily from Japanese pooled analyses and large-scale cohort studies and the prevalence of exposure in the period around 1990. Using nationwide vital statistics records and incidence estimates, we then estimated the attributable cancer incidence and mortality in 2005. In 2005, ≈ 55% of cancer among men was attributable to preventable risk factors in Japan. The corresponding figure was lower among women, but preventable risk factors still accounted for nearly 30% of cancer. In men, tobacco smoking had the highest PAF (30% for incidence and 35% for mortality, respectively) followed by infectious agents (23% and 23%). In women, in contrast, infectious agents had the highest PAF (18% and 19% for incidence and mortality, respectively) followed by tobacco smoking (6% and 8%). In Japan, tobacco smoking and infections are major causes of cancer. Further control of these factors will contribute to substantial reductions in cancer incidence and mortality in Japan.

  11. Identification of TMPRSS2 as a Susceptibility Gene for Severe 2009 Pandemic A(H1N1) Influenza and A(H7N9) Influenza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Zhongshan; Zhou, Jie; To, Kelvin Kai-Wang; Chu, Hin; Li, Cun; Wang, Dong; Yang, Dong; Zheng, Shufa; Hao, Ke; Bosse, Yohan; Obeidat, Ma'en; Brandsma, Corry-Anke; Song, You-Qiang; Chen, Yu; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Li, Lanjuan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-01-01

    The genetic predisposition to severe A(H1N1) 2009 (A[H1N1]pdm09) influenza was evaluated in 409 patients, including 162 cases with severe infection and 247 controls with mild infection. We prioritized candidate variants based on the result of a pilot genome-wide association study and a lung

  12. Towards locating the Nigerian Shari'ah Penal Codes' provisions for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, relatives of the murdered are at liberty to waive this and accept compensation money (diyah) or pardon the culprit absolutely. These provisions of the Sharī'ah were not in force in Nigeria until1999 when Zamfara State adopted Sharī'ah as its legal system and eleven other states later followed suit. With the creation ...

  13. Detection and characterization of Ah receptor in tissue and cells from human tonsils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, A.; Okey, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    Ah receptor was identified and characterized in cytosol and nuclear extracts from human tonsils obtained at surgery from children 2 to 6 years of age. Ah receptor was found in cytosol prepared from whole-tonsil homogenates as well as in cytosol and nuclear fractions prepared from tonsil lymphocytes or tonsil fibroblasts grown in primary culture. Cytosolic Ah receptor was detectable in tonsillar tissue with either halogenated (2,3,7,8-[3H]tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)) or nonhalogenated (3-[3H]methylcholanthrene and [3H]benzo[a]pyrene) aromatic hydrocarbons and sedimented at approximately 9 S after velocity sedimentation on sucrose gradients. The apparent binding affinity (Kd) of [3H]TCDD for Ah receptor ranged from 3 to 12 nM in cytosols from seven different donors. The same analyses indicated a concentration of Ah receptor in human tonsils of approximately 100-300 fmol/mg cytosolic protein. Incubation of either tonsil lymphocytes or tonsil fibroblasts with [3H]TCDD resulted in transformation of cytosolic Ah receptor to a nuclear binding form which could be detected as a specifically labeled peak sedimenting at approximately 6 S on sucrose gradients. These data demonstrate the existence of Ah receptor in human tonsils and suggest that this immune organ may be an appropriate model for further studies on the mechanism and manifestation of aromatic hydrocarbon-induced immunotoxicity in man

  14. Global burden of stroke and risk factors in 188 countries, during 1990-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feigin, Valery L; Roth, Gregory A; Naghavi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    the population-attributable fraction (PAF) of stroke-related disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) associated with potentially modifiable environmental, occupational, behavioural, physiological, and metabolic risk factors in different age and sex groups worldwide and in high-income countries and low......·2-73·5) and environmental factors (air pollution and lead exposure; 33·4%, 95% UI 32·4-34·3) were the second and third largest contributors to DALYs. Globally, 29·2% (95% UI 28·2-29·6) of the burden of stroke was attributed to air pollution. Although globally there were no significant differences between sexes......-income and middle-income countries, from 1990 to 2013. METHODS: We used data on stroke-related DALYs, risk factors, and PAF from the GBD 2013 Study to estimate the burden of stroke by age and sex (with corresponding 95% uncertainty intervals [UI]) in 188 countries, as measured with stroke-related DALYs in 1990...

  15. Anti-phase synchronization of influenza A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 in Hong Kong and countries in the North Temperate Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice P.Y. Chiu

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: These results are novel in identifying anti-phase synchronization in influenza A subtypes in Hong Kong and the NTZ. These findings should inform public health preparedness for future epidemics of A/H3N2, which are typically more severe than those of A/H1N1.

  16. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR Modulates Cockroach Allergen-Induced Immune Responses through Active TGFβ1 Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR, a multifunctional regulator that senses and responds to environmental stimuli, plays a role in normal cell development and immune regulation. Recent evidence supports a significant link between environmental exposure and AhR in the development of allergic diseases. We sought to investigate whether AhR plays a role in mediating cockroach allergen-induced allergic immune responses. Methods. AhR expression in human lung fibroblasts from asthmatic and healthy individuals and in cockroach extract (CRE treated human lung fibroblasts (WI-38 was examined. The role of AhR in modulating CRE induced TGFβ1 production was investigated by using AhR agonist, TCDD, antagonist CH122319, and knockdown of AhR. The role of latent TGFβ1 binding protein-1 (LTBP1 in mediating TCDD induced active TGFβ1 release was also examined. Results. AhR expression was higher in airway fibroblasts from asthmatic subjects as compared to healthy controls. AhR in fibroblasts was activated by TCDD with an increased expression of cyp1a1 and cyp1b1. Increased AhR expression was observed in CRE-treated fibroblasts. Importantly, CRE induced TGFβ1 production in fibroblasts was significantly enhanced by TCDD but inhibited by CH122319. Reduced TGFβ1 production was further confirmed in fibroblasts with AhR knockdown. Moreover, AhR knockdown inhibited CRE induced fibroblast differentiation. Furthermore, TCDD induced active TGFβ1 release was significantly inhibited by LTBP1 knockdown. Conclusion. These results provide evidence for the role of AhR in modulating cockroach allergen-induced immune responses through controlling the active TGFβ1 release, suggesting a possible synergistic effect between exposure to allergens and environmental chemicals on the development of allergic diseases.

  17. A Historical Perspective of Influenza A(H1N2) Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Komadina, Naomi; McVernon, Jodie; Hall, Robert; Leder, Karin

    2014-01-01

    The emergence and transition to pandemic status of the influenza A(H1N1)A(H1N1)pdm09) virus in 2009 illustrated the potential for previously circulating human viruses to re-emerge in humans and cause a pandemic after decades of circulating among animals. Within a short time of the initial emergence of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, novel reassortants were isolated from swine. In late 2011, a variant (v) H3N2 subtype was isolated from humans, and by 2012, the number of persons infected began to increase ...

  18. A human intervention study with foods containing natural Ah-receptor agonists does not significantly show AhR-mediated effects as measured in blood cells and urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waard, de W.J.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Baykus, H.; Aarts, H.J.M.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Schooten, van F.J.; Kok, E.J.

    2008-01-01

    Binding and activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is thought to be an essential step in the toxicity of the environmental pollutants dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs. However, also a number of natural compounds, referred to as NAhRAs (natural Ah-receptor agonists), which are present in, for

  19. Risk Factors for Mortality among 2009 A/H1N1 Influenza Hospitalizations in Maricopa County, Arizona, April 2009 to March 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chowell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed individual-level data on pandemic influenza A/H1N1pdm hospitalizations from the enhanced surveillance system of the Maricopa County Department of Public Health, AZ, USA from April 1st, 2009 to March 31st, 2010. We also assessed the the risk of death among A/H1N1 hospitalizations using multivariate logistic regression. Hospitalization rates were significantly higher among Native Americans (risk ratio (RR  =  6.2; 95% CI: 6.15, 6.21, non-Hispanic Black (RR = 3.84; 95% CI: 3.8, 3.9, and Hispanics (RR = 2.0; 95% CI: 2.0, 2.01 compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Throughout the spring, 59.2% of hospitalized patients received antiviral treatment; the proportion of patients treated increased significantly during the fall to 74.4% (Chi-square test, P<0.0001. In our best-fit logistic model, the adjusted risk of death among A/H1N1 inpatients was significantly higher during the fall wave (August 16, 2009 to March 31, 2010, OR = 3.94; 95% CI: 1.72, 9.03 compared to the spring wave (April 1, 2009 to August 15, 2009. Moreover, chronic lung disease (OR = 3.5; 95% CI: 1.7, 7.4, cancer within the last 12 months (OR = 4.3; 95%CI: 1.3, 14.8, immuno-suppression (OR = 4.0; 95% CI: 1.84, 8.9, and admission delays (OR = 4.6; 95% CI: 2.2, 9.5 were significantly associated with an increased the risk of death among A/H1N1 inpatients.

  20. TCDD-induced transcriptional profiles in different mouse strains that have an identical AhR genotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qing; Suzuki, Junko S.; Tohyama, Chiharu; Ohsako, Seiichiroh [Environmental Health Sciences Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa, Tsukuba (Japan); Takei, Teiji [Environmental Health and Safety Division, Ministry of the Environment, Kasumigaseki, Tokyo (Japan); Lin, Tinmin; Peterson, R.E. [Wisconsin Univ., Wisconsin, MA (United States). School of Pharmacy and Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center

    2004-09-15

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an environmental contaminant that is known to cause hepatotoxicity, teratogenicity and carcinogenicity. A characteristic feature in the toxicity of TCDD is exceptionally large differences in susceptibility among animal species or even strains belonging to the same species. These strain differences in susceptibility to TCDD have now been elucidated to be due to the difference in ligand binding affinity or transcriptional activity of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Actually the C57BL/6 type AhR (AhR{sup b}) showed 6-fold higher ligand binding affinity than the DBA/2 type AhR (AhR{sup d}). The H/W rat AhR has a C-terminal truncation of the transactivating domain compared to the L-E rat AhR. On the other hand, there is considerable species variability in response sensitivity to TCDD that cannot be ascribed simply to polymorphisms of the AhR gene. A non-AhR gene susceptibility loci for hepatic porphyria has been observed in mice treated with iron compounds prior to TCDD injection by using a quantitative trait locus analysis of an F2 intercross between susceptible C57BL/6 and resistant DBA/2 stains. In the rat, a gene B with Han/Wistar type AhR is likely to be involved in resistance to TCDD lethality. These observations suggest that other modulating genes, so-called ''modifier genes'', have profound effects on the AhR-mediated gene expression phenotype. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the AhR coding region, the BALB/c, CBA/J, and C3H/He mouse strains are clustered together on a single branch. In the present study, we try to confirm the existence of modifiers by using microarray analysis to examine hepatic gene expression after TCDD exposure in BALB/c, CBA/J, and C3H/He mice. To recognize the existence of a modifier besides the AhR, it is a prerequisite experimental condition that the analyzed strains have an identical AhR genotype. Therefore, we selected BALB/c, CBA/J, and C3H/He mice as the model

  1. Muerte por proyectil de arma de fuego (PAF): procesamiento de la escena y hallazgos de necropsia. Morgue Central de Lima 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Astuhuamán, Denisse; Aronés, Shérmany; Carrera, Rosa; Tejada, César; Velásquez, Róger

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La información del levantamiento de cadáver constituye la primera fase de la necropsia requerida para contrastarla con información obtenida, por lo que es primordial su estudio. Objetivos: Revisión del procesamiento de escena y hallazgos de necropsia en casos de muerte por proyectil de arma de fuego (PAF). Diseño: Descriptivo, retrospectivo, transversal. Institución: Instituto de Medicina Legal, Ministerio Público, e Instituto de Patología, UNMSM. Material de estudio: Informes d...

  2. Role of the Ah locus in suppression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity by halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PCBs and TCDD): Structure-activity relationships and effects in C57Bl/6 mice congenic at the Ah locus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerkvliet, N.I.; Baecher-Steppan, L.; Smith, B.B.; Youngberg, J.A.; Henderson, M.C.; Buhler, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) following allogeneic tumor challenge is suppressed in Ah-responsive C57Bl/6 mice treated with a single oral dose of the toxic, Ah receptor-binding 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HxCB). The present studies have examined the specific role of the Ah receptor in this immunotoxic response by utilizing HxCB isomers of known, varied affinity for the Ah receptor as well as by comparing effects of high-affinity Ah receptor ligands (3,4,5,3',4',5'-HxCB and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [TCDD]) on the CTL response of mice that differ only at the Ah locus, that is, Ah-responsive (Ahbb) and Ah-nonresponsive (Ahdd) congenic C57Bl/6 mice. Correlative changes in thymic weight, serum corticosterone (CS) levels, and spleen cellularity were also measured. The potency of HxCB congeners (3,4,5,3',4',5'-; 2,3,4,5,3',4'-; 2,4,5,2',4',5'-) and 2,3,7,8-TCDD to suppress the CTL response, to reduce spleen cellularity, to cause thymic atrophy, and to elevate serum CS levels was directly correlated with the binding affinity of the congener for the Ah receptor. Furthermore, these parameters of immunotoxicity in Ahdd C57Bl/6 mice were significantly more resistant to alterations induced by either 3,4,5,3',4',5'-HxCB or 2,3,7,8-TCDD as compared to Ahbb C57Bl/6 mice. These results strongly support an Ah receptor-dependent immunotoxic mechanism in suppression of the CTL response following acute exposure to halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons

  3. Effects of currently used pesticides in the AhR-CALUX assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Manhai; Laier, Peter; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2003-01-01

    101L hepatoma cell lines. In comparison the results indicated that the rat H4IIE cell line is more sensitive than the human TV101L for detection of TCDD inducing AhR-CALUX activity. The pesticides iprodione, chlorpyrifos and prochloraz showed dose-dependent AhR agonistic effects in both cell lines...

  4. Human Infection with Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus - China

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... response operations Diseases Biorisk reduction Disease outbreak news Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus – China ... Region (SAR) notified WHO of a laboratory-confirmed human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus and ...

  5. The role of age, ethnicity and environmental factors in modulating malaria risk in Rajasthali, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haque Ubydul

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is endemic in the Rajasthali region of the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh and the Rajasthali region is the most endemic area of Bangladesh. Quantifying the role of environmental and socio-economic factors in the local spatial patterns of malaria endemicity can contribute to successful malaria control and elimination. This study aimed to investigate the role of environmental factors on malaria risk in Rajasthali and to quantify the geographical clustering in malaria risk unaccounted by these factors. Method A total of 4,200 (78.9%; N = 5,322 households were targeted in Rajasthali in July, 2009, and 1,400 individuals were screened using a rapid diagnostic test (Falci-vax. These data were linked to environmental and socio-economic data in a geographical information system. To describe the association between environmental factors and malaria risk, a generalized linear mixed model approach was utilized. The study investigated the role of environmental factors on malaria risk by calculating their population-attributable fractions (PAF, and used residual semivariograms to quantify the geographical clustering in malaria risk unaccounted by these factors. Results Overall malaria prevalence was 11.7%. Out of 5,322 households, 44.12% households were living in areas with malaria prevalence of ≥ 10%. The results from statistical analysis showed that age, ethnicity, proximity to forest, household density, and elevation were significantly and positively correlated with the malaria risk and PAF estimation. The highest PAF of malaria prevalence was 47.7% for third tertile (n = 467 of forest cover, 17.6% for second tertile (n = 467 of forest cover and 19.9% for household density >1,000. Conclusion Targeting of malaria health interventions at small spatial scales in Bangladesh should consider the social and socio-economic risk factors identified as well as alternative methods for improving equity of access to interventions

  6. Impact of antiviral treatment and hospital admission delay on risk of death associated with 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic influenza in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowell Gerardo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing our understanding of the factors affecting the severity of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in different regions of the world could lead to improved clinical practice and mitigation strategies for future influenza pandemics. Even though a number of studies have shed light into the risk factors associated with severe outcomes of 2009 A/H1N1 influenza infections in different populations (e.g., [1-5], analyses of the determinants of mortality risk spanning multiple pandemic waves and geographic regions are scarce. Between-country differences in the mortality burden of the 2009 pandemic could be linked to differences in influenza case management, underlying population health, or intrinsic differences in disease transmission [6]. Additional studies elucidating the determinants of disease severity globally are warranted to guide prevention efforts in future influenza pandemics. In Mexico, the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic was characterized by a three-wave pattern occurring in the spring, summer, and fall of 2009 with substantial geographical heterogeneity [7]. A recent study suggests that Mexico experienced high excess mortality burden during the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic relative to other countries [6]. However, an assessment of potential factors that contributed to the relatively high pandemic death toll in Mexico are lacking. Here, we fill this gap by analyzing a large series of laboratory-confirmed A/H1N1 influenza cases, hospitalizations, and deaths monitored by the Mexican Social Security medical system during April 1 through December 31, 2009 in Mexico. In particular, we quantify the association between disease severity, hospital admission delays, and neuraminidase inhibitor use by demographic characteristics, pandemic wave, and geographic regions of Mexico. Methods We analyzed a large series of laboratory-confirmed pandemic A/H1N1 influenza cases from a prospective surveillance system maintained by the

  7. Stable Engraftment of Bifidobacterium longum AH1206 in the Human Gut Depends on Individualized Features of the Resident Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Gómez, María X; Martínez, Inés; Bottacini, Francesca; O'Callaghan, Amy; Ventura, Marco; van Sinderen, Douwe; Hillmann, Benjamin; Vangay, Pajau; Knights, Dan; Hutkins, Robert W; Walter, Jens

    2016-10-12

    Live bacteria (such as probiotics) have long been used to modulate gut microbiota and human physiology, but their colonization is mostly transient. Conceptual understanding of the ecological principles as they apply to exogenously introduced microbes in gut ecosystems is lacking. We find that, when orally administered to humans, Bifidobacterium longum AH1206 stably persists in the gut of 30% of individuals for at least 6 months without causing gastrointestinal symptoms or impacting the composition of the resident gut microbiota. AH1206 engraftment was associated with low abundance of resident B. longum and underrepresentation of specific carbohydrate utilization genes in the pre-treatment microbiome. Thus, phylogenetic limiting and resource availability are two factors that control the niche opportunity for AH1206 colonization. These findings suggest that bacterial species and functional genes absent in the gut microbiome of individual humans can be reestablished, providing opportunities for precise and personalized microbiome reconstitution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Flavonoids and resveratrol as regulators of Ah-receptor activity: protection from dioxin toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutel'yan, V A; Gapparov, M M; Telegin, L Yu; Devichenskii, V M; Pevnitskii, L A

    2003-12-01

    In 2002 FAO and WHO published a joint appeal to state and public organizations and scientific community to take every effort to control the contents of dioxin and related biphenyls in the environment and food products. The toxic effects of dioxin are realized via its interaction with the Ah-receptor. Here we reviewed modern notions about the structure and functions of Ah-receptor. Particular attention was given to antagonists and agonists of the Ah-receptor, including various flavonoids and resveratrol.

  9. An Exploratory Study of the Rhetoric in CSR Reports: A Comparison of Shari’ah Compliant Company and Non –Shari’ah Compliant Company in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Razak Rafizan

    2017-01-01

    This paper advances previous research in corporate social reporting (CSR) by using a taxonomy of five distinct rhetorical strategies to examine any differences in term of type of ethical categories and to identify moral attitudes towards different societal activities between Shari’ah compliant company Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB) and Non-Shari’ah compliant company Malayan Banking Berhad (Maybank). The data is analyzed using content analysis. The findings revealed that there are different...

  10. A human intervention study with foods containing natural Ah-receptor agonists does not significantly show AhR-mediated effects as measured in blood cells and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waard, Pim W J; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Baykus, Hakan; Aarts, Jac M M J G; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Schooten, Frederik J; de Kok, Theo M C M

    2008-10-22

    Binding and activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is thought to be an essential step in the toxicity of the environmental pollutants dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs. However, also a number of natural compounds, referred to as NAhRAs (natural Ah-receptor agonists), which are present in, for example, fruits and vegetables, can bind and activate this receptor. To study their potential effects in humans, we first investigated the effect of the prototypical AhR agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on gene expression in ex vivo exposed freshly isolated human lymphocytes, and compared the resulting gene expression profile with those caused by the well-known NAhRA indolo[3,2-b]carbazole (ICZ), originating from cruciferous vegetables, and by a hexane extract of NAhRA-containing grapefruit juice (GJE). Only ICZ induced a gene expression profile similar to TCDD in the lymphocytes, and both significantly up-regulated CYP1B1 and TIPARP (TCDD-inducible poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase) mRNA. Next, we performed a human intervention study with NAhRA-containing cruciferous vegetables and grapefruit juice. The expression of the prototypical AhR-responsive genes CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and NQO1 in whole blood cells and in freshly isolated lymphocytes was not significantly affected. Also enzyme activities of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) and xanthine oxidase (XO), as judged by caffeine metabolites in urine, were unaffected, except for a small down-regulation of NAT2 activity by grapefruit juice. Examination of blood plasma with DR CALUX showed a 12% increased AhR agonist activity 3 and 24 h after consumption of cruciferous vegetables, but did not show a significant effect of grapefruit juice consumption. We conclude that intake of NAhRAs from food may result in minor AhR-related effects measurable in human blood and urine.

  11. IEEE 802.11ah: A Technology to Face the IoT Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baños-Gonzalez, Victor; Afaqui, M Shahwaiz; Lopez-Aguilera, Elena; Garcia-Villegas, Eduard

    2016-11-22

    Since the conception of the Internet of things (IoT), a large number of promising applications and technologies have been developed, which will change different aspects in our daily life. This paper explores the key characteristics of the forthcoming IEEE 802.11ah specification. This future IEEE 802.11 standard aims to amend the IEEE 802.11 legacy specification to support IoT requirements. We present a thorough evaluation of the foregoing amendment in comparison to the most notable IEEE 802.11 standards. In addition, we expose the capabilities of future IEEE 802.11ah in supporting different IoT applications. Also, we provide a brief overview of the technology contenders that are competing to cover the IoT communications framework. Numerical results are presented showing how the future IEEE 802.11ah specification offers the features required by IoT communications, thus putting forward IEEE 802.11ah as a technology to cater the needs of the Internet of Things paradigm.

  12. Discharge of 1400 AH lithium thionyl chloride cells into voltage reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolla, A. E.

    1982-03-01

    The development of a high energy density battery is discussed. Tests were conducted on a 1400 AH cell and they include: drop tests, crush tests, vibration and shock tests, hydrostatic pressure effects, charge current tests, and discharge tests. None of these tests led to a venting or explosion of the cell. Criteria are presented for extending RV safety of a 1400 AH cell.

  13. 75 Ah and 10 boilerplate nickel-hydrogen battery designs and test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daman, M. E.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Chang, R.; Cruz, E.

    1992-01-01

    The results of initial characterization testing of 75 Ah actively cooled bipolar battery designs and 10 boilerplate nickel-hydrogen battery designs are presented. The results demonstrate the extended cycle life capability of the Ah batteries and the high capacity utilizations at various discharge rates of the nickel-hydrogen batteries.

  14. Evolution and adaptation of the pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducatez MF

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Mariette F Ducatez, Thomas P Fabrizio, Richard J WebbyDepartment of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USAAbstract: The emergence of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus [A(H1N1pdm09] has provided the public health community with many challenges, but also the scientific community with an opportunity to monitor closely its evolution through the processes of drift and shift. To date, and despite having circulated in humans for nearly two years, little antigenic variation has been observed in the A(H1N1pdm09 viruses. However, as the A(H1N1pdm09 virus continues to circulate and the immunologic pressure within the human population increases, future antigenic change is almost a certainty. Several coinfections of A(H1N1pdm09 and seasonal A(H1N1 or A(H3N2 viruses have been observed, but no reassortant viruses have been described in humans, suggesting a lack of fitness of reassortant viruses or a lack of opportunities for interaction of different viral lineages. In contrast, multiple reassortment events have been detected in swine populations between A(H1N1 pdm09 and other endemic swine viruses. Somewhat surprisingly, many of the well characterized influenza virus virulence markers appear to have limited impact on the phenotype of the A(H1N1pdm09 viruses when they have been introduced into mutant viruses in laboratory settings. As such, it is unclear what the evolutionary path of the pandemic virus will be, but the monitoring of any changes in the circulating viruses will remain a global public and animal health priority.Keywords: influenza, pandemic, evolution, adaptation

  15. From species sensitivity to hypoxia to effect factors modelling in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    ’s sensitivity in five climate zone (polar, subpolar, temperate, subtropical, tropical). Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD) curves combining DO concentrations and Potentially Affected Fractions (PAF) of species were plotted to estimate hazard concentrations (HC50LOEL) per climate zone, and Effect Factors (EF...

  16. Emergence in China of human disease due to avian influenza A(H10N8)--cause for concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Kelvin K W; Tsang, Alan K L; Chan, Jasper F W; Cheng, Vincent C C; Chen, Honglin; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-03-01

    In December 2013, China reported the first human case of avian influenza A(H10N8). A 73-year-old female with chronic diseases who had visited a live poultry market succumbed with community-acquired pneumonia. While human infections with avian influenza viruses are usually associated with subtypes prevalent in poultries, A(H10N8) isolates were mostly found in migratory birds and only recently in poultries. Although not possible to predict whether this single intrusion by A(H10N8) is an accident or the start of another epidemic like the preceding A(H7N9) and A(H5N1), several features suggest that A(H10N8) is a potential threat to humans. Recombinant H10 could attach to human respiratory epithelium, and A(H10N4) virus could cause severe infections in minks and chickens. A(H10N8) viruses contain genetic markers for mammalian adaptation and virulence in the haemagglutinin (A135T, S138A[H3 numbering]), M1(N30D, T215A), NS1(P42S) and PB2(E627K) protein. Studies on this human A(H10N8) isolate will reveal its adaptability to humans. Clinicians should alert the laboratory to test for A(H5,6,7,9,10) viruses in patients with epidemiological exposure in endemic geographical areas especially when human influenza A(H1,3) and B are negative. Vigilant virological and serological surveillance for A(H10N8) in human, poultry and wild bird is important for following the trajectory of this emerging influenza virus. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. HOW SHOULD SHARI’AH PRINCIPLES BE APPLIED IN MODERN COMPANY?

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    Burhanuddin Susamto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to show why the modern business institution (company should be Islamized, and to suggest ways in which shari’ah principles can be applied in the company. To achieve this purpose, we should understand how company be islamized in comprehensive and integrated  manner through the Islamic law perspective, with the contemporary issues like underlying contract of company,  legal entity, and the concept of liability. The resolution of these issues is important to assert that shari’ah principles could be applied in the modern company by integrating approach. An integrating approach in the treating of these issues has, however, been lacking, nor has it been subjected to a thorough legal analysis through the principles of Islamic business law.   Tujuan dari pembahasan ini adalah untuk menunjukkan bahwa institusi bisnis modern (perusahaan harus diislamisasi, dan member masukan cara-cara bagimana prinsip- prinsip shari’ah dapat ditetapkan dalam perusahaan. Untuk mencapai tujuan ini, kita perlu memahami bagaimana perusahaan diislamisasi secara menyeluruh dan terintegrasi melalui perspektif hukum Islam terhadap persoalan kontemporer, seperti landasan kontrak perusahaan, badan hukum, dan konsep liabilitas. Solusi dari persoalan ini sangat penting untuk   menegaskan bahwa prinsip-prinsip shari’ah dapat ditetapkan pada perusahaan modern melalui pendekatan integrasi. Bagaimanapun, pendekatan integrasi dalam menyikapi persoalan ini jarang dilakukan, disamping tidak menjadi tema analisis melalui prinsip-prinsip hukum bisnis Islami.

  18. Decreased importance of environmental risk factors for childhood asthma from 1996 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerg, A; Hedman, L; Perzanowski, M; Wennergren, G; Lundbäck, B; Rönmark, E

    2015-01-01

    The large increase in asthma prevalence continues in several, but not all areas. Despite the individual risk factors that have been identified, the reasons for the observed trends in prevalence are largely unknown. This study sought to characterize what trends in risk factors accompanied trends in asthma prevalence. Two population-based cohorts of 7- to 8-year-old children from the same Swedish study areas examined by expanded International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood questionnaires were compared 10 years apart. In 1996 and 2006, 3430 (97% participation) and 2585 (96% participation) questionnaires were completed, respectively. A subset was skin-prick-tested: in 1996 and 2006, 2148 (88% participation) and 1700 (90% participation) children, respectively. The adjusted population-attributable fraction (aPAF) was calculated using the prevalence and multivariate odds ratio of each risk factor. The prevalence of current asthma and wheeze was similar in 1996 and 2006. Allergic sensitization, however, increased from 21% to 30%. The prevalence of parental asthma increased from 17% to 24%, while respiratory infections and maternal smoking decreased (60% to 29% and 32% to 16%, respectively). The aPAFs of non-environmental risk factors for current asthma increased in 1996-2006: allergic sensitization from 35% to 41%, parental asthma from 27% to 45% and male sex from 20% to 25%. Conversely, the aPAFs of environmental risk factors decreased: respiratory infections from 36% to 32% and damp home and maternal smoking from 14% and 19%, respectively, to near zero in 2006. From 1996 to 2006, the non-environmental risk factors parental asthma, allergic sensitization and male sex had an increasing or constant importance for current asthma in 7- to 8-year-old children. The importance of the environmental exposures damp home, respiratory infections and maternal smoking decreased. This counterbalancing in risk factors may explain the level of prevalence of current asthma.

  19. Examining Parents' Ratings of Middle-School Students' Academic Self-Regulation Using Principal Axis Factoring Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peggy P.; Cleary, Timothy J.; Lui, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of a parent rating scale, the "Self-Regulation Strategy Inventory: Parent Rating Scale" ("SRSI-PRS"), using a sample of 451 parents of sixth- and seventh-grade middle-school students. Principal axis factoring (PAF) analysis revealed a 3-factor structure for the 23-item SRSI-PRS:…

  20. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR and its endogenous agonist – indoxyl sulfate in chronic kidney disease

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    Tomasz Kamiński

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The indoxyl sulfate (IS, indoxyl sulphate is the end product of dietary tryptophan degradation by indole pathway and significantly higher serum and tissue concentrations of this compound is observed in patients with impaired renal function. Despite the high albumin binding affinity, the remaining free fraction of IS has a number of biological effects related to the generation of oxidative stress andactivation of signaling pathways related to NF-кB, p53 protein, STAT3, TGF-β and Smad2/3. IS induces the inflammatory process, exerts nephrotoxic activity and is also a factor impairing the cardiovascular system.Its high concentrations are associated with the occurrence of cardiovascular incidents, whose frequency is significantly higher in patients with chronic kidney disease. Evaluation of the mechanisms that underlie the high reactivity of indoxyl sulfate and its biological effects showed that this compound is an agonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR. This receptor plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis Moreover, AhR exerts high transcriptional activity, so ligands of obciążethis receptor may exert different biological effects. The following paper describes the role of indoxyl sulfate as AhR ligand in the context of the excessive accumulation, which appears as one of the symptoms associated with chronic kidney disease.

  1. Human Infection with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Changwen; Mok, Chris Ka Pun; Zhu, Wenfei; Zhou, Haibo; He, Jianfeng; Guan, Wenda; Wu, Jie; Song, Wenjun; Wang, Dayan; Liu, Jiexiong; Lin, Qinhan; Chu, Daniel Ka Wing; Yang, Lei; Zhong, Nanshan; Yang, Zifeng; Shu, Yuelong; Peiris, Joseph Sriyal Malik

    2017-07-01

    The recent increase in zoonotic avian influenza A(H7N9) disease in China is a cause of public health concern. Most of the A(H7N9) viruses previously reported have been of low pathogenicity. We report the fatal case of a patient in China who was infected with an A(H7N9) virus having a polybasic amino acid sequence at its hemagglutinin cleavage site (PEVPKRKRTAR/GL), a sequence suggestive of high pathogenicity in birds. Its neuraminidase also had R292K, an amino acid change known to be associated with neuraminidase inhibitor resistance. Both of these molecular features might have contributed to the patient's adverse clinical outcome. The patient had a history of exposure to sick and dying poultry, and his close contacts had no evidence of A(H7N9) disease, suggesting human-to-human transmission did not occur. Enhanced surveillance is needed to determine whether this highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus will continue to spread.

  2. The pandemic potential of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, W D; Toth, D J A; Gundlapalli, A V

    2015-12-01

    In March 2013 the first cases of human avian influenza A(H7N9) were reported to the World Health Organization. Since that time, over 650 cases have been reported. Infections are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, particularly within certain demographic groups. This rapid increase in cases over a brief time period is alarming and has raised concerns about the pandemic potential of the H7N9 virus. Three major factors influence the pandemic potential of an influenza virus: (1) its ability to cause human disease, (2) the immunity of the population to the virus, and (3) the transmission potential of the virus. This paper reviews what is currently known about each of these factors with respect to avian influenza A(H7N9). Currently, sustained human-to-human transmission of H7N9 has not been reported; however, population immunity to the virus is considered very low, and the virus has significant ability to cause human disease. Several statistical and geographical modelling studies have estimated and predicted the spread of the H7N9 virus in humans and avian species, and some have identified potential risk factors associated with disease transmission. Additionally, assessment tools have been developed to evaluate the pandemic potential of H7N9 and other influenza viruses. These tools could also hypothetically be used to monitor changes in the pandemic potential of a particular virus over time.

  3. A comparison of 802.11ah and 802.15.4 for IoT

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    N. Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The emerging IEEE 802.11ah is a promising communication standard that supports a massive number of heterogeneous devices in the Internet of Things (IoT. It provides attractive features like improved scalability, low energy consumption, and coverage of large area. In this paper, we analyze the performance of IEEE 802.11ah, and compare it with a prominent alternative, the IEEE 802.15.4. The simulation results show that the new 802.11ah standard performs better than the 802.15.4 in terms of association time, throughput, delay, and coverage range.

  4. Risk factors affecting seroconversion after influenza A/H1N1 vaccination in hemodialysis patients

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    Moon Sung Jin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts Background Hemodialysis (HD patients have multiple causes of immune dysfunction and poor immune response to influenza vaccination. We investigated the antibody response rate to a pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza vaccination and clinical parameters influencing the induction of antibody responses in HD patients. Methods A total of 114 HD patients were vaccinated with a monovalent adjuvanted H1N1 inactivated influenza vaccine. Titers of neutralizing antibodies were evaluated by hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay at pre- and 4 weeks after vaccination. Seroconversion was defined as either a pre-vaccination HI titer  1:40 or a pre-vaccination HI titer ≥ 1:10 and a minimum four-fold rise in post-vaccination HI antibody titer. Seventeen out of 114 HD patients (14.9% tested positive for antibodies against influenza A/H1N1/2009 before vaccination. The remaining 97 baseline sero-negative patients were included in the analysis. Results Only 30 (30.9% HD patients had seroconversion 4 weeks after vaccination. The elderly patients, those over 65 years of age, showed significantly lower seroconversion rate compared to younger HD patients (20.5% vs. 39.6%, p = 0.042. Furthermore, patients with hemoglobin values less than 10 g/dL had a significantly lower seroconversion rate compared to those with higher hemoglobin values (20.0 vs. 38.6%, p = 0.049. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, only age ≥65 years (OR = 0.336, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.116-0.971, p = 0.044 and hemoglobin levels Conclusions Our data show that HD patients, especially who are elderly with low hemoglobin levels, are at increased risk for lower seroconversion rate after influenza A/H1N1 vaccination. Further studies are needed to improve the efficacy of vaccination in these high risk patients.

  5. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR agonists suppress interleukin-6 expression by bone marrow stromal cells: an immunotoxicology study

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    Schlezinger Jennifer J

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone marrow stromal cells produce cytokines required for the normal growth and development of all eight hematopoietic cell lineages. Aberrant cytokine production by stromal cells contributes to blood cell dyscrasias. Consequently, factors that alter stromal cell cytokine production may significantly compromise the development of normal blood cells. We have shown that environmental chemicals, such as aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR agonists, suppress B lymphopoiesis by modulating bone marrow stromal cell function. Here, we extend these studies to evaluate the potential for two prototypic AhR agonists, 7,12-dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, to alter stromal cell cytokine responses. Methods Bone marrow stromal cells were treated with AhR agonists and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS to mimic innate inflammatory cytokine responses and to study the effects of AhR ligands on those responses. Steady state cytokine RNA levels were screened by RNAse protection assays (RPA and quantified by real-time PCR. Cytokine (IL-6 protein production was measured by ELISA. NF-κB EMSAs were used to study IL-6 transcriptional regulation. Results RPAs indicated that AhR+ bone marrow stromal cells consistently up-regulated genes encoding IL-6 and LIF in response to LPS, presumably through activation of Toll-like receptor 4. Pre-treatment with low doses of DMBA or TCDD selectively abrogated IL-6 gene induction but had no effect on LIF mRNA. Real-time-PCR indicated a significant inhibition of IL-6 mRNA by AhR ligands within 1 hour of LPS challenge which was reflected in a profound down-regulation of IL-6 protein induction, with DMBA and TCDD suppressing IL-6 levels as much as 65% and 88%, respectively. This potent inhibitory effect persisted for at least 72 hours. EMSAs measuring NF-κB binding to IL-6 promoter sequences, an event known to induce IL-6 transcription, indicated a significant decrease in

  6. Platelet activating factors are associated with depressive symptoms in coronary artery disease patients: a hypothesis-generating study

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    Mazereeuw G

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Graham Mazereeuw,1,2,4 Nathan Herrmann,1,5 Hongbin Xu,3,4 Alexandre P Blanchard,3,4 Daniel Figeys,3,4 Paul I Oh,6 Steffany AL Bennett,3,4 Krista L Lanctôt1,2,4–61Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON, 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Ottawa Institute of Systems Biology and Neural Regeneration Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology, and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, 4CIHR  Training Program in Neurodegenerative Lipidomics, Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology, and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, 5Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 6UHN Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, Toronto, ON, CanadaIntroduction: Depression is a frequent complication of coronary artery disease (CAD with an unknown etiology. Platelet activating factor (PAF lipids, which are associated with CAD, have recently been linked with novel proposed etiopathological mechanisms for depression such as inflammation, oxidative/nitrosative stress, and vascular endothelial dysfunction.Methods and results: This hypothesis-generating study investigated the relationships between various PAF species and depressive symptoms in 26 CAD patients (age: 60.6±9.2 years, 69% male, mean Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HAM-D] score: 11.8±5.2, HAM-D range: 3–20. Plasma PAF analyses were performed using high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in precursor ion scan. Significant associations between depressive symptom severity (HAM-D score and a greater plasma abundance of the PAFs phosphocholine (PC PC(O-12:0/2:0 (r=0.49, P=0.01, PC(O-14:1/2:0 (r=0.43, P=0.03, PC(O-17:3/2:0 (r=0.44, P=0.04, and PC(O-18:3/2:0 (r=0.50, P=0.01 were observed. Associations between those PAFs and HAM-D score persisted after adjusting for age and sex.Conclusion: These

  7. Application of Sharī‘ah contracts in contemporary Islamic finance: A maqāṣid perspective

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    Younes Soualhi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research exposes the underlying maqāṣid embedded in Sharī‘ah contracts as applied in Islamic banking and finance. It addresses the problem of not observing maqāṣid in nominated and combined Sharī‘ah contracts as well as the problem of not sufficiently imbuing maqāṣid in products developed by Islamic financial institutions. As a benchmark of the maqāṣid of wealth, the research adopts Ibn ‘Āshūr’s classification of maqāṣid to evaluate the conformity of Sharī‘ah contracts to Maqāṣid al-Sharī‘ah namely, justice, circulation, transparency, and firmness. The study focuses on three markets related to the application of Sharī‘ah contracts, namely, banking, Islamic capital market, and takāful. The study concludes that, by and large, the application of Sharī‘ah contracts has observed Maqāṣid al-Sharī‘ah during its development and initial application stages of Islamic finance products; however, offering such products in the market has raised economic questions as to their viability and economic values. In addition, the malpractice of some Sharī‘ah contracts has long raised concerns as to the maqāṣid compliance of such products. The research recommends a de-sophistication of Islamic financial engineering to minimise the possibility of convergence with conventional finance. The research also emphasises product differentiation based on less complicated combined Sharī‘ah contracts.

  8. The tyranny of the averages and the indiscriminate use of risk factors in public health: The case of coronary heart disease

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    Juan Merlo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern medicine is overwhelmed by a plethora of both established risk factors and novel biomarkers for diseases. The majority of this information is expressed by probabilistic measures of association such as the odds ratio (OR obtained by calculating differences in average “risk” between exposed and unexposed groups. However, recent research demonstrates that even ORs of considerable magnitude are insufficient for assessing the ability of risk factors or biomarkers to distinguish the individuals who will develop the disease from those who will not. In regards to coronary heart disease (CHD, we already know that novel biomarkers add very little to the discriminatory accuracy (DA of traditional risk factors. However, the value added by traditional risk factors alongside simple demographic variables such as age and sex has been the subject of less discussion. Moreover, in public health, we use the OR to calculate the population attributable fraction (PAF, although this measure fails to consider the DA of the risk factor it represents. Therefore, focusing on CHD and applying measures of DA, we re-examine the role of individual demographic characteristics, risk factors, novel biomarkers and PAFs in public health and epidemiology. In so doing, we also raise a more general criticism of the traditional risk factors’ epidemiology. We investigated a cohort of 6103 men and women who participated in the baseline (1991–1996 of the Malmö Diet and Cancer study and were followed for 18 years. We found that neither traditional risk factors nor biomarkers substantially improved the DA obtained by models considering only age and sex. We concluded that the PAF measure provided insufficient information for the planning of preventive strategies in the population. We need a better understanding of the individual heterogeneity around the averages and, thereby, a fundamental change in the way we interpret risk factors in public health and epidemiology.

  9. BAGI HASIL DAN BANK SYARI’AH (Solusi terhadap Bunga Bank

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    Rudy Haryanto Rudy Haryanto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: To save money in terms of investation is one of bank’s functions. Interest and production sharing are kinds of investation in banking system. Interest is a marketable entry in conventional banking, however production sharing is known in syari’ah banking system. Some people argue that interest cannot be seperated from the banking activity, in fact Islam recommends the followers to avoid it; hence it could be substituted with term of production sharing. It matches the priciple of musyarakah and mudharabah as being taught by Rasûlullâh SAW. Bank interest is considered ribâ (excessive interest and it is forbidden in Islam. Moreover, production sharing is more useful and beneficial for people. Unfortunately, the value of production sharing (syarî’ah banking product is lower than the value of banking interest (conventional banking product due to the fact that the ralationship established by syari’ah banking and its customer is based on the principle of gotong royong (mutual coorporation and production sharing partnership. Key Words: ribâ, musyarakah, mudharabah, dan bagi-hasil  

  10. Divan Şairinin Sessiz ve Gizli Anlatımı: Muvaşşah The Secret and Silent Expression of Divan Poet: Muvaşşah

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    Hakan YEKBAŞ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface and deep structure of the elements that form the poembring new meaning to poetry. Determination of these elements is veryimportant in Ottoman poem studies. In this respect, many poets ofOttoman poem resorted to create a secret language through sounds andletters. From this point of view, letters gain great many peculiarity withregard to its shape and contents and therefore we see that differentkinds of literary arts reconstituted.These different experiments which have the aim of benefittingfrom the letters’ symbolic value or with the help of letters they try toconstitute concept are characterized as the not suitable line for ourtopic. For this reason, these applications whose examples are rarelyencountered in our literature according to the other literary arts reshown between the talents included the rhetoric. In our literature, oneof the talents which bases on the letters’ types, union, way of reading iscalled muvaşşah and muvaşşah is the method which bases on visualthings.Today, muvaşşah is expressed as the acrostic. Because of thatmuvaşşah is perceived as the art which finds the first letter of verse andcreates the name from these letters. But examples of muvaşşah inclassical Ottoman poetry benefit from not only the first letter of versebut also middle and last letter of verse. Our poets use muvaşşah toform the title, prayer, moreover while constituting verse or couplet, itcan be seen that they use muvaşşah to compose a chronogram tocommemorate the date. In this respect we can express that muvaşşahhas different contents.In our study, with the help of different examples of muvaşşahdifferent peculiarity of this art found place for itself. Different kinds ofmuvaşşah such as kasida, lyric poem, müseddes, stanza, masnavi,müstezad will show us the secret language and silent expression whichis used by the poet in the poem. Divan şiiri incelemelerinde, o şiirin yüzey ve derin yapısını oluşturan unsurların ve

  11. Case of seasonal reassortant A(H1N2) influenza virus infection, the Netherlands, March 2018.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.; Swaan, C.M.; Voerknecht, M.; Jusic, E.; Brink, S. van den; Wijsman, L.A.; Voordouw, B.C.G.; Donker, G.A.; Sleven, J.; Dorigo-Zetsma, W.W.; Svraka, S.; Boven, M. van; Haverkate, M.R.; Timen, A.; Dissel, J.T. van; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Besteboer, T.M.; Fouchier, R.A.M.

    2018-01-01

    A seasonal reassortant A(H1N2) influenza virus harbouring genome segments from seasonal influenza viruses A(H1N1)pdm09 (HA and NS) and A(H3N2) (PB2, PB1, PA, NP, NA and M) was identified in March 2018 in a 19-months-old patient with influenza-like illness (ILI) who presented to a general

  12. Case of seasonal reassortant A(H1N2) influenza virus infection, the Netherlands, March 2018.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Adam; Swaan, Corien M; Voerknecht, Martin; Jusic, Edin; van den Brink, Sharon; Wijsman, Lisa A; Voordouw, Bettie Cg; Donker, Gé A; Sleven, Jacqueline; Dorigo-Zetsma, Wendelien W; Svraka, Sanela; van Boven, Michiel; Haverkate, Manon R; Timen, Aura; van Dissel, Jaap T; Koopmans, Marion Pg; Bestebroer, Theo M; Fouchier, Ron Am

    A seasonal reassortant A(H1N2) influenza virus harbouring genome segments from seasonal influenza viruses A(H1N1)pdm09 (HA and NS) and A(H3N2) (PB2, PB1, PA, NP, NA and M) was identified in March 2018 in a 19-months-old patient with influenza-like illness (ILI) who presented to a general

  13. Subclinical avian influenza A(H5N1) virus infection in human, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, Mai Quynh; Horby, Peter; Fox, Annette; Nguyen, Hien Tran; Le Nguyen, Hang Khanh; Hoang, Phuong Mai Vu; Nguyen, Khanh Cong; de Jong, Menno D.; Jeeninga, Rienk E.; Rogier van Doorn, H.; Farrar, Jeremy; Wertheim, Heiman F. L.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory-confirmed cases of subclinical infection with avian influenza A(H5N1) virus in humans are rare, and the true number of these cases is unknown. We describe the identification of a laboratory-confirmed subclinical case in a woman during an influenza A(H5N1) contact investigation in northern

  14. Assessing the Structure of the Ways of Coping Questionnaire in Fibromyalgia Patients Using Common Factor Analytic Approaches

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    Charles Van Liew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ is a widely used measure of coping processes. Despite its use in a variety of populations, there has been concern about the stability and structure of the WCQ across different populations. This study examines the factor structure of the WCQ in a large sample of individuals diagnosed with fibromyalgia. The participants were 501 adults (478 women who were part of a larger intervention study. Participants completed the WCQ at their 6-month assessment. Foundational factoring approaches were performed on the data (i.e., maximum likelihood factoring [MLF], iterative principal factoring [IPF], principal axis factoring (PAF, and principal components factoring [PCF] with oblique oblimin rotation. Various criteria were evaluated to determine the number of factors to be extracted, including Kaiser’s rule, Scree plot visual analysis, 5 and 10% unique variance explained, 70 and 80% communal variance explained, and Horn’s parallel analysis (PA. It was concluded that the 4-factor PAF solution was the preferable solution, based on PA extraction and the fact that this solution minimizes nonvocality and multivocality. The present study highlights the need for more research focused on defining the limits of the WCQ and the degree to which population-specific and context-specific subscale adjustments are needed.

  15. Comparison of Portfolio Selection and Performance: Shari’ah-Compliant and Socially Responsible Investment Portfolios

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    Mehmet Asutay

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of Islamic screening criteria on Shari’ah-compliant portfolio selection and performance compared to Socially Responsible Investment (SRI portfolio. Each portfolio constructed from 15 stocks based on FTSE 100 using data from year 1997. Mean-variance portfolio optimization is employed with some financial ratios added as constraints for the Shari’ah portfolio. Annual expected return of each portfolio from 2008 to 2013 is used to calculate Sharpe’s ratio, Treynor ratio and Jensen’s alpha as the performance measurement tools. Macroeconomic variables are assessed using ordinary least square to examine whether they influence the portfolios’ expected returns or not. The result finds that Shari’ah portfolio has a better performance than SRI from year 2008 to 2010 shown by higher value of the measurement tools. However, from 2011 to 2013, SRI portfolio has better performance than Shari’ah portfolio. 

  16. Case of seasonal reassortant a(H1N2) influenza virus infection, the Netherlands, March 2018

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A. (Adam); C. Swaan (Corien); Voerknecht, M. (Martin); E. Jusic (Edin); van den Brink, S. (Sharon); Wijsman, L.A. (Lisa A.); A.C.G. Voordouw (Bettie); G.A. Donker (Gé); Sleven, J. (Jacqueline); Dorigo-Zetsma, W.W. (Wendelien W.); S. Svraka-Latifovic (Sanela); M. van Boven (Michiel); Haverkate, M.R. (Manon R.); A. Timen (Aura); J.T. van Dissel (Jaap); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); T.M. Bestebroer (Theo); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractA seasonal reassortant A(H1N2) influenza virus harbouring genome segments from seasonal influenza viruses A(H1N1)pdm09 (HA and NS) and A(H3N2) (PB2, PB1, PA, NP, NA and M) was identified in March 2018 in a 19-months-old patient with influenza-like illness (ILI) who presented to a general

  17. Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase1 overexpression promotes oral squamous cell carcinoma progression via enhanced biosynthesis of platelet-activating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shida-Sakazume, Tomomi; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Unozawa, Motoharu; Fukumoto, Chonji; Shimada, Ken; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Ogawara, Katsunori; Yokoe, Hidetaka; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase1 (LPCAT1), a cytosolic enzyme in the remodeling pathway of phosphatidylcholine metabolism, in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is unknown. We investigated LPCAT1 expression and its functional mechanism in OSCCs. We analyzed LPCAT1 mRNA and protein expression levels in OSCC-derived cell lines. Immunohistochemistry was performed to identify correlations between LPCAT1 expression levels and primary OSCCs clinicopathological status. We established LPCAT1 knockdown models of the OSCC-derived cell lines (SAS, Ca9-22) for functional analysis and examined the association between LPCAT1 expression and the platelet-activating factor (PAF) concentration and PAF-receptor (PAFR) expression. LPCAT1 mRNA and protein were up-regulated significantly (poral keratinocytes. Immunohistochemistry showed significantly (poral cancer.

  18. AhV_aPA-induced vasoconstriction involves the IP₃Rs-mediated Ca²⁺ releasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fuxing; Zou, Zhisong; Niu, Liwen; Li, Xu; Teng, Maikun

    2013-08-01

    AhV_aPA, the acidic PLA₂ purified from Agkistrodon halys pallas venom, was previously reported to possess a strong enzymatic activity and can remarkably induce a further contractile response on the 60 mM K⁺-induced contraction with an EC₅₀ in 369 nM on mouse thoracic aorta rings. In the present study, we found that the p-bromo-phenacyl-bromide (pBPB), which can completely inhibit the enzymatic activity of AhV_aPA, did not significantly reduce the contractile response on vessel rings induced by AhV_aPA, indicating that the vasoconstrictor effects of AhV_aPA are independent of the enzymatic activity. The inhibitor experiments showed that the contractile response induced by AhV_aPA is mainly attributed to the Ca²⁺ releasing from Ca²⁺ store, especially sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Detailed studies showed that the Ca²⁺ release from SR is related to the activation of inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP₃Rs) rather than ryanodine receptors (RyRs). Furthermore, the vasoconstrictor effect could be strongly reduced by pre-incubation with heparin, indicating that the basic amino acid residues on the surface of AhV_aPA may be involved in the interaction between AhV_aPA and the molecular receptors. These findings offer new insights into the functions of snake PLA₂ and provide a novel pathogenesis of A. halys pallas venom. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. TRANSFORMATION OF MAQÂSHID Al-SYARÎ’AH (An Overview of the Development of Islamic Law in Indonesia

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    Absori .

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This study is part of an effort to systematize the basic conception of the values of the sharia as the foundation in the life of nation and state life, where the orientation is to embody the essence of the religious life through the maqâshid al-syarî`ah. Islam as al-dîn has been providing the basics of life of Muslims through the al-Qur’an and as-Sunnah. Both of these contain guidance values of human life, including in running the sharia for Muslims. Sharia (syarî`ah in perspective of terminology is "street". In an isthilâhî perspective, it is a way to get to God. The basic meaning of sharia itself should be realized in the basic understanding maqâshid al-syarî`ah, which can be interpreted within the scope of statehood, because the meaning contained are the values of universality of maqâshid al-syarî`ah. In the context of Indonesian, then maqâshid al-syarî`ah is part of the basic conception air Almighty God with the aim of creating prosperity for the people of Indonesia. In this study, the approach used is the doctrinal bases to study literature. This study is the strengthening of the maqâshid al-syarî`ah as the basis for the development of Islamic law.Abstrak:Kajian ini merupakan bagian dari upaya untuk sistematisasi konsep dasar dari nilai-nilai syari’ah sebagai pondasi dalam kehidupan berbangsa dan kehidupan bernegara, dimana orientasi tersebut adalah untuk mewujudkan hakikat kehidupan dalam beragama melalui maqâshid al-syarî`ah. Islam sebagai al-dîn telah memberikan dasar-dasar kehidupan umat Muslim melalui al-Qur’an dan al-Sunnah. Kedua hal tersebut mengandung nilai-nilai tuntunan kehidupan umat manusia termasuk dalam menjalankan syariah bagi umat Muslim. Syari’ah dalam perspektif terminologi merupakan “jalan”. Sedangkan secara isthilâhî, ia dimaknai sebagai jalan untuk sampai kepada Allah SWT. Makna dasar dari syari’ah itu sendiri harus diwujudkan dalam pemahaman dasar maqâshid al-syarî’ah, di

  20. Month of the Year and Pre- Holiday Effects In Indonesia and Malaysia Shari’ah Compliance

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    Helma Malini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} This paper investigates the existence of two anomalies in Indonesia and Malaysia Shari’ah compliance; the month of the year and pre-holiday effect, and their implication for stock market efficiency. Investing in Shari’ah compliant is different from investing in conventional stock. Conventional stock market followed the capital market set of rules and law, while Shari’ah follows not only followed the capital market set of laws but also the Islamic principles. Most of the previous studies investigated issues related to the conventional stock market, this study take one step further by investigating issue related to Shari’ah compliant instrument and make comparison between both Shari’ah compliance stock market in Indonesia and Malaysia. We document high and significant returns in month and pre-holiday in Indonesia and Malaysia stock market that represent by the Shari’ah compliance. Our result indicate that the month of the year effect is prevalent in Indonesia and Malaysia Shari’ah compliance.   Keywords: Calendar effects, Indonesia and Malaysia Shari’ah compliance, Month of the year and pre-holiday effects

  1. Outbreak of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bal Ram; Shakya, Geeta; Upadhyay, Bishnu Prasad; Prakash Kc, Khagendra; Shrestha, Sirjana Devi; Dhungana, Guna Raj

    2011-03-23

    The 2009 flu pandemic is a global outbreak of a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 has posed a serious public health challenge world-wide. Nepal has started Laboratory diagnosis of Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 from mid June 2009 though active screening of febrile travellers with respiratory symptoms was started from April 27, 2009. Out of 609 collected samples, 302 (49.6%) were Universal Influenza A positive. Among the influenza A positive samples, 172(28.3%) were positive for Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 and 130 (21.3%) were Seasonal influenza A. Most of the pandemic cases (53%) were found among young people with ≤ 20 years. Case Fatality Ratio for Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 in Nepal was 1.74%. Upon Molecular characterization, all the isolated pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus found in Nepal were antigenically and genetically related to the novel influenza A/CALIFORNIA/07/2009-LIKE (H1N1)v type. The Pandemic 2009 influenza virus found in Nepal were antigenically and genetically related to the novel A/CALIFORNIA/07/2009-LIKE (H1N1)v type.

  2. Outbreak of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 in Nepal

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    Shrestha Sirjana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 2009 flu pandemic is a global outbreak of a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 has posed a serious public health challenge world-wide. Nepal has started Laboratory diagnosis of Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 from mid June 2009 though active screening of febrile travellers with respiratory symptoms was started from April 27, 2009. Results Out of 609 collected samples, 302 (49.6% were Universal Influenza A positive. Among the influenza A positive samples, 172(28.3% were positive for Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 and 130 (21.3% were Seasonal influenza A. Most of the pandemic cases (53% were found among young people with ≤ 20 years. Case Fatality Ratio for Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 in Nepal was 1.74%. Upon Molecular characterization, all the isolated pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus found in Nepal were antigenically and genetically related to the novel influenza A/CALIFORNIA/07/2009-LIKE (H1N1v type. Conclusion The Pandemic 2009 influenza virus found in Nepal were antigenically and genetically related to the novel A/CALIFORNIA/07/2009-LIKE (H1N1v type.

  3. The Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. Gene AhLPAT2 Increases the Lipid Content of Transgenic Arabidopsis Seeds.

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    Silong Chen

    Full Text Available Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT, which converts lysophosphatidic acid (LPA to phosphatidic acid (PA, catalyzes the addition of fatty acyl moieties to the sn-2 position of the LPA glycerol backbone in triacylglycerol (TAG biosynthesis. We recently reported the cloning and temporal-spatial expression of a peanut (Arachis hypogaea AhLPAT2gene, showing that an increase in AhLPAT2 transcript levels was closely correlated with an increase in seed oil levels. However, the function of the enzyme encoded by the AhLPAT2 gene remains unclear. Here, we report that AhLPAT2 transcript levels were consistently higher in the seeds of a high-oil cultivar than in those of a low-oil cultivar across different seed developmental stages. Seed-specific overexpression of AhLPAT2 in Arabidopsis results in a higher percentage of oil in the seeds and greater-than-average seed weight in the transgenic plants compared with the wild-type plants, leading to a significant increase in total oil yield per plant. The total fatty acid (FA content and the proportion of unsaturated FAs also increased. In the developing siliques of AhLPAT2-overexpressing plants, the expression levels of genes encoding crucial enzymes involved in de novo FA synthesis, acetyl-CoA subunit (AtBCCP2 and acyl carrier protein 1 (AtACP1 were elevated. AhLPAT2 overexpression also promoted the expression of several key genes related to TAG assembly, sucrose metabolism, and glycolysis. These results demonstrate that the expression of AhLPAT2 plays an important role in glycerolipid production in peanuts.

  4. Comparative Resistance of AH26 and a New Sealer Prototype to a Bacterial Challenge

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    Derek Duggan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study compared the leakage resistance of a New Sealer Prototype (NSP with a traditional sealer (AH 26 in Resilon-filled roots subjected to a bacterial challenge. Study Design. 41 roots were instrumented to ISO size 50 apically. Group 1 (=20 contained Resilon and AH 26 sealer and roots in group 2 (=21 contained Resilon and NSP. Roots were embedded in a dual-chamber model with the upper chamber containing Streptococcus mutans inoculum. Evidence of bacterial penetration was observed for 1 month. Fisher's Test was used to analyze the data. Results. 8 of 20 roots (40% in the AH 26 group demonstrated leakage whereas 3 of 21 roots (14% in the NSP group leaked. The difference in leakage rates was not statistically significant (=0.053. Conclusion. The traditional sealer (AH 26 demonstrated increased leakage rates compared to the New Sealer Prototype (NSP, but the difference did not reach statistical significance in this study.

  5. Global patterns in seasonal activity of influenza A/H3N2, A/H1N1, and B from 1997 to 2005: viral coexistence and latitudinal gradients.

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    Brian S Finkelman

    Full Text Available Despite a mass of research on the epidemiology of seasonal influenza, overall patterns of infection have not been fully described on broad geographic scales and for specific types and subtypes of the influenza virus. Here we provide a descriptive analysis of laboratory-confirmed influenza surveillance data by type and subtype (A/H3N2, A/H1N1, and B for 19 temperate countries in the Northern and Southern hemispheres from 1997 to 2005, compiled from a public database maintained by WHO (FluNet. Key findings include patterns of large scale co-occurrence of influenza type A and B, interhemispheric synchrony for subtype A/H3N2, and latitudinal gradients in epidemic timing for type A. These findings highlight the need for more countries to conduct year-round viral surveillance and report reliable incidence data at the type and subtype level, especially in the Tropics.

  6. Risk Factors of Typhoid Infection in the Indonesian Archipelago.

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    Sandra Alba

    Full Text Available Knowledge of risk factors and their relative importance in different settings is essential to develop effective health education material for the prevention of typhoid. In this study, we examine the effect of household level and individual behavioural risk factors on the risk of typhoid in three Indonesian islands (Sulawesi, Kalimantan and Papua in the Eastern Indonesian archipelago encompassing rural, peri-urban and urban areas.We enrolled 933 patients above 10 years of age in a health facility-based case-control study between June 2010 and June 2011. Individuals suspected of typhoid were tested using the typhoid IgM lateral flow assay for the serodiagnosis of typhoid fever followed by blood culture testing. Cases and controls were defined post-recruitment: cases were individuals with a culture or serology positive result (n = 449; controls were individuals negative to both serology and culture, with or without a diagnosis other than typhoid (n = 484. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of household level and individual level behavioural risk factors and we calculated the population attributable fraction (PAF of removing each risk significant independent behavioural risk factor.Washing hands at critical moments of the day and washing hands with soap were strong independent protective factors for typhoid (OR = 0.38 95% CI 0.25 to 0.58 for each unit increase in hand washing frequency score with values between 0 = Never and 3 = Always; OR = 3.16 95% CI = 2.09 to 4.79 comparing washing hands with soap sometimes/never vs. often. These effects were independent of levels of access to water and sanitation. Up to two thirds of cases could be prevented by compliance to these practices (hand washing PAF = 66.8 95% CI 61.4 to 71.5; use of soap PAF = 61.9 95%CI 56.7 to 66.5. Eating food out in food stalls or restaurant was an important risk factor (OR = 6.9 95%CI 4.41 to 10.8 for every unit increase in frequency score.Major gains could

  7. Contra trading in Bursa Malaysia Securities Berhad: a Sharīʿah and legal appraisal

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    Noor Suhaida Kasri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to analyze the practice of contra trading in Bursa Malaysia Securities Berhad. Through a critical examination of the practice, it aims to discuss the issues from the angles of Sharīʿah and Malaysian common law. Design/methodology/approach - The paper uses a qualitative research methodology. The information on the practice of contra trading is obtained through the Bursa Malaysia Securities Berhad’s website and literature as well as series of meetings and discussions held with Bursa Malaysia Securities Berhad. In comprehending and dissecting the Sharīʿah and legal issues, classical along with contemporary Sharīʿah literature including local and international Sharīʿah advisory bodies’ resolutions and standards have been referred to. The Sharīʿah analysis of these issues is further supported by reference to the statute and by-laws of Bursa Malaysia Securities Berhad as well as other related legal literature. Findings - This paper finds that contra trading involves a real sale and purchase of shares; the shares are not taken into the possession of the contra trader, neither physically nor constructively; the liability of shares is not transferred to the contra trader; though the practice of profiting in contra trading may contradict the prohibition on profiting without bearing liability, the permissibility of contra trading could still be argued from the contextual approach of public interest (maṣlaḥah and needs (hājah; and contra trading is not gambling. Research limitations/implications - This paper is limited in its analysis to only Sharīʿah and legal perspectives. It does not cover a thorough empirical and quantitative investigation that would measure the extent of the public needs for contra trading and the real benefits that contra trading brings about to the society in the long run. Such studies will further demonstrate whether contra trading deserves a relaxation from the strict Sharīʿah

  8. Estrogenic and AhR activities in dissolved phase and suspended solids from wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnino, Sonia; Gomez, Elena; Picot, Bernadette; Cavaillès, Vincent; Casellas, Claude; Balaguer, Patrick; Fenet, Hélène

    2010-05-15

    The distribution of estrogen receptor (ERalpha) and Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) activities between the dissolved phase and suspended solids were investigated during wastewater treatment. Three wastewater treatment plants with different treatment technologies (waste stabilization ponds (WSPs), trickling filters (TFs) and activated sludge supplemented with a biofilter system (ASB)) were sampled. Estrogenic and AhR activities were detected in both phases in influents and effluents. Estrogenic and AhR activities in wastewater influents ranged from 41.8 to 79 ng/L E(2) Eq. and from 37.9 to 115.5 ng/L TCDD Eq. in the dissolved phase and from 5.5 to 88.6 ng/g E(2) Eq. and from 15 to 700 ng/g TCDD Eq. in the suspended solids. For both activities, WSP showed greater or similar removal efficiency than ASB and both were much more efficient than TF which had the lowest removal efficiency. Moreover, our data indicate that the efficiency of removal of ER and AhR activities from the suspended solid phase was mainly due to removal of suspended solids. Indeed, ER and AhR activities were detected in the effluent suspended solid phase indicating that suspended solids, which are usually not considered in these types of studies, contribute to environmental contamination by endocrine disrupting compounds and should therefore be routinely assessed for a better estimation of the ER and AhR activities released in the environment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lot 4 AH-64E Apache Attack Helicopter Follow-on Operational Test and Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    engine is tested to determine its Engine Torque Factor ( ETF ) rating.6 To meet contract specifications, a new engine must have an ETF of 1.0. The...published AH-64E operator’s manual estimates performance based on engines with an ETF of 1.0, and pilots normally plan missions anticipating the 717...pound shortfall in hover performance at KPP conditions. The Apache Program Manager reports that new engines are delivered with an average ETF of

  10. Assessing evidence for avian-to-human transmission of influenza A/H9N2 virus in rural farming communities in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, Le Nguyen Minh; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; My, Pham Ha; Huong, Tran Thi Kieu; Chi, Nguyen Thi Yen; Hau Thu, Trang Thi; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Duong, Mai Thuy; Tho, Nguyen Dang; Hoang, Nguyen Dang; Thanh, To Long; Diep, Nguyen Thi; Duong, Nguyen van; Toan, Tran Khanh; Tung, Trinh Son; Mai, Le Quynh; Iqbal, Munir; Wertheim, Heiman; van Doorn, H Rogier; Bryant, Juliet E; The Vizions Consortium

    2017-08-01

    Rural farming communities in northern Vietnam do not routinely practice vaccination for influenza A viruses (IAV) for either humans or poultry, which enables us to study transmission intensity via seroepidemiology. Using samples from a longitudinal cohort of farming households, we determined the number of symptomatic and asymptomatic human infections for seasonal IAV and avian A/H9 over 2 years. As expected, we detected virologically confirmed acute cases of seasonal IAV in humans, as well as large numbers of subclinical seroconversions to A/H1pdm [55/265 (21 %)], A/H3 [95/265 (36 %)] and A/H9 [24/265 (9 %)]. Five of the A/H9 human seroconverters likely represented true infections rather than heterosubtypic immunity, because the individuals seroconverted solely to A/H9. Among co-located poultry, we found significantly higher seroprevalance for A/H5 compared to A/H9 in both chickens and ducks [for northern study sites overall, 337/1105 (30.5 %) seropositive for A/H5 and 123/1105 (11.1 %) seropositive for A/H9].

  11. Disruption of contact inhibition in rat liver epithelial cells by various types of AhR ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondracek, J.; Chramostova, K.; Kozubik, A. [Institute of Biophysics, Brno (Czech Republic); Krcmar, P.; Machala, M. [Veterinary Research Institute, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2004-09-15

    The maintenance of a balance between cell gain and cell loss is essential for proper liver function. The exact role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis of liver cells remains unclear, since ligand-dependent activation of AhR has been shown to induce cell cycle arrest, proliferation, differentiation or apoptosis, depending on the cellular model used. AhR can directly interact with retinoblastoma protein in hepatic cells, forming protein complexes that can efficiently block cell cycle progression by inducing G1 arrest, or to induce the expression of inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases, such as p271. On the other hand, it has been suggested that AhR could play a stimulatory role in cell proliferation, either directly or by mediating a release from contact inhibition. It is now generally accepted that progenitor cells exist in the liver, are activated in various liver diseases and can form a potential target cell population for both tumor initiating and tumor promoting chemicals4. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin (TCDD) has been found to release rat liver epithelial cells from contact inhibition by upregulating cyclin A expression and cyclin A/cdk2 activity. Our previous studies have shown that a number of AhR ligands5,6 can stimulate proliferation of confluent of rat liver epithelial ''stem-like'' WB-F344 cells. Such mechanism could play a role in liver tumor promotion. In the present study, we used flavonoid compounds that have been reported to act either as pure agonists, such as beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), or as partial/complete antagonists of AhR - alpha-naphthoflavone (ANF) and 3'-methoxy-4'-nitroflavone (3'M4'NF), in order to investigate effects of AhR agonists/antagonists on confluent rat liver epithelial cells. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of model flavonoids on the release of rat liver epithelial cells from contact inhibition, and on inducibility of

  12. A Modified AH-FDTD Unconditionally Stable Method Based on High-Order Algorithm

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    Zheng Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The unconditionally stable method, Associated-Hermite FDTD, has attracted more and more attentions in computational electromagnetic for its time-frequency compact property. Because of the fewer orders of AH basis needed in signal reconstruction, the computational efficiency can be improved further. In order to further improve the accuracy of the traditional AH-FDTD, a high-order algorithm is introduced. Using this method, the dispersion error induced by the space grid can be reduced, which makes it possible to set coarser grid. The simulation results show that, on the condition of coarse grid, the waveforms obtained from the proposed method are matched well with the analytic result, and the accuracy of the proposed method is higher than the traditional AH-FDTD. And the efficiency of the proposed method is higher than the traditional FDTD method in analysing 2D waveguide problems with fine-structure.

  13. Identification and simulation evaluation of an AH-64 helicopter hover math model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, J. A.; Watson, D. C.; Tischler, M. B.; Eshow, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    Frequency-domain parameter-identification techniques were used to develop a hover mathematical model of the AH-64 Apache helicopter from flight data. The unstable AH-64 bare-airframe characteristics without a stability-augmentation system were parameterized in the convectional stability-derivative form. To improve the model's vertical response, a simple transfer-function model approximating the effects of dynamic inflow was developed. Additional subcomponents of the vehicle were also modeled and simulated, such as a basic engine response for hover and the vehicle stick dynamic characteristics. The model, with and without stability augmentation, was then evaluated by AH-64 pilots in a moving-base simulation. It was the opinion of the pilots that the simulation was a satisfactory representation of the aircraft for the tasks of interest. The principal negative comment was that height control was more difficult in the simulation than in the aircraft.

  14. Detection of extensive cross-neutralization between pandemic and seasonal A/H1N1 Influenza Viruses using a pseudotype neutralization assay.

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    Béatrice Labrosse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cross-immunity between seasonal and pandemic A/H1N1 influenza viruses remains uncertain. In particular, the extent that previous infection or vaccination by seasonal A/H1N1 viruses can elicit protective immunity against pandemic A/H1N1 is unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Neutralizing titers against seasonal A/H1N1 (A/Brisbane/59/2007 and against pandemic A/H1N1 (A/California/04/2009 were measured using an HIV-1-based pseudovirus neutralization assay. Using this highly sensitive assay, we found that a large fraction of subjects who had never been exposed to pandemic A/H1N1 express high levels of pandemic A/H1N1 neutralizing titers. A significant correlation was seen between neutralization of pandemic A/H1N1 and neutralization of a standard seasonal A/H1N1 strain. Significantly higher pandemic A/H1N1 neutralizing titers were measured in subjects who had received vaccination against seasonal influenza in 2008-2009. Higher pandemic neutralizing titers were also measured in subjects over 60 years of age. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings reveal that the extent of protective cross-immunity between seasonal and pandemic A/H1N1 influenza viruses may be more important than previously estimated. This cross-immunity could provide a possible explanation of the relatively mild profile of the recent influenza pandemic.

  15. Structural Insights into the Association of Hif1 with Histones H2A-H2B Dimer and H3-H4 Tetramer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengying; Liu, Hejun; Gao, Yongxiang; Zhu, Zhongliang; Chen, Zijun; Zheng, Peiyi; Xue, Lu; Li, Jixi; Teng, Maikun; Niu, Liwen

    2016-10-04

    Histone chaperones are critical for guiding specific post-transcriptional modifications of histones, safeguarding the histone deposition (or disassociation) of nucleosome (dis)assembly, and regulating chromatin structures to change gene activities. HAT1-interacting factor 1 (Hif1) has been reported to be an H3-H4 chaperone and to be involved in telomeric silencing and nucleosome (dis)assembly. However, the structural basis for the interaction of Hif1 with histones remains unknown. Here, we report the complex structure of Hif1 binding to H2A-H2B for uncovering the chaperone specificities of Hif1 on binding to both the H2A-H2B dimer and the H3-H4 tetramer. Our findings reveal that Hif1 interacts with the H2A-H2B dimer and the H3-H4 tetramer via distinct mechanisms, suggesting that Hif1 is a pivotal scaffold on alternate binding of H2A-H2B and H3-H4. These specificities are conserved features of the Sim3-Hif1-NASP interrupted tetratricopeptide repeat proteins, which provide clues for investigating their potential roles in nucleosome (dis)assembly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel avian-origin human influenza A(H7N9) can be transmitted between ferrets via respiratory droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lili; Bao, Linlin; Deng, Wei; Dong, Libo; Zhu, Hua; Chen, Ting; Lv, Qi; Li, Fengdi; Yuan, Jing; Xiang, Zhiguang; Gao, Kai; Xu, Yanfeng; Huang, Lan; Li, Yanhong; Liu, Jiangning; Yao, Yanfeng; Yu, Pin; Li, Xiyan; Huang, Weijuan; Zhao, Xiang; Lan, Yu; Guo, Junfeng; Yong, Weidong; Wei, Qiang; Chen, Honglin; Zhang, Lianfeng; Qin, Chuan

    2014-02-15

    The outbreak of human infections caused by novel avian-origin influenza A(H7N9) in China since March 2013 underscores the need to better understand the pathogenicity and transmissibility of these viruses in mammals. In a ferret model, the pathogenicity of influenza A(H7N9) was found to be less than that of an influenza A(H5N1) strain but comparable to that of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1), based on the clinical signs, mortality, virus dissemination, and results of histopathologic analyses. Influenza A(H7N9) could replicate in the upper and lower respiratory tract, the heart, the liver, and the olfactory bulb. It is worth noting that influenza A(H7N9) exhibited a low level of transmission between ferrets via respiratory droplets. There were 4 mutations in the virus isolated from the contact ferret: D678Y in the gene encoding PB2, R157K in the gene encoding hemagglutinin (H3 numbering), I109T in the gene encoding nucleoprotein, and T10I in the gene encoding neuraminidase. These data emphasized that avian-origin influenza A(H7N9) can be transmitted between mammals, highlighting its potential for human-to-human transmissibility.

  17. 2009 A(H1N1 seroconversion rates and risk factors among the general population in Vientiane Capital, Laos.

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    Alexia Kieffer

    Full Text Available To assess 2009 A(H1N1 seroconversion rates and their determinants within an unvaccinated population in Vientiane Capital, Laos.CoPanFlu Laos, a general population cohort of 807 households and 4,072 participants was established in March 2010. Sociodemographic data, epidemiological data, and capillary blood samples were collected from all the household members in March, and again in October 2010, in order to assess the level of antibodies to 2009 A(H1N1 with the haemagglutination inhibition assay. 2009 A(H1N1 seroconversion was defined as a fourfold or greater increase in titre between inclusion and follow-up. Determinants for pandemic influenza infection were studied using the generalized estimating equations model, taking household clustering into account.Between March and November 2010, 3,524 paired sera were tested. Prior to the pandemic, our cohort was almost completely vaccine-naive for seasonal influenza. The overall seroconversion rate among nonvaccinated individuals (n = 2,810 was 14.3% (95%CI [13.0, 15.6], with the highest rate for participants under 20 yo (19.8%, 95%CI [17.4, 22.4] and the lowest rate for participants over 60 yo (6.5%, 95%CI [3.7, 10.4]. Participants with lower baseline titres had significantly higher infection rates, with a dose-effect relationship. Odds ratios (ORs ranged from 76.5 (95%CI [27.1, 215.8], for those with a titre at inclusion of 1∶10, to 8.1 (95%CI [3.3, 20.4], for those with a titre of 1∶40. Having another household member with a titre ≥1∶80 was associated with a higher likelihood of immunity (OR = 3.3, 95%CI [2.8, 3.9].The determinants and age distribution for seroconversion within a vaccine-naive population were similar to those found in developed countries. This pandemic was characterized by strong epidemiological determinants, regardless of geographical zone and level of development. Moreover, we detected pre-existing cross-reacting antibodies in participants over 60 yo, which could

  18. Binding of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to the AhR from various species is essentially irreversible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohonowych, J.; Denison, M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) are a diverse group of widespread, persistent and toxic environmental contaminants that includes the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and related chemicals. Exposure to these compounds results in a variety of biochemical and toxic effects, the majority of which are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). 2,3,7,8- Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is the most potent activator of the AhR and AhR-dependent effects. Interestingly, while a related class of compounds, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), can bind to and activate the AhR, and produce many of the same biological effects as HAHs, they do not cause HAH-like toxicity. This can be due to differences between these two classes of compounds with respect to their AhR binding affinity, metabolic stability, and/or gene expression. PAHs have a lower affinity for the AhR5 and, unlike TCDD, can be readily metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes. In addition to its high affinity for the AhR, TCDD has been shown to stabilize the rat AhR receptor against thermal inactivation and to persistently bind the rat receptor. This persistent occupancy may also contribute to the differential toxicity of HAHs and PAHs. In addition to its biological and toxicological implications, the apparent lack of significant dissociation of TCDD from the AhR also impacts the design and interpretation of competitive binding experiments which assume traditional receptor-ligand equilibrium binding kinetics where binding is reversible and equilibrium of ligand:receptor complex is reached when rates of association and dissociation are equal. In this study we have further examined whether this persistent occupancy is a characteristic of the AhR among different species.

  19. Cholera Toxin Induces Sustained Hyperexcitability in Myenteric, but Not Submucosal, AH Neurons in Guinea Pig Jejunum

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    Joel C. Bornstein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Cholera toxin (CT-induced hypersecretion requires activation of secretomotor pathways in the enteric nervous system (ENS. AH neurons, which have been identified as a population of intrinsic sensory neurons (ISNs, are a source of excitatory input to the secretomotor pathways. We therefore examined effects of CT in the intestinal lumen on myenteric and submucosal AH neurons.Methods: Isolated segments of guinea pig jejunum were incubated for 90 min with saline plus CT (12.5 μg/ml or CT + neurotransmitter antagonist, or CT + tetrodotoxin (TTX in their lumen. After washing CT away, submucosal or myenteric plexus preparations were dissected keeping circumferentially adjacent mucosa intact. Submucosal AH neurons were impaled adjacent to intact mucosa and myenteric AH neurons were impaled adjacent to, more than 5 mm from, and in the absence of intact mucosa. Neuronal excitability was monitored by injecting 500 ms current pulses through the recording electrode.Results: After CT pre-treatment, excitability of myenteric AH neurons adjacent to intact mucosa (n = 29 was greater than that of control neurons (n = 24, but submucosal AH neurons (n = 33, control n = 27 were unaffected. CT also induced excitability increases in myenteric AH neurons impaled distant from the mucosa (n = 6 or in its absence (n = 5. Coincubation with tetrodotoxin or SR142801 (NK3 receptor antagonist, but not SR140333 (NK1 antagonist or granisetron (5-HT3 receptor antagonist prevented the increased excitability induced by CT. Increased excitability was associated with a reduction in the characteristic AHP and an increase in the ADP of these neurons, but not a change in the hyperpolarization-activated inward current, Ih.Conclusions: CT increases excitability of myenteric, but not submucosal, AH neurons. This is neurally mediated and depends on NK3, but not 5-HT3 receptors. Therefore, CT may act to amplify the secretomotor response to CT via an increase in the

  20. Novel archaeal plasmid pAH1 and its interactions with the lipothrixvirus AFV1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basta, Tamara; Smyth, John; Forterre, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    . Although nucleotide sequence comparisons revealed extensive intergenomic exchange during the evolution of archaeal conjugative plasmids, pAH1 was shown to be stably maintained suggesting that the host system is suitable for studying plasmid-virus interactions. AFV1 infection and propagation leads to a loss...... of the circular form of pAH1 and this effect correlates positively with the increase in the intracellular quantity of AFV1 DNA. We infer that the virus inhibits plasmid replication since no pAH1 degradation was observed. This mechanism of archaeal viral inhibition of plasmid propagation is not observed...... in bacteria where relevant bacteriophages either are dependent on a conjugative plasmid for successful infection or are excluded by a resident plasmid....

  1. Essential oils of culinary herbs and spices display agonist and antagonist activities at human aryl hydrocarbon receptor AhR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoňková, Iveta; Dvořák, Zdeněk

    2018-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) of culinary herbs and spices are used to flavor, color and preserve foods and drinks. Dietary intake of EOs is significant, deserving an attention of toxicologists. We examined the effects of 31 EOs of culinary herbs and spices on the transcriptional activity of human aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which is a pivotal xenobiotic sensor, having also multiple roles in human physiology. Tested EOs were sorted out into AhR-inactive ones (14 EOs) and AhR-active ones, including full agonists (cumin, jasmine, vanilla, bay leaf), partial agonists (cloves, dill, thyme, nutmeg, oregano) and antagonists (tarragon, caraway, turmeric, lovage, fennel, spearmint, star anise, anise). Major constituents (>10%) of AhR-active EOs were studied in more detail. We identified AhR partial agonists (carvacrol, ligustilide, eugenol, eugenyl acetate, thymol, ar-turmerone) and antagonists (trans-anethole, butylidine phtalide, R/S-carvones, p-cymene), which account for AhR-mediated activities of EOs of fennel, anise, star anise, caraway, spearmint, tarragon, cloves, dill, turmeric, lovage, thyme and oregano. We also show that AhR-mediated effects of some individual constituents of EOs differ from those manifested in mixtures. In conclusion, EOs of culinary herbs and spices are agonists and antagonists of human AhR, implying a potential for food-drug interactions and interference with endocrine pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A purely infinite AH-algebra and an application to AF-embeddability

    OpenAIRE

    Rordam, Mikael

    2002-01-01

    We show that there exists a purely infinite AH-algebra. The AH-algebra arises as an inductive limit of C*-algebras of the form C_0([0,1),M_k) and it absorbs the Cuntz algebra O_\\infty tensorially. Thus one can reach an O_\\infty-absorbing C*-algebra as an inductive limit of the finite and elementary C*-algebras C_0([0,1),M_k). As an application we give a new proof of a recent theorem of Ozawa that the cone over any separable exact C*-algebra is AF-embeddable, and we exhibit a concrete AF-algeb...

  3. Mortality burden of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in France: comparison to seasonal influenza and the A/H3N2 pandemic.

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    Magali Lemaitre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mortality burden of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic remains unclear in many countries due to delays in reporting of death statistics. We estimate the age- and cause-specific excess mortality impact of the pandemic in France, relative to that of other countries and past epidemic and pandemic seasons. METHODS: We applied Serfling and Poisson excess mortality approaches to model weekly age- and cause-specific mortality rates from June 1969 through May 2010 in France. Indicators of influenza activity, time trends, and seasonal terms were included in the models. We also reviewed the literature for country-specific estimates of 2009 pandemic excess mortality rates to characterize geographical differences in the burden of this pandemic. RESULTS: The 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic was associated with 1.0 (95% Confidence Intervals (CI 0.2-1.9 excess respiratory deaths per 100,000 population in France, compared to rates per 100,000 of 44 (95% CI 43-45 for the A/H3N2 pandemic and 2.9 (95% CI 2.3-3.7 for average inter-pandemic seasons. The 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic had a 10.6-fold higher impact than inter-pandemic seasons in people aged 5-24 years and 3.8-fold lower impact among people over 65 years. CONCLUSIONS: The 2009 pandemic in France had low mortality impact in most age groups, relative to past influenza seasons, except in school-age children and young adults. The historical A/H3N2 pandemic was associated with much larger mortality impact than the 2009 pandemic, across all age groups and outcomes. Our 2009 pandemic excess mortality estimates for France fall within the range of previous estimates for high-income regions. Based on the analysis of several mortality outcomes and comparison with laboratory-confirmed 2009/H1N1 deaths, we conclude that cardio-respiratory and all-cause mortality lack precision to accurately measure the impact of this pandemic in high-income settings and that use of more specific mortality outcomes is important to obtain reliable

  4. Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and alcoholic hepatitis (AH): cascade of events, clinical aspects, and pharmacotherapy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf

    2018-06-01

    Clinicians caring for patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH) are often confronted with the question of the best pharmacotherapy to be used. Areas covered: This article covers metabolic aspects of alcohol as the basis of understanding pharmacotherapy and to facilitate choosing the drug therapeutic options for patients with severe AH. Expert opinion: Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and alcoholic hepatitis (AH) as terms are often used interchangeably in scientific literature but a stringent differentiation is recommended for proper clarity. As opposed to ASH, the clinical course of AH is often severe and requires an effective drug treatment strategy, in addition to absolute alcohol abstinence and nutritional support. Drug options include corticosteroids as a first choice and pentoxifylline, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase, as a second line therapy, especially in patients with contraindications for a corticosteroid therapy such as infections or sepsis. At seven days under corticosteroids, treatment should be terminated in non-responders, and patients must then be evaluated for liver transplantation. Pentoxifylline is not effective as a rescue therapy for these patients. Other treatments such as infliximab, propylthiouracil, N-acetylcysteine, silymarin, colchicine, insulin and glucagon, oxandrolone, testosterone, and polyunsaturated lecithin are not effective in severe AH. For liver transplantation, few patients will be eligible.

  5. Epidemia de influenza A(H1N1 en la Argentina: Experiencia del Hospital Nacional Profesor Alejandro Posadas Influenza A(H1N1 epidemic in Argentina: Experience in a National General Hospital (Hospital Nacional Profesor Alejandro Posadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la preparación y la atención médica durante la epidemia de influenza A(H1N1 (junio 2009 en un hospital general de agudos, público, de alta complejidad; con diagnóstico de laboratorio, internación general y cuidados intensivos (UCI. Se elaboró un plan para aumentar la capacidad asistencial, reasignar recursos y garantizar la bioseguridad. La consulta fue 7.1 ± 3.8 veces mayor que en 2006-2008. La detección de casos de A(H1N1 fue confirmada por PCR-RT en 186/486 (38.3% pacientes internados y en 56/176 (31.8% ambulatorios. Internados: mediana de edad 20 años; 75% menores de 45 y 32.3% menores de 15. Mortalidad global: 6.8%; 9.1% en los positivos. Adultos: recepción en un área de atención ambulatoria, internación (aislamiento y ventilación mecánica. Sala general: ingresaron 110 pacientes (5 veces más que 1999-2006 con saturación de oxígeno The preparation and medical care during the influenza A(H1N1 outbreak (June 2009 in a high complexity level, public, general hospital with laboratory diagnosis, general and intensive care (ICU hospitalization is described. A plan was designed to increase the hospital's surge capacity, reallocate resources and guarantee bio-safety. The number of consultations was 7.1 ± 3.8 times higher than during June 2006-2008. Detection of A(H1N1 cases were confirmed by PCR-RT in 186/486 (38.3% in-patients and 56/176 (31.8% out-patients. Median age among in-patients was 20 years; 75% < 45 and 32.3% < 15. Global mortality: 6.8%; 9.1% among confirmed cases. Adults were directed to a reception area of out-patient care, hospitalization (isolation and mechanical ventilation. General ward: 110 patients with oxygen saturation < 96% and/or risk factors (65.5% had asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obesity, pregnancy or other were admitted (5 times more than in 1999-2006. Chest X-ray showed lung infiltrates and/or lung consolidation in 97.3%. Severe hypoxemia: 43.5%. There were no significant

  6. Activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR leads to reciprocal epigenetic regulation of FoxP3 and IL-17 expression and amelioration of experimental colitis.

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    Narendra P Singh

    Full Text Available Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR, a transcription factor of the bHLH/PAS family, is well characterized to regulate the biochemical and toxic effects of environmental chemicals. More recently, AhR activation has been shown to regulate the differentiation of Foxp3(+ Tregs as well as Th17 cells. However, the precise mechanisms are unclear. In the current study, we investigated the effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a potent AhR ligand, on epigenetic regulation leading to altered Treg/Th17 differentiation, and consequent suppression of colitis.Dextran sodium sulphate (DSS administration induced acute colitis in C57BL/6 mice, as shown by significant weight loss, shortening of colon, mucosal ulceration, and increased presence of CXCR3(+ T cells as well as inflammatory cytokines. Interestingly, a single dose of TCDD (25 µg/kg body weight was able to attenuate all of the clinical and inflammatory markers of colitis. Analysis of T cells in the lamina propria (LP and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN, during colitis, revealed decreased presence of Tregs and increased induction of Th17 cells, which was reversed following TCDD treatment. Activation of T cells from AhR(+/+ but not AhR (-/- mice, in the presence of TCDD, promoted increased differentiation of Tregs while inhibiting Th17 cells. Analysis of MLN or LP cells during colitis revealed increased methylation of CpG islands of Foxp3 and demethylation of IL-17 promoters, which was reversed following TCDD treatment.These studies demonstrate for the first time that AhR activation promotes epigenetic regulation thereby influencing reciprocal differentiation of Tregs and Th17 cells, and amelioration of inflammation.

  7. Psychological response of family members of patients hospitalised for influenza A/H1N1 in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizarrarás-Rivas, Jesús; Vargas-Mendoza, Jaime E; Mayoral-García, Maurilio; Matadamas-Zarate, Cuauhtémoc; Elizarrarás-Cruz, Anaid; Taylor, Melanie; Agho, Kingsley

    2010-12-03

    The A/H1N1 pandemic originated in Mexico in April 2009, amid high uncertainty, social and economic disruption, and media reports of panic. The aim of this research project was to evaluate the psychological response of family primary caregivers of patients hospitalised in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with suspected influenza A/H1N1 to establish whether there was empirical evidence of high adverse psychological response, and to identify risk factors for such a response. If such evidence was found, a secondary aim was to develop a specific early intervention of psychological support for these individuals, to reduce distress and possibly lessen the likelihood of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the longer term. Psychological assessment questionnaires were administered to the family primary caregivers of patients hospitalised in the ICU in the General Hospital of Zone 1 of the Mexican Institute for Social Security (IMSS), Oaxaca, Mexico with suspected influenza A/H1N1, during the month of November 2009. The main outcome measures were ratings of reported perceived stress (PSS-10), depression (CES-D), and death anxiety (DAQ). Data were subjected to simple and multiple linear regression analysis to identify risk factors for adverse psychological response. Elevated levels of perceived stress and depression, compared to population normative data, and moderate levels of death anxiety were noted. Levels of depression were similar to those found in comparable studies of family members of ICU patients admitted for other conditions. Multiple regression analysis indicated that increasing age and non-spousal family relationship were significantly associated with depression and perceived stress. Female gender, increasing age, and higher levels of education were significantly associated with high death anxiety. Comparisons with data collected in previous studies in the same hospital ICU with groups affected by a range of other medical conditions indicated that the

  8. Inhibition of Vibrio anguillarum by Pseudomonas fluorescens AH2, a possible probiotic treatment of fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Melchiorsen, Jette; Spanggaard, Bettina

    1999-01-01

    To study the possible use of probiotics in fish farming, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antagonism of antibacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens strain AH2 against the fish- pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum. As iron is important in virulence and bacterial interactions, the effect....... fluorescens AH2 inhibited the growth of V. anguillarum during coculture, independently of the iron concentration, when the initial count of the antagonist was 100 to 1,000 times greater that of the fish pathogen. These in vitro results were successfully repeated in vivo. A probiotic effect in vivo was tested...... by exposing rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss Walbaum) to P. fluorescens AH2 at a density of 10(5) CFU/ml for 5 days before a challenge with V. anguillarum at 10(4) to 10(5) CFU/ml for 1 h. Some fish were also exposed to P. fluorescens AH2 at 10(7) CFU/ml during the 1-h infection. The combined probiotic...

  9. TCDD and a putative endogenous AhR ligand, ITE, elicit the same immediate changes in gene expression in mouse lung fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Ellen C; Welle, Stephen L; Gasiewicz, Thomas A

    2010-03-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor, mediates toxicity of several classes of xenobiotics and also has important physiological roles in differentiation, reproduction, and immunity, although the endogenous ligand(s) mediating these functions is/are as yet unidentified. One candidate endogenous ligand, 2-(1'H-indolo-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE), is a potent AhR agonist in vitro, activates the murine AhR in vivo, but does not induce toxicity. We hypothesized that ITE and the toxic ligand, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), may modify transcription of different sets of genes to account for their different toxicity. To test this hypothesis, primary mouse lung fibroblasts were exposed to 0.5muM ITE, 0.2nM TCDD, or vehicle for 4 h, and total gene expression was evaluated using microarrays. After this short-term and low-dose treatment, several hundred genes were changed significantly, and the response to ITE and TCDD was remarkably similar, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Induced gene sets included the expected battery of AhR-dependent xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, as well as several sets that reflect the inflammatory role of lung fibroblasts. Real time quantitative RT-qPCR assay of several selected genes confirmed these microarray data and further suggested that there may be kinetic differences in expression between ligands. These data suggest that ITE and TCDD elicit an analogous change in AhR conformation such that the initial transcription response is the same. Furthermore, if the difference in toxicity between TCDD and ITE is mediated by differences in gene expression, then it is likely that secondary changes enabled by the persistent TCDD, but not by the shorter lived ITE, are responsible.

  10. Enhanced genetic characterization of influenza A(H3N2) viruses and vaccine effectiveness by genetic group, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Brendan; Zimmerman, Richard K.; Gubareva, Larisa V.; Garten, Rebecca J.; Chung, Jessie R.; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Jackson, Michael L.; Jackson, Lisa A.; Monto, Arnold S.; Ohmit, Suzanne E.; Belongia, Edward A.; McLean, Huong Q.; Gaglani, Manjusha; Piedra, Pedro A.; Mishin, Vasiliy P.; Chesnokov, Anton P.; Spencer, Sarah; Thaker, Swathi N.; Barnes, John R.; Foust, Angie; Sessions, Wendy; Xu, Xiyan; Katz, Jacqueline; Fry, Alicia M.

    2018-01-01

    Background During the 2014–15 US influenza season, expanded genetic characterization of circulating influenza A(H3N2) viruses was used to assess the impact of genetic variability of influenza A(H3N2) viruses on influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE). Methods A novel pyrosequencing assay was used to determine genetic group based on hemagglutinin (HA) gene sequences of influenza A(H3N2) viruses from patients enrolled US Flu Vaccine Effectiveness network sites. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated using a test-negative design comparing vaccination among patients infected with influenza A(H3N2) viruses and uninfected patients. Results Among 9710 enrollees, 1868 (19%) tested positive for influenza A(H3N2); genetic characterization of 1397 viruses showed 1134 (81%) belonged to one HA genetic group (3C.2a) of antigenically drifted H3N2 viruses. Effectiveness of 2014–15 influenza vaccination varied by A(H3N2) genetic group from 1% (95% confidence interval [CI], −14% to 14%) against illness caused by antigenically drifted A(H3N2) group 3C.2a viruses versus 44% (95% CI, 16% to 63%) against illness caused by vaccine-like A(H3N2) group 3C.3b viruses. Conclusion Effectiveness of 2014–15 influenza vaccination varied by genetic group of influenza A(H3N2) virus. Changes in hemagglutinin genes related to antigenic drift were associated with reduced vaccine effectiveness. PMID:27190176

  11. Spinal Pain and Occupational Disability: A Cohort Study of British Apache AH Mk1 Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    British RW community. 33 References Apache AH Mk1. 2012. Agusta Westland. http://www.agustawestland.com/ product /apache-ah- mk1-0. Ang, B., and...muscles Physical ex and stretching Continued pt and stretching exercises Use pt session included pumpkin bobs to stretch the neck. No effects noticed

  12. Spatial and temporal characteristics of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Viboud, Cécile; Munayco, Cesar V; Gómez, Jorge; Simonsen, Lone; Miller, Mark A; Tamerius, James; Fiestas, Victor; Halsey, Eric S; Laguna-Torres, Victor A

    2011-01-01

    Highly refined surveillance data on the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic are crucial to quantify the spatial and temporal characteristics of the pandemic. There is little information about the spatial-temporal dynamics of pandemic influenza in South America. Here we provide a quantitative description of the age-specific morbidity pandemic patterns across administrative areas of Peru. We used daily cases of influenza-like-illness, tests for A/H1N1 influenza virus infections, and laboratory-confirmed A/H1N1 influenza cases reported to the epidemiological surveillance system of Peru's Ministry of Health from May 1 to December 31, 2009. We analyzed the geographic spread of the pandemic waves and their association with the winter school vacation period, demographic factors, and absolute humidity. We also estimated the reproduction number and quantified the association between the winter school vacation period and the age distribution of cases. The national pandemic curve revealed a bimodal winter pandemic wave, with the first peak limited to school age children in the Lima metropolitan area, and the second peak more geographically widespread. The reproduction number was estimated at 1.6-2.2 for the Lima metropolitan area and 1.3-1.5 in the rest of Peru. We found a significant association between the timing of the school vacation period and changes in the age distribution of cases, while earlier pandemic onset was correlated with large population size. By contrast there was no association between pandemic dynamics and absolute humidity. Our results indicate substantial spatial variation in pandemic patterns across Peru, with two pandemic waves of varying timing and impact by age and region. Moreover, the Peru data suggest a hierarchical transmission pattern of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 driven by large population centers. The higher reproduction number of the first pandemic wave could be explained by high contact rates among school-age children, the age group most affected

  13. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of the 2009 A/H1N1 Influenza Pandemic in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Viboud, Cécile; Munayco, Cesar V.; Gómez, Jorge; Simonsen, Lone; Miller, Mark A.; Tamerius, James; Fiestas, Victor; Halsey, Eric S.; Laguna-Torres, Victor A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Highly refined surveillance data on the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic are crucial to quantify the spatial and temporal characteristics of the pandemic. There is little information about the spatial-temporal dynamics of pandemic influenza in South America. Here we provide a quantitative description of the age-specific morbidity pandemic patterns across administrative areas of Peru. Methods We used daily cases of influenza-like-illness, tests for A/H1N1 influenza virus infections, and laboratory-confirmed A/H1N1 influenza cases reported to the epidemiological surveillance system of Peru's Ministry of Health from May 1 to December 31, 2009. We analyzed the geographic spread of the pandemic waves and their association with the winter school vacation period, demographic factors, and absolute humidity. We also estimated the reproduction number and quantified the association between the winter school vacation period and the age distribution of cases. Results The national pandemic curve revealed a bimodal winter pandemic wave, with the first peak limited to school age children in the Lima metropolitan area, and the second peak more geographically widespread. The reproduction number was estimated at 1.6–2.2 for the Lima metropolitan area and 1.3–1.5 in the rest of Peru. We found a significant association between the timing of the school vacation period and changes in the age distribution of cases, while earlier pandemic onset was correlated with large population size. By contrast there was no association between pandemic dynamics and absolute humidity. Conclusions Our results indicate substantial spatial variation in pandemic patterns across Peru, with two pandemic waves of varying timing and impact by age and region. Moreover, the Peru data suggest a hierarchical transmission pattern of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 driven by large population centers. The higher reproduction number of the first pandemic wave could be explained by high contact rates among school

  14. Metabolomics analyses identify platelet activating factors and heme breakdown products as Lassa fever biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor V Gale

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lassa fever afflicts tens of thousands of people in West Africa annually. The rapid progression of patients from febrile illness to fulminant syndrome and death provides incentive for development of clinical prognostic markers that can guide case management. The small molecule profile of serum from febrile patients triaged to the Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Ward at Kenema Government Hospital in Sierra Leone was assessed using untargeted Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. Physiological dysregulation resulting from Lassa virus (LASV infection occurs at the small molecule level. Effects of LASV infection on pathways mediating blood coagulation, and lipid, amino acid, nucleic acid metabolism are manifest in changes in the levels of numerous metabolites in the circulation. Several compounds, including platelet activating factor (PAF, PAF-like molecules and products of heme breakdown emerged as candidates that may prove useful in diagnostic assays to inform better care of Lassa fever patients.

  15. Case of seasonal reassortant A(H1N2) influenza virus infection, the Netherlands, March 2018.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Adam; Swaan, Corien M; Voerknecht, Martin; Jusic, Edin; van den Brink, Sharon; Wijsman, Lisa A; Voordouw, Bettie Cg; Donker, Gé A; Sleven, Jacqueline; Dorigo-Zetsma, Wendelien W; Svraka, Sanela; van Boven, Michiel; Haverkate, Manon R; Timen, Aura; van Dissel, Jaap T; Koopmans, Marion Pg; Bestebroer, Theo M; Fouchier, Ron Am

    2018-04-01

    A seasonal reassortant A(H1N2) influenza virus harbouring genome segments from seasonal influenza viruses A(H1N1)pdm09 (HA and NS) and A(H3N2) (PB2, PB1, PA, NP, NA and M) was identified in March 2018 in a 19-months-old patient with influenza-like illness (ILI) who presented to a general practitioner participating in the routine sentinel surveillance of ILI in the Netherlands. The patient recovered fully. Further epidemiological and virological investigation did not reveal additional cases.

  16. Insights into the Indian peanut genotypes for ahFAD2 gene polymorphism regulating its oleic and linoleic acid fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagwat Nawade

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In peanut (Arachis hypogaea L., the customization of fatty acid profile is an evolving area to fulfil the nutritional needs in the modern market. A total of 174 peanut genotypes, including 167 Indian cultivars, 6 advanced breeding lines and ‘SunOleic’‒ a double mutant line, were investigated using AS-PCRs, CAPS and gene sequencing for the ahFAD2 allele polymorphism, along with its fatty acid compositions. Of these, 80 genotypes were found having substitution (448G>A mutation only in ahFAD2A gene, while none recorded 1-bp insertion (441_442insA mutation in ahFAD2B gene. Moreover, 22 wild peanut accessions found lacking both the mutations. Among botanical types, the ahFAD2A mutation was more frequent in ssp. hypogaea (89% than in ssp. fastigiata (17%. This single allele mutation, found affecting not only oleic to linoleic acid fluxes, but also the composition of other fatty acids in the genotypes studied. Repeated use of a few selected genotypes in the Indian varietal development programs were also eminently reflected in its ahFAD2 allele polymorphism. Absence of known mutations in the wild-relatives indicated the possible origin of these mutations, after the allotetraploidization of cultivated peanut. The SNP analysis of both ahFAD2A and ahFAD2B genes, revealed haplotype diversity of 1.05% and 0.95%, while Ka/Ks ratio of 0.36 and 0.39 respectively, indicating strong purifying selection pressure on these genes. Cluster analysis, using ahFAD2 gene SNPs, showed presence of both mutant and non-mutant genotypes in the same cluster, which might be due the presence of ahFAD2 gene families. This investigation provided insights into the large number of Indian peanut genotypes, covering various aspects related to O/L flux regulation and ahFAD2 gene polymorphism.

  17. Detection of avian influenza A(H7N9 virus from live poultry markets in Guangzhou, China: a surveillance report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongqiu Chen

    Full Text Available A virologic surveillance program for A(H7N9 virus was conducted from April 15, 2013 to February 14, 2014 in Guangzhou, aiming to clarify the geographical distribution of A(H7N9 viruses among live poultry markets (LPMs and poultry farms in Guangzhou. Virological and serological surveys of poultry workers were also conducted to evaluate the risk of poultry-to-human transmission of the A(H7N9 virus.36 retail LPMs, 6 wholesale LPMs and 8 poultry farms were involved in our surveillance program. About 20 live poultry and environmental samples were obtained from each surveillance site at every sampling time. Different environmental samples were collected to represent different poultry-related work activities. RT-PCR and virus culture were performed to identify the A(H7N9 virus. Hemagglutinin inhibition assay and RT-PCR were conducted to detect possible A(H7N9 infection among poultry workers.A total of 8900 live poultry and environmental samples were collected, of which 131(1.5% were tested positive for A(H7N9 virus. 44.4% (16/36 of retail LPMs and 50.0% (3/6 of wholesale LPMs were confirmed to be contaminated. No positive samples was detected from poultry farms. A significant higher positive sample rate was found in environmental samples related to poultry selling (2.6% and slaughtering (2.4%, compared to poultry holding (0.9%. Correspondingly, A(H7N9 viruses were isolated most frequently from slaughter zone. In addition, 316 poultry workers associated with the 19 contaminated-LPMs were recruited and a low seroprevalence (1.6% of antibody against A(H7N9 virus was detected. An asymptomatic A(H7N9 infection was also identified by RT-PCR.Our study highlights the importance of conducting effective surveillance for A(H7N9 virus and provides evidence to support the assumption that slaughtering is the key process for the propagation of A(H7N9 virus in retail LPMs. Moreover, the ability of A(H7N9 virus to cross species barrier is proved to be still limited.

  18. Preliminary Epidemiology of Human Infections with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, China, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Tan, Yi; Kang, Min; Liu, Fuqiang; Ren, Ruiqi; Wang, Yali; Chen, Tao; Yang, Yiping; Li, Chao; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Hengjiao; Li, Dan; Greene, Carolyn M; Zhou, Suizan; Iuliano, A Danielle; Havers, Fiona; Ni, Daxin; Wang, Dayan; Feng, Zijian; Uyeki, Timothy M; Li, Qun

    2017-08-01

    We compared the characteristics of cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A(H7N9) virus infections in China. HPAI A(H7N9) case-patients were more likely to have had exposure to sick and dead poultry in rural areas and were hospitalized earlier than were LPAI A(H7N9) case-patients.

  19. Influence of Shari'ah on Socio-Cultural and Economic Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the socio-economic influence of Shari'ah marketing practices in Northwestern ... production, societal marketing, marketing orientation and selling practices were correlated with ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  20. Niños hospitalizados con neumonía por influenza AH1N11/2009 pandémico en un hospital de referencia de Perú Children hospitalized with influenza pneumonia AH1N1/2009 pandemic in the INSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Miranda-Choque

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar las características clínicas y demográficas de la neumonía por el virus de influenza AH1N1/2009 pandémico en un hospital de referencia de Perú. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio serie de casos en niños hospitalizados por neumonía por influenza AH1N1/2009 pandémico en un hospital de referencia. Revisamos las historias clínicas entre los meses de junio a septiembre 2009. Todos los casos tuvieron confirmación virológica. Resultados. Se encontró 74 casos de neumonía por el virus de Influenza AH1N1/2009 pandémico (NVIp, de los cuales 50 tuvieron el diagnóstico de neumonía adquirida en la comunidad viral (NACv y 24 con neumonía nosocomial viral (NNv de los cuales 16 requirieron ventilación mecánica. Fallecieron 12, todos ellos con antecedentes de comorbilidad. Los casos NNv presentaron asociación estadística con mortalidad. En los casos NACv, los menores de 6 años representaron 72 % (36/50. La mediana de tiempo de enfermedad fue de 5 días. Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron fiebre, tos, rinorrea. Recibieron oseltamivir el 82 %. En la radiografía de tórax el 48 % de los casos presentó infiltrado en parches y el 44 % infiltrado intersticial en la radiografía de tórax. La proteína C reactiva (PCR mayor a 10mg/L tuvo una asociación significativa con insuficiencia respiratoria (p ObjectiveTo determine the clinical and demographic characteristics of pneumonia with influenza virus AH1N1/2009 pandemic at the National Institute of Child. Methods. Retrospective case series in children hospitalized for influenza pneumonia pandemic AH1N1/2009 in a pediatric hospital. Reviewed the medical records between the months of June to September 2009. All cases had virological confirmation, we describe the clinical characteristics and conditions of severity. Results. A total of 74 children of pneumonia with influenza virus AH1N1/2009 pandemic (NVIp, of those 50 were community acquire pneumonia viral (NACv

  1. Quantitative autoradiography of brain binding sites for the vesicular acetylcholine transport blocker 2-(4-phenylpiperidino)cyclohexanol (AH5183)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marien, M.R.; Parsons, S.M.; Altar, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    2-(4-Phenylpiperidino)cyclohexanol (AH5183) is a noncompetitive and potent inhibitor of high-affinity acetylcholine transport into cholinergic vesicles. It is reported here that [ 3 H]AH5183 binds specifically and saturably to slide-mounted sections of the rat forebrain (Kd = 1.1 to 2.2 X 10(-8) M; Bmax = 286 to 399 fmol/mg of protein). The association and dissociation rate constants for [ 3 H]AH5183 binding are 8.6 X 10(6) M-1 X min-1 and 0.18 min-1, respectively. Bound [ 3 H]AH5183 can be displaced by nonradioactive AH5183 and by the structural analog (2 alpha,3 beta,4A beta,8A alpha)-decahydro-3-(4-phenyl-1-piperidinyl)-2- naphthalenol but not by 10 microM concentrations of the cholinergic drugs acetylcholine, choline, atropine, hexamethonium, eserine, or hemicholinium-3 or by the structurally related compounds 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine, (+/-)-N-allylnormetazocine (SKF 10,047), levoxadrol, or dexoxadrol. Quantitative autoradiography reveals that [ 3 H]AH5183 binding sites are distributed heterogenously throughout the rat forebrain and are highly localized to cholinergic nerve terminal regions. At the level of the caudate nucleus-putamen, the highest concentrations of saturable [ 3 H]AH5183 binding (713-751 fmol/mg of protein) are found in the vertical limb of the diagonal band and the olfactory tubercle, with lesser amounts (334-516 fmol/mg of protein) in the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, superficial layers of the cerebral cortex, and the primary olfactory cortex. At day 7 after transsection of the left fimbria, [ 3 H]AH5183 binding and choline acetyltransferase activity in the left hippocampus were reduced by 33 +/- 6% and 61 +/- 7%, respectively. These findings indicate that [ 3 H]AH5183 binds to a unique recognition site in rat brain that is topographically associated with cholinergic nerve terminals

  2. A large proportion of esophageal cancer cases and the incidence difference between regions are attributable to lifestyle risk factors in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.; Veer, P. van 't; Zhang, Z.F.; Wang, X.S.; Gu, X.P.; Han, R.Q.; Yang, J.; Zhang, X.F.; Liu, A.M.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.; Zhao, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    A population-based case-control study was conducted in a high-risk area (Dafeng) and a low-risk area (Ganyu) of Jiangsu province, China. In this analysis, the population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated to quantify the etiology of risk factors; the relative attributable risk (RAR) was

  3. Pemetaan Perkembangan Moral Mahasiswa Binus ditinjau dari Perspektif Kohlberg (Studi Kasus Terhadap 10 Mahasiswa di Kelas 04 Paf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Christiana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Learning means changing. Conditions of learning rely on a person's organizational thought against the learning process. One’s organizational thought is categorized into three major categories, each of which is divided into two phases: pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional. The teaching world, not least Bina Nusantara university, should play a role in developing the organizational thought /moral development of every person whom becomes the believer. This moral mapping may be information underlying the learning model. This mapping is generated through qualitative research of 10 Bina Nusantara university students, grade 04, PAF. Data collection technique used observational-partisipative method with the instrument of three moral dilemmas and Kohlberg’s moral stage development indicators. The results in the form of mapping of moral development is reported in the form of pie charts moral The study also resulted in the proposal of moral learning model that can be tested in subsequent research. 

  4. Household transmission of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in the pandemic and post-pandemic seasons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Casado

    Full Text Available The transmission of influenza viruses occurs person to person and is facilitated by contacts within enclosed environments such as households. The aim of this study was to evaluate secondary attack rates and factors associated with household transmission of laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in the pandemic and post-pandemic seasons.During the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 influenza seasons, 76 sentinel physicians in Navarra, Spain, took nasopharyngeal and pharyngeal swabs from patients diagnosed with influenza-like illness. A trained nurse telephoned households of those patients who were laboratory-confirmed for influenza A(H1N1pdm09 to ask about the symptoms, risk factors and vaccination status of each household member.In the 405 households with a patient laboratory-confirmed for influenza A(H1N1pdm09, 977 susceptible contacts were identified; 16% of them (95% CI 14-19% presented influenza-like illness and were considered as secondary cases. The secondary attack rate was 14% in 2009-2010 and 19% in the 2010-2011 season (p=0.049, an increase that mainly affected persons with major chronic conditions. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the risk of being a secondary case was higher in the 2010-2011 season than in the 2009-2010 season (adjusted odds ratio: 1.72; 95% CI 1.17-2.54, and in children under 5 years, with a decreasing risk in older contacts. Influenza vaccination was associated with lesser incidence of influenza-like illness near to statistical significance (adjusted odds ratio: 0.29; 95% CI 0.08-1.03.The secondary attack rate in households was higher in the second season than in the first pandemic season. Children had a greater risk of infection. Preventive measures should be maintained in the second pandemic season, especially in high-risk persons.

  5. The AhR Ligand, TCDD, Regulates Androgen Receptor Activity Differently in Androgen-Sensitive versus Castration-Resistant Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ghotbaddini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The reported biological effects of TCDD include induction of drug metabolizing enzymes, wasting syndrome and tumor promotion. TCDD elicits most of its effects through binding the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR. TCDD induced degradation of AhR has been widely reported and requires ubiquitination of the protein. The rapid depletion of AhR following TCDD activation serves as a mechanism to modulate AhR mediated gene induction. In addition to inducing AhR degradation, TCDD has been reported to induce degradation of hormone receptors. The studies reported here, evaluate the effect of TCDD exposure on androgen receptor (AR expression and activity in androgen-sensitive LNCaP and castration-resistant C4-2 prostate cancer cells. Our results show that TCDD exposure does not induce AhR or AR degradation in C4-2 cells. However, both AhR and AR are degraded in LNCaP cells following TCDD exposure. In addition, TCDD enhances AR phosphorylation and induces expression of AR responsive genes in LNCaP cells. Our data reveals that TCDD effect on AR expression and activity differs in androgen-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer cell models.

  6. Penyelesaian Sengketa antara Bank Sharî‘ah dengan Nasabah Bermasalah melalui Badan Arbitrase Sharî‘ah Nasional (BASYARNAS menurut UU No. 30 tahun 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyowati Sulistyowati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with dispute settlement between Bank Syari’ah and its customers through the National Shari’ah Arbitration Board (BASYARNAS. It focuses to elaborate the procedures of dispute settlement between Bank Syari’ah and its customers of financing from the perspective of Islamic law according to Bill No. 30/1999 above law No. 30 year 1999. Based on procedures as mentioned in the bill with regard to arbitration and alternative dispute resolution, Basyarnas, in proofing and resolving cases, has fulfilled the procedures and satisfied the conflicting parties with justice, so there is no need to appeal and reconsideration. This means that Basyarnas has conducted dispute resolution according to the existing procedures. The dispute settlement has also been in accordance with the Qur’ân and other Islamic legal rules which consist of the principles of power and mandate applied by the arbitrator in deciding and resolving the dispute. The board—as an independent institution—has setttled the disputes on the basis of justice for all parties, rejected the act of bribery since the cost is measurable. In addition, Basyarnas also gives strong emphasis on the principle of equality, friendship, consistence and response-bility in resolving disputes.

  7. Canadian military personnel's population attributable fractions of mental disorders and mental health service use associated with combat and peacekeeping operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Jitender; Belik, Shay-Lee; Afifi, Tracie O; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Cox, Brian J; Stein, Murray B

    2008-12-01

    We investigated mental disorders, suicidal ideation, self-perceived need for treatment, and mental health service utilization attributable to exposure to peacekeeping and combat operations among Canadian military personnel. With data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.2 Canadian Forces Supplement, a cross-sectional population-based survey of active Canadian military personnel (N = 8441), we estimated population attributable fractions (PAFs) of adverse mental health outcomes. Exposure to either combat or peacekeeping operations was associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (men: PAF = 46.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 27.3, 62.7; women: PAF = 23.6%; 95% CI = 9.2, 40.1), 1 or more mental disorder assessed in the survey (men: PAF = 9.3%; 95% CI = 0.4, 18.1; women: PAF = 6.1%; 95% CI = 0.0, 13.4), and a perceived need for information (men: PAF = 12.3%; 95% CI = 4.1, 20.6; women: PAF = 7.9%; 95% CI = 1.3, 15.5). A substantial proportion, but not the majority, of mental health-related outcomes were attributable to combat or peacekeeping deployment. Future studies should assess traumatic events and their association with physical injury during deployment, premilitary factors, and postdeployment psychosocial factors that may influence soldiers' mental health.

  8. The influence of climatic conditions on the transmission dynamics of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Towers, Sherry; Viboud, Cécile; Fuentes, Rodrigo; Sotomayor, Viviana; Simonsen, Lone; Miller, Mark A; Lima, Mauricio; Villarroel, Claudia; Chiu, Monica; Villarroel, Jose E; Olea, Andrea

    2012-11-13

    The role of demographic factors, climatic conditions, school cycles, and connectivity patterns in shaping the spatio-temporal dynamics of pandemic influenza is not clearly understood. Here we analyzed the spatial, age and temporal evolution of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in Chile, a southern hemisphere country covering a long and narrow strip comprising latitudes 17°S to 56°S. We analyzed the dissemination patterns of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic across 15 regions of Chile based on daily hospitalizations for severe acute respiratory disease and laboratory confirmed A/H1N1 influenza infection from 01-May to 31-December, 2009. We explored the association between timing of pandemic onset and peak pandemic activity and several geographical and demographic indicators, school vacations, climatic factors, and international passengers. We also estimated the reproduction number (R) based on the growth rate of the exponential pandemic phase by date of symptoms onset, estimated using maximum likelihood methods. While earlier pandemic onset was associated with larger population size, there was no association with connectivity, demographic, school or climatic factors. In contrast, there was a latitudinal gradient in peak pandemic timing, representing a 16-39-day lag in disease activity from the southern regions relative to the northernmost region (P humidity explained 68.5% of the variability in peak timing (P = 0.01). In addition, there was a decreasing gradient in reproduction number from south to north Chile (P humidity. The latitudinal gradient in timing of pandemic activity was accompanied by a gradient in reproduction number (P < 0.0001). Intensified surveillance strategies in colder and drier southern regions could lead to earlier detection of pandemic influenza viruses and improved control outcomes.

  9. Corporate Governance in Shareholding Companies: Comparing Legal Perspective and Position of Shari’ah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aznan, H.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the concept of corporate governance in shareholding companies and the legal perspective in comparison with the position of Shari’ah. The purpose of governance is to instil confidence among the stakeholders that the Boards of Directors are applying a diligent legal and administrative framework, to avoid potential administrative and financial failures and corruption. The study has proceeded by defining the concept of governance from linguistics, accounting, administrative, and legal perspectives. The study also discusses the stands of international organisations on the issue of corporate governance. Then, it is proceeded by discussing the concept of corporate governance from Shari’ah point of view. The study found that even with the absence of the term “company governance” in Islamic Law, the concept of corporate governance is in line with the Shari’ah and that their scholars have clearly referred to it in their literature. The study has used the descriptive, analytical, inductive and comparative methodology in analyzing the subject matter.

  10. The Airbag as a Supplement to Standard Restraint Systems in the AH-1 and AH-64 Attack Helicopters and Its Role in Reducing Head Strikes of the Copilot/ Gunner. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    shelf and locally available automotive airbag system was selected for the tests. The system was a driver’s side airbag designed by Honda Motor Company...allowance for hardware redesign or modifi- cation. Despite these limitations, the study succeeded in demonstrating a problem exists and a supplemental airbag ...JSAARL Repqrt No. 91-8 AD-A233 349 Volume’ I(3 The Airbag as a Supplement to Standard Restraint Systems in the AH-1 and AH-64 Attack Helicopters and

  11. Influenza A(H10N7) Virus in Dead Harbor Seals, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Hansen, Mette Sif; Holm, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Since April 2014, an outbreak of influenza in harbor seals has been ongoing in northern Europe. In Denmark during June-August, 152 harbor seals on the island of Anholt were found dead from severe pneumonia. We detected influenza A(H10N7) virus in 2 of 4 seals examined.......Since April 2014, an outbreak of influenza in harbor seals has been ongoing in northern Europe. In Denmark during June-August, 152 harbor seals on the island of Anholt were found dead from severe pneumonia. We detected influenza A(H10N7) virus in 2 of 4 seals examined....

  12. Pengaruh Sistem Waralaba Terhadap Retail Kecil Di Ponorogo Tinjauan Maṣlaḥah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Wulandari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: One of the indications of the acceleration of economic progress in Ponorogo is the rapid development of the real sectors, especially the proliferation of modern businesses using the franchise system. Therefore, small retail businesses today are facing new competitors with huge capital and reliability of modern management. This study tries to find out the impact of the franchise system invasion to the existence of small retails, and how it affects the maṣlaḥah (safety of small retails in Ponorogo. This study uses the theory of maqāṣid al-sharīah in the aspects of ḥifẓ al-māl to analyze the sustainability of small retail businesses amid the proliferation of franchise businesses. Maṣlāḥah is thinking about the advantages and disadvantages on the basis of religious teachings by thinking about priorities and side with the community (al-maṣlaḥah al-'āmah. The results of this study found out the threat of franchise trading system to the existence of small retails. Therefore, the maṣlaḥah for small retail of businesses means the realization of the safety from the expansion of large investors, such as monopoly. Abstrak: Salah satu indikator meningkatnya laju perekonomian Kabupaten Ponorogo ditandai dengan pesatnya perkembangan sektor riil terutama dengan menjamurnya berbagai jenis toko-roko modern (khususnya dengan sistem waralaba yang terus bertambah jumlahnya. Lalu bagaimana dengan para pebisnis retail kecil yang kebanyakan mereka memiliki usaha dengan modal yang tidak terlalu besar. Penelitian ini berupaya mengetahui adakah  pengaruh yang terjadi akibat adanya toko-toko dengan sistem waralaba terhadap eksistensi retail kecil, serta adakah pengaruhnya terhadap kemaslahatan retail kecil yang ada di Ponorogo. Penelitian ini menggunakan teori keberlangsungan usaha yang dikaitkan dengan maqāsid al-shar’īah  aspek kemaslahatan hifz al-māl untuk menguji pengaruh kemaslahatan retail kecil dengan adanya bisnis

  13. Discovery and evaluation of a series of 3-acylindole imidazopyridine platelet-activating factor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, M L; Davidsen, S K; Heyman, H R; Garland, R B; Sheppard, G S; Florjancic, A S; Xu, L; Carrera, G M; Steinman, D H; Trautmann, J A; Albert, D H; Magoc, T J; Tapang, P; Rhein, D A; Conway, R G; Luo, G; Denissen, J F; Marsh, K C; Morgan, D W; Summers, J B

    1998-01-01

    Studies conducted with the goal of discovering a second-generation platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonist have identified a novel class of potent and orally active antagonists which have high aqueous solubility and long duration of action in animal models. The compounds arose from the combination of the lipophilic indole portion of Abbott's first-generation PAF antagonist ABT-299 (2) with the methylimidazopyridine heterocycle moiety of British Biotechnology's BB-882 (1) and possess the positive attributes of both of these clinical candidates. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies indicated that modification of the indole and benzoyl spacer of lead compound 7b gave analogues that were more potent, longer-lived, and bioavailable and resulted in the identification of 1-(N, N-dimethylcarbamoyl)-4-ethynyl-3-[3-fluoro-4-[(1H-2-methylimidazo[4,5-c] pyrid-1-yl)methyl]benzoyl]indole hydrochloride (ABT-491, 22 m.HCl) which has been evaluated extensively and is currently in clinical development.

  14. Relation among cytochrome P450, AH-active PCB congeners and dioxin equivalents in pipping black-crowned night-heron embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Tillitt, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Pipping black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos were collected from a relatively uncontaminated site (next to Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, Lake Michigan, WI; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, CA; West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, CA). Hepatic cytochrome P-450-associated monooxygenases and cytochrome P-450 proteins, induced up to 85-fold relative to the reference site, were associated with concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 11 PCB congeners that are presumed to express toxicity through the arylhydrocarbon (Ah) receptor. Multiple regression revealed that up to 86% of the variation of cytochrome P450 measurements was accounted for by variation in the concentration of these PCB congeners. Toxic equivalents (TEQs) of sample extracts, predicted mathematically (summed product of PCB congener concentrations and toxic equivalency factors), and dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs), derived by bioassay (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity of treated H4IIE rat hepatoma cells), were greatest in Cat Island samples. Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases and cytochrome P450 proteins were related to TEQs and TCDD-EQs; adjusted r-2 often exceeded 0.5 for the relation among mathematically predicted TEQs and cytochrome P450 measurements. These data extend previous observations in heron embryos of an association between P450 and total PCB burdens to include Ah-active PCB congeners, and presumably other compounds, which interact similarly with the Ah receptor. Benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase, ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase, and cytochrome P450 1A appear to be the most reliable measures of exposure to Ah-active PCB congeners in black-crowned night-heron embryos. These findings provide further evidence that cytochrome P450-associated parameters have considerable value as a biomarker for assessing environmental contamination of wetlands.

  15. Dissociation of nucleosomal particles by chemical modification. Equivalence of the two binding sites for H2A.H2B dimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordano, J.; Nieto, M.A.; Palacian, E.

    1985-01-01

    Treatment of nucleosomal particles with dimethylmaleic anhydride, a reagent for protein amino groups, is accompanied by a biphasic release of histones H2A plus H2B; one H2A.H2B dimer is more easily released than the other. This behavior allows the preparation of nucleosomal particles containing only one H2A.H2B dimer, which were complemented with 125 I-labeled H2A.H2B. These reconstituted particles, which contain one labeled and one unlabeled H2A.H2B dimer, were treated with the amount of reagent needed to release one of the two H2A.H2B dimers. Radioactivity was equally distributed between residual particles and released proteins, which is consistent with equivalent binding sites in the nucleosomal particle for H2A.H2B dimers, rather than with intrinsically different sites. The asymmetric release of H2A.H2B dimers would be caused by a change in the binding site of one dimer following the release of the other. This behavior might be related to the structural dynamics of nucleosomes

  16. Contextual generalized trust and immunization against the 2009 A(H1N1 pandemic in the American states: A multilevel approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Rönnerstrand

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the association between contextual generalized trust and individual-level 2009 A(H1N1 pandemic immunization acceptance. A second aim was to investigate whether knowledge about the A(H1N1 pandemic mediated the association between contextual generalized trust and A(H1N1 immunization acceptance. Data from the National 2009 H1N1 Flu Survey was used. To capture contextual generalized trust, data comes from an aggregation of surveys measuring generalized trust in the American states. To investigate the association between contextual generalized trust and immunization acceptance, while taking potential individual-level confounders into account, multilevel logistic regression was used. The investigation showed contextual generalized trust to be significantly associated with immunization acceptance. However, controlling for knowledge about the A(H1N1 pandemic did not substantially affect the association between contextual generalized trust and immunization acceptance. In conclusion, contextual state-level generalized trust was associated with A(H1N1 immunization, but knowledge about A(H1N1 was not mediating this association. Keywords: Generalized trust, Social capital, Immunization, A(H1N1 pandemic, American states

  17. Novel cell-based assay reveals associations of circulating serum AhR-ligands with metabolic syndrome and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Wook-Ha; Jun, Dae Won; Kim, Jin Taek; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Park, Hyokeun; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Park, Kyong Soo; Lee, Hong Kyu; Pak, Youngmi Kim

    2013-01-01

    Serum concentrations of environmental pollutants have been positively correlated with diabetes and metabolic syndrome in epidemiologic studies. In turn, abnormal mitochondrial function has been associated with the diseases. The relationships between these variables, however, have not been studied. We developed novel cell-based aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist bioassay system without solvent extraction process and analyzed whether low-dose circulating AhR ligands in human serum are associated with parameters of metabolic syndrome and mitochondrial function. Serum AhR ligand activities were measured as serum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalent (sTCDDeq) in pM using 10 μL human sera from 97 Korean participants (47 with glucose intolerance and 50 matched controls, average age of 46.6 ± 9.9 years, 53 male and 45 female). sTCDDeq were higher in participants with glucose intolerance than normal controls and were positively associated (P fasting glucose, but not with HDL-cholesterol. Body mass index was in a positive linear relationship with serum AhR ligands in healthy participants. When myoblast cells were incubated with human sera, ATP generating power of mitochondria became impaired in an AhR ligand concentration-dependent manner. Our results support that circulating AhR ligands may directly reduce mitochondrial function in tissues, leading to weight gain, glucose intolerance, and metabolic syndrome. Our rapid cell-based assay using minute volume of human serum may provide one of the best monitoring systems for circulating AhR ligands, good clinical biomarkers for the progress of disease and therapeutic efficacy. Copyright © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Surveillance of hospitalizations with pandemic A(H1N1 2009 influenza infection in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Birrell

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized with pandemic A(H1N1 2009 infection in Queensland, Australia between 25 May and 3 October 2009 and to examine the relationship between timing of antiviral treatment and severity of illness.Method: Using data from the Queensland Health EpiLog information system, descriptive analysis and logistic regression modelling were used to describe and model factors which influence patient outcomes (death, admission to intensive care unit and/or special care unit. Data on patients admitted to hospital in Queensland with confirmed pandemic A(H1N1 2009 infection were included in this analysis.Results: 1236 patients with pandemic A(H1N1 2009 infection were admitted to hospitals in Queensland during the study period. Of the total group: 15% were admitted to an intensive care unit or special care unit; 3% died; 34% were under the age of 18 years and 8% were 65 years of age or older; and 55% had at least one underlying medical condition. Among the 842 patients for whom data were available regarding the use of antiviral drugs, antiviral treatment was initiated in 737 (87.5% patients with treatment commencing at a median of one day (range 1–33 days after onset of illness. Admission to an intensive care unit or special care unit (ICU/SCU or death was significantly associated with increased age, lack of timeliness of antiviral treatment, chronic renal disease and morbid obesity.Discussion: Early antiviral treatment was significantly associated with lower likelihood of ICU/SCU admission or death. Early antiviral treatment for influenza cases may therefore have important public health implications.

  19. Seroprevalence survey of avian influenza A(H5N1) among live poultry market workers in northern Viet Nam, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung, Tham Chi; Dinh, Pham Ngoc; Nam, Vu Sinh; Tan, Luong Minh; Hang, Nguyen Le Khanh; Thanh, Le Thi; Mai, Le Quynh

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) is endemic in poultry in Viet Nam. The country has experienced the third highest number of human infections with influenza A(H5N1) in the world. A study in Hanoi in 2001, before the epizootic that was identified in 2003, found influenza A(H5N1) specific antibodies in 4% of poultry market workers (PMWs). We conducted a seroprevalence survey to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to influenza A(H5N1) among PMWs in Hanoi, Thaibinh and Thanhhoa provinces. We selected PMWs from five markets, interviewed them and collected blood samples. These were then tested using a horse haemagglutination inhibition assay and a microneutralization assay with all three clades of influenza A(H5N1) viruses that have circulated in Viet Nam since 2004. The overall seroprevalence was 6.1% (95% confidence interval: 4.6-8.3). The highest proportion (7.2%) was found in PMWs in Hanoi, and the majority of seropositive subjects (70.3%) were slaughterers or sellers of poultry. The continued circulation and evolution of influenza A(H5N1) requires comprehensive surveillance of both human and animal sites throughout the country with follow-up studies on PMWs to estimate the risk of avian-human transmission of influenza A(H5N1) in Viet Nam.

  20. REINTERPRETASI PRINSIP KAFĀ’AH SEBAGAI NILAI DASAR DALAM POLA RELASI SUAMI ISTRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Jahroh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms of domestic violence that occurs in marriage is due to the absence of equality or what is often called kafa>’ah in the fiqh al-muna>kah}ah between the prospective husband and wife. In this case the position of husband to wife is not equal, either in economic, social, education, culture, race/ethnicity, ancestry or religious level. Husband’s position which is not equivalent (as kufu>’ with his wife or vice versa, often triggers dispute between the two. Ongoing dispute, then followed by hurting words, beatings or physical abuse, irresponsible behavior, don’t meet the economic or biological needs, marry again, and even can also lead to a sadistic action or killing. In this perspective the author considers that if the value embodied in the kafa>‘ah concept is understood correctly and properly, it’ll actually give a positive chance to prevent domestic violence crime especially in the context of the relationship between husband and wife. [Gejala Kekerasan Dalam Rumah Tangga (KDRT yang terjadi dalam perkawinan, salah satunya disebabkan tidak adanya kesetaraan atau yang sering disebut dalam fiqh al-munâkahah dengan istilah kafa>’ah antara calon suami dengan calon istri. Dalam hal ini posisi suami dengan istri yang tidak setara, baik setara secara ekonomi, sosial, pendidikan, kultur, ras/suku, keturunan maupun tingkat keberagamaan. Posisi suami yang tidak setara (se-kufu’ dengan istrinya ataupun sebaliknya, sering kali memicu perselisihan di antara keduanya. Perselisihan yang terus-menerus, kemudian diiringi dengan kata-kata yang menyakitkan, tindak pemukulan atau penganiayaan fisik, perilaku yang tidak bertanggung jawab, tidak memenuhi kebutuhan ekonomis atau biologis, kawin lagi, bahkan dapat pula menjurus pada tindakan sadisme dengan menyengsarakan atau menghilangkan nyawa. Dalam perspektif inilah penulis memandang bahwa nilai yang terkandung dalam konsep kafa>’ah jika dipahami dengan tepat dan benar sebenarnya berpeluang

  1. Effect of the Epicardial Adipose Tissue Volume on the Prevalence of Paroxysmal and Persistent Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Kageyuki; Maeda, Minetaka; Maimaituxun, Gulinu; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Arasaki, Osamu; Fukuda, Daiju; Yagi, Shusuke; Hirata, Yukina; Nishio, Susumu; Iwase, Takashi; Takao, Shoichiro; Kusunose, Kenya; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Soeki, Takeshi; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Harada, Masafumi; Masuzaki, Hiroaki; Sata, Masataka; Shimabukuro, Michio

    2018-05-25

    Although increasing evidence suggests that epicardial adipose tissue volume (EATV) is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), it is controversial whether there is a dose-response relationship of increasing EATV along the continuum of AF. We evaluated the effect of the EATV on the prevalence of paroxysmal AF (PAF) and persistent AF (PeAF) and the relationships with cardiac structure and functional remodeling.Methods and Results:Subjects who underwent multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) coronary angiography because of symptoms suggestive of coronary artery disease were divided into sinus rhythm (SR) (n=112), PAF (n=133), and PeAF (n=71) groups. The EATV index (EATV/body surface area, mL/m 2 ) was strongly associated with the prevalence of PAF and PeAF on the model adjusted for known AF risk factors. The effect of the EATV index on the prevalence of PeAF, but not on that of PAF, was modified by the left atrial (LA) dimension, suggesting that extension of the LA dimension is related to EATV expansion in PeAF. The cutoff value of the EATV index for the prevalence was higher in PeAF than in PAF (64 vs. 55 mL/m 2 , PEATV index is associated with the prevalence of PAF and PeAF, and its cutoff values are predictive for PAF and PeAF development independently of other AF risk factors.

  2. Birth defects and aplastic anemia: differences in polycyclic hydrocarbon toxicity associated with the Ah locus. [Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebert, D.W.; Levitt, R.C.; Jensen, N.M.; Lambert, G.H.; Felton, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    The balance between cytochrome(s) P/sub 1/-450 and other forms of P-450 in the liver, and probably many nonhepatic tissues as well, appears to be important in the toxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and teratogenicity of numerous compounds. Thus, allelic differences in a single gene--the Ah locus-- can have profound effects on the susceptibility of mice to drug toxicity and cancer. There is evidence for the Ah lous in the human. Striking increases in the incidence of stillborns, reorptions,and malformations caused by 3-methylcholanthrene or 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene were observed in the aromatic hydrocarbon responsive C57BL/6N,C3H/HeN, and BALB/cAnN inbred strains, compared with the genetically nonresponsive AKR/N. These data suggest that an association exists between the Ah locus and teratogenesis. Although numerous teratogenic differences among inbred mouse strains have been previously reported, this study is unique in that the genetic differences in teratogenicity observed were predicted in advance, on the basis of known differences in polycyclic hydrocarbon metabolism regulated by the Ah locus.

  3. Effect of Live Poultry Market Interventions on Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, Guangdong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Lu, Jing; Faria, Nuno R.; Zeng, Xianqiao; Song, Yingchao; Zou, Lirong; Yi, Lina; Liang, Lijun; Ni, Hanzhong; Kang, Min; Zhang, Xin; Huang, Guofeng; Zhong, Haojie; Bowden, Thomas A.; Raghwani, Jayna; He, Jianfeng; He, Xiang; Lin, Jinyan; Koopmans, Marion; Pybus, Oliver G.

    2016-01-01

    Since March 2013, three waves of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus have been detected in China. To investigate virus transmission within and across epidemic waves, we used surveillance data and whole-genome analysis of viruses sampled in Guangdong during 2013–2015. We observed a geographic shift of human A(H7N9) infections from the second to the third waves. Live poultry market interventions were undertaken in epicenter cities; however, spatial phylogenetic analysis indicated that the third-wave outbreaks in central Guangdong most likely resulted from local virus persistence rather than introduction from elsewhere. Although the number of clinical cases in humans declined by 35% from the second to the third waves, the genetic diversity of third-wave viruses in Guangdong increased. Our results highlight the epidemic risk to a region reporting comparatively few A(H7N9) cases. Moreover, our results suggest that live-poultry market interventions cannot completely halt A(H7N9) virus persistence and dissemination. PMID:27869613

  4. Biocompatibility of RealSeal, its primer and AH Plus implanted in subcutaneous connective tissue of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Soares Grecca

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study tested rat connective tissue response to RealSeal, RealSeal primer or AH Plus after 7, 15, 30, 60 and 90 days of implantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty Wistar rats had subcutaneous sockets created on their back and received four implants each of polyethylene tubes containing one of the materials tested according to the groups: AH (AH Plus Sealer; RS (RealSeal Sealer; RP (RealSeal Primer; CG (control group - empty tube. After histological processing, sections were analyzed to identify the presence of neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells, eosinophils, macrophages and giant cells, as well as fibrous capsule and abscesses, by an examiner using light microscope. Kruskal-Wallis and multiple-comparisons test were used for statistical analysis. Significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: Lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate scores significantly higher than those of the control group were observed at 14 and 60 days in AH group, and at 90 days in RS group (p<0.05. There were no differences in terms of presence of macrophages, giant cells, eosinophils, neutrophils or fibrosis. AH Plus group scored higher for abscesses at 7 days than after any other period (p=0.031. RP group scored higher for lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate at 14 days than at 90 days (p=0.04. CONCLUSION: The main contribution of this study was to demonstrate that issues involved with tissue tolerance of a Resilon-containing sealer, RealSeal Sealer, cannot be attributed to its primer content.

  5. Novel pandemic influenza A(H1N1 viruses are potently inhibited by DAS181, a sialidase fusion protein.

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    Gallen B Triana-Baltzer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent emergence of a novel pandemic influenza A(H1N1 strain in humans exemplifies the rapid and unpredictable nature of influenza virus evolution and the need for effective therapeutics and vaccines to control such outbreaks. However, resistance to antivirals can be a formidable problem as evidenced by the currently widespread oseltamivir- and adamantane-resistant seasonal influenza A viruses (IFV. Additional antiviral approaches with novel mechanisms of action are needed to combat novel and resistant influenza strains. DAS181 (Fludase is a sialidase fusion protein in early clinical development with in vitro and in vivo preclinical activity against a variety of seasonal influenza strains and highly pathogenic avian influenza strains (A/H5N1. Here, we use in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models to evaluate the activity of DAS181 against several pandemic influenza A(H1N1 viruses.The activity of DAS181 against several pandemic influenza A(H1N1 virus isolates was examined in MDCK cells, differentiated primary human respiratory tract culture, ex-vivo human bronchi tissue and mice. DAS181 efficiently inhibited viral replication in each of these models and against all tested pandemic influenza A(H1N1 strains. DAS181 treatment also protected mice from pandemic influenza A(H1N1-induced pathogenesis. Furthermore, DAS181 antiviral activity against pandemic influenza A(H1N1 strains was comparable to that observed against seasonal influenza virus including the H274Y oseltamivir-resistant influenza virus.The sialidase fusion protein DAS181 exhibits potent inhibitory activity against pandemic influenza A(H1N1 viruses. As inhibition was also observed with oseltamivir-resistant IFV (H274Y, DAS181 may be active against the antigenically novel pandemic influenza A(H1N1 virus should it acquire the H274Y mutation. Based on these and previous results demonstrating DAS181 broad-spectrum anti-IFV activity, DAS181 represents a potential therapeutic agent for

  6. PENGUNGKAPAN SYARI’AH COMPLIANCE DAN KEPATUHAN BANK SYARIAH TERHADAP PRINSIP SYARIAH

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    Asrori -

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan mengukur niat para akuntan dan manager bank Islam untuk menerapkan praktek pengungkapan kepatuhan shariah sebagai tanggung jawab kepatuhan terhadap prinsip-prinsip bank Islam dilihat dari perspektif teori tindakan. Populasi untuk penelitian ini adalah para akuntan dan manager cabang bank Islam di kota Semarang dimana untuk respondennya berjumlah 36. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan linear regression. Hasil dari penelitian ini untuk memberikan dukungan empiris terhadap teori tindakan dan juga untuk memprediksi niat para akuntan dan manager bank Islam untuk menerapkan praktek pengungkapan kepatuhan shariah. Praktek pengungkapan kepatuhan shariah disarankan untuk diterapkan pada pelaporan keuangan sebagai tanggung jawab kepatuhan bank Islam. This study aims to assess the intentions of accountants and managers of Islamic banks to apply the disclosure practices of syari’ah compliance as accountability for adherence to the principles of syari’ah Islamic banks in the perspective of the theory of reasoned action. The study population include accountants and managers of Islamic bank branches in the city of Semarang in which there are 36 respondents. Linear regression was implemented for analyzing the data to test the hypothesis used. The results of this study provide empirical support for the theory of reasoned action. Then, it can also be used to predict the intentions of accountants and managers of Islamic banks to apply the disclosure practices of syari’ah compliance. Syari’ah compliance disclosure practices is suggested to be applied in financial report as a compliance responsibility of Islamic banks.

  7. Seroprevalence survey of avian influenza A(H5N1 among live poultry market workers in northern Viet Nam, 2011

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    Tham Chi Dung

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1 is endemic in poultry in Viet Nam. The country has experienced the third highest number of human infections with influenza A(H5N1 in the world. A study in Hanoi in 2001, before the epizootic that was identified in 2003, found influenza A(H5N1 specific antibodies in 4% of poultry market workers (PMWs. We conducted a seroprevalence survey to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to influenza A(H5N1 among PMWs in Hanoi, Thaibinh and Thanhhoa provinces. Methods: We selected PMWs from five markets, interviewed them and collected blood samples. These were then tested using a horse haemagglutination inhibition assay and a microneutralization assay with all three clades of influenza A(H5N1 viruses that have circulated in Viet Nam since 2004. Results: The overall seroprevalence was 6.1% (95% confidence interval: 4.6–8.3. The highest proportion (7.2% was found in PMWs in Hanoi, and the majority of seropositive subjects (70.3% were slaughterers or sellers of poultry. Discussion: The continued circulation and evolution of influenza A(H5N1 requires comprehensive surveillance of both human and animal sites throughout the country with follow-up studies on PMWs to estimate the risk of avian–human transmission of influenza A(H5N1 in Viet Nam.

  8. Aeroelastic characteristics of the AH-64 bearingless tail rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, D.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a wind tunnel test program to determine the performance loads and dynamic characteristics of the Composite Flexbeam Tail Rotor (CFTR) for the AH-64 Advanced Attack Helicopter are reported. The CFTR uses an elastomeric shear attachment of the flexbeam to the hub to provide soft-inplane S-mode and stiff-inplane C-mode configuration. The properties of the elastomer were selected for proper frequency placement and scale damping of the inplane S-mode. Kinematic pitch-lag coupling was introduced to provide the first cyclic inplane C-mode damping at high collective pitch. The CFTR was tested in a wind tunnel over the full slideslip envelop of the AH-64. It is found that the rotor was aeroelastically stable throughout the complete collective pitch range and up to rotor speeds of 1403 rpm. The dynamic characteristics of the rotor were found to be satisfactory at all pitch angles and rotor speeds of the tunnel tests. The design characteristics of the rotor which permit the high performance characteristics are discussed. Several schematic drawings and photographs of the rotor are provided.

  9. An Exploratory Study of the Rhetoric in CSR Reports: A Comparison of Shari’ah Compliant Company and Non –Shari’ah Compliant Company in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razak Rafizan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper advances previous research in corporate social reporting (CSR by using a taxonomy of five distinct rhetorical strategies to examine any differences in term of type of ethical categories and to identify moral attitudes towards different societal activities between Shari’ah compliant company Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB and Non-Shari’ah compliant company Malayan Banking Berhad (Maybank. The data is analyzed using content analysis. The findings revealed that there are different rhetoric applied in both types of companies such as Agency (profit, Benefit (collective welfare, Compliance (law and contracts, Duty and Ethos (virtue. In term of moral attitudes, both types of companies disclosed relatively similar behaviour and commitment towards CSR. This research is the first of its kind to be conducted in Malaysia by using this new approach and will contribute new insights to existing CSR literatures in Malaysia.

  10. The antisense expression of AhPEPC1 increases seed oil production in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, L.; Zhang, J.; Chi, X.; Chen, N.; Chen, M.; Wang, M.; Wang, T.; Yang, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Wan, Y.; Yu, S.; Liu, F.

    2016-07-01

    Although phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases (PEPCs) are reported to be involved in fatty acid accumulation, nitrogen assimilation, and salt and drought stresses, knowledge regarding PEPC gene functions is still limited, particularly in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). In this study, the antisense expression of the peanut PEPC isoform 1 (AhPEPC1) gene increased the lipid content by 5.7%–10.3%. This indicated that AhPEPC1 might be related to plant lipid accumulation. The transgenic plants underwent more root elongation than the wild-type under salinity stress. Additionally, the specific down regulation of the AhPEPC1 gene improved the salt tolerance in peanuts. This is the first report on the role of PEPC in lipid accumulation and salt tolerance in peanuts.

  11. Criteria of Sharī‘ah supervisory committee: A comparative study between guidelines of Bangladesh Bank and Bank Negara Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Amanullah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Islamic banking and finance differs from conventional banking and finance in that it follows the rules of Sharī‘ah. In order to ensure that Islamic banking and finance follows the Sharī‘ah rulings, it is essential for it to have a Sharī‘ah supervisory board. An important duty of this board is to determine that the products, services, policies, guidelines and all other activities performed by the Islamic bank, are in compliance with the Sharī‘ah rulings. To perform their duty properly, the members of this board should possess certain criteria. Bangladesh Bank has spelled out some guidelines for these criteria briefly. Likewise, Bank Negara Malaysia has provided some guidelines. The main objectives of this research paper are to highlight the guidelines of these two banks on these criteria, compare them and evaluate them in light of Sharī‘ah guidelines on these criteria spelled out by contemporary Muslim jurists.

  12. Dual Infection of Novel Influenza Viruses A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 in a Cluster of Cambodian Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    influenza viruses as well as the avian influenza virus A/H5N1...on full genome sequencing. This incident confirms dual influenza virus infections and highlights the risk of zoonotic and seasonal influenza viruses ...North American swine influenza viruses , North American avian influenza viruses , human influenza viruses , and a Eurasian swine influenza virus . 18

  13. [Differences in oligomerization of nucleocapsid protein of epidemic human influenza A(H1N1), A(H1N2) and B viruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokudina, E N; Semenova, N P; Chumakov, V M; Burtseva, E I; Slepushkin, A N

    2003-01-01

    A comparative analysis of involving the nucleocapsid protein (NP) into shaping-up of SDS-resistant oligomers was carried out presently in circulating epidemic strains of human influenza, viruses A and B. The study results of viral isolates obtained from clinical samples and recent standard strains revealed that the involvement of NP in the SDS-resistant oligomers, which are different in various subtypes of influenza A viruses. According to this sign, the human viruses A(9H3N2) are close to the avian ones, in which, as proved by us previously, virtually the entire NP transforms itself into the oligomers resistant to SDS. About 10-20% of NP are involved in shaping-up the virus influenza A(H1N1) of SDS-resistant oligomers. No SDS-resistant NP-oligomers were detected in influenza of type B. It is suggested that the prevalence of human viruses A(H3N2) in NP-oligomers are the peculiarities of NP structure and of the presence of the PB1 protein from avian influenza virus.

  14. MASA PEMBAYARAN BEBAN NAFKAH IDDAH DAN MUT’AH DALAM PERKARA CERAI TALAK (Sebuah Implementasi Hukum Acara di Pengadilan Agama

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    syaiful annas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss the implementation of payment of  iddah and mut'ah in the divorce (raj’i. Judges often faced  a problem between text and context. Their decision imposes on men pays iddah and mut'ah life as a right for his ex-wife, but it was not implemented as the judge's decision, so that women tend to be disadvantaged ones, although the formal law can be prosecuted fiat execution, but it is not easy for a woman, sometimes the cost of iddah and mut'ah charge is not comparable with the cost of carrying out the execution, not to mention ex-husband who went (fuzzy away unnoticed after divorce statement. Therefore the necessary of a legal breakthrough to provide legal certainty for the rights of womens through the judge's decision, with consideration argumentative primarily to determine a living payout time of iddah And mut'ah. In this paper will be described legal reasons in court as legal considerations which contains elements of juridical, sociological, philosophical in decision   [Tulisan ini hendak mendiskusikan bagaimana pelaksanaan pembebanan pembayaran nafkah iddah dan mut’ah dalam perkara talak (raj'i. Seringkali hakim dihadapkan pada problematika antara teks dan konteks. Adanya putusan yang membebankan terhadap laki-laki membayar sejumlah nafkah iddah dan mut’ah sebagai hak bagi mantan istri, akan tetapi tidak dilaksanakan sebagaimana putusan hakim, sehingga perempuan cenderung dirugikan, meskipun secara yuridis-formil dapat dituntut fiat eksekusi, tetapi tidak mudah bagi pihak perempuan, karena kadang biaya pembebanan nafkah iddah dan mut’ah tidak sebanding dengan biaya melaksanakan eksekusi, belum lagi problem mantan suami yang pergi tanpa diketahui lagi keberadaannya setelah pengucapan ikrar talaknya. Oleh karena itu perlu terobosan hukum guna menjamin hak perempuan tersebut melalui putusan hakim dengan pertimbangan yang argumentatif terutama untuk menentukan masa pembayaran nafkah iddah dan mut’ah tersebut. Dalam

  15. Linked expression of Ah receptor, ARNT, CYP1A1, and CYP1B1 in rat mammary epithelia, in vitro, is each substantially elevated by specific extracellular matrix interactions that precede branching morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Michele Campaigne; Brake, Paul B; Pollenz, Richard S; Jefcoate, Colin R

    2004-11-01

    Cytochrome P4501B1 (CYP1B1), the major constitutively expressed CYP in the rat mammary gland, is induced by Ah-receptor (AhR) ligands, while CYP1A1 is predominantly expressed only after induction. These CYPs contribute to carcinogenic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). AhR, ARNT, and CYP1B1 were only weakly expressed, even after 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin induction, when rat mammary epithelial cells (RMEC) were cultured on plastic. RMEC cultured on the extracellular matrix (ECM), Matrigel, or on a floating gel of collagen I demonstrated branching morphogenesis and substantially increased basal CYP1B1 and induced CYP1A1 expression, in parallel with large increases in AhR and ARNT expression. Branching was more pronounced in the Wistar Kyoto than in the Wistar Furth rat strain. Although EGF enhanced branching, neither strain nor growth factor treatment substantially impacted CYP expression. Increased AhR and ARNT expression is observed within 24 h of dispersal on Matrigel, substantially prior to branch formation. Culture on thin layers of collagen I, collagen IV, and laminin, respectively, failed to reproduce the branching morphogenesis or increases in AhR, ARNT, or CYP expression. However, adherent, gelled collagen I recapitulated the increased protein expression, without supporting branching. This increased protein expression was closely paralleled by enhanced expression of beta-catenin and E-cadherin, components of cell-cell adhesion complexes. A synthetic peptide that selectively antagonizes integrin-ECM interactions reduced branch formation, without diminishing AhR, ARNT, and CYP expression. These data demonstrate that early ECM surface adhesion interactions mediate AhR and ARNT expression, which enhances CYP expression, independent of branching morphogenesis.

  16. Investigating Meat Milling Business in Yogyakarta: a Maqâshid al-Syarî‘ah Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zein Muttaqin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigating Meat Milling Business in Yogyakarta: A Maqâshid al-Syarî‘ah Perspectives. This article aims to investigate the meat milling business process in the light of maqâshid al-syarî‘ah perspectives. The ttopic arises due to some past cases related to the mixed process of meat milling of lawful and unlawful meat in the industry, while the demand on the meat milling business is pretty high according to the BAPPENAS Yogyakarta data. Lacking on supervision has threatened consumer protection and deviates from the sharia injunctions. Maqâshid al-syarî‘ah being consider as the basis of sharia compliances that serves to understand the purposes of sharia laws in the daily life in the form of prohibitions and injunctions. Qualitative method and content analysis is conducted to interpret 7 meats milling local shop owner responds regards the manifestation of maqâshid al-syarî‘ah in their business. It can be concluded that the implementation of maqâshid al-syarî‘ah of meat milling business in Yogyakarta on the level of input, process and output has been implemented accordingly. Although there are several cases of respondent that did not abide by the Islamic laws, but most of the businessman are. Halal logistic and supply chain is needed to become the insurance party of the legal aspect of business and also as the milestone of expanding the local meat milling to compete with the bigger competitor such as supermarket.

  17. EPOS Thematic Core Service ANTHROPOGENIC HAZARDS (TCS AH) - development of e-research platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlecka-Sikora, Beata

    2017-04-01

    TCS AH is based on IS-EPOS Platform. The Platform facilitates research on anthropogenic hazards and is available online, free of charge https://tcs.ah-epos.eu/. The Platform is a final product of the IS-EPOS project, founded by the national programme - POIG - which was implemented in 2013-2015 (POIG.02.03.00-14-090/13-00). The platform is a result of a joint work of scientific community and industrial partners. Currently, the development of TCS AH is carried under EPOS IP project (H2020-INFRADEV-1-2015-1, INFRADEV-3-2015). Platform is an open virtual access point for researchers and Ph. D. students interested in anthropogenic seismicity and related hazards. This environment is designed to ensure a researcher the maximum possible liberty for experimentation by providing a virtual laboratory, in which the researcher can design own processing streams and process the data integrated on the platform. TCS AH integrates: data and specific high-level services. Data gathered in the so-called "episodes", comprehensively describing a geophysical process, induced or triggered by human technological activity, which, under certain circumstances can become hazardous for people, infrastructure and the environment. 7 sets of seismic, geological and technological data were made available on the Platform. The data come from Poland, Germany, UK and Vietnam, and refer to underground mining, reservoir impoundment, shale gas exploitation and geothermal energy production. The next at least 19 new episodes related to conventional hydrocarbon extraction, reservoir treatment, underground mining and geothermal energy production are being integrated within the framework of EPOS IP project. The heterogeneous multi-disciplinary data (seismic, displacement, geomechanical data, production data etc.) are transformed to unified structures to form integrated and validated datasets. To deal with this various data the problem-oriented services were designed and implemented. The particular attention

  18. The effect of benzalkonium chloride additions to AH Plus sealer. Antimicrobial, physical and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Moliz, M T; Ruiz-Linares, M; Cassar, G; Ferrer-Luque, C M; Baca, P; Ordinola-Zapata, R; Camilleri, J

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities and physicochemical properties of AH Plus sealer mixed with different concentrations of benzalkonium chloride (BC). AH Plus was tested alone and mixed with 1%, 2% and 3% of BC. The antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of the sealers against Enterococcus faecalis were evaluated by the direct contact test (DCT) and by confocal laser scanning microscopy, respectively. Setting time, flow and solubility were assessed according to ANSI/ADA specifications. Microhardness and contact angle tests were also performed. The chemical changes of the sealers were evaluated by X-ray diffraction analysis, and both Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR). AH Plus+3% BC was the only sealer to promote total elimination of E. faecalis and the biovolume in this group was significantly lower than in the rest of the sealers (p>0.05). The physical properties of the sealers were according to the ANSI/ADA specifications. The microhardness decreased significantly when BC was added and a significant reduction in contact angle was obtained when incorporating 2% and 3% BC (p<0.05). No phase changes were observed with the modified sealers. The addition of 2% or higher concentrations BC to AH Plus showed antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities without affecting the properties specified in ANSI/ADA standards. However, additives to the root canal sealer altered other physical and chemical properties that are not commonly found in the literature to evaluate filling materials. The present study highlights that the antimicrobial properties of AH Plus can be significantly improved with the addition of BC. Testing beyond what is specified in standards may be indicated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Atrazine affects kidney and adrenal hormones (AHs) related genes expressions of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lihua; Zha, Jinmiao; Li, Wei; Li, Zhaoli; Wang, Zijian

    2010-05-05

    Atrazine, one of the most widely used herbicides, has been proved to interfere with sexual hormones. However few studies have considered the effects of atrazine on adrenal hormones (AH). In this study, rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) was exposed to 0, 3, 10, 33, 100 and 333microg/l atrazine for 28 days. The histopathology of kidney and gill was examined and the expressions of AHs-related genes including Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, glucocorticoid receptor (gr), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) in kidney and gill were quantitatively determined. Histopathological observation revealed obvious lesions in gill including hyperplasia, necrosis in epithelium region, aneurysm and lamellar fusion at concentrations as low as 10microg/l. The observed lesions in kidney included extensive expansion in the lumen, degenerative and necrotic changes of the tubular epithelia, shrinkage of the glomerulus as well as increase of the Bowman's space at concentrations as low as 10microg/l. The expressions of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, gr, hsp70 and hsp90 in the kidney of females were significantly decreased at all concentrations. For males, the expressions of hsp90 in the kidney of all treated groups were significantly down-regulated, while gr at all concentrations and hsp70 at 10, 33, 100microg/l were significantly up-regulated. However in the gill, the expressions of these genes were not significantly different from the control. These results indicated that exposure to atrazine caused impairments of kidney and gill of fish at environmental related concentrations. Histopathological lesions could partly attribute to the changes of the expressions of AHs-related genes in kidney. We concluded also that atrazine is a potential AHs-disruptor and AHs-related genes in kidney of fish could be used as sensitive molecular biomarkers.

  20. Atrazine affects kidney and adrenal hormones (AHs) related genes expressions of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Lihua; Zha Jinmiao; Li Wei; Li Zhaoli [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road 18, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Wang Zijian, E-mail: wangzj@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road 18, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2010-05-05

    Atrazine, one of the most widely used herbicides, has been proved to interfere with sexual hormones. However few studies have considered the effects of atrazine on adrenal hormones (AH). In this study, rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) was exposed to 0, 3, 10, 33, 100 and 333 {mu}g/l atrazine for 28 days. The histopathology of kidney and gill was examined and the expressions of AHs-related genes including Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase, glucocorticoid receptor (gr), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) in kidney and gill were quantitatively determined. Histopathological observation revealed obvious lesions in gill including hyperplasia, necrosis in epithelium region, aneurysm and lamellar fusion at concentrations as low as 10 {mu}g/l. The observed lesions in kidney included extensive expansion in the lumen, degenerative and necrotic changes of the tubular epithelia, shrinkage of the glomerulus as well as increase of the Bowman's space at concentrations as low as 10 {mu}g/l. The expressions of Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase, gr, hsp70 and hsp90 in the kidney of females were significantly decreased at all concentrations. For males, the expressions of hsp90 in the kidney of all treated groups were significantly down-regulated, while gr at all concentrations and hsp70 at 10, 33, 100 {mu}g/l were significantly up-regulated. However in the gill, the expressions of these genes were not significantly different from the control. These results indicated that exposure to atrazine caused impairments of kidney and gill of fish at environmental related concentrations. Histopathological lesions could partly attribute to the changes of the expressions of AHs-related genes in kidney. We concluded also that atrazine is a potential AHs-disruptor and AHs-related genes in kidney of fish could be used as sensitive molecular biomarkers.

  1. Atrazine affects kidney and adrenal hormones (AHs) related genes expressions of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lihua; Zha Jinmiao; Li Wei; Li Zhaoli; Wang Zijian

    2010-01-01

    Atrazine, one of the most widely used herbicides, has been proved to interfere with sexual hormones. However few studies have considered the effects of atrazine on adrenal hormones (AH). In this study, rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) was exposed to 0, 3, 10, 33, 100 and 333 μg/l atrazine for 28 days. The histopathology of kidney and gill was examined and the expressions of AHs-related genes including Na + ,K + -ATPase, glucocorticoid receptor (gr), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) in kidney and gill were quantitatively determined. Histopathological observation revealed obvious lesions in gill including hyperplasia, necrosis in epithelium region, aneurysm and lamellar fusion at concentrations as low as 10 μg/l. The observed lesions in kidney included extensive expansion in the lumen, degenerative and necrotic changes of the tubular epithelia, shrinkage of the glomerulus as well as increase of the Bowman's space at concentrations as low as 10 μg/l. The expressions of Na + ,K + -ATPase, gr, hsp70 and hsp90 in the kidney of females were significantly decreased at all concentrations. For males, the expressions of hsp90 in the kidney of all treated groups were significantly down-regulated, while gr at all concentrations and hsp70 at 10, 33, 100 μg/l were significantly up-regulated. However in the gill, the expressions of these genes were not significantly different from the control. These results indicated that exposure to atrazine caused impairments of kidney and gill of fish at environmental related concentrations. Histopathological lesions could partly attribute to the changes of the expressions of AHs-related genes in kidney. We concluded also that atrazine is a potential AHs-disruptor and AHs-related genes in kidney of fish could be used as sensitive molecular biomarkers.

  2. MENGGAGAS PAYUNG HUKUM BAITUL MAAL WATTANWIL (BMT SEBAGAI KOPERASI SYARI’AH DALAM BINGKAI IUS CONSTITUENDUM

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    Elfa Murdiana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Baitul Maal Wat Tanwil (BMT merupakan lembaga keuangan mikro syari’ah yang secara faktual telah memberikan pengaruh positif terhadap berlangsungnya pembangunan ekonomi di Indonesia. BMT sebagai koperasi syari’ah berada di bawah naungan Dinas Koperasi, konsekuensinya , segala aktivitas keuangan yang terjadi dilindungi oleh kebijakan Undang-undang Koperasi. Namun secara faktual keberadaan UU Koperasi justru belum mampu memberikan dasar hukum yang sesuai dengan praktik BMT yang ada. Oleh karenanya pembentukan aturan hukum yang pasti merupakan hal yang tak bisa ditunda lagi mengingat keberadaan BMT kian tumbuh dan semakin berkembang baik dari aspek jumlah maupun permodalannya. Dengan dibatalkannya UU Koperasi No.17 Tahun 2012 maka perlu bagi BMT memiliki aturan hukum tersendiri sebagai payung hukum bagi aktivitas BMT sebab Koperasi dan BMT (yang disejajarkan dengan Koperasi Syari’ah berbeda secara operasional dan prinsip. Oleh karenanya pembentukan Undang-Undang Koperasi Syari’ah sebagai dasar Hukum BMT harus segera dilaksanakan. Dalam rangka pembentukan UU Koperasi Syari’ah dalam kerangka Ius Constituendum  maka hendaknya perlu diperhatikan 3 nilai dasar , nilai dasar tersebut adalah: pertama Nilai Keadilan yang mendasari secara filosofis terbentuknya suatu aturan hukum ( Filosofiche Geltung dimana dasar ini merupakan suatu landasan ideal yang mengandung cita-cita kolektif masyarakat tentang nilai luhur yang  terkandung dalam Pancasila dan UUD 1945. Kedua adalah nilai kemanfaatan yang mendasari secara sosiologis ( soziologische geltung agar hukum memiliki kekuatan berlaku dimasyarakat. Ketika adalah nilai kepastian yang lahir sebagai dasar yuridis suatu aturan hukum( Juridische Geltung, dasar ini terkait dengan  persyaratan formal pembentukan suatu peraturan selanjutnya Landasan politis artinya bahwa keberadaan suatu aturan hukum merupakan suatu upaya menuangkan cita-cita kolektif masyarakat Indonesia dalam suatu aturan hukum melalui

  3. Architectuur als beschavingsideaal : Het bezield modernisme van A.H. Wegerif

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, H.

    2014-01-01

    Architecture as civilizing ideal - The inspired modernism of A.H. Wegerif Ahazuerus Hendrikus (Henk) Wegerif was born in Apeldoorn on 13th of April 1888, the son of Gerrit Wegerif and Elsje Breman. Both his father and grandfather were building contractors, as was his paternal uncle, Chris Wegerif.

  4. AhR Activation Underlies the CYP1A Autoinduction by A-998679 in Rats

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    Michael J. Liguori

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Xenobiotic-mediated induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs is frequently encountered in drug discovery and can influence disposition, pharmacokinetic, and toxicity profiles. The CYP1A subfamily of DMEs plays a central role in the biotransformation of several drugs and environmental chemicals. Autoinduction of drugs through CYP3A enzymes is a common mechanism for their enhanced clearance. However, autoinduction via CYP1A is encountered less frequently. In this report, an experimental compound, A-998679 (3-(5-pyridin-3-yl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl benzonitrile, was shown to enhance its own clearance via induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2. Rats were dosed for 5 days with 30, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day A-998679. During the dosing period, the compound’s plasma AUC decreased at 30 mg/kg (95% and 100 mg/kg (80%. Gene expression analysis and immunohistochemistry of the livers showed a large increase in the mRNA and protein levels of CYP1A, which was involved in the biotransformation of A-998679. Induction of CYP1A was confirmed in primary rat, human, and dog hepatocytes. The compound also weakly inhibited CYP1A2 in human liver microsomes. A-998679 activated the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR in a luciferase gene reporter assay in HepG2 cells, upregulated expression of genes associated with AhR activation in rat liver, and enhanced nuclear migration of AhR in HepG2 cells. Collectively these results demonstrate that A-998679 is an AhR activator that induces CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 expression, resulting in an autoinduction phenomenon. The unique properties of A-998679, along with its novel structure distinct from classical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, may warrant its further evaluation as a tool compound for use in studies involving AhR biology and CYP1A related mechanisms of drug metabolism and toxicity.

  5. Low acceptability of A/H1N1 pandemic vaccination in French adult population: did public health policy fuel public dissonance?

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    Michaël Schwarzinger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In July 2009, French public health authorities embarked in a mass vaccination campaign against A/H1N1 2009 pandemic-influenza. We explored the attitudes and behaviors of the general population toward pandemic vaccination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey among 2,253 French representative adults aged 18 to 64 from November 17 to 25, 2009 (completion rate: 93.8%. The main outcome was the acceptability of A/H1N1 vaccination as defined by previous receipt or intention to get vaccinated ("Yes, certainly", "Yes, probably". Overall 17.0% (CI 95%, 15.5% to 18.7% of respondents accepted A/H1N1 vaccination. Independent factors associated with acceptability included: male sex (p = .0001; older age (p = .002; highest or lowest level of education (p = .016; non-clerical occupation (p = .011; having only one child (p = .008; and having received seasonal flu vaccination in prior 3 years (p<.0001. Acceptability was also significantly higher among pregnant women (37.9% and other at risk groups with chronic diseases (34.8% (p = .002. Only 35.5% of respondents perceived A/H1N1 influenza illness as a severe disease and 12.7% had experienced A/H1N1 cases in their close relationships with higher acceptability (p<.0001 and p = .006, respectively. In comparison to 26.0% respondents who did not consult their primary care physician, acceptability was significantly higher among 8.0% respondents who were formally advised to get vaccinated, and lower among 63.7% respondents who were not advised to get vaccinated (respectively: 15.8%, 59.5% and 11.7%- p<.0001. Among respondents who refused vaccination, 71.2% expressed concerns about vaccine safety. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our survey occurred one week before the peak of the pandemic in France. We found that alarming public health messages aiming at increasing the perception of risk severity were counteracted by daily personal experience which did not confirm the threat

  6. Epidemiological characteristics and underlying risk factors for mortality during the autumn 2009 pandemic wave in Mexico.

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    Gerardo Chowell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elucidating the role of the underlying risk factors for severe outcomes of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic could be crucial to define priority risk groups in resource-limited settings in future pandemics. METHODS: We use individual-level clinical data on a large series of ARI (acute respiratory infection hospitalizations from a prospective surveillance system of the Mexican Social Security medical system to analyze clinical features at presentation, admission delays, selected comorbidities and receipt of seasonal vaccine on the risk of A/H1N1-related death. We considered ARI hospitalizations and inpatient-deaths, and recorded demographic, geographic, and medical information on individual patients during August-December, 2009. RESULTS: Seasonal influenza vaccination was associated with a reduced risk of death among A/H1N1 inpatients (OR = 0.43 (95% CI: 0.25, 0.74 after adjustment for age, gender, geography, antiviral treatment, admission delays, comorbidities and medical conditions. However, this result should be interpreted with caution as it could have been affected by factors not directly measured in our study. Moreover, the effect of antiviral treatment against A/H1N1 inpatient death did not reach statistical significance (OR = 0.56 (95% CI: 0.29, 1.10 probably because only 8.9% of A/H1N1 inpatients received antiviral treatment. Moreover, diabetes (OR = 1.6 and immune suppression (OR = 2.3 were statistically significant risk factors for death whereas asthmatic persons (OR = 0.3 or pregnant women (OR = 0.4 experienced a reduced fatality rate among A/H1N1 inpatients. We also observed an increased risk of death among A/H1N1 inpatients with admission delays >2 days after symptom onset (OR = 2.7. Similar associations were also observed for A/H1N1-negative inpatients. CONCLUSIONS: Geographical variation in identified medical risk factors including prevalence of diabetes and immune suppression may in part

  7. The European I-MOVE Multicentre 2013-2014 Case-Control Study. Homogeneous moderate influenza vaccine effectiveness against A(H1N1)pdm09 and heterogenous results by country against A(H3N2).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Valenciano, Marta

    2015-06-04

    In the first five I-MOVE (Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe) influenza seasons vaccine effectiveness (VE) results were relatively homogenous among participating study sites. In 2013-2014, we undertook a multicentre case-control study based on sentinel practitioner surveillance networks in six European Union (EU) countries to measure 2013-2014 influenza VE against medically-attended influenza-like illness (ILI) laboratory-confirmed as influenza. Influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses co-circulated during the season.

  8. KONSEP MᾹQᾹṢID AL-SYᾹRĪAH MENURUT ṬᾹHᾹ JᾹBIR AL-‘ALWᾹNĪ

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    Chasnak Najidah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One discourse which is receiving considerable attention from scholars of Islam is about the objectives of Islamic law (maqasid al-shari'ah. Taha Jabir al-'Alwānī as one reviewer of Maqasid al-shari'ah contemporary formulate the concept of maqasid al-shari'ah different from previous scholars. This article describes the concept of maqasid al-shari'ah by Taha Jabir al-'Alwānī. According to him, there are three levels of hierarchical of Maqasid al-Sharia. The highest value of maqasid al-shari'ah says is what he describes as al-Maqasid al-'ulyā al-Hakimah (intentions of the highest shari'ah and a legal basis, which consists of three main elements, namely al-Tawhid ( Onesess of God, al-Tazkiyah (purification and al-'umrān (prosperity. The position of the second al-shari'ah Maqasid are universal values such as justice, freedom, and equality. While the third position is the formulation of the previous scholars regarding maqasid al-shari'ah consisting of ḍarūriyyat, ḥājiyyāt, and taḥsīniyyāt. In terms of methodological, Taha Jabir al-'Alwānī basing the new system for Maqasid al-syarī'ahnya on the methods of al-jam'u Baina al-qirā'atain, a reading of the two entities: the revelation of God and the universe. With this basis, he argues that the maqasid al-shari'ah formulations are qaṭ'ī, so it can be a reference to the scholars in solving the problems of contemporary law.   [Salah satu diskursus yang mendapat perhatian cukup besar dari para akademisi Islam adalah seputar tujuan-tujuan hukum islam  (maqāṣid al-syarī'ah. Ṭāhā Jābir al-‘Alwānī sebagai salah satu ulama pengkaji maqāṣid asy-syarī’ahkontemporer merumuskan konsep maqāṣid asy-syarī’ahyang berbeda dari ulama sebelumnya. Artikel ini mendeskripsikan konsep maqāṣid asy-syarī’ahmenurut Ṭāhā Jābir al-‘Alwānī. Menurutnya, ada tiga tingkatan hierarkis maqāṣid al-syarī'ah. Nilai tertinggi maqāṣid asy-syarī’ahmenurutnya adalah apa

  9. The impact of immunosenescence on humoral immune response variation after influenza A/H1N1 vaccination in older subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iana H Haralambieva

    Full Text Available Although influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly, the factors underlying the reduced vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy in this age group are not completely understood. Age and immunosenescence factors, and their impact on humoral immunity after influenza vaccination, are of growing interest for the development of better vaccines for the elderly.We assessed associations between age and immunosenescence markers (T cell receptor rearrangement excision circles - TREC content, peripheral white blood cell telomerase - TERT expression and CD28 expression on T cells and influenza A/H1N1 vaccine-induced measures of humoral immunity in 106 older subjects at baseline and three timepoints post-vaccination.TERT activity (TERT mRNA expression was significantly positively correlated with the observed increase in the influenza-specific memory B cell ELISPOT response at Day 28 compared to baseline (p-value=0.025. TREC levels were positively correlated with the baseline and early (Day 3 influenza A/H1N1-specific memory B cell ELISPOT response (p-value=0.042 and p-value=0.035, respectively. The expression and/or expression change of CD28 on CD4+ and/or CD8+ T cells at baseline and Day 3 was positively correlated with the influenza A/H1N1-specific memory B cell ELISPOT response at baseline, Day 28 and Day 75 post-vaccination. In a multivariable analysis, the peak antibody response (HAI and/or VNA at Day 28 was negatively associated with age, the percentage of CD8+CD28 low T cells, IgD+CD27- naïve B cells, and percentage overall CD20- B cells and plasmablasts, measured at Day 3 post-vaccination. The early change in influenza-specific memory B cell ELISPOT response was positively correlated with the observed increase in influenza A/H1N1-specific HAI antibodies at Day 28 and Day 75 relative to baseline (p-value=0.007 and p-value=0.005, respectively.Our data suggest that influenza-specific humoral immunity is significantly influenced by

  10. Risk factors and immunity in a nationally representative population following the 2009 influenza A(H1N1 pandemic.

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    Don Bandaranayake

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding immunity, incidence and risk factors of the 2009 influenza A(H1N1 pandemic (2009 H1N1 through a national seroprevalence study is necessary for informing public health interventions and disease modelling. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We collected 1687 serum samples and individual risk factor data between November-2009 to March-2010, three months after the end of the 2009 H1N1 wave in New Zealand. Participants were randomly sampled from selected general practices countrywide and hospitals in the Auckland region. Baseline immunity was measured from 521 sera collected during 2004 to April-2009. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI antibody titres of ≥1:40 against 2009 H1N1 were considered seroprotective as well as seropositive. The overall community seroprevalence was 26.7% (CI:22.6-29.4. The seroprevalence varied across age and ethnicity. Children aged 5-19 years had the highest seroprevalence (46.7%;CI:38.3-55.0, a significant increase from the baseline (14%;CI:7.2-20.8. Older adults aged ≥60 had no significant difference in seroprevalence between the serosurvey (24.8%;CI:18.7-30.9 and baseline (22.6%;CI:15.3-30.0. Pacific peoples had the highest seroprevalence (49.5%;CI:35.1-64.0. There was no significant difference in seroprevalence between both primary (29.6%;CI:22.6-36.5 and secondary healthcare workers (25.3%;CI:20.8-29.8 and community participants. No significant regional variation was observed. Multivariate analysis indicated age as the most important risk factor followed by ethnicity. Previous seasonal influenza vaccination was associated with higher HI titres. Approximately 45.2% of seropositive individuals reported no symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Based on age and ethnicity standardisation to the New Zealand Population, about 29.5% of New Zealanders had antibody titers at a level consistent with immunity to 2009 H1N1. Around 18.3% of New Zealanders were infected with the virus during the first wave including about one child

  11. Development and characterization of a green fluorescent protein-based rat cell bioassay system for detection of AH receptor ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Bin; Denison, M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Toxicology

    2004-09-15

    Proper epidemiological, risk assessment and exposure analysis of TCDD and related HAHs requires accurate measurements of these chemicals both in the species of interest and in various exposure matrices (i.e. biological, environmental, food and feed). While high-resolution instrumental analysis techniques are established for these chemicals, these procedures are very costly, time-consuming and are impractical for large scale sampling studies. Accordingly, numerous bioanalytical methods have been developed for the detection of these chemicals in extracts from a variety of matrices, the majority of which take the advantage of the ability of these chemicals to activate one or more aspects of the AhR-dependent mechanism of action. One of the most sensitive bioassay systems developed to date is the so-called CALUX (Chemically Activated Luciferase Expression) assay, which is based on novel recombinant cell lines that contain a stably transfected dioxin (AhR)-responsive firefly luciferase gene. Treatment of these cells with TCDD and related HAHs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as well as other AhR ligands, results in induction of reporter gene expression in a time-, dose-, AhR-, and chemical-specific manner. The level of reporter gene expression correlates with the total concentration of the TCDD-like AhR inducers (agonists) present in the sample. Although the firefly luciferase reporter gene contributes to the high degree of sensitivity of the assay, it also has limitations with respect to our need for a rapid and inexpensive bioassay for high-throughput screening analysis. Accordingly, we previously developed a stably transfected murine cell line containing an AhRresponsive enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter gene. This cell line provided us with a high-throughput cell bioassay system for identification and characterization of AhR agonists and antagonists. Here we have extended these studies and describe the development, optimization, and

  12. Immune protection induced on day 10 following administration of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhuo Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 2009 swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV H1N1 pandemic has caused more than 18,000 deaths worldwide. Vaccines against the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza virus are useful for preventing infection and controlling the pandemic. The kinetics of the immune response following vaccination with the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza vaccine need further investigation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 58 volunteers were vaccinated with a 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic influenza monovalent split-virus vaccine (15 µg, single-dose. The sera were collected before Day 0 (pre-vaccination and on Days 3, 5, 10, 14, 21, 30, 45 and 60 post vaccination. Specific antibody responses induced by the vaccination were analyzed using hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. After administration of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza vaccine, specific and protective antibody response with a major subtype of IgG was sufficiently developed as early as Day 10 (seroprotection rate: 93%. This specific antibody response could maintain for at least 60 days without significant reduction. Antibody response induced by the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza vaccine could not render protection against seasonal H1N1 influenza (seroconversion rate: 3% on Day 21. However, volunteers with higher pre-existing seasonal influenza antibody levels (pre-vaccination HI titer ≥1∶40, Group 1 more easily developed a strong antibody protection effect against the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza vaccine as compared with those showing lower pre-existing seasonal influenza antibody levels (pre-vaccination HI titer <1∶40, Group 2. The titer of the specific antibody against the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza was much higher in Group 1 (geometric mean titer: 146 on Day 21 than that in Group 2 (geometric mean titer: 70 on Day 21. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Recipients could gain sufficient protection as early as 10 days after vaccine administration. The protection could last at least 60 days. Individuals with a

  13. PENERAPAN SYARI’AH DI NEGARA MODERN (Analisis Ijtihad Pemikiran Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na’im

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    Ahmad Bahrur Rozi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Islam is a holistic religion. It means that Islam is a religion which does not only focus on the vertical relation between humans and God but also contains rules of horizontal relation between man and man. Laws with social characteristic lead to the existence of a power as the doer, such as the application of all the punishments and public rewards (al-hudûd wa al-'uqûbât. This article analyzes the thought of Abdullahi Ahmed An--Na’im about syari’ah reformation which is relevant to the constitutionalism standard, criminal law, international law and modern human right, a vision of “syariat modern” which is suitable with the nation state concept which beyond  the offering of the Nation of fundamentalist syariah and the offering of Modern Islamic Nation. The method used by Abdullahi Ahmed An--Na’im is the renewal method which is said as legalized evolution with hermeneutic as the main tool to reach the purpose and normative implication of the text as al-Qur’an. According to Abdullahi Ahmed An--Na’im, the failure of syari’ah application in modern country caused by the crisis on the traditional syari’ah methodology which became its base. Therefore, new syari’ah formulation is needed to be built on the new base. Naskh concept which is initiated by An-Na’im is for answering this crisis.Copyright (c 2016 by Al-Ihkam. All right reservedDOI: 10.19105/al-ihkam.v10i2.734

  14. Effect-directed analysis and mixture effects of AhR-active PAHs in crude oil and coastal sediments contaminated by the Hebei Spirit oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seongjin; Lee, Sangwoo; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Gi Beum; Ha, Sung Yong; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Ryu, Jongseong; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Jung, Jinho; Giesy, John P.; Khim, Jong Seong

    2015-01-01

    The major AhR-active PAHs were identified in crude oil and oil-contaminated sediments by use of effect-directed analysis. As part of the study, an enhanced potency balance analysis was conducted by establishing the novel relative potency values of (alkyl)-PAHs from the H4IIE-luc bioassay. Silica gel column fractionation of crude oil resulted in greater AhR-mediated potencies in fractions of aromatics (F2) and resins (F3), and such trend was also observed for field collected sediment samples. AhR-mediated potencies of six F2 sub-fractions from HPLC indicated that the majority of F2 responses were attributable to 3–4 ring aromatics. Target PAHs including C4-phenanthrene, C1-chrysene, and C3-chrysene in sediments explained ∼18% of the bioassay-derived TCDD-EQs, however, the unknown AhR agonists and potential mixture effects remain in question. Overall, the AhR-potency and antagonistic potential of residual oil in sediment tended to decrease over time, thus monitoring of weathering process would be key for the post management of oil-contaminated sites. - Highlights: • AhR-active PAHs in crude oil and sediments were newly determined using EDA. • Novel relative potency values of (alkyl)-PAHs for AhR activity were established. • Three to four ring PAHs were identified to be major AhR agonists in crude oil. • Parent and alkyl-PAHs explained ∼18% of the total AhR-mediated potencies of crude oil. • AhR-mediated potencies apparently decreased by the timely weathering processes. - “Major AhR agonists were identified three to four ring PAHs in crude oil and sediments determined by use of effect-directed analysis.”

  15. Phytomonitoring and phytoremediation of agrochemicals and related compounds based on recombinant cytochrome P450s and aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Sayuri; Inui, Hideyuki; Ohkawa, Hideo

    2011-04-13

    Molecular mechanisms of metabolism and modes of actions of agrochemicals and related compounds are important for understanding selective toxicity, biodegradability, and monitoring of biological effects on nontarget organisms. It is well-known that in mammals, cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) monooxygenases metabolize lipophilic foreign compounds. These P450 species are inducible, and both CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 are induced by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) combined with a ligand. Gene engineering of P450 and NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (P450 reductase) was established for bioconversion. Also, gene modification of AhRs was developed for recombinant AhR-mediated β-glucronidase (GUS) reporter assay of AhR ligands. Recombinant P450 genes were transformed into plants for phytoremediation, and recombinant AhR-mediated GUS reporter gene expression systems were each transformed into plants for phytomonitoring. Transgenic rice plants carrying CYP2B6 metabolized the herbicide metolachlor and remarkably reduced the residues in the plants and soils under paddy field conditions. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants carrying recombinant guinea pig (g) AhR-mediated GUS reporter genes detected PCB126 at the level of 10 ng/g soils in the presence of biosurfactants MEL-B. Both phytomonitoring and phytoremediation plants were each evaluated from the standpoint of practical uses.

  16. Effectiveness of A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine in adults recommended for annual influenza vaccination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefenaite, G.; Tacken, M.; Bos, J.; Stirbu-Wagner, I.; Korevaar, J.C.; Stolk, R.P.; Wolters, B.; Bijl, M.; Postma, M.J.; Wilschut, J.; Nichol, K.L.; Hak, E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Because of variability in published A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates, we conducted a study in the adults belonging to the risk groups to assess the A(H1N1)pdm09 MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine effectiveness. Methods: VE against influenza and/or pneumonia was

  17. Shari’ah concepts in Islamic banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botis, S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the main Shari’ah concepts in Islamic banking, a system which operates in accordance with the Islamic law principles, the most important being the prohibition against the payment or acceptance of interest charges (riba, replaced by profit-and-loss-sharing arrangements(PLS, Mudharabah. Also, the paper presents a survey of the historical evolution of the Islamic banking system in Muslim countries, starting with the first Islamic bank, early in the 60’s, Mit Ghamr Local Savings Bank in Egypt. In conclusion, the Islamic banking system is a rapid growth one. It is expected that this presentation will be helpful in increasing the interest in the Islamic principles of banking and financing.

  18. Developing Maqasid al-Shari’ah Index to Evaluate Social Performance of Islamic Banks: A Conceptual and Empirical Attempt

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    Mehmet Asutay

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The rise of Islamic banking and finance is now a reality with Shari 'ah compliant financial operations existing in many different parts of the world. However, its development has recently been subjected to criticism in relation to the aspirational objectives of Islamic moral economy, which constitutes the moral foundations of Islamic finance. The aspirational objectives are general expressed with maqasid al-Shari'ah, which is defined as 'human well-being'.The aim of this research, hence, is to evaluate the social performance of Islamic banks according to maqasid al-Shari'ah upon the realization of Islamic Moral Economy aspirations. AbdelMajid Najjar's concept of maqasid al-Shari 'ah with eight orientations or articulations is adopted to construct an evaluation framework aligned with the objective of rendering a critical improvement of current empirical studies.In operationalizing the developed framework, this study conducts empirical investigations by taking 13 banks from 6 countries for 5-year period (2008-2012 as a sample. In doing so, the annual reports of the sampled banks for the period are subjected to content analysis to generate the necessary data in applying to the formulated framework.Empirical evidence indicates that there is lack of achievement in maqasid al-Shari 'ah performance of Islamic bank and finance. Nevertheless, the overall industry concentrates mainly on self, faith and rights and stakeholding rather than wealth orientation, despite the fewer contributions in social entity, intellect, posterity and ecology. Additionally, the empirical results find that there are different orientations across the banks and countries. Finally, the industry orientation is estimated in this research, which is located to be somewhere betweenfaith and rights and stakeholding.Keywords: Maqasid al-Shari 'ah, Islamic Banking and Finance, Evaluation, Performance

  19. Clinical characteristics and outcomes among pediatric patients hospitalized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Lee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The purpose of this article is to describe the clinical and epidemiologic features and outcomes among children hospitalized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 infection. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed the charts of hospitalized pediatric patients (&lt;18 years diagnosed with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 infection by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction at a tertiary hospital in Seoul, Korea, between September 2009 and February 2010. Results : A total of 72 children were hospitalized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 infection (median age, 6.0 years; range, 2 months to 18 years. A total of 40% had at least 1 underlying medical condition, including asthma (17%, malignancies (19%, and heart diseases (17%. Of the 72 patients, 54 (76% children admitted with H1N1 infection showed radiographic alterations compatible with pneumonia. There was no significant difference in pre-existing conditions between pandemic influenza A/H1N1 infected patients with or without pneumonia. Children with pandemic influenza A/ H1N1 pneumonia were more likely to have a lower lymphocyte ratio (P=0.02, higher platelet count (P=0.02, and higher level of serum glucose (P=0.003, and more commonly presented with dyspnea than did those without pneumonia (P=0.04. Conclusion : No significant differences in age, sex, or presence of preexisting conditions were found between children hospitalized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 H1N1 influenza infection with pneumonia and those without pneumonia. Higher leukocyte count, higher glucose level, and a lower lymphocyte ratio were associated with the development of pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza pneumonia.

  20. 'Urf / 'Adah (Custom) : An Ancillary Mechanism in Shari'ah | Salisu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to the legal maxim in Islamic legislative system, custom ('Urf / 'Adah) is said to be authoritative (al-'adah Muhakkamah). Thus, right from the inception of Islam, it has been playing a decisive role in the dispensation of Shari'ah. Indeed, medieval and modern works in Islamic jurisprudence ('Usul al-Fiqh) are replete ...

  1. Influenza A(H9N2) Virus, Myanmar, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Thant Nyi; Nonthabenjawan, Nutthawan; Chaiyawong, Supassama; Bunpapong, Napawan; Boonyapisitsopa, Supanat; Janetanakit, Taveesak; Mon, Pont Pont; Mon, Hla Hla; Oo, Kyaw Naing; Oo, Sandi Myint; Mar Win, Mar; Amonsin, Alongkorn

    2017-06-01

    Routine surveillance of influenza A virus was conducted in Myanmar during 2014-2015. Influenza A(H9N2) virus was isolated in Shan State, upper Myanmar. Whole-genome sequencing showed that H9N2 virus from Myanmar was closely related to H9N2 virus of clade 4.2.5 from China.

  2. Immediately modifiable risk factors attributable to colorectal cancer in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Cho; Lai, Pei Kuan; Mak, Joon Wah

    2017-08-04

    This study aimed to estimate potential reductions in case incidence of colorectal cancer attributable to the modifiable risk factors such as alcohol consumption, overweight and physical inactivity amongst the Malaysian population. Gender specific population-attributable fractions (PAFs) for colorectal cancer in Malaysia were estimated for the three selected risk factors (physical inactivity, overweight, and alcohol consumptions). Exposure prevalence were sourced from a large-scale national representative survey. Risk estimates of the relationship between the exposure of interest and colorectal cancer were obtained from published meta-analyses. The overall PAF was then estimated, using the 2013 national cancer incidence data from the Malaysian Cancer Registry. Overall, the mean incidence rate for colorectal cancer in Malaysia from 2008 to 2013 was 21.3 per 100,000 population, with the mean age of 61.6 years (±12.7) and the majority were men (56.6%). Amongst 369 colorectal cancer cases in 2013, 40 cases (20 men, 20 women), 10 cases (9 men, 1 woman) or 20 cases (16 men,4 women) would be prevented, if they had done physical exercises, could reduce their body weight to normal level or avoided alcohol consumption, assuming that these factors are causally related to colorectal cancer. It was estimated that 66 (17.8%;66/369) colorectal cancer cases (42 men, 24 women) who had all these three risk factors for the last 10 years would have been prevented, if they could control these three risk factors through effective preventive measures. Findings suggest that approximately 18% of colorectal cancer cases in Malaysia would be prevented through appropriate preventive measures such as doing regular physical exercises, reducing their body weight to normal level and avoiding alcohol consumption, if these factors are causally related to colorectal cancer. Scaling-up nationwide public health campaigns tailored to increase physical activity, controlling body weight within normal

  3. Chylomicronemia risk factors ranked by importance for the individual and community in 108 711 women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S. B.; Varbo, A.; Langsted, A.

    2018-01-01

    and community. Methods: A total of 108 711 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study were grouped as unlikely chylomicronemia (nonfasting triglycerides ....4%) and sedentary lifestyle (PAF: 6.0%). Conclusions: Obesity and type 2 diabetes were the most important modifiable chylomicronemia risk factors in women and men, both for the individual and community. This could influence chylomicronemia prevention and help design randomized trials aimed at reducing triglycerides......Background: Hypertriglyceridemia prevalence is increasing as more individuals become obese, and chylomicronemia risk factors for the individual and community have not been described previously. Objective: To describe chylomicronemia risk factors in the general population for individuals...

  4. Effectiveness of the influenza a(H1N1)PDM09 vaccine in adults recommended for annual influenza vaccination : A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefenaite, Giedre; Tacken, Margot; Bos, Jens; Stirbu-Wagner, Irina; Korevaar, Joke C.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Wolters, Bert; Bijl, Marc; Postma, Maarten J.; Wilschut, Jan; Nichol, Kristin L.; Hak, Eelko

    Background: Because of variability in published A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates, we aimed to assess the effectiveness of MF59-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine in a matched case-control study. Objectives: We aimed to assess the effectiveness of MF59- adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09

  5. Factors of trade in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousek, Jan; Kočenda, Evžen

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 4 (2014), s. 518-535 ISSN 0939-3625 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP403/12/0080 Grant - others:UK(CZ) UNCE 204005/2012 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : bilateral trade * factors of trade * panel data Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.649, year: 2014

  6. [Prevalence and associated risk factors of arterial hypertension in Sobremonte and Ojo de Agua Departments in Cordoba State].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Antonio; Camino Willhuber, Gastón; Chaile, Iván

    2008-01-01

    Arterial Hypertension (AH) is a disease with multiple risk factors (RF), and it is one of the most important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of AH in Sobremonte area and its correlation to other risk factors. The study was done in an special programme called "Solidarity in Health" (SIH) supported by the College of Medicine at the National University of Córdoba, which provided primary care to residents of Cachi Yaco (Sobremonte Department). It is an small village near Santiago del Estero province located in 226 km from Córdoba city. They went to the city and they examined the patients at the the "French and Berutti" school for nine consecutive years (2000-2008). Sobremonte area is the poorest deparment in the province of Córdoba and it has the highest rate of lowest socio-economic development, and a very deficient health care system.. The only hospital providing primary care is in San Francisco del Chañar, and the access is not free. The study involved the determination of the arterial pressure (AP) according to the seventh "JNC"criteria, body mass index (BMI), levels of alcohol consumption, exercise, salt consumption, diabetes and smoking in all the patients. Additionally, three water samples from different representative zones were collected and tested for sodium concentration. 471 patients were included. The incidence of AH was 43.5% of the patients. (51% men and 36% women). Higher incidence of AH was found in patients between 50 and 59 years old. There was a stadistical difference in the BMI, diabetes, and alcohol consumption between healthy patients and patients with AH. There was not any correlation between AH and exercise. We found higher levels of sodium in the water of this area and it was between 13-35 higher than in C6rdoba city and it was correlated with AH. We conclude that the increased sodium consumption is one of the most important risk factor of AH in this population.

  7. Pandemic A/H1N1v influenza 2009 in hospitalized children: a multicenter Belgian survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blumental Sophie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the 2009 influenza A/H1N1v pandemic, children were identified as a specific "at risk" group. We conducted a multicentric study to describe pattern of influenza A/H1N1v infection among hospitalized children in Brussels, Belgium. Methods From July 1, 2009, to January 31, 2010, we collected epidemiological and clinical data of all proven (positive H1N1v PCR and probable (positive influenza A antigen or culture pediatric cases of influenza A/H1N1v infections, hospitalized in four tertiary centers. Results During the epidemic period, an excess of 18% of pediatric outpatients and emergency department visits was registered. 215 children were hospitalized with proven/probable influenza A/H1N1v infection. Median age was 31 months. 47% had ≥ 1 comorbid conditions. Febrile respiratory illness was the most common presentation. 36% presented with initial gastrointestinal symptoms and 10% with neurological manifestations. 34% had pneumonia. Only 24% of the patients received oseltamivir but 57% received antibiotics. 10% of children were admitted to PICU, seven of whom with ARDS. Case fatality-rate was 5/215 (2%, concerning only children suffering from chronic neurological disorders. Children over 2 years of age showed a higher propensity to be admitted to PICU (16% vs 1%, p = 0.002 and a higher mortality rate (4% vs 0%, p = 0.06. Infants less than 3 months old showed a milder course of infection, with few respiratory and neurological complications. Conclusion Although influenza A/H1N1v infections were generally self-limited, pediatric burden of disease was significant. Compared to other countries experiencing different health care systems, our Belgian cohort was younger and received less frequently antiviral therapy; disease course and mortality were however similar.

  8. Human Clade 2.3.4.4 A/H5N6 Influenza Virus Lacks Mammalian Adaptation Markers and Does Not Transmit via the Airborne Route between Ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfst, Sander; Mok, Chris K P; van den Brand, Judith M A; van der Vliet, Stefan; Rosu, Miruna E; Spronken, Monique I; Yang, Zifeng; de Meulder, Dennis; Lexmond, Pascal; Bestebroer, Theo M; Peiris, J S Malik; Fouchier, Ron A M; Richard, Mathilde

    2018-01-01

    Since their emergence in 1997, A/H5N1 influenza viruses of the A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 lineage have diversified in multiple genetic and antigenic clades upon continued circulation in poultry in several countries in Eurasia and Africa. Since 2009, reassortant viruses carrying clade 2.3.4.4 hemagglutinin (HA) and internal and neuraminidase (NA) genes of influenza A viruses of different avian origin have been detected, yielding various HA-NA combinations, such as A/H5N1, A/H5N2, A/H5N3, A/H5N5, A/H5N6, and A/H5N8. Previous studies reported on the low pathogenicity and lack of airborne transmission of A/H5N2 and A/H5N8 viruses in the ferret model. However, although A/H5N6 viruses are the only clade 2.3.4.4 viruses that crossed the species barrier and infected humans, the risk they pose for human health remains poorly characterized. Here, the characterization of A/H5N6 A/Guangzhou/39715/2014 virus in vitro and in ferrets is described. This A/H5N6 virus possessed high polymerase activity, mediated by the E627K substitution in the PB2 protein, which corresponds to only one biological trait out of the three that were previously shown to confer airborne transmissibility to A/H5N1 viruses between ferrets. This might explain its lack of airborne transmission between ferrets. After intranasal inoculation, A/H5N6 virus replicated to high titers in the respiratory tracts of ferrets and was excreted for at least 6 days. Moreover, A/H5N6 virus caused severe pneumonia in ferrets upon intratracheal inoculation. Thus, A/H5N6 virus causes a more severe disease in ferrets than previously investigated clade 2.3.4.4 viruses, but our results demonstrate that the risk from airborne spread is currently low. IMPORTANCE Avian influenza A viruses are a threat to human health, as they cross the species barrier and infect humans occasionally, often with severe outcome. The antigenic and genetic diversity of A/H5 viruses from the A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 lineage is increasing, due to continued

  9. Novel reassortant influenza A(H1N2) virus derived from A(H1N1)pdm09 virus isolated from swine, Japan, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Miho; Takayama, Ikuyo; Kageyama, Tsutomu; Tsukagoshi, Hiroyuki; Saitoh, Mika; Ishioka, Taisei; Yokota, Yoko; Kimura, Hirokazu; Tashiro, Masato; Kozawa, Kunihisa

    2013-12-01

    We isolated a novel influenza virus A(H1N2) strain from a pig on January 13, 2012, in Gunma Prefecture, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the strain was a novel type of double-reassortant virus derived from the swine influenza virus strains H1N1pdm09 and H1N2, which were prevalent in Gunma at that time.

  10. Entry and exit screening of airline travellers during the A(H1N1) 2009 pandemic: a retrospective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kamran; Eckhardt, Rose; Brownstein, John S; Naqvi, Raza; Hu, Wei; Kossowsky, David; Scales, David; Arino, Julien; MacDonald, Michael; Wang, Jun; Sears, Jennifer; Cetron, Martin S

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the screening measures that would have been required to assess all travellers at risk of transporting A(H1N1)pdm09 out of Mexico by air at the start of the 2009 pandemic. Data from flight itineraries for travellers who flew from Mexico were used to estimate the number of international airports where health screening measures would have been needed, and the number of travellers who would have had to be screened, to assess all air travellers who could have transported the H1N1 influenza virus out of Mexico during the initial stages of the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic. Exit screening at 36 airports in Mexico, or entry screening of travellers arriving on direct flights from Mexico at 82 airports in 26 other countries, would have resulted in the assessment of all air travellers at risk of transporting A(H1N1)pdm09 out of Mexico at the start of the pandemic. Entry screening of 116 travellers arriving from Mexico by direct or connecting flights would have been necessary for every one traveller at risk of transporting A(H1N1)pdm09. Screening at just eight airports would have resulted in the assessment of 90% of all air travellers at risk of transporting A(H1N1)pdm09 out of Mexico in the early stages of the pandemic. During the earliest stages of the A(H1N1) pandemic, most public health benefits potentially attainable through the screening of air travellers could have been achieved by screening travellers at only eight airports.

  11. Baicalein induces G1 arrest in oral cancer cells by enhancing the degradation of cyclin D1 and activating AhR to decrease Rb phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Ya-Hsin, E-mail: yhcheng@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Li, Lih-Ann; Lin, Pinpin; Cheng, Li-Chuan [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hung, Chein-Hui [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine Sciences, Chang Gung University, Puizi City, Chiayi 613, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Nai Wen [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Chingju [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-09-15

    Baicalein is a flavonoid, known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. As an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand, baicalein at high concentrations blocks AhR-mediated dioxin toxicity. Because AhR had been reported to play a role in regulating the cell cycle, we suspected that the anti-cancer effect of baicalein is associated with AhR. This study investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the anti-cancer effect of baicalein in oral cancer cells HSC-3, including whether such effect would be AhR-mediated. Results revealed that baicalein inhibited cell proliferation and increased AhR activity in a dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle was arrested at the G1 phase and the expression of CDK4, cyclin D1, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma (pRb) was decreased. When the AhR was suppressed by siRNA, the reduction of pRb was partially reversed, accompanied by a decrease of cell population at G1 phase and an increase at S phase, while the reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4 did not change. This finding suggests that the baicalein activation of AhR is indeed associated with the reduction of pRb, but is independent of the reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4. When cells were pre-treated with LiCl, the inhibitor of GSK-3β, the decrease of cyclin D1 was blocked and the reduction of pRb was recovered. The data indicates that in HSC-3 the reduction of pRb is both mediated by baicalein through activation of AhR and facilitation of cyclin D1 degradation, which causes cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, and results in the inhibition of cell proliferation. -- Highlights: ► Baicalein causes the G1 phase arrest by decreasing Rb phosphorylation. ► Baicalein modulates AhR-mediated cell proliferation. ► Both AhR activation and cyclin D1 degradation results in hypophosphorylation of Rb. ► Baicalein facilitates cyclin D1 degradation by signalling the GSK-3β pathway.

  12. Influenza A/H1N1 Severe Pneumonia: Novel Morphocytological Findings in Bronchoalveolar Lavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Faverio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL performed in three patients with severe influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Light microscopy analysis of BAL cytocentrifugates showed the presence of characteristic large, mononuclear, plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like cells never described before. Via transmission electron microscopy, these cells were classified as atypical type II pneumocytes and some of them showed cytoplasmic vesicles and inclusions. We concluded that plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like type II pneumocytes might represent a morphologic marker of A/H1N1 influenza virus infection as well as reparative cellular activation after diffuse alveolar damage.

  13. Calorimetry of 25 Ah lithium/thionyl chloride cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. J.; Dawson, S.

    1991-01-01

    Heat flow measurements of 25-Ah lithium thionyl chloride cells provided a method to calculate an effective thermal potential, E(TP) of 3.907 V. The calculation is useful to determine specific heat generation of this cell chemistry and design. The E(TP) value includes heat generation by electrochemical cell reactions, competitive chemical reactions, and resistance heating at the tabs, connectors, and leads. Heat flow was measured while applying electrical loads to the cell in an isothermal calorimeter set at 0, 20, and 60 C.

  14. TAFSIR ALQUR’AN PARADIGMA INTEGRATIF: STUDI ATAS QIRA’AH ALTHANIYAH MUHAMMAD SYAHRUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Malik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes on the alternative reading (qira'ah altaniyah of Alqur’an proposed by Muhammad Shahrur, in his work “Alkitab wa Alqur’an: Qira'ah Almu'ashirah”. Through this work, Syahrur proposed an integrative-interpretation method which is built through combining analysis of natural science, social science, and tafsir. Based on the descriptive analysis approach to this works, this study found out two important things: (1 Syahrur using mathematical analysis to interpret the muhkamat’s verses and science analysis for mutasyabihat’s verses. (2 Hudud is a result of the integrative analysis interpretation based on the linguistic and mathematic analysis in understanding the Quranic verses about the law, while ta’wil ilmi is an understanding toward mutasyabihat verses, like the revelation, which is based on the analysis of natural science cognitive.

  15. AhR and SHP regulate phosphatidylcholine and S-adenosylmethionine levels in the one-carbon cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Chae; Seok, Sunmi; Byun, Sangwon; Kong, Bo; Zhang, Yang; Guo, Grace; Xie, Wen; Ma, Jian; Kemper, Byron; Kemper, Jongsook Kim

    2018-02-07

    Phosphatidylcholines (PC) and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) are critical determinants of hepatic lipid levels, but how their levels are regulated is unclear. Here, we show that Pemt and Gnmt, key one-carbon cycle genes regulating PC/SAM levels, are downregulated after feeding, leading to decreased PC and increased SAM levels, but these effects are blunted in small heterodimer partner (SHP)-null or FGF15-null mice. Further, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is translocated into the nucleus by insulin/PKB signaling in the early fed state and induces Pemt and Gnmt expression. This induction is blocked by FGF15 signaling-activated SHP in the late fed state. Adenoviral-mediated expression of AhR in obese mice increases PC levels and exacerbates steatosis, effects that are blunted by SHP co-expression or Pemt downregulation. PEMT, AHR, and PC levels are elevated in simple steatosis patients, but PC levels are robustly reduced in steatohepatitis-fibrosis patients. This study identifies AhR and SHP as new physiological regulators of PC/SAM levels.

  16. Outdoor Long-Range WLANs : A Lesson for IEEE 802.11ah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aust, Stefan; Venkatesha Prasad, R.; Niemegeers, Ignas G M M

    2015-01-01

    Several service applications have been reported by many who proposed the use of wireless LANs (WLANs) over a wide variety of outdoor deployments. In particular, the upcoming IEEE 802.11ah WLAN protocol will enable a longer transmission range between WLAN access points (APs) and stations (STAs) up to

  17. Precursor systems analyses of automated highway systems. Knowledge based systems and learning methods for AHS. Volume 10. Final report, September 1993-February 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmoltz, J.; Blumer, A.; Noonan, J.; Shedd, D.; Twarog, J.

    1995-06-01

    Managing each AHS vehicle and the AHS system as a whole is an extremely complex yndertaking. The authors have investigated and now report on Artificial Intelligence (AI) approaches that can help. In particular, we focus on AI technologies known as Knowledge Based Systems (KBSs) and Learning Methods (LMs). Our primary purpose is to identify opportunities: we identify several problems in AHS and AI technologies that can solve them. Our secondary purpose is to examine in some detail a subset of these opportunities: we examine how KBSs and LMs can help in controlling the high level movements--e.g., keep in lane, change lanes, speed up, slow down--of an automated vehicle. This detailed examination includes the implementation of a prototype system having three primary components. The Tufts Automated Highway System Kit(TAHSK) discrete time micro-level traffic simulator is a generic AHS simulator. TAHSK interfaces with the Knowledge Based Controller (KBCon) knowledge based high level controller, which controls the high level actions of individual AHS vehicles. Finally, TAHSK also interfaces with a Reinforcement learning (RL) module that was used to explore the possibilities of RL techniques in an AHS environment.

  18. Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus incursion into Africa: countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus incursion into Africa: countries, hosts and ... features are important for planning control measures between countries and to ... in humans, infections in pigs earlier reported in America, Europe and Asia were ...

  19. Developing Islamic Banking Performance Measures Based on Maqasid Al-Shari’ah Framework: Cases of 24 Selected Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Omar Mohammed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Islamic banking has achieved remarkable growth that has surpassed the growth of the conventional banking system. Yet, studies show that the performances of Islamic banks (IBs seem to be trailing behind the conventional banks (CBs. Is the poor performance of IBs the result of mismatch between their objectives and their performance measurement criteria or it is a reflection of their true performances? The objectives of Islamic banking had not been formally addressed. Mustafa and Taib (2009 derived the objectives of Islamic banking from Abu Zahara’s theory of the objectives of Shari’ah (Maqasid al-Shari’ah and, based on these Shari’ah objectives, developed a model of Islamic banking performance measures. They named it as Performance Measures based on Maqasid al-Shari’ah framework or the PMMS model. This paper has tested the PMMS model on a sample 24 banks (12 IBs and 12 CBs. The twenty four banks were also evaluated using the traditional conventional financial measures. Mann-Whitney U-Test results show IBs faring well in their performances when measured using the PMMS model than when they are measured using the conventional banking performance yardstick. Policy prescriptions and recommendations for further studies are provided at the concluding section of the paper.

  20. Clinical Factors and Viral Load Influencing Severity of Acute Hepatitis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Woong; Chang, Dong-Yeop; Moon, Hong Ju; Chang, Hye Young; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Lee, June Sung; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Hyung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Clinical manifestations of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection vary from mild to fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) in adults. We investigated the relationship between laboratory findings, including viral load, and clinical outcomes in patients with acute hepatitis A (AHA) and evaluated predictive factors for severe acute hepatitis (s-AH). We analyzed the clinical manifestations of AHA in 770 patients. Patients with a prothrombin time (PT) of less than 40% of normal were classified as s-AH and included 4 patients with FHF, 11 patients with acute renal failure, and 3 patients with prolonged jaundice (n = 128). Other patients were defined as mild acute hepatitis (m-AH) (n = 642). Serum samples were obtained from 48 patients with acute hepatitis A. Among them, 20 with s-AH, and 28 with m-AH, were tested for HAV RNA titer. In a multivariate analysis, age (HR = 1.042, P = 0.041), peak creatinine (HR = 4.014, P = 0.001), bilirubin (HR = 1.153, P = 0.003), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (HR = 1.001, P hepatitis A.

  1. Clinical Factors and Viral Load Influencing Severity of Acute Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Woong; Chang, Dong-Yeop; Moon, Hong Ju; Chang, Hye Young; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Lee, June Sung; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Hyung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Clinical manifestations of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection vary from mild to fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) in adults. We investigated the relationship between laboratory findings, including viral load, and clinical outcomes in patients with acute hepatitis A (AHA) and evaluated predictive factors for severe acute hepatitis (s-AH). Methods We analyzed the clinical manifestations of AHA in 770 patients. Patients with a prothrombin time (PT) of less than 40% of normal were classified as s-AH and included 4 patients with FHF, 11 patients with acute renal failure, and 3 patients with prolonged jaundice (n = 128). Other patients were defined as mild acute hepatitis (m-AH) (n = 642). Serum samples were obtained from 48 patients with acute hepatitis A. Among them, 20 with s-AH, and 28 with m-AH, were tested for HAV RNA titer. Results In a multivariate analysis, age (HR = 1.042, P = 0.041), peak creatinine (HR = 4.014, P = 0.001), bilirubin (HR = 1.153, P = 0.003), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (HR = 1.001, Phepatitis A. PMID:26090677

  2. Determination of preventive behaviors for pandemic influenza A/H1N1 based on protection motivation theory among female high school students in Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Yarmohammadi, Parastoo; Sharifabad, Mohammad Ali Morowati; Rahaei, Zohreh

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A/H1N1 pandemic has recently threatened the health of world's population more than ever. Non-pharmaceutical measures are important to prevent the spread of influenza A/H1N1 and to prevent a pandemic. Effective influenza pandemic management requires understanding of the factors influencing preventive behavioral. This study reports on predictors of students' preventive behaviors for pandemic influenza A/H1N1 using variables based on the protection motivation theory (PMT). In a cross-sectional study, multiple-stage randomized sampling was used to select 300 female students in Isfahan who completed a questionnaire in December 2009. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire based on PMT. The statistical analysis of the data included bivariate correlations, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and linear regression. The mean age of participants was 15.62 (SE = 1.1) years old. Majority of participants were aware regarding pandemic influenza A/H1N1 (87.3%, 262 out of 300). Results showed that, protection motivation was highly significant relationship with preventive behavior and predicted 34% of its variance. We found all of the variables with the exception of perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and response cost were related with protection motivation and explained 22% of its variance. Promotion of students' self-efficacy, and intention to protect themselves from a health threat should be priorities of any programs aimed at promoting preventive behaviors among students. It is also concluded that the protection motivation theory may be used in developing countries, like Iran, as a framework for prevention interventions in an attempt to improve the preventive behaviors of students.

  3. Combined chemical and toxicological long-term monitoring for AhR agonists with SPMD-based virtual organisms in drinking water Danjiangkou Reservoir, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxian; Song, Guoqiang; Li, Aimin; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Pfister, Gerd; Tong, Anthony Z; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2014-08-01

    SPMD-based virtual organisms (VOs) were employed for time-integrating, long-term sampling combined biological and chemical analyses for exposure assessment of hydrophobic organic pollutants (HOPs) in a drinking water reservoir, China. The SPMDs were deployed at four and five sites in the Danjiangkou (DJK) reservoir over two periods of 26 and 31 d to sequester the hydrophobic contaminants in water. The chosen bioassay response for the extracts of the SPMDs, the induction of 7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) was assayed using a rat hepatoma cell line (H4IIE). The known aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists PAHs and PCBs were analyzed by HRGC/HRMS instrument. The cause-effect relationship between the observed AhR activities and chemical concentrations of detected AhR agonists was examined. The results show that the extracts from the SPMD samples could induce AhR activity significantly, whereas the chemically derived 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalent (TEQcal) was not correlated with the bioassay-derived TCDD equivalent (TEQbio). The known AhR agonists could only account for 2-10% of the observed AhR responses among which the contribution of PCBs could almost be neglected. Unidentified AhR-active compounds represented a greater proportion of the TCDD equivalent (TCDD-EQ) in SPMD samples from DJK. Based on the first assessment, the VO followed by the combination of chemical and biological analyses emerges as a resource efficient water monitoring device in ecotoxicological assessment for toxicologically relevant compounds which are readily available for uptake by resident aquatic biota in drinking water resources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. THE HISTORY OF JAMA‘AH TABLIGH IN SOUTHEAST ASIA: The Role of Islamic Sufism in Islamic Revival

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaruzzaman Bustamam-Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    The article examines the history of Jama‘ah Tabligh in Southeast Asia, especially in Kuala Lumpur and Aceh. The author traces the historical background of this religious movement with particular reference to the birth place of Jama‘ah Tabligh, India. The author investigates the major role of Indian in disseminating Islam in Southeast Asia, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia. Many scholars believe that Islam came to Southeast Asia from India (Gujarat), and this is the reason why many Islamic...

  5. The interplay of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and beta-catenin alters both AhR-dependent transcription and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in liver progenitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházková, Jiřina; Kabátková, Markéta; Bryja, Vítězslav; Umannová, Lenka; Bernatík, O.; Kozubík, Alois; Machala, M.; Vondráček, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 2 (2011), s. 349-360 ISSN 1096-6080 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H058 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA524/09/1337 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : dioxin * beta-catenin * AhR Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.652, year: 2011

  6. TCDD promoted EMT of hFPECs via AhR, which involved the activation of EGFR/ERK signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhan [School of Public Health, Xinxiang Medical University, 453003 (China); The Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University, 450052 (China); Bu, Yongjun [School of Public Health, Xinxiang Medical University, 453003 (China); Liu, Xiaozhuan [Medical College, Henan University of Science & Technology, 471023 (China); Wang, Xugang; Zhang, Guofu; Wang, Erhui; Ding, Shibin; Liu, Yongfeng; Shi, Ruling [School of Public Health, Xinxiang Medical University, 453003 (China); Li, Qiaoyun; Fu, Jianhong [The Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University, 450052 (China); Yu, Zengli, E-mail: zly@zzu.edu.cn [School of Public Health, Xinxiang Medical University, 453003 (China); School of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, 450001 (China)

    2016-05-01

    One critical step of second palatal fusion is the newly formed medial epithelia seam (MES) disintegration, which involves apoptosis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and cell migration. Although the environmental toxicant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) produces cleft palate at high rates, little is known about the effects of TCDD exposure on the fate of palatal epithelial cells. By using primary epithelial cells isolated from human fetal palatal shelves (hFPECs), we show that TCDD increased cell proliferation and EMT, as demonstrated by increased the epithelial markers (E-cadherin and cytokeratin14) and enhanced the mesenchymal markers (vimentin and fibronectin), but had no effect on cell migration and apoptosis. TCDD exposure led to a dose-dependent increase in Slug protein expression. Coimmunoprecipitation revealed that TCDD promoted AhR to form a protein complex with Slug. ChIP assay confirmed that TCDD exposure recruited AhR to the xenobiotic responsive element of Slug promoter. Knockdown of AhR by siRNA remarkably weakened TCDD-induced binding of AhR to the XRE promoter of slug, thereby suppressed TCDD-induced vimentin. Further experiment showed that TCDD stimulated EGFR phosphorylation did not influence the TGFβ3/Smad signaling; whereas TCDD increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 with no effect on activation of JNK. By using varieties of inhibitors, we confirmed that TCDD promoted proliferation and EMT of hFPECs via activation of EGFR/ERK pathway. These data make a novel contribution to the molecular mechanism of cleft palate by TCDD. - Highlights: • TCDD exposure promoted cell proliferation and EMT of hFPECs; • AhR signaling was activated and required for TCDD-induced EMT; • TCDD-mediated EMT of hFPECs involved the activation of EGFR/ERK signaling; • TCDD exposure had no effect on TGFβ3/Smad pathway.

  7. TCDD promoted EMT of hFPECs via AhR, which involved the activation of EGFR/ERK signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Zhan; Bu, Yongjun; Liu, Xiaozhuan; Wang, Xugang; Zhang, Guofu; Wang, Erhui; Ding, Shibin; Liu, Yongfeng; Shi, Ruling; Li, Qiaoyun; Fu, Jianhong; Yu, Zengli

    2016-01-01

    One critical step of second palatal fusion is the newly formed medial epithelia seam (MES) disintegration, which involves apoptosis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and cell migration. Although the environmental toxicant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) produces cleft palate at high rates, little is known about the effects of TCDD exposure on the fate of palatal epithelial cells. By using primary epithelial cells isolated from human fetal palatal shelves (hFPECs), we show that TCDD increased cell proliferation and EMT, as demonstrated by increased the epithelial markers (E-cadherin and cytokeratin14) and enhanced the mesenchymal markers (vimentin and fibronectin), but had no effect on cell migration and apoptosis. TCDD exposure led to a dose-dependent increase in Slug protein expression. Coimmunoprecipitation revealed that TCDD promoted AhR to form a protein complex with Slug. ChIP assay confirmed that TCDD exposure recruited AhR to the xenobiotic responsive element of Slug promoter. Knockdown of AhR by siRNA remarkably weakened TCDD-induced binding of AhR to the XRE promoter of slug, thereby suppressed TCDD-induced vimentin. Further experiment showed that TCDD stimulated EGFR phosphorylation did not influence the TGFβ3/Smad signaling; whereas TCDD increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 with no effect on activation of JNK. By using varieties of inhibitors, we confirmed that TCDD promoted proliferation and EMT of hFPECs via activation of EGFR/ERK pathway. These data make a novel contribution to the molecular mechanism of cleft palate by TCDD. - Highlights: • TCDD exposure promoted cell proliferation and EMT of hFPECs; • AhR signaling was activated and required for TCDD-induced EMT; • TCDD-mediated EMT of hFPECs involved the activation of EGFR/ERK signaling; • TCDD exposure had no effect on TGFβ3/Smad pathway.

  8. Ah lo previdi - Arien von Mozart, Cocchi, Colla und Paisiello

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jonášová, Milada

    -, - (2008), s. 75-86. ISBN 9783761821107. ISSN 1861-9053. [Der junge Mozart 1756-1780. Philologie – Analyse – Rezeption. Salzburg, 01.12.2005-4.12.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS900580552 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90580513 Keywords : Ah lo previdi * Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart * G. Cocchi * G. Colla * G. Paisiello Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  9. Influenza A(H6N1) Virus in Dogs, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Ting; Wang, Ching-Ho; Chueh, Ling-Ling; Su, Bi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of influenza A virus in dogs in Taiwan and isolated A/canine/Taiwan/E01/2014. Molecular analysis indicated that this isolate was closely related to influenza A(H6N1) viruses circulating in Taiwan and harbored the E627K substitution in the polymerase basic 2 protein, which indicated its ability to replicate in mammalian species. PMID:26583707

  10. Dynamic Multi-Factor Credit Risk Model with Fat-Tailed Factors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gapko, Petr; Šmíd, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 2 (2012), s. 125-140 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD402/09/H045; GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Grant - others:Univerzita Karlova(CZ) GAUK 46108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : credit risk * probability of default * loss given default * credit loss * credit loss distribution * Basel II Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.340, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/smid-dynamic multi-factor credit risk model with fat-tailed factors.pdf

  11. Facing a Health Threat in a Complex Information Environment: A National Representative Survey Examining American Adults' Behavioral Responses to the 2009/2010 A(H1N1) Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Leesa; McCloud, Rachel F.; Jung, Minsoo; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2018-01-01

    Background: Recent A(H1N1) studies suggest that intrapersonal and interpersonal factors may exert influence on people's preventive behaviors for avoiding the flu during pandemics. Aims: Nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) and vaccinations play key roles in containing disease transmission during a pandemic. We examined how intrapersonal and…

  12. Maqasid al-Shari’ah as a Framework for Economic Development Theorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Abubakar LAMIDO

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Development studies has so far created a huge intellectual resource, including theories, models and policy prescriptions that have been implemented in most developing economies. However, development theorization has been generally dominated by the western materialist paradigm which is antithetical to the very philosophical foundations of Islam. Muslims, constituting at least a quarter of the world population, mostly live in the less developed economies and are therefore among the largest consumers of these materialist theories.  Based on the premises that the Muslim world cannot address its multifarious development challenges by relying only on imported theories and models, and that as important stakeholders in the world, Muslims need to contribute to the global development discourse; this paper presents an Islamic alternative approach to the analysis of development based on the theory of maqasid al-Shari’ah. The paper proposes a maqasid-based development approach which sees development from the perspective of drawing benefit and removing harm, which require promoting things that make life easy, meaningful and prosperous and blocking all means to harm, socio-economic difficulty and underdevelopment. The three-stages development approach focuses on promoting wellbeing through the preservation and enhancement of five essential components; faith, life, intellect, offspring and wealth. The paper submits that maqasid al-Shari’ah is a veritable framework for, inter alia, formulating development policies and prioritizing development projects. The strength of the approach lies in the proper place it accords to faith, spirituality, and moral ethics as trigger mechanisms for sustained moderate development in addition to its emphasis on all-encompassing but moderate material progress. The paper calls for an extensive study of the science of maqasid al-Shari’ah as it pertains to economic development discourse.  

  13. English faculty' s perception of their role in ICT-Oriented classroom at Majma'ah University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sadig Yahya Ezza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The teacher was once considered “an educational authority”, “a dispenser of knowledge”, “someone in charge of telling”, etc. However, with the integration of information and communication technology (ICT in the classroom, knowledge resources have become accessible to the student in ways that are beyond teacher’s control. This fact has led to a new perception of teachers' roles among educational researchers. In other words, teachers have come to be conceived as facilitators, learners, collaborators, etc. In the light of these developments, the present study attempts to investigate English faculty’s view on the possible impact that ICT could have on their role at Majma’ah University. A questionnaire comprising sixteen traditional and ICT-oriented roles was administered to thirty participants in different campuses of Majma’ah University to collect data to verify two research hypotheses: (1 Most EFL faculty at Majma'ah University (MU favour ICT-oriented roles over traditional roles. (2 All ICT-oriented roles are equally valuable to EFL faculty at MU in enhancing teaching practices. Statistical analysis of the study data confirmed the first hypothesis but rejected second one.

  14. Massage Therapy in Children with Asthma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ji; Yang, Xi-Wen; Zhang, Ming

    2017-01-01

    To systematically evaluate the efficacy of massage, a traditional treatment method of traditional Chinese medicine on children with asthma. Literatures from 5 databases using the date ranging from 1 January, 1990, to 13 December, 2016, were reviewed, which were all randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy on children with asthma and effect on lung function mainly by massage therapy. 14 researches with 1299 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with control group, a better efficacy was found in treatment group, which focused on massage therapy. Compared with control group, there was remarkable increase on FEV1 as well as PEF in treatment group. All studies have shown that massage therapy has a significantly positive effect on children with asthma, improves the pulmonary function parameters of large airway, reduces the plasma concentrations of PAF and prostaglandin, and increases the levels of PAF-AH and DP1; therefore, it greatly improves pulmonary function. However, the limited research designs of included studies lead to high risk of bias. More randomized controlled trials with better methodological quality are needed to further confirm the effectiveness of massage.

  15. Aromatic hydrocarbons upregulate glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and induce changes in actin cytoskeleton. Role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Hernandez, O.D.; Mejia-Garcia, A.; Sanchez-Ocampo, E.M.; Castro-Munozledo, F.; Hernandez-Munoz, R.; Elizondo, G.

    2009-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a multifunctional enzyme involved in several cellular functions including glycolysis, membrane transport, microtubule assembly, DNA replication and repair, nuclear RNA export, apoptosis, and the detection of nitric oxide stress. Therefore, modifications in the regulatory ability and function of GAPDH may alter cellular homeostasis. We report here that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and β-naphthoflavone, which are well-known ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), increase GAPDH mRNA levels in vivo and in vitro, respectively. These compounds fail to induce GAPDH transcription in an AhR-null mouse model, suggesting that the increase in GAPDH level is dependent upon AhR activation. To analyse the consequences of AhR ligands on GAPDH function, mice were treated with TCDD and the level of liver activity of GAPDH was determined. The results showed that TCDD treatment increased GAPDH activity. On the other hand, treatment of Hepa-1 cells with β-naphthoflavone leads to an increase in microfilament density when compared to untreated cultures. Collectively, these results suggest that AhR ligands, such as polycyclic hydrocarbons, can modify GAPDH expression and, therefore, have the potential to alter the multiple functions of this enzyme.

  16. Coupling ecosystems exposure to nitrogen and species sensitivity to hypoxia: modelling marine eutrophication in LCIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Koski, Marja; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    Characterisation modelling in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) quantifies impacts of anthropogenic emissions by applying substance-specific impact potentials, or Characterisation Factors (CF), to the amount of substances emitted. Nitrogen (N) emissions from human activities enrich coastal marine...... ecosystems and promote planktonic growth that may lead to marine eutrophication impacts. Excessive algal biomass and dissolved oxygen (DO) depletion typify the ecosystem response to the nutrient input. The present novel method couples a mechanistic model of coastal biological processes that determines...... the ecosystem response (exposure) to anthropogenic N enrichment (eXposure Factor, XF [kgO2·kgN-1]) with the sensitivity of species exposed to oxygen-depleted waters (Effect Factor, EF [(PAF)·m3·kgO2-1], expressed as a Potentially Affected Fraction (PAF) of species). Thus, the coupled indicator (XF*EF, [(PAF)·m3...

  17. THE HISTORY OF JAMA‘AH TABLIGH IN SOUTHEAST ASIA: The Role of Islamic Sufism in Islamic Revival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaruzzaman Bustamam-Ahmad

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the history of Jama‘ah Tabligh in Southeast Asia, especially in Kuala Lumpur and Aceh. The author traces the historical background of this religious movement with particular reference to the birth place of Jama‘ah Tabligh, India. The author investigates the major role of Indian in disseminating Islam in Southeast Asia, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia. Many scholars believe that Islam came to Southeast Asia from India (Gujarat, and this is the reason why many Islamic traditions in this region were influenced by Indian culture. However, to analyze Islamic movement in Southeast Asia one should take into consideration the Middle East context in which various Islamic movements flourished. Unlike many scholars who believe that the spirit of revivalism or Islamic modernism in Southeast Asia was more influenced by Islam in the Middle East than Indian, the author argues that the influence of Indian Muslim in Southeast Asia cannot be neglected, particularly in the case of Jama‘ah Tabligh.

  18. Spatiotemporal Analysis of the Genetic Diversity of Seal Influenza A(H10N7) Virus, Northwestern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodewes, Rogier; Zohari, Siamak; Krog, Jesper Schak

    2016-01-01

    and Denmark. Within a few months, this virus spread to seals of the coastal waters of Germany and the Netherlands, causing the death of thousands of animals. Genetic analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of this seal influenza A(H10N7) virus revealed that it was most closely related...... to various avian influenza A(H10N7) viruses. The collection of samples from infected seals during the course of the outbreak provided a unique opportunity to follow the adaptation of the avian virus to its new seal host. Sequence data for samples collected from 41 different seals from four different......, various sequencing methods were used to elucidate the genetic changes that occurred after the introduction and subsequent spread of an avian influenza A(H10N7) virus among harbor seals of northwestern Europe by use of various samples collected during the outbreak. Such detailed knowledge of genetic...

  19. Oxidative response of neutrophils to platelet-activating factor is altered during acute ruminal acidosis induced by oligofructose in heifers

    OpenAIRE

    Concha, Claudia; Carretta, María Daniella; Alarcón, Pablo; Conejeros, Ivan; Gallardo, Diego; Hidalgo, Alejandra Isabel; Tadich, Nestor; Cáceres, Dante Daniel; Hidalgo, María Angélica; Burgos, Rafael Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is one of the main mechanisms used to kill microbes during innate immune response. D-lactic acid, which is augmented during acute ruminal acidosis, reduces platelet activating factor (PAF)-induced ROS production and L-selectin shedding in bovine neutrophils in vitro. This study was conducted to investigate whether acute ruminal acidosis induced by acute oligofructose overload in heifers interferes with ROS production and L-selectin shedding in blood ne...

  20. Influence of platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) on Brucella abortus infection: implications for manipulating the phagocytic strategy of B. abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Ju; Simborio, Hannah Leah; Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Hop, Huynh Tan; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Lee, Hu Jang; Min, Wongi; Her, Moon; Rhee, Man Hee; Watarai, Masahisa; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2016-04-21

    Brucella abortus is an intracellular pathogen which can infect and persist in host cells through multiple interactions. Above all, its interaction to host cell receptor is important to understand the pathogenic mechanisms of B. abortus. Accordingly, we demonstrated that platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) affects host cell response against B. abortus infection. First of all, B. abortus infection to macrophage induces secretion of platelet-activating factor (PAF), which is a PAFR agonist. The stimulation of PAFR by PAF remarkably increases B. abortus uptake into macrophages. It induces Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and p38α phosphorylation, indicating that PAFR-mediated activation of JAK2 signaling leads to enhanced uptake of B. abortus. Moreover, the dynamics of F-actin polymerization revealed that PAFR-mediated B. abortus uptake is related with the reorganization of F-actin and JAK2. Upon B. abortus phagocytosis, reduced PAFR in the membrane and subsequently increased levels of PAFR colocalization with endosomes were observed which indicate that B. abortus uptake into macrophages allowed PAFR trafficking to endosomes. This study demonstrated that PAFR has a compelling involvement in B. abortus uptake as a promoter of phagocytosis, which is associated with JAK2 activation. Thus, our findings establish a novel insight into a receptor-related phagocytic mechanism of B. abortus.

  1. Community-acquired pneumonia due to pandemic A(H1N12009 influenzavirus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus co-infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan J Murray

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacterial pneumonia is a well described complication of influenza. In recent years, community-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (cMRSA infection has emerged as a contributor to morbidity and mortality in patients with influenza. Since the emergence and rapid dissemination of pandemic A(H1N12009 influenzavirus in April 2009, initial descriptions of the clinical features of patients hospitalized with pneumonia have contained few details of patients with bacterial co-infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP caused by co-infection with pandemic A(H1N12009 influenzavirus and cMRSA were prospectively identified at two tertiary hospitals in one Australian city during July to September 2009, the period of intense influenza activity in our region. Detailed characterization of the cMRSA isolates was performed. 252 patients with pandemic A(H1N12009 influenzavirus infection were admitted at the two sites during the period of study. Three cases of CAP due to pandemic A(H1N12009/cMRSA co-infection were identified. The clinical features of these patients were typical of those with S. aureus co-infection or sequential infection following influenza. The 3 patients received appropriate empiric therapy for influenza, but inappropriate empiric therapy for cMRSA infection; all 3 survived. In addition, 2 fatal cases of CAP caused by pandemic A(H1N12009/cMRSA co-infection were identified on post-mortem examination. The cMRSA infections were caused by three different cMRSA clones, only one of which contained genes for Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Clinicians managing patients with pandemic A(H1N12009 influenzavirus infection should be alert to the possibility of co-infection or sequential infection with virulent, antimicrobial-resistant bacterial pathogens such as cMRSA. PVL toxin is not necessary for the development of cMRSA pneumonia in the setting of pandemic

  2. The novel and taxonomically restricted Ah24 gene from grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus has a dual role in development and defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Armando Massange-Sanchez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Grain amaranths tolerate stress and produce highly nutritious seeds. We have identified several (abiotic stress-responsive genes of unknown function in Amaranthus hypochondriacus, including the so-called Ah24 gene. Ah24 was expressed in young or developing tissues; it was also strongly induced by mechanical damage, insect herbivory and methyl jasmonate and in meristems and newly emerging leaves of severely defoliated plants. Interestingly, an in silico analysis of its 1304 bp promoter region showed a predominance of regulatory boxes involved in development, but not in defense. The Ah24 cDNA encodes a predicted cytosolic protein of 164 amino acids, the localization of which was confirmed by confocal microscopy. Additional in silico analysis identified several other Ah24 homologs, present almost exclusively in plants belonging to the Caryophyllales. The possible function of this gene in planta was examined in transgenic Ah24 overexpressing Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum plants. Transformed Arabidopsis showed enhanced vegetative growth and increased leaf number with no penalty in one fitness component, such as seed yield, in experimental conditions. Transgenic tobacco plants, which grew and reproduced normally, had increased insect herbivory resistance. Modified vegetative growth in transgenic Arabidopsis coincided with significant changes in the expression of genes controlling phytohormone synthesis or signaling, whereas increased resistance to insect herbivory in transgenic tobacco coincided with higher jasmonic acid and proteinase inhibitor activity levels, plus the accumulation of nicotine and several other putative defense-related metabolites. It is proposed that the primary role of the Ah24 gene in A. hypochondriacus is to contribute to a rapid recovery post-wounding or defoliation, although its participation in defense against insect herbivory is also plausible.

  3. Telaah Fenomenologis Patrimonialisme Budaya Politik Terhadap Konflik Sunnî-Shî‘Ah Madura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatim Jatim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to discover the violence conflict between the Sunnî and the Shî‘ah Muslim communities in Karang Gayam and Blu’uran, Sampang, Madura. The conflict between the two communities has occurred since 2005 to 2013, and has escalated from one event to another. The conflict has caused the expulsion of Shî‘ah people out of Madura island to the refugee’s flats of Puspa Agro Sidoarjo on June 20, 2013. Based on the evidences found, the research is intended to study the phenomenon using phenomenological and patrimonial-political-cultural approa-ches. The study finds that the conflict itself has been caused by a set of hatred discourses and accusation of being heretic, which have been intensely propagated by the local religious elites, i.e. kiai against the Shî‘ah community led by Tajul Muluk. Moreover, the conflict escalation was, among other, due mainly to the strength of patronage relations of the kiais to infiltrate their hegemony and produce the mass to commit violent actions. Incongruously, the power of patronage has been also benefited by the government and many political elites to maintain their political electability and votes. As a result, the government seems to be reluctant to show a firm attitude by enforcing the existing rules to deal with the issue.

  4. Sedimentary evolution and ecosystem change in Ahémé lake, south-west Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoussou, Ernest; Totin Vodounon, Henri S.; Vissin, Expédit W.; Mahé, Gil; Oyédé, Marc Lucien

    2018-04-01

    Tropical moist ecosystems, such as Ahémé lake, south-west Benin, are increasingly marked by water degradation, linked with the activities of increasing riparian populations. The objective of this study is to analyze sedimentary dynamics and its influence on the changing ecosystem of Ahémé lake from 1961-2010. Data used to carry out the study are records of precipitation, flows, turbidity, suspended sediment, mineral elements and bathymetry. Grain size data from the sieving of sediment samples were used to interpret suspended solids distribution in the lake. Linear correlation coefficients were used to assess the degree of dependence between rainfall and runoff inputs to the lake. Lake depth measurements in some areas of the lake serve to determine the rate of infilling. The sorting index was used to highlight the distribution and origin of sediments in the lake. The results show a degradation of the lake Ahémé ecosystem characterized by infilling of its bed, a high correlation (r = 0.90) between rainfall and runoff, seasonal change in physicochemical parameters (total suspended sediment decrease by -91 %) and decrease in fish production by 135.8 t yr-1. The highest mean suspended sediment concentrations in lake inputs occur during high water periods (123 mg L-1) compared to low water periods (11.2 mg L-1).

  5. Unusually High Mortality in Waterfowl Caused by Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haider, Najmul; Sturm-Ramirez, K.; Khan, S. U.

    2017-01-01

    a survey in three of these villages to identify suspected human influenza-like illness cases and collected nasopharyngeal and throat swabs. We tested all swabs by real-time RT-PCR, sequenced cultured viruses, and examined tissue samples by histopathology and immunohistochemistry to detect and characterize...... and immunohistochemistry staining of avian influenza viral antigens were recognized in the brain, pancreas and intestines of ducks and chickens. We identified ten human cases showing signs compatible with influenza-like illness; four were positive for influenza A/H3; however, none were positive for influenza A/H5......Mortality in ducks and geese caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) infection had not been previously identified in Bangladesh. In June-July 2011, we investigated mortality in ducks, geese and chickens with suspected H5N1 infection in a north-eastern district of the country to identify...

  6. Identification of hemostatic genes expressed in human and rat leg muscles and a novel gene (LPP1/PAP2A suppressed during prolonged physical inactivity (sitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zderic Theodore W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partly because of functional genomics, there has been a major paradigm shift from solely thinking of skeletal muscle as contractile machinery to an understanding that it can have roles in paracrine and endocrine functions. Physical inactivity is an established risk factor for some blood clotting disorders. The effects of inactivity during sitting are most alarming when a person develops the enigmatic condition in the legs called deep venous thrombosis (DVT or “coach syndrome,” caused in part by muscular inactivity. The goal of this study was to determine if skeletal muscle expresses genes with roles in hemostasis and if their expression level was responsive to muscular inactivity such as occurs in prolonged sitting. Methods Microarray analyses were performed on skeletal muscle samples from rats and humans to identify genes associated with hemostatic function that were significantly expressed above background based on multiple probe sets with perfect and mismatch sequences. Furthermore, we determined if any of these genes were responsive to models of physical inactivity. Multiple criteria were used to determine differential expression including significant expression above background, fold change, and non-parametric statistical tests. Results These studies demonstrate skeletal muscle tissue expresses at least 17 genes involved in hemostasis. These include the fibrinolytic factors tetranectin, annexin A2, and tPA; the anti-coagulant factors TFPI, protein C receptor, PAF acetylhydrolase; coagulation factors, and genes necessary for the posttranslational modification of these coagulation factors such as vitamin K epoxide reductase. Of special interest, lipid phosphate phosphatase-1 (LPP1/PAP2A, a key gene for degrading prothrombotic and proinflammatory lysophospholipids, was suppressed locally in muscle tissue within hours after sitting in humans; this was also observed after acute and chronic physical inactivity conditions

  7. Identification of hemostatic genes expressed in human and rat leg muscles and a novel gene (LPP1/PAP2A) suppressed during prolonged physical inactivity (sitting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Partly because of functional genomics, there has been a major paradigm shift from solely thinking of skeletal muscle as contractile machinery to an understanding that it can have roles in paracrine and endocrine functions. Physical inactivity is an established risk factor for some blood clotting disorders. The effects of inactivity during sitting are most alarming when a person develops the enigmatic condition in the legs called deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or “coach syndrome,” caused in part by muscular inactivity. The goal of this study was to determine if skeletal muscle expresses genes with roles in hemostasis and if their expression level was responsive to muscular inactivity such as occurs in prolonged sitting. Methods Microarray analyses were performed on skeletal muscle samples from rats and humans to identify genes associated with hemostatic function that were significantly expressed above background based on multiple probe sets with perfect and mismatch sequences. Furthermore, we determined if any of these genes were responsive to models of physical inactivity. Multiple criteria were used to determine differential expression including significant expression above background, fold change, and non-parametric statistical tests. Results These studies demonstrate skeletal muscle tissue expresses at least 17 genes involved in hemostasis. These include the fibrinolytic factors tetranectin, annexin A2, and tPA; the anti-coagulant factors TFPI, protein C receptor, PAF acetylhydrolase; coagulation factors, and genes necessary for the posttranslational modification of these coagulation factors such as vitamin K epoxide reductase. Of special interest, lipid phosphate phosphatase-1 (LPP1/PAP2A), a key gene for degrading prothrombotic and proinflammatory lysophospholipids, was suppressed locally in muscle tissue within hours after sitting in humans; this was also observed after acute and chronic physical inactivity conditions in rats, and exercise was

  8. LEO life tests on a 75 Ah bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, S.; Koehler, C.; Applewhite, A.

    1988-01-01

    The design, building, and testing of an actively cooled 10-cell 75-Ah bipolar nickel/hydrogen battery are discussed. During the last 1000 cycles, the battery has shown some evidence of elecrical performance degradation. In particular, EOC and EOD voltages have increased and decreased by several millivolts, respectively, and deep discharge capacities to a 1.0 V/cell average cutoff voltage have decreased.

  9. Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of multi-continent human influenza A(H1N2) reassortant viruses isolated in 2001 through 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M-J; La, T; Zhao, P; Tam, J S; Rappaport, R; Cheng, S-M

    2006-12-01

    Genetic analyses were performed on 228 influenza A(H1) viruses derived from clinical subjects participating in an experimental vaccine trial conducted in 20 countries on four continents between 2001 and 2003. HA1 phylogenetic analysis of these viruses showed multiple clades circulated around the world with regional prevalence patterns. Sixty-five of the A(H1) viruses were identified as A(H1N2), 40 of which were isolated from South Africa. The A(H1) sequences of these viruses cluster with published H1N2 viruses phylogenetically and share with them diagnostic signature V169A and A193T changes. The results also showed for the first time that H1N2 viruses were prominent in South Africa during the 2001-2002 influenza season, accounting for over 90% of the A(H1) cases in our study, and infecting both children (29/31) and the elderly (11/13). Phylogenetic analysis of the 65 H1N2 viruses we identified, in conjunction with the 56 recent H1N2 viruses currently available in the database, provided a comprehensive view of the circulation and evolution of distinct clades of H1N2 viruses in a temporal manner between early 2001 and mid-2003, shortly after the appearance of these recent reassortant viruses in or near year 2000.

  10. A Comparison of AH-64 Pilot Attitudes Toward Traditional and Glass Cockpit Crewstation Designs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francis, Gregory

    2002-01-01

    .... This finding suggested that the differences of crewstation design needed to be examined. To identify significant differences, this study assessed pilots' attitudes toward traditional and glass cockpit designs in the AH-64 Apache helicopter...

  11. Population attributable fraction of type 2 diabetes due to physical inactivity in adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Tunaiji, Hashel; Davis, Jennifer C; Mackey, Dawn C; Khan, Karim M

    2014-05-18

    Physical inactivity is a global pandemic. The population attributable fraction (PAF) of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) associated with physical inactivity ranges from 3% to 40%. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the best estimate of PAF for T2DM attributable to physical inactivity and absence of sport participation or exercise for men and women. We conducted a systematic review that included a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, SportDiscus, and CINAHL (1946 to April 30 2013) limited by the terms adults and English. Two reviewers screened studies, extracted PAF related data and assessed the quality of the selected studies. We reconstructed 95% CIs for studies missing these data using a substitution method. Of the eight studies reporting PAF in T2DM, two studies included prospective cohort studies (3 total) and six were reviews. There were distinct variations in quality of defining and measuring physical inactivity, T2DM and adjusting for confounders. In the US, PAFs for absence of playing sport ranged from 13% (95% CI: 3, 22) in men and 29% (95% CI: 17, 41) in women. In Finland, PAFs for absence of exercise ranged from 3% (95% CI: -11, 16) in men to 7% (95% CI: -9, 20) in women. The PAF of physical inactivity due to T2DM is substantial. Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for T2DM. The contribution of physical inactivity to T2DM differs by sex; PAF also differs if physical inactivity is defined as the absence of 'sport' or absence of 'exercise'.

  12. PD-L1 Expression Induced by the 2009 Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1 Virus Impairs the Human T Cell Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuriban Valero-Pacheco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PD-L1 expression plays a critical role in the impairment of T cell responses during chronic infections; however, the expression of PD-L1 on T cells during acute viral infections, particularly during the pandemic influenza virus (A(H1N1pdm09, and its effects on the T cell response have not been widely explored. We found that A(H1N1pdm09 virus induced PD-L1 expression on human dendritic cells (DCs and T cells, as well as PD-1 expression on T cells. PD-L1 expression impaired the T cell response against A(H1N1pdm09 by promoting CD8+ T cell death and reducing cytokine production. Furthermore, we found increased PD-L1 expression on DCs and T cells from influenza-infected patients from the first and second 2009 pandemic waves in Mexico City. PD-L1 expression on CD8+ T cells correlated inversely with T cell proportions in patients infected with A(H1N1pdm09. Therefore, PD-L1 expression on DCs and T cells could be associated with an impaired T cell response during acute infection with A(H1N1pdm09 virus.

  13. Fabrication and evaluation of 100 Ah cylindrical lithium ion battery for electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyung, Yoo-Eup; Moon, Seong-In; Yum, Duk-Hyeng; Yun, Seong-Kyu

    A total of 100 Ah class lithium ion cells with C/LiCoO 2 cell system for electric vehicles (EVs) was developed. EV-size lithium ion battery was developed by Sony, KERI/STC, SAFT, VARTA, Sanyo and Matsushita. GS battery and Hitachi have developed also stationary type large scale (70-80 Ah) lithium ion batteries. Lithium ion battery module for EVs was demonstrated by Sony/Nissan and KERI/STC in 1996. At present, the performance of developed EV-cells was up to 115 Wh/kg and 286 W/kg of specific power at 80% DOD. We assume our EV cells to have 248 and 242 km driving distance per one charge with DST-120 mode and ECE-15 mode, respectively. Finally, we performed safety/abuse tests of developed lithium ion cell.

  14. Factors attributable for the prevalence of dental caries in Queensland children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Loc Giang; Ha, Diep Hong; Spencer, A John

    2015-10-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial condition, prevention of which requires comprehensive understanding of both contextual and compositional determinants and their population impact. To investigate contextual and compositional factors associated with the prevalence of dental caries in children and to estimate the population impact of those factors. Children in one Australian state were selected through stratified random sampling selection in 2010-2011. Oral epidemiological examinations provided individual-level outcomes: prevalence of dental caries in the primary (among 5- to 8-year-olds) and permanent dentitions (9- to 14-year-olds). Socioeconomic status, oral health behaviours and practices and dietary patterns were explanatory factors at the individual-level, school-level and area-level fluoridation status. Three-level multilevel multivariable models were sequentially specified for the prevalence of dental caries to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) associated with explanatory factors, adjusting for covariates and between- and within-group variances. Population attributable fraction (PAF) was estimated as the population impact of the statistically significant explanatory factors. Data from 2214 5- to 8-year-olds and 3186 9- to 14-year-olds from 207 schools in 16 areas were analysed. The prevalence of dental caries in the primary and the permanent dentitions was 47.1% (43.9-50.4) and 38.8% (36.1-41.6), respectively. The highest prevalence of dental caries was observed in the nonfluoridated areas. In bivariate associations, factors at three levels were associated with prevalence of dental caries. In the full models, children in the nonfluoridated areas had significantly higher prevalence of dental caries [PR for the primary: 1.29 (1.11-1.50); PR for the permanent 1.49 (1.01-2.21)] compared with children in fluoridated areas, controlling for other factors. PAF estimates indicated that lack of water fluoridation attributed to 21% and 31% of primary and permanent dental

  15. Continued dominance of pandemic A(H1N1 2009 influenza in Victoria, Australia in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Fielding

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The 2010 Victorian influenza season was characterized by normal seasonal influenza activity and the dominance of the pandemic A(H1N1 2009 strain. General Practice Sentinel Surveillance rates peaked at 9.4 ILI cases per 1000 consultations in week 36 for metropolitan practices, and at 10.5 ILI cases per 1000 in the following week for rural practices. Of the 678 ILI cases, 23% were vaccinated, a significantly higher percentage than in previous years. A significantly higher percentage of ILI patients were swabbed in 2010 compared to 2003–2008, but similar to 2009, with a similar percentage being positive for influenza as in previous years. Vaccination rates increased with patient age. Melbourne Medical Deputising Service rates peaked in week 35 at 19.1 ILI cases per 1000 consultations. Of the 1914 cases of influenza notified to the Department of Health, Victoria, 1812 (95% were influenza A infections - 1001 (55% pandemic A(H1N1 2009, 4 (<1% A(H3N2 and 807 (45% not subtyped; 88 (5% were influenza B; and 14 (< 1% were influenza A and B co-infections. The World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza tested 403 isolates of which 261 were positive for influenza, 250 of which were influenza A and 11 were influenza B. Ninety-two per cent of the influenza A viruses were pandemic A(H1N1 2009, and following antigenic analysis all of these were found to be similar to the current vaccine strain. Three viruses (0.9% were found to be oseltamivir resistant due to an H275Y mutation in the neuraminidase gene.

  16. The impact of the pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus on seasonal influenza A viruses in the southern hemisphere, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, C C; Kelso, A; McPhie, K A; Ratnamohan, V M; Catton, M; Druce, J D; Smith, D W; Williams, S H; Huang, Q S; Lopez, L; Schoub, B D; Venter, M; Dwyer, D E

    2010-08-05

    Data collected over winter 2009 by five World Health Organisation National Influenza Centres in the southern hemisphere were used to examine the circulation of pandemic and seasonal influenza A strains during the first pandemic wave in the southern hemisphere.There is compelling evidence that the pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus significantly displaced seasonal influenza A(H1N1) and, to a lesser extent, A(H3N2) viruses circulating in the southern hemisphere. Complete replacement of seasonal influenza A strains, however, was not observed during the first pandemic wave.

  17. Does the Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect significantly affect the A-H premium of the stocks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Eddie C. M.; Chan, Ka Kwan Kevin

    2018-02-01

    Since the Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect ("the Connect") was launched in late 2014, more and more Mainland investors have invested in Hong Kong listed shares, and vice versa, increasing the transaction volume of the stock market on both sides. However, only a few studies investigated how the Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect affected the pricing dynamics of stocks listed in both Shanghai and Hong Kong. Applying linear regression, this study investigates how the Connect affects the H-share discounts of 12 stocks cross-listed in Shanghai and Hong Kong. A new feature of our model is that we add a dummy variable so as to be the first study to examine the effect of the China financial crisis on the A-H premium of the stocks. We find that the A-H premium of all stocks widens significantly after the Connect is launched, implying immatureness or even inefficiency of China's financial market. Furthermore, the result shows that trading activities in the mainland market affects the A-H premium more significantly than trading activities in the Hong Kong market do. This implies that China's financial market plays a dominant role in the Connect.

  18. HIV-1 and its gp120 inhibits the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 life cycle in an IFITM3-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Milene; Fintelman-Rodrigues, Natalia; Sacramento, Carolina Q; Abrantes, Juliana L; Costa, Eduardo; Temerozo, Jairo R; Siqueira, Marilda M; Bou-Habib, Dumith Chequer; Souza, Thiago Moreno L

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1-infected patients co-infected with A(H1N1)pdm09 surprisingly presented benign clinical outcome. The knowledge that HIV-1 changes the host homeostatic equilibrium, which may favor the patient resistance to some co-pathogens, prompted us to investigate whether HIV-1 infection could influence A(H1N1)pdm09 life cycle in vitro. We show here that exposure of A(H1N1)pdm09-infected epithelial cells to HIV-1 viral particles or its gp120 enhanced by 25% the IFITM3 content, resulting in a decrease in influenza replication. This event was dependent on toll-like receptor 2 and 4. Moreover, knockdown of IFITM3 prevented HIV-1 ability to inhibit A(H1N1)pdm09 replication. HIV-1 infection also increased IFITM3 levels in human primary macrophages by almost 100%. Consequently, the arrival of influenza ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) to nucleus of macrophages was inhibited, as evaluated by different approaches. Reduction of influenza RNPs entry into the nucleus tolled A(H1N1)pdm09 life cycle in macrophages earlier than usual, limiting influenza's ability to induce TNF-α. As judged by analysis of the influenza hemagglutin (HA) gene from in vitro experiments and from samples of HIV-1/A(H1N1)pdm09 co-infected individuals, the HIV-1-induced reduction of influenza replication resulted in delayed viral evolution. Our results may provide insights on the mechanisms that may have attenuated the clinical course of Influenza in HIV-1/A(H1N1)pdm09 co-infected patients during the recent influenza form 2009/2010.

  19. HIV-1 and its gp120 inhibits the influenza A(H1N1pdm09 life cycle in an IFITM3-dependent fashion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Mesquita

    Full Text Available HIV-1-infected patients co-infected with A(H1N1pdm09 surprisingly presented benign clinical outcome. The knowledge that HIV-1 changes the host homeostatic equilibrium, which may favor the patient resistance to some co-pathogens, prompted us to investigate whether HIV-1 infection could influence A(H1N1pdm09 life cycle in vitro. We show here that exposure of A(H1N1pdm09-infected epithelial cells to HIV-1 viral particles or its gp120 enhanced by 25% the IFITM3 content, resulting in a decrease in influenza replication. This event was dependent on toll-like receptor 2 and 4. Moreover, knockdown of IFITM3 prevented HIV-1 ability to inhibit A(H1N1pdm09 replication. HIV-1 infection also increased IFITM3 levels in human primary macrophages by almost 100%. Consequently, the arrival of influenza ribonucleoproteins (RNPs to nucleus of macrophages was inhibited, as evaluated by different approaches. Reduction of influenza RNPs entry into the nucleus tolled A(H1N1pdm09 life cycle in macrophages earlier than usual, limiting influenza's ability to induce TNF-α. As judged by analysis of the influenza hemagglutin (HA gene from in vitro experiments and from samples of HIV-1/A(H1N1pdm09 co-infected individuals, the HIV-1-induced reduction of influenza replication resulted in delayed viral evolution. Our results may provide insights on the mechanisms that may have attenuated the clinical course of Influenza in HIV-1/A(H1N1pdm09 co-infected patients during the recent influenza form 2009/2010.

  20. Effect of TBT and PAHs on CYP1A, AhR and Vitellogenin Gene Expression in the Japanese Eel, Anguilla japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min Seop; Kwon, Se Ryun; Choi, Seong Hee; Kwon, Hyuk Chu

    2012-12-01

    Gene expressions of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and vitellogenin (Vg) by endocrine disruptors, benzo[α]pyrene (B[a]P) and tributyltin (TBT) were examined in cultured eel hepatocytes which were isolated from eels treated previously with B[a]P (10 mg/kg) or estradiol-17β (20 mg/kg) in vivo, and the relationship between CYP1A, AhR and Vg genes were studied. When the cultured eel hepatocytes were treated with B[a]P (10(-6)-10(-5) M) the gene expressions of CYP1A and AhR were enhanced in a concentration-dependent manner. However, when treated with TBT (10(-9)-10(-5) M) the gene expressions of CYP1A and AhR were suppressed at high concentrations (10(-6)-10(-5) M), while having no effects at low concentrations (10(-9)-10(-7) M). Gene expression of Vg was also suppressed by TBT in a concentration-dependent manner in cultured eel hepatocytes which was previously treated in vivo with estradiol-17β.

  1. Mortality, severe acute respiratory infection, and influenza-like illness associated with influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in Argentina, 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: While there is much information about the burden of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in North America, little data exist on its burden in South America. METHODS: During April to December 2009, we actively searched for persons with severe acute respiratory infection and influenza-like illness (ILI in three sentinel cities. A proportion of case-patients provided swabs for influenza testing. We estimated the number of case-patients that would have tested positive for influenza by multiplying the number of untested case-patients by the proportion who tested positive. We estimated rates by dividing the estimated number of case-patients by the census population after adjusting for the proportion of case-patients with missing illness onset information and ILI case-patients who visited physicians multiple times for one illness event. RESULTS: We estimated that the influenza A(H1N1pdm09 mortality rate per 100,000 person-years (py ranged from 1.5 among persons aged 5-44 years to 5.6 among persons aged ≥ 65 years. A(H1N1pdm09 hospitalization rates per 100,000 py ranged between 26.9 among children aged <5 years to 41.8 among persons aged ≥ 65 years. Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 ILI rates per 100 py ranged between 1.6 among children aged <5 to 17.1 among persons aged 45-64 years. While 9 (53% of 17 influenza A(H1N1pdm09 decedents with available data had obesity and 7 (17% of 40 had diabetes, less than 4% of surviving influenza A(H1N1pdm09 case-patients had these pre-existing conditions (p ≤ 0.001. CONCLUSION: Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 caused a similar burden of disease in Argentina as in other countries. Such disease burden suggests the potential value of timely influenza vaccinations.

  2. Avaliação comparativa da citotoxicidade dos cimentos MTA Fillapex e AH Plus: revisão integrativa

    OpenAIRE

    Marinho, Jéssica Cristina Soares; Cunha, Ludmila de Almeida; Lacerda, Mariane Floriano Lopes Santos; Lacerda, Gabriel Pinheiro; Coelho, Renato Girelli; Girelli, Caroline Felipe Magalhães

    2017-01-01

    Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma revisão integrativa comparando a citotoxicidade dos cimentos MTA Fillapex e AH Plus aos tecidos periapicais. Métodos: Foram utilizados artigos na íntegra, nos idiomas português e inglês, publicados durante os períodos de 2010 a 2017, selecionados na base de dados Scielo e Pubmed, utilizando os seguintes descritores: AH Plus, MTA Fillapex e citotoxicidade. Foram excluídos, os trabalhos no idioma não inglês, artigos sem resumo, trabalhos realiz...

  3. Neuraminidase-mediated haemagglutination of recent human influenza A(H3N2) viruses is determined by arginine 150 flanking the neuraminidase catalytic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mögling, Ramona; Richard, Mathilde J; Vliet, Stefan van der; Beek, Ruud van; Schrauwen, Eefje J A; Spronken, Monique I; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Fouchier, Ron A M

    2017-06-01

    Over the last decade, an increasing proportion of circulating human influenza A(H3N2) viruses exhibited haemagglutination activity that was sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors. This change in haemagglutination as compared to older circulating A(H3N2) viruses prompted an investigation of the underlying molecular basis. Recent human influenza A(H3N2) viruses were found to agglutinate turkey erythrocytes in a manner that could be blocked with either oseltamivir or neuraminidase-specific antisera, indicating that agglutination was driven by neuraminidase, with a low or negligible contribution of haemagglutinin. Using representative virus recombinants it was shown that the haemagglutinin of a recent A(H3N2) virus indeed had decreased activity to agglutinate turkey erythrocytes, while its neuraminidase displayed increased haemagglutinating activity. Viruses with chimeric and mutant neuraminidases were used to identify the amino acid substitution histidine to arginine at position 150 flanking the neuraminidase catalytic site as the determinant of this neuraminidase-mediated haemagglutination. An analysis of publicly available neuraminidase gene sequences showed that viruses with histidine at position 150 were rapidly replaced by viruses with arginine at this position between 2005 and 2008, in agreement with the phenotypic data. As a consequence of neuraminidase-mediated haemagglutination of recent A(H3N2) viruses and poor haemagglutination via haemagglutinin, haemagglutination inhibition assays with A(H3N2) antisera are no longer useful to characterize the antigenic properties of the haemagglutinin of these viruses for vaccine strain selection purposes. Continuous monitoring of the evolution of these viruses and potential consequences for vaccine strain selection remains important.

  4. Phylogeography of Influenza A(H3N2) Virus in Peru, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollett, Simon; Nelson, Martha I; Kasper, Matthew; Tinoco, Yeny; Simons, Mark; Romero, Candice; Silva, Marita; Lin, Xudong; Halpin, Rebecca A; Fedorova, Nadia; Stockwell, Timothy B; Wentworth, David; Holmes, Edward C; Bausch, Daniel G

    2015-08-01

    It remains unclear whether lineages of influenza A(H3N2) virus can persist in the tropics and seed temperate areas. We used viral gene sequence data sampled from Peru to test this source-sink model for a Latin American country. Viruses were obtained during 2010-2012 from influenza surveillance cohorts in Cusco, Tumbes, Puerto Maldonado, and Lima. Specimens positive for influenza A(H3N2) virus were randomly selected and underwent hemagglutinin sequencing and phylogeographic analyses. Analysis of 389 hemagglutinin sequences from Peru and 2,192 global sequences demonstrated interseasonal extinction of Peruvian lineages. Extensive mixing occurred with global clades, but some spatial structure was observed at all sites; this structure was weakest in Lima and Puerto Maldonado, indicating that these locations may experience greater viral traffic. The broad diversity and co-circulation of many simultaneous lineages of H3N2 virus in Peru suggests that this country should not be overlooked as a potential source for novel pandemic strains.

  5. Exploration of the (Interrater) Reliability and Latent Factor Structure of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) in a Sample of Dutch Probationers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Martin; Noteborn, Mirthe G C

    2015-01-01

    The use of brief, reliable, valid, and practical measures of substance use is critical for conducting individual (risk and need) assessments in probation practice. In this exploratory study, the basic psychometric properties of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) are evaluated. The instruments were administered as an oral interview instead of a self-report questionnaire. The sample comprised 383 offenders (339 men, 44 women). A subset of 56 offenders (49 men, 7 women) participated in the interrater reliability study. Data collection took place between September 2011 and November 2012. Overall, both instruments have acceptable levels of interrater reliability for total scores and acceptable to good interrater reliabilities for most of the individual items. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) indicated that the a priori one-, two- and three-factor solutions for the AUDIT did not fit the observed data very well. Principal axis factoring (PAF) supported a two-factor solution for the AUDIT that included a level of alcohol consumption/consequences factor (Factor 1) and a dependence factor (Factor 2), with both factors explaining substantial variance in AUDIT scores. For the DUDIT, CFA and PAF suggest that a one-factor solution is the preferred model (accounting for 62.61% of total variance). The Dutch language versions of the AUDIT and the DUDIT are reliable screening instruments for use with probationers and both instruments can be reliably administered by probation officers in probation practice. However, future research on concurrent and predictive validity is warranted.

  6. Protein kinase C promotes restoration of calcium homeostasis to platelet activating factor-stimulated human neutrophils by inhibition of phospholipase C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Ronald

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of protein kinase C (PKC in regulating the activity of phospholipase C (PLC in neutrophils activated with the chemoattractant, platelet-activating factor (PAF, 20 and 200 nM, was probed in the current study using the selective PKC inhibitors, GF10903X (0.5 - 1 μM and staurosporine (400 nM. Methods Alterations in cytosolic Ca2+, Ca2+ influx, inositol triphosphate (IP3, and leukotriene B4 production were measured using spectrofluorimetric, radiometric and competitive binding radioreceptor and immunoassay procedures, respectively. Results Activation of the cells with PAF was accompanied by an abrupt increase in cytosolic Ca2+ followed by a gradual decline towards basal levels. Pretreatment of neutrophils with the PKC inhibitors significantly increased IP3 production with associated enhanced Ca2+ release from storage vesicles, prolongation of the peak cytosolic Ca2+ transients, delayed clearance and exaggerated reuptake of the cation, and markedly increased synthesis of LTB4. The alterations in Ca2+ fluxes observed with the PKC inhibitors were significantly attenuated by U73122, a PLC inhibitor, as well as by cyclic AMP-mediated upregulation of the Ca2+-resequestering endomembrane ATPase. Taken together, these observations are compatible with a mechanism whereby PKC negatively modulates the activity of PLC, with consequent suppression of IP3 production and down-regulation of Ca2+ mediated pro-inflammatory responses of PAF-activated neutrophils. Conclusion Although generally considered to initiate and/or amplify intracellular signalling cascades which activate and sustain the pro-inflammatory activities of neutrophils and other cell types, the findings of the current study have identified a potentially important physiological, anti-inflammatory function for PKC, at least in neutrophils.

  7. Genetic makeup of amantadine-resistant and oseltamivir-resistant human influenza A/H1N1 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaraket, Hassan; Saito, Reiko; Suzuki, Yasushi; Baranovich, Tatiana; Dapat, Clyde; Caperig-Dapat, Isolde; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2010-04-01

    The emergence and widespread occurrence of antiviral drug-resistant seasonal human influenza A viruses, especially oseltamivir-resistant A/H1N1 virus, are major concerns. To understand the genetic background of antiviral drug-resistant A/H1N1 viruses, we performed full genome sequencing of prepandemic A/H1N1 strains. Seasonal influenza A/H1N1 viruses, including antiviral-susceptible viruses, amantadine-resistant viruses, and oseltamivir-resistant viruses, obtained from several areas in Japan during the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 influenza seasons were analyzed. Sequencing of the full genomes of these viruses was performed, and the phylogenetic relationships among the sequences of each individual genome segment were inferred. Reference genome sequences from the Influenza Virus Resource database were included to determine the closest ancestor for each segment. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the oseltamivir-resistant strain evolved from a reassortant oseltamivir-susceptible strain (clade 2B) which circulated in the 2007-2008 season by acquiring the H275Y resistance-conferring mutation in the NA gene. The oseltamivir-resistant lineage (corresponding to the Northern European resistant lineage) represented 100% of the H1N1 isolates from the 2008-2009 season and further acquired at least one mutation in each of the polymerase basic protein 2 (PB2), polymerase basic protein 1 (PB1), hemagglutinin (HA), and neuraminidase (NA) genes. Therefore, a reassortment event involving two distinct oseltamivir-susceptible lineages, followed by the H275Y substitution in the NA gene and other mutations elsewhere in the genome, contributed to the emergence of the oseltamivir-resistant lineage. In contrast, amantadine-resistant viruses from the 2007-2008 season distinctly clustered in clade 2C and were characterized by extensive amino acid substitutions across their genomes, suggesting that a fitness gap among its genetic components might have driven these mutations to maintain it in the

  8. Coinfection with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and dengue virus in fatal cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigão, Anne Carolinne Bezerra; Ramalho, Izabel Letícia Cavalcante; Guedes, Maria Izabel Florindo; Braga, Deborah Nunes Melo; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona Góes; Melo, Maria Elisabeth Lisboa de; Araújo, Rafael Montenegro de Carvalho; Lima, Elza Gadelha; Silva, Luciene Alexandre Bié da; Araújo, Lia de Carvalho; Araújo, Fernanda Montenegro de Carvalho

    2016-09-01

    We report on four patients with fatal influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and dengue virus coinfections. Clinical, necropsy and histopathologic findings presented in all cases were characteristic of influenza-dengue coinfections, and all were laboratory-confirmed for both infections. The possibility of influenza and dengue coinfection should be considered in locations where these two viruses' epidemic periods coincide to avoid fatal outcomes. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection caused by one of the four dengue viruses (DENV-1 to 4). Each of these viruses is capable of causing nonspecific febrile illnesses, classic dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever (Gubler 1998). As a result, dengue is often difficult to diagnose clinically, especially because peak dengue season often coincides with that of other common febrile illnesses in tropical regions (Chacon et al. 2015). In April 2009, a new virus, influenza A/H1N1/pandemic (FluA/H1N1/09pdm), caused a severe outbreak in Mexico. The virus quickly spread throughout the world, and in June 2009, the World Health Organization declared a pandemic (WHO 2010). In Brazil, the first laboratory confirmed case of FluA/H1N1/09pdm was in July 2009 (Pires Neto et al. 2013). The state of Ceará, in Northeast Brazil, is a dengue endemic area. In this state, the virus influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 has circulated since 2009, and through the first half of 2012, 11 deaths caused by the virus were confirmed (Pires Neto et al. 2013). The influenza and dengue seasons in Ceará overlap, which led to diagnostic difficulties. We report four cases of laboratory-confirmed coinfection of deadly influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 with DENV, which occurred during the dengue and influenza season in 2012 and 2013 in Ceará.

  9. Coinfection with influenza A(H1N1pdm09 and dengue virus in fatal cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Carolinne Bezerra Perdigão

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on four patients with fatal influenza A(H1N1pdm09 and dengue virus coinfections. Clinical, necropsy and histopathologic findings presented in all cases were characteristic of influenza-dengue coinfections, and all were laboratory-confirmed for both infections. The possibility of influenza and dengue coinfection should be considered in locations where these two viruses’ epidemic periods coincide to avoid fatal outcomes. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection caused by one of the four dengue viruses (DENV-1 to 4. Each of these viruses is capable of causing nonspecific febrile illnesses, classic dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever (Gubler 1998. As a result, dengue is often difficult to diagnose clinically, especially because peak dengue season often coincides with that of other common febrile illnesses in tropical regions (Chacon et al. 2015. In April 2009, a new virus, influenza A/H1N1/pandemic (FluA/H1N1/09pdm, caused a severe outbreak in Mexico. The virus quickly spread throughout the world, and in June 2009, the World Health Organization declared a pandemic (WHO 2010. In Brazil, the first laboratory confirmed case of FluA/H1N1/09pdm was in July 2009 (Pires Neto et al. 2013. The state of Ceará, in Northeast Brazil, is a dengue endemic area. In this state, the virus influenza A(H1N1pdm09 has circulated since 2009, and through the first half of 2012, 11 deaths caused by the virus were confirmed (Pires Neto et al. 2013. The influenza and dengue seasons in Ceará overlap, which led to diagnostic difficulties. We report four cases of laboratory-confirmed coinfection of deadly influenza A(H1N1pdm09 with DENV, which occurred during the dengue and influenza season in 2012 and 2013 in Ceará.

  10. The animal model determines the results of Aeromonas virulence factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Romero

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The selection of an experimental animal model is of great importance in the study of bacterial virulence factors. Here, a bath infection of zebrafish larvae is proposed as an alternative model to study the virulence factors of A. hydrophila. Intraperitoneal infections in mice and trout were compared with bath infections in zebrafish larvae using specific mutants. The great advantage of this model is that bath immersion mimics the natural route of infection, and injury to the tail also provides a natural portal of entry for the bacteria. The implication of T3SS in the virulence of A. hydrophila was analysed using the AH-1::aopB mutant. This mutant was less virulent than the wild-type strain when inoculated into zebrafish larvae, as described in other vertebrates. However, the zebrafish model exhibited slight differences in mortality kinetics only observed using invertebrate models. Infections using the mutant AH-1∆vapA lacking the gene coding for the surface S-layer suggested that this protein was not totally necessary to the bacteria once it was inside the host, but it contributed to the inflammatory response. Only when healthy zebrafish larvae were infected did the mutant produce less mortality than the wild type. Variations between models were evidenced using the AH-1∆rmlB, which lacks the O-antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS, and the AH-1∆wahD, which lacks the O-antigen LPS and part of the LPS outer-core. Both mutants showed decreased mortality in all of the animal models, but the differences between them were only observed in injured zebrafish larvae, suggesting that residues from the LPS outer core must be important for virulence. The greatest differences were observed using the AH-1ΔFlaB-J (lacking polar flagella and unable to swim and the AH-1::motX (non-motile but producing flagella. They were as pathogenic as the wild-type strain when injected into mice and trout, but no mortalities were registered in zebrafish larvae. This study

  11. Novel approach for identification of left ventricle geometry in patients with chronic heart failure, AH and IHD in combination with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potabashniy V.A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the direction of change of left ventricle (LV geometry in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF, arterial hypertension (AH and ischemic heart disease (IHD in combination with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in dependence on severity of clinical signs of CHF and COPD based on recommendation of American Society of Echocardiography and European Association of Cardiovascular Images (2015. We examined 67 patients with CHF, associated with AH and stable IHD and stable COPD. By the results of this study there were determined different types of left ventricle geometry: concentric LV hypertrophy (LVH, eccentric LVH, mixed LVH, dilated LVH, dependent on blood pressure level, fibrosic and ischemic myocardial changes,, primary predominant disease – AH, IHD or COPD.

  12. Architectuur als beschavingsideaal: Het bezield modernisme van A.H. Wegerif

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, H.

    2014-01-01

    Architecture as civilizing ideal - The inspired modernism of A.H. Wegerif Ahazuerus Hendrikus (Henk) Wegerif was born in Apeldoorn on 13th of April 1888, the son of Gerrit Wegerif and Elsje Breman. Both his father and grandfather were building contractors, as was his paternal uncle, Chris Wegerif. This versatile man in particular had a great influence on Henk Wegerif’s spiritual development. Around 1900, Chris Wegerif, co-founder of the Hague art shop ‘Arts and Crafts’, and his wife Agathe Gr...

  13. Influence of TCDD and natural Ah receptor agonists on benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct formation in the Caco-2 human colon cell line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waard, de W.J.; Kok, de T.M.C.M.; Maas, L.M.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Aarts, H.J.M.; Schooten, van F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Several compounds originating from cruciferous vegetables and citrus fruits bind to and activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). This receptor plays an important role in the toxicity of the known tumour promoter and potent AhR-agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). However,

  14. Roma Hukuku’nda Gemi, Han ve Ahır İşletenlerin Receptum Sorumluluğu

    OpenAIRE

    YEŞİLLER, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Çalışmamızda Roma Hukuku'nda gemi, han ve ahır işleten kimselerin sorumluluklarına ilişkin düzenlemeler ele alınmıştır. Roma?da özellikle gemi, han ve ahır işleten kimselerin yanlarında çalıştırdıkları kişilerin güvenilir olmamasından dolayı, taraflar arasındaki istisna sözleşmesinden kaynaklanan custodia sorumluluğuna ek olarak "actio de damno aut furto adversus nautas, caupones, stabularios ve receptum, nautae, cauponis, stabularii" sorumluluklarının düzenlendiği kaynaklardan...

  15. Desempeño de la prueba de inmunofluorescencia directa en el diagnóstico del virus Influenza A(H1N1) Direct immunofluorescence assay performance in diagnosis of the Influenza A(H1N1) virus

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Pianciola; Gladys González; Melina Mazzeo; Mariano Navello; Natalia Quidel; María Fernanda Bulgheroni

    2010-01-01

    El 25 de abril de 2009, a menos de un mes de la detección en México del primer humano con virus Influenza A(H1N1), la enfermedad ya se había propagado a más de 40 países superando los 10 000 casos notificados. Dada su naturaleza impredecible, este tipo de virus requiere métodos diagnósticos apropiados, confiables y seguros, pero que también estén al alcance de los laboratorios clínicos. Mediante el estudio de 291 muestras de pacientes con sospecha de infección por virus Influenza A(H1N1) en N...

  16. Analisis Komparasi Pembentukan Gap Sensitivitas Sebagai Instrumen Manajemen Risiko (Studi Pada Bank Umum Konvensional Dan Bank Umum Syari`ah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Akmalia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kuantitatif dengan studi komparatif yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui posisi gap yang terbentuk pada Bank Umum Konvensional dan Bank Umum Syari`ah serta membadingkan dampaknya terhadap perubahan suku bunga sehingga dapat ditentukan gap terbaik. Posisi gap terbentuk oleh struktur gap dengan metode gap sensitivitas, Analisis korelasi dan volatilitas digunakan untuk mengetahui sejauhmana variabel-variabel suku bunga mempengaruhi suku bunga benchmark (SBI dan SWBI serta Uji F statistik untuk menguji hipotesis. Data yang digunakan adalah data sekunder berupa laporan keuangan Bank Umum Konvensional dan Bank Umum Syariah tahun 2004-2008 serta suku bunga domestic periode Januari 2004-Desember 2008. Hasil penelitian menujukkan bahwa Gap terbaik pada BUK terbentuk oleh Bank Mayapada, untuk BUS pada Bank Syari`ah Mandiri, sementara secara keseluruhan pembentukan gap terbaik adalah Bank Syari`ah Mandiri. Sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa bank syariah memiliki pembentukan posisi gap yang lebih baik dari pada bank konvensional selama periode 2004-2008.JEL Classification : E5, G21Kata Kunci : Manajemen Risiko, Gap Sensitivitas

  17. Epidemiological characteristics of the influenza A(H1N1 2009 pandemic in the Western Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa McCallum

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The first laboratory-confirmed cases of infection with pandemic influenza A(H1N1 2009 in the Western Pacific Region were reported on 28 April 2009. By 11 June 2009, the day the pandemic was declared by the World Health Organization, nine Western Pacific Region countries and areas had reported laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza A(H1N1 2009 cases. From April 2009 to July 2010, more than 250 000 cases and 1800 deaths from laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza A(H1N1 2009 were reported from 34 countries and areas in the Region. By age group region-wide, 8.6%, 41.9%, 48.3%, and 1.2% of cases were in the < 5 years, 5–14 years, 15–64 years, and 65+ years age groups, respectively; the overall crude case fatality ratio in the Western Pacific Region was 0.5%. The pandemic demonstrated that region-wide disease reporting was possible. Countries and areas of the Western Pacific Region should take this opportunity to strengthen the systems established during the pandemic to develop routine disease reporting.

  18. Influenza AH1N2 Viruses, United Kingdom, 2001?02 Influenza Season

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Joanna S.; Alvarez-Aguero, Adriana; Gregory, Vicky; Lin, Yi Pu; Hay, A.; Zambon, Maria C.

    2003-01-01

    During the winter of 2001?02, influenza AH1N2 viruses were detected for the first time in humans in the U.K. The H1N2 viruses co-circulated with H3N2 viruses and a very small number of H1N1 viruses and were isolated in the community and hospitalized patients, predominantly from children

  19. On estimation of time-dependent attributable fraction from population-based case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Chen, Ying Qing; Hsu, Li

    2017-09-01

    Population attributable fraction (PAF) is widely used to quantify the disease burden associated with a modifiable exposure in a population. It has been extended to a time-varying measure that provides additional information on when and how the exposure's impact varies over time for cohort studies. However, there is no estimation procedure for PAF using data that are collected from population-based case-control studies, which, because of time and cost efficiency, are commonly used for studying genetic and environmental risk factors of disease incidences. In this article, we show that time-varying PAF is identifiable from a case-control study and develop a novel estimator of PAF. Our estimator combines odds ratio estimates from logistic regression models and density estimates of the risk factor distribution conditional on failure times in cases from a kernel smoother. The proposed estimator is shown to be consistent and asymptotically normal with asymptotic variance that can be estimated empirically from the data. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed estimator performs well in finite sample sizes. Finally, the method is illustrated by a population-based case-control study of colorectal cancer. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  20. SAS Macros for Calculation of Population Attributable Fraction in a Cohort Study Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarit A. Laaksonen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The population attributable fraction (PAF is a useful measure for quantifying the impact of exposure to certain risk factors on a particular outcome at the population level. Recently, new model-based methods for the estimation of PAF and its confidence interval for different types of outcomes in a cohort study design have been proposed. In this paper, we introduce SAS macros implementing these methods and illustrate their application with a data example on the impact of different risk factors on type 2 diabetes incidence.

  1. In vitro evaluation of the contact angle formed between AH Plus, Hybrid Root Seal and mineral trioxide aggregate Plus sealer with dentin and gutta-percha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikhil, Vineeta; Jaiswal, Shikha; Bajpai, Gauravi

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was evaluation and comparison of the contact angle of new root canal sealers - Hybrid Root Seal, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) Plus, and the conventional AH Plus sealer with dentin and gutta-percha. Two groups (Group D - dentin and Group G - gutta-percha) of 18 samples each were further randomly divided into 3 subgroups based on the type of sealer used, that is, AH Plus, Hybrid Root Seal, and MTA Plus. Contact angle measurement device (Phoenix 300) was used to measure the contact angle of the sealers on both dentin and gutta-percha. The results thus obtained were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Student's t -test. MTA Plus recorded significantly higher values of contact angle on both the substrates, that is, dentin and gutta-percha when compared to AH Plus and Hybrid root canal sealer. The lowest value of contact angle in gutta-percha and dentin was shown by Hybrid root canal sealer and AH Plus, respectively. Both AH Plus and Hybrid Root Seal exhibited lower contact angle values, and hence, better wettability on both dentin and gutta-percha as compared to MTA Plus.

  2. KLE Translog production function and total factor productivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klacek, J.; Vošvrda, Miloslav; Schlosser, Š.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 4 (2007), s. 261-274 ISSN 0322-788X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : total factor productivity * translog production function * aggregate production function * least squares method * ridge regression Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  3. AhR-dependent secretion of PDGF-BB by human classically activated macrophages exposed to DEP extracts stimulates lung fibroblast proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaguin, Marie [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 Avenue du Pr Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Fardel, Olivier [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 Avenue du Pr Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Pôle Biologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Rennes, 2 rue Henri Le Guilloux, 35033 Rennes Cedex (France); Lecureur, Valérie, E-mail: valerie.lecureur@univ-rennes1.fr [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 Avenue du Pr Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2015-06-15

    Lung diseases are aggravated by exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) found in air pollution. Macrophages are thought to play a crucial role in lung immune response to these pollutants, even if the mechanisms involved remain incompletely characterized. In the present study, we demonstrated that classically and alternative human macrophages (MΦ) exhibited increased secretion of PDGF-B in response to DEP extract (DEPe). This occurred via aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-activation because DEPe-induced PDGF-B overexpression was abrogated after AhR expression knock-down by RNA interference, in both M1 and M2 polarizing MΦ. In addition, TCDD and benzo(a)pyrene, two potent AhR ligands, also significantly increased mRNA expression of PDGF-B in M1 MΦ, whereas some weak ligands of AhR did not. We next evaluated the impact of conditioned media (CM) from MΦ culture exposed to DEPe or of recombinant PDGF-B onto lung fibroblast proliferation. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor, AG-1295, prevents phosphorylations of PDGF-Rβ, AKT and ERK1/2 and the proliferation of MRC-5 fibroblasts induced by recombinant PDGF-B and by CM from M1 polarizing MΦ, strongly suggesting that the PDGF-BB secreted by DEPe-exposed MΦ is sufficient to activate the PDGF-Rβ pathway of human lung fibroblasts. In conclusion, we demonstrated that human MΦ, whatever their polarization status, secrete PDGF-B in response to DEPe and that PDGF-B is a target gene of AhR. Therefore, induction of PDGF-B by DEP may participate in the deleterious effects towards human health triggered by such environmental urban contaminants. - Highlights: • PDGF-B expression and secretion are increased by DEPe exposure in human M1 and M2 MΦ. • DEPe-induced PDGF-B expression is aryl-hydrocarbon-dependent. • DEPe-exposed M1 MΦ secrete sufficient PDGF-B to increase lung fibroblast proliferation.

  4. Field Trial on a Rack-mounted DC Power Supply System with 80-Ah Lithium-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Toshio

    Using an industrial lithium-ion battery that has higher energy density than conventional valve-regulated lead-acid batteries, a rack-mounted DC-power-supply system was assembled and tested at a base transceiver station (BTS) offering actual services. A nominal output voltage and maximum output current of the system is 53.5V and 20A, respectively. An 80-Ah lithium-ion battery composed of 13 cells connected in series was applied in the system and maintained in a floating charge method. The DC-power-supply system was installed in a 19-inch power rack in the telecommunications equipment box at BTS. The characteristics of the 80Ah lithium-ion battery, specifications of the DC-power-supply system and field-test results were shown in this paper.

  5. Dehydration of a layered double hydroxide-C2AH8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukrainczyk, N.; Matusinovic, T.; Kurajica, S.; Zimmermann, B.; Sipusic, J.

    2007-01-01

    Thermal dehydration of dicalcium aluminate hydrate, C 2 AH 8 , has been investigated by simultaneous differential thermal and thermo gravimetric analysis (DTA/TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-dependent infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and BET method of surface area measurement. The temperature-dependent infrared measurements were studied by two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) correlation spectroscopy. The structure of aluminum-oxide polyhedron, characterized by 27 Al solid state NMR spectrum method and FT-IR, shows tetrahedron and octahedron as the main forms of aluminum-oxide polyhedrons in C 2 AH 8 sample. From the results obtained a variety of structural transformations observed are explained as a consequence of the removal of loosely held interlayer water molecules at lower temperatures, followed by grafting process of the interlayer [Al(OH) 4 ] - anion. Structural model of a grafting process of the interlayer [Al(OH) 4 ] - tetrahedron onto hydroxylated octahedrons of [Ca 2 Al(OH) 6 ] + layers has been proposed in order to explain observed loss of one water molecule, shrinkage of interlayer spacing and qualitative changes of FT-IR spectra. At higher temperatures the dehydroxylation of the lattice and decomposition of the interlayer species occurs, yielding amorphous material that crystallizes into C 3 A and C 12 A 7 at 885 deg. C. Those findings provide improvement in the interpretation of thermo-analytical results of calcium aluminate cements (CAC) hydration products, and better understanding of CAC conversion process

  6. Factor accumulation story: any unfinished business?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kejak, Michal; Vávra, D.

    -, č. 220 (2004), s. 1-46 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK8002119 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : human capital * endogenous growth * total factor productivity and growth accounting Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp220.pdf

  7. Advanced driver assistance system for AHS over communication links with random packet dropouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Seshadhri; Ayyagari, Ramakalyan

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we propose an advanced driver assist system (ADAS) for platoon based automated highway system (AHS) with packet loss in inter-vehicle communication. Using the concept of rigidity, we first show that vehicles in a platoon tend to fall apart in the event of a packet loss among vehicles. To overcome this, we propose an estimation based dynamic platooning algorithm which employs the state estimate to maintain the platoon. Communication among the vehicle is reduced by using minimum spanning tree (MST) in state estimation algorithm. Effectiveness of the proposed ADAS scheme is illustrated by simulation wherein, dynamic platoons of holonomic vehicles with integrator dynamics are considered. Simulation studies indicate that the proposed algorithm maintains the platoon up to a packet loss rate of 48%. State transmission scheme proposed in our algorithm has three significant advantages, they are: (1) it handles packet loss in inter-vehicle communication, (2) reduces the effect of error in measured output, and (3) reduces the inter-vehicle communication. These advantages significantly increase the reliability and safety of the AHS.

  8. Real-Time Station Grouping under Dynamic Traffic for IEEE 802.11ah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Le; Khorov, Evgeny; Latré, Steven; Famaey, Jeroen

    2017-07-04

    IEEE 802.11ah, marketed as Wi-Fi HaLow, extends Wi-Fi to the sub-1 GHz spectrum. Through a number of physical layer (PHY) and media access control (MAC) optimizations, it aims to bring greatly increased range, energy-efficiency, and scalability. This makes 802.11ah the perfect candidate for providing connectivity to Internet of Things (IoT) devices. One of these new features, referred to as the Restricted Access Window (RAW), focuses on improving scalability in highly dense deployments. RAW divides stations into groups and reduces contention and collisions by only allowing channel access to one group at a time. However, the standard does not dictate how to determine the optimal RAW grouping parameters. The optimal parameters depend on the current network conditions, and it has been shown that incorrect configuration severely impacts throughput, latency and energy efficiency. In this paper, we propose a traffic-adaptive RAW optimization algorithm (TAROA) to adapt the RAW parameters in real time based on the current traffic conditions, optimized for sensor networks in which each sensor transmits packets with a certain (predictable) frequency and may change the transmission frequency over time. The TAROA algorithm is executed at each target beacon transmission time (TBTT), and it first estimates the packet transmission interval of each station only based on packet transmission information obtained by access point (AP) during the last beacon interval. Then, TAROA determines the RAW parameters and assigns stations to RAW slots based on this estimated transmission frequency. The simulation results show that, compared to enhanced distributed channel access/distributed coordination function (EDCA/DCF), the TAROA algorithm can highly improve the performance of IEEE 802.11ah dense networks in terms of throughput, especially when hidden nodes exist, although it does not always achieve better latency performance. This paper contributes with a practical approach to optimizing

  9. Phylogeography of Influenza A(H3N2) Virus in Peru, 2010–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Martha I.; Kasper, Matthew; Tinoco, Yeny; Simons, Mark; Romero, Candice; Silva, Marita; Lin, Xudong; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Fedorova, Nadia; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Wentworth, David; Holmes, Edward C.; Bausch, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    It remains unclear whether lineages of influenza A(H3N2) virus can persist in the tropics and seed temperate areas. We used viral gene sequence data sampled from Peru to test this source–sink model for a Latin American country. Viruses were obtained during 2010–2012 from influenza surveillance cohorts in Cusco, Tumbes, Puerto Maldonado, and Lima. Specimens positive for influenza A(H3N2) virus were randomly selected and underwent hemagglutinin sequencing and phylogeographic analyses. Analysis of 389 hemagglutinin sequences from Peru and 2,192 global sequences demonstrated interseasonal extinction of Peruvian lineages. Extensive mixing occurred with global clades, but some spatial structure was observed at all sites; this structure was weakest in Lima and Puerto Maldonado, indicating that these locations may experience greater viral traffic. The broad diversity and co-circulation of many simultaneous lineages of H3N2 virus in Peru suggests that this country should not be overlooked as a potential source for novel pandemic strains. PMID:26196599

  10. Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Seal Influenza A(H10N7) Virus in Harbor Seals and Gray Seals from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewes, Rogier; Rubio García, Ana; Brasseur, Sophie M; Sanchez Conteras, Guillermo J; van de Bildt, Marco W G; Koopmans, Marion P G; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Kuiken, Thijs

    2015-01-01

    In the spring and summer 2014, an outbreak of seal influenza A(H10N7) virus infection occurred among harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) off the coasts of Sweden and Denmark. This virus subsequently spread to harbor seals off the coasts of Germany and the Netherlands. While thousands of seals were reported dead in Sweden, Denmark and Germany, only a limited number of seals were found dead in the Netherlands. To determine the extent of exposure of seals in the Netherlands to influenza A/H10N7 virus, we measured specific antibody titers in serum samples from live-captured seals and seals admitted for rehabilitation in the Netherlands by use of a hemagglutination inhibition assay and an ELISA. In harbor seals in 2015, antibodies against seal influenza A(H10N7) virus were detected in 41% (32 out of 78) pups, 10% (5 out of 52) weaners, and 58% (7 out of 12) subadults or adults. In gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) in 2015, specific antibodies were not found in the pups (n = 26), but in 26% (5 out of 19) of the older animals. These findings indicate that, despite apparent low mortality, infection with seal influenza A(H10N7) virus was geographically widespread and also occurred in grey seals.

  11. AhR- and ER-mediated activities in human blood samples collected from PCB-contaminated and background region in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pliskova, M. [Veterinary Researcch Institute, Brno (Czech Republic); Canton, R.F.; Duursen, M.B.M. van [Utrecht Univ. (NL). Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS)] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    Endocrine disruption mediated through activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and estrogen receptor (ER) by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been studied extensively both in vivo and in vitro. Non-ortho- and mono-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are potent AhR agonists therefore, increased dioxin-like activity of complex blood samples might reflect an increased exposure to PCBs. The induction of expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in different tissues, including lymphocytes, also depends on activation of AhR and it could be useful as a potential biomarker of exposure to dioxin-like compounds. Using various in vivo and in vitro models, the exposure to PCBs or hydroxy-PCBs has been reported to lead to either induction of ER-mediated activity or to an antiestrogenic effect associated with a suppression of estradiol-induced ER-dependent gene expression. Nevertheless, relative (anti)estrogenic potencies of a large set of prevalent environmental PCBs have not been yet compared in a single bioassay. A cross-talk between AhR and ER has been suggested to lead to a suppression of ER-mediated gene expression. Therefore, presence of dioxin-like compounds in blood could potentially suppress the ER-mediated activity. Additionally, AhR-dependent induction of CYP1A1 and especially CYP1B1, two enzymes involved in oxidative metabolism of estradiol and other estrogens, might enhance the metabolism of estradiol and it has been suggested to cause a potential depression of estrogen levels in the body. The aim of the present study was to determine dioxin-like, estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in human blood samples collected in two Eastern Slovakia regions differently polluted with PCBs using established in vitro bioassays. We also studied mRNA expression of CYP1A1 and 1B1 in lymphocytes and the genotypes of CYP1B1 as possible biomarkers of exposure for PCBs and related compounds. The biological data obtained

  12. Immunogenicity and safety of cell-derived MF59®-adjuvanted A/H1N1 influenza vaccine for children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuf, Markus; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Rümke, Hans; Rivera, Luis; Pedotti, Paola; Arora, Ashwani Kumar; Lattanzi, Maria; Kieninger, Dorothee; Cioppa, Giovanni Della

    2015-01-01

    Mass immunization of children has the potential to decrease infection rates and prevent the transmission of influenza. We evaluated the immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of different formulations of cell-derived MF59-adjuvanted and nonadjuvanted A/H1N1 influenza vaccine in children and adolescents. This was a randomized, single-blind, multicenter study with a total of 666 healthy subjects aged 6 months–17 y in one of 3 vaccination groups, each receiving formulations containing different amounts of influenza A/H1N1 antigen with or without MF59. A booster trivalent seasonal MF59 vaccine was administered one year after primary vaccinations. Antibody titers were assessed by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization assays obtained on days 1, 22, 43, 366, and 387 (3 weeks post booster). Safety was monitored throughout the study. One vaccination with 3.75 μg of A/H1N1 antigen formulated with 50% MF59 (3.75_halfMF59) or 7.5 μg of A/H1N1 antigen formulated with 100% MF59 (7.5_fullMF59) induced an HI titer ≥1:40 in >70% of children in the 1–vaccinations with nonadjuvanted 15 μg A/H1N1 antigen were needed to achieve this response in the 1–children aged 6–11 months, 1 dose of 7.5_fullMF59 resulted in an HI titer ≥1:40 in >70% while 2 doses of 3.75_halfMF59 were required to achieve this result. All vaccines were well tolerated. Our findings support the immunogenicity and safety of the 3.75_halfMF59 (2 doses for children vaccine formulations for use in children and adolescents aged 6 months to 17 y The use of the 3.75_halfMF59 could have the benefit of antigen and adjuvant sparing, increasing the available vaccine doses allowing vaccination of more people. PMID:25621884

  13. A Challenge for Social Studies Educators: Teaching about Islam, "Jihad," and "Shari'ah" Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James R.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates the controversial curricular and instructional aspects of teaching about Islam in social studies courses. Specifically, the author discusses pedagogically sound approaches to teaching about "jihad" and "Shari'ah" law, two of the most important and controversial concepts in Islam that often generate intense…

  14. Conversion of 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerols to platelet activating factor and related phospholipids by rabbit platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, M.L.; Lee, T.; Cress, E.A.; Malone, B.; Fitzgerald, V.; Snyder, F.

    1984-01-01

    The metabolic pathway for 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerols, a recently discovered biologically active neutral lipid class, was elucidated in experiments conducted with rabbit platelets. The total lipid extract obtained from platelets incubated with 1-[1-,2- 3 H]alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerols or 1-alkyl-2-[ 3 H]acetyl-sn-glycerols contained at least six metabolic products. The six metabolites, identified on the basis of chemical and enzymatic reactions combined with thin-layer or high-performance liquid chromatographic analyses, corresponded to 1-alkyl-sn-glycerols, 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphates, 1-alkyl-2-acyl(long-chain)-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamines, 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamines, 1-alkyl-2-acyl(long-chain)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholines, and 1-alkyl-2-actyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholines (platelet activating factor). These results indicate that the metabolic pathway for alkylacetylglycerols involves reaction steps catalyzed by the following enzymatic activities: choline- and ethanolamine- phosphotransferases, acetyl-hydrolase, an acyltransferase, and a phosphotransferase. The step responsible for the biosynthesis of platelet activating factor would appear to be the most important reaction in this pathway and this product could explain the hypotensive activities previously described for alkylacetyl-(or propionyl)-glycerols. Of particular interest was the preference exhibited for the utilization of the 1-hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol species in the formation of platelet activating factor

  15. Diagnostic and prognostic value of factor VIII binding antibodies in acquired hemophilia A: data from the GTH-AH 01/2010 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werwitzke, S; Geisen, U; Nowak-Göttl, U; Eichler, H; Stephan, B; Scholz, U; Holstein, K; Klamroth, R; Knöbl, P; Huth-Kühne, A; Bomke, B; Tiede, A

    2016-05-01

    Essentials Factor VIII (FVIII) binding IgG detected by ELISA could be an alternative to the Bethesda assay. We studied the performance of anti-FVIII IgG ELISA in patients with acquired hemophilia and controls. Anti-FVIII IgG > 99th percentile of controls was highly sensitive and specific. Patients with high anti-FVIII IgG have a lower chance of achieving remission. Background Acquired hemophilia A is a severe bleeding disorder that requires fast and accurate diagnosis as it occurs often unexpectedly in previously healthy men and women of every age. The Nijmegen-modified Bethesda assay is the diagnostic reference standard for detecting neutralizing autoantibodies against factor VIII (FVIII), but is not widely available, not ideal for quantifying the complex type 2 inhibitors seen in acquired hemophilia, and suffers from high inter-laboratory variability. Objectives To assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of FVIII-binding antibodies as detected by ELISA compared with the Nijmegen Bethesda assay. Methods Samples from the time of first diagnosis and clinical data were available from 102 patients with acquired hemophilia enrolled in the prospective GTH-AH 01/2010 study. Controls (n = 102) were matched for gender and age. Diagnostic cut-offs were determined by receiver-operator curve analysis. The prognostic value was assessed in 92 of the 102 patients by Cox regression analysis of time to partial remission. Results Anti-FVIII IgG above the 99th percentile (> 15 arbitrary units per mL) revealed high sensitivity and specificity (both 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.95-1.0) for diagnosing acquired hemophilia. The likelihood of achieving partial remission was related to anti-FVIII IgG concentration ( 1050, 0.39). The Bethesda titer was only associated with the likelihood of partial remission when analyzed in the central laboratory, but not when data from local GTH study sites were used. Conclusion Although the Nijmegen-modified Bethesda assay is the reference

  16. An endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand, ITE induces regulatory T cells (Tregs) and ameliorates experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abron, Jessicca D; Singh, Narendra P; Mishra, Manoj K; Price, Robert L; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Singh, Udai P

    2018-04-19

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory condition that affects millions of people with high morbidity and health-ca