WorldWideScience

Sample records for facility fire protection

  1. Fire protection for launch facilities using machine vision fire detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Douglas B.

    1993-02-01

    Fire protection of critical space assets, including launch and fueling facilities and manned flight hardware, demands automatic sensors for continuous monitoring, and in certain high-threat areas, fast-reacting automatic suppression systems. Perhaps the most essential characteristic for these fire detection and suppression systems is high reliability; in other words, fire detectors should alarm only on actual fires and not be falsely activated by extraneous sources. Existing types of fire detectors have been greatly improved in the past decade; however, fundamental limitations of their method of operation leaves open a significant possibility of false alarms and restricts their usefulness. At the Civil Engineering Laboratory at Tyndall Air Force Base in Florida, a new type of fire detector is under development which 'sees' a fire visually, like a human being, and makes a reliable decision based on known visual characteristics of flames. Hardware prototypes of the Machine Vision (MV) Fire Detection System have undergone live fire tests and demonstrated extremely high accuracy in discriminating actual fires from false alarm sources. In fact, this technology promises to virtually eliminate false activations. This detector could be used to monitor fueling facilities, launch towers, clean rooms, and other high-value and high-risk areas. Applications can extend to space station and in-flight shuttle operations as well; fiber optics and remote camera heads enable the system to see around obstructed areas and crew compartments. The capability of the technology to distinguish fires means that fire detection can be provided even during maintenance operations, such as welding.

  2. Safety study of fire protection for nuclear fuel cycle facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Based on the investigation of fire protection standards for domestic and foreign nuclear facilities, the fire protection guideline for nuclear fuel cycle facility has been completed. In 2012, trial operation is started by private company using the guideline. In addition, the acquisition of fire evaluation data for a components (electric cable) targeted for spread of fire and the evaluation model of fire source were continued for the fire hazard analysis (FHA). (author)

  3. Safety study of fire protection for nuclear fuel cycle facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Based on the investigation of fire protection standards for domestic and foreign nuclear facilities, the fire protection guideline for nuclear fuel cycle facility has been completed. In 2012, trial operation is started by private company using the guideline. In addition, the acquisition of fire evaluation data for a components (electric cable) targeted for spread of fire and the evaluation model of fire source were continued for the fire hazard analysis (FHA). (author)

  4. Safety study of fire protection for nuclear fuel cycle facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Insufficiencies in the fire protection system of the nuclear reactor facilities were pointed out when the fire occurred due to the Niigata prefecture-Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in July, 2007. This prompted the revision of the fire protection safety examination guideline for nuclear reactors as well as commercial guidelines. The commercial guidelines have been endorsed by the regulatory body. Now commercial fire protection standards for nuclear facilities such as the design guideline and the management guideline for protecting fire in the Light Water Reactors (LWRs) are available, however, those to apply to the nuclear fuel cycle facilities such as mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility (MFFF) have not been established. For the improvement of fire protection system of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities, the development of a standard for the fire protection, corresponding to the commercial standard for LWRs were required. Thus, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) formulated a fire protection guidelines for nuclear fuel cycle facilities as a standard relevant to the fire protection of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities considering functions specific to the nuclear fuel cycle facilities. In formulating the guidelines, investigation has been conduced on the commercial guidelines for nuclear reactors in Japan and the standards relevant to the fire protection of nuclear facilities in USA and other countries as well as non-nuclear industrial fire protection standards. The guideline consists of two parts; Equipments and Management, as the commercial guidances of the nuclear reactor. In addition, the acquisition of fire evaluation data for a components (an electric cabinet, cable, oil etc.) targeted for spread of fire and the evaluation model of fire source were continued for the fire hazard analysis (FHA). (author)

  5. Seismic design criteria of fire protection systems for DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, G.; Cushing, R.; Driesen, G.

    1991-01-01

    Fire protection systems are critical to the safety of personnel and to the protection of inventory during any kind of emergency situation that involves a fire. The importance of these fire protection systems is hightened for DOE facilities which often house nuclear, chemical or scientific processes. Current research into the topic of open-quotes fires following earthquakesclose quotes has demonstrated that the risks of a fire starting as a result of a major earthquake can be significant. Thus, fire protection systems need to be designed to withstand the anticipated seismic event for the site in question

  6. General fire protection guidelines for egyptian nuclear facilities. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhad, S; Hussien, A Z; Hammad, F H [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish the regulatory requirements of that will provide and ensure fire protection of egyptian nuclear facilities. Those facilities that use, handle and store low and/or medium radioactive substances are included. Two or more classes of occupancy are considered to occur in the same building or structure. Fir protection measures and systems were reviewed for three of the egyptian Nuclear facilities. These are egypt first nuclear reactor (ETRR-1) building and systems, hot laboratories buildings and facilities, and the building including the AECL type Is-6500 industrial cobalt-60 gamma irradiator {sup E}gypt`s mega gamma I{sup .} The study includes the outlines of the various aspects of fire protection with a view to define the relevant highlights and scope of egyptian guideline for nuclear installations. The study considers fire protection aspects including the following items: 1- Site selection. 2- General facility design. 3- Fire alarm, detection and suppression systems. (4- Protection for specific areas/control room, cable spreading room, computer room) 5- Fire emergency response planning. 6- Fire water supply. 7- Emergency lighting and communication. 8- Rescue and escape routes. 9- Explosion protection. 10-Manual fire fighting. 11- Security consideration in the interest of fire protection. 12- quality assurance programme. Therefore, first of all the design stage, then during the construction stage, and later during the operation stage, measures must be taken to forestall the risks associated with the outbreak of fire and to ensure that consequences of fire accidents remain limited.

  7. General fire protection guidelines for egyptian nuclear facilities. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhad, S.; Hussien, A.Z.; Hammad, F.H.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish the regulatory requirements of that will provide and ensure fire protection of egyptian nuclear facilities. Those facilities that use, handle and store low and/or medium radioactive substances are included. Two or more classes of occupancy are considered to occur in the same building or structure. Fir protection measures and systems were reviewed for three of the egyptian Nuclear facilities. These are egypt first nuclear reactor (ETRR-1) building and systems, hot laboratories buildings and facilities, and the building including the AECL type Is-6500 industrial cobalt-60 gamma irradiator E gypt's mega gamma I . The study includes the outlines of the various aspects of fire protection with a view to define the relevant highlights and scope of egyptian guideline for nuclear installations. The study considers fire protection aspects including the following items: 1- Site selection. 2- General facility design. 3- Fire alarm, detection and suppression systems. 4- Protection for specific areas/control room, cable spreading room, computer room) 5- Fire emergency response planning. 6- Fire water supply. 7- Emergency lighting and communication. 8- Rescue and escape routes. 9- Explosion protection. 10-Manual fire fighting. 11- Security consideration in the interest of fire protection. 12- quality assurance programme. Therefore, first of all the design stage, then during the construction stage, and later during the operation stage, measures must be taken to forestall the risks associated with the outbreak of fire and to ensure that consequences of fire accidents remain limited

  8. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility, Diesel Generator Fire Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SINGH, G.

    2000-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the Fire Protection and Detection System installed by Project W-441 (Cold Vacuum Drying Facility and Diesel Generator Building) functions as required by project specifications

  9. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility, Diesel Generator Fire Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, G

    2000-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the Fire Protection and Detection System installed by Project W-441 (Cold Vacuum Drying Facility and Diesel Generator Building) functions as required by project specifications.

  10. Cold Vacuum Drying facility fire protection system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) fire protection system (FPS). The FPS provides fire detection, suppression, and loss limitation for the CVDF structure, personnel, and in-process spent nuclear fuel. The system provides, along with supporting interfacing systems, detection, alarm, and activation instrumentation and controls, distributive piping system, isolation valves, and materials and controls to limit combustibles and the associated fire loadings

  11. The principles of protection against fires in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, Ph.; Gupta, O.

    2000-01-01

    Because of the presence of fissile or radioactive materials in nuclear facilities, their protection against fires is different from that of classical industrial installations. 3 priorities have been defined, in importance order: 1) maintaining nuclear safety in order to protect public and environment, 2) protection of workers, and 3) limiting the damages on the installation. The prevention of fires is based on 4 rules: 1) limiting as much as possible the quantity of inflammable materials and imposing a strict control of any use of igniting source, 2) assuring a permanent monitoring of the installation by means of reliable devices able to detect any fire starting, 3) designing the sectorization of the installation in order to keep fire in delimited zones and prevent its extension, and 4) enhancing the efficiency of the fire brigade intervention. (A.C.)

  12. Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) Design: Fire Protection Engineering for Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-20

    following provisions: • Ceiling sprinkler design area must be increased by 10 percent. ESFR sprinklers must increase the required number to be...Control System ESFR Early Suppression Fast-Response Sprinklers ETL Engineering Technical Letters FAAA Fire Administration Authorization Act FM

  13. The improvement of the fire protections system for nuclear cycle facilities. Formulation of a fire protection guideline for nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-04-01

    The private side Fire Protection Guideline was investigated with respect to the fire having taken place at the nuclear reactor site followed by the Chuetsu-Oki earthquake in Niigata Prefecture in 2007. To improve the fire protection system especially applicable to MOX fuel fabrication facilities, JNES (Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization) investigated private guidelines adopted in Japanese Light Water cooled Reactors, the standardized guidelines used in Nuclear Facilities in other countries including USA, and the standards in the chemical plants. The content of the guideline concerns the prevention of the fire breakout, the prevention of fire extension, the reduction of the fire effects, as well as the facility-characteristic protection countermeasures and the fire effect evaluations. (S. Ohno)

  14. Cold Vacuum Dryer (CVD) Facility Fire Protection System Design Description (SYS 24)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SINGH, G.

    2000-10-17

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility fire protection system (FPS). The primary features of the FPS for the CVD are a fire alarm and detection system, automatic sprinklers, and fire hydrants. The FPS also includes fire extinguishers located throughout the facility and fire hydrants to assist in manual firefighting efforts. In addition, a fire barrier separates the operations support (administrative) area from the process bays and process bay support areas. Administrative controls to limit combustible materials have been established and are a part of the overall fire protection program. The FPS is augmented by assistance from the Hanford Fire Department (HED) and by interface systems including service water, electrical power, drains, instrumentation and controls. This SDD, when used in conjunction with the other elements of the definitive design package, provides a complete picture of the FPS for the CVD Facility.

  15. Fire protection at the Fast Flux Test Facility (a sodium cooled test reactor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    For purposes of this presentation, fire protection at the FFTF is subdivided into two catagories; protection for non-sodium areas and protection for areas containing sodium. Fire protection systems and philosophies for non-sodium areas at the FFTF are very similar to those used at conventional power plants being constructed throughout the country. They follow, essentially, the NRC rules and guidelines and ANSI 59.4 Generic Requirements for Light Water Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection. The FFTF with its support facilities have their own water system comprised of a looped 8'' and 10'' underground distribution system, three 1500 GPM fire pumps and three ground level storage tanks totaling 736,000 gallons with 420,000 reserved for fire protection. Fire hydrants are enclosed with hose houses outfitted for use by the Emergency Response Team (ERT). Fire prevention systems for sodium areas of the FFTF are also described

  16. Loft fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, E.R.; Jensen, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Quantified criteria that was developed and applied to provide in-depth fire protection for the Loss of Fluid Test (LOFT) Facility are presented. The presentation describes the evolution process that elevated the facility's fire protection from minimal to that required for a highly protected risk or improved risk. Explored are some infrequently used fire protection measures that are poorly understood outside the fire protection profession

  17. Fire Protection Program Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  18. Fire protection research for DOE facilities: FY 83 year-end report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska-Quinn, A.E.; Beason, D.G.; Foote, K.L.; Priante, S.J.; Stagge, K.

    1984-01-01

    We summarize our research in FY 83 for the DOE-sponsored project, Fire Protection Research for DOE Facilities. This research program was initiated in 1977 to advance fire-protection strategies of energy technology facilities in order to keep abreast of the unique fire problems that develop along with energy technology research. Since 1977, the program has broadened its original scope, as reflected in previous year-end reports. We are developing an analytical methodology through detailed study of fusion energy experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Using these experiments as models for methodology development, we are currently advancing three major task areas: (1) the identification of fire hazards unique to fusion energy facilities, (2) the evaluation of accepted fire-management measures to meet the negate hazards, and (3) the performance of unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire-growth and damage-assessment models

  19. Fire-protection research for DOE facilities: FY 82 year-end report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska-Quinn, A.E.; Beason, D.G.; Priante, S.J.; Foote, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    We summarize our research in FY 82 for the DOE-sponsored project, Fire Protection Research for DOE Facilities. This research program was initiated in 1977 to advance fire-protection strategies for energy technology facilities to keep abreast of the unique fire problems that develop along with energy technology research. Since 1977, the program has broadened its original scope, as reflected in previous year-end reports. We are developing an analytical methodology through detailed study of fusion energy experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Using these experiments as models for methodology development, we are concurrently advancing three major task areas: (1) the identification of fire hazards unique to current fusion energy facilities; (2) the evaluation of accepted fire-management measures to meet and negate hazards; and (3) the performance of unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire-growth and damage-assessment models

  20. 10 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... service-water/fire-water uses the minimum volume for fire uses shall be ensured by means of dedicated... knowledge of his or her role in the fire fighting strategy for the area assumed to contain the fire... LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. R Appendix R to Part 50—Fire Protection...

  1. Fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janetzky, E.

    1980-01-01

    Safety and fire prevention measurements have to be treated like the activities developing, planning, construction and erection. Therefore it is necessary that these measurements have to be integrated into the activities mentioned above at an early stage in order to guarantee their effectiveness. With regard to fire accidents the statistics of the insurance companies concerned show that the damage caused increased in the last years mainly due to high concentration of material. Organization of fire prevention and fire fighting, reasons of fire break out, characteristics and behaviour of fire, smoke and fire detection, smoke and heat venting, fire extinguishers (portable and stationary), construction material in presence of fire, respiratory protection etc. will be discussed. (orig./RW)

  2. Review of fire protection in the nuclear facilities of the Atomic Energy Commission, 1947--1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maybee, W.W.

    1979-01-01

    In the 28 years in which it grew from a temporary wartime bomb development program to a federal agency with over $30 billion worth of facilities housing much of the nation's advanced research efforts, the Atomic Energy Commission set many records for safety. Among the best was a cumulative fire loss ratio of 12 cents per $100 of value. A 1969 fire--one of four in its history that exceeded $1 million in loss--incurred damages totaling $26 million and prompted major additions to its fire protection programs. The added programs, encompassing additional fire protection engineers, new protection systems, independent inspection programs, and new performance-based goals, resulted in an order-of-magnitude improvement. The cumulative fire loss ratio after 1969 was 0.06 cents per $100 of value, a record few industries have ever achieved

  3. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  4. Protection of High Ceiling Nuclear Facilities Using Photoelectric Sensors and Infrared Fire Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadoud, A.A.; El Eissawi, H.M.; Saleh, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    A variety of different security systems and components are commercially available and widely used. Before implementing a security system, it is important to understand the characteristics and requirements of the facility area to be protected. Technology and manufacturers of security devices are rapidly changing. It is necessary to use optimal security equipment suitable for the surrounding environment of the facility to be protected. Several security sensors can be used to protect the nuclear facilities, such as passive infrared detectors and glass breakage sensors, vibration detectors, and microwave sensors. This work introduces technical specifications, operation and method of installation for these detectors in nuclear facilities. Also a comparative study of different security sensors or equipment is provided. The photoelectric detectors and infrared fire beam smoke detectors are reliable, suitable and advanced security equipment. They can be used in special cases because of their advantages, this includes their long ranges and accuracy in performance. This paper presents a new concept for adapting the use infrared optical fire beam smoke detector as intrusion detection equipment in high ceiling buildings or towering height facilities. This is in addition to their main function, namely fire detection.The paper also provides a study for their types and installation method. Focus is made on the installation and operation method for two advanced security systems, and wireless control circuit for the overall system operation

  5. EDV supported dynamic fire protection concept adaptation during dismantling of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mummert, Maxi; Traichel, Anke; Dilger, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Fire protection concepts are supposed to be a decision guide for the definition of measures and priorities in fire fighting and fire prevention. In case of reactor dismantling a fire protection concept for the actual status is required. Following the fuel removal from the reactor the protection goals are reduced to the safe confinement of radioactive materials and the restriction of radiation exposure. A dynamic fire protection concept was developed to allow the compliance with the required protection measures with respect to the protection targets. The implementation of the dynamic fire protection concept simplifies the planning of the dismantling steps and to adjust the fire protection measured in the frame of changes in the plant.

  6. Fire detection in warehouse facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Dinaburg, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Automatic sprinklers systems are the primary fire protection system in warehouse and storage facilities. The effectiveness of this strategy has come into question due to the challenges presented by modern warehouse facilities, including increased storage heights and areas, automated storage retrieval systems (ASRS), limitations on water supplies, and changes in firefighting strategies. The application of fire detection devices used to provide early warning and notification of incipient warehouse fire events is being considered as a component of modern warehouse fire protection.Fire Detection i

  7. Sodium fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, C.; Kale, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Results of experiments carried out with sodium fires to develop extinguishment techniques are presented. Characteristics, ignition temperature, heat evolution and other aspects of sodium fires are described. Out of the powders tested for extinguishment of 10 Kg sodium fires, sodium bi-carbonate based dry chemical powder has been found to be the best extinguisher followed by large sized vermiculite and then calcium carbonate powders distributed by spray nozzles. Powders, however, do not extinguish large fires effectively due to sodium-concrete reaction. To control large scale fires in a LMFBR, collection trays with protective cover have been found to cause oxygen starvation better than flooding with inert gas. This system has an added advantage in that there is no damage to the sodium facilities as has been in the case of powders which often contain chlorine compounds and cause stress corrosion cracking. (M.G.B.)

  8. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  9. The economics of fire protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ramachandran, Ganapathy

    2003-01-01

    This important new book, the first of its kind in the fire safety field, discusses the economic problems faced by decision-makers in the areas of fire safety and fire precautions. The author considers the theoretical aspects of cost-benefit analysis and other relevant economic problems with practical applications to fire protection systems. Clear examples are included to illustrate these techniques in action. The work covers: * the performance and effectiveness of passive fire protection measures such as structural fire resistance and means of escape facilities, and active systems such as sprinklers and detectors * the importance of educating for better understanding and implementation of fire prevention through publicity campaigns and fire brigade operations * cost-benefit analysis of fire protection measures and their combinations, taking into account trade-offs between these measures. The book is essential reading for consultants and academics in construction management, economics and fire safety, as well ...

  10. Fire protection considerations in the design of plutonium handling and storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-01-01

    Unwanted fire in a facility that handles plutonium must be addressed early in the facility design. Such fires have the potential for transporting radioactive contamination throughout the building and widespread downwind dispersal. Features that mitigate such events can be severely challenged during the fire. High temperatures can cause storage containers to burst; a very efficient dispersal mechanism for radioactive contamination. The fire will also establish ventilation patterns that cause the migration of smoke and radioactive contamination throughout the facility. The smoke and soot generated by the fire will enter the exhaust system and travel to the filtration system where it will deposit on the filters. The quantity of smoke generated during a typical multi-room fire is expected to blind most High Efficiency Particulate Airfilter (HEPA) media. The blinding can have two possible outcomes. (1) The air movement though the facility is reduced, compromising the negative pressure containment and allowing contamination to leave the building though doors and other openings; or (2) the filters collapse allowing the contamination to bypass the filtration media and exit the building through the filter plenum. HEPA filter blinding during severe fires can be prevented or mitigated. Increasing the face surface area of HEPA filters will increase the smoke filtration capacity of the system, thus preventing blinding. As an alternative sandfilters can be provided to mitigate the effects of the HEPA filter bypass. Both concepts have distinct advantages. This paper will explore these two design concepts and two others; it will describe the design requirements necessary for each concept to prevent unacceptable contamination spread. The intent is to allow the filter media selection to be based on a comprehensive understanding of the four different design concepts

  11. Fire protection system management in nuclear facilities: strengthening factor of integrated management system - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Joao Regis dos

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated and analyzed the importance of a system of integrated safety manage, environment and health in a nuclear installation, having as perspective, the fire protection manage. The inquiry was made using a qualitative research involving a case study, where the considered environment was the Reconversion and UO 2 Plant of the Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), located in Resende, Rio de Janeiro and the studied population, the managers and the staff directly involved with the aspects related to the safety of the industrial complex of the related company. The motivation for the research was the search of a bigger interaction of the questions related to the safety, environment and health in the nuclear industry having, as axle of the investigation, the fire protection. As a result, it was observed that in a nuclear installation, although dealing with diversified safety processes, integration is possible and necessary, since there are more reasons for integration than otherwise. (author)

  12. Fire Hazard Analysis for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON, B.H.

    1999-08-19

    This Fire Hazard Analysis assesses the risk from fire within individual fire areas in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility at the Hanford Site in relation to existing or proposed fire protection features to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE Order 5480.7A Fire Protection are met.

  13. Fire Hazard Analysis for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, B.H.

    1999-01-01

    This Fire Hazard Analysis assesses the risk from fire within individual fire areas in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility at the Hanford Site in relation to existing or proposed fire protection features to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE Order 5480.7A Fire Protection are met

  14. Estimating Fire Risks at Industrial Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutts, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has a wide variety of nuclear production facilities that include chemical processing facilities, machine shops, production reactors, and laboratories. Current safety documentation must be maintained for the nuclear facilities at SRS. Fire Risk Analyses (FRAs) are used to support the safety documentation basis. These FRAs present the frequency that specified radiological and chemical consequences will be exceeded. The consequence values are based on mechanistic models assuming specific fire protection features fail to function as designed

  15. DOE Standard: Fire protection design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    The development of this Standard reflects the fact that national consensus standards and other design criteria do not comprehensively or, in some cases, adequately address fire protection issues at DOE facilities. This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard replaces certain mandatory fire protection requirements that were formerly in DOE 5480.7A, ''Fire Protection'', and DOE 6430.1A, ''General Design Criteria''. It also contains the fire protection guidelines from two (now canceled) draft standards: ''Glove Box Fire Protection'' and ''Filter Plenum Fire Protection''. (Note: This Standard does not supersede the requirements of DOE 5480.7A and DOE 6430.1A where these DOE Orders are currently applicable under existing contracts.) This Standard, along with the criteria delineated in Section 3, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities

  16. Fire protection and fire fighting in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Fires are a threat to all technical installations. While fire protection has long been a well established conventional discipline, its application to nuclear facilities requires special considerations. Nevertheless, for a long time fire engineering has been somewhat neglected in the design and operation of nuclear installations. In the nuclear industry, the Browns Ferry fire in 1975 brought about an essential change in the attention paid to fire problems. Designers and plant operators, as well as insurance companies and regulators, increased their efforts to develop concepts and methods for reducing fire risks, not only to protect the capital investment in nuclear plants but also to consider the potential secondary effects which could lead to nuclear accidents. Although the number of fires in nuclear installations is still relatively large, their overall importance to the safety of nuclear power plants was not considered to be very high. Only more recently have probabilistic analyses changed this picture. The results may well have to be taken into account more carefully. Various aspects of fire fighting and fire protection were discussed during the Symposium, the first of its kind to be organized by the IAEA. It was convened in co-operation with several organizations working in the nuclear or fire protection fields. The intention was to gather experts from nuclear engineering areas and the conventional fire protection field at one meeting with a view to enhancing the exchange of information and experience and to presenting current knowledge on the various disciplines involved. The presentations at the meeting were subdivided into eight sessions: standards and licensing (6 papers); national fire safety practices (7 papers); fire safety by design (11 papers); fire fighting (2 papers); computer fire modeling (7 papers); fire safety in fuel center facilities (7 papers); fire testing of materials (3 papers); fire risk assessment (5 papers). A separate abstract was

  17. Fire protection at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    The guide presents specific requirements for the design and implementation of fire protection arrangements at nuclear power plants and for the documents relating to the fire protection that are to be submitted to STUK (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority). Inspections of the fire protection arrangements to be conducted by STUK during the construction and operation of the power plants are also described in this guide. The guide can also be followed at other nuclear facilities

  18. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristov Denis Ivanovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The All-Russian Congress “Fire Stop Moscow” was de-voted to the analysis of the four segments of the industry of fire protection systems and technologies: the design of fire protec-tion systems, the latest developments and technologies of active and passive fire protection of buildings, the state and the devel-opment of the legal framework, the practice of fire protection of buildings and structures. The forum brought together the repre-sentatives of the industry of fire protection systems, scientists, leading experts, specialists in fire protection and representatives of construction companies from different regions of Russia. In parallel with the Congress Industrial Exhibition of fire protection systems, materials and technology was held, where manufacturers presented their products. The urgency of the “Fire Stop Moscow” Congress in 2015 organized by the Congress Bureau ODF Events lies primarily in the fact that it considered the full range of issues related to the fire protection of building and construction projects; studied the state of the regulatory framework for fire safety and efficiency of public services, research centers, private companies and busi-nesses in the area of fire safety. The main practical significance of the event which was widely covered in the media space, was the opportunity to share the views and information between management, science, and practice of business on implementing fire protection systems in the conditions of modern economic relations and market realities. : congress, fire protection, systems, technologies, fire protection systems, exhibition

  19. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, Richard C.

    2002-01-01

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: The occurrence of a fire or related event; A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment; Vital U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards; Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE; and Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events

  20. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubicek, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire or related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment. (3) Vital US. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. (5) Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events

  1. Fire protection for clean rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirson, D.

    1990-01-01

    The fire protection engineer often must decide what size fire can be tolerated before automatic fire suppression systems actuate. Is it a wastepaper basket fire, a bushel basket fire...? In the case of state-of-the-art clean rooms, the answer clearly is not even an incipient fire. Minor fires in clean rooms can cause major losses. This paper discusses what a clean room is and gives a brief overview of the unique fire protection challenges encountered. The two major causes of fire related to clean rooms in the semiconductor industry are flammable/pyrophoric gas fires in plastic ducts and polypropylene wet bench fires. This paper concentrates on plastic ductwork in clean rooms, sprinkler protection in ductwork, and protection for wet benches

  2. Fire hazards analysis for the uranium oxide (UO3) facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) documents the deactivation end-point status of the UO 3 complex fire hazards, fire protection and life safety systems. This FHA has been prepared for the Uranium Oxide Facility by Westinghouse Hanford Company in accordance with the criteria established in DOE 5480.7A, Fire Protection and RLID 5480.7, Fire Protection. The purpose of the Fire Hazards Analysis is to comprehensively and quantitatively assess the risk from a fire within individual fire areas in a Department of Energy facility so as to ascertain whether the objectives stated in DOE Order 5480.7, paragraph 4 are met. Particular attention has been paid to RLID 5480.7, Section 8.3, which specifies the criteria for deactivating fire protection in decommission and demolition facilities

  3. Fire protection measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner

    1997-01-01

    The presentation could only show a very brief overview of the analysis results of a wide study of the existing fire protection situation at Mochovce. As far not already done the next steps will be the selection of the final suppliers of the different measures, the detailed design and the implementation of the measures. As part of the further assistance in fire protection EUCOM will perform compliance checks of the DD and implementation and assist EMO for raising problems. Especially during the implementation of the measures the belonging quality checks have a high priority. Assuming that the implementation of measures will be in accordance with with the study results and the relevant basic design requirements it can be stated that safety level concerning fire protection will be in accordance with international requirement like IAEA 50 SG D2. The next step of our work will be the delta analysis for 2 unit and the relevant basic design as far as there are differences to unit 1. (author)

  4. Sodium fires in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzenhauer, P.

    1974-01-01

    The work deals with the behaviour of liquid sodium when it comes into contact with air, especially in the course of fires in technical plants. The most important fire procedures are constructed as realistically as possible, that is to say that the fires were not only carried out on a laboratory scale but with quantities of up to 200 kg sodium at temperatures of up to 800 0 C. The following was investigated: 1) the course of the fire in rooms, 2) restriction of the fire, 3) removal of the burnt remains, 4) protection measures. The fire was varied in its most important physical appearance such as surface fire, spurt fire and fire on isolated pipe lines. The fires were checked by precautionary, contructive measures - it was not necessary to place persons at the site of the fire - and by active measures such as for example by covering with extinguishing powder. All important test phases were captured in film and slides series. Visible material is thus available for the operation team of sodium plants and fire brigades who might possibly be called upon. (orig./LH) [de

  5. Sodium Fire Demonstration Facility Design and Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Youngil; Kim, Jong-Man; Lee, Jewhan; Hong, Jonggan; Yeom, Sujin; Cho, Chungho; Jung, Min-Hwan; Gam, Da-Young; Jeong, Ji-Young

    2014-01-01

    Although sodium has good characteristics such as high heat transfer rate and stable nuclear property, it is difficult to manage because of high reactivity. Sodium is solid at the room temperature and it easily reacts with oxygen resulting in fire due to the reaction heat. Thus, sodium must be stored in a chemically stable place, i.e., an inert gas-sealed or oil filled vessel. When a sodium fire occurs, the Na 2 O of white fume is formed. It is mainly composed of Na 2 O 2 , NaOH, and Na 2 CO 3 , ranging from 0.1 to several tens of micrometers in size. It is known that the particle size increases by aggregation during floating in air. Thus, the protection method is important and should be considered in the design and operation of a sodium system. In this paper, sodium fire characteristics are described, and the demonstration utility of outbreak of sodium fire and its extinguishing is introduced. In this paper, sodium fire characteristics and a demonstration facility are described. The introduced sodium fire demonstration facility is the only training device used to observe a sodium fire and extinguish it domestically. Furthermore, the type of sodium fire will be diversified with the enhancement of the utility. It is expected that this utility will contribute to experience in the safe treatment of sodium by the handlers

  6. National Fire Protection Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... closed NFPA Journal® NFPA Journal® Update (newsletter) Fire Technology ... die from American home fires, and another 13,000 are injured each year. This is the story of fire that the statistics won't show ...

  7. Standpipe systems for fire protection

    CERN Document Server

    Isman, Kenneth E

    2017-01-01

    This important new manual goes beyond the published NFPA standards on installation of standpipe systems to include the rules in the International Building Code, municipal fire codes, the National Fire Code of Canada, and information on inspection, testing, and maintenance of standpipe systems. Also covered are the interactions between standpipe and sprinkler systems, since these important fire protection systems are so frequently installed together. Illustrated with design examples and practical applications to reinforce the learning experience, this is the go-to reference for engineers, architects, design technicians, building inspectors, fire inspectors, and anyone that inspects, tests or maintains fire protection systems. Fire marshals and plan review authorities that have the responsibility for reviewing and accepting plans and hydraulic calculations for standpipe systems are also an important audience, as are firefighters who actually use standpipe systems. As a member of the committees responsible for s...

  8. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2801 Section 193.2801...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Protection § 193.2801 Fire protection. Each operator must provide and maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA 59A...

  9. Development of a Smart Residential Fire Protection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhwan Oh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedded system is applied for the development of smart residential fire detection and extinguishing system. Wireless communication capability is integrated into various fire sensors and alarm devices. The system activates the fire alarm to warn occupants, executes emergency and rescue calls to remote residents and fire-fighting facility in an intelligent way. The effective location of extra-sprinklers within the space of interest for the fire extinguishing system is also investigated. Actual fire test suggests that the developed wireless system for the smart residential fire protection system is reliable in terms of sensors and their communication linkage.

  10. Fire Protection Informational Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    durable and launderable. A summary of contractor lead efforts to achieve these goals was presented. 3.19 US Naval Air Systems Command The NAVAIR fire... contractors spoke next concerning their companies’ technologies for fuel fire mitigation. Randy Fontinakes from Meggitt summarized his company’s products...decomprHalon FUS~ ht Surgeon’a Manual, USN: 0 Mdentlry, rapid d.eC)mpt"tMion • moct.rate .ctfvtty, rapkl decomprualon c: 0 Ill 5 1000 +- ph~lo4oglcal

  11. National and international standards and recommendations on fire protection and fire safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.

    2007-01-01

    Experience feedback from events in nuclear facilities worldwide has shown that fire can represent a safety significant hazard. Thus, the primary objectives of fire protection programmes are to minimize both the probability of occurrence and the consequences of a fire. The regulator body expects that the licensees justify their arrangements for identifying how fires can occur and spread, assess the vulnerability of plant equipment and structures, determine how the safe operation of a plant is affected, and introduce measures to prevent a fire hazard from developing and propagating as well as to mitigate its effects in case the fire cannot be prevented. For that purpose usually a comprehensive regulatory framework for fire protection has been elaborated, based on national industrial regulations, nuclear specific regulations as well as international recommendations or requirements. Examples of such national and international standards and recommendations on fire protection and fire safety assessment as well as ongoing activities in this field are described. (orig.)

  12. Fire protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The Safety Guide gives design and some operational guidance for protection from fire and fire-related explosions in nuclear power plants (NPP). It confines itself to fire protection of items important to safety, leaving the aspects of fire protection not related to safety in NPP to be decided upon the basis of the national practices and regulations

  13. 29 CFR 1926.150 - Fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire protection. 1926.150 Section 1926.150 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Fire Protection and Prevention § 1926.150 Fire protection. (a) General requirements. (1) The employer shall be responsible for the development of a fire...

  14. Assessment of the fire hazard in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liemersdorf, H.

    1986-01-01

    The fire protection for conventional buildings and in the industrial area is essentially an empirical discipline. But, for nuclear facilities, the objectives of fire protection are higher than those used in the conventional field. Consequently, it is necessary to develop methods to strengthen or to supplement the empirical evaluation methods on a scientific basis. This paper describes the method for fire hazard analysis developed for this purpose and presents some important results of its application to nuclear power plants. The analysis has the objective, on the one hand, of quantifying the risk contribution of a fire to the overall risk of a nuclear power plant and, on the other, to gain a balanced concept of individual fire protection measures. The results show that the fire risk contribution is relatively small in comparison with the contribution of other events and does not dominate the overall risk of the plant. This justifies the fire protection concepts of the facilities which have been examined. Additionally, it can be shown that further optimization is possible. The analysis method, which has been developed to evaluate the fire hazards of nuclear power plants is also expected to be applied to other nuclear facilities in future. In principal, though, the method may also be applied to the conventional field. (orig.) [de

  15. Incineration process fire and explosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    Two incinerators will be installed in the plutonium recovery facility under construction at the Rocky Flats Plant. The fire and explosion protection features designed into the incineration facility are discussed as well as the nuclear safety and radioactive material containment features. Even though the incinerator system will be tied into an emergency power generation system, a potential hazard is associated with a 60-second delay in obtaining emergency power from a gas turbine driven generator. This hazard is eliminated by the use of steam jet ejectors to provide normal gas flow through the incinerator system during the 60 s power interruption. (U.S.)

  16. DOE Fire Protection Handbook, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fire Protection Program is delineated in a number of source documents including; the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), DOE Policy Statements and Orders, DOE and national consensus standards (such as those promulgated by the National Fire Protection Association), and supplementary guidance, This Handbook is intended to bring together in one location as much of this material as possible to facilitate understanding and ease of use. The applicability of any of these directives to individual Maintenance and Operating Contractors or to given facilities and operations is governed by existing contracts. Questions regarding applicability should be directed to the DOE Authority Having Jurisdiction for fire safety. The information provided within includes copies of those DOE directives that are directly applicable to the implementation of a comprehensive fire protection program. They are delineated in the Table of Contents. The items marked with an asterisk (*) are included on the disks in WordPerfect 5.1 format, with the filename noted below. The items marked with double asterisks are provided as hard copies as well as on the disk. For those using MAC disks, the files are in Wordperfect 2.1 for MAC.

  17. The French fire protection concept. Vulnerability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaercher, M.

    1998-01-01

    The French fire protection concept is based on a principle of three levels of defence in depth: fire prevention, fire containing and fire controlling. Fire prevention is based on arrangements which prevent the fire from starting or which make difficult for the fire to start. Fire containing is based on design measures so that the fire will have no impact on the safety of the installation. For fire controlling, equipment nad personnel are on duty in order to detect, to fight and to gain control over the fire as early as possible. The French fire protection concept gives priority to fire containing based on passive structural measures. All buildings containing safety equipment are divided into fire compartments (or fire areas) and fire cells (or fire zones). Basically, a compartment houses safety equipment belonging to one division (or train) so that the other division is always available to reach the plant safe shut down or to mitigate an accident. Because there is a large number of fire compartments and fire cells, deviations from the general principle can be observed. To this reason the RCC-I (Design and Construction Rules applicable for fire protection) requires to implement an assessment of the principle of division. This assessment is called vulnerability analysis. The vulnerability analysis is usually performed at the end of the project, before erection. It is also possible to perform a vulnerability analysis in an operating nuclear power plant in the scope of a fire safety upgrading programme. In the vulnerability analysis, the functional failure of all the equipment (except for those protected by a qualified fire barrier, designed or able to withstand the fire consequences) within the fire compartment or cell, where the fire breaks out, is postulated. The potential consequences for the plant safety are analysed

  18. 14 CFR 33.17 - Fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection. 33.17 Section 33.17... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.17 Fire protection. (a) The design and... protection unless damage by fire will not cause leakage or spillage of a hazardous quantity of flammable...

  19. 30 CFR 77.306 - Fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire protection. 77.306 Section 77.306 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY....306 Fire protection. Based on the need for fire protection measures in connection with the particular...

  20. 46 CFR 176.810 - Fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 176.810 Section 176.810 Shipping COAST...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.810 Fire protection. (a) At each initial and... and have the vessel ready for inspection of its fire protection equipment, including the following: (1...

  1. Investigations concerning fire-induced accidents in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamuth, P.; Lernout, L.A.; Bonneval, F.; Cottaz, M.

    1996-01-01

    In the context of fire protection in technical buildings of French nuclear facilities, three principles have been adopted: prevention, detection and fire-fighting. Their implementation makes it possible on the one hand to limit the fire ignition and the fire growth, and on the other hand to prevent fire extent which would lead to unavailability of several safety related equipment. Although progress has been made in this direction, the fire risks have still not been eliminated. It is therefore essential to evaluate the fire effects and to assess their consequences. To this end, three main R and D programs have been conducted into fires. Part I sets out the fire PSA methodology used for a 900 MWe PWR. Part II gives an outline of two fire and ventilation computer codes useful for the fire PSA. Finally, part III gives an outline of the tests already performed and those currently under way in the two laboratories of the Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (IPSN) in order to qualify the codes and provide useful information for the safety assessment. (author)

  2. Surface Fire Hazards Analysis Technical Report-Constructor Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flye, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this Fire Hazards Analysis Technical Report (hereinafter referred to as Technical Report) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas to ascertain whether the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) fire safety objectives are met. The objectives identified in DOE Order 420.1, Change 2, Facility Safety, Section 4.2, establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: The occurrence of a fire or related event; A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public, or the environment; Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards; Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding defined limits established by DOE; and Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events

  3. Rx fire laws: tools to protect fire: the `ecological imperative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale Wade; Steven Miller; Johnny Stowe; James Brenner

    2006-01-01

    The South is the birthplace of statutes and ordinances that both advocate and protect the cultural heritage of woods burning, which has been practiced in this region uninterrupted for more than 10,000 years. We present a brief overview of fire use in the South and discuss why most southern states recognized early on that periodic fire was necessary to sustain fire...

  4. 49 CFR 193.2611 - Fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2611 Section 193.2611 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2611 Fire protection. (a) Maintenance activities on fire...

  5. SRS Process Facility Significance Fire Frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrack, A.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This report documents the method and assumptions of a study performed to determine a site generic process facility significant fire initiator frequency and explains the proper way this value should be used.

  6. SRS Process Facility Significance Fire Frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarrack, A.G.

    1995-10-01

    This report documents the method and assumptions of a study performed to determine a site generic process facility significant fire initiator frequency and explains the proper way this value should be used

  7. Use of fire hazard analysis to cost effectively manage facility modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, K., E-mail: kkruger@plcfire.com [PLC Fire Safety Solutions, Fredericton, NB (Canada); Cronk, R., E-mail: rcronk@plcfire.com [PLC Fire Safety Solutions, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    In Canada, licenced Nuclear power facilities, or facilities that process, handle or store nuclear material are required by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission to have a change control process in place. These processes are in place to avoid facility modifications that could result in an increase in fire hazards, or degradation of fire protection systems. Change control processes can have a significant impact on budgets associated with plant modifications. A Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is also a regulatory requirement for licenced facilities in Canada. An FHA is an extensive evaluation of a facility's construction, nuclear safety systems, fire hazards, and fire protection features. This paper is being presented to outline how computer based data management software can help organize facilities' fire safety information, manage this information, and reduce the costs associated with preparation of FHAs as well as facilities' change control processes. (author)

  8. Aging assessment for active fire protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, S.B.; Nowlen, S.P.; Tanaka, T.

    1995-06-01

    This study assessed the impact of aging on the performance and reliability of active fire protection systems including both fixed fire suppression and fixed fire detection systems. The experience base shows that most nuclear power plants have an aggressive maintenance and testing program and are finding degraded fire protection system components before a failure occurs. Also, from the data reviewed it is clear that the risk impact of fire protection system aging is low. However, it is assumed that a more aggressive maintenance and testing program involving preventive diagnostics may reduce the risk impact even further

  9. Internal fire protection analysis for the United Kingdom EPR design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laid, Abdallah [Nuclear New Build Generation Company Ltd. (NNB GenCo), Barnwood (United Kingdom). EDF Energy Plc.; Cesbron, Mickael [Service Etudes et Project Thermiques et Nucleaires (SEPTEN), Lyon (France). EDF-SA

    2015-12-15

    In the deterministic design basis analysis of the United Kingdom (UK) EPR based nuclear power plants all postulated initiating events are grouped into two different types, internal faults and internal/external hazards. ''Internal Fires'' is one of the internal hazards analysed at the design stage of the UK EPR. In effect, the main safety objective for fire protection is to ensure that all the required safety functions are performed in the event of an internal fire. To achieve this safety objective, provisions for protection against fire risks are taken to: (i) limit the spread of a fire, protect the safety functions of the facility; (ii) limit the propagation of smoke and dispersion of toxic, radioactive, inflammable, corrosive or explosive materials, and (iii) ensure the achievement of a safe shutdown state, personnel evacuation and all other necessary emergency actions. This paper presents the UK EPR approach on how the above provisions are applied. Such provisions involve implementing means of fire prevention, surveillance, firefighting and limiting fire consequences, appropriate to the risks inherent to the facility. Overall, the design of the UK EPR fire protection systems is based on three types of measures: prevention, containment and control.

  10. Fire prevention and protection for trackless equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, A.J.

    1988-10-01

    With the increased use of trackless diesel and electrical equipment underground, the fire danger associated with this equipment has increased. The need for adequate fire prevention and protection on all aspects of trackless mechanised mining must be taken into consideration. This paper describes briefly the causes of fires on trackless equipment and the precautions taken to reduce the risk of ignition. 1 tab.

  11. SFPE handbook of fire protection engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Gottuk, Daniel; Jr, John; Harada, Kazunori; Kuligowski, Erica; Puchovsky, Milosh; Torero, Jose´; Jr, John; WIECZOREK, CHRISTOPHER

    2016-01-01

    Revised and significantly expanded, the fifth edition of this classic work offers both new and substantially updated information. As the definitive reference on fire protection engineering, this book provides thorough treatment of the current best practices in fire protection engineering and performance-based fire safety. Over 130 eminent fire engineers and researchers contributed chapters to the book, representing universities and professional organizations around the world. It remains the indispensible source for reliable coverage of fire safety engineering fundamentals, fire dynamics, hazard calculations, fire risk analysis, modeling and more. With seventeen new chapters and over 1,800 figures, the this new edition contains: • Step-by-step equations that explain engineering calculations • Comprehensive revision of the coverage of human behavior in fire, including several new chapters on egress system design, occupant evacuation scenarios, combustion toxicity and data for human behavior analysis • Rev...

  12. Fire Hazard Analysis for the Cold Vacuum Drying facility (CVD) Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SINGH, G.

    2000-09-06

    The CVDF is a nonreactor nuclear facility that will process the Spent Nuclear Fuels (SNF) presently stored in the 105-KE and 105-KW SNF storage basins. Multi-canister overpacks (MCOs) will be loaded (filled) with K Basin fuel transported to the CVDF. The MCOs will be processed at the CVDF to remove free water from the fuel cells (packages). Following processing at the CVDF, the MCOs will be transported to the CSB for interim storage until a long-term storage solution can be implemented. This operation is expected to start in November 2000. A Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is required for all new facilities and all nonreactor nuclear facilities, in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.7A, Fire Protection. This FHA has been prepared in accordance with DOE 5480.7A and HNF-PRO-350, Fire Hazard Analysis Requirements. Additionally, requirements or criteria contained in DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) RL Implementing Directive (RLID) 5480.7, Fire Protection, or other DOE documentation are cited, as applicable. This FHA comprehensively assesses the risk of fire at the CVDF to ascertain whether the specific objectives of DOE 5480.7A are met. These specific fire protection objectives are: (1) Minimize the potential for the occurrence of a fire. (2) Ensure that fire does not cause an onsite or offsite release of radiological and other hazardous material that will threaten the public health and safety or the environment. (3) Establish requirements that will provide an acceptable degree of life safety to DOE and contractor personnel and ensure that there are no undue hazards to the public from fire and its effects in DOE facilities. (4) Ensure that vital DOE programs will not suffer unacceptable delays as a result of fire and related perils. (5) Ensure that property damage from fire and related perils does not exceed an acceptable level. (6) Ensure that process control and safety systems are not damaged by fire or related perils. This FHA is based on the

  13. Fire Hazard Analysis for the Cold Vacuum Drying facility (CVD) Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SINGH, G.

    2000-01-01

    The CVDF is a nonreactor nuclear facility that will process the Spent Nuclear Fuels (SNF) presently stored in the 105-KE and 105-KW SNF storage basins. Multi-canister overpacks (MCOs) will be loaded (filled) with K Basin fuel transported to the CVDF. The MCOs will be processed at the CVDF to remove free water from the fuel cells (packages). Following processing at the CVDF, the MCOs will be transported to the CSB for interim storage until a long-term storage solution can be implemented. This operation is expected to start in November 2000. A Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is required for all new facilities and all nonreactor nuclear facilities, in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.7A, Fire Protection. This FHA has been prepared in accordance with DOE 5480.7A and HNF-PRO-350, Fire Hazard Analysis Requirements. Additionally, requirements or criteria contained in DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) RL Implementing Directive (RLID) 5480.7, Fire Protection, or other DOE documentation are cited, as applicable. This FHA comprehensively assesses the risk of fire at the CVDF to ascertain whether the specific objectives of DOE 5480.7A are met. These specific fire protection objectives are: (1) Minimize the potential for the occurrence of a fire. (2) Ensure that fire does not cause an onsite or offsite release of radiological and other hazardous material that will threaten the public health and safety or the environment. (3) Establish requirements that will provide an acceptable degree of life safety to DOE and contractor personnel and ensure that there are no undue hazards to the public from fire and its effects in DOE facilities. (4) Ensure that vital DOE programs will not suffer unacceptable delays as a result of fire and related perils. (5) Ensure that property damage from fire and related perils does not exceed an acceptable level. (6) Ensure that process control and safety systems are not damaged by fire or related perils. This FHA is based on the

  14. Fire protection guidelines for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    Guidelines acceptable to the NRC staff for implementing in the development of a fire protection program for nuclear power plants. The purpose of the fire protection program is to ensure the capability to shut down the reactor and maintain it in a safe shutdown condition and to minimize radioactive releases to the environment in the event of a fire. If designs or methods different from the guidelines presented herein are used, they must provide fire protection comparable to that recommended in the guidelines. Suitable bases and justification should be provided for alternative approaches to establish acceptable implementaion of General Design Criterion 3

  15. 10 CFR 36.27 - Fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection. 36.27 Section 36.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS Design and Performance Requirements for Irradiators § 36.27 Fire protection. (a) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must...

  16. 46 CFR 169.311 - Fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 169.311 Section 169.311 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.311 Fire protection. (a) The general construction of the vessel...

  17. Fire protection of nuclear power plant cable ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandrac, J.; Lukac, L.

    1987-01-01

    Fire protection of cable ducts in the Bohunice and Dukovany V-2 nuclear power plants is of a fourtier type. The first level consists in preventive measures incorporated in the power plant design and layout. The second level consists in early detection and a quick repressive action provided by an electric fire alarm system and a stationary spray system, respectively. Fire partitions and glands represent the third level while special spray, paint and lining materials represent the fourth level of the protection. Briefly discussed are the results of an analysis of the stationary spray system and the effects reducing the efficiency of a fire-fighting action using this system. The analysis showed the need of putting off cable duct fires using mobile facilities in case the stationary spray system cannot cope any longer. (Z.M.). 3 figs., 2 refs

  18. Passive fire protection role and evolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerosky, Tristan [NUVIA (France); Perdrix, Johan [NUVIA Protection (France)

    2015-12-15

    Major incidents associated with nuclear power plants often invoke a re-examination of key safety barriers. Fire hazard, in particular, is a key concern for safe operation of nuclear power plants given its propensity to damage safety systems which could ultimately lead to radioactive release into the atmosphere. In the recent past, events such as the Fukushima disaster have led to an industry-wide push to improve nuclear safety arrangements. As part of these measures, upgrading of fire safety systems has received significant attention. In addition to the inherent intricacies associated with such a complex undertaking, factors such as frequent changes in the national and European fire regulations also require due attention while formulating a fire protection strategy. This paper will highlight some salient aspects underpinning an effective fire protection strategy. This will involve: A) A comprehensive introduction to the different aspects of fire safety (namely prevention, containment and mitigation) supported by a review of the development of the RCC-I from 1993 to 1997 editions and the ETC-F (AFCEN codes used by EDF in France). B) Development of the fire risk analysis methodology and the different functions of passive fire protection within this method involving confinement and protection of safety-related equipment. C) A review of the benefits of an effective passive fire protection strategy, alongside other arrangements (such as active fire protection) to a nuclear operator in term of safety and cost savings. It is expected that the paper will provide nuclear operators useful guidelines for strengthening existing fire protection systems.

  19. PG BN 1600 sodium fire protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar, J.; Urbancik, L.

    1978-12-01

    A design was developed of a fire protection system for steam generator of a 1600 MW sodium cooled fast reactor (BN-1600). Chemical reactions are described of liquid sodium with atmospheric components and solid materials coming into contact with sodium in its release from the steam generator, and in safeguarding protection against sodium fires. The requirements for the purity of nitrogen as an atmosphere inert to liquid sodium are given. Characteristics and basic parameters are shown of level and spray fires, elementary terms are explained concerning the properties of aerosols formed during fires, the methods and means of release signalling and fire alarm are described as are fire precautions using fire-fighting equipment, modifying the support tank and the cell bottom and building sewage pits. The design of the system comprises an alarm system for liquid sodium using point and line electric contact sensors and flame photometer based aerosol sensors as well as a fire-fighting system based on the system of channelling liquid sodium into emergency discharge tanks filled with an inert gas, a set of fire extinguishers and other fire fighting material, and measures for the elimination of sodium fire consequences. (J.B.)

  20. Fire protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    This lecture describes briefly the chronological order of events which may arise for a very serious emergency situation in a nuclear power plant for which preparations should be made even though the situation has an extremely low probability of happening. The planning and preparedness required are expected to cope with a whole spectrum of emergency situations, from minor accidents to serious plant failures which also lead to releases of significant quantities of radioactive material beyond the site boundary. Fire protection aspects will be briefly covered, and some guidance will be provided on exercises to ensure the plans are feasible and the appropriate personnel and facilities are in a satisfactory state of preparedness. (orig./RW)

  1. Fire protection for telecommunications central offices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, L.A. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The provision of continuous, uninterrupted telecommunications service is vital to modern life. In order to provide uninterrupted service to customers, a service continuity program has been in place with AT and T for many years. This program integrates many different protection strategies and plans, each designed to mitigate one of the many threats to service continuity. The fire protection program implemented within AT and T is a part of this service continuity program. In the design of this program, a number of unusual problems had to be addressed due to the service continuity requirements. Typical solutions to fire protection problems (ignition prevention, detection, and suppression) which are embodied in building and fire prevention codes are inadequate to provide service continuity. This presentation outlines the basic arrangement of a telecommunications central office, the specific fire protection problems encountered, the fire protection philosophy developed through the use of a systems approach, and the implementation of the fire protection program. Special emphasis is placed on the strategies employed in lieu of more traditional fire protection schemes and the stimuli for selecting them

  2. Fire protection at hot laboratories: Prevention, surveillance and fire-fighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chappellier, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    After pointing out that fire in a hot laboratory can be an important factor contributing to a radioactivity accident, the author briefly recalls the items to be taken into account in a fire hazard analysis. He then describes various important aspects of prevention, detection and fire-fighting which - at the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique - are governed by already defined rules or by guidelines which are sufficiently advanced to give a clear idea of the final conclusions to be drawn therefrom. From the point of view protection, the concept of fire sector has been evolved, at hot laboratories, becomes the fire and contamination sector, so as to ensure under all circumstances the containment of any radioactive materials dispersed in the premises on fire. Regarding fire detection, a study should be made on the constraints specific to the facility and liable to affect detector operation. These include ventilation, radiations, neutral or corrosive atmosphere, etc. As regards fire-fighting, two particular aspects are dealt with, namely the question of using water in case of fire and action to be taken concerning ventilation. A practical example - the protection of a ventilation system - is described. In conclusion the paper refers to the need for a thorough analysis specific to each hot laboratory, and to the importance of preparing an operational plan so as to avoid any dangerous improvisations in case of an accident. (author)

  3. Solution of Fire Protection in Historic Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iringová, Agnes; Idunk, Róbert

    2016-12-01

    The paper introduces optimization of the functional use of renovated spaces in historic buildings in terms of fire risk. It brings assessment of fire protection in the folk house Habánsky Dvor, situated in the village of Veľké Leváre, whose function was changed into the museum. It goes into static analysis of existing load-bearing structures and assessment of their fire resistance according to Eurocodes.

  4. Facilities inventory protection for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, F.J.

    1989-01-01

    The fact that shut-down applications have been filed for nuclear power plants, suggests to have a scrutinizing look at the scopes of assessment and decision available to administrations and courts for the protection of facilities inventories relative to legal and constitutional requirements. The paper outlines the legal bases which need to be observed if purposeful calculation is to be ensured. Based on the different actual conditions and legal consequences, the author distinguishes between 1) the legal situation of facilities licenced already and 2) the legal situation of facilities under planning during the licencing stage. As indicated by the contents and restrictions of the pertinent provisions of the Atomic Energy Act and by the corresponding compensatory regulation, the object of the protection of facilities inventor in the legal position of the facility owner within the purview of the Atomic Energy Act, and the licensing proper. Art. 17 of the Atomic Energy Act indicates the legislators intent that, once issued, the licence will be the pivotal point for regulations aiming at protection and intervention. (orig./HSCH) [de

  5. Cathodic Protection Model Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Performs Navy design and engineering of ship and submarine impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems for underwater hull corrosion control and...

  6. Fire protection in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penot, J.

    1986-01-01

    Graphex-CK 23 is a unique sodium fire extinction product. Minimum amounts of powder are required for very fast action. The sodium can be put to use again, when the fire has been extinguished. It can be applied in other industrial branches and with other metals, e.g. sodium/potassium circuits or lithium coolant in power plants. [de

  7. Fire protection concept for power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitzmann, H.

    The author shows how a systematic approach permits the design of a fire-protected power station. The special conditions of an individual power station are here treated as marginal conditions. The article describes how the concept is realized in the completed power station, taking account of the information provided by fire statistics. (orig.) [de

  8. Fire Resistance Tests of Various Fire Protective Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas GRIGONIS

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tests were carried out on more than 14 different samples of fire protective coatings in order to investigate a relation between the thickness of the intumescent fire protection coating and the time of exposure to heat. A number of coatings of different chemical composition enabled to determine the fire resistance behaviour patterns. During test the one-side and volumetric methods were employed in observance of the standard temperature-time curves. For one-side method, the coating was applied on one side and all edges of the specimen, whereas for volumetric test the specimens were completely covered with fire protective coating. It is shown that a layer of coating protects the specimen's surface from heat exposure for a certain period of time until full oxidation of the coating occurs. The efficiency of fire protective coatings also depends on thickness of the charred layer of the side exposed to heat.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.1.257

  9. Design guides for cell atmosphere controls, utilities and fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, A.J. Jr.; Peishel, F.L.; Slattery, E.F.

    1981-01-01

    Facilities for handling radioactive and toxic materials must be designed not only for efficient operation, but also for protection of the operating personnel and the public. The ventilation system is of primary importance in maintaining containment of any airborne radioactivity. The type, number, and location of in-cell services must be adequate for planned operations, but also must allow flexibility to accommodate expansion in the scope of operations or changes in programs. Fire protection systems and operational controls are mandatory to maintain containment of radioactivity in the event of an operating error or process accident that may result in a fire

  10. Quality assurance through fire protection documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitzer, Franz [KAEFER Industrie GmbH, Kirchheim (Germany); Winter, Harald [Harald Winter Software, Unterschleissheim (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Legal and organisational requirements regarding fire protection have become more and more stringent. In doing so owners must take account of public law and insurance law. A specialised fire protection management system - FiProMan - can assist in meeting these requirements quickly and efficiently by ensuring quality, carrying out subsequent installation work, repair work and making maintenance planable. In addition, the legal requirements of continuance are met. (orig.)

  11. Stochastic representation of fire behavior in a wildland fire protection planning model for California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Keith Gilless; Jeremy S. Fried

    1998-01-01

    A fire behavior module was developed for the California Fire Economics Simulator version 2 (CFES2), a stochastic simulation model of initial attack on wildland fire used by the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection. Fire rate of spread (ROS) and fire dispatch level (FDL) for simulated fires "occurring" on the same day are determined by making...

  12. The importance of verifiable fire protection design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medonos, Sava [Petrellus Ltd. (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: smm@petrellus.co.uk; Geddes, Paul [Global Solutions UK Ltd. (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: paul@globalsolutionsuk.com

    2004-07-01

    Simplistic methods based on the Hp/A ratio between the heated surface area and volume or a 2-dimensional analysis may be sufficient for the determination of fire protection coatings for simple components. For the optimization of fire protection of pressure systems and load bearing structures, however, they have proved to be inadequate, as they do not represent the response taking place. This often leads to over-protection or inadequate fire resistance. In the past 10 years there have been claims in petrochemical industry of 'methods' for fire protection 'optimization' based on a walk-down through a topside or plant, or a heat-up calculation of a few cross sections with no regard to stress. These methods are wrong. In the best case these 'methods of optimization' lead to high unnecessary costs and in the worst case in an explosion of a vessel, structural collapse, domino effects and cataclysmic fire throughout the plant. The operator or design contractor should always require a Method Statement including a proof of verification to obtain the adequate quality of fire protection. (author)

  13. Challenges to fire protection measures at Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narama, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    New regulatory standards for fire protection at nuclear power plants have been established by the Nuclear Regulation Authority. This paper introduces the measures taken by the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station for the following four items, which were especially big changes. (1) To install a combination of sensors of different types or instruments with equivalent functions so as to be able to emit unique signals to inform a fire in the early stage. (2) To conduct 'UL vertical burn test' as the demonstration test for self-extinguishing performance as the condition for flame-retardant cable. (3) To install automatic fire-extinguishers or fixed fire-extinguishing devices of manual type at the spots where fire-fighting is difficult due to the filling of smoke in a fire or the effect of radiation. (4) To separate the system for purpose of ensuring safety function to attain the high-temperature shutdown and cold-temperature shutdown of a reactor whatever fire may happen at the nuclear facilities. The examples of the installation of fire-extinguishers as the measures for the above Item (3) are as follows; (A) as for the devices containing oil, a foam-extinguishing agent is released against each target device from the nozzle, and (B) for large vertical pump motors indoors and relatively small pump motors, IA type automatic foam extinguishing systems are installed. (A.O.)

  14. Improvement of fire protection measures for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Improvements of fire protection measures for nuclear power plants were performed as following items: Development of fire hazard analysis method. Application of developed Fire Dynamic tool to actual plants, With regard to fire tests for the fire data acquisition, cable fire test and oil fire test were performed. Implementation of fire hazard analysis code and simulation were performed as following items: Fire analysis codes FDS, SYLVIA, CFAST were implemented in order to analyze the fire progression phenomena, Trial simulation of fire hazard as Metal-Clad Switch Gear Fire of ONAGAWA NPP in Tohoku earthquake (HEAF accident). (author)

  15. Fire protection in the nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takuma, Masao

    1977-01-01

    According to the publication by US NRC, 32 fires have occurred in the nuclear power stations in operation, but most of them were small fire, and did not affect the safety of the nuclear power stations. The largest fire was that which occurred in the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Station of TVA, USA, in March, 1976. It did not jeopardize the safety of the reactor facilities, and the leak of radioactive substance did not occur at all. But the investigation was made extensively by the joint committee of both houses, the government and others, and the deficiency in the countermeasures to fire was found, and it was clarified that some revision would by required on the standard applied heretofore. It was the valuable experience for improving further the safety of nuclear power stations. The fire occurred by the ignition of the polyurethane for sealing cable penetrations due to candle flame for testing. About 1600 cables were burned. When fire breaks out in a nuclear power station, it is necessary to stop and cool the reactor without fail, and to prevent the leak of radioactive substances definitely. In case of the fire in Browns Ferry, these requirements were fulfilled satisfactorily. The countermeasures on the basis of the experience in Browns Ferry and the design of the counterplan to fire in nuclear power stations are explained. (Kako, I.)

  16. Analysis of fire protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosser, D.; Schneider, U.

    1982-01-01

    Regulations and test specifications for fire prevention in nuclear power plants are presented as well as the fire protection measures in a newly constructed nuclear power plant. Although the emphasis is placed differently, all rules are based on the following single measures: Fire prevention, fire detection, fire fighting, fire checking, attack, flight, and rescue, organisational measures. (orig./GL) [de

  17. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Bergman, W.; Ford, H.W.; Lipska, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect HEPA filters in exit ventilation ducts from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Several methods for partially mitigating the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified through testing and analysis. These independently involve controlling the fuel, controlling the fire, and intercepting the smoke aerosol prior to its sorption on the HEPA filter. Exit duct treatment of aerosols is not unusual in industrial applications and involves the use of scrubbers, prefilters, and inertial impaction, depending on the size, distribution, and concentration of the subject aerosol. However, when these unmodified techniques were applied to smoke aerosols from fires on materials, common to experimental laboratories of LLNL, it was found they offered minimal protection to the HEPA filters. Ultimately, a continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. This technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modificaton of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has a particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, we laminated rolling filter media with the desired properties. It is not true that the use of rolling prefilters solely to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols is cost effective in every type of containment system, especially if standard fire-protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified

  18. Training of fire protection personnel in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaser, W.

    1980-01-01

    Training of fire protection personnel in nuclear power plants is divided up in three categories: training of fire protection commissioners which is mostly carried out externally; training of fire fighting personnel in the form of basic and repeated training usually by the fire protection commissioner; training of other employers with regard to behaviour in case of fire and during work involving a fire hazard. (orig.) [de

  19. Reliability Based Optimization of Fire Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    fire protection (PFP) of firewalls and structural members. The paper is partly based on research performed within the EU supported research project B/E-4359 "Optimized Fire Safety of Offshore Structures" and partly on research supported by the Danish Technical Research Council (see Thoft-Christensen [1......]). Special emphasis is put on the optimization software developed within the project.......It is well known that fire is one of the major risks of serious damage or total loss of several types of structures such as nuclear installations, buildings, offshore platforms/topsides etc. This paper presents a methodology and software for reliability based optimization of the layout of passive...

  20. Fire Hazard Analysis for the Cold Vacuum Drying facility (CVD) Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, G

    2000-01-01

    The CVDF is a nonreactor nuclear facility that will process the Spent Nuclear Fuels (SNF) presently stored in the 105-KE and 105-KW SNF storage basins. Multi-canister overpacks (MCOs) will be loaded (filled) with K Basin fuel transported to the CVDF. The MCOs will be processed at the CVDF to remove free water from the fuel cells (packages). Following processing at the CVDF, the MCOs will be transported to the CSB for interim storage until a long-term storage solution can be implemented. This operation is expected to start in November 2000. A Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is required for all new facilities and all nonreactor nuclear facilities, in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.7A, Fire Protection. This FHA has been prepared in accordance with DOE 5480.7A and HNF-PRO-350, Fire Hazard Analysis Requirements. Additionally, requirements or criteria contained in DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) RL Implementing Directive (RLID) 5480.7, Fire Protection, or other DOE documentation are cite...

  1. Classified facilities for environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-02-01

    The legislation of the classified facilities governs most of the dangerous or polluting industries or fixed activities. It rests on the law of 9 July 1976 concerning facilities classified for environmental protection and its application decree of 21 September 1977. This legislation, the general texts of which appear in this volume 1, aims to prevent all the risks and the harmful effects coming from an installation (air, water or soil pollutions, wastes, even aesthetic breaches). The polluting or dangerous activities are defined in a list called nomenclature which subjects the facilities to a declaration or an authorization procedure. The authorization is delivered by the prefect at the end of an open and contradictory procedure after a public survey. In addition, the facilities can be subjected to technical regulations fixed by the Environment Minister (volume 2) or by the prefect for facilities subjected to declaration (volume 3). (A.B.)

  2. Performance of smokeless gasoline fire test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, J.F.; Watkins, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    Packaging for radioactive materials must perform satisfactorily when subjected to temperatures simulating an accident involving a fire. The new thermal test facility has proved to be a reliable method for satisfactorily performing the required test. The flame provides sufficient heat to assure that the test is valid, and the temperature can be controlled satisfactorily. Also, the air and water mist systems virtually eliminate any smoke and thereby exceed the local EPA requirements. The combination of the two systems provides an inexpensive, low maintenance technique for elimination of the smoke plume

  3. Fire protection in ventilation systems and in case of fire operating ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitzelsberger, J.

    1983-01-01

    The fire risks in ventilation systems are discussed. It follows a survey of regulations on fire prevention and fire protection in ventilation systems and smoke and heat exhaust systems applicable to nuclear installations in the Federal Republic of Germany. Fire protection concepts for normal systems and for systems operating also in case of fire will be given. Several structural elements for fire protection in those systems will be illustrated with regard to recent research findings

  4. Protection of nuclear facilities against outer aggressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aussourd, P.; Candes, P.; Le Quinio, R.

    1976-01-01

    The various types of outer aggressions envisaged in safety analysis for nuclear facilities are reviewed. These outer aggressions are classified as natural and non-natural phenomena, the latter depending on the human activities in the vicinity of nuclear sites. The principal natural phenomena able to constitute aggressions are atmospheric phenomena (strong winds, snow storms, hail, frosting mists), hydrologie phenomena such as tides, surges, flood, low waters, and geologic phenomena such as earthquakes. Artificial phenomena are concerned with aircraft crashes, projectiles, fire, possible ruptures of dams, and intentional human aggressions. The protection against intentional human aggressions is of two sorts: first, the possibility of access to the installations mostly sensitive to sabotage are to be prevented or reduced, secondly redundant circuits and functions must be separated for preventing their simultaneous destruction in the case when sabotage actors have reach the core of the facility [fr

  5. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, N.; Beason, D.; Bergman, V.; Creighton, J.; Ford, H.; Lipska, A.

    1980-01-01

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, in exit ventilation ducts, from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Initially, methods were developed to cool fire-heated air by fine water spray upstream of the filters. It was recognized that smoke aerosol exposure to HEPA filters could also cause disruption of the containment system. Through testing and analysis, several methods to partially mitigate the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified. A continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. The technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total time duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modification of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, rolling filter media were laminated with the desired properties. The approach was Edisonian, but truncation in short order to a combination of prefilters was effective. The application of this technique was qualified, since it is of use only to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols. It is not believed that this technique is cost effective in the total spectrum of containment systems, especially if standard fire protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high-fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified

  6. Tech assist/fire safety assessment of 100K area facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.H.

    1994-01-01

    This Tech Assist/Fire Safety Assessment provides a comprehensive assessment of the 100K Area Facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site for fire protection upgrades that may be needed given the limited remaining service life of these facilities. This assessment considers the relative nature of observed fire risks and whether the installed fire protection systems adequately control this risk. The analysis is based on compliance with DOE Orders, NFPA Codes and Standards, and recognized industry practice. Limited remaining service life (i.e., 6 to 12 years), current value of each facility, comparison to the best protected class of industrial risk, and the potential for exemptions from DOE requirements are key factors for recommendations presented in this report

  7. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. D. Bigbee

    2000-06-21

    The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System provides the capability to detect, control, and extinguish fires and/or mitigate explosions throughout the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Fire protection includes appropriate water-based and non-water-based suppression, as appropriate, and includes the distribution and delivery systems for the fire suppression agents. The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System includes fire or explosion detection panel(s) controlling various detectors, system actuation, annunciators, equipment controls, and signal outputs. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for mounting of fire protection equipment and components, location of fire suppression equipment, suppression agent runoff, and locating fire rated barriers. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for adequate drainage and removal capabilities of liquid runoff resulting from fire protection discharges. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building Electrical Distribution System for power to operate, and with the Site Fire Protection System for fire protection water supply to automatic sprinklers, standpipes, and hose stations. The system interfaces with the Site Fire Protection System for fire signal transmission outside the WHB as needed to respond to a fire emergency, and with the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System to detect smoke and fire in specific areas, to protect building high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, and to control portions of the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System for smoke management and manual override capability. The system interfaces with the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Operations Monitoring and Control System for annunciation, and condition status.

  8. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. D. Bigbee

    2000-01-01

    The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System provides the capability to detect, control, and extinguish fires and/or mitigate explosions throughout the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Fire protection includes appropriate water-based and non-water-based suppression, as appropriate, and includes the distribution and delivery systems for the fire suppression agents. The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System includes fire or explosion detection panel(s) controlling various detectors, system actuation, annunciators, equipment controls, and signal outputs. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for mounting of fire protection equipment and components, location of fire suppression equipment, suppression agent runoff, and locating fire rated barriers. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for adequate drainage and removal capabilities of liquid runoff resulting from fire protection discharges. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building Electrical Distribution System for power to operate, and with the Site Fire Protection System for fire protection water supply to automatic sprinklers, standpipes, and hose stations. The system interfaces with the Site Fire Protection System for fire signal transmission outside the WHB as needed to respond to a fire emergency, and with the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System to detect smoke and fire in specific areas, to protect building high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, and to control portions of the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System for smoke management and manual override capability. The system interfaces with the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Operations Monitoring and Control System for annunciation, and condition status

  9. Fire protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Code on Design (Safety Series 50-C-D (Rev. 1)) within the NUSS (Nuclear Safety Standards) programme of the IAEA points out the necessity of measures for protecting plant items which are important to safety against fires of internal and external origin. Experience of the past two decades in the operation of nuclear power plants and modern analysis techniques confirm that fire may be a real threat to nuclear safety and should receive adequate attention from the beginning of the design process throughout the life of the plant. Within the framework of the NUSS programme, a Safety Guide on fire protection had therefore been developed to enlarge on the general requirements given in the Code. Since its first publication in 1979, there has been considerable development in protection technology and analysis methods and after the Chernobyl accident it was decided to revise the existing Guide. The present Safety Guide is intended to advise designers, safety assessors and regulators on the concept of fire protection in the design of nuclear power plants and on recommended ways of implementing the concept in some detail in practice. Figs, 1 tab

  10. Improvement of fire protection measures for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Improvements of fire protection measures for nuclear power plants were performed as following items: Development of fire hazard analysis method. Application of developed Fire Dynamic Tool to actual plants (FDT{sup S}), With regard to fire tests for the fire data acquisition, cable fire test and High Energy Arcing Faults (HEAF) fire test were performed. Implementation of fire hazard analysis code and simulation were performed as following items: Fire analysis codes FDS, SYLVIA, and CFAST were implemented in order to analyze the fire progression phenomena. Trial simulation of HEAF accident of Onagawa NPP in Tohoku earthquake. (author)

  11. Calculation of Fire Severity Factors and Fire Non-Suppression Probabilities For A DOE Facility Fire PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elicson, Tom; Harwood, Bentley; Lucek, Heather; Bouchard, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Over a 12 month period, a fire PRA was developed for a DOE facility using the NUREG/CR-6850 EPRI/NRC fire PRA methodology. The fire PRA modeling included calculation of fire severity factors (SFs) and fire non-suppression probabilities (PNS) for each safe shutdown (SSD) component considered in the fire PRA model. The SFs were developed by performing detailed fire modeling through a combination of CFAST fire zone model calculations and Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS). Component damage times and automatic fire suppression system actuation times calculated in the CFAST LHS analyses were then input to a time-dependent model of fire non-suppression probability. The fire non-suppression probability model is based on the modeling approach outlined in NUREG/CR-6850 and is supplemented with plant specific data. This paper presents the methodology used in the DOE facility fire PRA for modeling fire-induced SSD component failures and includes discussions of modeling techniques for: Development of time-dependent fire heat release rate profiles (required as input to CFAST), Calculation of fire severity factors based on CFAST detailed fire modeling, and Calculation of fire non-suppression probabilities.

  12. Fire protection program evaluation of Argonne National Laboratory, West for the Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    A fire protection engineering survey was conducted of the Argonne National Laboratory, West Facility, near Idaho Falls, Idaho. This facility includes EBR-II, TREAT, ZPPR, and HFEF. The facility meets the improved risk criteria as set forth in DOE Order 5480.1, Chapter VII. Some recommendations are given

  13. Fire Safety. Managing School Facilities, Guide 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England). Architects and Building Branch.

    This booklet discusses how United Kingdom schools can manage fire safety and minimize the risk of fire. The guide examines what legislation school buildings must comply with and covers the major risks. It also describes training and evacuation procedures and provides guidance on fire precautions, alarm systems, fire fighting equipment, and escape…

  14. Fire protection at the Mochovce nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnarova, Zuzana; Zeman, Peter

    2009-01-01

    A succinct account is given of current situation in fire prevention at the Mochovce NPP and of past fire events. The fact is stressed that no fire ever occurred at any technological facility of the plant since the startup of the reactor units. Steps required to improve fire safety at a nuclear power plant are highlighted. (orig.)

  15. RCC-F: Design and construction rules for PWR fire protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The RCC-F code defines the rules for designing, building and installing the fire protection systems used to manage the nuclear hazards inherent in the outbreak of a fire inside the facility and thereby control the fundamental nuclear functions. The code provides fire protection recommendations in terms of: the industrial risk (loss of assets and/or operation), personnel safety, the environment. The code is divided into five main sections: generalities, design safety principles, fire protection design bases, construction provisions, rules for installing the fire protection components and equipment. The RCC-F code is available as an ETC-F version specifically for EPR projects (European pressurized reactor). Contents of the 2013 edition of the ETC-F code: Volume A - Generalities: Structure of ETC-F general points, documentation (in progress), chapter (provision) quality assurance; Volume B - Design safety principles: design nuclear safety principles; Volume C - Fire protection design bases: fire protection design bases; Volume D - Construction provisions: construction provisions; Volume E - Installation rules for fire protection: rules for installing the fire protection, components and equipment

  16. Fire-Protection Research for Energy-Technology Projects: FY 1981 year-end report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska-Quinn, A.E.; Beason, D.G.; Foote, K.L.; Priante, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted in fiscal year 1981 for the DOE-supported project, Fire Protection Research for Energy Technology Projects. Initiated in 1977, this ongoing research program was conceived to advance fire protection strategies for Energy Technology Projects to keep abreast of the unique fire problems that are developing with the complexity of energy technology research. We are developing an analytical methodology through detailed study of fusion energy experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Employing these facilities as models for methodology development, we are simultaneously advancing three major task areas: (1) determination of unique fire hazards of current fusion energy facilities; (2) evaluation of the ability of accepted fire management measures to meet and negate hazards; and (3) performance of unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire-growth and damage-assessment models

  17. Fire-Protection Research for Energy-Technology Projects: FY 1981 year-end report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska-Quinn, A.E.; Beason, D.G.; Foote, K.L.; Priante, S.J.

    1982-07-20

    This report summarizes research conducted in fiscal year 1981 for the DOE-supported project, Fire Protection Research for Energy Technology Projects. Initiated in 1977, this ongoing research program was conceived to advance fire protection strategies for Energy Technology Projects to keep abreast of the unique fire problems that are developing with the complexity of energy technology research. We are developing an analytical methodology through detailed study of fusion energy experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Employing these facilities as models for methodology development, we are simultaneously advancing three major task areas: (1) determination of unique fire hazards of current fusion energy facilities; (2) evaluation of the ability of accepted fire management measures to meet and negate hazards; and (3) performance of unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire-growth and damage-assessment models.

  18. Radiation protection in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piechowski, J.; Lochard, J.; Lefaure, Ch.; Schieber, C.; Schneider, Th; Lecomte, J.F.; Delmont, D.; Boitel, S.; Le Fauconnier, J.P.; Sugier, A; Zerbib, J.C.; Barbey, P.

    1998-01-01

    Close ties exist between nuclear safety and radiation protection. Nuclear safety is made up of all the arrangements taken to prevent accidents occurring in nuclear facilities, these accidents would certainly involved a radiological aspect. Radiation protection is made up of all the arrangements taken to evaluate and reduce the impact of radiation on workers or population in normal situations or in case of accident. In the fifties the management of radiological hazards was based on the quest for minimal or even zero risk. This formulation could lead to call some activities in question whereas the benefits for the whole society were evident. Now a new attitude more aware of the real risks and of no wasting resources prevails. This attitude is based on the ALARA principle whose purpose is to maintain the exposure to radiation as low as reasonably achievable taking into account social and economic concerns. This document regroups articles illustrating different aspects of the radiation protection in nuclear facilities such as a research center, a waste vitrification workshop and a nuclear power plant. The surveillance of radiological impacts of nuclear sites on environment is examined, a point is made about the pending epidemiologic studies concerning La Hague complex. (A.C.)

  19. Regulatory point of view on defense in depth approach to fire protection in nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinta-Filppula, Samu; Lehto, Matti; Vaelikangas, Pekka [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority STUK, Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-12-15

    The defense-in-depth (DiD) principle is a relatively new approach to fire protection design, even though DiD has been used in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety evaluation and design for decades (IAEA 75-INSAG-3, Rev. 1/INSAG-12). It is the main design criterion in fire protection in the latest edition of Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) issued guide YVL B.8 for the fire protection in nuclear facilities. The DiD approach to fire protection consists of four levels of defense: preventing the ignition of fires, detecting and extinguishing of ignited fires, preventing fire growth and spreading, confining the fire so that safety functions can be performed irrespective of the effects of the fire. The design of fire protection should take all these levels into account so that fire protection is well balanced and not dependent on a single fire protection factor or level of DiD. Despite being central to the design of fire protection, corresponding evaluations of DiD are done according to more or less unambiguous methods. The main goal of this study is to start the development of such, as much as possible, unambiguous systematic and logical method. First issue then is to build a picture of how fire safety features are executed on different levels of DiD and what is the corresponding safety importance to NPP. The Loviisa NPP was studied as an example case due to a long history of fire safety improvements since commissioning in 1977. The improvements are sorted qualitatively by their means of fire safety impact and level of DiD approach to fire protection and general plant DiD. The correspondence between the two DiD principles is an interesting issue which is discussed in this paper. Finally, Fire PRA is used to determine the safety importance of the improvements. The method proposed for the evaluation of DiD approach to fire protection is a combined ignition root cause analysis - event tree of fire scenario - consequential failure modes and effects analysis

  20. Contamination Impact of Station Brush Fire on Cleanroom Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Phil; Blakkolb, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Brush and forest fires, both naturally occurring and anthropogenic in origin, in proximity to space flight hardware processing facilities raise concerns about the threat of contamination resulting from airborne particulate and molecular components of smoke. Perceptions of the severity of the threat are possibly heightened by the high sensitivity of the human sense of smell to some components present in the smoke of burning vegetation.On August 26th, 2009, a brushfire broke out north of Pasadena, California, two miles from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The Station Fire destroyed over 160,000 acres, coming within a few hundred yards of JPL. Smoke concentrations on Lab were very heavy over several days. All Lab operations were halted, and measures were taken to protect personnel, critical hardware, and facilities. Evaluation of real-time cleanroom monitoring data, visualinspection of facilities, filter systems, and analysis of surface cleanliness samples revealed facility environments andhardware were minimally effected.Outside air quality easily exceeded Class Ten Million. Prefilters captured most large ash and soot; multi-stage filtration greatly minimized the impact on the HEPA/ULPA filters. Air quality in HEPA filtered spacecraft assembly cleanrooms remained within Class 10,000 specification throughout. Surface cleanliness was inimally affected, as large particles were effectively removed from the airstream, and sub-micron particles have extremely long settling rates. Approximate particulate fallout within facilities was 0.00011% area coverage/day compared to 0.00038% area coverage/day during normal operations. Deposition of condensable airborne components, as measured in real time, peaked at approximately1.0 ng/cm2/day compared to 0.05 ng/cm2/day nominal.

  1. Report on task I: fire protection system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, E.A.; Cano, G.L.

    1977-02-01

    This study (1) evaluates, on a comparative basis, the national and international regulatory and insurance standards that serve as guidance for fire protection within the nuclear power industry; (2) analyzes the recommendations contained in the major reports on the Browns Ferry Fire; (3) proposes quantitative safety goals and evaluation methods for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection Systems (NPPFPS); (4) identifies potential improvements that may be incorporated into NPPFPS; and (5) recommends a plan of action for continuation of the fire protections systems study

  2. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dioxide, or dry chemical. Combustible metal (Class D hazards) fires pose a different type of fire problem... control this type of fire. Therefore, certain metals have specific dry powder extinguishing agents which... use on certain metal fires provide the best protection; however, there are also some “universal” type...

  3. Development of a Smart Residential Fire Protection System

    OpenAIRE

    Juhwan Oh; Zhongwei Jiang; Henry Panganiban

    2013-01-01

    Embedded system is applied for the development of smart residential fire detection and extinguishing system. Wireless communication capability is integrated into various fire sensors and alarm devices. The system activates the fire alarm to warn occupants, executes emergency and rescue calls to remote residents and fire-fighting facility in an intelligent way. The effective location of extra-sprinklers within the space of interest for the fire extinguishing system is also investigated. Actual...

  4. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE... § 194.15-7 Fire protection. (a) If a fixed or semiportable fire-fighting system is installed, it shall...

  5. Basing of a complex design measures for protection against fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryuger, V.

    1983-01-01

    Fire impact on NPP radiation safety is analyzed. The general industry requirements to the protection system against fire are shown to be insufficient for NPPs. A complex of protection measures against fire is suggested that should be taken into account in the NPP designs [ru

  6. Particular features of fire protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, W.

    1985-01-01

    The particular features of fire protection in nuclear power plants that are connected with the need to ensure nuclear and radiation safety even during an emergency are outlined followed by the recommendation to lay them down in special fire protection standards. These, in conjunction with comprehensive fire hazard analyses, could serve to work out complex concepts for the fire protection of individual nuclear power plants. Such concepts would be very useful for review and assessment of the fire protection design during the licensing process and for later inspections. (author)

  7. Applications of Living Fire PRA models to Fire Protection Significance Determination Process in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De-Cheng, Chen; Chung-Kung, Lo; Tsu-Jen, Lin; Ching-Hui, Wu; Lin, James C.

    2004-01-01

    The living fire probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) models for all three operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) in Taiwan had been established in December 2000. In that study, a scenario-based PRA approach was adopted to systematically evaluate the fire and smoke hazards and associated risks. Using these fire PRA models developed, a risk-informed application project had also been completed in December 2002 for the evaluation of cable-tray fire-barrier wrapping exemption. This paper presents a new application of the fire PRA models to fire protection issues using the fire protection significance determination process (FP SDP). The fire protection issues studied may involve the selection of appropriate compensatory measures during the period when an automatic fire detection or suppression system in a safety-related fire zone becomes inoperable. The compensatory measure can either be a 24-hour fire watch or an hourly fire patrol. The living fire PRA models were used to estimate the increase in risk associated with the fire protection issue in terms of changes in core damage frequency (CDF) and large early release frequency (LERF). In compliance with SDP at-power and the acceptance guidelines specified in RG 1.174, the fire protection issues in question can be grouped into four categories; red, yellow, white and green, in accordance with the guidelines developed for FD SDP. A 24-hour fire watch is suggested only required for the yellow condition, while an hourly fire patrol may be adopted for the white condition. More limiting requirement is suggested for the red condition, but no special consideration is needed for the green condition. For the calculation of risk measures, risk impacts from any additional fire scenarios that may have been introduced, as well as more severe initiating events and fire damages that may accompany the fire protection issue should be considered carefully. Examples are presented in this paper to illustrate the evaluation process. (authors)

  8. Chemical Solutions of Fire Protection Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakhitova, L.M.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The modern approaches to the creation of fire protective coatings by modifying intumescent systems by nanomaterials with study of the chemical reaction mechanisms under the high temperatures influence were considered. A systematic study of the interactions of components of polyphosphate type intumescent blend were carried out, a well-defined correlations between the directions of chemical processes and fire retardant properties of intumescent coatings were found. Efficient ways to simultaneous increase of fireprotective efficiency and performance characteristics of intumescent coatings (operatin life, resistance to environmental factors and bioсontamination were proposed. The results of fundamental research allowed to develop new formulations of flame retardant compositions, whose properties have been confirmed by tests in accordance with existing standardized methods, these results were introduced into production.

  9. Engineering judgement and bridging the fire safety gap in existing nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qamheiah, G.; Wu, Y., E-mail: gqamheiah@plcfire.com, E-mail: dwu@plcfire.com [PLC Fire Safety Solutions, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Canadian nuclear power plants were constructed in the 1960's through the 1980's. Fire safety considerations were largely based on guidance from general building and fire codes in effect at the time. Since then, nuclear specific fire safety standards have been developed and adopted by the Regulator, increasing the expected level of fire safety in the process. Application of the standards to existing plants was largely limited to operational requirements viewed as retroactive. However, as existing facilities undergo modifications or refurbishment for the purpose of life extension, the expectation is that the design requirements of these fire safety standards also be satisfied. This creates considerable challenges for existing nuclear power plants as fire safety requirements such as those intended to assure means for safe egress, prevention of fire spread and protection of redundancy rely upon fire protection features that are inherent in the physical infrastructural design. This paper focuses on the methodology for conducting fire safety gap analyses on existing plants, and the integral role that engineering judgement plays in the development of viable and cost effective solutions to achieve the objectives of the current fire safety standards. (author)

  10. International guidelines for fire protection at nuclear installations including nuclear fuel plants, nuclear fuel stores, teaching reactors, research establishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guidelines are recommended to designers, constructors, operators and insurers of nuclear fuel plants and other facilities using significant quantities of radioactive materials including research and teaching reactor installations where the reactors generally operate at less than approximately 10 MW(th). Recommendations for elementary precautions against fire risk at nuclear installations are followed by appendices on more specific topics. These cover: fire protection management and organization; precautions against loss during construction alterations and maintenance; basic fire protection for nuclear fuel plants; storage and nuclear fuel; and basic fire protection for research and training establishments. There are numerous illustrations of facilities referred to in the text. (U.K.)

  11. Safety design guides for fire protection for CANDU 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Duk Su; Chang, Woo Hyun; Lee, Nam Young; A. C. D. Wright

    1996-03-01

    This safety design guide establishes design requirements to ensure the radiological risk to the public due to fire is acceptable and operating personnel are adequately protected from the hazards of fires. This safety design guide also specifies the safety criteria for fire protection to be applied to mitigate fires and recommends the fire protection program to be established to initiate, coordinate and document the design activities associated with fire protection. The requirements for fire protection outlined in this safety design guide shall be satisfied in the design stage and the change status of the regulatory requirements, code and standards should be traced and incorporated into this safety design guide accordingly. 1 fig., (Author) .new

  12. Intelligent buildings, automatic fire alarm and fire-protection control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Deyuan

    1999-01-01

    The author describes in brief the intelligent buildings, and the automatic fire alarm and fire-protection control system. On the basis of the four-bus, three-bus and two-bus, a new transfer technique was developed

  13. Design criteria document, Fire Protection Task, K Basin Essential Systems Recovery, Project W-405

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.H.

    1994-01-01

    The K Basin were constructed in the early 1950's with a 20 year design life. The K Basins are currently in their third design life and are serving as a near term storage facility for irradiated N Reactor fuel until an interim fuel storage solution can be implemented. In April 1994, Project W-405, K Basin Essential Systems Recovery, was established to address (among other things) the immediate fire protection needs of the 100K Area. A Fire Barrier Evaluation was performed for the wall between the active and inactive areas of the 105KE and 105KW buildings. This evaluation concludes that the wall is capable of being upgraded to provide an equivalent level of fire resistance as a qualified barrier having a fire resistance rating of 2 hours. The Fire Protection Task is one of four separate Tasks included within the scope of Project W405, K Basin Essential systems Recovery. The other three Tasks are the Water Distribution System Task, the Electrical System Task, and the Maintenance Shop/Support Facility Task. The purpose of Project W-405's Fire Protection Task is to correct Life Safety Code (NFPA 101) non-compliances and to provide fire protection features in Buildings 105KE, 105KW and 190KE that are essential for assuring the safe operation and storage of spent nuclear fuel at the 100K Area Facilities' Irradiated Fuel Storage Basins (K Basins)

  14. Fire fighting at Chernobyl and fire protection at UK nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindon, F.J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The fire fighting measures undertaken by the fire crews at the Chernobyl reactor accident are described. This information highlights the need to develop engineering equipment which will give a far greater degree of personnel protection to fire crews and others in radiological accidents. The British position on fire protection at nuclear power stations is outlined. The general levels of radiation exposure which would be used as a guide to persons in the vicinity of a radiation accident are also given. (UK)

  15. EFFICIENCY OF FIRE-FIGHTING PROTECTION OBJECTS IN PROVISION OF FIRE SAFETY AT INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Zhovna

    2008-01-01

    The paper gives an analysis of economic results pertaining to organization of a system for fire-fighting protection of industrial enterprises in theRepublicofBelarus. Statistical data on operational conditions of technical means of fire-fighting protection, particularly, automatic systems for detection and extinguishing of fires, systems of internal fire-fighting water-supply.  Requirements and provisions  of normative and technical documents are thoroughly studied. Observance of these docume...

  16. Protection of Facilities and Risk Assessment Application

    OpenAIRE

    Nađ, Ivan; Mihaljević, Branko; Mihalinčić, Martina

    2014-01-01

    The state of security on a specific area imposes the necessity for constant analysis of the existing system of protection of key state facilities, especially facilities of special significance for the defence. The facilities of special significance for the defence are an important part of the daily life, and enable smooth functioning of the economy and all other state activities. The protection of facilities of special significance for the defence is considered to be a system of obligatory me...

  17. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE... Fire protection. (a) Each chemical storeroom shall be protected by a fixed automatic carbon dioxide...

  18. 46 CFR 153.460 - Fire protection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection systems. 153.460 Section 153.460... Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.460 Fire protection systems. Each self-propelled ship... protection system listed beside the cargo in Table 1 and described in the footnotes to Table 1. (b) The...

  19. Modern tools to evaluate and optimize fire protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, N.J.; Hasegawa, H.K.

    1980-01-01

    Modern techniques, such as fault tree analysis, can be used to obtain engineering descriptions of specific fire protection systems. The analysis allows establishment of an optimum level of fire protection, and evaluates the level of protection provided by various systems. A prime example: the application to fusion energy experiments

  20. 105-DR large sodium fire facility closure Plan. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruck, F.A. III.

    1995-03-01

    The 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF), which was operated 1972-1986, was a research laboratory that occupied the former ventilation supply room on the SW side of the 105-DR Reactor Facility. (The 105-DR defense reactor was shut down in 1964.) LSFF was used to investigate fire and safety aspects of large sodium or other metal alkali fires in the LMFBR facilities; it was also used to store and treat alkali metal waste. This closure plan presents a description of the unit, the history of the waste managed, and the procedures that will be followed to close the LSFF as an Alkali Metal Treatment Facility. No future use of LSFF is expected. It is located within the 100-DR-2 (source) and 100-HR-3 (groundwater) operable units, which will be addressed through the RCRA facility investigation/corrective measures study process

  1. Fire and earthquake counter measures in radiation handling facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    'Fire countermeasures in radiation handling facilities' published in 1961 is still widely utilized as a valuable guideline for those handling radiation through the revision in 1972. However, science and technology rapidly advanced, and the relevant laws were revised after the publication, and many points which do not conform to the present state have become to be found. Therefore, it was decided to rewrite this book, and the new book has been completed. The title was changed to 'Fire and earthquake countermeasures in radiation handling facilities', and the countermeasures to earthquakes were added. Moreover, consideration was given so that the book is sufficiently useful also for those concerned with fire fighting, not only for those handling radiation. In this book, the way of thinking about the countermeasures against fires and earthquakes, the countermeasures in normal state and when a fire or an earthquake occurred, the countermeasures when the warning declaration has been announced, and the data on fires, earthquakes, the risk of radioisotopes, fire fighting equipment, the earthquake counter measures for equipment, protectors and radiation measuring instruments, first aid, the example of emergency system in radiation handling facilities, the activities of fire fighters, the example of accidents and so on are described. (Kako, I.)

  2. Factors Controlling Vegetation Fires in Protected and Non-Protected Areas of Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sumalika; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Lwin, Zin Mar; Lasko, Kristofer; Justice, Christopher O.

    2015-01-01

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in Myanmar impacting several ecosystems. In this study, we quantify the factors impacting vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of Myanmar. Satellite datasets in conjunction with biophysical and anthropogenic factors were used in a spatial framework to map the causative factors of fires. Specifically, we used the frequency ratio method to assess the contribution of each causative factor to overall fire susceptibility at a 1km scale. Results suggested the mean fire density in non-protected areas was two times higher than the protected areas. Fire-land cover partition analysis suggested dominant fire occurrences in the savannas (protected areas) and woody savannas (non-protected areas). The five major fire causative factors in protected areas in descending order include population density, land cover, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city and temperature. In contrast, the causative factors in non-protected areas were population density, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city, temperature and elevation. The fire susceptibility analysis showed distinct spatial patterns with central Myanmar as a hot spot of vegetation fires. Results from propensity score matching suggested that forests within protected areas have 11% less fires than non-protected areas. Overall, our results identify important causative factors of fire useful to address broad scale fire risk concerns at a landscape scale in Myanmar. PMID:25909632

  3. Factors controlling vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of myanmar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumalika Biswas

    Full Text Available Fire is an important disturbance agent in Myanmar impacting several ecosystems. In this study, we quantify the factors impacting vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of Myanmar. Satellite datasets in conjunction with biophysical and anthropogenic factors were used in a spatial framework to map the causative factors of fires. Specifically, we used the frequency ratio method to assess the contribution of each causative factor to overall fire susceptibility at a 1km scale. Results suggested the mean fire density in non-protected areas was two times higher than the protected areas. Fire-land cover partition analysis suggested dominant fire occurrences in the savannas (protected areas and woody savannas (non-protected areas. The five major fire causative factors in protected areas in descending order include population density, land cover, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city and temperature. In contrast, the causative factors in non-protected areas were population density, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city, temperature and elevation. The fire susceptibility analysis showed distinct spatial patterns with central Myanmar as a hot spot of vegetation fires. Results from propensity score matching suggested that forests within protected areas have 11% less fires than non-protected areas. Overall, our results identify important causative factors of fire useful to address broad scale fire risk concerns at a landscape scale in Myanmar.

  4. Factors controlling vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sumalika; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Lwin, Zin Mar; Lasko, Kristofer; Justice, Christopher O

    2015-01-01

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in Myanmar impacting several ecosystems. In this study, we quantify the factors impacting vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of Myanmar. Satellite datasets in conjunction with biophysical and anthropogenic factors were used in a spatial framework to map the causative factors of fires. Specifically, we used the frequency ratio method to assess the contribution of each causative factor to overall fire susceptibility at a 1km scale. Results suggested the mean fire density in non-protected areas was two times higher than the protected areas. Fire-land cover partition analysis suggested dominant fire occurrences in the savannas (protected areas) and woody savannas (non-protected areas). The five major fire causative factors in protected areas in descending order include population density, land cover, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city and temperature. In contrast, the causative factors in non-protected areas were population density, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city, temperature and elevation. The fire susceptibility analysis showed distinct spatial patterns with central Myanmar as a hot spot of vegetation fires. Results from propensity score matching suggested that forests within protected areas have 11% less fires than non-protected areas. Overall, our results identify important causative factors of fire useful to address broad scale fire risk concerns at a landscape scale in Myanmar.

  5. Fire protection maintenance at Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes two approaches to staffing and organizing a fire protection maintenance group. Both have been used at Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant. One takes traditional craft functions and relocates them from the plant maintenance department to the fire protection section. The other expands the role to include response to fire, medical, and hazardous material emergencies. Both approaches remove the fire protection supervisor from a purely staff role, and involve him/her in direct-line management functions. This results in improved technical direction to the craftsmen, improved quality of the work performed, and improved craft morale. It also assures the fire protection supervisor of much more detailed knowledge of the overall status of the fire protection systems

  6. Fires: what plant locations should we really protect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    A fire protection analysis technique was developed from earlier work involving the protection of nuclear power plants against acts of sabotage. Characteristics unique to fire phenomena were used to modify the sabotage analysis methodology. These characteristics include the effects of fuel loads, ventilation rates, heat loss areas, barrier ratings, and plant locations. The new fire analysis technique was applied to an example nuclear power plant having 85 different plant areas. It was found that some safety and nonsafety areas were both highly vulnerable to fire spread and important to overall safety, while other areas were found to be of marginal importance to fire safety

  7. Planning for fire control and protection of personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rule, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    Because nuclear installations are designed and built to high standards with segregation and fire barriers included, the risk from fires is not high. However, small fires can become large and nuclear sites present additional hazards to fire fighters because of radiation release and from metal fires (magnesium alloys and sodium) which require special techniques of firefighting. All sites have their own fire fighting force which would tackle a fire initially and these should train and work in close cooperation with the Local Authority fire service. The main points raised concern radiation protection for the fire fighters including the issuing of emergency dosemeters and potassium iodate tablets, decontamination of personnel, vehicles and equipment, communications, and the need for standardisation of plans at all installations throughout the country. (U.K.)

  8. Perspective methods of fire and explosion protection of 'Ukrytie' object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhmatov, V.D.; Potikha, V.M.; Shkarabura, N.G.

    1999-01-01

    There are 5 atomic power stations in Ukraine-Chernobyl, Zaporozhe, Rivne, Khmelnytsk, Yuzhnoukrainsk. Fire statistics on them: 1993 - 5 fires, 1994 - 2, 1995 - 2, 1996 - 3, 1997-98 no fires. The most valuable unique experience, accumulated in Ukraine, -is extinguishing of different fires, arising in the radioactive zone. There were the following kinds of fires: burning roof of the 4-th bloc; forest fires; fires in cable tunnels; spilled oil in wrecked constructions and buildings. Professional impulse fire-extinguisher is one of the most perspective developments. These fire-extinguishers have high power, range and scale of action. They are universal: able to solve different tasks in extinguishing, to decontaminate, for group and individual light and heat protection, for preventing explosions of dust and gas of up to 50 m 3 volume and in the open space

  9. CFES--California Fire Economics Simulator: A Computerized System for Wildland Fire Protection Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy S. Fried; J. Keith Gilless; Robert E. Martin

    1987-01-01

    The University of California's Department of Forestry and Resource Management, under contract with the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection, has developed and released the first version of the California Fire Economics Simulator (CFES). The current release is adapted from the Initial Action Assessment component of the USFS's National Fire...

  10. Fire protection guidelines for nuclear power plants, June 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Guidelines acceptable to the NRC staff for implementing in the development of a fire protection program for nuclear power plants. The purpose of the fire protection program is to ensure the capability to shut down the reactor and maintain it in a safe shutdown condition and to minimize radioactive releases to the environment in the event of a fire. If designs or methods different from the guidelines presented herein are used, they must provide fire protection comparable to that recommended in the guidelines. Suitable bases and justification should be provided for alternative approaches to establish acceptable implementation of General Design Criterion 3

  11. 14 CFR 25.854 - Lavatory fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.854 Lavatory fire protection. For airplanes with a passenger capacity of 20 or more: (a) Each lavatory must be... disposal receptacle for towels, paper, or waste, located within the lavatory. The extinguisher must be...

  12. Fire protection research for energy technology projects; FY 79 year-end report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska, A.E.; Ford, H.; Beason, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes work performed in fiscal year 1979, on a DOE funded study entitled Fire Protection Research for Energy Technology Projects. The primary goal of this program is to ensure that fire protection measures for Fusion Energy Experiments (FEE) evolve concurrently with the complexity of FEE. Ultimately, it is planned that the detailed study of fusion experiments will provide an analytical methodology which can be applied to the full range of energy technology projects. We attempt to achieve this objective by coordinately advancing 3 (three) major task areas; (a) determine the fire hazards of current FEE facilities (b) assess the ability of accepted fire management strategies to meet and negate the hazard, (c) perform unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire growth and damage assessment models

  13. Rules for preventing chemical risks: fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    The Fundamental Safety Rules applicable to certain types of nuclear installation are intended to clarify the conditions of which observance, for the type of installation concerned and for the subject that they deal with, is considered as equivalent to compliance with regulatory French technical practice. These Rules should facilitate safety analysises and the clear understanding between persons interested in matters related to nuclear safety. They in no way reduce the operator's liability and pose no obstacle to statutory provisions in force. For any installation to which a Fundamental Safety Rule applies according to the foregoing paragraph, the operator may be relieved from application of the Rule if he shows proof that the safety objectives set by the Rule are attained by other means that he proposes within the framework of statutory procedures. Furthermore, the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations reserves the right at all times to alter any Fundamental Safety Rule, as required, should it deem, this necessary, while specifying the applicability conditions. The present rule defines the dispositions to take in account for avoid fire hazards in nuclear facilities (Power reactors and accelerators are excluded) [fr

  14. Course in fire protection training for nuclear power plant personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, K.L.; Bates, E.F.; Randall, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    Proposed Regulatory Guide 1.120, entitled ''Fire Protection Guidelines for Nuclear Power Plants,'' provides detailed requirements for the overall fire protection programs at nuclear power plant sites in the United States. An essential element in such a program in the training of plant fire brigade personnel is the use of proper firefighting techniques and equipment. The Texas A and M University Nuclear Science Center (NSC) in conjunction with the Fire Protection Training Division of the Texas Engineering Extension Service has developed a one-week course to meet this training need. The program emphasizes hands-on exercises. The course is designed for up to 18 students with all protective clothing provided. Fire instructors are certified by the State of Texas, and registered nuclear engineers and certified health physicists supervise the radiological safety exercises. The first course was conducted during the week of January 8--12, 1979

  15. Fire protection system management in nuclear facilities: strengthening factor of integrated management system - a case study; Gestao de sistema de protecao contra incendio em instalacoes nucleares: fator de fortalecimento do sistema de gestao integrada - um estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Joao Regis dos

    2005-07-01

    The present study investigated and analyzed the importance of a system of integrated safety manage, environment and health in a nuclear installation, having as perspective, the fire protection manage. The inquiry was made using a qualitative research involving a case study, where the considered environment was the Reconversion and UO{sub 2} Plant of the Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), located in Resende, Rio de Janeiro and the studied population, the managers and the staff directly involved with the aspects related to the safety of the industrial complex of the related company. The motivation for the research was the search of a bigger interaction of the questions related to the safety, environment and health in the nuclear industry having, as axle of the investigation, the fire protection. As a result, it was observed that in a nuclear installation, although dealing with diversified safety processes, integration is possible and necessary, since there are more reasons for integration than otherwise. (author)

  16. EFFICIENCY OF FIRE-FIGHTING PROTECTION OBJECTS IN PROVISION OF FIRE SAFETY AT INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zhovna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an analysis of economic results pertaining to organization of a system for fire-fighting protection of industrial enterprises in theRepublicofBelarus. Statistical data on operational conditions of technical means of fire-fighting protection, particularly, automatic systems for detection and extinguishing of fires, systems of internal fire-fighting water-supply.  Requirements and provisions  of normative and technical documents are thoroughly studied. Observance of these documents is to ensure the required level of  fire safety. On the basis of the obtained results concerning  economic analysis of efficiency optimization directions are defined for selection of technical means of fire-fighting protection at objects of industrial purpose.

  17. FIRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brtis, J.S.; Hausheer, T.G.

    1990-01-01

    FIRE, a microcomputer based program to assist engineers in reviewing and documenting the fire protection impact of design changes has been developed. Acting as an electronic consultant, FIRE is designed to work with an experienced nuclear system engineer, who may not have any detailed fire protection expertise. FIRE helps the engineer to decide if a modification might adversely affect the fire protection design of the station. Since its first development, FIRE has been customized to reflect the fire protection philosophy of the Commonwealth Edison Company. That program is in early production use. This paper discusses the FIRE program in light of its being a useful application of expert system technologies in the power industry

  18. Nuclear power plant fire protection: fire detection (subsystems study Task 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, D.L.

    1977-12-01

    This report examines the adequacy of fire detection in the context of nuclear power plant safety. Topics considered are: (1) establishing area detection requirements, (2) selecting specific detector types, (3) locating and spacing detectors, and (4) performing installation tests and maintenance. Based on a thorough review of fire detection codes and standards and fire detection literature, the report concludes that current design and regulatory guidelines alone are insufficient to ensure satisfactory fire detection system performance. To assure adequate fire detection, this report recommends the use of in-place testing of detectors under conditions expected to occur normally in areas being protected

  19. 29 CFR 1915.507 - Land-side fire protection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standard for employee safety or employee protection from fire hazards in land-side facilities, including... remains hazardous to employee safety or health, or provide safeguards to prevent employees from entering... hazardous to employee safety or health; and (6) Select, install, inspect, maintain, and test all automatic...

  20. Still a hot issue. US fire protection 20 years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathaway, L.R.

    1995-01-01

    Current fire protection concerns in the US nuclear industry are reviewed. Twenty years ago, a fire at the Brown's Ferry nuclear plant triggered a vigorous programme of regulation by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and a still active response by power plant operators in seeking protection measures to meet the NRC criteria. The largest fire protection issue facing the industry concerns Thermo-Lag, a product formed from resins, subliming materials and fibreglass. This fire resistant wrap was installed in about 75 plants to provide a barrier between safety related cable systems. The Brown's Ferry fire has re-emphasised the importance of the separation criteria between redundant safety systems. Since 1989, however, there have been doubts about the adequacy of Thermo-Lag barriers and a major testing and analysis project addressing the problem is currently being sponsored by six utilities. Other regulatory- related issues facing the industry are the recently proposed defence-in-depth fire protection methodology, and for the future, fire protection strategies to cover shutdown, turbine generators and penetration seals through fire barriers. (UK)

  1. Fire protection in Angra-2 nuclear power plant. The use of fire protection collars on plastic piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Segabinaze, R. de

    1994-01-01

    The object of this paper is to briefly the use of fire protection collars on plastic piping systems passing through wall and floor penetration. The fire protection collars consist of a stainless steel housing, in which the leading edges of two pivoting plates are in constant pressure contact with the pipe. In case of fire these plates react on the softened pipe with a guillotine action, thereby stopping the flow; within the housing a foam material expands to fill the space when subject to the heat of the fire. The piping project has to be modified to permit the fixing of the collars to walls and floor penetrations. (author). 2 refs, 9 figs

  2. Safety guide on fire protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the Safety Guide is to give specific design and operational guidance for protection from fire and explosion in nuclear power plants, based on the general guidance given in the relevant sections of the 'Safety Code of Practice - Design' and the 'Safety Code of Practice - Operation' of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The guide will confine itself to fire protection of safety systems and items important to safety, leaving the non-safety matters of fire protection in nuclear power plants to be decided upon the basis of the various available national and international practices and regulations. (HP) [de

  3. Fire hazards analysis for W-413, West Area Tank Farm Storage and Staging Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckfeldt, R.A.; Lott, D.T.

    1994-01-01

    In accordance with DOE Order 5480.7A, a Fire Hazards Analysis must be performed for all new facilities. The purpose of the analysis is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas in relation to proposed fire protection so as to ascertain whether the fire protection objectives of the Order are met. The Order acknowledges a graded approach commensurate with the hazards involved. Tank Farms Operations must sore/stage material and equipment such as pipes, fittings, conduit, instrumentation and others related items until work packages are ready to work. Consumable materials, such as nut, bolts and welding rod, are also requires to be stored for routine and emergency work. Connex boxes and open storage is currently used for much of the storage because of the limited space at and 272WA. Safety issues based on poor housekeeping and material deteriorating due to weather damage has resulted from this inadequate storage space. It has been determined that a storage building in close proximity to the Tank Farm work force would be cost effective. This facility is classified as a safety class 4 building

  4. Fire-protection research for energy technology: Fy 80 year end report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, H. K.; Alvares, N. J.; Lipska, A. E.; Ford, H.; Priante, S.; Beason, D. G.

    1981-05-01

    This continuing research program was initiated in order to advance fire protection strategies for Fusion Energy Experiments (FEE). The program expanded to encompass other forms of energy research. Accomplishments for fiscal year 1980 were: finalization of the fault-free analysis of the Shiva fire management system; development of a second-generation, fire-growth analysis using an alternate model and new LLNL combustion dynamics data; improvements of techniques for chemical smoke aerosol analysis; development and test of a simple method to assess the corrosive potential of smoke aerosols; development of an initial aerosol dilution system; completion of primary small-scale tests for measurements of the dynamics of cable fires; finalization of primary survey format for non-LLNL energy technology facilities; and studies of fire dynamics and aerosol production from electrical insulation and computer tape cassettes.

  5. Fire-protection research for energy technology: FY 80 year-end report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska, A.E.; Ford, H.; Priante, S.; Beason, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    This continuing research program was initiated in 1977 in order to advance fire protection strategies for Fusion Energy Experiments (FEE). The program has since been expanded to encompass other forms of energy research. Accomplishments for fiscal year 1980 were: finalization of the fault-tree analysis of the Shiva fire management system; development of a second-generation, fire-growth analysis using an alternate moel and new LLNL combustion dynamics data; improvements of techniques for chemical smoke aerosol analysis; development and test of a simple method to assess the corrosive potential of smoke aerosols; development of an initial aerosol dilution system; completion of primary small-scale tests for measurements of the dynamics of cable fires; finalization of primary survey format for non-LLNL energy technology facilities; and studies of fire dynamics and aerosol production from electrical insulation and computer tape cassettes

  6. Reserves protect against deforestation fires in the Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Marion Adeney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether some reserve types are more effective than others. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Previous work has shown that most Amazonian fires occur close to roads and are more frequent in El Niño years. We quantified these relationships for reserves and unprotected areas by examining satellite-detected hot pixels regressed against road distance across the entire Brazilian Amazon and for a decade with 2 El Niño-related droughts. Deforestation fires, as measured by hot pixels, declined exponentially with increasing distance from roads in all areas. Fewer deforestation fires occurred within protected areas than outside and the difference between protected and unprotected areas was greatest near roads. Thus, reserves were especially effective at preventing these fires where they are known to be most likely to burn; but they did not provide absolute protection. Even within reserves, at a given distance from roads, there were more deforestation fires in regions with high human impact than in those with low impact. The effect of El Niño on deforestation fires was greatest outside of reserves and near roads. Indigenous reserves, limited-use reserves, and fully protected reserves all had fewer fires than outside areas and did not appear to differ in their effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taking time, regional factors, and climate into account, our results show that reserves are an effective tool for curbing destructive burning in the Amazon.

  7. Reserves Protect against Deforestation Fires in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeney, J. Marion; Christensen, Norman L.; Pimm, Stuart L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether some reserve types are more effective than others. Methodology/Principal Findings Previous work has shown that most Amazonian fires occur close to roads and are more frequent in El Niño years. We quantified these relationships for reserves and unprotected areas by examining satellite-detected hot pixels regressed against road distance across the entire Brazilian Amazon and for a decade with 2 El Niño-related droughts. Deforestation fires, as measured by hot pixels, declined exponentially with increasing distance from roads in all areas. Fewer deforestation fires occurred within protected areas than outside and the difference between protected and unprotected areas was greatest near roads. Thus, reserves were especially effective at preventing these fires where they are known to be most likely to burn; but they did not provide absolute protection. Even within reserves, at a given distance from roads, there were more deforestation fires in regions with high human impact than in those with low impact. The effect of El Niño on deforestation fires was greatest outside of reserves and near roads. Indigenous reserves, limited-use reserves, and fully protected reserves all had fewer fires than outside areas and did not appear to differ in their effectiveness. Conclusions/Significance Taking time, regional factors, and climate into account, our results show that reserves are an effective tool for curbing destructive burning in the Amazon. PMID:19352423

  8. Radiation protection at nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, K.; Momose, T.; Furuta, S.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation protection methodologies concerning individual monitoring, workplace monitoring and environmental monitoring in nuclear fuel facilities have been developed and applied to facilities in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories (NCL) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) for over 40 y. External exposure to photon, beta ray and neutron and internal exposure to alpha emitter are important issues for radiation protection at these facilities. Monitoring of airborne and surface contamination by alpha and beta/photon emitters at workplace is also essential to avoid internal exposure. A critical accident alarm system developed by JAEA has been proved through application at the facilities for a long time. A centralised area monitoring system is effective for emergency situations. Air and liquid effluents from facilities are monitored by continuous monitors or sampling methods to comply with regulations. Effluent monitoring has been carried out for 40 y to assess the radiological impacts on the public and the environment due to plant operation. (authors)

  9. Wildland Fire Research: Water Supply and Ecosystem Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research is critical to better understand how fires affect water quality and supply and the overall health of an ecosystem. This information can be used to protect the safety of drinking water and assess the vulnerability of water supplies.

  10. Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, A.

    1985-07-01

    The goal is to develop test data and analytical capabilities to support the evaluation of: (1) the contribution of fires to the risk from nuclear power plants; (2) the effects of fires on control room equipment and operations; and (3) the effects of actuation of fire suppression systems on safety equipment. A range of fire sources will be characterized with respect to their energy and mass evolution, including smoke, corrosion products, and electrically conductive products of combustion. An analytical method for determining the environment resulting from fire will be developed. This method will account for the source characteristics, the suppression action following detection of the fire, and certain parameters specific to the plant enclosure in which the fire originates, such as the geometry of the enclosure and the ventilation rate. The developing local environment in the vicinity of safety-related equipment will be expressed in terms of temperatures, temperature rise rates, heat fluxes, and moisture and certain species content. The response of certain safe shutdown equipment and components to the environmental conditions will be studied. The objective will be to determine the limits of environmental conditions that a component may be exposed to without impairment of its ability to function

  11. 78 FR 55765 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft..., ``Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE).'' In... caused by impaired fire protection features at nuclear power plants. The report documents the history of...

  12. 78 FR 45573 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of... Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE), Draft Report for Comment.'' DATES: Comments on this... caused by impaired fire protection features at nuclear power plants. The report documents the history of...

  13. 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Site, located northwest of the city of Richland, Washington, houses reactors, chemical-separation systems, and related facilities used for the production of special nuclear materials, and activities associated with nuclear energy development. The 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF), which was in operation from about 1972 to 1986, was a research laboratory that occupied the former ventilation supply room on the southwest side of the 105-DR Reactor facility. The LSFF was established to provide a means of investigating fire and safety aspects associated with large sodium or other metal alkali fires in the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) facilities. The 105-DR Reactor facility was designed and built in the 1950's and is located in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site. The building housed the 105-DR defense reactor, which was shut down in 1964. The LSFF was initially used only for engineering-scale alkali metal reaction studies. In addition, the Fusion Safety Support Studies program sponsored intermediate-size safety reaction tests in the LSFF with lithium and lithium lead compounds. The facility has also been used to store and treat alkali metal waste, therefore the LSFF is subject to the regulatory requirements for the storage and treatment of dangerous waste. Closure will be conducted pursuant to the requirements of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610. This closure plan presents a description of the facility, the history of waste managed, and the procedures that will be followed to close the LSFF as an Alkali Metal Treatment Facility. No future use of the LSFF is expected

  14. 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility closure plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Site, located northwest of the city of Richland, Washington, houses reactors, chemical-separation systems, and related facilities used for the production of special nuclear materials, and activities associated with nuclear energy development. The 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF), which was in operation from about 1972 to 1986, was a research laboratory that occupied the former ventilation supply room on the southwest side of the 105-DR Reactor facility. The LSFF was established to provide a means of investigating fire and safety aspects associated with large sodium or other metal alkali fires in the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) facilities. The 105-DR Reactor facility was designed and built in the 1950`s and is located in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site. The building housed the 105-DR defense reactor, which was shut down in 1964. The LSFF was initially used only for engineering-scale alkali metal reaction studies. In addition, the Fusion Safety Support Studies program sponsored intermediate-size safety reaction tests in the LSFF with lithium and lithium lead compounds. The facility has also been used to store and treat alkali metal waste, therefore the LSFF is subject to the regulatory requirements for the storage and treatment of dangerous waste. Closure will be conducted pursuant to the requirements of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610. This closure plan presents a description of the facility, the history of waste managed, and the procedures that will be followed to close the LSFF as an Alkali Metal Treatment Facility. No future use of the LSFF is expected.

  15. Diesel generator fire protection: getting the balance right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzmann, Hans; Swiss Reinsurance Co., Zurich)

    1986-01-01

    A wide range of different approaches to the fire protection of diesel generators can be found in nuclear power plants around the world. In some cases there is too little protection. In others there is far too much, such that fire prevention has been overemphasised at the expense of diesel generator operability and overall nuclear safety. A risk assessment check list developed in Switzerland could help to achieve the right balance. (author)

  16. Influence of safeguards and fire protection on criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    There are several positive influences of safeguards and fire protection on criticality safety. Experts in each discipline must be aware of regulations and requirements of the others and work together to ensure a fault-tree design. EG and G Idaho, Inc., routinely uses an Occupancy-Use Readiness Manual to consider all aspects of criticality safety, fire protection, and safeguards. The use of the analytical tree is described

  17. The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI summarizes the results of a multi-task research and development project directed toward the development of the technology for the commercialization of the steam bottoming plant for the MHD steam combined cycle power plant. The report covers the final test in a 2000-hour proof-of-concept (POC) test series on eastern coal, the plans and progress for the facility modifications and the conduct of the POC tests to be conducted with western coal. Results summarized in the report include chloride emissions from the particle removal (ESP/BH) processes, nitrogen and sulfur oxide emissions for various tests conditions, measurements of particulate control efficiency and management of the facility holding ponds during testing. Activities relating to corrosion and deposition probe measurements during testing and the fouling of heat transfer tubes and interaction with sootblowing cycles are summarized. The performance of both UTSI and Mississippi State University (MSU) advanced diagnostic systems is reported. Significant administrative and contractual actions are included. 2 refs., 28 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Fire protection in nuclear power plants. Pt. 3. Fire protection for mechanical and electrotechnical equipment and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The KTA rule applies to LWRs and defines requirements to be met for fire protection of equipment and installations of the safety system, and all safety-relevant systems, and of those operating systems that under the effect of fire, may cause improper functioning of safety system components. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Integrated approach to fire safety at the Krsko nuclear power plant - fire protection action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, J.A.; Cerjak, J.; Spiler, J.; Ioannidi, J.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (NPP Krsko) is a Westinghouse design, single-unit, 1882 Megawatt thermal (MWt), two-loop, pressurized water nuclear power plant. The fire protection program at NPP Krsko has been reviewed and reports issued recommending changes and modifications to the program, plant systems and structures. Three reports were issued, the NPP Krsko Fire Hazard Analysis (Safe Shout down Separation Analysis Report), the ICISA Analysis of Core Damage Frequency Due to Fire at the NPP Krsko and IPEEE (Individual Plant External Event Examination) related to fire risk. The Fire Hazard Analysis Report utilizes a compliance - based deterministic approach to identification of fire area hazards. This report focuses on strict compliance from the perspective of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), standards, guidelines and acceptance criteria and does not consider variations to comply with the intent of the regulations. The probabilistic analysis methide used in the ICISA and IPEEE report utilizes a risk based nad intent based approach in determining critical at-risk fire areas. NPP Krsko has already completed the following suggestions/recommendations from the above and OSART reports in order to comply with Appendix R: Installation of smoke detectors in the Control Room; Installation of Emergency Lighting in some plant areas and of Remote Shout down panels; Extension of Sound Power Communication System; Installation of Fire Annunciator Panel at the On-site Fire Brigade Station; Installation of Smoke Detection System in the (a) Main Control Room Panels, (b) Essential Service Water Building. (c) Component Cooling Building pump area, chiller area and HVAC area, (d) Auxiliary Building Safety pump rooms, (e) Fuel Handling room, (f) Intermediate Building AFFW area and compressor room, and (g) Tadwaste building; inclusion of Auxiliary operators in the Fire Brigade; training of Fire Brigade Members in Plant Operation (9 week course); Development of Fire Door Inspection and

  20. New probabilistic decision-making tools for fire protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksobiech, C.; Mowrer, F.

    1991-01-01

    The FIVE methodology provides guidance to utilities in performing an examination of potential plant severe accidents caused by fire initiated events. FIVE is oriented toward uncovering limiting plant design or operating characteristics (vulnerabilities) that make certain fire-initiated events more likely than others. It provides a combination of deterministic and probabilistic techniques for examining a power plant's fire probability and protection characteristics. It includes a two phase progressive screening method and a third phase consisting of a plant walkdown/verification process. The FIVE methodology centers on providing assurance of the availability of at least one train of the safe shutdown systems. FIVE has been developed for implementation by plant personnel who are most experienced with their plant's operations, fire hazards and fire protection features. The methodology provides these plant personnel with guidelines to quickly screen the plant down to the most significant locations where vulnerabilities may exist and then identify options to reduce the vulnerabilities

  1. Intumescent paint as fire protection coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. R.S. OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper is a compendium on intumescent paint and its main features regarding chemical composition, thermophysical properties and performance as a fire-retardant material. Some of the main technical publications and lines of research on the subject are presented herein. The purpose of this paper is to show the current stage of the technical research being conducted on the topic and enable a better understanding of this fire-retardant material.

  2. Fire protection system operating experience review for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a review of fire protection system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of fire protection system component failure rates and fire accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with these systems are discussed, including spurious operation. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

  3. Fire protection system operating experience review for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a review of fire protection system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of fire protection system component failure rates and fire accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with these systems are discussed, including spurious operation. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  4. Literature study regarding fire protection in nuclear power plants. Part I: Fire rated separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, S.

    1995-06-01

    This literature study has been made on behalf of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. The aim is to describe different aspects of fire protection in nuclear power plants. Conventional building codes can not give guidance on where to make fire rated separations in order to separate redundant trains of safety systems. The separation must originate in functional demands from the authorities on what functions are essential during and after a fire, and under what circumstances these functions shall be retained, i.e. the number of independent faults and initiating events. As a basic demand it is suggested to rate the strength of separations according to conventional building code, based on fire load. The whole separating construction shall have the same fire rating, including the ventilation system. Deviations from the basic demand can de done in case it can be proven that it is possible to compensate some or all of the fire rating with other measures. There is a general lack of statistical information regarding the reliability of fire separating constructions such as walls, fire doors, penetration seals and fire dampers. The amount of cables penetrating a seal is in many cases much higher in real installations than what has been tested for type approval. It would therefore be valuable to perform a furnace test with a more representative amount of cables passing through a penetration seal. Tests have shown that the 20 foot horizontal separation distance stipulated by NRC is not a guarantee against fire damage. Spatial separations based on general requirements shall not be allowed, but considered from case to case based on actual circumstances. For fire protection by isolation or coatings, it is of great importance to choose the method of protection carefully, to be compatible with the material it shall be applied on, and the environment and types of fire that may occur. 48 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  5. New radiation protection calibration facility at CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, Markus; Carbonez, Pierre; Pozzi, Fabio; Silari, Marco; Vincke, Helmut

    2014-10-01

    The CERN radiation protection group has designed a new state-of-the-art calibration laboratory to replace the present facility, which is >20 y old. The new laboratory, presently under construction, will be equipped with neutron and gamma sources, as well as an X-ray generator and a beta irradiator. The present work describes the project to design the facility, including the facility placement criteria, the 'point-zero' measurements and the shielding study performed via FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility closure activities evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    This report evaluates the closure activities at the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility. The closure activities discussed include: the closure activities for the structures, equipment, soil, and gravel scrubber; decontamination methods; materials made available for recycling or reuse; and waste management. The evaluation compares these activities to the regulatory requirements and closure plan requirements. The report concludes that the areas identified in the closure plan can be clean closed

  7. CERN Radiation Protection (RP) calibration facilities

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082069; Macián-Juan, Rafael

    Radiation protection calibration facilities are essential to ensure the correct operation of radiation protection instrumentation. Calibrations are performed in specific radiation fields according to the type of instrument to be calibrated: neutrons, photons, X-rays, beta and alpha particles. Some of the instruments are also tested in mixed radiation fields as often encountered close to high-energy particle accelerators. Moreover, calibration facilities are of great importance to evaluate the performance of prototype detectors; testing and measuring the response of a prototype detector to well-known and -characterized radiation fields contributes to improving and optimizing its design and capabilities. The CERN Radiation Protection group is in charge of performing the regular calibrations of all CERN radiation protection devices; these include operational and passive dosimeters, neutron and photon survey-meters, and fixed radiation detectors to monitor the ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), inside CERN accelera...

  8. Construction program for a large superconducting MHD magnet system at the coal-fired flow facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.T.; Genens, L.; Gonczy, J.; Ludwig, H.; Lieberg, M.; Kraft, E.; Gacek, D.; Huang, Y.C.; Chen, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Argonne National Laboratory has designed and is constructing a 6 T large aperture superconducting MHD magnet for use in the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) at Tullahoma, Tennessee. The magnet system consists of the superconducting magnet, a magnet power supply, an integrated instrumentation for operation, control and protection, and a complete cryogenic facility including a CTI Model 2800 helium refrigerator/liquefier with two compressors, helium gas handling system and a 7500 liter liquid helium dewar. The complete system will be tested at Argonne, IL in 1981. The magnet design is reviewed, and the coil fabrication programs are described in detail

  9. Development of a risk informed fire protection program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, J.; McDevitt, B.; Sawyer, O.; Volk, M.A.; Drennan, J.; Sweely, C.

    2015-07-01

    Over the past decade, one of the largest challenges for the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Operator in the United States has been the implementation of risk-informed, performance-based (RI-PB) fire protection strategies into their fire protection program. Regardless of whether a utility decides to fully transition their licensing basis from deterministic to risk based, or if they simply complete a fire probabilistic risk assessment (FPRA) in order to augment their current program, it is clear that risk-informed, performance based fire protection strategies and the associated challenges are the growing trend in the United States and are here to stay. The experience of the nuclear industry in the United States with the implementation of RI-PB fire protection strategies can provide a great deal of insight for plants and utilities that follow, either by choice or necessity, a similar path. The similarities in the design of the United States and Spanish nuclear plants make these insights even more significant contributions to the strategy and planning for the Spanish fleet. The experience in United States will provide guidance to avoid similar missteps and better plan for the challenges of the transition process. As the Spanish fleet develops risk-informed and deterministic strategies to improve fire safety, an understanding of the challenges and lessons learned from the United States experience will save time and money. (Author)

  10. Research on fire extinguishing and disaster measures techniques for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruda, Takashi; Amano, Hisanori; Liao, Chihong

    2004-01-01

    As for a fire of alkali metals in nuclear facilities, measures to cope with the situation should be prepared. It has been experimentally investigated with a success to stabilize and treat safe in the air the leavings of burned sodium, which were extinguished by the nitrogen and poured with fire extinguishing powder for metal fire. Furthermore research and development has been conducted on a series of robots such as installing protection wall between radiation sources and victims and carrying victims out of the disaster room. Basic functional experiments on key components of robot system have been carried out using a trial product. Total control system of a series of robots will be updated based on control mechanism and software of a trial robot system. (T. Tanaka)

  11. The radiation protection units of the Austrian fire brigades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspek, W.; Schoenhacker, S.

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1960s, Austrian fire brigades have been involved in radiation protection. With the preparations for the NPP Zwentendorf and the building of the research reactor in Seibersdorf, the first radiation protection units of the fire brigade were founded. 45 years later: The NPP Zwentendorf never saw its start-up, the use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity is prohibited by a constitutional law, and the research reactor is being decommissioned. What's left are the radiation protection units of the fire brigades. The contribution gives an overview of similarities and differences of the radiation protection units in the nine federal states of Austria, with a special focus on equipment, training and organisation. Nation-wide guidelines and regulations for the tactics of first responders at radiological emergencies are presented and a couple of incidents will be analysed. (orig.)

  12. Design guide for fire protection of grouped electrical cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dungan, K.W.

    1991-05-01

    This paper develops design guidance for fire protection of grouped electrical cables using previous research and the concept of design objectives based on damage limits. A quantitative approach is taken to establishing performance-oriented design objectives and addressing fires exposing cables as well as cable fires. A one-page Design Calculation Checklist is developed and examples are shown. In addition, testing was done for placement of linear thermal detection on cable trays and recommendations are given. 32 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs

  13. Safety analysis of the existing 850 Firing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, B.N.

    1986-01-01

    A safety analysis was performed to determine if normal operations and/or potential accidents at the 850 Firing Facility at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The normal operations and credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. It was determined by this analysis that all but one of the hazards were either low or of the type or magnitude routinely encountered and/or accepted by the public. The exception was explosives, which was classified as a moderate hazard per the requirements given in DOE Order 5481.1A. This safety analysis concluded that the operation at this facility will present no undue risk to the health and safety of LLNL employees or the public

  14. Safety analysis of the existing 851 Firing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, B.N.

    1986-01-01

    A safety analysis was performed to determine if normal operations and/or potential accidents at the 851 Firing Facility at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The normal operations and credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. It was determined by this analysis that all but two of the hazards were either low or of the type or magnitude routinely encountered and/or accepted by the public. The exceptions were the linear accelerator and explosives, which were classified as moderate hazards per the requirements given in DOE Order 5481.1A. This safety analysis concluded that the operation at this facility will present no undue risk to the health and safety of LLNL employees or the public

  15. The usage of phase change materials in fire fighter protective clothing: its effect on thermal protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mengmeng

    2017-12-01

    The thermal protective performance of the fire fighter protective clothing is of vital importance for fire fighters. In the study fabrics treated by phase change materials (PCMs) were applied in the multi-layered fabrics of the fire fighter protective clothing ensemble. The PCM fabrics were placed at the different layers of the clothing and their thermal protective performance were measured by a TPP tester. Results show that with the application of the PCM fabrics the thermal protection of the multi-layered fabrics was greatly increased. The time to reach a second degree burn was largely reduced. The location of the PCM fabrics at the different layers did not affect much on the thermal protective performance. The higher amount of the PCM adds on, the higher thermal protection was brought. The fabrics with PCMs of a higher melting temperature could contribute to higher thermal protection.

  16. 30 CFR 77.1100 - Fire protection; training and organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....1100 Section 77.1100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF... facilities and equipment shall be provided commensurate with the potential fire hazards at each structure...

  17. Performance Evaluation Facility for Fire Fighting Thermal Imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Chan; Amon, Francine; Hamins, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates the characteristics of obscuring media inside an optical smoke cell, which is a bench-scale testing facility for the evaluation of thermal imaging cameras used by fire fighters. Light extinction coefficient and visibility through the smoke cell is characterized by the measured laser transmittance. The laser transmittance along the axial direction of the smoke cell is relatively uniform at upper and lower part for various air/fuel volume flow rate. Contrast level based image quality of visible CCD camera through the smoke cell is compared with that of thermal imaging camera. The optical smoke cell can be used as well-controlled and effective laboratory-scale test apparatus to evaluate the performance of thermal imaging camera for fire fighting application

  18. 33 CFR 127.1507 - Water systems for fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment § 127.1507 Water... means for distributing and applying the water to protect personnel; to cool storage tanks, equipment...

  19. The sodium fire tests performed in the FAUNA facility on up to 12m2 fire areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherdron, W.; Jordan, S.

    1983-08-01

    The FAUNA test facility started operation in 1979. It serves to investigate large area sodium fires in closed containments and to study the generation, behaviour and removal of sodium fire aerosols. In this report, the experimental results of the 6 sodium pool fires are described which were performed with up to 500 kg of sodium in fire pans of 2 m 2 , 5 m 2 and 12 m 2 surface area, respectively. Both, the thermodynamic data and the data of the reaction kinetics of the fires were determined. In addition, the behaviour of the released aerosols during and after the fire was studied. On the basis of measurements of the temperature profiles at various levels above the fire areas it was shown that the convective flows above fire areas of different sizes in closed containments differ markedly and, obviously, exert an influence on the development of the fire and the release of particles. Whilst in rather small fires the gas above the pan rises as in a chimney and flows back on the walls, no chimney effect can be observed in a large pool fire. In rather large fires higher burning rates and aerosol release rates were observed. Some meters above the fire area temperatures around 300-400 0 C, temporarily even up to 700 0 C, were measured. The tests F5 and F6 were performed above all to observe the fire behaviour in terms of thermodynamics and reaction kinetics in a fully closed containment. (orig./RW) [de

  20. CERN radiation protection (RP) calibration facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi, Fabio

    2016-04-14

    Radiation protection calibration facilities are essential to ensure the correct operation of radiation protection instrumentation. Calibrations are performed in specific radiation fields according to the type of instrument to be calibrated: neutrons, photons, X-rays, beta and alpha particles. Some of the instruments are also tested in mixed radiation fields as often encountered close to high-energy particle accelerators. Moreover, calibration facilities are of great importance to evaluate the performance of prototype detectors; testing and measuring the response of a prototype detector to well-known and -characterized radiation fields contributes to improving and optimizing its design and capabilities. The CERN Radiation Protection group is in charge of performing the regular calibrations of all CERN radiation protection devices; these include operational and passive dosimeters, neutron and photon survey-meters, and fixed radiation detectors to monitor the ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), inside CERN accelerators and at the CERN borders. A new state-of-the-art radiation protection calibration facility was designed, constructed and commissioned following the related ISO recommendations to replace the previous ageing (more than 30 years old) laboratory. In fact, the new laboratory aims also at the official accreditation according to the ISO standards in order to be able to release certified calibrations. Four radiation fields are provided: neutrons, photons and beta sources and an X-ray generator. Its construction did not only involve a pure civil engineering work; many radiation protection studies were performed to provide a facility that could answer the CERN calibration needs and fulfill all related safety requirements. Monte Carlo simulations have been confirmed to be a valuable tool for the optimization of the building design, the radiation protection aspects, e.g. shielding, and, as consequence, the overall cost. After the source and irradiator installation

  1. Cathodic protection of a nuclear fuel facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses corrosion on buried process piping and tanks at a nuclear fuel facility and the steps taken to design a system to control underground corrosion. Collected data have indicated that cathodic protection is needed to supplement the regular use of high-integrity, corrosion-resistant coatings; wrapping systems; special backfills; and insulation material. The technical approach discussed in this article is generally applicable to other types of power and/or industrial plants with extensive networks of underground steel piping

  2. Physical protection nuclear facilities against sabotage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: INFCIRC 225 Rev. 4 has introduced the Design Basis Threat, DBT, as a key element of the states physical protection system. The DBT is a definition which determines the level of physical protection of nuclear material during use, storage, transport and of nuclear facilities. It the basis for physical protection concepts and for the design of measures the operator or licensee has to provide. By this means it is also a definition of the responsibility for the physical protection which the operator accepts with the license. The new chapter designated to the physical protection against sabotage which has resulted also in the amendment of the title in INFCIRC 225 demonstrates the grown international concern about the potential consequences of sabotage. More than the physical protection against unauthorized removal the physical protection against sabotage has interfaces with the nuclear safety field. The basis of protection against sabotage therefore is much more based on the facility design-the safety design of the facility. Using the DBT the competent authority is in the position to determine the level of protection against sabotage and the remaining risk which has to be accepted. This risk of course depends on the real threat which is not known in advance. The acceptance of the remaining risk depends on both the assessment of the threat, its credibility and the potential consequences. There has been no serious act of sabotage in the past nor an attempt of. Despite of this the Harnun attack of the Japanese underground and some other recent terrorist activities could have given reasons to reconsider what threat might be credible. The German physical protection system has been developed since the increasing terrorist activities in the 1970s. From the beginning the protection against sabotage played an important role in the German system of physical protection. The requirements for the physical protection against unauthorized removal and against sabotage were

  3. Monitoring of fire incidences in vegetation types and Protected ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    two types of sensor data, i.e., AWiFS and MODIS, have found fires in 281 (out of 614) Protected Areas of India. .... 56 m resolution prepared as part of national car- bon project has ...... and its deficiency in India were pointed out as back- ground.

  4. Fire Propagation Performance of Intumescent Fire Protective Coatings Using Eggshells as a Novel Biofiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Yew

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to synthesize and characterize an effective intumescent fire protective coating that incorporates eggshell powder as a novel biofiller. The performances of thermal stability, char formation, fire propagation, water resistance, and adhesion strength of coatings have been evaluated. A few intumescent flame-retardant coatings based on these three ecofriendly fire retardant additives ammonium polyphosphate phase II, pentaerythritol and melamine mixed together with flame-retardant fillers, and acrylic binder have been prepared and designed for steel. The fire performance of the coatings has conducted employing BS 476: Part 6-Fire propagation test. The foam structures of the intumescent coatings have been observed using field emission scanning electron microscopy. On exposure, the coated specimens’ B, C, and D had been certified to be Class 0 due to the fact that their fire propagation indexes were less than 12. Incorporation of ecofriendly eggshell, biofiller into formulation D led to excellent performance in fire stopping (index value, (I=4.3 and antioxidation of intumescent coating. The coating is also found to be quite effective in water repellency, uniform foam structure, and adhesion strength.

  5. Expert systems for protective monitoring of facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    In complex plants, the possibility of serious operator error always exists to some extent, but, this can be especially true during an experiment or some other unusual exercise. Possible contributing factors to operational error include personnel fatigue, misunderstanding in communication, mistakes in executing orders, uncertainty about the delegated authority, pressure to meet a demanding schedule, and a lack of understanding of the possible consequences of deliberate violations of the facility's established operating procedures. Authoritative reports indicate that most of these factors were involved in the disastrous Russian Chernobyl-4 nuclear reactor accident in April 1986, which, ironically, occurred when a safety experiment was being conducted. Given the computer hardware and software now available for implementing expert systems together with integrated signal monitoring and communications, plant protection could be enhanced by an expert system with extended features to monitor the plant. The system could require information from the operators on a rigidly enforced schedule and automatically log in and report on a scheduled time basis to authorities at a central remote site during periods of safe operation. Additionally, the system could warn an operator or automatically shut down the plant in case of dangerous conditions, while simultaneously notifying independent, responsible, off-site personnel of the action taken. This approach would provide protection beyond that provided by typical facility scram circuits. This paper presents such an approach to implementing an expert system for plant protection, together with specific hardware and software configurations. The Chernobyl accident is used as the basis of discussion

  6. Fire protection: no fire without smoke. CCTV breakthrough in fire detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    A new CCTV-based fire detection system uses advanced software to detect and locate smoke and vapour from a fire before it becomes visible to the human eye, but is intelligent enough to avoid false alarms due to steam, moving machinery or operating staff in the monitored area. The starting point for the development effort was video motion detection software as used in the security industry. (author)

  7. Dampers, fluidics and the failsafe fallacy [fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dann, M.; Hodgson, T.

    1989-01-01

    The fire protection practices adopted at nuclear power stations generally follow the well established principles used throughout industry. Unfortunately, there is one particular area - the interaction with heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) services - where nuclear power stations pose a seemingly insoluble conflict: that between the need to contain and the need to ventilate. Now, however, solid state fire dampers using power fluidics may promise a solution. One of the key characteristics of a fluidic device is that it is 'solid state', i.e. it has no moving parts. Because of this, its inherent reliability is orders of magnitude greater than a mechanical device. (U.K.)

  8. Strategy and system of fire protection at Guangdong Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Weihong

    1999-12-01

    The fire protection is an important safety issue of nuclear power utilities. The author depicts the strategy and management system of fire protection implemented successfully at Guangdong Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant of China

  9. National Ignition Facility environmental protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintz, J.M.; Reitz, T.C.; Tobin, M.T.

    1994-06-01

    The conceptual design of Environmental Protection Systems (EPS) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is described. These systems encompass tritium and activated debris handling, chamber, debris shield and general decontamination, neutron and gamma monitoring, and radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste handling. Key performance specifications met by EPS designs include limiting the tritium inventory to 300 Ci and total tritium release from NIF facilities to less than 10 Ci/yr. Total radiation doses attributable to NIF shall remain below 10 mrem/yr for any member of the general public and 500 mrem/yr for NIF staff. ALARA-based design features and operational procedures will, in most cases, result in much lower measured exposures. Waste minimization, improved cycle time and reduced exposures all result from the proposed CO2 robotic arm cleaning and decontamination system, while effective tritium control is achieved through a modern system design based on double containment and the proven detritiation technology

  10. Impact assessment of the forest fires on Oarai Research and Development Center Waste Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, Yusuke; Kitamura, Ryoichi; Hanari, Akira; Sato, Isamu

    2016-03-01

    In response to new standards for regulating waste treatment facility ('new regulatory standards'; December 18, 2013 enforcement), it was carried out impact assessment of forest fires on the Waste Treatment Facility existed in Oarai Research and Development Center of Japan Atomic Energy Agency. At first, a fire spread scenario of forest fires was assumed. The intensity of forest fires was evaluated from field surveys, forest fire evaluation models and so on. As models of forest fire intensity evaluation, Rothermel Model and Canadian Forest Fire Behavior Prediction (FBP) System were used. Impact assessment of radiant heat to the facility was carried out, and temperature change of outer walls for the assumed forest fires was estimated. The outer wall temperature of facility was estimated around 160degC at the maximum, it was revealed that it doesn't reach allowable temperature limit. Consequently, it doesn't influence the strength of concrete. In addition, a probability of fire breach was estimated to be about 20%. This report illustrates an example of evaluation of forest fires for the new regulatory standards through impact assessment of the forest fires on the Waste Treatment Facility. (author)

  11. Safety analysis of the existing 804 and 845 firing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, B.N.

    1986-01-01

    A safety analysis was performed to determine if normal operations and/or potential accidents at the 804 and 845 Firing Facilities at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, peronnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The normal operation and credible accident that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequence were considered. It was determined by this analysis that all but one of the hazards were either low or of the type or magnitude routinely encountered and/or accepted by the public. The exception was explosives. Since this hazard has the potential for causing significant on-site and minimum off-site consequences, Bunkers 804 and 845 have been classified as moderate hazard facilties per DOE Order 5481.1A. This safety analysis concluded that the operation at these facilities will present no undue risk to the health and safety of LLNL employees or the public

  12. 41 CFR 102-80.135 - Who is a qualified fire protection engineer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... protection engineer? 102-80.135 Section 102-80.135 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... qualified fire protection engineer? A qualified fire protection engineer is defined as an individual with a thorough knowledge and understanding of the principles of physics and chemistry governing fire growth...

  13. 14 CFR 25.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls, engine... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Essential flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structures located in...

  14. Adsorber fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, W.

    1987-01-01

    The following conclusions are offered with respect to activated charcoal filter systems in nuclear power plants: (1) The use of activated charcoal in nuclear facilities presents a potential for deep-seated fires. (2) The defense-in-depth approach to nuclear fire safety requires that if an ignition should occur, fires must be detected quickly and subsequently suppressed. (3) Deep-seated fires in charcoal beds are difficult to extinguish. (4) Automatic water sprays can be used to extinguish fires rapidly and reliably when properly introduced into the burning medium. The second part of the conclusions offered are more like challenges: (1) The problem associated with inadvertent actuations of fire protection systems is not a major one, and it can be reduced further by proper design review, installation, testing, and maintenance. Eliminating automatic fire extinguishing systems for the protection of charcoal adsorbers is not justified. (2) Removal of automatic fire protection systems due to fear of inadvertent fire protection system operation is a case of treating the effect rather than the cause. On the other hand, properly maintaining automatic fire protection systems will preserve the risk of fire loss at acceptable levels while at the same time reducing the risk of damage presented by inadvertent operation of fire protection systems

  15. Radiation protection program at an accelerator facility complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanuja, Jaya

    2007-01-01

    Broad aspects of Radiation Protection Program at the Tyco Healthcare/Mallinckrodt Inc. will be presented with emphasis on Occupational dose, Public dose and ALARA program. Regulatory requirements, compliance and radio nuclides of concern for external exposure and internal contamination will be discussed. The facility is subject to in depth annual inspections by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to ensure compliance with regulations and operating license requirements. The facility is required to have an emergency contingency plan in place. A simulated emergency drill scenario is witnessed and graded by the NRC and state inspectors, with full participation by the fire department and the local hospital. Radiation Safety Officer (RSO) is in charge of all radiological aspects of the facility, and reports to the plant manager directly. The RSO or any of his staff has the authority to stop a job if there is a radiological concern. The Radiation protection organization interfaces with Production, QA and Engineering and ensures there is no conflict with Industrial Safety, OSHA and FDA requirements. Any employee has the right to call the regulatory officials if he/she has a concern. Operational aspects of Radiation protection program such as radiological survey, contamination control and limits, air sample survey, radio active waste processing and record retention requirements are per plant procedures and regulatory requirements. Shielding and administrative requirements for designing a modification to an existing design or a new lab/hot cell is subject to in-depth review and approval by Radiation Safety Committee. Each department has a Dose Reduction Subcommittee which meets periodically to discuss if any changes in procedures or facility can be made to decrease the dose. The subcommittee also trends the dose to ensure it is trending downward. Even though 99 Mo/ 99m TC generators are manufactured at the facility, majority of the dose is from cyclotron maintenance

  16. Harvest facility protects and improves fishery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampton, T.; Daley, W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that by constructing a trap and transfer/harvest facility to control anadromous fish migration, the trout fishery on the Boardman River was protected and the salmon fishery was improved. The James P. Price Fish Trap and Transfer/Harvest Facility at Traverse City, Michigan, was constructed by the Traverse City Light and Power Department because of a licensing condition during the redevelopment of the Boardman and Sabin hydroelectric plants. The facility was constructed along with a fish ladder at the Union Street Dam to control the anadromous fish migration in lieu of constructing fish ladders at the Union Street, Sabin and Boardman Dams. The Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service required that the fish ladders be constructed before the hydroelectric plants could be reactivated. The MDNR was also planning to introduce salmon into the Boardman River as far up as the reservoir of the Boardman Dam, which is the third dam from the mouth of the river

  17. The correspondence concerning fire protection regulation for operating reactors (separation flame test of unpurified cables)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Takayasu; Miyakoshi, Hirohisa; Goto, Masami

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are taking fire protection measures taking into account past findings about the effects of fire by the demonstration test in order to maintain the safety of nuclear power plant in the event of a fire. The objective of the demonstration test described in this paper is to obtain advanced knowledge about over current fire of unqualified cable to be applied to fire protection measures. (author)

  18. Probabilistic evaluation of fire protection features found in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarm, M.A.; Boccio, J.L.; Ruger, C.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a method which can be used to evaluate, on a relative basis, the NRC Fire Protection (FP) guidelines as found in Section 9.5.1 (Fire Protection) of the Standard Review Plan (SRP). The approach, a hybrid of existing physical models for fire propagation determinations and probabilistic models for fire-mitigation system reliability, can potentially be used as an adjunct to the present fire safety review process

  19. Inspection of fire protection measures and fire fighting capability at nuclear power plants. A publication within the NUSS programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present publication has been developed with the help of experts from regulatory, operating and engineering organizations, all with practical experience in the field of fire protection of nuclear power plants. The publication outlines practices for inspecting the fire protection measures at nuclear power plants in accordance with Safety Series No.50-SG-D2(Rev.1), Fire Protection in Nuclear Power Plants, and includes a comprehensive fire safety inspection checklist of the specific elements to be addressed when evaluating the adequacy and effectiveness of the fire protection measures and manual fire fighting capability available at operating nuclear power plants. The publication will be useful not only to regulators and safety assessors but also to operators and designers. The book addresses a specialized topic and it is recommended that it be used in conjunction with Safety Guide No.50-SG-D2(Rev.1)

  20. Gas supply planning for new gas-fired electricity generation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slocum, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper explores several key issues in gas supply planning for new gas fired electric generation facilities. This paper will have two main sections, as follows: developing the gas supply plan for a gas-fired electricity generation facility and exploring key gas supply contract pricing issues

  1. Fire protection assessment in a WANO peer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vella, R.

    1998-01-01

    The peer review programme is becoming the key programme of WANO. The reviews are conducted to assess the performance of plant personnel, the conditions of systems and equipment, the quality of programmes and procedures, and the effectiveness of plant management. The review team consists of highly qualified staff from other WANO members throughout the world who have extensive practical experience in the area the review. At the request of Paris Centre Members, the fire protection area has been added to the scope of WANO peer reviews. Relevant performance objectives and criteria have been developed to cover this area, these are written guidances upon which review of plant performance can be based. They are supported by criteria, more narrow in scope, to help further define what attributes of the fire protection management area contribute to the achievement of the associated performance objective. (author)

  2. 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility decontamination, sampling, and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knaus, Z.C.

    1995-01-01

    This is the decontamination, sampling, and analysis plan for the closure activities at the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility at Hanford Reservation. This document supports the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility Closure Plan, DOE-RL-90-25. The 105-DR LSFF, which operated from about 1972 to 1986, was a research laboratory that occupied the former ventilation supply room on the southwest side of the 105-DR Reactor facility in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site. The LSFF was established to investigate fire fighting and safety associated with alkali metal fires in the liquid metal fast breeder reactor facilities. The decontamination, sampling, and analysis plan identifies the decontamination procedures, sampling locations, any special handling requirements, quality control samples, required chemical analysis, and data validation needed to meet the requirements of the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility Closure Plan in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

  3. Corrosion protection pays off for coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, T.

    2006-11-15

    Zinc has long been used to hot-dip galvanise steel to deliver protection in harsh environments. Powder River Basin or eastern coal-fired plants benefit from using galvanized steel for conveyors, vibratory feeders, coal hoppers, chutes, etc. because maintenance costs are essentially eliminated. When life cycle costs for this process are compared to an alternative three-coal paint system for corrosion protection, the latter costs 5-10 times more than hot-dip galvanizing. An AEP Power Plant in San Juan, Puerto Rico and the McDuffie Coal Terminal in Mobile, AL, USA have both used hot-dip galvanized steel. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Information note about the protection of nuclear facilities against aircraft crashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The protection of nuclear facilities against external risks (earthquakes, floods, fires etc..) is an aspect of safety taken into consideration by the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN). Concerning the aircraft crashes, the fundamental safety rules make three categories of aircraft: the small civil aircraft (weight 5.7 t). Nuclear facilities are designed to resist against crashes of aircraft from the first category only, because the probability of the accidental crash of a big aircraft are extremely low. This document comprises an information note about the protection of nuclear facilities against aircraft crashes, a dossier about the safety of nuclear facilities with respect to external risks in general (natural disasters and aircraft crashes), and an article about the protection of nuclear power plants against aircraft crashes (design, safety measures, regulation, surveillance, experience feedback). (J.S.)

  5. Evaluation of protection factor of respiratory protective equipment using indigenously developed protection factor test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patkulkar, D.S.; Ganesh, G.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Assigned protection factor (APF) is an indicator representing effectiveness of a respirator and it provides workplace level of respiratory protection for workers in providing protection against exposure to airborne contaminants Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) specifies 'Respirator APF' and 'Maximum Use Concentration' (MUC - a term derived using APF) shall be an integral part of Respirator Protection Standard. MUC establishes the maximum airborne concentration of a contaminant in which a respirator with a given APF may be used. The use of particulate respirators such as half face mask, full face mask and powered air purifying respirators is essential for radioactive jobs in nuclear facilities to prevent any intake of radionuclide. With this impetus, the Protection Factor Test Facility (PFTF) for testing and evaluation of respiratory protective equipment meeting relevant applicable standards was designed, fabricated and installed in Respiratory Protective Equipment Laboratory of Health Physics Division

  6. An evaluation of risk methods for prioritizing fire protection features: a procedure for fire barrier penetration seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, M.K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper generally evaluates risk methods available for prioritizing fire protection features. Risk methods involving both the use of qualitative insights, and quantitative results from a fire probabilistic risk analysis are reviewed. The applicability of these methods to develop a prioritized list of fire barrier penetration seals in a plant based on risk significance is presented as a procedure to illustrate the benefits of the methods. The paper concludes that current fire risk assessment methods can be confidently used to prioritize plant fire protection features, specifically fire barrier penetration seals. Simple prioritization schemes, using qualitative assessments and insights from fire PRA methodology may be implemented without the need for quantitative results. More elaborate prioritization schemes that allow further refinements to the categorization process may be implemented using the quantitative results of the screening processes in good fire PRAs. The use of the quantitative results from good fire PRAs provide several benefits for risk prioritization of fire protection features at plants, mainly from the plant systems analyses conducted for a fire PRA

  7. Focus on the studies in support of fire safety analysis. IRSN modelling approach for nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espargilliere, Julien; Meyrand, Raphael; Vinot, Thierry [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2015-12-15

    For a fire safety analysis, in order to comply with nuclear safety goals, a nuclear fuel facility operator has to define the elements important for safety to be maintained, even in the case of a fire. One of the key points of this fire analysis is the assessment of possible fire scenarios in the facility. This paper presents the IRSN method applied to a case study to assess fire scenarios which have the most harmful effects on safety targets. The layout consists in a central room (fire cell) containing three glove boxes with radioactive material and three electrical cabinets. This room is linked to two connecting compartments (the fire cell and these two compartments define the containment cell) and then to two corridors. Each room is equipped with a mechanical ventilation system, and a pressure cascade is established from the corridors to the central room. A fire scenario was studied with fire ignition occurring in an electrical cabinet. This scenario has a set of safety goals (prevention of fire cell and containment device failure, propagation of the fire). This case study was conducted with the IRSN code SYLVIA based on two zones modelling. Safety goals were associated with key parameters and performance criteria to be fulfilled. Modelling assumptions were defined in order to maximize physical effects of the fire. Sensitivity studies were also conducted on key parameters such as oxygen limitation, equivalent-fuel definition. Eventually, a critical analysis of the code models was carried out.

  8. On fire risk/methodology for the next generation of reactors and nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, K.C.; Alesso, H.P.; Altenbach, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    Methodologies for including fire in probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) have been evolving during the last ten years. Many of these studies show that fire risk constitutes a significant percentage of external events, as well as the total core damage frequency. This paper summarizes the methodologies used in the fire risk analysis of the next generation of reactors and existing DOE nuclear facilities. Methodologies used in other industries, as well as existing nuclear power plants, are also discussed. Results of fire risk studies for various nuclear plants and facilities are shown and compared

  9. The role of the fire dampers in the event of fire in a nuclear facility. Selection criteria for devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savornin, J.; Laborde, J.C.

    1989-10-01

    In nuclear facilities, where unacceptable quantities of radioactive aerosols could be spread in the event of a fire, the ventilation system must be designed so that an underpressure is maintained under such circumstances. This is the reason why the extracting ventilation of the room in which the fire has broken out has generally to be kept going as long as possible. This prevents smoke and radioactive aerosols from spreading to accessways and adjacent rooms. Consequently, the various devices of the ventilation network need to have high fire resistance. Fire dampers can be applied to exhaust air to delay the heat build-up of a major fire. Specialized qualification testing is required for these dampers. The criteria we have used as a basis for specifying the required qualities of installations are defined. The tests that have been performed, or are now in progress, are described. The results obtained so far are given. Devices and arrangements are suggested

  10. Potentials and limitations of remote fire monitoring in protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, João Flávio Costa; Romeiro, Joyce Machado Nunes; de Assis, José Batuíra; Torres, Fillipe Tamiozzo Pereira; Gleriani, José Marinaldo

    2018-03-01

    Protected areas (PAs) play an important role in maintaining the biodiversity and ecological processes of the site. One of the greatest challenges for the PA management in several biomes in the world is wildfires. The objective of this work was to evaluate the potentialities and limitations of the use of data obtained by orbital remote sensing in the monitoring fire occurrence in PAs. Fire Occurrence Records (FORs) were analyzed in Serra do Brigadeiro State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil, from 2007 to 2015, using photo interpreted data from TM, ETM + and OLI sensors of the Landsat series and the Hot Spot Database (HSD) from the Brazilian Institute of Space Research - INPE. It was also observed the time of permanence of the scar left by fire on the landscape, through the multitemporal analysis of the behavior of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and NBR (Normalized Burn Ratio) indexes, before and after the occurrence. The greatest limitation found for the orbital remote monitoring was the presence of clouds in the passage of the sensor in dates close to the occurrence of the fires. The burned area identified by photo interpretation was 54.9% less than the area contained in the FOR. Although the HSD reported fire occurrences in the buffer zone (up to 10km from the Park), no FORs were found at a distance greater than 1100m from the boundaries of the PA. As the main potential of remote sensing, the possibility of identifying burned areas throughout the park and surroundings is highlighted, with low costs and greater accuracy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fire hazard analysis for the fuel supply shutdown storage buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    REMAIZE, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of a fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire and other perils within individual fire areas in a DOE facility in relation to proposed fire protection so as to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE 5480.7A, Fire Protection, are met. This Fire Hazards Analysis was prepared as required by HNF-PRO-350, Fire Hazards Analysis Requirements, (Reference 7) for a portion of the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility

  12. Fire protection programme during construction of the Chashma nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mian Umer, M.

    1998-01-01

    A clear view is given of several measures that have been taken with regard to fire prevention, protection and fire fighting during all phases of the construction, installation and commissioning of the Chasma nuclear power plant to protect personnel and equipment so that any delays in plant operation as a result of fire incident can be avoided. These measures include the precautions taken, the provisions made for fire extinguishers and hydrants, and the setting up of a fire brigade. An overview is also given of the fire incidents that have occurred. (author)

  13. 76 FR 70414 - National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Proposes To Revise Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... Commercial Cooking Operations. NFPA 99--2012 Health Care Facilities Code 6/22/2012 NFPA 99B--2010 Standard... Explosion Investigations..... 1/4/2012 NFPA 1005--2007 Standard for Professional Qualifications for 1/4/2012 Marine Fire Fighting for Land-Based Fire Fighters. NFPA 1021--2009 Standard for Fire Officer Professional...

  14. Upgrading of fire protection arrangements at Magnox power stations in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, L.H.

    1998-01-01

    The methodology used in conducting fire hazard assessments at Magnox Reactor power stations operated by Magnox Electric plc is described. The assessments use a deterministic approach. This includes the identification of essential plant and the associated supporting systems required for the safe trip, shutdown and post-trip cooling of the reactor, assessment of the location of the essential plant and the vulnerability of these plant in the presence of a fire, assessment of essential functions against the effects of a fire and identification of improvements to the fire protection arrangements. Practical aspects of fire protection engineering on operating power stations are discussed and examples of improvements in protection described. (author)

  15. Building 431 fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Ford, H.W.; Magee, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    An extensive discussion of considerations for fire protection in the LLL mirror fusion test facility (MFTF) is presented. Because of the large volume and high bays of the building, sufficient data on fire detection is unavailable. Results of fire detection tests using controlled fire sources in the building are presented. Extensive data concerning the behavior of the building atmosphere are included. Candidate fire detection instrumentation and extinguishing systems for use in the building are briefly reviewed

  16. Constructive fire protection of steel corrugated beams of buildings and other structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyin Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research introduces a methodology of establishing indicators of fire safety of a building in relation to a guaranteed duration of steel fire-proof corrugated beams resistance in conditions of standard fire tests. Indicators of fire safety are also established in the assessment of design limits of steel fire-proof corrugated beams during design process, construction or maintenance of the building as well as in reducing economic costs when testing steel structures for fire resisting property. The suggested methodology introduces the system of actions aimed to design constructive fire protection of steel corrugated beams of buildings. Technological effect is achieved by conducting firing tests of steel construction by non-destructive methods; the evaluation of fire resistance of fire-proof elements of corrugated beams (corrugated web, upper and lower shelves is identified by the least fire-proof element of a welded I-beam. In this methodology fire resistance duration of the constituent elements of a welded I-beam with account of its fire protection ability is described with an analytic function taken as variables. These variables are intensity strength of stresses and the degree of fire protection of a compound element.

  17. Radiation protection at radioisotope processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillier, L.R.; Decaire, R.

    2002-01-01

    MDS Inc. is Canada's largest diversified health and life sciences company and provides health care services and products to prevent, diagnose and treat disease. MDS Nordion Inc. is a subsidiary of MDS Inc. and is located in Ottawa, Ontario. It provides much of the world's supply of radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine primarily to diagnose, but also to treat disease. MDS Nordion is composed of three major production divisions at its Ottawa location and serves customers in three major markets. These are primarily: radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine (Nuclear Medicine Division), radiation processing for sterilization of medical equipment and supplies, and food (Ion Technologies Division), and teletherapy equipment used in cancer treatment (Therapy Systems Division). MDS Nordion supplies customers in over 100 countries, exporting more than 95 percent of its product processed in Canada. Every year, 15 to 20 million diagnostic imaging tests are carried out in hospitals around the world, using radioisotopes supplied by MDS Nordion. In addition, 150 to 200 million cubic feet (that's enough to cover an entire CFL field - including the end zones - stacked over half a kilometer high) of single use medical products are sterilized using MDS Nordion supplied equipment. MDS Nordion receives medical isotopes from AECL, Chalk River Laboratories and processes the material to purify and quantify the radioisotope product. Sealed sources, comprised of cobalt 60, are supplied from CANDU reactors. Production processes include ventilated shielded cells with remote manipulators, gloveboxes and fumehoods, to effectively control the safety of the workplace and the environment, and to prevent contamination of the products. The facilities are highly regulated by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) for safety and environmental protection. Products are also regulated by Health Canada and the US-Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (author)

  18. Literature study regarding fire protection in nuclear power plants. Part 2: Fire detection and -extinguishing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, S.

    1996-01-01

    This literature study has been made on behalf of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. The aim is to describe different aspects of fire protection in nuclear power plants. Detection and extinguishing systems in Swedish nuclear power plants have only to a limited extent been designed after functional demands, such as a maximum acceptable damage or a maximum time to detect a fire. The availability of detection systems is difficult to assess, partly because of lack of statistics. The user interface is very important in complex systems as nuclear plants. An extinguishing system designed according to the insurance companies' regulations will only fulfill the basic demands. It should be noted that normal sprinkler design does not aim for extinguishing fires, the objective is to control fire until manual extinguishment is possible. There is a great amount of statistics on wet and dry pipe sprinkler systems, while statistics are more scarce for deluge systems. The statistics on the reliability of gaseous extinguishing systems have been found very scarce. A drawback of these systems is that they are normally designed for one shot only. There are both traditional and more recent extinguishing systems that can replace halons. From now on there will be a greater need for a thorough examination of the properties needed for the individual application and a quantification of the acceptable damage. There are several indications on the importance of a high quality maintenance program as well as carefully developed routines for testing and surveillance to ensure the reliability of detection and extinguishing systems. 78 refs, 8 figs, 10 tabs

  19. 30 CFR 77.1916 - Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1916 Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection. (a) One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided where welding, cutting, or soldering with...

  20. 77 FR 74381 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Substitutes for Ozone Depleting Substances-Fire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Substitutes for Ozone Depleting Substances--Fire Suppression... a companion proposed rule issuing listings for three fire suppressants under EPA's Significant New... companion proposed rule issuing listings for three fire suppressants under EPA's Significant New...

  1. Optimization of fire protection measures and quality controls in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenig, H.; Holtschmidt, H.; Liemersdorf, H.; Suetterlin, L.; Dobbernack, R.; Hahn, C.; Hosser, D.; Kordina, K.; Schneider, U.; Sprey, W.; Wesche, H.

    1985-09-01

    This study presents theoretical and experimental investigations on the evaluation of fire hazards and the optimization of fire protection measures in German nuclear power plants. Differences between the method presented here and the US ''Fire Hazard Analysis'' result from the inclusion of the stringent redundancy concept of German nuclear power plants and the emphasis placed on passive structural fire protection measures. The method includes a time-dependent quantification of fire-specific event sequences. Fire occurrence frequencies and the reliabilities of active fire protection measures were derived from German experiences and literature abroad. The reliability data of passive fire protection measures were obtained by an evaluation of experiments and probabilistic analyses. For the calculation of fire sequences fundamental experiments were taken into consideration. For the quantification of the time-dependent event trees a methodology was applied which permits an evaluation of the influence of the individual measures. The consequences of fire were investigated for ten fire events identified as decisive, and the fire sequence paths important in terms of safety were quantified. Their annual frequencies are within a range of 10 -3 to 8.10 -6 . (orig./HP) [de

  2. Fire protection for nuclear power plants. Part 1. Fundamental approaches. Version 6/99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The KTA nuclear safety code sets out the fundamental approaches and principles for the prevention of fires in nuclear power plants, addressing aspects such as initiation, spreading, and effects of a fire: (a) Fire load and ignition sources, (b) structural and plant engineering conditions, (c) ways and means relating to fire call and fire fighting. Relevant technical and organisational measures are defined. Scope and quality of fire prevention measures to be taken, as well the relevant in-service inspection activities are determined according to the protective goals pursued in each case. (orig./CB) [de

  3. Study on aging management of fire protection system in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Huasong; Du Yu; Li Jianwen; Shi Haining; Tu Fengsheng

    2010-01-01

    Fire prevention, fire fighting and fire automatic alarms are three aspects which be included in fire protection system in nuclear power plants. The fire protection system can protect personnel, equipment etc in the fire, so their performance will have a direct influence on the safe operation in nuclear power plants. The disabled accidents caused by aging have happened continuously with the extension of time in the fire protection system, which is the major security risk during the running time in nuclear power plants. In view of the importance of fire protection system and the severity of aging problems, the aging are highly valued by the plant operators and related organizations. Though the feedback of operating experience in nuclear power plant, the impact of the fire-fighting equipment aging on system performance and reliability be assessed, the aging sensitive equipment be selected to carry out the aging analysis and to guide the management and maintenance to guarantee the healthy operation in life time of fire protection system in nuclear power plant. (authors)

  4. The principles for creation of fire-prevention forest belts with barriers of deciduous species for protection from crown fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Sannikov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discuss one of the priority security problems in Russia, which is elaboration of the strategic system of the forest and society safeguards from catastrophic forest crown fires in connection with rapid climate warming. It is postulated, that a most effective and reliable barrier for the dispersal of the intensive crown fire in a coniferous forest massive can be a sufficiently wide strip of deciduous tree species – «deciduous forest barrier», which has phytomass capable of absorbing crown fire energy and transforming them to surface fire, which may be extinguished by technical means. The actuality of the natural study of the transition parameters from the crown fire to surface fire has been noted, depending on climate, fire intensity and the deciduous barrier structure. The results of the quantitative natural investigation of the consequences of catastrophic crown fires of 2004 in the island pine forests of forest-steppe zone in Kurgan Oblast, which passed through the belt of 50–70 year-old birch stands of middle density, has been cited and formalized mathematically. It has been shown, that 150 m width of deciduous forest barrier is necessary as a minimum for the reliable transition of the high intensive front crown fire to surface fire in the forest-steppe conditions of the Western Siberia, but this width reduces with a decreasing heating effect. It has been proposed to create the complex fire-prevention forest belts of different construction for the protection of forests, industrial objects and settlements. Besides a basic deciduous barrier, their structure should include technologically necessary buffer zones and zones for the localization and extinguishing surface fire, which stop a crown fire. It has been recommended to use natural regeneration of deciduous tree species, as a most effective and non-deficient method for the creation of deciduous forest barriers in the predominant forest types, except the lichen pine forests

  5. FIRAC: a computer code to predict fire-accident effects in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolstad, J.W.; Krause, F.R.; Tang, P.K.; Andrae, R.W.; Martin, R.A.; Gregory, W.S.

    1983-01-01

    FIRAC is a medium-sized computer code designed to predict fire-induced flows, temperatures, and material transport within the ventilating systems and other airflow pathways in nuclear-related facilities. The code is designed to analyze the behavior of interconnected networks of rooms and typical ventilation system components. This code is one in a family of computer codes that is designed to provide improved methods of safety analysis for the nuclear industry. The structure of this code closely follows that of the previously developed TVENT and EVENT codes. Because a lumped-parameter formulation is used, this code is particularly suitable for calculating the effects of fires in the far field (that is, in regions removed from the fire compartment), where the fire may be represented parametrically. However, a fire compartment model to simulate conditions in the enclosure is included. This model provides transport source terms to the ventilation system that can affect its operation and in turn affect the fire

  6. Radiation protection programme for a radioisotope production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makgato, Thutu Nelson

    2015-02-01

    The present project reviews reactor based radioisotope production facilities. An overview of techniques and methodologies used as well as laboratory facilities necessary for the production process are discussed. Specific details of reactor based production and processing of more commonly used industrial and pharmaceutical radioisotopes are provided. Ultimately, based on facilities and techniques utilized as well as the associated hazard assessment, a proposed radiation protection programme is discussed. Elements of the radiation protection programme will also consider lessons from recent incidents and accidents encountered in radioisotope production facilities. (au)

  7. Effective fire protection for turbines ensures high operational availability; Wirksamer Brandschutz fuer Turbinen stellt hohe Verfuegbarkeit sicher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knop, Arnd [Minimax GmbH und Co. KG, Bad Oldesloe (Germany). Div. Energy

    2013-10-01

    Designing fire protection in power plants is extremely complex and related to different requirements from operators, insurers, and experts. High- and low-pressure water mist systems are increasingly used in turbine fire protection, as they have ideal properties for this type of application. There are multifaceted fire risks in the areas adjacent to a turbine. Therefore, an overall view of all protected areas is indispensable for effective and reliable fire protection. The paper provides a detailed look at the entire spectrum of possible fire protection technologies for turbines and their adjacent areas, describes functionalities and itemises the benefits of individual fire protection measures. (orig.)

  8. Environmental Audit of the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The scope of the audit at the CFFF was comprehensive, addressing environmental activities in the technical areas of air; soils, sediments, and biota; surface water/drinking water; groundwater; waste management; toxic and chemical materials; quality assurance; radiation; inactive waste sites; environmental management; and environmental monitoring programs. Specifically assessed was the compliance of CFFF operations and activities with Federal, state, and local regulations; DOE Orders; internal operating standards; and best management practices. Onsite activities included inspection of CFFF facilities and operations; review of site documents; interviews with DOE and contractor personnel, as well as representatives from state regulatory agencies; and reviews of previous appraisals. Using these sources of information, the environmental audit team developed findings, which fell into two general categories: compliance findings and best management practice findings. Each finding also identifies apparent causal factor(s) that contributedto the finding and will assist line management in developing ''root causes'' for implementing corrective actions. The overall conclusion of the audit is that The University of Space Institute's Energy Conversion Research and Development Programs (ECP) management of the CFFF has not kept pace with DOE's increasing expectation for environmental performance. ECP has not applied the same door and formality to environmental compliance and protection activities as they apply to their research and development activities.A total of 31 findings were identified in this audit

  9. 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility Supplemental Information to the Hanford Facility Contingency Plan (DOE/RL-93-75)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edens, V.G.

    1998-05-01

    This document is a unit-specific contingency plan for the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility and is intended to be used as a supplement to DOE/RL-93-75, Hanford Facility Contingency Plan (DOE-RL 1993). This unit-specific plan is to be used to demonstrate compliance with the contingency plan requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303 for certain Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) waste management units.The LSFF occupied the former ventilation supply fan room and was established to provide a means of investigating fire and safety aspects associated with large sodium or other metal alkali fires. The unit was used to conduct experiments for studying the behavior of molten alkali metals and alkali metal fires. This unit had also been used for the storage and treatment of alkali metal dangerous waste. Additionally, the Fusion Safety Support Studies programs sponsored intermediate-size safety reaction tests in the LSFF with lithium and lithium-lead compounds. The LSFF, which is a RCRA site, was partially clean closed in 1995 and is documented in 'Transfer of the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility to Bechtel Hanford, Inc.' (BHI 1998). In summary, the 105-DR supply fan room (1720-DR) has been demolished, and a majority of the surrounding soils were clean-closed. The 117-DR Filter Building, 116-DR Exhaust Stack, 119- DR Sampling Building, and associated ducting/tunnels were not covered under this closure

  10. Technical methods for a risk-informed, performance-based fire protection program at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, M.K.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a technical review and examination of technical methods that are available for developing a risk-informed, performance-based fire protection program at a nuclear plant. The technical methods include ''engineering tools'' for examining the fire dynamics of fire protection problems, reliability techniques for establishing an optimal fire protection surveillance program, fire computer codes for analyzing important fire protection safety parameters, and risk-informed approaches that can range from drawing qualitative insights from risk information to quantifying the risk impact of alternative fire protection approaches. Based on this technical review and examination, it is concluded that methods for modeling fires, and reliability and fire PRA analyses are currently available to support the initial implementation of simple risk-informed, performance-based approaches in fire protection programs. (author)

  11. Technical methods for a risk-informed, performance-based fire protection program at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, M.K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a technical review and examination of technical methods that are available for developing a risk-informed, performance-based fire protection program at a nuclear plant. The technical methods include 'engineering tools' for examining the fire dynamics of fire protection problems, reliability techniques for establishing an optimal fire protection surveillance program, fire computer codes for analyzing important fire protection safety parameters, and risk-informed approaches that can range from drawing qualitative insights from risk information to quantifying the risk impact of alternative fire protection approaches. Based on this technical review and examination, it is concluded that methods for modeling fires, and reliability and fire probabilistic risk analyses (PRA) are currently available to support the initial implementation of simple risk-informed, performance-based approaches in fire protection programs. (orig.) [de

  12. Laboratory investigation of fire protection coatings for creosote-treated timber railroad bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen; Robert H. White; James P. Wacker; Stan T. Lebow; Mark A. Dietenberger; Samuel L. Zelinka; Nicole M. Stark

    2014-01-01

    As the incidence of timber railroad bridge fires increases, so has the need to develop protective measures to reduce the risk from accidental ignitions primarily caused by hot metal objects. Of the six barrier treatments evaluated in the laboratory for their ability to protect timbers from fires sourced with ignition from hot metal objects only one intumescent coating...

  13. 77 FR 58170 - Proposed Renewal of Existing Information Collection; Fire Protection (Underground Coal Mines)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... Renewal of Existing Information Collection; Fire Protection (Underground Coal Mines) AGENCY: Mine Safety... INFORMATION: I. Background Fire protection standards for underground coal mines are based on section 311(a) of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 (Mine Act). 30 CFR 75.1100 requires that each coal mine...

  14. 46 CFR 108.489 - Helicopter fueling facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter fueling facilities. 108.489 Section 108.489... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Protection for Helicopter Facilities § 108.489 Helicopter fueling facilities. (a) Each helicopter fueling facility must have a fire protection system that...

  15. Master Training in Radiological Protection Facilities Radioactive and Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdu, G.; Mayo, P.; Campayo, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    The master includes general aspects of radiation protection in nuclear facilities. also an advanced module to acquire a high level training highlights as nuclear decommissioning, shielding calculation using advanced codes, particle accelerators, international law, etc.

  16. Evaluation of the Cable Types for Safety Requirements during Fire Conditions in Nuclear Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-kattan, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    In Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), the fire in cables causes many dangerous events in electrical or mechanical operations causing a nuclear reactor melt down. Main Control Room (MCR) in nuclear power plants have therefore, special concern in the fire protection systems. The Nuclear International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has promoted the use of risk-informed and performance based methods for fire protection. These methods affirm the relevant needs to develop realistic methods to quantify the risk of fire to NPPs safety. The recent electrical cable testing has been carried out to provide empirical data on the failure modes and likelihood of fire-induced damage. In this thesis, will use fire modeling to develop fire probabilistic safety assessment to estimate the likelihood of fire induced cable damage given a specified fire profile. The objective of this work is to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the most recent fire-induced circuit failure due to different cables type that used inside the NPPs by simulation using fire modeling. One of this work scope is to suggest a suitable cable insulation material especially in case of the thermal failure thresholds, for developing the electrical cable thermal fragility distributions and evaluate parameters that influence fire-induced circuit failure modes. The main control room is implementing using the CFAST (fire simulation package). The simulation results represent the full development fire temperature and heat flux as well as the output gases. The results can be used as the basic parameters of the cables comparison and then evaluation.The importance of these results are not only for evaluating the cables but one can efficiently use them to improve the whole NPPs safety levels. The gases results of the fire simulation inside the room are oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen chloride. These gases are being used lot achieving the healthy protection of NPPs. Finally, one can measure the healthy environment

  17. A probabilistic risk assessment of the LLNL Plutonium facility's evaluation basis fire operational accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumburgh, G.

    1994-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Plutonium Facility conducts numerous involving plutonium to include device fabrication, development of fabrication techniques, metallurgy research, and laser isotope separation. A Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the building 332 Plutonium Facility was completed rational safety and acceptable risk to employees, the public, government property, and the environment. This paper outlines the PRA analysis of the Evaluation Basis Fire (EDF) operational accident. The EBF postulates the worst-case programmatic impact event for the Plutonium Facility

  18. Fire protection program fiscal year 1995 site support program plan, Hanford Fire Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good, D.E.

    1994-09-01

    The mission of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating emergency situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. This includes response to surrounding fire departments/districts under a mutual aid agreement and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System). The fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing and maintenance, self-contained breathing apparatus maintenance, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention education. This report describes the specific responsibilities and programs that the HFD must support and the estimated cost of this support for FY1995

  19. Fire Protection Program fiscal year 1996, site support program plan Hanford Fire Department. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good, D.E.

    1995-09-01

    The mission of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating emergency situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. This includes response to surrounding fire departments/districts under a mutual aid agreement and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System). The fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing and maintenance, self-contained breathing apparatus maintenance, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention education. This report gives a program overview, technical program baselines, and cost and schedule baseline

  20. 33 CFR 149.419 - Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can the water supply for the... § 149.419 Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system? (a) The water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system required under § 149.420 or...

  1. LMFBR plant design features for sodium spill and fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Design features have been developed for an LMFBR plant to protect the concrete structures from potential liquid spills and fires and prevent sodium-concrete reactions. The inclusion of these features in the plant design reduces the severity of design basis accident conditions imposed on containment and other critical plant structures. Steel liners are provided in cells containing radioactive sodium systems, and catch pans are located in non-radioactive sodium system cells. The design requirements and descriptions of each of these protective features are presented. The loading conditions, analytical approach and numerical results are also included. Design of concrete cell structures that are subject to high temperature effects from sodium spills is discussed. The structural design considers the influence of high temperature on design properties of concrete and carbon steel materials based on results of a comprehensive test program. The development of these design features and high temperature design considerations for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) are presented in this paper

  2. A Regulators Systematic Approach to Physical Protection for Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, Stephan; Doulgeris, Nicholas; Leask, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the framework for a physical protection regime which needs to be incorporated into the design and construction phases of nuclear facility. The need for physical protection considerations at the outset of the design of nuclear facilities is explained. It also discusses about the consequences of malicious activity and the management of risk. Various risk and consequences evaluations are undertaken, notably using design basis threat methodology. (author)

  3. Physical protection of facilities and special nuclear materials in france

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanpierre, G.

    1980-01-01

    Physical protection of nuclear facilities and special nuclear materials is subject in France to a national governmental regulation which provides for the basic principles to be taken into account and the minimal level of protection deemed necessary. But the responsibility of implementation is left to the facility management and the resulting decentralization allows for maximum efficiency. All safeguards measures comply with the commitments taken at the international level by the French government

  4. Fire resistance of wood members with directly applied protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White

    2009-01-01

    Fire-resistive wood construction is achieved either by having the structural elements be part of fire-rated assemblies or by using elements of sufficient size that the elements themselves have the required fire-resistance ratings. For exposed structural wood elements, the ratings in the United States are calculated using either the T.T. Lie method or the National...

  5. Passive fire building protection system evaluation (case study: millennium ict centre)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Vinky; Stephanie

    2018-03-01

    Passive fire protection system is a system that refers to the building design, both regarding of architecture and structure. This system usually consists of structural protection that protects the structure of the building and prevents the spread of fire and facilitate the evacuation process in case of fire. Millennium ICT Center is the largest electronic shopping center in Medan, Indonesia. As a public building that accommodates the crowd, this building needs a fire protection system by the standards. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate passive fire protection system of Millennium ICT Center building. The study was conducted to describe the facts of the building as well as direct observation to the research location. The collected data is then processed using the AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) method in its weighting process to obtain the reliability value of passive fire protection fire system. The results showed that there are some components of passive fire protection system in the building, but some are still unqualified. The first section in your paper

  6. Seven layers of security to help protect biomedical research facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortell, Norman

    2010-04-01

    In addition to risks such as theft and fire that can confront any type of business, the biomedical research community often faces additional concerns over animal rights extremists, infiltrations, data security and intellectual property rights. Given these concerns, it is not surprising that the industry gives a high priority to security. This article identifies security threats faced by biomedical research companies and shows how these threats are ranked in importance by industry stakeholders. The author then goes on to discuss seven key 'layers' of security, from the external environment to the research facility itself, and how these layers all contribute to the creation of a successfully secured facility.

  7. Appraisal of Passive and Active Fire Protection Systems in Student’s Accommodation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail I.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire protection systems are very important systems that must be included in buildings. They have a great significance in reducing or preventing the occurrences of fire. This paper presents an assessment of fire protection systems in student’s accommodation. Student accommodation is a particular type of building that provides shelter for students at University. In addition, it is also supposed to be an attractive environment, conducive to learning, and importantly, safe for occupation. The fire safety of occupants in a building, must be in accordance with the requirements of the building’s code. Therefore, the design of the building must comply with the Uniform Building By-Law (UBBL 1984 of Malaysia, and provide all of the required safety features. This paper describes the findings from investigations of passive and active fire protection systems installed in buildings, based on fire safety requirements, UBBL (1984.

  8. Performance of a Protected Wireless Sensor Network in a Fire. Analysis of Fire Spread and Data Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine-Santoni, Thierry; Santucci, Jean-François; de Gentili, Emmanuelle; Silvani, Xavier; Morandini, Frederic

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) as a reliable solution for capturing the kinematics of a fire front spreading over a fuel bed. To provide reliable information in fire studies and support fire fighting strategies, a Wireless Sensor Network must be able to perform three sequential actions: 1) sensing thermal data in the open as the gas temperature; 2) detecting a fire i.e., the spatial position of a flame; 3) tracking the fire spread during its spatial and temporal evolution. One of the great challenges in performing fire front tracking with a WSN is to avoid the destruction of motes by the fire. This paper therefore shows the performance of Wireless Sensor Network when the motes are protected with a thermal insulation dedicated to track a fire spreading across vegetative fuels on a field scale. The resulting experimental WSN is then used in series of wildfire experiments performed in the open in vegetation areas ranging in size from 50 to 1,000 m2. PMID:22454563

  9. RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report with Baseline Risk Assessment for the Fire Department Hose Training Facility (904-113G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This report documents the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation/Baseline Risk Assessment (RFI/RI/BRA) for the Fire Department Hose Training Facility (FDTF) (904-113G).

  10. Fire protection and safety in working with sodium. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, K.; Kremer, K.H.; Wolf, J.

    1978-01-01

    The use of sodium as a heat transfer medium in nuclear plant and the associated development of sodium technology caused the requirement for adapting fire and safety precautions to new conditions of dealing with this liquid. The comparison in the first part of this article of the properties of sodium with those of petrol clarified the different fire characteristics of sodium compared to many other combustible materials and the effects of fires which differ from conventional fires. Based on this, measures for fire precautions and for safety of personnel are introduced. (orig.) [de

  11. Nuclear power plant fire protection: philosophy and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    This report combines a fire severity analysis technique with a fault tree methodology for assessing the importance to nuclear power plant safety of certain combinations of components and systems. Characteristics unique to fire, such as propagation induced by the failure of barriers, have been incorporated into the methodology. By applying the resulting fire analysis technique to actual conditions found in a representative nuclear power plant, it is found that some safety and nonsafety areas are both highly vulnerable to fire spread and impotant to overall safety, while other areas prove to be of marginal importance. Suggestions are made for further experimental and analytical work to supplement the fire analysis method

  12. Development and demonstration of sodium fire mitigation system in the SAPFIRE facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himeno, Y.; Miyahara, S.; Morii, T.; Sasaki, K.

    1989-01-01

    Flow pattern of a realistic sodium leak from the sodium piping equipped with jackets and thermal insulator was experimentally investigated. Then, based on this result, the fire mitigation system consisting of an inclined liner, a drain piping, and a smothering tank has been developed. The performance of the system was, in final, validated in the large-scale sodium leak and fire test in the SAPFIRE facility. (author)

  13. Fire protection devices in the controlled region of GKN nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, S.; Grauf, E.

    1976-01-01

    In the GKN nuclear power station ('Neckar reactor'), an 805 MW PWR reactor whose start-up is scheduled for the near future, fire protection measures have been realized that go far beyond those realized in other German nuclear power stations until now. One of the main reasons is that the authorities have been sensibilized by a fire in the refuelling cavity during construction and by the Browns Ferry fire and are therefore extremely thorough in their examination. Further subsections have been added to the fire prevention sections in order to provide better quenching devices for potential fire sites. (orig./AK) [de

  14. Fire protection equipment in the area of control of the Neckar Community Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, S.; Grauf, E.

    1976-01-01

    In the Neckar Community Nuclear Power Station - an 805 MW pressurised water reactor shortly to reach the stage of nuclear operation - fire protection measures have been realised to an extent hitherto uncommon in German nuclear power plants. The reason is to be sought from the authorities who have become more sensitive because of a fire in a reactor vessel during the construction stage and the fire at Browns Ferry and have consequently become extremely expert. Apart from the fire regulations hitherto normal further subregulations have been created in order to be able to make better provision of extinguishing devices against fire hazards. (orig.) [de

  15. Enclosed Small and Medium Caliber Firing Experimental Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility conducts completely instrumented terminal ballistics experimental tests with small and medium-caliber tungsten alloy penetrators against advanced armor...

  16. Information note about the protection of nuclear facilities against aircraft crashes; Note d'information sur la protection des installations nucleaires contre les chutes d'avions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The protection of nuclear facilities against external risks (earthquakes, floods, fires etc..) is an aspect of safety taken into consideration by the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN). Concerning the aircraft crashes, the fundamental safety rules make three categories of aircraft: the small civil aircraft (weight < 5.7 t), the military aircraft, and the commercial aircraft (w > 5.7 t). Nuclear facilities are designed to resist against crashes of aircraft from the first category only, because the probability of the accidental crash of a big aircraft are extremely low. This document comprises an information note about the protection of nuclear facilities against aircraft crashes, a dossier about the safety of nuclear facilities with respect to external risks in general (natural disasters and aircraft crashes), and an article about the protection of nuclear power plants against aircraft crashes (design, safety measures, regulation, surveillance, experience feedback). (J.S.)

  17. Numerical case studies of vertical wall fire protection using water spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Zhao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies of vertical wall fire protection are evaluated with numerical method. Typical fire cases such as heated dry wall and upward flame spread have been validated. Results predicted by simulations are found to agree with experiment results. The combustion behavior and flame development of vertical polymethylmethacrylate slabs with different water flow rates are explored and discussed. Water spray is found to be capable of strengthening the fire resistance of combustible even under high heat flux radiation. Provided result and data are expected to provide reference for fire protection methods design and development of modern buildings.

  18. Cernavoda nuclear power plant: Modifications in the fire protection measures of the CANDU 6 standard design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covalschi, V.

    1998-01-01

    Having as purpose the improvement of fire safety at the Cernavoda NPP - both in the prevention and the protection aspects in the case of fire - we implemented some modifications in the CANDU 6 standard design. These improvements are inspired, mainly, from two sources: the world-wide achievements in the field of fire protection techniques, introduced in nuclear power plants since the middle of 70's, when the CANDU 6 design was completed; the national practice and experience in fire protection, usually applied in industrial objectives (conventional power plants, in particular). The absence of any incident may be considered as a proof of the efficiency of the implemented fire preventing and protection measures. (author)

  19. Deformation and Heat Transfer on Three Sides Protected Beams under Fire Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, M.; Liew, M. S.; Garcia, E. M.; Nasif, M. S.; Yassin, A. Y. M.; Niazi, U. M.

    2018-04-01

    Fire accidents are common in oil and gas industry. The application of passive fire protection (PFP) is a costly solution. The PFP is applied only on critical structural members to optimise project cost. In some cases, beams cannot be protected from the top flange in order to accommodate for the placement of pipe supports and grating. It is important to understand the thermal and mechanical response of beam under such condition. This paper discusses the response of steel beam under ISO 834 fire protected, unprotected and three sides protected beams. The model validated against an experimental study. The experimental study has shown good agreement with FE model. The study revealed that the beams protected from three sides heat-up faster compare to fully protected beam showing different temperature gradient. However, the affects load carrying capacity are insignificant under ISO 834 fire.

  20. Radiation protection requirements for dental X-ray diagnostic facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taschner, P.; Koenig, W.; Andreas, M.; Trinius, W.

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of radiation protection regulations the planning of dental X-ray facilities is discussed considering organizational, technical and structural measures suitable for fulfilling protection requirements. Finally, instructions are given aimed at reducing radiation doses to personnel and patients. (author)

  1. Radiation protection requirements for dental X-ray diagnostic facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taschner, P; Koenig, W [Staatliches Amt fuer Atomsicherheit und Strahlenschutz, Berlin (German Democratic Republic); Andreas, M [Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Fachrichtung Stomatologie; Trinius, W [Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik

    1976-03-01

    On the basis of radiation protection regulations the planning of dental X-ray facilities is discussed considering organizational, technical and structural measures suitable for fulfilling protection requirements. Finally, instructions are given aimed at reducing radiation doses to personnel and patients.

  2. Radiological protection in industrial gamma scintigraphy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.; Suarez, S.

    2002-01-01

    Operational experience has shown that the mobile scintigraphy sector is not only that where individual doses are highest but also where there are the greatest number of high doses, overdoses and incidents. This fact highlights the need for improvement in the optimisation of radiological protection in the sector. In this context the CSN has adopted and implemented an action plan aimed at reducing doses to operation staff. (Author)

  3. Respiratory and protective equipment at a large nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zippler, D.B.

    1975-12-01

    A variety of personal protective equipment is used in a large nuclear facility to protect employees against both nuclear and ordinary industrial materials. Equipment requirements are based on risk evaluation and may range from a minimum of shoe covers to whole body protection by air-supplied plastic suits. Types of equipment are listed and one-year costs are given. Criteria for evaluating and compartmentalizing risks are discussed. Air-supplied suits and hoods are discussed in detail

  4. The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    Physical protection against the theft or unauthorized diversion of nuclear materials and against the sabotage of nuclear facilities by individuals or groups has long been a matter of national and international concern. Although responsibility for establishing and operating a comprehensive physical protection system for nuclear materials and facilities within a State rests entirely with the Government of that State, it is not a matter of indifference to other States whether and to what extent that responsibility is fulfilled. Physical protection has therefore become a matter of international concern and co-operation. The need for international co-operation becomes evident in situations where the effectiveness of physical protection in one State depends on the taking by other States also of adequate measures to deter or defeat hostile actions against nuclear facilities and nuclear materials, particularly when such materials are transported across national frontiers

  5. Advanced physical protection systems for facilities and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, O.E.

    1976-01-01

    Sandia Laboratories is developing advanced physical protection safeguards in order to improve the security of special nuclear materials, facilities, and transportation. Computer models are being used to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative systems for protecting facilities against external attack which may include internal assistance, and against internal theft or sabotage. Physical protection elements such as admittance controls, portals and detectors, perimeter and interior intrusion alarms, fixed and remotely activated barriers, and secure communications are being evaluated, adapted, and where required, developed. New facilities safeguards concepts which involve ''control loops'' between physical protection and materials control elements are being evolved jointly between Sandia Laboratories and Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Special vehicles and digital communications equipment have been developed for the ERDA safe-secure transportation system. The current status and direction of these activities are surveyed

  6. Advanced physical protection systems for facilities and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, O.E.

    1976-01-01

    Sandia Laboratories is developing advanced physical protection safeguards in order to improve the security of special nuclear materials, facilities, and transportation. Computer models are being used to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative systems for protecting facilities against external attack which may include internal assistance, and against internal theft or sabotage. Physical protection elements such as admittance controls, portals and detectors, perimeter and interior intrusion alarms, fixed and remotely-activated barriers, and secure communications are being evaluated, adapted, and where required, developed. New facilities safeguards concepts which involve (control loops) between physical protection and materials control elements are being evolved jointly between Sandia Laboratories and Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Special vehicles and digital communications equipment have been developed for the ERDA safe-secure transportation system. The current status and direction of these activities are surveyed

  7. The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    Physical protection against the theft or unauthorized diversion of nuclear materials and against the sabotage of nuclear facilities by individuals or groups has long been a matter of national and international concern. Although responsibility for establishing and operating a comprehensive physical protection system for nuclear materials and facilities within a State rests entirely with the Government of that State, it is not a matter of indifference to other States whether and to what extent that responsibility is fulfilled. Physical protection has therefore become a matter of international concern and co-operation. The need for international co-operation becomes evident in situations where the effectiveness of physical protection in one State depends on the taking by other States also of adequate measures to deter or defeat hostile actions against nuclear facilities and nuclear materials, particularly when such materials are transported across national frontiers [es

  8. The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    Physical protection against the theft or unauthorized diversion of nuclear materials and against the sabotage of nuclear facilities by individuals or groups has long been a matter of national and international concern. Although responsibility for establishing and operating a comprehensive physical protection system for nuclear materials and facilities within a State rests entirely with the Government of that State, it is not a matter of indifference to other States whether and to what extent that responsibility is fulfilled. Physical protection has therefore become a matter of international concern and co-operation. The need for international co-operation becomes evident in situations where the effectiveness of physical protection in one State depends on the taking by other States also of adequate measures to deter or defeat hostile actions against nuclear facilities and nuclear materials, particularly when such materials are transported across national frontiers

  9. Development of fire protection standards for the EPR project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, H.J.; Kaercher, M.; Wittmann, R.

    2000-01-01

    In 1989 Framatome and Siemens decided by setting up their joint subsidiary NPI (Nuclear Power International) to co-operate in designing a new European Pressurised Water Reactor, the EPR. French and German utilities decided to participate in this project. In parallel to the co-operation on supplier's and utility's side, the French and German safety authorities and safety experts wanted to work closely together in order to harmonise and further develop the outstanding safety standards in France and Germany. An organisation has been set up to elaborate common codes related to the EPR design, at the level of the French design and construction rules (RCC) of the German KTA safety standards and DIN standards for nuclear technology, the so-called EPR technical codes (ETC). In this context the decision was made to develop a new fire protection code, the ETC-F, which should be harmonised between France and Germany. The article gives an insight in the developing process of the ETC-F and an outlook on existing and perhaps further national activities. (orig.) [de

  10. Industrial safety and fire protection during the construction phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, K.

    1977-01-01

    The questions and problems of industrial safety and fire prevention have to be treated like the activities planning, developing, assembly, etc. This statement is illustrated by statistics of the fire insurance companies, from which it can be seen that the number of fire accidents has decreased but that the damage caused has greatly increased. The sooner the fire prevention and industrial safety measures are integrated in the planning phase, the better for the total costs. Preventive measures that possibly have to be introduced at a later stage are not only generally much more expensive but are also seldom as effective. (orig./HK) [de

  11. Advances in safety countermeasures at the Tomari NPP of Hokkaido Electric Power on the basis of Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. Fire protection and other advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Taku; Dasai, Katsumi

    2014-01-01

    Fire protections for the nuclear power plants have been based on the fire laws and the conventional guide. After Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident, many safety countermeasures - also about Fire Protection - have been discussed in the Japanese authorities. This paper shows our present activities in the Tomari NPP about the fire protections from the view points of Fire Prevention, Fire Detection/Suppression Systems and Fire Protection, and other advances. (author)

  12. State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) Checklist for the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility Closure Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    The Hanford Site, located northwest of the city of Richland, Washington, houses reactors, chemical-separation systems, and related facilities used for the production of special nuclear materials, as well as for activities associated with nuclear energy development. The 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF), which was in operation from about 1972 to 1986, was a research laboratory that occupied the former ventilation supply room on the southwest side of the 105-DR Reactor facility. The LSFF was established to provide means of investigating fire and safety aspects associated with large sodium or other metal alkali fires in the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) facilities. The 105-DR Reactor facility was designed and built in the 1950's and is located in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site. The building housed the DR defense reactor, which was shut down in 1964. The LSFF is subject to the regulatory requirements for the storage and treatment of dangerous wastes. Clean closure is the proposed method of closure for the LSFF. Closure will be conducted pursuant to the requirements of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 (Ecology 1989). This closure plan presents a description of the facility, the history of wastes managed, and the procedures that will be followed to close the LSFF as an Alkali Metal Treatment Facility. No future use of the LSFF is expected.

  13. Summary of fire protection programs of the United States Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This edition of the Annual Summary of DOE Fire Protection Programs continues the series started in 1972. Since May 1950, an annual report has been required from each field organization. The content has varied through the years and most of the accident data reporting requirements have been superseded by the Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System administered by EG ampersand G, Idaho. However, this report is the sole source of information relating to fire protection programs, and to the actions of the field offices and to headquarters that are of general fire protection interest

  14. Ceramic fiber blanket wrap for fire protection of cable trays and conduits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaille, C.E.; Reiman, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    In some areas of nuclear power plants, cables of redundant electrical systems, which are necessary for the safe shutdown of the reactor, are in close proximity. If a fire should occur in one of these areas, both electrical systems could be destroyed before the fire is extinguished and control of the reactor may be lost. A ceramic fiber blanket was evaluated as a fire protective wrap around cable trays and conduits. 2 refs

  15. FIRAC - a computer code to predict fire accident effects in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolstad, J.W.; Foster, R.D.; Gregory, W.S.

    1983-01-01

    FIRAC is a medium-sized computer code designed to predict fire-induced flows, temperatures, and material transport within the ventilating systems and other airflow pathways in nuclear-related facilities. The code is designed to analyze the behavior of interconnected networks of rooms and typical ventilation system components. This code is one in a family of computer codes that is designed to provide improved methods of safety analysis for the nuclear industry. The structure of this code closely follows that of the previously developed TVENT and EVENT codes. Because a lumped-parameter formulation is used, this code is particularly suitable for calculating the effects of fires in the far field (that is, in regions removed from the fire compartment), where the fire may be represented parametrically. However, a fire compartment model to simulate conditions in the enclosure is included. This model provides transport source terms to the ventilation system that can affect its operation and in turn affect the fire. A basic material transport capability that features the effects of convection, deposition, entrainment, and filtration of material is included. The interrelated effects of filter plugging, heat transfer, gas dynamics, and material transport are taken into account. In this paper the authors summarize the physical models used to describe the gas dynamics, material transport, and heat transfer processes. They also illustrate how a typical facility is modeled using the code

  16. 14 CFR 121.308 - Lavatory fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... operate a passenger-carrying airplane unless each lavatory in the airplane is equipped with a smoke...-carrying airplane unless each lavatory in the airplane is equipped with a built-in fire extinguisher for each disposal receptacle for towels, paper, or waste located within the lavatory. The built-in fire...

  17. Fire simulation in nuclear facilities: the FIRAC code and supporting experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkett, M.W.; Martin, R.A.; Fenton, D.L.; Gunaji, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    The fire accident analysis computer code FIRAC was designed to estimate radioactive and nonradioactive source terms and predict fire-induced flows and thermal and material transport within the ventilation systems of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. FIRAC maintains its basic structure and features and has been expanded and modified to include the capabilities of the zone-type compartment fire model computer code FIRIN developed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The two codes have been coupled to provide an improved simulation of a fire-induced transient within a facility. The basic material transport capability of FIRAC has been retained and includes estimates of entrainment, convection, deposition, and filtration of material. The interrelated effects of filter plugging, heat transfer, gas dynamics, material transport, and fire and radioactive source terms also can be simulated. Also, a sample calculation has been performed to illustrate some of the capabilities of the code and how a typical facility is modeled with FIRAC. In addition to the analytical work being performed at Los Alamos, experiments are being conducted at the New Mexico State University to support the FIRAC computer code development and verification. This paper summarizes two areas of the experimental work that support the material transport capabiities of the code: the plugging of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters by combustion aerosols and the transport and deposition of smoke in ventilation system ductwork

  18. Fire simulation in nuclear facilities--the FIRAC code and supporting experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkett, M.W.; Martin, R.A.; Fenton, D.L.; Gunaji, M.V.

    1985-01-01

    The fire accident analysis computer code FIRAC was designed to estimate radioactive and nonradioactive source terms and predict fire-induced flows and thermal and material transport within the ventilation systems of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. FIRAC maintains its basic structure and features and has been expanded and modified to include the capabilities of the zone-type compartment fire model computer code FIRIN developed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The two codes have been coupled to provide an improved simulation of a fire-induced transient within a facility. The basic material transport capability of FIRAC has been retained and includes estimates of entrainment, convection, deposition, and filtration of material. The interrelated effects of filter plugging, heat transfer, gas dynamics, material transport, and fire and radioactive source terms also can be simulated. Also, a sample calculation has been performed to illustrate some of the capabilities of the code and how a typical facility is modeled with FIRAC. In addition to the analytical work being performed at Los Alamos, experiments are being conducted at the New Mexico State University to support the FIRAC computer code development and verification. This paper summarizes two areas of the experimental work that support the material transport capabilities of the code: the plugging of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters by combustion aerosols and the transport and deposition of smoke in ventilation system ductwork

  19. Fire protection of safe shutdown capability at commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, K.

    1993-01-01

    The comprehensive industrial safety standards and codes that exist today have evolved from lessons learned through past experience, research results, and improvements in technological capabilities. The current requirements for fire safety features of commercial nuclear power stations operated in the U.S. are a notable example of this practice. Although fire protection has always been an important design requirement, from the aftermath of a serious fire that occurred in 1975 at the Browns Ferry plant, it was learned that the life safety and property protection concerns of the major fire insurance underwriters may not sufficiently encompass nuclear safety issues, particularly with regard to the potential for fire damage to result in the common mode failure of redundant trains of systems, and composites important to the safe shutdown of the reactor. Following its investigations into the Browns Ferry fire, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) promulgated guidance documents, which ultimately developed into mandatory regulations, necessary to assure the implementation of a fire protection program that would address nuclear safety concerns. The new criteria that evolved, contain prescriptive design features, as well as personnel and administrative requirements the Commission determined to be necessary to provide a defense-in-depth level of protection against the hazards of fire and its associated effects on safety related equipment. These criteria are primarily contained in Appendix R of Title 10 to the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 50)

  20. 14 CFR 23.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls, engine... controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight... they are capable of withstanding the effects of a fire. Engine vibration isolators must incorporate...

  1. Risk reduction in road and rail LPG transportation by passive fire protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paltrinieri, N.; Landucci, G.; Molag, M.; Bonvicini, S.; Spadoni, G.; Cozzani, V.

    2009-01-01

    The potential reduction of risk in LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) road transport due to the adoption of passive fire protections was investigated. Experimental data available for small scale vessels fully engulfed by a fire were extended to real scale road and rail tankers through a finite elements

  2. Recommendations for ionization chamber smoke detectors for commercial and industrial fire protection systems (1988)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Ionization chamber smoke detectors (ICSDs) utilising a radioactive substance as the source of ionization are used to detect the presence of smoke and hence give early warning of a fire. These recommendations are intended to ensure that the use of ICSDs incorporating radium-226 and americium-241 in commercial/industrial fire protection systems does not give rise to any unnecessary radiation exposure

  3. Radiation protection studies for the SHiP facility

    CERN Document Server

    Strabel, Claudia Christina; Vincke, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    The enlarged scope of the recently proposed experiment to search for Heavy Neutral Leptons, SPSC-EOI-010, is a general purpose fixed target facility which in the initial phase is aimed at a general Search for Hidden Particles (SHiP) as well as tau neutrino physics. This report summarizes radiation protection considerations for the SHiP facility and the primary beam extraction for SHiP.

  4. 105-DR Large sodium fire facility soil sampling data evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    This report evaluates the soil sampling activities, soil sample analysis, and soil sample data associated with the closure activities at the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility. The evaluation compares these activities to the regulatory requirements for meeting clean closure. The report concludes that there is no soil contamination from the waste treatment activities

  5. Design of 500kW grate fired test facility using CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Jørgensen, K.

    2005-01-01

    A 500kW vibrating grate fired test facility for solid biomass fuels has been designed using numerical models including CFD. The CFD modelling has focussed on the nozzle layout and flowpatterns in the lower part of the furnace, and the results have established confidence in the chosen design...

  6. [Protecting Safety During Dust Fires and Dust Explosions - The Example of the Formosa Fun Coast Water Park Accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Hong; Wu, Jia-Wun; Li, Ya-Cing; Tang, Jia-Suei; Hsieh, Chun-Chien

    2016-02-01

    This paper will explore the fire and explosion characteristics of cornstarch powder as well as strategies for protecting the safety of people who are involved a dust fire or dust explosion. We discuss the 5 elements of dust explosions and conduct tests to analyze the fire and explosion characteristics of differently colored powders (yellow, golden yellow, pink, purple, orange and green). The results show that, while all of the tested powders were difficult to ignite, low moisture content was associated with significantly greater risks of ignition and flame spread. We found the auto-ignition temperature (AIT) of air-borne cornstarch powder to be between 385°C and 405°C, with yellow-colored cornstarch powder showing the highest AIT and pink-colored cornstarch powder showing the lowest AIT. The volume resistivity of all powder samples was approximately 108 Ω.m, indicating that they were nonconductive. Lighters and cigarettes are effective ignition sources, as their lit temperatures are higher than the AIT of cornstarch powder. In order to better protect the safety of individuals at venues where cornstarch powder is released, explosion control measures such as explosion containment facilities, vents, and explosion suppression and isolation devices should be installed. Furthermore, employees that work at these venues should be better trained in explosion prevention and control measures. We hope this article is a reminder to the public to recognize the fire and explosion characteristics of flammable powders as well as the preventive and control measures for dust explosions.

  7. Fire precautions at petroleum refineries and bulk storage installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    Topics covered in this Code of Practice include petroleum products and combustion, site evaluation for fire defence, and fire prevention, protection, detection, systems, fighting, and fire fighting facilities in storage areas. Appendices cover legal requirements and enforcement arrangements, application rates for fire water and foam, codes of practice, flammable limits of petroleum compounds, flash points and spontaneous ignition temperatures and classification of fires. (UK)

  8. 76 FR 70413 - National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): Request for Comments on NFPA's Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... Private Fire Protection. P NFPA 36 Standard for Solvent Extraction Plants P NFPA 52 Vehicular Gaseous Fuel Systems Code P NFPA 67 Guideline on Explosion Protection for Gaseous N Mixtures in Pipe Systems. NFPA 68 Standard on Explosion Protection by Deflagration P Venting. NFPA 70B Recommended Practice for Electrical...

  9. Protection against fire and high temperature by using porous media and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, T.; Ochi, M.; Snya, S.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the protection method against the fire and high temperature under the disaster environments is developed and examined by utilizing the transpiration cooling to maintain the objectives at the room temperature. A room model installed by thermal protection panel for security heaven to which the people are able to escape from the fire in safety. The cooling structure is mainly composed of porous media which is made by thin ceramic paper, and the reinforced ceramic paper. The experimental verification of the room and cable models shows that the thermal protection by transpiration of water have good ability to keep inside at the room temperature even if in the violent fire. It is also clarified that the thermal protection technology by transpiration is expective to defend the room, building, cable, safety equipment, information system and etc., from the fire

  10. Modeling the protection afforded by burrows, cavities, and roosts during wildland surface fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony Bova; Matthew Dickinson

    2009-01-01

    Wildland surface fires produce many toxic and irritating compounds, such as formaldehyde and acrolein, and harmful gases such as carbon monoxide. Several factors influence the degree of protection offered by animal shelters against combustion products and heat.

  11. [Safeguards for the physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, O.E.

    1975-01-01

    Testimony is given on the subject of safeguards for the physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities, particularly during transportation. The ERDA nation-wide safe-secure transportation system and the Safe-Secure Trailer are described. The nationwide ERDA voice communication system is also described. Development of hardware and systems is discussed. The use of adversary simulation for evaluating protection systems is mentioned

  12. Occupational radiation protection organisation, facility and design safety features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    There is no absolute standard or excellence in radiation protection. The concept of excellence implies a continuous search for improvement in performance and full utilization of available resources. Radiation protection requires the commitment of all plant staff, including higher levels of executive management. The improvements in performance must therefore be based primarily on management rather than technical factors and must be aimed at more effective use of investments already made in plant facilities

  13. Introduction to symposium 'radiation protection at nuclear facilities'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stricker, L.

    1996-01-01

    An introduction to the symposium 'radiation protection of nuclear facilities' on Wednesday, April 17, 1996 in Vienna has been given. The number of operating reactors and the total collective dose per reactor in OECD countries has been discussed. The evolution of the total collective dose associated with the replacement of steam generators at nuclear power reactors from 1979 to 1995 is presented. The background and culture of radiation protection, regulatory aspects, strategic formulation, plan management policy and organization responsibilities are discussed generally. (Suda)

  14. Project W-026, Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility Module 1: Maximum possible fire loss (MPFL) decontamination and cleanup estimates. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkle, A.W.; Jacobsen, P.H.; Lucas, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    Project W-026, Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility Module 1, a 1991 Line Item, is planned for completion and start of operations in the spring of 1997. WRAP Module 1 will have the capability to characterize and repackage newly generated, retrieved and stored transuranic (TRU), TRU mixed, and suspect TRU waste for shipment to the Waste isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In addition, the WRAP Facility Module 1 will have the capability to characterize low-level mixed waste for treatment in WRAP Module 2A. This report documents the assumptions and cost estimates for decontamination and clean-up of a maximum possible fire loss (MPFL) as defined by DOE Order 5480.7A, FIRE PROTECTION. The Order defines MPFL as the value of property, excluding land, within a fire area, unless a fire hazards analysis demonstrates a lesser (or greater) loss potential. This assumes failure of both automatic fire suppression systems and manual fire fighting efforts. Estimates were developed for demolition, disposal, decontamination, and rebuilding. Total costs were estimated to be approximately $98M

  15. Rationalization design on large equipment dismantling facility. The cell fire-extinguishing examination (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donomae, Yasushi; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Takita, Koji; Kikuchi, Yutaka; Katoh, Noriyoshi; Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Tanimoto, Ken-ichi

    2002-07-01

    In order to rationalize for Large Equipment Dismantling Facility (LEDF), the plan of removing vaporizer belong to Cell-fire-extinguishing-system was investigated. When a vaporizer is cut down, it is necessary to grasp a fire-extinguishing performance. The fire-extinguishing performance check examination by liquefaction carbon dioxide in the cell fire-extinguishing examination (I) was carried out in 1999 fiscal year. As the result, the good performance was obtained to polyethylene. But there was the deep-seated fire about a piece of wood. Then, the check items were carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and CO2 concentration holding time for the deep-seated fire in the cell fire-extinguishing examination (III). The results were as follows; (1) By use of the combustion model in which a piece of wood and cotton were put is lit, temperature inside model, mass reduction, and combustion situation were examined. The model burned remarkably in 30∼60 min. The peak temperature rise to 680 degC (MAX), and attained smoldering after (ignition) 70 min. Moreover, in order to determine the generating conditions of a deep-seated fire, the situation of CO2 extinguishing after ignition by the time lag of 50∼90 min were examined. The model around ignition 50 minutes was the most difficult to extinguish, and it turned out that they are the conditions which were most suitable for the deep-seated fire examination model of an exam. (2) In order to decide on CO2 concentration and concentration holding time required for fire extinguishing of the deep-seated fire in LEDF, the fire-extinguishing performance was investigated by 40 ∼ 65% of CO2 concentration. Consequently, CO2 concentration required for deep-seated fire extinguishing was understood that 60% or more was required when safety was taken into consideration at 50% or more. Moreover, when it was 50% or more of CO2 concentration and the holding time of CO2 concentration was 180 minutes or more and 60% or more of CO2 concentration, it

  16. 14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... procedures must be fire-resistant. (c) Insulation on electrical wire and electrical cable must be self... this part, or other approved equivalent methods. The average burn length must not exceed 3 inches (76...

  17. Water Supply Systems For Aircraft Fire And Rescue Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This Advisory Circular (AC) provides guidance for the selection : of a water source and standards for the design of a distribution system to : support aircraft rescue and fire fighting (ARFF) service operations on : airports.

  18. Protection against fire hazards in French nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapus, J.

    2000-01-01

    The prevention of fire in French nuclear power plants has followed the evolution of safety regulations. Today fire hazards are no longer considered as classical industrial risks but as specific risks that deserve to be studied thoroughly and in a more formalized form. In the beginning of the eighties EDF was committed to the redaction of a technical referential against fire gathering all the directives applicable to the N4-type plant (1450 MW). In 1994 this technical referential was reconsidered and enlarged in order to involve 900 MW and 1300 MW units. In each nuclear power plant a PAI (plan against fire) has been elaborated so that the installation can be progressively upgraded according to the last standard defined by the technical referential. (A.C.)

  19. Design and evaluation of physical protection systems of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Jin Soo; Lee, Hyun Chul; Hwang, In Koo; Kwack, Eun Ho; Choi, Yung Myung

    2001-06-01

    Nuclear material and safety equipment of nuclear facilities are required to be protected against any kind of theft or sabotage. Physical protection is one of the measures to prevent such illegally potential threats for public security. It should cover all the cases of use, storage, and transportation of nuclear material. A physical protection system of a facility consists of exterior intrusion sensors, interior intrusion sensors, an alarm assessment and communication system, entry control systems, access delay equipment, etc. The design of an effective physical protection system requires a comprehensive approach in which the designers define the objective of the system, establish an initial design, and evaluate the proposed design. The evaluation results are used to determine whether or not the initial design should be modified and improved. Some modelling techniques are commonly used to analyse and evaluate the performance of a physical protection system. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) has developed a prototype of software as a part of a full computer model for effectiveness evaluation for physical protection systems. The input data elements for the prototype, contain the type of adversary, tactics, protection equipment, and the attributes of each protection component. This report contains the functional and structural requirements defined in the development of the evaluation computer model.

  20. Action taken by the french safety authorities for fire protection and fire fighting in basic nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savornin, J.; Gibault, M.; Berger, R.; Kaluzny, Y.; Wallard, H.E.; Winter, D.

    1989-03-01

    The safety goal for nuclear installations is to prevent the dispersal of radioactive substances, both in the work area and outside the buildings into the environment. It is therefore at the design stage, then during construction and subsequent operation that it is necessary to take preventive measures against the outbreak of fire, and to take precautions to ensure that the consequences will always be limited. The paper describes the arrangements made by the French safety authorities to provide protection against fire in both nuclear plants and nuclear fuel cycle installations at all these stages

  1. WHC-SD-W252-FHA-001, Rev. 0: Preliminary fire hazard analysis for Phase II Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal Facility, Project W-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barilo, N.F.

    1995-01-01

    A Fire Hazards Analysis was performed to assess the risk from fire and other related perils and the capability of the facility to withstand these hazards. This analysis will be used to support design of the facility

  2. A probabilistic risk assessment of the LLNL Plutonium Facility's evaluation basis fire operational accident. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumburgh, G.P.

    1995-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Plutonium Facility conducts numerous programmatic activities involving plutonium to include device fabrication, development of improved and/or unique fabrication techniques, metallurgy research, and laser isotope separation. A Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the building 332 Plutonium Facility was completed in July 1994 to address operational safety and acceptable risk to employees, the public, government property, and the environmental. This paper outlines the PRA analysis of the Evaluation Basis Fire (EBF) operational accident. The EBF postulates the worst-case programmatic impact event for the Plutonium Facility

  3. Fire and explosion incident at bituminization demonstration facility of PNC Tokai works, on march 11, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, A.; Sato, Y.; Koyama, T.; Omori, E.; Kato, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Norjiri, I.; Yamanouchi, T.

    2001-01-01

    On March 11, a fire and explosion incident occurred at the Bituminization Demonstration Facility (BDF) of Tokai Reprocessing Plant in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). Soon after the incident, PNC (now reorganized to JNC) started to investigate the facility damage, operational records around the incident, technical notes including facility design and reviews of R and D results, operators witness and to perform several analysis, tests and calculations. This paper describes outline and cause of the incident which were concluded based on the results of continuous serious investigation, analysis and calculation. (author)

  4. Fire exposed facades: Numerical modelling of the LEPIR2 testing facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dréan Virginie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available LEPIR2 testing facility is aimed to evaluate the fire behaviour of construction solutions implemented on facade according with the experimental evaluation required by the French Technical Specification 249 (IT249 of the safety regulation. It aims to limit the risks of fire spreading by facades to upper levels. This facility involves a wood crib fire in the lower compartment of a full scale two levels high structure. Flames are coming outside from the compartment through windows openings and develop in front of the facade. Computational fluids dynamics simulations are carried out with the FDS code (Fire Dynamics Simulator for two full-scale experiments performed by Efectis France laboratory. The first objective of this study is to evaluate the ability of numerical model to reproduce quantitative results in terms of gas temperatures and heat flux on the tested facade for further evaluation of fire performances of an insulation solution. When experimental results are compared with numerical calculations, good agreement is found out for every quantities and each test. The proposed models for wood cribs and geometry give correct thermal loads and flames shape near the tested facade.

  5. Management impacts on fire occurrence: A comparison of fire regimes of African and South American tropical savannas in different protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Swanni T; Silva, Thiago Sanna Freire; Archibald, Sally

    2018-07-15

    Humans can alter fire dynamics in grassland systems by changing fire frequency, fire seasonality and fuel conditions. These changes have effects on vegetation structure and recovery, species composition, and ecosystem function. Understanding how human management can affect fire regimes is vital to detect potential changes in the resilience of plant communities, and to predict vegetation responses to human interventions. We evaluated the fire regimes of two recently protected areas in Madagascar (Ibity and Itremo NPA) and one in Brazil (Serra do Cipó NP) before and after livestock exclusion and fire suppression policies. We compare the pre- and post-management fire history in these areas and analyze differences in terms of total annual burned area, density of ignitions, burn scar size distribution, fire return period and seasonal fire distribution. More than 90% of total park areas were burned at least once during the studied period, for all parks. We observed a significant reduction in the number of ignitions for Ibity NPA and Serra do Cipó NP after livestock exclusion and active fire suppression, but no significant change in total burned area for each protected area. We also observed a seasonal shift in burning, with fires happening later in the fire season (October-November) after management intervention. However, the protected areas in Madagascar had shorter fire return intervals (3.23 and 1.82 years) than those in Brazil (7.91 years). Our results demonstrate that fire exclusion is unattainable, and probably unwarranted in tropical grassland conservation areas, but show how human intervention in fire and vegetation patterns can alter various aspects of the fire regimes. This information can help with formulating realistic and effective fire management policies in these valuable conservation areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Defence-in-depth strategy of fire protection and its relevance after final shutdown (by the example of Germany)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beesen, Michael; Ernst, Benjamin; Fischer, Guenter [TUeV SUeD Industrie Service GmbH (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Nuclear power plants (NPP) are protected against internal and external fires by a fire protection defence-in-depth concept including the following precautionary measures: operational, structural and equipment related fire protection measures as well as manual fire fighting. The fire protection measures are designed in consideration of fires to be expected (from fire loads permanently and temporarily present together with potential ignition sources) in order to prevent a violation of both the protection goals of public law and the nuclear protection goals / radiological safety objectives in case of internal and external fires. The aspect ''What is the future significance of the fire protection defence-in-depth concept?'' needs to be considered with regard to the situation following the final shutdown. From our point of view as a TSO (technical safety organization) both the non-nuclear protection goals (e.g. prevent occurrence of a fire; ensure escape and rescue of humans) as well as the nuclear ones have to be ensured after final shutdown of a nuclear plant. The protection goals of public law will almost completely remain after the plant has stopped commercial operation while the nuclear safety objectives will be stepwise reduced in consideration of the decommissioning status until the end of the nuclear supervision. Nevertheless, the fire protection concept must clearly specify those fire protection measures that are necessary to ensure the plants' safety. The situation on site regularly needs to be under examination to check if the fire protection concept covers all conditions to be considered and if the existing fire protection measures are sufficient or if an adaption is necessary.

  7. International physical protection self-assessment tool for chemical facilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewell, Craig R.; Burdick, Brent A.; Stiles, Linda L.; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2010-09-01

    This report is the final report for Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Project No.130746, International Physical Protection Self-Assessment Tool for Chemical Facilities. The goal of the project was to develop an exportable, low-cost, computer-based risk assessment tool for small to medium size chemical facilities. The tool would assist facilities in improving their physical protection posture, while protecting their proprietary information. In FY2009, the project team proposed a comprehensive evaluation of safety and security regulations in the target geographical area, Southeast Asia. This approach was later modified and the team worked instead on developing a methodology for identifying potential targets at chemical facilities. Milestones proposed for FY2010 included characterizing the international/regional regulatory framework, finalizing the target identification and consequence analysis methodology, and developing, reviewing, and piloting the software tool. The project team accomplished the initial goal of developing potential target categories for chemical facilities; however, the additional milestones proposed for FY2010 were not pursued and the LDRD funding therefore was redirected.

  8. Fire protection requirements of the insurance industry and their impact on nuclear power plant design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitchman, J.V.; King, W.T. Jr.; Nashman, T.A.

    1976-01-01

    The insurance industry, with its wealth of knowledge and experience in the fire protection area and with preservation of its funds at stake, has always been heavily involved in the fire protection programs of nuclear power plants. Since it was concerned with property preservation in addition to nuclear safety, the insurance industry placed more detailed emphasis on fire protection requirements than did the nuclear regulatory bodies. Since the Browns Ferry fire, however, the insurance industry, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards and the utilities themselves have re-examined their approaches to fire protection. A more coordinated approach seems to have emerged, which is based largely upon insurance industry specifications and guidelines. The paper briefly summarizes the fire protection requirements of the insurance industry as they apply to nuclear power plants. Some of the ways these requirements affect project planning, plant design, and construction timing are reviewed, as well as some of the more controversial fire protection areas

  9. The radiation protection code of practice in teletherapy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadlalla, N. S. M.

    2010-05-01

    This study aimed to provide a document (code) for the standard practice in teletherapy facilities to be a reference and guide for establishing new teletherapy facilities or mending an existing one, another aim was to evaluated the teletherapy facilities with regard to their compliance to the recommendations and guides mentioned in this document. This document includes: safety specifications for teletherapy equipment, facility planning and shielding design, radiation protection and work practice, quality assurance and personnel requirements and responsibilities. In order to assess the degree of compliance of the two centers in the country with what was stated in the developed document IAEA inspection checklist was utilized and made some radiation measurement were made around the treatment rooms. The results of such inspection mission revealed that the current status of radiation protection in both of inspected centers is almost similar and both are not satisfactory as many of the essential items of radiation protection as stipulated in this document were not followed, which lead to unnecessary, radiation exposure to patients and staff. Finally, some recommendations that may help to improve the status of radiation protection in radiotherapy departments in Sudan are given. (Author)

  10. Hazards study of environmental protection classified facilities. Scenarios analysis; Etude de dangers des ICPE. Analyse des scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seveque, J.L. [Cour d' Appel d' Amiens, 80 (France)

    2006-04-15

    This article describes the analysis and study of the possible impacts of accidents occurring at industrial facilities classified with respect to the environment protection. The operators of such facilities have to describe the possible risks and their consequences, the measures taken to prevent them and the level of residual risk. Therefore, it consists in calculating the consequences of all possible aggressions that a facility can undergo. The receptors are of 2 type: the human body (burns, asphyxia, intoxication, shock wave, projectile), and the surrounding equipments (fire, unconfined vapour cloud explosion (UVCE), boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE), fireball, dispersion of toxic gases). Content: 1 - fire-type scenario: description, modeling of thermal effects, conclusion; 2 - UVCE-type scenario: description, Lannoy method (TNT equivalent), multi-energy method, conclusion; 3 - BLEVE-type scenario: description, modeling of overpressure effects, thermal effects of the fireball; 4 - toxic cloud scenario: modeling of a toxic cloud dispersion, effects and consequences; 5 - conclusions. (J.S.)

  11. Thermal Analysis Of A 9975 Package In A Facility Fire Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, N.

    2011-01-01

    Surplus plutonium bearing materials in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex are stored in the 3013 containers that are designed to meet the requirements of the DOE standard DOE-STD-3013. The 3013 containers are in turn packaged inside 9975 packages that are designed to meet the NRC 10 CFR Part 71 regulatory requirements for transporting the Type B fissile materials across the DOE complex. The design requirements for the hypothetical accident conditions (HAC) involving a fire are given in 10 CFR 71.73. The 9975 packages are stored at the DOE Savannah River Site in the K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) facility for long term of up to 50 years. The design requirements for safe storage in KAMS facility containing multiple sources of combustible materials are far more challenging than the HAC requirements in 10 CFR 71.73. While the 10 CFR 71.73 postulates an HAC fire of 1475 F and 30 minutes duration, the facility fire calls for a fire of 1500 F and 86 duration. This paper describes a methodology and the analysis results that meet the design limits of the 9975 component and demonstrate the robustness of the 9975 package.

  12. Hazardous emissions, operating practices, and air regulations at industrial wood-fired facilities in Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Since October of 1988 the State of Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources has regulated over four hundred substances as hazardous air pollutants. The rule regulates new as well as existing sources of air pollution in Wisconsin. Consequently, all permits to operate an air pollution source in Wisconsin must address the hazardous air emissions potential of the source. While widely perceived as a clean-burning fuel, wood is often burned in a manner which clearly results in significant emissions of very hazardous air pollutants. Research conducted on a 20 million BTU per hour wood-fired spreader stoker boiler in northern Wisconsin showed that this boiler has the potential to emit 0.022 pound of benzene and 0.012 pound of formaldehyde per ton (lb/ton) of wood fired. Recent stack tests at more than a dozen other small industrial wood-fired facilities in Wisconsin show a range of formaldehyde emissions of 0.0007--0.1950 lb/ton. Work at Birchwood Lumber ampersand Veneer showed that the benzene and formaldehyde emission rates under good firing conditions are an order of magnitude lower than the benzene and formaldehyde emission rates under poor firing conditions. This finding has supported Wisconsin's regulatory approach of encouraging wood-fired facilities to enhance the quality of the combustion process as a technique to minimize the hazardous air pollution potential of industrial wood combustion. The Wisconsin strategy is to define open-quotes good combustion technologyclose quotes through easily measurable combustion parameters rather than emission standards. This paper presents several techniques in use in Wisconsin to comply with open-quotes good combustion technologyclose quotes for industrial wood-fired furnaces. These techniques include fuel blending overfire air, furnace insulation, and proper grate design

  13. Fire hazard analysis for fusion energy experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, N.J.; Hasegawa, H.K.

    1979-01-01

    The 2XIIB mirror fusion facility at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) was used to evaluate the fire safety of state-of-the-art fusion energy experiments. The primary objective of this evaluation was to ensure the parallel development of fire safety and fusion energy technology. Through fault-tree analysis, we obtained a detailed engineering description of the 2XIIB fire protection system. This information helped us establish an optimum level of fire protection for experimental fusion energy facilities as well as evaluate the level of protection provided by various systems. Concurrently, we analyzed the fire hazard inherent to the facility using techniques that relate the probability of ignition to the flame spread and heat-release potential of construction materials, electrical and thermal insulations, and dielectric fluids. A comparison of the results of both analyses revealed that the existing fire protection system should be modified to accommodate the range of fire hazards inherent to the 2XIIB facility

  14. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longwell, R.; Keifer, J.; Goodin, S.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events

  15. Fire protection of safe shutdown capability at commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, K.

    1993-01-01

    The comprehensive industrial safety standards and codes that exist today have evolved from lessons learned through past experience, research results, and improvements in technological capabilities. The current requirements for fire safety features of commercial nuclear power stations operated in the US are a notable example of this practice. Although fire protection has always been an important design requirement, from the aftermath of a serious fire that occurred in 1975 at the Browns Ferry plant, it was learned that the life safety and property protection concerns of the major fire insurance underwriters may not sufficiently encompass nuclear safety issues, particularly with regard to the potential for fire damage to result in the common mode failure of redundant trains of systems, and components important to the safe shutdown of the reactor. Following its investigations into the Browns Ferry fire, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) promulgated guidance documents, which ultimately developed into mandatory regulations, necessary to assure the implementation of a fire protection program that would address nuclear safety concerns. The new criteria that evolved, contain prescriptive design features, as well as personnel and administrative requirements the Commission determined to be necessary to provide a defense-in-depth level of protection against the hazards of fire and its associated effects on safety related equipment. These criteria are primarily contained in Appendix R of Title 10 to the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 50). Since 1983, various members of the Department of Nuclear Energy (DNE) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) have provided technical assistance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of its evaluations of fire protection features implemented at commercial nuclear power stations operated in the US. This paper presents a discussion of the insights gained by the author during his active participation in this area

  16. Application of the NUREG/CR-6850 EPRI/NRC Fire PRA Methodology to a DOE Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elicson, Tom; Harwood, Bentley; Yorg, Richard; Lucek, Heather; Bouchard, Jim; Jukkola, Ray; Phan, Duan

    2011-01-01

    The application NUREG/CR-6850 EPRI/NRC fire PRA methodology to DOE facility presented several challenges. This paper documents the process and discusses several insights gained during development of the fire PRA. A brief review of the tasks performed is provided with particular focus on the following: Tasks 5 and 14: Fire-induced risk model and fire risk quantification. A key lesson learned was to begin model development and quantification as early as possible in the project using screening values and simplified modeling if necessary. Tasks 3 and 9: Fire PRA cable selection and detailed circuit failure analysis. In retrospect, it would have been beneficial to perform the model development and quantification in 2 phases with detailed circuit analysis applied during phase 2. This would have allowed for development of a robust model and quantification earlier in the project and would have provided insights into where to focus the detailed circuit analysis efforts. Tasks 8 and 11: Scoping fire modeling and detailed fire modeling. More focus should be placed on detailed fire modeling and less focus on scoping fire modeling. This was the approach taken for the fire PRA. Task 14: Fire risk quantification. Typically, multiple safe shutdown (SSD) components fail during a given fire scenario. Therefore dependent failure analysis is critical to obtaining a meaningful fire risk quantification. Dependent failure analysis for the fire PRA presented several challenges which will be discussed in the full paper.

  17. Efficacy of water spray protection against propane and butane jet fires impinging on LPG storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvill, L.C. [Shell Global Solutions (UK), Chester (United Kingdom)

    2004-03-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage tanks are often provided with water sprays to protect them in the event of a fire. This protection has been shown to be effective in a hydrocarbon pool fire but uncertainties remained regarding the degree of protection afforded in a jet fire resulting from a liquid or two-phase release of LPG. Two projects, sponsored by the Health and Safety Executive, have been undertaken to study, at full scale, the performance of a water spray system on an empty 13 tonne LPG vessel under conditions of jet fire impingement from nearby releases of liquid propane and butane. The results showed that a typical water deluge system found on an LPG storage vessel cannot be relied upon to maintain a water film over the whole vessel surface in an impinging propane or butane jet fire scenario. The deluge affects the fire itself, reducing the luminosity and smoke, resulting in a lower rate of wall temperature rise at the dry patches, when compared with the undeluged case. The results of these studies will be used by the HSE in assessing the risk of accidental fires on LPG installations leading to boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE) incidents. (Author)

  18. Methods and criteria for evaluation of nuclear reactor fire protection alternatives and modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a methodology for the evaluation of a fire protection system in a nuclear power plant and demonstrate the feasibility of encoding this method in a computer program. A Monte Carlo simulation has been developed; it is divided into the four phases of a fire scenario: ignition, detection, suppression and propagation. The ignition model consists of probabilistically determining at what location within the zone a fire will occur. The detection model is divided into two components. THe first is the automatic detection model, which calculates the fire's physical symptoms and compares them against the threshold values of the detectors specified for the zone to determine a time-to-detection. The second part is the human detection model; this evaluates the time required for a human to observe and report a fire. If detection is successful, the suppression mode determines if the fire is effectively extinguished, and if so, the time required to do so. This model is also divided into an automatic and human component. The propagation model is embedded in a deterministic, control-volume computer code which calculates the fire scenario history. A computer program, FIRES, is described which supports the developed models. FIRES is an interactive graphics package providing a simple means of establishing the many input parameters. In addition to allowing parameter values to be easily set or modified, the graphics provides a convenient display mode for the results of a simulation

  19. Critical Protection Item classification for a waste processing facility at Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ades, M.J.; Garrett, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology for Critical Protection Item (CPI) classification and its application to the Structures, Systems and Components (SSC) of a waste processing facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The WSRC methodology for CPI classification includes the evaluation of the radiological and non-radiological consequences resulting from postulated accidents at the waste processing facility and comparison of these consequences with allowable limits. The types of accidents considered include explosions and fire in the facility and postulated accidents due to natural phenomena, including earthquakes, tornadoes, and high velocity straight winds. The radiological analysis results indicate that CPIs are not required at the waste processing facility to mitigate the consequences of radiological release. The non-radiological analysis, however, shows that the Waste Storage Tank (WST) and the dike spill containment structures around the formic acid tanks in the cold chemical feed area and waste treatment area of the facility should be identified as CPIs. Accident mitigation options are provided and discussed

  20. Improvement of flame resistance of non-flame retardant cables by applying fire protection measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemura, Yujiro; Segoshi, Yoshinori; Jinno, Susumu; Mii, Kazuki

    2017-01-01

    The new regulatory requirements, which were put in force after the Fukushima Daiichi accident, impose the use of flame retardant cables on the plant components having safety functions for the purpose of fire protection. However, some Japanese nuclear power plants built in the early days use non-flame retardant cables that do not pass the demonstration test to check for the flame resistance. To cope with the new regulatory requirements, a fire protection measure for non-flame retardant cables was introduced to assure flame resistance of non-flame retardant cables equivalent to or higher than that of flame retardant cables. To illustrate the fire protection measure, both non-flame retardant cables and its cable tray are covered with fire protection sheet fabricated from incombustible material to form an assembly. Considering the demonstration test results, it can be concluded that flame resistance performance of non-flame retardant cables equivalent to or higher than that of flame retardant cables can be assured by forming the assembly even if an external fire outside the assembly and internal cable fire inside the assembly are assumed. This paper introduces the design of the assembly consisting of a bundle of cables and a cable tray and summarizes the results of demonstration tests. (author)

  1. Developing a model lifeline protection program for DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowing, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    A National Lifeline Standard Development Program is currently being conducted by FEMA and NIST. The Department of Energy is following these developments and supplementing them to meet Life-Safety and mission requirements for all DOE facilities as part of the Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation Plan. The task will be overseen by a DOE management team with technical guidance provided by a Steering Group of management and operating contractor representatives. The DOE will participate in the federal program by conducting a workshop on lifeline protection issues, developing an overall plan, organizing a Steering Group, and conducting a pilot study at a DOE facility

  2. 14 CFR 125.175 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... Requirements § 125.175 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided in...

  3. 14 CFR 121.277 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components....277 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all airplane surfaces aft of the nacelles in the area of one nacelle diameter on both...

  4. A conceptual framework for formulating a focused and cost-effective fire protection program based on analyses of risk and the dynamics of fire effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, M.K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework for developing a fire protection program at nuclear power plants based on probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) of fire hazards, and modeling the dynamics of fire effects. The process for categorizing nuclear power plant fire areas based on risk is described, followed by a discussion of fire safety design methods that can be used for different areas of the plant, depending on the degree of threat to plant safety from the fire hazard. This alternative framework has the potential to make programs more cost-effective, and comprehensive, since it will allow a more systematic and broader examination of fire risk, and provide a means to distinguish between high and low risk fire contributors. (orig.)

  5. Fire Safety Consideration in the Pre-conceptual Design State of Pyro-Facillity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Hong Rae; Seo, Seok Jun; Lee, Hyo Jik [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The government, in order to solve this problem, has organized a public engagement committee and is searching for a solution. To use sustainable nuclear energy, our country is also pursuing research and development of fast breeder reactor and pyroprocessing technology in accordance with the international movement of spent fuel recycling and efforts towards nuclear non-proliferation which is centered on the development and demonstration of recycling spent fuel and fast breeder reactors. Pyro-facility has different features with nuclear power plant. In the pyroprocess, chemical and electrochemical separation were took place in the hot cells and material at risk (MAR) is distributed in many working areas. In this paper, we conducted the fire modeling of hot cells to see the stability of pyrophoric materials which is considered as one of the potential hazardous materials in the main process cell. Based on modeling results, consideration of fire safety pyrofacility will be discussed. We performed preliminary hazard analysis for pyrofacility and summarized potential fire hazard. Pyrophoric material fire is the dominant hazard in the main process hot cell and fire modeling of cable tray in the cell was analyzed to see the stability of pyrophoric materials. Analysis results clearly shows that pyrophoric materials are prone to be affected.

  6. A new approach to the Danish guidelines for fire protection of combustible insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragsted Anders

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The tendency to use thicker layers of insulation and a wider use of combustible insulation materials is identified to pose a potential risk to fire safety of buildings. A new approach to the current Danish prescriptive code on fire protection of combustible insulation is proposed as a way to meet the concern. The new approach uses the fire properties of the insulation material itself to point out the necessary protective measures. This is contrary to the most European countries were only a reaction to fire class of the façade construction as a whole is required. The basic principle is presented but more research is needed to complete the new approach.

  7. Evaluation of Generic Issue 57: Effects of fire protection system actuation on safety-related equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, J.; Bohn, M.; Lynch, J.; Ross, S.; Brosseau, D.

    1992-12-01

    Nuclear power plants have experienced actuations of fire protection systems (FPSs) under conditions for which these systems were not intended to actuate and also have experienced advertent actuations with the presence of a fire. These actuations have often damaged safety-related equipment. A review of the impact of past occurrences of both types of such events and their impact on plant safety systems, an analysis of the risk impacts of such events on nuclear power plant safety, and a cost-benefit analysis of potential corrective measures have been performed. Thirteen different scenarios leading to actuation of fire protection systems due to a variety of causes were identified. These scenarios ranged from inadvertent actuation caused by human error to hardware failure, and include seismic root causes and seismic/fire interactions. A quantification of these thirteen root causes, where applicable, was performed on generically applicable scenarios. This document, Volume 4, contains appendices E and F of this report

  8. Forum for fire protection and safety in power plants[Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The conference contains 16 presentations on topics in the fields of fire protection and safety in plants in Western Norway, reorganization and reconstruction of power systems and plants in Norway, various aspects of risk and vulnerability analysis, technological aspects of plant management and construction and problems and risks with particularly transformers. Some views on challenges of the fire departments and the new Norwegian regulations for electrical power supply systems are included. One presentation deals with challenges for Icelandic power production plants.

  9. Verification of fire and explosion accident analysis codes (facility design and preliminary results)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, W.S.; Nichols, B.D.; Talbott, D.V.; Smith, P.R.; Fenton, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    For several years, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has sponsored the development of methods for improving capabilities to analyze the effects of postulated accidents in nuclear facilities; the accidents of interest are those that could occur during nuclear materials handling. At the Los Alamos National Laboratory, this program has resulted in three computer codes: FIRAC, EXPAC, and TORAC. These codes are designed to predict the effects of fires, explosions, and tornadoes in nuclear facilities. Particular emphasis is placed on the movement of airborne radioactive material through the gaseous effluent treatment system of a nuclear installation. The design, construction, and calibration of an experimental ventilation system to verify the fire and explosion accident analysis codes are described. The facility features a large industrial heater and several aerosol smoke generators that are used to simulate fires. Both injected thermal energy and aerosol mass can be controlled using this equipment. Explosions are simulated with H 2 /O 2 balloons and small explosive charges. Experimental measurements of temperature, energy, aerosol release rates, smoke concentration, and mass accumulation on HEPA filters can be made. Volumetric flow rate and differential pressures also are monitored. The initial experiments involve varying parameters such as thermal and aerosol rate and ventilation flow rate. FIRAC prediction results are presented. 10 figs

  10. Coal-fired MHD test progress at the Component Development and Integration Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, A.T.; Rivers, T.J.; Alsberg, C.M.; Filius, K.D.

    1992-01-01

    The Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) is a Department of Energy test facility operated by MSE, Inc. In the fall of 1984, a 50-MW t , pressurized, slag rejecting coal-fired combustor (CFC) replaced the oil-fired combustor in the test train. In the spring of 1989, a coal-fired precombustor was added to the test hardware, and current controls were installed in the spring of 1990. In the fall of 1990, the slag rejector was installed. MSE test hardware activities included installing the final workhorse channel and modifying the coalfired combustor by installing improved design and proof-of-concept (POC) test pieces. This paper discusses the involvement of this hardware in test progress during the past year. Testing during the last year emphasized the final workhorse hardware testing. This testing will be discussed. Facility modifications and system upgrades for improved operation and duration testing will be discussed. In addition, this paper will address long-term testing plans

  11. Facility for protection of technological, especially power assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichon, S.; Hahn, J.; Malatek, K.; Randak, O.; Vitovec, P.; Zidek, M.

    1987-01-01

    The facility consists of sensors producing analog signals, used as input information for the evaluation of process conditions or equipment failures. The sensors are fitted to partial functional parts of technological assemblies, such as nuclear reactors. The individual sensors are connected via unification converters to the respective protection units. The facility is resistant to breakdowns of the analog sensors and other components including the computer; it features the possibility of in-service failure detection and the capability of immediate regeneration following a failure. This capability prevents, with high probability, the production of non-accident failures of the technological assembly. The block diagram is described of the facility and its operation in the event of an emergency. (J.B.). 1 fig

  12. Security Culture in Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susyanta-Widyatmaka; Koraag, Venuesiana-Dewi; Taswanda-Taryo

    2005-01-01

    In nuclear related field, there are three different cultures: safety, safeguards and security culture. Safety culture has established mostly in nuclear industries, meanwhile safeguards and security culture are relatively new and still developing. The latter is intended to improve the physical protection of material and nuclear facility. This paper describes concept, properties and factors affecting security culture and interactions among these cultures. The analysis indicates that anybody involving in nuclear material and facility should have strong commitment and awareness of such culture to establish it. It is concluded that the assessment of security culture outlined in this paper is still preliminary for developing and conduction rigorous security culture implemented in a much more complex facility such as nuclear power plant

  13. Safety and radiation protection in mining and milling facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Maisa H.; Schenato, Flavia; Cruz, Paulo R., E-mail: maisahm@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: schenato@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: pcruz@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Xavier, Ana M., E-mail: axavier@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (ESPOA/CNEN-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escritorio de Porto Alegre

    2011-07-01

    Federal Legislation in Brazil establishes that the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN - is responsible for the surveillance of the industrialization of nuclear ores and the production and commerce of nuclear materials in such way that activities such as buying, selling, import and export, are subject to previous licensing and surveillance. Regulation CNEN-NN-4.01 on Safety and Radiation Protection in Mining and Milling Facilities of conventional ores containing naturally occurring radioactive materials, NORM, was issued in 2004 establishing both a methodology for classification of these facilities into three Categories, taking into account both the contents of uranium and thorium in the ores and the applicable radiation and safety requirements based on a graded approach. Although the lack of a licensing process in the above mentioned Regulation made its implementation a difficult task, CNEN, by means of an initial survey, identified ca. 30 mining and milling industries of conventional ores containing uranium and thorium with concentrations above 10 Bq/g. More recently, a new juridical understanding of the legislation concluded that CNEN must issue licences and authorizations for the possession and storage of all ores with uranium and thorium concentrations above exemption levels. A proper surveillance programme encompassing 13 of these mining facilities was then put forward aiming at the improvement of their safety and radiation protection. This article presents an overview of NORM exploitation in Brazil and put forward suggestions for achieving viable solutions for the protection of workers, general public and environment from the effects of ionizing radiation. (author)

  14. The physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The latest review (1993) of this document was of limited scope and resulted in changes to the text of INFCIRC/225/Rev.2 designed to make the categorization table in that document consistent with the categorization table contained in the Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials. Consequently, a comprehensive review of INFCIRC/225 has not been conducted since 1989. Consequently, a meeting of national experts was convened from 2-5 June 1998 and from 27-29 October 1998 for a thorough review of INFCIRC/225/Rev.3. The revised document reflects the recommendations of the national experts to improve the structure and clarity of the document and to take account of improved technology and current international and national practices. In particular, a chapter has been added which provides specific recommendations related to sabotage of nuclear facilities and nuclear material. As a result of this addition, the title has been changed to 'The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities'. The recommendations presented in this IAEA document reflect a broad consensus among Member States on the requirements which should be met by systems for the physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities. It is hoped that they will provide helpful guidance for Member States.

  15. Protection of nuclear facilities and nuclear materials against malevolent actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornu, P.; Aurelle, J.; Jalouneix, J.

    2001-01-01

    The french approach for considering malevolent actions affecting the design and operation of nuclear facilities is aimed at determining the extent to which the facilities are protected. When carrying out these studies, operating organizations have to demonstrate that their are complying with the objectives set by the Competent Authority for reducing the risk of internal or external malevolent actions. The approach to be followed consist to determine the sensitivity of each zone and to estimate the vulnerability of the most critical zones to each type of aggression. The sensitivity can be defined by the level of the radiological consequences resulting from a malevolent action. The estimation of the vulnerability is made of the extent to which it is difficult to carry out a malevolent action. if need be, counter-measures are taken to protect zones for which the consequences would be unacceptable compared to the force of the aggression. Counter-measures are intended both to minimise sensitivity and make it more difficult to carry out the aggression envisaged. Acceptable consequences are taken as being those leading to levels of radioactive releases less than, or equal to, those taken into account in the facility safety case. This implies that the vulnerability of the most sensitive zones should be reduced to a minimum so that an acceptable level of protection can be provided for these areas. Emphasis will be paid on the defence in depth approach organized around prevention, management and mitigation measures. (authors)

  16. The physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The latest review (1993) of this document was of limited scope and resulted in changes to the text of INFCIRC/225/Rev.2 designed to make the categorization table in that document consistent with the categorization table contained in the Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials. Consequently, a comprehensive review of INFCIRC/225 has not been conducted since 1989. Consequently, a meeting of national experts was convened from 2-5 June 1998 and from 27-29 October 1998 for a thorough review of INFCIRC/225/Rev.3. The revised document reflects the recommendations of the national experts to improve the structure and clarity of the document and to take account of improved technology and current international and national practices. In particular, a chapter has been added which provides specific recommendations related to sabotage of nuclear facilities and nuclear material. As a result of this addition, the title has been changed to 'The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities'. The recommendations presented in this IAEA document reflect a broad consensus among Member States on the requirements which should be met by systems for the physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities. It is hoped that they will provide helpful guidance for Member States

  17. Methods to Compose Sodium Fire Extinguishing Equipment on Sodium Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B H; Kim, J M; Jeong, J Y; Choi, B H

    2008-06-15

    Sodium fire is graded 'D' and it is difficult to extinguish sodium fire. In this report, the characteristics of sodium fire and the methods composing the suitable fire extinguishing systems to suppress fire effectively were described.

  18. Methods to Compose Sodium Fire Extinguishing Equipment on Sodium Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. M.; Jeong, J. Y.; Choi, B. H.

    2008-06-01

    Sodium fire is graded 'D' and it is difficult to extinguish sodium fire. In this report, the characteristics of sodium fire and the methods composing the suitable fire extinguishing systems to suppress fire effectively were described

  19. Fire criticality probability analysis for 300 Area N Reactor fuel fabrication and storage facility. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, J.E.

    1995-02-08

    Uranium fuel assemblies and other uranium associated with the shutdown N Reactor are stored in the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility (Facility). The 3712 Building, where the majority of the fuel assemblies and other uranium is stored, is where there could be a potential for a criticality bounding case. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the probability of potential fires in the Facility 3712 Building that could lead to criticality. This study has been done to support the criticality update. For criticality to occur, the wooden fuel assembly containers would have to burn such that the fuel inside would slump into a critical geometry configuration, a sufficient number of containers burn to form an infinite wide configuration, and sufficient water (about a 17 inch depth) be placed onto the slump. To obtain the appropriate geometric configuration, enough fuel assembly containers to form an infinite array on the floor would have to be stacked at least three high. Administrative controls require the stacks to be limited to two high for 1.25 wt% enriched finished fuel. This is not sufficient to allow for a critical mass regardless of the fire and accompanying water moderation. It should be noted that 0.95 wt% enriched fuel and billets are stacked higher than only two high. In this analysis, two initiating events will be considered. The first is a random fire that is hot enough and sufficiently long enough to burn away the containers and fuel separators such that the fuel can establish a critical mass. The second is a seismically induced fire with the same results.

  20. Physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities in CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier-Gratia, M.-H.; Jorda, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique), as nuclear operator, is responsible for the control and protection of their nuclear materials. Inside CEA, DCS (Central Security Division) is in charge of the security matters, DCS defines the CEA strategy in this field, especially in physical protection. The paper will present the physical protection strategy of CEA. DCS defines the rules and methods; the operators have to apply in order to fulfill the security objectives of CEA. CEA has to provide the regulatory authority with documents proving that it is in accordance with the requirements of the 25th July 1980 law and 12th May 1981 decree. It has to implement all the necessary means in order to achieve the results requested by the regulatory authority. All these arrangements are described in the 'license and control file'. This file should specify the facility safeguards and physical protection system. Accounting measures are also described. In this file, the petitioner has to justify its capacity for holding nuclear materials and for exercising authorized activities on them. So the organization and the installed means have to be described in this authorization file. For physical protection, containment, surveillance and physical protection measures are presented: Containment measures must prevent the unauthorized or unjustified movements of nuclear material in the framework of the authorized activities; Surveillance measures must guarantee the integrity of the containment, check that no material is exiting by an abnormal channel; Physical protection measures for the materials, the premises and the facilities are intended to protect them against malevolent actions by means of security systems. The Central Security Division has established guidelines to provide guidance to the nuclear materials holders in writing such files. Each holding unit has to establish a 'license and control file' and each CEA site establishes a 'site license and control file

  1. Integrated system of occupational safety and health and fire protection of the fire rescue brigades members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božović, Marijola; Živković, Snežana; Mihajlović, Emina

    2018-06-01

    The objective of the conducted research is the identification and determination of requirements of members of fire rescue brigades during operations in the conditions of high risk in order to minimize the possibilities for injury incidence during the intervention. The research is focused on examination, determination and identification of factors affecting the increasing number of occupational injuries of members of fire rescue brigades during interventions. Hypothetical framework of the research problem consists of general hypothesis and six special hypotheses. Results suggest that almost all respondents believe that their skills and abilities are applicable in the intervention phase, but less than a half believe that their skills are applicable in prevention phase. Two-thirds of respondents stated that in their organization they have support for further education and upgrading while a half of respondents stated that they need education concerning identification, assessment and management of risks that can lead to emergency situations.

  2. Dry sorbent injection of trona to control acid gases from a pilot-scale coal-fired combustion facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany L. B. Yelverton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available  Gaseous and particulate emissions from the combustion of coal have been associated with adverse effects on human and environmental health, and have for that reason been subject to regulation by federal and state governments. Recent regulations by the United States Environmental Protection Agency have further restricted the emissions of acid gases from electricity generating facilities and other industrial facilities, and upcoming deadlines are forcing industry to consider both pre- and post-combustion controls to maintain compliance. As a result of these recent regulations, dry sorbent injection of trona to remove acid gas emissions (e.g. HCl, SO2, and NOx from coal combustion, specifically 90% removal of HCl, was the focus of the current investigation. Along with the measurement of HCl, SO2, and NOx, measurements of particulate matter (PM, elemental (EC, and organic carbon (OC were also accomplished on a pilot-scale coal-fired combustion facility. Gaseous and particulate emissions from a coal-fired combustor burning bituminous coal and using dry sorbent injection were the focus of the current study. From this investigation it was shown that high levels of trona were needed to achieve the goal of 90% HCl removal, but with this increased level of trona injection the ESP and BH were still able to achieve greater than 95% fine PM control. In addition to emissions reported, measurement of acid gases by standard EPA methods were compared to those of an infrared multi-component gas analyzer. This comparison revealed good correlation for emissions of HCl and SO2, but poor correlation in the measurement of NOx emissions.

  3. FIRE PROTECTION OF TIMBER STRUCTURES STRENGTHENED WITH FRP MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Zigler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern, progressive methods of structures’ strengthening based on the use of composite materials composed of high strength fibers (carbon, glass, aramid or basalt and matrices based on epoxy resins brings, among many indisputable advantages (low weight, high effectiveness, easy application etc. also some disadvantages. One of the major disadvantages is a low fire resistance of these materials due to the low glass transition temperature Tg of the resin used. Based on an extensive research of strengthening of historic structures with FRP materials [1], the article outlines possible approaches to this problem, especially while strengthening timber load- bearing structures of historic buildings.

  4. Fire Protection of Weapon Storage and Water Mist Redundancy Philosophies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    criteria me system ged system ozzles dummy tor d, insulated titute of Swe stems pedo pipe Date 2012 den Refere -03-31 P90 nce 0038-04...test wit tion test wit ution test wi t system, 10 st system, 5 m, 5 bar, 50 , 10 bar, 50 ummy, free- edo dummy pedo dummy pedo dummy ummy, dren...systems usi lower volum pedo dumm temperature discharge d ion. h Institute ynamics dström Date 2012 den ater mist/wa ests indicate fire

  5. 75 FR 18850 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Directorate; Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards Personnel Surety Program AGENCY: National Protection...-terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI), Sensitive Security Information (SSI), or Protected Critical... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Program Description The Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS), 6 CFR...

  6. Lightning and surge protection of large ground facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, Michael F.

    1988-04-01

    The vulnerability of large ground facilities to direct lightning strikes and to lightning-induced overvoltages on the power distribution, telephone and data communication lines are discussed. Advanced electrogeometric modeling is used for the calculation of direct strikes to overhead power lines, buildings, vehicles and objects within the facility. Possible modes of damage, injury and loss are discussed. Some appropriate protection methods for overhead power lines, structures, vehicles and aircraft are suggested. Methods to mitigate the effects of transients on overhead and underground power systems as well as within buildings and other structures are recommended. The specification and location of low-voltage surge suppressors for the protection of vulnerable hardware such as computers, telecommunication equipment and radar installations are considered. The advantages and disadvantages of commonly used grounding techniques, such as single point, multiple and isolated grounds are compared. An example is given of the expected distribution of lightning flashes to a large airport, its buildings, structures and facilities, as well as to vehicles on the ground.

  7. Calculation code evaluating the confinement of a nuclear facility in case of fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laborde, J.C.; Prevost, C.; Vendel, J.

    1995-01-01

    Accident events involving fire are quite frequent and could have a severe effect on the safety of nuclear facilities. As confinement must be maintained, the ventilation and filtration systems have to be designed to limit radioactive release to the environment. To determine and analyse the consequences of a fire on the contamination confinement, IPSN, COGEMA and SGN are participating in development of a calculation code based on introduction, in the SIMEVENT ventilation code, of various models associated to fire risk and mass transfer in the ventilation networks. This calculation code results from the coupling of the SIMEVENT code with several models describing the temperature in a room resulting of a fire, the temperatures along the ventilation ducts, the contamination transfers through out the ventilation equipments (ducts, dampers, valves, air cleaning systems) and the High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters clogging. The paper proposed presents the current level of progress in development of this calculation code. It describes, in particular, the empirical model used for the clogging of HEPA filters by the aerosols derived from the combustion of standard materials used in the nuclear industry. It describes, also, the specific models used to take into account the mass transfers and resulting from the basic mechanisms of aerosols physics. In addition, an assessment of this code is given using the example of a simple laboratory installation

  8. Calculation code evaluating the confinement of a nuclear facility in case of fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laborde, J.C.; Prevost, C.; Vendel, J. [and others

    1995-02-01

    Accident events involving fire are quite frequent and could have a severe effect on the safety of nuclear facilities. As confinement must be maintained, the ventilation and filtration systems have to be designed to limit radioactive release to the environment. To determine and analyse the consequences of a fire on the contamination confinement, IPSN, COGEMA and SGN are participating in development of a calculation code based on introduction, in the SIMEVENT ventilation code, of various models associated to fire risk and mass transfer in the ventilation networks. This calculation code results from the coupling of the SIMEVENT code with several models describing the temperature in a room resulting of a fire, the temperatures along the ventilation ducts, the contamination transfers through out the ventilation equipments (ducts, dampers, valves, air cleaning systems) and the High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters clogging. The paper proposed presents the current level of progress in development of this calculation code. It describes, in particular, the empirical model used for the clogging of HEPA filters by the aerosols derived from the combustion of standard materials used in the nuclear industry. It describes, also, the specific models used to take into account the mass transfers and resulting from the basic mechanisms of aerosols physics. In addition, an assessment of this code is given using the example of a simple laboratory installation.

  9. Installation and operation of the Plantwide Fire Protection Systems and related Domestic Water Supply Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    A safe work environment is needed to support the Savannah River Site (SRS) mission of producing special nuclear material. This Environmental Assessment (EA) assesses the potential environmental impact(s) of adding to and upgrading the Plantwide Fire Protection System and selected related portions of the Domestic Water Supply System at SRS, Aiken, South Carolina. The following objectives are expected to be met by this action: Prevent undue threat to public health and welfare from fire at SRS; prevent undue hazard to employees at SRS from fire; prevent unacceptable delay to vital DOE programs as a result of fire at SRS; keep fire related property damage at SRS to a manageable level;, and provide an upgraded supply of domestic water for the Reactor Areas. The Reactor Areas' domestic water supplies do not meet current demand capacity due to the age and condition of the 30-year old iron piping. In addition, the water quality for these supplies is not consistent with current SCDHEC requirements. Therefore, DOE proposes to upgrade this Domestic Water Supply System to meet current demand and quality levels, as well as the needs of fire protection system improvement

  10. Optimization of radiation protection in gamma radiography facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio Filho, Joao

    1999-01-01

    To determine optimized dose limits for workers, a study of optimization of radiation protection was undertaken in gamma radiography facilities closed, using the Technique Multiple Attributes Utility Analysis. A total of 217 protection options, distributed in 34 irradiation scenarios for tree facility types ( fixed open, moveable and closed (bunker) were analyzed. In the determination of the optimized limit dose, the following attributes were considered; costs of the protection barriers, costs attributed to the biological detriment for different alpha (the reference value of unit collective dose), size of the isolation area, constrained limits dose of annual individual equivalent doses and collective dose. The variables studied in the evaluation included: effective work load, type and activity of the sources of radiation ( 192 Ir and 60 Co), source-operator distance related to the characteristic of the length of the command cable and the guide tube, type and thickness of the materials used in the protection barriers (concrete, barite, ceramic, lead, steel alloy and tungsten). The optimal analytic solutions obtained in the optimization process that resulted in the indication of the optimized dose limit were determined by means of a sensitivity analysis and by direct and logic evaluations, thus, independent of the values of the monetary coefficient attributed to the biological detriment, of the annual interest rate applied to the protection cost and of the type of installation studied, it was concluded that the primary limit of annual equivalent dose for workers (now 50 mSv) can be easily reduced to an optimized annual dose limit of 5 mSv. (author)

  11. Radiation protection problems by the operation of the cyclotron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durcik, M.; Nikodemova, D.

    1998-01-01

    The Cyclotron Center in Bratislava will consist of two cyclotrons. First - cyclotron DC-72 with maximal energy of 72 MV for protons for making experiments, for teaching process, for radioisotope production as 123 I and for neutron and proton therapy. Second - compact cyclotron with maximal proton energy of 18 MeV will be used for radioisotopes production for medical diagnosis as 1 *F (fluorodeoxyglucose), 81 Rb/ 81 Kr generator. This paper deals with the radiation protection problems by the operation of tis cyclotron facility as radiation protection of workers, monitoring plan, ventilation, safety lock and limitation and radiation monitoring. For proposed and continuing practices at the accelerator facility, the following general principles have to be fulfilled: (1) practices should produce sufficient benefit to offset the radiation detriment they case (justification); (2) the magnitude of the individual doses should be kept as low as achievable (optimization of protection); (3) individual exposures are subject to dose limits and some control of risk from potential exposures (dose and risk limits)

  12. Optimization (ALARA) of radiation protection at Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weadock, A.A.; Jones, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    Maintaining worker and public exposures As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) is a key objective of the Department of Energy (DOE). Responsibility for occupational ALARA program policy and guidance resides within the DOE Office of Health. Current Office of Health initiatives related to ALARA include the development of additional regulatory guidance related to ALARA program implementation at DOE contractor facilities, the review of ALARA program status at various facilities and the production of technical reports summarizing this status, and the support of various mechanisms to improve communication among the DOE ALARA community. The Office of Health also monitors revisions to radiogenic risk estimates and radiation protection recommendations to evaluate adequacy of current DOE limits and impacts of potentially revised limits. (author)

  13. Literature study regarding fire protection in nuclear power plants. Part I: Fire rated separations; Litteraturstudie angaaende brandskydd i kaernkraftverk. Del I: Brandteknisk separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaksson, S [Swedish Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    1995-06-01

    This literature study has been made on behalf of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. The aim is to describe different aspects of fire protection in nuclear power plants. Conventional building codes can not give guidance on where to make fire rated separations in order to separate redundant trains of safety systems. The separation must originate in functional demands from the authorities on what functions are essential during and after a fire, and under what circumstances these functions shall be retained, i.e. the number of independent faults and initiating events. As a basic demand it is suggested to rate the strength of separations according to conventional building code, based on fire load. The whole separating construction shall have the same fire rating, including the ventilation system. Deviations from the basic demand can de done in case it can be proven that it is possible to compensate some or all of the fire rating with other measures. There is a general lack of statistical information regarding the reliability of fire separating constructions such as walls, fire doors, penetration seals and fire dampers. The amount of cables penetrating a seal is in many cases much higher in real installations than what has been tested for type approval. It would therefore be valuable to perform a furnace test with a more representative amount of cables passing through a penetration seal. Tests have shown that the 20 foot horizontal separation distance stipulated by NRC is not a guarantee against fire damage. Spatial separations based on general requirements shall not be allowed, but considered from case to case based on actual circumstances. For fire protection by isolation or coatings, it is of great importance to choose the method of protection carefully, to be compatible with the material it shall be applied on, and the environment and types of fire that may occur. 48 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs.

  14. Fire protection in laboratories and factories. Guide for nuclear operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savornin, J.; Hebrard, L.; Michard, J.; Muller, G.; Vasseur, C.

    1987-12-01

    Putting in place a nuclear industry is possible only if is taken into account the systematic risks connecting with the manipulation of radioactive matters. The measures taken are essentially the putting in place of static or dynamic barriers confinement. Therefore in case of fire their efficiencies can be reduced. The basic safety rule no. I-4.a serie U defines the objectives but do not give all the means to arrive. The present guide has for objective to propose the means which allow to satisfy these objectives. It permits to define the importance of precautions to take in terms of possible consequences. This document is not a rule. It has for objective to give advices [fr

  15. Decommissioning an uranium and thorium facility: a radiation protection approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feijo Vasques, Francisco Mario; Saburo Todo, Alberto; Mestre, Paulo Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Decommissioning means actions taken at the end of the useful life of a facility in retiring it from service with adequate regard for the health and safety of workers and members of the public. In the present work, we introduce a radiation protection approach for the removal of radioactive material to the extent that the facility or site becomes available for use without restriction. The facility to be decommissioned is a fuel cycle pilot plant that operated with natural uranium and thorium for almost two decades and then, kept inactive for about 10 years at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute - IPEN. Even after this long period of inactivity, it has presented significant levels of radiation and contamination spread over the floor, walls, windows, doors and ceiling. The fuel cycle pilot plant was completely dismantled, remaining only the walls and the concrete structures. In this work we present the job done to restore the area. According to each step of dismantling a continuous monitoring of the contaminated surfaces was carried out including the survey of the deep material from the floor and walls. The material identified as radioactive waste was stored into appropriated metal drums. A radiation protection team guided this stage of the work, prescribing the tasks, and the amount of material that should be removed from floors, windows and ceiling. For this, repetitive surveys had to be done. The results of monitoring and contamination levels were analysed, thus guiding the next steps of the job. In this way radiation protection team took over the tasks, running the work with the purpose of achieving acceptable levels of radiation, restoring the area for unrestricted use. (author)

  16. Proceedings of the CSNI specialist meeting on interaction of fire and explosion with ventilation systems in nuclear facilities. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers presented in the following areas: (1) experience and experimentation; (2) fire and explosion prevention, protection, and detection; and (3) application of related research

  17. 5 CFR 551.541 - Employees engaged in fire protection activities or law enforcement activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... activities or law enforcement activities. 551.541 Section 551.541 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF... activities or law enforcement activities. (a) An employee engaged in fire protection activities or law enforcement activities (as described in §§ 551.215 and 551.216, respectively) who receives compensation for...

  18. 48 CFR 2052.235-71 - Safety, health, and fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... extension of time or for compensation or damages by reason of, or in connection with, this type of work... performance of the work under this contract to protect the health and safety of its employees and of members... hazards to life and property. The contractor shall comply with all applicable health, safety, and fire...

  19. Protection against internal fires and explosions in the design of nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Experience of the past two decades in the operation of nuclear power plants and modern analysis techniques confirm that fire may be a real threat to nuclear safety and should receive adequate attention from the beginning of the design process throughout the life of the plant. Within the framework of the NUSS programme, a Safety Guide on fire protection had therefore been developed to enlarge on the general requirements given in the Code. Since its first publication in 1979, there has been considerable development in protection technology and analysis methods and after the Chernobyl accident it was decided to revise the existing Guide. This Safety Guide supplements the requirements established in Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. It supersedes Safety Series No. 50-SG-D2 (Rev. 1), Fire Protection in Nuclear Power Plants: A Safety Guide, issued in 1992.The present Safety Guide is intended to advise designers, safety assessors and regulators on the concept of fire protection in the design of nuclear power plants and on recommended ways of implementing the concept in some detail in practice

  20. Reliability Analysis Of Fire System On The Industry Facility By Use Fameca Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sony T, D.T.; Situmorang, Johnny; Ismu W, Puradwi; Demon H; Mulyanto, Dwijo; Kusmono, Slamet; Santa, Sigit Asmara

    2000-01-01

    FAMECA is one of the analysis method to determine system reliability on the industry facility. Analysis is done by some procedure that is identification of component function, determination of failure mode, severity level and effect of their failure. Reliability value is determined by three combinations that is severity level, component failure value and critical component. Reliability of analysis has been done for fire system on the industry by FAMECA method. Critical component which identified is pump, air release valve, check valve, manual test valve, isolation valve, control system etc

  1. Advancement adopted for physical protection system at BARC facilities Tarapur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaroli, Manish; Ameta, Rohit; Patil, V.H.; Dubey, K.

    2015-01-01

    Considering the prevailing security situation and threat perception to the nuclear installations in particular, it has become essential to strengthen security system at BARC Tarapur in an effective manner to avert any attempt of sabotage and to ensure smooth functioning of security and safety of the nuclear installations. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) have provided various security guides for the physical protection system (PPS) for nuclear installations and there has been advancement in physical and personnel protection system due to evolution of new technologies. In line with this, latest technologies have been adopted in PPS for BARC facilities, Tarapur recently. This includes state of art RFID card based access control, visitor and contractor management system, electronic key management system. Digital signature based biometric visitor and contractor management system; Digital signature based leave management system; Distress alarm system (DAS); Guard tour monitoring system (GTMS); Secure network access system (SNAS) as well as multilayered access control system at plant level. This will strengthen the surveillance and monitoring of personnel and visitors at BARC facilities. (author)

  2. Reliability data of fire protection equipment and features in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roewekamp, M.; Riekert, T.; Sehrbrock, W.

    1997-01-01

    In order to perform probabilistic fire safety analyses, a comprehensive data base is needed including physical characteristics of fire compartments and their inventory, fire occurrence frequencies, technical reliability data for all fire-related equipment, human actions and human error probabilities, etc. In order to provide updated and realistic reliability data, the operational behaviour of different fire protection features in two German nuclear power plants was analysed in the framework of the study presented here. The analyses are based on the examination of reported results of the regular inspection and maintenance programs for nuclear power plants. Besides a plant specific assessment of the reliability data a generic assessment for an application as input data for fault tree analyses in the framework of probabilistic risk studies for other German plants was carried out. The analyses of failures and unavailabilities gave the impression that most of them are single failures without relevance for the plant safety. The data gained from NPPs were compared to reliability data of the German insurance companies for the same protection features installed in non-nuclear installations and to older nuclear specific reliability data. This comparison showed up a higher reliability. (orig.) [de

  3. Passive fire protection in high density village (case study, Bustaman Semarang)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukawi, Sukawi; Wahyu Firmandhani, Satriya; Hardiman, Gagoek

    2017-12-01

    Fire hazard is the disaster that always has an unpredictable process of coming. When it comes, its level scope and the magnitude of the effects cannot be predicted. Dense settlements especially in big cities, among others Bustaman Kampong Semarang never escape from physical problems such as flooding and wildfire. If both are compared in dense settlements scope, so that, wild fire is the most potentially catastrophic. It is necessary to do a research on passive fire protection in a village of high density city such as Bustaman. Qualitative research was conducted using descriptive method to conduct observations and interviews in the Bustaman. Bustaman as a high density village, with narrow roads and dense rows of houses. The terraced buildings are also encountered, and found many buildings use combustible material. That environmental conditions can facilitate the propagation of flames in case of fire. To improve the established Bustaman's environment, in terms of the application of passive fire protection systems, it is recommended to utilize the road as the dividing buildings. Need to build the separation wall fireproof in every each series in several units of too long buildings and attempted open space procurement that separates rows of buildings that are too long, and also the replacement of combustible material with a material that is more incombustible.

  4. Active and passive fire protection system in academic building KH. Mas Mansur, Islamic University of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryoputro M. Ragil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the theory of fire triangle, the existence of combustible materials, heat, and oxygen can cause fire disaster. KH. Mas Mansur building, Islamic University of Indonesia has a fire protection, but rarely to be checked regularly and the number of equipment is less standard as well as the lack of an evacuation route map to facilitate the evacuation process. Inside the building also does not provide safety signs such as the evacuation directions, exit, and warning in case of fire. Therefore, researchers analysed the infrastructure of prevention and control in the building KH. Mas Mansur. Researchers used the method of observation, interviews, and checklist to know the condition directly, and compare with the standard regulations. Results concordance rate of existing infrastructure is 67% fire extinguisher, hydrant box 56%, 71% alarms, sprinkler 0%, 40% detectors, emergency doors 71%, 50% emergency stairs, assembly point 0% and directions 0%. The current results were below the standard of at least 80%. As for recommendations, researchers create a new evacuation map then put the existing infrastructure according to standard regulations, and it had consulted with the specialist of Occupational Safety and Health in the field of fire.

  5. Vulnerability Analysis of Physical Protection System at Hypothetical Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Won Moog; Lee, Ho Jin; Yu, Dong Han; Min, Gyung Sik

    2006-01-01

    Since the 9/11 event in the U.S.A, International terror possibilities has been increasing for nuclear facilities including nuclear power plants(NPPs). It is necessary to evaluate the performance of an existing physical protection system(PPS) at nuclear facilities based on such malevolent acts. A PPS is a complex configuration of detection, delay, and response elements. Detection, delay, and response elements are all important to the analysis and evaluation of a PPS and its effectiveness. Methods are available to analyze a PPS and evaluate its effectiveness. Sandia National Laboratory(SNL) in the U.S.A was developed a System Analysis of Vulnerability to Intrusion (SAVI) computer code for evaluating the effectiveness of PPS against outsider threats. This study presents the vulnerability analysis of the PPS at hypothetical facility using SAVI code that the basic input parameters are from PPS of Hanaro Research Reactor at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institution. It is understand that PPS of research reactor and critical assemblies are deficient that that of NPP and nuclear materials of RRCAS are compact to transport For analysis, first, the site-specific Adversary Sequence Diagrams(ASDs) of the PPS is constructed. It helps to understand the functions of the existing PPS composed of physical areas and Protection Elements(PEs). Then, the most vulnerable path of an ASD as a measure of effectiveness is determined. The results in the analysis can used to suggest the possible PPS upgrades to the most vulnerable paths for the system like research reactor

  6. Forest fire occurrence and silvicultural-economic prerequisites for protection improvement in forest regions of Krasnoyarsk Krai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Furyaev

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The territory of the Krasnoyarsk Krai is substantially diverse in terms of climatic, silvicultural and economic conditions owing to its sufficient spread from the North to the South. These differences were to some extent taken into account when the forest fund of the Krasnoyarsk Krai was divided into seven forest regions: forest tundra of Central Siberia, highland taiga of Central Siberia, plain taiga of West Siberia, Angara region, subtaiga forest steppe of Central Siberia, Altai-Sayanskiy highland, Altai-Sayanskiy highland forest steppe. The regions show different levels of fire occurrence and different fire effects that require different levels of protection from forest fires. Optimization of the protection is based on activities that combine prevention and timely detection of fires depending on development of forest regions and intensity of forest management. The main focus of the paper is on possibility or inadvisability of prescribed fires, fire-use fires (fires that started naturally but were then managed for their beneficial effects and the system of activities increasing fire resistance of the most valuable forests. It is justified that taking into account the effects of forest fires, selective protection of forests is expedient in forest-tundra Middle Siberia and highland taiga of Middle Siberia regions. The whole area of plain taiga of West Siberia region should be subject to protection but with various levels of intensity in different parts of it. The forest fund of Angara, subtaiga forest steppe of Middle Siberia, Altai-Sayanskiy highland, Altai-Sayanskiy highland forest steppe regions should be protected on the whole area. Application of prescribed fires is relevant in the subzone of South taiga, in the forest steppe zone as well as in the submontane and lowland taiga belts. Fire-use fires are admissible on limited areas in the subzones of Middle and North taiga.

  7. Fire hazards evaluation for light duty utility arm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HUCKFELDT, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    In accordance with DOE Order 5480.7A, Fire Protection, a Fire Hazards Analysis must be performed for all new facilities. LMHC Fire Protection has reviewed and approved the significant documentation leading up to the LDUA operation. This includes, but is not limited to, development criteria and drawings, Engineering Task Plan, Quality Assurance Program Plan, and Safety Program Plan. LMHC has provided an appropriate level of fire protection for this activity as documented

  8. Significance analysis of the regional differences on icing time of water onto fire protective clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L. Z.; Jing, L. S.; Zhang, X. Z.; Xia, J. J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, T.; Hu, C.; Bao, Z. M.; Fu, X. C.; Wang, R. J.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. J.

    2017-09-01

    The object of this work was to determine the icing temperature in icing experiment. Firstly, a questionnaire investigation was carried out on 38 fire detachments in different regions. These Statistical percentage results were divided into northern east group and northern west group. Secondly, a significance analysis between these two results was made using Mann-Whitney U test. Then the icing temperature was determined in different regions. Thirdly, the icing experiment was made in the environment of -20°C in Daxing’an Mountain. The anti-icing effect of new fire protective clothing was verified in this icing.

  9. An effective and practical fire-protection system. [for aircraft fuel storage and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, J. A.; Riccitiello, S. R.; Fewell, L. L.

    1975-01-01

    A high-performance sandwich-type fire protection system comprising a steel outer sheath and insulation combined in various configurations is described. An inherent advantage of the sheath system over coatings is that it eliminates problems of weatherability, materials strength, adhesion, and chemical attack. An experimental comparison between the protection performance of state-of-the-art coatings and the sheath system is presented, with emphasis on the protection of certain types of steel tanks for fuel storage and transport. Sheath systems are thought to be more expensive than coatings in initial implementation, although they are less expensive per year for sufficiently long applications.

  10. Protecting nuclear material and facilities: Is a new approach needed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhausler, F.; Bunn, G.

    2002-01-01

    acquisition' of nuclear, radiological and other materials relating to weapons of mass destruction. The third principle of the partnership is to 'develop and maintain effective physical protection measures' and to 'provide assistance to states lacking sufficient resources to protect their facilities'. Other principles relate to illicit trafficking, export and border controls and disposition of stocks no longer required for defense purposes. The initial G-8 focus will be on projects in Russia, but its principles are to be applied globally. We propose a Global Physical Protection Initiative consisting of six elements in addition to what the IAEA is now doing to improve PP practices around the world: Establish a Global List of Physical Protection Priorities beyond those already agreed. The IAEA International Physical Protection Assistance Programme (IPPAS) has collected information from many countries on needs for better protection and it could prepare an initial list of priorities in cooperation with IAEA safeguards inspectors, with the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) and the Institute of Nuclear Plant Operators (INPO); Create a Multilateral Security Cooperation System calling for bilateral and multilateral cooperation among those responsible for implementing PP standards. This could start with a more detailed survey of national regulatory standards and practices than those issued by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, and with meetings of regulators from various countries to share experiences; Create an International Nuclear Threat Protection Task Force that would focus on improving cooperation between PP regulators and the police and intelligence agents expected to respond to alarms relating to sabotage or theft of nuclear and radiological materials. This collaboration could range from sharing intelligence on illicit trafficking to identifying links between organized crime and nuclear terrorism; Establish an International Radioactive Material Tracking Centre that

  11. Los Alamos County Fire Department LAFD: TA-55 PF-4 Facility Familiarization Tour, OJT 55260

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, Victor Stephen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-13

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) will conduct familiarization tours for Los Alamos County Fire Department (LAFD) personnel at the Plutonium Facility (PF-4) at Technical Area (TA)-55. These familiarization tours are official LANL business; the purpose of these tours is to orient the firefighters to the facility so that they can respond efficiently and quickly to a variety of emergency situations. This orientation includes the ingress and egress of the area and buildings, layout and organization of the facility, evacuation procedures and assembly points, and areas of concern within the various buildings at the facility. LAFD firefighters have the skills and abilities to perform firefighting operations and other emergency response tasks that cannot be provided by other LANL personnel who have the required clearance level. This handout provides details of the information, along with maps and diagrams, to be presented during the familiarization tours. The handout will be distributed to the trainees at the time of the tour. A corresponding checklist will also be used as guidance during the familiarization tours to ensure that all required information is presented to LAFD personnel.

  12. A parametric study on the use of passive fire protection in FPSO topside module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Friebe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a continuous threat to FPSO topside modules as large amounts of oil and gas are passing through the modules. As a conventional measure to mitigate structural failure under fire, passive fire protection (PFP coatings are widely used on main structural members. However, an excessive use of PFP coatings can cause considerable cost for material purchase, installation, inspection and maintenance. Long installation time can be a risk since the work should be done nearly at the last fabrication stage. Thus, the minimal use of PFP can be beneficial to the reduction of construction cost and the avoidance of schedule delay. This paper presents a few case studies on how different applications of PFP have influence on collapse time of a FPSO module structure. A series of heat analysis and thermal elasto-plastic FE analysis are performed for different PFP coatings and the resultant collapse time and the amount of PFP coatings are compared with each other.

  13. Radiation protection training for personnel employed in medical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, N.L.; Brodsky, A.

    1985-05-01

    This report provides information useful for planning and conducting radiation safety training in medical facilities to keep exposures as low as reasonably achievable, and to meet other regulatory, safety and loss prevention requirements in today's hospitals. A brief discussion of the elements and basic considerations of radation safety training programs is followed by a short bibliography of selected references and sample lecture (or session) outlines for various job categories. This information is intended for use by a professional who is thoroughly acquainted with the science and practice of radiation protection as well as the specific procedures and circumstances of the particular hospital's operations. Topics can be added or substracted, amplified or condensed as appropriate. 8 refs

  14. Information note about the protection of nuclear facilities against aircraft crashes; Note d'information sur la protection des installations nucleaires contre les chutes d'avions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The protection of nuclear facilities against external risks (earthquakes, floods, fires etc..) is an aspect of safety taken into consideration by the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN). Concerning the aircraft crashes, the fundamental safety rules make three categories of aircraft: the small civil aircraft (weight < 5.7 t), the military aircraft, and the commercial aircraft (w > 5.7 t). Nuclear facilities are designed to resist against crashes of aircraft from the first category only, because the probability of the accidental crash of a big aircraft are extremely low. This document comprises an information note about the protection of nuclear facilities against aircraft crashes, a dossier about the safety of nuclear facilities with respect to external risks in general (natural disasters and aircraft crashes), and an article about the protection of nuclear power plants against aircraft crashes (design, safety measures, regulation, surveillance, experience feedback). (J.S.)

  15. Fire protection concepts for Timber-Glass Composite façades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schleicher Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The main objectives can be summarized as follows: Growth and densification in urban areas require the development of intelligent and resource-efficient building systems for “Smart Cities” of the future. By using timber-glass composites (TGC the primary energy demand of buildings can be reduced substantially. This research project examines the feasibility of applications of this new technology in multi-story and high-rise buildings. Critical aspects concerning fire protection such as flammability of timber elements, fire spread and failure of façade elements with bracing capacity will be analyzed. Different strategies will be developed in case studies and validated by structural analysis. Large scale mock ups of TGC façade elements will be checked on their suitability in fire tests. The findings of this research will lead to innovative fire safety concepts for building systems with TGC façades. Compliance with the high safety standards for multi-story buildings in urban areas like Vienna is one of the main objectives of this work. The adaptation of these fire safety concepts to the national standards of the neighboring countries will be continued subsequently. The gained knowledge should lead to further cooperation with companies for serial productions with TGC technology.

  16. Planning for risk-informed/performance-based fire protection at nuclear power plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafi, B.; Parkinson, W.J.; Lee, J.A.

    1997-12-01

    This document presents a framework for discussing issues and building consensus towards use of fire modeling and risk technology in nuclear power plant fire protection program implementation. The plan describes a three-phase approach: development of core technologies, implementation of methods, and finally, case studies and pilot applications to verify viability of such methods. The core technologies are defined as fire modeling, fire and system tests, use of operational data, and system and risk techniques. The implementation phase addresses the programmatic issues involved in implementing a risk-informed/performance-based approach in an integrated approach with risk/performance measures. The programmatic elements include: (1) a relationship with fire codes and standards development as defined by the ongoing effort of NFPA for development of performance-based standards; (2) the ability for NRC to undertake inspection and enforcement; and (3) the benefit to utilities in terms of cost versus safety. The case studies are intended to demonstrate applicability of single issue resolution while pilot applications are intended to check the applicability of the integrated program as a whole

  17. Mine shaft fire and smoke protection systems - an update on hardware development and in-mine testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    In 1976, The Bureau of Mines developed a prototype system to sense and extinguish fires in shafts and shaft stations in underground metal and nonmetal mines. Subsequent work modified this technology to include fueling areas, spontaneous combustion zones and coal mines. This paper updates IC-8783 ''In-mine Fire Tests of Mine Shaft Fire and Smoke Protection Systems'', which was published in 1978 and summarized the design and in-mine, actual fire testing of the first prototype mine shaft fire and smoke protection system. This paper also updates related work from IC-8775 ''Spontaneous Oxidation and Combustion of Sulfide Ores in Underground Mines, (also published in 1978) and IC-8808 ''In-mine Evaluation of Underground Fire and Smoke Detectors'', (published in early 1979)

  18. Remotely-sensed active fire data for protected area management: eight-year patterns in the Manas National Park, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Chihiro; Amin, Rajan; Sarma, Pranjit; Banerjee, Gitanjali; Oliver, William; Fa, John E

    2010-02-01

    The Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands, which once extended along most of the Himalayan foothills, now only remain in a number of protected areas. Within these localities, grassland burning is a major issue, but data on frequency and distribution of fires are limited. Here, we analysed the incidence of active fires, which only occur during the dry season (Nov.-Mar.), within a significant area of Terai grasslands: the Manas National Park (MNP), India. We obtained locations of 781 fires during the 2000-2008 dry seasons, from the Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) that delivers global MODIS hotspot/fire locations using remote sensing and GIS technologies. Annual number of fires rose significantly from around 20 at the start of the study period to over 90 after 2002, with most (85%) detected between December and January. Over half of the fires occurred in tall grasslands, but fire density was highest in wetland and riverine vegetation, dry at the time. Most burning took place near rivers, roads and the park boundary, suggesting anthropogenic origins. A kernel density map of all recorded fires indicated three heavily burnt areas in the MNP, all within the tall grasslands. Our study demonstrates, despite some technical caveats linked to fire detection technology, which is improving, that remote fire data can be a practical tool in understanding fire concentration and burning temporal patterns in highly vulnerable habitats, useful in guiding management.

  19. A Case Study of Two Computer Methods Used to Simulate Fires in Industrial Facilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Asselta, Christopher

    1997-01-01

    .... The arrangement of decaying organic matter may have been enough to generate a small fire. Conventional anthropologists argue that fire may have been first discovered in forest fires started by lightning, lava flows or other natural causes...

  20. The Modernization ISS in APPS of Important Facility for Protection from Insider Actions

    OpenAIRE

    D.A. Poladiev; S. I. Zhurin

    2012-01-01

    This report is about functions of protection from insider actions in modern Automatically Physical Protection System (APPS) of important facility. These functions can be held on special software of APPS and on software of information protection. The usage of this approach can improve the security of important facility in fut

  1. Disaster forming reasons on fire explosion at an asphalt solidification processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Kazutoshi; Li Yongfu; Sun Jinhua

    2002-01-01

    Disaster forming reasons on fire explosion accident at an asphalt solidification processing facility of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation formed on 1997 was elucidated. Mixture of salts composing of nitrates, nitrites, and so on with asphalt was filled into a drum at about 180 centigrade, and generated disaster during its natural cooling after about 20 hours. Its reason consisted in change of production condition to make liquid wastes of batches 29 and 30 producing the mixture to contain about 7.7 g/L of salts and liquid wastes supplying rate to reduce to about 160 mL/h. The liquid wastes were mixed with asphalt heated to temperature of about 250 centigrade, when it contained a lot of NaHCO 3 into the salts particles on filling the mixture because moisture was evaporated more rapidly under pressure of phosphates based on the change of production condition. NaHCO 3 directly decomposed to make the salts particles porous and to form a weak redox reaction based on boundary reaction appearing at temperature range from 160 to 200 centigrades. By this reaction, the mixture filled into drum generated thermal accumulation to fire the mixture. (G.K.)

  2. Proposal for the award of a blanket purchase contract for the design, supply, installation and maintenance of automatic fire-detection, fire-protection and voice-alarm systems for the Super Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a blanket purchase contract for the design, supply, installation and maintenance of automatic fire-detection, fire-protection and voice-alarm systems for the Super Proton Synchrotron

  3. Assessment of Application Example for a Sodium Fire Extinguishing Facility using Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Minhwan; Jeong, Ji-Young; Kim, Jongman

    2014-01-01

    Sodium is under regulation of four kinds of laws including the Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act and it is under categorized as Class 3(pyrophoric material, water-prohibiting substance). To obtain a license for a sodium experiment facility, the codes and regulations must be satisfied in the Safety Control of Dangerous Substance Act. However, there are some parts that need to be discussed in related regulations in the Safety Control of Dangerous Substance Act because there are differences with the actual features of sodium. To apply for an actual sodium facility, it is necessary to give a supplementary explanation regarding the regulations. The objective of this study is to assess the application example of a sodium experiment facility using the above mentioned laws and to propose the necessity of an amendment for conventional laws in regard to fire extinguishing systems and agents. In this work, an application example of a sodium experiment facility using the Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act, and the necessity of amending the existing laws in regard to fire extinguishing systems including the agent used, was assessed. The safest standard was applied for cases in which the consideration of a sodium fire is not mentioned in conventional regulations. For the construction of the PGSFR (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor), the described regulations in this work should be reviewed and improved carefully by the fire safety regulatory body

  4. Groundwater protection plan for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, D.C.; Jaeger, G.K.; McMahon, W.J.; Ford, B.H.

    1996-01-01

    This document is the groundwater protection plan for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) Project. This plan is prepared based on the assumption that the ERDF will receive waste containing hazardous/dangerous constituents, radioactive constituents, and combinations of both. The purpose of this plan is to establish a groundwater monitoring program that (1) meets the intent of the applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements, (2) documents baseline groundwater conditions, (3) monitors those conditions for change, and (4) allows for modifications to groundwater sampling if required by the leachate management program. Groundwater samples indicate the occurrence of preexisting groundwater contamination in the uppermost unconfined aquifer below the ERDF Project site, as a result of past waste-water discharges in the 200 West Area. Therefore, it is necessary for the ERDF to establish baseline groundwater quality conditions and to monitor changes in the baseline over time. The groundwater monitoring program presented in this plan will provide the means to assess onsite and offsite impacts to the groundwater. In addition, a separate leachate management program will provide an indication of whether the liners are performing within design standards

  5. Radiation protection planning for decommissioning of research reactor facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Roger; Harman, Neil; Craig, David; Fecitt, Lorna; Lobach, Yuri; Gorlinskij, Juri; Kolyadin, Vyacheslav; Pavlenko, Vytali

    2008-01-01

    The MR reactor at the Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (RRCKI), Moscow was a 50 MW multipurpose material testing and research reactor equipped with nine experimental loop facilities to test prototype fuel for various nuclear power reactors being developed. The reactor was shut down in 1993 and de-fuelled. The experimental loops are located in basement rooms around the reactor. The nature of the research into the characteristics of fuel design and coolant chemistry resulted in fission products and activation products in the test loop equipment. Decommissioning of the loops therefore presents a number of challenges. In addition the city of Moscow has expanded such that the RRC KI is now surrounded by housing which had to be taken into account in the radiological protection planning. This paper describes the techniques proposed to undertake the dismantling operations in order to minimise the radiation exposure to workers and members of the public. Estimates have been made of the worker doses which could be incurred during the dismantling process and the environmental impacts which could occur. These are demonstrated to be as low as reasonably achievable. The work was funded by the UK Department of Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (DBERR) (formerly the Department of Trade and Industry) under the Nuclear Safety Programme (NSP) set up to address nuclear safety issues in the Former Soviet Union. (author)

  6. Linking management effectiveness indicators to observed effects of protected areas on fire occurrence in the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Christoph; Agrawal, Arun

    2013-02-01

    Management-effectiveness scores are used widely by donors and implementers of conservation projects to prioritize, track, and evaluate investments in protected areas. However, there is little evidence that these scores actually reflect the capacity of protected areas to deliver conservation outcomes. We examined the relation between indicators of management effectiveness in protected areas and the effectiveness of protected areas in reducing fire occurrence in the Amazon rainforest. We used data collected with the Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool (METT) scorecard, adopted by some of the world's largest conservation organizations to track management characteristics believed to be crucial for protected-area effectiveness. We used the occurrence of forest fires from 2000 through 2010 as a measure of the effect of protected areas on undesired land-cover change in the Amazon basin. We used matching to compare the estimated effect of protected areas with low versus high METT scores on fire occurrence. We also estimated effects of individual protected areas on fire occurrence and explored the relation between these effects and METT scores. The relations between METT scores and effects of protected areas on fire occurrence were weak. Protected areas with higher METT scores in 2005 did not seem to have performed better than protected areas with lower METT scores at reducing fire occurrence over the last 10 years. Further research into the relations between management-effectiveness indicators and conservation outcomes in protected areas seems necessary, and our results show that the careful application of matching methods can be a suitable method for that purpose. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Probabilistic assessment of fire hazard: a contribution of power industry to the development of fire protection engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandrac, J.; Skvarka, P.

    1990-01-01

    Draft methodology was developed for assessment of fire hazard in nuclear power plants. Named DIMEHORP, the methodology is based on fire hazard analyses and on the analyses of the possible ways of fire propagation and of the power plant systems. The former includes determining the spaces of the power plant in which a fire can arise. Fire propagation analysis deals with the probability that within a given section the fire will propagate and cause damage to the equipment before it is localized. The mathematical model used is based on probability theory in conjunction with expert estimates. The methodology was applied to the assessment of the effect of fire in the cable rooms of the Dukovany nuclear power plant on the safety and reliability of its operation. (Z.M.). 3 tabs., 6 refs

  8. Oriented clay nanopaper from biobased components--mechanisms for superior fire protection properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosio, F; Kochumalayil, J; Cuttica, F; Camino, G; Berglund, L

    2015-03-18

    The toxicity of the most efficient fire retardant additives is a major problem for polymeric materials. Cellulose nanofiber (CNF)/clay nanocomposites, with unique brick-and-mortar structure and prepared by simple filtration, are characterized from the morphological point of view by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. These nanocomposites have superior fire protection properties to other clay nanocomposites and fiber composites. The corresponding mechanisms are evaluated in terms of flammability (reaction to a flame) and cone calorimetry (exposure to heat flux). These two tests provide a wide spectrum characterization of fire protection properties in CNF/montmorrilonite (MTM) materials. The morphology of the collected residues after flammability testing is investigated. In addition, thermal and thermo-oxidative stability are evaluated by thermogravimetric analyses performed in inert (nitrogen) and oxidative (air) atmospheres. Physical and chemical mechanisms are identified and related to the unique nanostructure and its low thermal conductivity, high gas barrier properties and CNF/MTM interactions for char formation.

  9. Probabilistic risk assessment for back-end facilities: Improving the treatment of fire and explosion scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunman, C.R.J.; Campbell, R.J.; Wakem, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear reprocessing facilities at Sellafield are a key component of the International business of BNFL. The operations carried out at the site extend from the receipt and storage of irradiated fuel, chemical reprocessing, plutonium and uranium finishing, through mixed oxide fuel production. Additionally there are a wide range of supporting processes including solid waste encapsulation, vitrification, liquid waste evaporation and treatment. Decommissioning of the site's older facilities is also proceeding. The comprehensive range of these activities requires that the safety assessment team keeps up to date with developments in the field, as well as conducting and sponsoring appropriate research into methodologies and modelling in order to deliver a cost effective, timely service. This paper will review the role of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) in safety cases for operations at Sellafield and go on to describe some areas of PRA methodology development in the UK and in which BNFL is a contributor. Finally the paper will summarise some specific areas of methodology development associated with improving the modelling of fire and explosion hazards which are specific to BNFL. (author)

  10. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW`s Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  11. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW's Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  12. Computer code structure for evaluation of fire protection measures and fighting capability at nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, V.

    1997-01-01

    In this work a computer code structure for Fire Protection Measures (FPM) and Fire Fighting Capability (FFC) at Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) is presented. It allows to evaluate the category (satisfactory (s), needs for further evaluation (n), unsatisfactory (u)) to which belongs the given NPP for a self-control in view of an IAEA inspection. This possibility of a self assessment resulted from IAEA documents. Our approach is based on international experience gained in this field and stated in IAEA recommendations. As an illustration we used the FORTRAN programming language statement to make clear the structure of the computer code for the problem taken into account. This computer programme can be conceived so that some literal message in English and Romanian languages be displayed beside the percentage assessments. (author)

  13. A Study on Developing a Framework for Sabotage Protection of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kilyoo; Jung, WooSik

    2007-01-01

    A methodology related to physical protection of nuclear facilities against sabotage is preparing by IAEA. However, the framework of IAEA is somewhat superficial and it seems not to reflect the risk concept since IAEA prefers a proven technology. In this paper, a framework for sabotage protection of nuclear facilities using risk assessment is described

  14. Supervision of waste management and environmental protection at the Swedish nuclear facilities 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    The report summarizes the supervision of waste management and environmental protection at the nuclear facilities that was carried out by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute in 1999. A summary of the inspections during 1999 and a description of important issues connected with the supervision of the nuclear facilities are given. The inspections during 1999 have focused on the management of liquid discharges and components containing induced activity at some of the nuclear facilities. Also, routines for filing environmental samples, discharge water samples and documents were inspected at all the different nuclear facilities. The Swedish Radiation Protection Institute finds that the operations are mainly performed according to current regulations

  15. Fire Research Enclosure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Simulates submarine fires, enclosed aircraft fires, and fires in enclosures at shore facilities .DESCRIPTION: FIRE I is a pressurizable, 324 cu m(11,400 cu...

  16. Physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials. Safeguards and the role of the IAEA in physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolej, M.

    1999-01-01

    The physical protection and security of nuclear facilities and materials concerns utilities, manufactures, the general public, and those who are responsible for licensing and regulating such facilities. The requirements and process to ensure an acceptable physical protection and security system have been evolutionary in nature. This paper reviews the first step of such process: the State's safeguards system and the international safeguards system of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), including the relationship between these two safeguards systems. The elements of these systems that are reviewed include the State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material, physical protection measures, and containment and surveillance measures. In addition, the interactions between the State, the facility operator, and the IAEA are described. The paper addresses the IAEA safeguards system, including material accountancy and containment and surveillance; the State safeguards system, including material control and accountancy, and physical protection; the role of the IAEA in physical protection; a summary of safeguards system interactions.(author)

  17. GIS Fuzzy Expert System for the assessment of ecosystems vulnerability to fire in managing Mediterranean natural protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeraro, Teodoro; Mastroleo, Giovanni; Aretano, Roberta; Facchinetti, Gisella; Zurlini, Giovanni; Petrosillo, Irene

    2016-03-01

    A significant threat to the natural and cultural heritage of Mediterranean natural protected areas (NPAs) is related to uncontrolled fires that can cause potential damages related to the loss or a reduction of ecosystems. The assessment and mapping of the vulnerability to fire can be useful to reduce landscape damages and to establish priority areas where it is necessary to plan measures to reduce the fire vulnerability. To this aim, a methodology based on an interactive computer-based system has been proposed in order to support NPA's management authority for the identification of vulnerable hotspots to fire through the selection of suitable indicators that allow discriminating different levels of sensitivity (e.g. Habitat relevance, Fragmentation, Fire behavior, Ecosystem Services, Vegetation recovery after fire) and stresses (agriculture, tourism, urbanization). In particular, a multi-criteria analysis based on Fuzzy Expert System (FES) integrated in a GIS environment has been developed in order to identify and map potential "hotspots" of fire vulnerability, where fire protection measures can be undertaken in advance. In order to test the effectiveness of this approach, this approach has been applied to the NPA of Torre Guaceto (Apulia Region, southern Italy). The most fire vulnerable areas are the patch of century-old forest characterized by high sensitivity and stress, and the wetlands and century-old olive groves due to their high sensitivity. The GIS fuzzy expert system provides evidence of its potential usefulness for the effective management of natural protected areas and can help conservation managers to plan and intervene in order to mitigate the fire vulnerability in accordance with conservation goals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Field Lysimeter Test Facility for protective barriers: Experimental plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkham, R.R.; Gee, G.W.; Downs, J.L.

    1987-12-01

    This document was first written in October 1986 and has been used to guide the design of the Field Lysimeter Test Facility (FLTF) and to promote discussions between research and engineering staff regarding the selection of barrier treatments for inclusion in the FLTF. The construction of the lysimeter facility was completed June 28, 1987. This document describes the facility, the treatments placed in each lysimeter, types of measurements made in each lysimeter, and a brief discussion of project activities related to quality assurance, safety, and funding requirements. The treatment description and figures have been updated to reflect the lysimeter facility as constructed. 12 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Plasma-aided surface technology for modification of materials referred to fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dineff, P.; Gospodinova, D.; Kostova, L.; Vladkova, T.; Chen, E.

    2008-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in dielectric barrier air discharge at atmospheric pressure and room temperature over the past decade due to the increased number of industrial applications. New plasma-aided capillary impregnation technology for flame spreading stop and fire protection of porous materials was developed. Research, based on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), proves that plasma-chemical surface pre-treatment exert material change on chemical interaction between phosphorus containing flame retardant and wood matrix (Pinus sylvestris, Bulgaria; Pseudotsuga, Canada)

  20. Clinch River breeder reactor sodium fire protection system design and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, K.W.; Boasso, C.J.; Kaushal, N.N.

    1984-01-01

    To assure the protection of the public and plant equipment, improbable accidents were hypothesized to form the basis for the design of safety systems. One such accident is the postulated failure of the Intermediate Heat Transfer System (IHTS) piping within the Steam Generator Building (SGB), resulting in a large-scale sodium fire. This paper discusses the design and development of plant features to reduce the consequences of the accident to acceptable levels. Additional design solutions were made to mitigate the sodium spray contribution to the accident scenario. Sodium spill tests demonstrated that large sodium leaks can be safely controlled in a sodium-cooled nuclear power plant

  1. Radiative and conductive heat transfer in a nongrey semitransparent medium. Application to fire protection curtains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berour, Nacer; Lacroix, David E-mail: david.lacroix@lemta.uhp-nancy.fr; Boulet, Pascal; Jeandel, Gerard

    2004-06-01

    This paper deals with heat transfer in nongrey media which scatter, absorb and emit radiation. Considering a two dimensional geometry, radiative and conductive phenomena through the medium have been taken into account. The radiative part of the problem was solved using the discrete ordinate method with classical S{sub n} quadratures. The absorption and scattering coefficients involved in the radiative transfer equation (RTE) were obtained from the Mie theory. Conduction inside the medium was linked to the RTE through the energy conservation. Validation of the model has been achieved with several simulation of water spray curtains used as fire protection walls.

  2. Protective clothing use at the Savannah River Plant Nuclear Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabbil, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    The mission of the Savannah River Plant in producing nuclear materials does pose some unique protective clothing and equipment requirements not usually seen in the general industry. In addition to protection from the chemicals and physical agents encountered, radioactive hazards must also be managed. This paper describes the protective clothing and respiratory protection used at SRP, and focuses particularly on the development of a new plastic suit. 5 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Pollution control and environmental monitoring efforts at DOE's Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attig, R.C.; Crawford, L.W.; Lynch, T.P.; Sheth, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Proof-of-Concept (POC) scale demonstration of such technology is currently being carried out at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), located at The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) in Tullahoma, Tennessee and at the Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The CFFF is dedicated to the evaluation of downstream (steam cycle) components and technology that may be considered for a full-scale MHD system. The objectives of the CFFF testing include the demonstration of various pollution control devices and techniques at a scale sufficient for future scale-up. The CFFF offers a unique test environment in which emissions control techniques can be developed and evaluated through emissions and environmental monitoring. Results thus far have demonstrated the ability of sulfur oxide (SO x ), nitrogen oxide (NO x ) and particulate emissions well below the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). Regeneration of the potassium sulfate to produce sulfur-free compounds also has been demonstrated. The experimental program at the CFFF is now aimed at determining the optimum conditions for future commercial scale designs. Because of increased interests in Air Toxics, measurements of nitrous oxide (N 2 O), a potential greenhouse gas, priority pollutants (inorganic as well as organics), and chlorine-containing species (Cl 2 and HCl) are also included in our ongoing efforts. Environmental monitoring activities are being pursued to develop an environmental impact assessment data base. These include the use of three ambient air sites to determine the impacts of gaseous and particulate emissions, five lake water sites to determine impacts due to process water discharges and seven sites to collect terrestrial data on possible soil contamination and tree growth. In this paper, we will summarize the status of our ongoing environmental program. 16 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs

  4. A computer code to estimate accidental fire and radioactive airborne releases in nuclear fuel cycle facilities: User's manual for FIRIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, M.K.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Owczarski, P.C.

    1989-02-01

    This manual describes the technical bases and use of the computer code FIRIN. This code was developed to estimate the source term release of smoke and radioactive particles from potential fires in nuclear fuel cycle facilities. FIRIN is a product of a broader study, Fuel Cycle Accident Analysis, which Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The technical bases of FIRIN consist of a nonradioactive fire source term model, compartment effects modeling, and radioactive source term models. These three elements interact with each other in the code affecting the course of the fire. This report also serves as a complete FIRIN user's manual. Included are the FIRIN code description with methods/algorithms of calculation and subroutines, code operating instructions with input requirements, and output descriptions. 40 refs., 5 figs., 31 tabs

  5. Station set requirements document. Volume 82: Fire support. Book 2: Preliminary functional fire plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N. C.

    1974-01-01

    The fire prevention/protection requirements for all shuttle facility and ground support equipment are presented for the hazardous operations. These include: preparing the orbiter for launch, launch operations, landing operations, safing operations, and associated off-line activities.

  6. Analysis of operational records in the bituminization demonstration facility. Investigation of the cause of fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, A.; Sano, Y.; Yoneya, M.; Koyama, T.

    1997-12-01

    Operational records in the bituminization demonstration facility in 97-M46-1 campaign were analyzed in order to investigate the cause of fire. Operational records which are different from ordinary level in this campaign are drum weight, temperature at 7th zone and extruder torque. So we investigated past campaign data about these records. The results are as follows. 1) In some campaigns, drum weight was lighter, temperature at 7th zone higher, and torque higher. 2) When drum weight is lighter, temperature at 7th zone becomes relatively higher. 3) In the case that higher temperature was measured at 7th zone, drum weight was sometimes less than the past average. 4) When the extruder's torque increases, it sometimes influences drum weight and temperature at 7th zone. The maximum of salt and bitumen became hotter from 28B. As the heat source, both frictional resistance and exothermic chemical reaction can be considered. Frictional resistance came out with increase of the torque. So we checked some operational parameters to investigate what increases the torque. Feed rate of waste solution is related with the torque increase. The other parameters are not related with it. Now we can not specify any causes of the torque increase from 27B, the feed rate of waste solution is however possible to be one of the causes. (author)

  7. Standard on fire protection for self-propelled and mobile surface mining equipment. 2001 ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Safeguard life and property against fire and related hazards in mines with the latest requirements in NFPA 121. This 2001 edition covers fire detection, suppression, ignition sources, fire risk assessment and maintenance of mining equipment systems. 4 apps.

  8. A fire risk analysis method for nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormieres, Yannick; Lacoue, Jocelyne [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PSN-RES, SA2I, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2013-07-01

    A fire safety analysis (FSA) is requested to justify the adequacy of fire protection measures set by the operator of a nuclear facility. An IRSN document outlines a global process for such a comprehensive fire safety analysis and focuses on compliance with performance criteria for fire protection measures. These performance criteria are related to the vulnerability of targets to effects of fire, and not only based upon outside radiological consequences caused by a fire. In his FSA, the operator has to define the safety functions to be preserved in the case of a fire in order to be compliant with nuclear safety objectives. Then, the operator has to justify the adequacy of fire protection measures, defined according to defence in depth principles. One of the key points of the fire analysis is the assessment of possible fire scenarios in the facility. Given the large number of possible fire scenarios, it is then necessary to evaluate ''reference fires'' which are envelope of all possible fire scenarios and which are used by the operator for the design of fire protection measures. (orig.)

  9. 'Passive fire protection in nuclear power plants' - German technologies of the company svt Brandschutz in future as well in Korean NPPs? -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremer, Joerg; Kim, Duill; Wendt, Ruediger

    2002-01-01

    Fires in NPPs are unfortunately not avoidable and to consider during the planning and operation period of the plants. The multitude of combustible materials which are used especially cables, oils and other building materials describe a potential source of danger. In Germany recently a new planning guideline for the fire protection field in NPPs has been adopted: the nuclear guideline KTA 1401. This document certainly is one of the most progressive guidelines for the fire protection field and has united · structural engineering elements of fire protection · electrotechnical and machine components · as well as questions of fire alarm and organisation measures. Passive and active fire protection measures are explained and layed down in their complexity within this document. Our group of companies has realised quit a lot of fire protection projects in Europe during the last years, especially within retrofitting measures for NPPs in Germany, Switzerland, Russia, the Ukraine and Lithuania, the Czech and Slovak Republic as well as within decommissioning projects of NPPs. We have carried out international fire protection projects of the EBRD, London, and within the framework of TACIS projects of the European Commission, i. a. linked with the working out of fire protection analyses for NPPs realised in close co-operation with the Germanischer Lloyd, Hamburg. We especially have wide experiences in improving the fire protection of cable installations where a 100% separation of the different safety systems is not any longer possible

  10. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Facility Registry Service (FRS) Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This GIS dataset contains data on wastewater treatment plants, based on EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) and NPDES, along with Clean Watersheds Needs Survey...

  11. Supervision of Waste Management and Environmental Protection at the Swedish Nuclear Facilities 2001

    CERN Document Server

    Persson, M

    2003-01-01

    The report summarizes the supervision of waste management and environmental protection at the nuclear facilities that was carried out by the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority in 2001. A summary of the inspections and a description of important issues connected with the supervision of the nuclear facilities are given.The inspections during 2001 have focused on theme inspections of waste management, environmental inspections considering the environmental monitoring at the Swedish nuclear facilities and review safety analysis and research programs from the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority finds that the operations are mainly performed according to current regulations

  12. A method for predicting the impact velocity of a projectile fired from a compressed air gun facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attwood, G.J.

    1988-03-01

    This report describes the development and use of a method for calculating the velocity at impact of a projectile fired from a compressed air gun. The method is based on a simple but effective approach which has been incorporated into a computer program. The method was developed principally for use with the Horizontal Impact Facility at AEE Winfrith but has been adapted so that it can be applied to any compressed air gun of a similar design. The method has been verified by comparison of predicted velocities with test data and the program is currently being used in a predictive manner to specify test conditions for the Horizontal Impact Facility at Winfrith. (author)

  13. Studying the Post-Fire Response of Vegetation in California Protected Areas with NDVI-based Pheno-Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, S.; Gillespie, T. W.

    2016-12-01

    Post-fire response from vegetation is determined by the intensity and timing of fires as well as the nature of local biomes. Though the field-based studies focusing on selected study sites helped to understand the mechanisms of post-fire response, there is a need to extend the analysis to a broader spatial extent with the assistance of remotely sensed imagery of fires and vegetation. Pheno-metrics, a series of variables on the growing cycle extracted from basic satellite measurements of vegetation coverage, translate the basic remote sensing measurements such as NDVI to the language of phenology and fire ecology in a quantitative form. In this study, we analyzed the rate of biomass removal after ignition and the speed of post-fire recovery in California protected areas from 2000 to 2014 with USGS MTBS fire data and USGS eMODIS pheno-metrics. NDVI drop caused by fire showed the aboveground biomass of evergreen forest was removed much slower than shrubland because of higher moisture level and greater density of fuel. In addition, the above two major land cover types experienced a greatly weakened immediate post-fire growing season, featuring a later start and peak of season, a shorter length of season, and a lower start and peak of NDVI. Such weakening was highly correlated with burn severity, and also influenced by the season of fire and the land cover type, according to our modeling between the anomalies of pheno-metrics and the difference of normalized burn ratio (dNBR). The influence generally decayed over time, but can remain high within the first 5 years after fire, mostly because of the introduction of exotic species when the native species were missing. Local-specific variables are necessary to better address the variance within the same fire and improve the outcomes of models. This study can help ecologists in validating the theories of post-fire vegetation response mechanisms and assist local fire managers in post-fire vegetation recovery.

  14. General considerations on fire and explosions in a nuclear facility. Interaction with ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savornin, J.

    1983-05-01

    After a brief survey of French regulations and documents used in defining fire and explosion precautions, a number of fires which have broken out in French nuclear power plants and their effects on ventilation are mentioned. Past or current tests and experiments in France are described, and the provisions made to create computer codes for refining fire safety analysis are presented. The regulations which have been established to reduce the risk of fire or explosion and to contain it without failure of the containment barrier provided by the ventilation system are then given [fr

  15. Assessment of radiological protection systems among diagnostic radiology facilities in North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Thokchom Dewan; Jayaraman, T; Arunkumar Sharma, B

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to assess the adequacy level of radiological protection systems available in the diagnostic radiology facilities located in three capital cities of North East (NE) India. It further attempts to understand, using a multi-disciplinary approach, how the safety codes/standards in diagnostic radiology framed by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to achieve adequate radiological protection in facilities, have been perceived, conceptualized, and applied accordingly in these facilities. About 30 diagnostic radiology facilities were randomly selected from three capitals of states in NE India; namely Imphal (Manipur), Shillong (Meghalaya) and Guwahati (Assam). A semi-structured questionnaire developed based on a multi-disciplinary approach was used for this study. It was observed that radiological practices undertaken in these facilities were not exactly in line with safety codes/standards in diagnostic radiology of the AERB and the IAEA. About 50% of the facilities had registered/licensed x-ray equipment with the AERB. More than 80% of the workers did not use radiation protective devices, although these devices were available in the facilities. About 85% of facilities had no institutional risk management system. About 70% of the facilities did not carry out periodic quality assurance testing of their x-ray equipment or surveys of radiation leakage around the x-ray room, and did not display radiation safety indicators in the x-ray rooms. Workers in these facilities exhibited low risk perception about the risks associated with these practices. The majority of diagnostic radiology facilities in NE India did not comply with the radiological safety codes/standards framed by the AERB and IAEA. The study found inadequate levels of radiological protection systems in the majority of facilities. This study suggests a need to establish firm measures that comply with the radiological safety codes/standards of the

  16. EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J.E. Locke

    2005-11-01

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dryer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the seventh in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 1,300 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing three percent sulfur. The unit was equipped with an ESP and a limestone-based wet FGD to control particulate and SO2 emissions, respectively. At the time of sampling an SCR was not installed on this unit. Four sampling tests were performed in September 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. The results show that the FGD inlet flue gas oxidized:elemental mercury ratio was roughly 2:1, with 66% oxidized mercury and 34% elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a coal

  17. Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. A. Withum; S. C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

    2006-01-31

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that these data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the ninth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on Unit 1 at Plant 7, a 566 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 3.6% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO

  18. Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. A. Withum; J. E. Locke

    2006-02-01

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that this data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the tenth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on two 468 MW units burning bituminous coal containing 1.3-1.7% sulfur. Unit 2 is equipped with an SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO{sub 2} emissions

  19. EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

    2004-10-31

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) - wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on Hg speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for Hg capture. This document, the second in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 330 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 1.0% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR system for NOx control and a spray dryer absorber for SO{sub 2} control followed by a baghouse unit for particulate emissions control. Four sampling tests were performed in March 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the SCR inlet, air heater outlet (ESP inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. Due to mechanical problems with the boiler feed water pumps, the actual gross output was between 195 and 221 MW during the tests. The results showed that the SCR/air heater combination oxidized nearly 95% of the elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a

  20. Effects of weathering on performance of intumescent coatings for structure fire protection in the wildland-urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Babak

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of weathering on the performance of intumescent fire-retardant coatings on wooden products. The weathering effects included primary (solar irradiation, moisture, and temperature) and secondary (environmental contaminants) parameters at various time intervals. Wildland urban interface (WUI) fires have been an increasing threat to lives and properties. Existing solutions to mitigate the damages caused by WUI fires include protecting the structures from ignition and minimizing the fire spread from one structure to another. These solutions can be divided into two general categories: active fire protection systems and passive fire protection systems. Passive systems are either using pre-applied wetting agents (water, gel, or foam) or adding an extra layer (composite wraps or coatings). Fire-retardant coating treatment methods can be divided into impregnated (penetrant) and intumescent categories. Intumescent coatings are easy to apply, economical, and have a better appearance in comparison to other passive fire protection methods, and are the main focus of this study. There have been limited studies conducted on the application of intumescent coatings on wooden structures and their performance after long-term weathering exposure. The main concerns of weathering effects are: 1) the reduction of ignition resistance of the coating layer after weathering; and 2) the fire properties of coatings after weathering since coatings might contribute as a combustible fuel and assist the fire growth after ignition. Three intumescent coatings were selected and exposed to natural weathering conditions in three different time intervals. Two types of tests were performed on the specimens: a combustibility test consisted of a bench-scale performance evaluation using a Cone Calorimeter, and a thermal decomposition test using Simultaneous Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) method (also known

  1. Objectives of radiological environment protection in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberhausen, E.

    1976-01-01

    The aim of the radiological environment protection is to avoid risks to the health of the population. But the risks from radiation can only be considered in connection with spontaneously occuring malignancies. The comparison shows that according to the maximum permissible doses in the German Ordinance of Radiation Protection the risks of radiation injury are so low that they cannot be detected relative to the spontaneous malignancies. (orig.) [de

  2. Radiation protection -Operation of chemical wastewater treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M. J.; Lim, M. H.; Ahn, S. S.; Jeong, Y. S.

    1996-12-01

    The wastewater and sewage treatment facility have been operated. From the results of operation, it was confirmed that the quality of treated wastewater was 1/5 or 1/10 lower than that of regulation of law for environmental conservation. The quality of treated sewage has been maintained to 70% of regulation of law for environmental conservation. (author). 14 tabs., 8 figs

  3. Evaluation Of Fire Safety And Protection At PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Nabil Ab Rahim; Alfred Sanggau Ligam; Nurhayati Ramli; Mohd Fazli Zakaria; Naim Syauqi Hamzah; Phongsakorn Prak; Mohammad Suhaimi Kassim; Zarina Masood

    2014-01-01

    Fire hazard is one of many risks that can affect the safety operation of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor. Reactor building in Malaysian Nuclear Agency was built in 1980s and the fire system has been introduced since then. The evaluation of the fire safety system at this time is important to ensure the efficiency of fire prevention, fighting and mitigation task that probably occurs. This evaluation involves with the fire fighting system and equipment, integrity of the system from the perspective of management and equipment, fire fighting procedure and fire fighting response team. (author)

  4. Protecting facilities against terrorism and sabotage. Is Jamaica prepared to deal with this potential threat?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, E.D.

    2001-01-01

    courts of the land. Our airports, oil refinery and some utility facilities are located in close proximity to the sea. This is very accessible to attack from the sea. Our other essential facilities are not as easily accessed as they are located inland and may be more difficult to access. All these facilities have security protection, but none is equipped to deal with any level of terrorism. No security equipment currently being used has the capability to combat, detect and or prevent any terrorist attacks or acts of sabotage. The nation needs to expand resources to set up units to focus on this potential threat. This unit should focus on analysis of threats from: terrorism; the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction; vulnerabilities attended on increasing economic and societal dependence on information technologies. There is a wide variety of novel attacks available to the terrorist today; it would be advised that the unit, through constant training and workshops, be aware of as many of these attack methods as possible. There should be collaboration between several entities to analyze and plan for the potential threats. The army and police forces will have to be complemented by scientists who have expert knowledge on this subject area. Experts could be drawn from: i. Information and communications centers; ii. Banking and finance entities; iii. Utility entities; iv. Environment protection agencies; v. Land, air and sea transportation agencies; vi. Fire services; vii. Law enforcement agencies; viii. Defense (army and police); ix. Health services; x. Oil and gas refineries; xi. Disaster preparedness program. This group would examine issues such as: How to reduce the vulnerabilities of their institutions to terrorist attacks (threat/vulnerability management); How to respond to terrorist acts? Guideline or rules to follow when faced with the problem of terrorism (crisis management); How to deal with the aftermath of terrorist attacks, including providing essential aids

  5. Coal fly ash-containing sprayed mortar for passive fire protection of steel sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilches, L. F.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article addresses the possible use of coal fly ash as the chief component of sprayed mortars to fireproof steel structures. A pilot wet-mix gunning rig was specifically designed and built to spray different pastes on to sheet steel and sections with different surface/volume ratios. After gunning, the specimens were placed in a furnace and subjected to standard fire resistance testing. Product fire resistance was calculated from the test results. The mortar used in this study, with a high fly ash content, was found to have acceptable mechanical properties as well as afire resistance potential comparable to those of commercial passive fire protection products.

    En este artículo se estudia el posible uso de las cenizas volantes procedentes de la combustión del carbón como constituyente principal de morteros que pueden ser proyectados sobre estructuras metálicas, para protegerlas contra el fuego. Con objeto de estudiar el proceso de proyección, se ha construido una planta piloto de gunitado por vía húmeda. La pasta se ha proyectado sobre placas metálicas y perfiles metálicos con diferentes relaciones superficie/volumen. Tras el gunitado, las probetas proyectadas se colocan en un horno y se someten a un programa de calentamiento según la norma de resistencia al fuego. A partir de los datos obtenidos se ha podido realizar una estimación de la resistencia al fuego del producto. Los resultados muestran que el material proyectado usado en este estudio, que contiene una alta proporción de cenizas volantes, tiene unas propiedades mecánicas aceptables y unas características potenciales de resistencia al fuego comparables a las de otros productos comerciales utilizados en la protección pasiva contra el fuego.

  6. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 2724-W Protective Equipment Decontamination Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.; Lavey, G.H.

    1992-12-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1* for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during Calendar Year 1991 and the evaluation requires the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438**. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements

  7. Periodic inspections of lightning protection systems in intermediate storage facilities of nuclear technological plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witzel, Andre; Schulz, Olav

    2013-01-01

    Especially for nuclear technological plants, periodic inspections of lightning protection systems are of great importance. This article shows the sequence of maintenance programs using the examples of the intermediate storage facilities of the nuclear technological plants Grohnde and Unterweser as well as the central intermediate storage facility in Gorleben and gives a description of the extensive measures of inspecting the external and internal lightning protection and the global earth termination system.

  8. Radiation protection and environmental surveillance programme in and around Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Radiation safety is an integral part of the operation of the Indian nuclear fuel cycle facilities and safety culture has been inculcated in all the spheres of its operation. Nuclear fuel cycle comprises of mineral exploration, mining, ore processing, fuel fabrication, power plants, reprocessing, waste management and accelerator facilities. Health Physics Division of BARC is entrusted with the responsibility of radiation protection and environmental surveillance in all the nuclear fuel cycle facilities

  9. Radiation management at the occurrence of accident and restoration works. Fire and explosion of asphalt solidification processing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyabe, Kenjiro; Jin, K; Namiki, A; Mizutani, K; Horiuchi, N; Saruta, J [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Health and Safety Division, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Ninomiya, Kazushige [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan). Monju Construction Office

    1998-06-01

    Fire and explosion accident in the cell of Asphalt Solidification Processing Facility(ASP) in PNC took placed at March 11 in 1997. Following to the alarm of many radiation monitoring system in the facility, some of workers inhale radioactive materials in their bodies. Indication values of an exhaust monitor installed in the first auxiliary exhaust stack increased suddenly. A large number of windows, doors, and shutters in the facility were raptured by the explosion. A lot of radioactive materials blew up and were released to the outside of the facility. Reinforcement of radiation surveillance function, nose smearing test for the workers and confirmation of contamination situation were implemented on the fire. Investigation of radiation situation, radiation management on the site, exposure management for the workers, surveillance of exhaustion, and restoration works of the damaged radiation management monitoring system were carried out after the explosion. The detailed data of radiation management measures taken during three months after the accident are described in the paper. (M. Suetake)

  10. A novel method to design water spray cooling system to protect floating roof atmospheric storage tanks against fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Alimohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon bulk storage tank fires are not very common, but their protection is essential due to severe consequences of such fires. Water spray cooling system is one of the most effective ways to reduce damages to a tank from a fire. Many codes and standards set requirements and recommendations to maximize the efficiency of water spray cooling systems, but these are widely different and still various interpretations and methods are employed to design such systems. This article provides a brief introduction to some possible design methods of cooling systems for protection of storage tanks against external non-contacting fires and introduces a new method namely “Linear Density Method” and compares the results from this method to the “Average Method” which is currently in common practice. The average Method determines the flow rate for each spray nozzle by dividing the total water demand by the number of spray nozzles while the Linear Density Method determines the nozzle flow rate based on the actual flow over the surface to be protected. The configuration of the system includes a one million barrel crude oil floating roof tank to be protected and which is placed one half tank diameter from a similar adjacent tank with a full surface fire. Thermal radiation and hydraulics are modeled using DNV PHAST Version 6.53 and Sunrise PIPENET Version 1.5.0.2722 software respectively. Spray nozzles used in design are manufactured by Angus Fire and PNR Nozzles companies. Schedule 40 carbon steel pipe is used for piping. The results show that the cooling system using the Linear Density Method consumes 3.55% more water than the design using the average method assuming a uniform application rate of 4.1 liters per minute. Despite higher water consumption the design based on Linear Density Method alleviates the problems associated with the Average Method and provides better protection.

  11. Status of physical protection systems of nuclear facilities; survey report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, In Koo; Kwack, Eun Ho; Ahn, Jin Soo; Lee, Hyun Chul; Kim, Jung Soo

    2002-02-01

    This report presents a survey on the physical protection equipment for a nuclear power plant. This survey was conducted by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute as a part of the project, 'Development of Technologies for National Control of and Accountancy for Nuclear Material,' funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Korea. A physical protection system of a nuclear plant includes outer and inner fences, intrusion detection sensors, alarm generation system, illumination equipment, central monitoring and control station, entry control and management system, etc. The outermost fence indicates the boundary of the plant area and prevents a simple or unintentional intrusion. The inner fence area of each plant unit associated with intrusion detection sensors, illuminators, monitoring cameras, serves the key role for physical protection function for the nuclear plant

  12. An assessment of the fire protection requirements throughout a NPP life related to current IAEA regulations and American, Canadian and UE regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branzeu, N.; Necula, D.; Badea, M.; Teodorescu, D.; Peteu, M.

    2006-01-01

    Statistics on fires has surprisingly shown that the frequency of fires in a nuclear power plant are as high as in the conventional industrial units. The analyses on fires occurred in a NPP need to consider both their well-known severe damages and the nuclear consequences. In 1975 a severe fire occurred in BROWNS FERRY NPP due to the ignition of the polyurethane foam used in the electric cable penetration sealings. The fire propagated to the cable channels and damaged over 1600 cables. The fire event revealed important shortcomings in the fire protection design and procedures. The fire represented a crucial event that changed fundamentally the fire protection regulation in the United States nuclear industry. The fire protection programs, standards and guides currently applied, have been developed on basis of this fire analysis and gained conclusions/experience. The purpose of the article is to be a short presentation of the fire protection requirements for all NPP life stages (i.e. design, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning), including the most recent issues of the standards, codes, guides and regulations in US, Canada, IAEA and some European countries. Such documentation represented the main technical support in establishing the national fire protection standard design regarding all the stages of a CANDU-6 NPP life, all the types of operational NPPs, particularly for Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 and Unit 2 (now in an advanced stage of construction). In order to satisfy the requirements provided by this documentation, as practically as possible, a list of analyses and fire protection improvement measures for Cernavoda NPP is presented. (authors)

  13. PART I: Bioventing Pilot Test Work Plan for Fire Protection Training Area Site FY-03, Charleston AFB, South Carolina. PART II: Draft Interim Pilot Test Results Report for Fire Protection Training Area Site FT-03, Charleston AFB, South Carolina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    This site-specific work plan presents the scope of a bioventing pilot test for in situ treatment of fuel contaminated soils at the Fire Protection Training Area designated as Site FT-O3, Charleston Air Force Base (AFB), South Carolina...

  14. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 2724-W Protective Equipment Decontamination Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.J.

    1991-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1* for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the first annual report. It shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updates as a minimum every three years

  15. EPRI/NRC-RES fire PRA guide for nuclear power facilities. Volume 1, summary and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report documents state-of-the-art methods, tools, and data for the conduct of a fire Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP) application. The methods have been developed under the Fire Risk Re-quantification Study. This study was conducted as a joint activity between EPRI and the U. S. NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) under the terms of an EPRI/RES Memorandum of Understanding (RS.1) and an accompanying Fire Research Addendum (RS.2). Industry participants supported demonstration analyses and provided peer review of this methodology. The documented methods are intended to support future applications of Fire PRA, including risk-informed regulatory applications. The documented method reflects state-of-the-art fire risk analysis approaches. The primary objective of the Fire Risk Study was to consolidate recent research and development activities into a single state-of-the-art fire PRA analysis methodology. Methodological issues raised in past fire risk analyses, including the Individual Plant Examination of External Events (IPEEE) fire analyses, have been addressed to the extent allowed by the current state-of-the-art and the overall project scope. Methodological debates were resolved through a consensus process between experts representing both EPRI and RES. The consensus process included a provision whereby each major party (EPRI and RES) could maintain differing technical positions if consensus could not be reached. No cases were encountered where this provision was invoked. While the primary objective of the project was to consolidate existing state-of-the-art methods, in many areas, the newly documented methods represent a significant advancement over previously documented methods. In several areas, this project has, in fact, developed new methods and approaches. Such advances typically relate to areas of past methodological debate.

  16. Legal Aspects of international cooperation in the physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herron, L.W.

    1981-10-01

    This paper provides a detailed analysis of developments in the number field having led the IAEA to promote international cooperation in ensuring adequate physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials. This work resulted in the establishment of recommendations and guidelines in this respect and culminated in the development of the 1980 Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials. (NEA) [fr

  17. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Cruas-Meysse nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 111 and 112). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  18. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Belleville-sur-Loire nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 127 and 128). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  19. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Paluel nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 103, 104, 114 and 115). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  20. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Belleville-sur-Loire nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 127 and 128). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  1. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Penly nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 136 and 140). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  2. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Belleville-Sur-Loire nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 127 and 128). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  3. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Flamanville nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 108, 109 and 167 (under construction)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  4. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Fessenheim nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INB no. 75). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  5. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Blayais nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 86 and 110). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  6. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Nogent-Sur-Seine nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 129 and 130). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  7. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Paluel nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 103, 104, 114 and 115). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  8. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Civaux nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 158 and 159). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  9. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Cruas-Meysse nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 111 and 112). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  10. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Dampierre-en-Burly nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 84 and 85). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  11. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Dampierre-En-Burly nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 84 and 85). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  12. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Civaux nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 158 and 159). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  13. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Penly nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 136 and 140). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  14. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Golfech nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 135 and 142). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  15. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Penly nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 136 and 140). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  16. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Fessenheim nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INB no. 75). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  17. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Saint-Alban Saint-Maurice nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 119 and 120). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  18. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Golfech nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 135 and 142). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  19. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Civaux nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 158 and 159). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  20. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Nogent-sur-Seine nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 129 and 130). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  1. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Dampierre-en-Burly nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 84 and 85). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  2. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Chooz nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 139, 144 and 163 (under dismantling)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  3. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Cattenom nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 124, 125, 126 and 137). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  4. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Chooz nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 139, 144 and 163 (under dismantling)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  5. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Cattenom nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 124, 125, 126 and 137). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  6. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Flamanville nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 108, 109 and 167 (under construction)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  7. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Blayais nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 86 and 110). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  8. Radiological protection program in x-ray diagnostic facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melara F, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a basic document to initiate a discussion which will originate a Unified Protocol in Latin America and the Caribbean for radiological protection in the installations of medical radiology. The following principal elements are considered an inherent part of radiology protection: 1. Quality control of equipment. 2. Conditions in the dark room which coincide in the quality of the image. Levels of patient exposure and the processes for the quality control of the processors are not discussed, and it is limited to the installation of radiographic medical x-ray equipment, stationary and mobile. Each point to be put into effect is presented in a diagram, frequency and criteria for acceptance. A detailed explanation of each point along with a clear explanation of the recommended method for each follows in the same order in which they are presented in the diagram. Finally adequate forms for easily acquiring data are presented. (author)

  9. 29 CFR 553.213 - Public agency employees engaged in both fire protection and law enforcement activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regardless of how the employee's time is divided between the two activities. However, all time spent in... spends the majority of work time during the work period. ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public agency employees engaged in both fire protection and...

  10. Internal environmental protection audits: a suggested guide for US Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisas, S.; Polich, J.; Habegger, L.; Surles, T.

    1983-08-01

    This manual has been prepared for use by any DOE facility as an aid for conducting an internal environmental-protection audit. The manual is organized in modular format, with each module covering a separate area of environmental protection. The questions within each module were developed from existing DOE orders, executive orders, federal statutes, and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations issued pursuant to specific environmental legislation. A bibliography of such legislation is included at the end of this section. Each module also includes questions about a facility's use of industrial standards of practice

  11. The Nuclear Safety Council's Instruction IS-30 on program requirements of fire protection at nuclear power plants; La instruccion IS-30 del consejo de Seguridad Nuclear sobre requisitos del programa de proteccion contraincendios en centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peco, J.

    2015-07-01

    The Nuclear Safety Councils Instrumentation IS-30 is the standard that establishes the fire protection program requirements for the Spanish nuclear power plants with operating license in order to satisfy the two fire protection objectives, which are the adoption of the defense-in-depth principle for fire protection and, by fire area confinement, to ensure that one train of components needed to achieve and maintain the safe shutdown conditions is free of fire damage, and that radioactive liberation is minimized. (Author)

  12. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection References For Further Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269 . 3. Fire Fighter Professional Qualifications, NFPA 1001; National Fire... of Equipment for the Removal of Smoke and Grease-Laden Vapor from Commercial Cooking Equipment, NFPA...

  13. 309 Building fire protection analysis and justification for deactivation of sprinkler system. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    Provide a 'graded approach' fire evaluation in preparation for turnover to Environmental Restoration Contractor for D and D. Scope includes revising 309 Building book value and evaluating fire hazards, radiological and toxicological releases, and life safety issues

  14. Development of Human Factors Engineering Requirements for Fire Fighting Protective Equipment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hopmeier, Michael; Christen, Hank T; Malone, Michael V

    2005-01-01

    This report is the result of an effort to develop an understanding of fire fighter needs through an assessment of relevant research and fire fighter-related literature, forums, conferences, and symposia...

  15. Personnel Radiation Protection at the ITER Nuclear Fusion Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coniglio, A.; Sandri, S. [ENEA, Radiation Protection Institute, Frascati (Italy); D' Arienzo, M. [RFX, Padova (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The hosting site for the ITER nuclear fusion experiment was finally chosen in France (Cadarache). The radiation protection program for the ITER personnel involved into operation and maintenance activities will be then tested in the near future. Related studies were mainly carried out during the last ten years and important assessments were performed at the Frascati ENEA Research Center in Italy. In this ambit individual and collective doses to the operators were calculated for different categories of working activities involving more and less critical systems. The radiation protection organization was outlined and the related program was proposed. A short review of the analyses performed in this field by the Italian investigators of the ENEA Radiation Protection Institute is shown here. The principal parameter taken into account in these evaluations was the collective dose due to the different working activities. This quantity has been assessed considering the following radiological source terms: a) the prompt radiation during the plasma burning phase, b) the gamma radiation due to the neutron activation of the solid structures, c) the activated corrosion products (ACPs) generated in the water cooling system (WCS) by corrosion of the inner wall of the piping under the neutron flux, d) tritium concentration in the atmosphere of the working premises. Individual doses have been integrated over the different worker typology, considering the design evolution for the different systems and the required person power. Ordinary, inspection and maintenance activities were taken into account to assess the person power, sometime also construction, plant modifications and unscheduled maintenance were included in the working activities list. The collective dose assessed for ITER fusion projects has been compared with that of the fission power stations and analogies and differences have been pointed out. In this review the dose assessment process is recalled starting from the

  16. Personnel Radiation Protection at the ITER Nuclear Fusion Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coniglio, A.; Sandri, S.; D'Arienzo, M.

    2006-01-01

    The hosting site for the ITER nuclear fusion experiment was finally chosen in France (Cadarache). The radiation protection program for the ITER personnel involved into operation and maintenance activities will be then tested in the near future. Related studies were mainly carried out during the last ten years and important assessments were performed at the Frascati ENEA Research Center in Italy. In this ambit individual and collective doses to the operators were calculated for different categories of working activities involving more and less critical systems. The radiation protection organization was outlined and the related program was proposed. A short review of the analyses performed in this field by the Italian investigators of the ENEA Radiation Protection Institute is shown here. The principal parameter taken into account in these evaluations was the collective dose due to the different working activities. This quantity has been assessed considering the following radiological source terms: a) the prompt radiation during the plasma burning phase, b) the gamma radiation due to the neutron activation of the solid structures, c) the activated corrosion products (ACPs) generated in the water cooling system (WCS) by corrosion of the inner wall of the piping under the neutron flux, d) tritium concentration in the atmosphere of the working premises. Individual doses have been integrated over the different worker typology, considering the design evolution for the different systems and the required person power. Ordinary, inspection and maintenance activities were taken into account to assess the person power, sometime also construction, plant modifications and unscheduled maintenance were included in the working activities list. The collective dose assessed for ITER fusion projects has been compared with that of the fission power stations and analogies and differences have been pointed out. In this review the dose assessment process is recalled starting from the

  17. Current trends towards a new regulation and evolution of fire protection systems technologies in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Sanjuan, G.

    1996-01-01

    For some time now, the field of Fire Protection in Nuclear Power Plants has, with its own peculiarities in an otherwise general process, been the centre of some controversy caused by tendencies to reduce regulatory inflexibility by transforming what was originally a prescriptive, pro grammatical and deterministic regulatory system into a system based on risk assessment and operating experience. Such tendencies include: Cost Beneficial Licensing Actions (CBLA) Use of the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) as a tool for evaluating the impact of postulated fires in nuclear safety Improvement of communications between the regulatory body and the industry These trends have coincided with the arduous process of requalifying passive fire-resistant protection materials, such as Thermo lag and others, which are used to separate redundant Safe Shutdown trains with fire-resistance ranges of one (1) hour or three (3) hours, in compliance with some of the alternatives that Appendix R to 10 CFR 50 offers. The process has involved a lot of effort and financial cost in requalification and in employing compensatory measures until operability of the fire-resistant materials is reestablished. A new test methodology has been created for these barriers (GL 86-10, Supplement 1) and new materials have become available and are currently undergoing qualification. (Author)

  18. Updates of the fire protection system of the Juzbado Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Plant; Actualizaciones del Sistema de Proteccion Contra Incendios de la Fabrica de Combustible Nuclear de Juzbado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorado, P.; Palomo, J. J.; Romano, A.

    2015-07-01

    The Juzbado Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Plant fire protection system is one of the most important safety system of the plant. Every year, a large part of the annual investment is employed to improve this system, to update its technology, in order to improve detection and extinction capability to minimize fire risk. Over the last few years, several improvement projects have been carried out that focused on fire detection technology update and on optimization of local detectors integration with a centralized control system, as well as on an advanced public address system, which used clear and unambiguous messages improving personnel response to a plant evacuation. Planned projects and those, which are currently under development, focus on improving passive fire protection means as well as fire protection of key emergency response equipment s such as emergency diesel generators and fire extinguishing bombs. (Author)

  19. Mathematical Foundation Based Inter-Connectivity modelling of Thermal Image processing technique for Fire Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayantan Nath

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, integration between multiple functions of image processing and its statistical parameters for intelligent alarming series based fire detection system is presented. The proper inter-connectivity mapping between processing elements of imagery based on classification factor for temperature monitoring and multilevel intelligent alarm sequence is introduced by abstractive canonical approach. The flow of image processing components between core implementation of intelligent alarming system with temperature wise area segmentation as well as boundary detection technique is not yet fully explored in the present era of thermal imaging. In the light of analytical perspective of convolutive functionalism in thermal imaging, the abstract algebra based inter-mapping model between event-calculus supported DAGSVM classification for step-by-step generation of alarm series with gradual monitoring technique and segmentation of regions with its affected boundaries in thermographic image of coal with respect to temperature distinctions is discussed. The connectedness of the multifunctional operations of image processing based compatible fire protection system with proper monitoring sequence is presently investigated here. The mathematical models representing the relation between the temperature affected areas and its boundary in the obtained thermal image defined in partial derivative fashion is the core contribution of this study. The thermal image of coal sample is obtained in real-life scenario by self-assembled thermographic camera in this study. The amalgamation between area segmentation, boundary detection and alarm series are described in abstract algebra. The principal objective of this paper is to understand the dependency pattern and the principles of working of image processing components and structure an inter-connected modelling technique also for those components with the help of mathematical foundation.

  20. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Bugey nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the facilities (INBs no. 78, 89 (NPPs in operation), 465 (NPP under deconstruction), 102 (fuel storage facility), and 173 (radioactive waste conditioning and storage facility under construction)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix