WorldWideScience

Sample records for facility catchment area

  1. Catchment areas for public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2008-01-01

    In the planning of public transport catchment areas of stops are often included to estimate potential number of travellers. There are different approaches to GIS-based catchment area analyses depending on the desired level of detail. The Circular Buffer approach is the fundamental, but also....../from stations. The article also shows how the refinement of the Service Area approach with additional time resistance results in smaller catchment areas when the feeder routes cross stairs. It is concluded that GIS-based catchment area analyses are a multiple decision support tool for planning of public...... transport where the level of detail can be suited to the purpose....

  2. Investigating the Influence of Various Stormwater Runoff Control Facilities on Runoff Control Efficiency in a Small Catchment Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rei Itsukushima

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization causes an increase in the flood discharge because of the infiltration capacity. Furthermore, extreme precipitation events have been an increasing concern for many regions worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the influence of different outflow control facilities on runoff reduction in a small watershed. We focused on the soil-improvement technology and rainwater tanks as outflow control facilities and conducted a runoff calculation using a rainfall event of a magnitude that is likely to occur once in a hundred years. The calculation showed that the soil-improvement technology reduced runoff during long-term continuous rainfall, whereas in a concentrated short-term rainfall event, a significant difference in the runoff reduction effect between rainfall tanks of various volumes was observed. Since effective countermeasures for runoff reduction differ depending on the rainfall distribution pattern, we suggested both facilities for storing initial rainfall and initiating countermeasures for penetration improvement over the long term.

  3. Examination of catchment areas for public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Hansen, Stephen; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a method to examine the catchment areas for stops in high quality public transport systems based on the street network in the examined area. This is achieved by implementing the Service Area functions from the ArcGIS extension Network Analyst. The method is compared to a more...

  4. Large catchment area recharges Titan's Ontario Lacus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Rajani D.; Barnes, Jason W.; Yanites, Brian J.; Kirk, Randolph L.

    2018-01-01

    We seek to address the question of what processes are at work to fill Ontario Lacus while other, deeper south polar basins remain empty. Our hydrological analysis indicates that Ontario Lacus has a catchment area spanning 5.5% of Titan's surface and a large catchment area to lake surface area ratio. This large catchment area translates into large volumes of liquid making their way to Ontario Lacus after rainfall. The areal extent of the catchment extends to at least southern mid-latitudes (40°S). Mass conservation calculations indicate that runoff alone might completely fill Ontario Lacus within less than half a Titan year (1 Titan year = 29.5 Earth years) assuming no infiltration. Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) observations of clouds over the southern mid and high-latitudes are consistent with precipitation feeding Ontario's large catchment area. This far-flung rain may be keeping Ontario Lacus filled, making it a liquid hydrocarbon oasis in the relatively dry south polar region.

  5. Airport Catchment Area- Example Warsaw Modlin Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachut, Jakub

    2017-10-01

    The form and functions of airports change over time, just like the form and function of cities. Historically, airports are understood as places of aircraft landing, control towers operation and location of other facilities used for communication and transport. This traditional model is giving way to the concept of so-called Airport Cities, based on the assumption that, in addition to its infrastructure and air services, also non-air services are performed, constituting a source of income. At the same time, their reach and impact on the economy of the areas around the airport are expanding. Idea City Airport appeared in the United States in the late twentieth century. The author is J. D. Kasarda, he believes that it is around these big air ports that airport cities develop. In the world, there are currently 45 areas which can be classified in this category, out of which 12 are located in Europe. Main air traffic hubs in Europe are not only the most important passenger traffic junctions, but also largest centres dispatching goods (cargo). It can be said that, among the 30 largest airports, 24 are the largest in terms of both passenger and freight traffic. These airports cover up to 89.9% of the total freight transport of all European airports. At the same time, they serve 56.9% of all passengers in Europe. Based on the concept of Airport City was developed document THE INTEGRATED REGIONAL POLYCENTRIC DEVELOPMENT PLANS FOR THE WARSAW MODLIN AIRPORT CATCHMENT AREA. The plan developed takes into account the findings of the Mazovian voivodeship spatial development plan, specifying the details of its provisions where possible. The development is the first step for the implementation of the concept of the Modlin Airport City. The accomplishment of this ambitious vision will only be possible with hard work of a number of entities, as well as taking into account the former Modlin Fortress, currently under revitalisation, in concepts and plans.

  6. Aperture area measurement facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST has established an absolute aperture area measurement facility for circular and near-circular apertures use in radiometric instruments. The facility consists of...

  7. Measuring the size of an airport's catchment area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, R.

    2012-01-01

    Although much empirical research exists on the factors that drive passenger airport choice, not much is known about the related topic of airport catchment area size. This paper presents a novel methodology to assess the size of airport catchment areas and the airport’s market shares therein using a

  8. Seasonal rainfall predictability over the Lake Kariba catchment area

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Muchuru, S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Lake Kariba catchment area in southern Africa has one of the most variable climates of any major river basin, with an extreme range of conditions across the catchment and through time. Marked seasonal and interannual fluctuations in rainfall...

  9. Modelling catchment areas for secondary care providers: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Simon; Wardlaw, Jessica; Crouch, Susan; Carolan, Michelle

    2011-09-01

    Hospitals need to understand patient flows in an increasingly competitive health economy. New initiatives like Patient Choice and the Darzi Review further increase this demand. Essential to understanding patient flows are demographic and geographic profiles of health care service providers, known as 'catchment areas' and 'catchment populations'. This information helps Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) to review how their populations are accessing services, measure inequalities and commission services; likewise it assists Secondary Care Providers (SCPs) to measure and assess potential gains in market share, redesign services, evaluate admission thresholds and plan financial budgets. Unlike PCTs, SCPs do not operate within fixed geographic boundaries. Traditionally, SCPs have used administrative boundaries or arbitrary drive times to model catchment areas. Neither approach satisfactorily represents current patient flows. Furthermore, these techniques are time-consuming and can be challenging for healthcare managers to exploit. This paper presents three different approaches to define catchment areas, each more detailed than the previous method. The first approach 'First Past the Post' defines catchment areas by allocating a dominant SCP to each Census Output Area (OA). The SCP with the highest proportion of activity within each OA is considered the dominant SCP. The second approach 'Proportional Flow' allocates activity proportionally to each OA. This approach allows for cross-boundary flows to be captured in a catchment area. The third and final approach uses a gravity model to define a catchment area, which incorporates drive or travel time into the analysis. Comparing approaches helps healthcare providers to understand whether using more traditional and simplistic approaches to define catchment areas and populations achieves the same or similar results as complex mathematical modelling. This paper has demonstrated, using a case study of Manchester, that when estimating

  10. Assessment of Runoff Contributing Catchment Areas in Rainfall Runoff Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Johansen, C.; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    2005-01-01

    to determine with significant precision the hydrological reduction factor is implemented to account all hydrological losses except the initial loss. This paper presents an inconsistency between calculations of the hydrological reduction factor, based on measurements of rainfall and runoff, and till now...... recommended literary values for residential areas. It is proven by comparing rainfall-runoff measurements from four different residential catchments that the literary values of the hydrological reduction factor are over-estimated for this type of catchments. In addition, different catchment descriptions...

  11. Examining the Potential Travellers in Catchment Areas for Public Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Hansen, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a method to examine the catchment areas for stops in high quality public transport systems based on the actual street network in the examined area. This is achieved by implementing the service area functions from the ArcGIS extension Network Analyst. The method is compared...

  12. Assessment of runoff contributing catchment areas in rainfall runoff modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Johansen, C.; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    2006-01-01

    In numerical modelling of rainfall caused runoff in urban sewer systems an essential parameter is the hydrological reduction factor which defines the percentage of the impervious area contributing to the surface flow towards the sewer. As the hydrological processes during a rainfall are difficult...... to determine with significant precision the hydrological reduction factor is implemented to account all hydrological losses except the initial loss. This paper presents an inconsistency between calculations of the hydrological reduction factor, based on measurements of rainfall and runoff, and till now...... recommended literature values for residential areas. It is proven by comparing rainfall-runoff measurements from four different residential catchments that the literature values of the hydrological reduction factor are over-estimated for this type of catchment. In addition, different catchment descriptions...

  13. Optimal catchment area and primary PCI centre volume revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Mikkel Malby; Pedersen, Frants; Holmvang, Lene

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: The currently stated optimal catchment population for a pPCI centre is 300,000-1,100,000, resulting in 200-800 procedures/year. pPCI centres are increasing in number even within small geographic areas. We describe the organisation and quality of care after merging two high-volume centres...

  14. Flash Flood Type Identification within Catchments in Beijing Mountainous Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, W.

    2017-12-01

    Flash flood is a common type of disaster in mountainous area, Flash flood with the feature of large flow rate, strong flushing force, destructive power, has periodically caused loss to life and destruction to infrastructure in mountainous area. Beijing as China's political, economic and cultural center, the disaster prevention and control work in Beijing mountainous area has always been concerned widely. According to the transport mechanism, sediment concentration and density, the flash flood type identification within catchment can provide basis for making the hazards prevention and mitigation policy. Taking Beijing as the study area, this paper extracted parameters related to catchment morphological and topography features respectively. By using Bayes discriminant, Logistic regression and Random forest, the catchments in Beijing mountainous area were divided into water floods process, fluvial sediment transport process and debris flows process. The results found that Logistic regression analysis showed the highest accuracy, with the overall accuracy of 88.2%. Bayes discriminant and Random forest had poor prediction effects. This study confirmed the ability of morphological and topography features to identify flash flood process. The circularity ratio, elongation ratio and roughness index can be used to explain the flash flood types effectively, and the Melton ratio and elevation relief ratio also did a good job during the identification, whereas the drainage density seemed not to be an issue at this level of detail. Based on the analysis of spatial patterns of flash flood types, fluvial sediment transport process and debris flow process were the dominant hazards, while the pure water flood process was much less. The catchments dominated by fluvial sediment transport process were mainly distributed in the Yan Mountain region, where the fault belts were relatively dense. The debris flow process prone to occur in the Taihang Mountain region thanks to the abundant

  15. In-patient costs of agitation and containment in a mental health catchment area

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Rubio-Valera, Maria; Aznar-Lou, Ignacio; Balad?n Higuera, Luisa; Gibert, Karina; Gracia Canales, Alfredo; Kaskens, Lisette; Ortiz, Jos? Miguel; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Background There is a scarce number of studies on the cost of agitation and containment interventions and their results are still inconclusive. We aimed to calculate the economic consequences of agitation events in an in-patient psychiatric facility providing care for an urban catchment area. Methods A mixed approach combining secondary analysis of clinical databases, surveys and expert knowledge was used to model the 2013 direct costs of agitation and containment events for adult inpatients ...

  16. In-patient costs of agitation and containment in a mental health catchment area

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Rubio-Valera, Maria; Aznar, Ignacio; Baladón, Luisa; Gibert, Karina; Gracia Canales, Alfredo; Kaskens, Lisette; Ortiz, José Miguel; Salvador Carulla, Luís

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is a scarce number of studies on the cost of agitation and containment interventions and their results are still inconclusive. We aimed to calculate the economic consequences of agitation events in an in-patient psychiatric facility providing care for an urban catchment area. Methods: A mixed approach combining secondary analysis of clinical databases, surveys and expert knowledge was used to model the 2013 direct costs of agitation and containment events for adult inpatient...

  17. Agroecology and biodiversity of the catchment area of Swat River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, H.; Ahmed, R.

    2003-01-01

    Agroecological studies of the of the Swat River catchment area showed that the terrestrial ecosystem of the area is divided into subtropical, humid temperate, cool temperate, cold temperate, subalpine, alpine and cold desert zones. Indicator species along with their altitudinal limits are specified for each zone. Unplanned population growth, agriculture extension, habitat losses, deforestation, environmental pollution and unwise use of natural resources are threats to the natural biodiversity of these zones. Its severity is very evident in the subtropical and humid temperate zones. The losses encountered to the biodiversity of the area under the influence of various anthropogenic stresses are highlighted. (author)

  18. Sedimentation studies at MUDA catchment area, Kedah, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarudin Samuding; Juhari Yusuf; Wan Abdul Aziz; Juhari Latiff

    2000-01-01

    A study on the sediment size distribution and determination of sediment density profile in the selected area of Muda dam catchment area, Kedah is presented. The objective of the study was to establish a base line data of the input sedimentation with regards to the effects of development within the catchment in the future. Three main sampling locations were identified namely at Sungai Teliang, Sungai Muda and Muda reservoir. Measurement of sediment thickness was performed by using nuclear gauges i.e. direct transmission and backscattering methods. Results showed that the grain size distribution of sediment ranges from gravel to clay sizes. In the reservoir and downstream of the river, most of the samples studied consisting of fine sediment i.e silt and clay sizes (<63,um). However, sediment distribution in the upstream section of Sungai Teliang mainly consist of fine to coarse sand. Sediment density profiles in the reservoir showed little changes, whereas bed sediment profiles in the river cross-sectional areas exhibit some changes. The results also showed that thickness of bedload sediment were different from one location to another, in which the thickness may achieve up to 0.75 metre in some areas. Based on the sediment distribution profile analysis, the study site could be divided into two parts comprising of dynamic area (region) covering selected locations along the river and deposited sediment in the reservoir. Basic information derived from this study may provide as one of the important inputs for the MADA reservoir management authority in monitoring, supervising y and identifying rate and source of sediment in the catchment area

  19. IMAGERY: A CASE STUDY IN KAYANGAN CATCHMENT AREA, YOGYAKARTA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Fitria Putri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The differential synthetic aperture radar in terferometry (DInSAR technique is applied to the ALOS PALSAR data to observe su rface displacement in Kayangan catchment area, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Change detecti on is implemented to extract information on several landslides that occurred in the region in a time span between 2007 and 2009. The advanced DInSAR processing of im ages (2007–2009 has shown slight surface movements before the landslide events. These results are compared and validated with available GPS measurements. Our analysis reveals that Kayangan catchment area exhibits clear indication of surface displacements varying from 5.2 to 57.9 cm/year. The occurence of landslides has been analy zed in relation to the following terrain parameters; elevation, slope, distance to stream network, geology, landuse, and distance from road. Among these factors, it is found that 18% of landslides occur in elevation >100 m, 56% in slope 30–40°, 34% in <25 m distance to stream networks, 100% in kebobutak formation, 67% in mix garden of land use types, and 100% in <25 m distance from road. The landuse is the most in fluential factor, since there are only four types of landuse that can lead to lands lide occurrence, i.e., mixed garden, dryland agriculture, bush, and settlement. The analys is of land deformation is promising for assessing acceleration caused by a destabilizing anthropogenic change, and relationship between seasonal precipitation a nd deformation variability.

  20. GIS-based Approaches to Catchment Area Analyses of Mass Transit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Catchment area analyses of stops or stations are used to investigate potential number of travelers to public transportation. These analyses are considered a strong decision tool in the planning process of mass transit especially railroads. Catchment area analyses are GIS-based buffer and overlay...... analyses with different approaches depending on the desired level of detail. A simple but straightforward approach to implement is the Circular Buffer Approach where catchment areas are circular. A more detailed approach is the Service Area Approach where catchment areas are determined by a street network...... search to simulate the actual walking distances. A refinement of the Service Area Approach is to implement additional time resistance in the network search to simulate obstacles in the walking environment. This paper reviews and compares the different GIS-based catchment area approaches, their level...

  1. New Information on the Malacofauna of the Catchment Area of Rusenski Lom River (North Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iltcho Kolev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available After this short note adding 8 species to the faunal list of the area, a total of 130 mollusk species are known from the catchment area of Rusenski Lom River both aquatic and terrestrial.

  2. COMPARISON OF MULTI-SCALE DIGITAL ELEVATION MODELS FOR DEFINING WATERWAYS AND CATCHMENTS OVER LARGE AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Harris

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Digital Elevation Models (DEMs allow for the efficient and consistent creation of waterways and catchment boundaries over large areas. Studies of waterway delineation from DEMs are usually undertaken over small or single catchment areas due to the nature of the problems being investigated. Improvements in Geographic Information Systems (GIS techniques, software, hardware and data allow for analysis of larger data sets and also facilitate a consistent tool for the creation and analysis of waterways over extensive areas. However, rarely are they developed over large regional areas because of the lack of available raw data sets and the amount of work required to create the underlying DEMs. This paper examines definition of waterways and catchments over an area of approximately 25,000 km2 to establish the optimal DEM scale required for waterway delineation over large regional projects. The comparative study analysed multi-scale DEMs over two test areas (Wivenhoe catchment, 543 km2 and a detailed 13 km2 within the Wivenhoe catchment including various data types, scales, quality, and variable catchment input parameters. Historic and available DEM data was compared to high resolution Lidar based DEMs to assess variations in the formation of stream networks. The results identified that, particularly in areas of high elevation change, DEMs at 20 m cell size created from broad scale 1:25,000 data (combined with more detailed data or manual delineation in flat areas are adequate for the creation of waterways and catchments at a regional scale.

  3. Comparison of Multi-Scale Digital Elevation Models for Defining Waterways and Catchments Over Large Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, B.; McDougall, K.; Barry, M.

    2012-07-01

    Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) allow for the efficient and consistent creation of waterways and catchment boundaries over large areas. Studies of waterway delineation from DEMs are usually undertaken over small or single catchment areas due to the nature of the problems being investigated. Improvements in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques, software, hardware and data allow for analysis of larger data sets and also facilitate a consistent tool for the creation and analysis of waterways over extensive areas. However, rarely are they developed over large regional areas because of the lack of available raw data sets and the amount of work required to create the underlying DEMs. This paper examines definition of waterways and catchments over an area of approximately 25,000 km2 to establish the optimal DEM scale required for waterway delineation over large regional projects. The comparative study analysed multi-scale DEMs over two test areas (Wivenhoe catchment, 543 km2 and a detailed 13 km2 within the Wivenhoe catchment) including various data types, scales, quality, and variable catchment input parameters. Historic and available DEM data was compared to high resolution Lidar based DEMs to assess variations in the formation of stream networks. The results identified that, particularly in areas of high elevation change, DEMs at 20 m cell size created from broad scale 1:25,000 data (combined with more detailed data or manual delineation in flat areas) are adequate for the creation of waterways and catchments at a regional scale.

  4. Hydrological Dynamics In High Mountain Catchment Areas of Central Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Jörg; Rößler, Ole

    Large-scaled landscape structure is regarded as a mosaic of ecotopes where process dynamics of water and energy fluxes are analysed due to its effects on ecosystem functioning. The investigations have been carried out in the continental most Vågå/Oppland high mountains in central Norway since 1994 (LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1999, 2000, 2001). Additionally, comparable investigations started in 2000 dealing with the oceanic high mountain landscapes on same latitudes (LÖFFLER et al. 2001). The theoretical and methodological framework of the project is given by the Landscape-Ecological Complex Analysis (MOSIMANN 1984, 1985) and its variations due to technical and principle methodical challenges in this high mountain landscape (KÖHLER et al. 1994, LÖFFLER 1998). The aim of the project is to characterize high mountain ecosystem structure, functioning and dynamics within small catchment areas, that are chosen in two different altitudinal belts each in the eastern continental and the western oceanic region of central Norway. In the frame of this research project hydrological and meteorological measurements on ground water, percolation and soil moisture dynamics as well as on evaporation, air humidity and air-, surface- and soil-temperatures have been conducted. On the basis of large-scaled landscape-ecological mappings (LÖFFLER 1997) one basic meteorological station and several major data logger run stations have been installed in representative sites of each two catchment areas in the low and mid alpine belts of the investigation regions ( JUNGet al. 1997, LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1997). Moreover, spatial differentiations of groundwater level, soil moisture and temperature profiles have been investigated by means of hand held measurements at different times of the day, during different climatic situations and different seasons. Daily and annual air-, surface- and soil-temperature dynamics are demonstrated by means of thermoisopleth-diagrams for different types of ecotopes of the

  5. Facility effluent monitoring plan determinations for the 400 Area facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-09-01

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determination resulted from an evaluation conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company 400 Area facilities on the Hanford Site. The Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations have been prepared in accordance with A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. Two major Westinghouse Hanford Company facilities in the 400 Area were evaluated: the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Fuels Manufacturing and examination Facility. The determinations were prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Of these two facilities, only the Fast Flux Test Facility will require a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. 7 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Water balance of a small catchment with permeable soils in Ile-Ife area, southwester Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunkoya, O. O.

    2000-01-01

    Three - year and annual catchment water balances were drawn for a small l catchment (44 ha.) in southwestern Nigeria. The equation: P - Q - E T - Δs = O was not resolved. Rather, the terms on the left did not sum to zero. The residual, which are between 4% and 5% of total rainfall, were consistently negative. A probable source of error is the use of Thornthwaite's potential evaporation in estimating catchment evapotranspiration. Potential evapotranspiration is higher than actual evapotranspiration in the study area due to the limited evaporation opportunity during the approximately five - mouth dry season. Given that the study catchment had runoff patterns that are simi liar to those of larger rivers in the region the computed catchment water balance indicated that 37% of annual rainfall may be taken as the runoff coefficient for the region. This suggests that the engineer's coefficient (0.35 - 0.45) used in assessment of surface water resources in southwestern Nigeria, is reasonable

  7. First Flush Effects in an Urban Catchment Area in Aalborg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Brpch, Kirsten; Andersen, Margit Riis

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes the results of measurements from a 2 year period on a 95 hectare urban catchment in Aalborg, Denmark. The results of the rain/discharge measurements include 160 storm events corresponding to an accumulated rain depth of totally 753 mm. The water quality measurements include 15...

  8. Integrated catchment modelling in a Semi-arid area

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bugan, Richard DH

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available , will increasingly need water quality and quantity management tools to be able to make informed decisions. Integrated catchment modelling (ICM) is regarded as being a valuable tool for integrated water resource management. It enables officials and scientists to make...

  9. Seasonal rainfall predictability over the Lake Kariba catchment area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retroactive forecasts are produced for lead times of up to 5 months and probabilistic forecast performances evaluated for extreme rainfall thresholds of the 25th and 75th percentile values of the climatological record. The verification of the retroactive forecasts shows that rainfall over the catchment is predictable at extended ...

  10. Accessibility of tertiary hospitals in Finland: A comparison of administrative and normative catchment areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huotari, Tiina; Antikainen, Harri; Keistinen, Timo; Rusanen, Jarmo

    2017-06-01

    The determination of an appropriate catchment area for a hospital providing highly specialized (i.e. tertiary) health care is typically a trade-off between ensuring adequate client volumes and maintaining reasonable accessibility for all potential clients. This may pose considerable challenges, especially in sparsely inhabited regions. In Finland, tertiary health care is concentrated in five university hospitals, which provide services in their dedicated catchment areas. This study utilizes Geographic Information Systems (GIS), together with grid-based population data and travel-time estimates, to assess the spatial accessibility of these hospitals. The current geographical configuration of the hospitals is compared to a normative assignment, with and without capacity constraints. The aim is to define optimal catchment areas for tertiary hospitals so that their spatial accessibility is as equal as possible. The results indicate that relatively modest improvements can be achieved in accessibility by using normative assignment to determine catchment areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impacts of Spatial Distribution of Impervious Areas on Runoff Response of Hillslope Catchments: Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study analyzes variations in the model-projected changes in catchment runoff response after urbanization that stem from variations in the spatial distribution of impervious areas, interevent differences in temporal rainfall structure, and antecedent soil moisture (ASM). In t...

  12. Rates of First Episode of Psychosis in a Defined Catchment Area in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Peritogiannis, Vaios; Mantas, Christos; Tatsioni, Athina; Mavreas, Venetsanos

    2013-01-01

    This is the first Greek study presenting epidemiologic data on first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients in a defined catchment area. Data for first episode psychotic patients during a two-year period (2008 and 2009) were obtained by all the mental health providers in the area, public or private. A total of 132 FEP patients were examined in the 2-year period in the catchment area. Most of the patients (61.4%) were diagnosed and treated by private practicing psychiatrists. Statistical analysis sh...

  13. Facility effluent monitoring plan determinations for the 200 Area facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-11-01

    The following facility effluent monitoring plan determinations document the evaluations conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company 200 Area facilities (chemical processing, waste management, 222-S Laboratory, and laundry) on the Hanford Site in south central Washington State. These evaluations determined the need for facility effluent monitoring plans for the 200 Area facilities. The facility effluent monitoring plan determinations have been prepared in accordance with A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438 (WHC 1991). The Plutonium/Uranium Extraction Plant and UO 3 facility effluent monitoring plan determinations were prepared by Los Alamos Technical Associates, Richland, Washington. The Plutonium Finishing Plant, Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility, T Plant, Tank Farms, Low Level Burial Grounds, and 222-S Laboratory determinations were prepared by Science Applications International Corporation of Richland, Washington. The B Plant Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan Determination was prepared by ERCE Environmental Services of Richland, Washington

  14. Study on Runoff Debit in the Catchment Area of Waduk Gajah Mungkur Wonogiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alif Noor Anna

    2004-01-01

    Water resource is one of natural resources, that is very vital. It needed to be used and to be kept throughly. For those purposes need good and directed plan, in which one of the basic component of it plan have to be supported by available a complete hydrological data and it analysis. One of hydrological data analysis is to estimate runoff of catchement area, which can be used for planning the hydrologi construction. This research aim: 1 to calculate the run off discharge by thornwaite Mather Method, monthly, annualy, and the average on the catchment through a sample of Keduang, Temon, Alang, and Wuryantoro areas; 2 to analyze the difference of the run off discharge (at no. 1 by observation resulted from trend analysis. Based on the calculation, it appears, thornwaite-mather method showed that high discharge (moreover limit 0 in dry month. From the research result, it appears, that calculation discharge graphic had lower differentation than observation discharge graphic. From sample of catchment areas that have been investigated, from the highest to the lowest deviation was Wuryantoro catchment area (78,8%, Temon catchment area (47,38%, Alang catchment area (46,45%, and Keduang catchment area (24,98% respectively. The condition like above caused by intervation of man. Not only did he influence vegetatively, but he influenced technically as well. From these conservation, technical conservation (flood and construction and reservoir was the highest influence to run off discharge calculation. The run off discharge that was calculated by thornthwite-Mather Method based on air temperate, rainy, altitude, and water holding capacity only, but groundwater supply didn’t be calculated.

  15. THE FORMATION OF THE OUTFLOW IN THE URBANISED CATCHMENT AREA ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE CATCHMENT OF STRZYŻA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Sikora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to determine what influence made various forms of land use of catchment area on the size and variability of the outflow. Linking the flow rate with the forms of land use will determine which factors affect the runoff in the basin. The object of the research is Strzyża river basin situated within the administrative boundaries of the city of Gdańsk. It was found that streams flowing through urban areas, including the city of Gdańsk (river Strzyża, quickly react to any excess water. Heavy rain combined with the discharge of water through the storm sewer system results of increasing the flow and runoff in streams, among others, Strzyża river.

  16. Spatial Analysis for Potential Water Catchment Areas using GIS: Weighted Overlay Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awanda, Disyacitta; Anugrah Nurul, H.; Musfiroh, Zahrotul; Dinda Dwi, N. P.

    2017-12-01

    The development of applied GIS is growing rapidly and has been widely applied in various fields. Preparation of a model to obtain information is one of the benefits of GIS. Obtaining information for water resources such as water catchment areas is one part of GIS modelling. Water catchment model can be utilized to see the distribution of potential and ability of a region in water absorbing. The use of overlay techniques with the weighting obtained from the literature from previous research is used to build the model. Model builder parameters are obtained through remote sensing interpretation techniques such as land use, landforms, and soil texture. Secondary data such as rock type maps are also used as water catchment model parameters. The location of this research is in the upstream part of the Opak river basin. The purpose of this research is to get information about potential distribution of water catchment area with overlay technique. The results of this study indicate the potential of water catchment areas with excellent category, good, medium, poor and very poor. These results may indicate that the Upper river basin is either good or in bad condition, so it can be used for better water resources management policy determination.

  17. Fungicides transport in runoff from vineyard plot and catchment: contribution of non-target areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrancq, Marie; Payraudeau, Sylvain; García Verdú, Antonio Joaquín; Maillard, Elodie; Millet, Maurice; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2014-04-01

    Surface runoff and erosion during the course of rainfall events are major processes of pesticides transport from agricultural land to aquatic ecosystem. These processes are generally evaluated either at the plot or the catchment scale. Here, we compared at both scales the transport and partitioning in runoff water of two widely used fungicides, i.e., kresoxim-methyl (KM) and cyazofamid (CY). The objective was to evaluate the relationship between fungicides runoff from the plot and from the vineyard catchment. The results show that seasonal exports for KM and CY at the catchment were larger than those obtained at the plot. This underlines that non-target areas within the catchment largely contribute to the overall load of runoff-associated fungicides. Estimations show that 85 and 62 % of the loads observed for KM and CY at the catchment outlet cannot be explained by the vineyard plots. However, the partitioning of KM and CY between three fractions, i.e., the suspended solids (>0.7 μm) and two dissolved fractions (i.e., between 0.22 and 0.7 µm and plot scales enable to evaluate the sources areas of pesticide off-site transport.

  18. Temporal distribution of sediment yield from catchments covered by different pine plantation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyas Mutiara Basuki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion and sedimentation are environmental problems faced by tropical countries. Many researches on soil erosion-sedimentation have been conducted with various results. Quantifying soil erosion-sedimentation and its temporal distribution are important for watershed management. Therefore, a study with the objective to quantify the amount of suspended sediment from catchments under various pine plantation areas was conducted. The research was undertaken during 2010 to 2017 in seven catchments with various percentage of pine coverage in Kebumen Regency, Central Java Province. The rainfall data were collected from two rainfall stations. A tide gauge was installed at the outlet of each catchment to monitor stream water level. The water samples for every stream water level increment were analyzed to obtain sediment concentration. The results showed that monthly suspended sediment of the catchments was high in January to April and October to December, and low in May to September. The annual suspended sediment fluctuated during the study period. Non-linear correlations were observed between suspended sediment and rainfall as well as suspended sediment and percentage pine areas. The line trend between suspended sediment and percentage of pine areas showed that the increase in pine areas decreased suspended sediment, with the slope of the graph is sharp at the percentage of pine areas from 8% to 40%, then is gentle for pine plantation areas more than 40%.

  19. North Putrajaya Catchment Area Putrajaya, Malaysia-Challenges in Water Quality Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zamri Daud; Pereira, J.J.; Mazlin Mokhtar

    2011-01-01

    The Putrajaya Administrative area covers 70 % of the Putrajaya Lake catchment area. Development work carried out within the Putrajaya area abides by the rules and regulations set by the Putrajaya Corporation to ensure that the quality of the lake water and wetland within the Putrajaya area meets the stipulated benchmark standards. However, 30 % of the Putrajaya lake and wetland catchment area is located outside of administration and prerogative of the Putrajaya Corporation. The North Putrajaya catchment area which originates from the Sg. Chuau River contributes the bulk of the water that flows into the lake and wetlands of Putrajaya. Water quality data collected by the Putrajaya Corporation for the period of 2002 to 2005 has been analysed to identify major issues in the Putrajaya Wetland North Catchment area. Data from 2002 shows average percentage parameter of non-compliance Putrajaya Standard for ammoniacal nitrogen (NH 3 -N) at 43.7 %, E. coli at 31.3 % and TSS at 12.5 % while the DO and COD are both 6.2 %. For 2003, the average percentage parameter of non compliance for NH 3 -N was at 23.7 %, E. coli at 18.4 %, total coliform at 18.4 %, TSS at 2.6 %, DO at 13.2 %, COD at 13.2 % and BOD at 10.5 %. For 2004, the average percentage parameter of non complying for NH 3 -N was at 35.5 %, E. coli at 22.6 %, total coliform at 12.9 %, TSS at 9.7 %, COD at 3.2 % and BOD at 16.1 %. For 2005, the average percentage parameter of non compliance were at is 36.4 % for E. coli, 22.7 % for NH 3 -N, 18.2 % for total coliform, 13.6 % for BOD and 4.5 % for both DO and COD. In conclusion the analysed data within the four year period showed that the NH 3 -N and E. coli discharge from the north catchment area did not comply with the Putrajaya Standard. The main factors of water quality issues in the Putrajaya Wetland North Catchment area include the failure of integrating the management of the catchment areas and the stake holders attitude of total disregard of the management and

  20. Catchment management in semi-arid area of central South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This accentuates the need for wise decisions by catchment management agencies (CMAs), especially in water-scarce semi-arid areas. ... A financial analysis also showed that gross margin of option, expressed as R/ m3 of rainwater utilised, was estimated to be between 0.0234 to 0.0254 under Option 1 and 0.0354 for ...

  1. Environmental monitoring of 137Cs in the Vardar River catchment area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anovski, T.; Cvetanovska-Nastevska, L.; Jovanovski, N.

    1996-01-01

    Distribution of Cs-137, as one of the most important anthropogenic radioactive pollutant on the environment, in various samples within the Vardar river catchment area has been determined. By application of adequate radioecological model, an effective equivalent dose for different transfer media and exposure pathways as a contribution of Cs-137 to the total exposure of man of different age, were calculated. (author)

  2. Impact of Quota System and Catchment Area Policy on the University Admissions in North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Chinweike Omeje

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The quota system and the catchment areas are federal government policies formulated to bridge the gap between the educationally developed states and the educationally less developed states. Sequel to the enactment of these policies, government established several universities across the country to create equal opportunity for all candidates. In spite of the astronomical growth of the universities in Nigeria, both the federal and the state governments have not been able to contend with the surging demand for the university education, hence the adoption of the quota system and catchment area policies. Serious concerns were expressed by relevant stakeholders on their perceived impact of the quota system and the catchment area on admissions into the federal and state universities in North Central Nigeria. This study therefore examined the impact of the quota system and catchment area policies on students’ admissions in North Central Nigeria. A research question and a null hypothesis guided the study. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The population for the study was 14,347 staff in the federal and state universities in North Central Nigeria. A sample of 1,435 was drawn through stratified proportionate sampling technique. Data were collected using questionnaire and interviews. Mean scores and standard deviations were used to answer the research question, whereas t-test statistics were used to test the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the results showed, among others, that the impact of the quota system and catchment area policies on students’ admission was to a high extent.

  3. Impact of Catchment Area Activities on Water Quality in Small Retention Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oszczapińska Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate catchment area impact on small water reservoirs condition in Podlasie. The researches were conducted in two different catchment areas. Topiło reservoir, located in Podlasie area in the south-east of Białowieża Forest, has typical sylvan catchment. Second reservoir, Dojlidy, is located also in Podlasie, in the south-east of Białystok as a part of Dojlidy Ponds. In contrast to Topiło, Dojlidy has agricultural catchment. Water samples collected from five sites along each reservoir were analysed for the presence of total nitrogen and phosphorus, chlorophyll “a”, reaction, turbidity and conductivity. Researches took place in spring, summer and autumn 2013 (Topiło Lake and 2014/2015 (Dojlidy. The lowest trophic state was observed in autumn and the highest in summer. Because of the high loads of phosphorus received by the reservoirs, this element did not limit primary production. Calculated TSI values based on total phosphorus were always markedly higher than calculated on chlorophyll-a and total nitrogen. Both reservoirs demonstrated TSI indexes specific to hypertrophic lakes due to large amount of total phosphorus.

  4. Impact of Catchment Area Activities on Water Quality in Small Retention Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszczapińska, Katarzyna; Skoczko, Iwona; Szczykowska, Joanna

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate catchment area impact on small water reservoirs condition in Podlasie. The researches were conducted in two different catchment areas. Topiło reservoir, located in Podlasie area in the south-east of Białowieża Forest, has typical sylvan catchment. Second reservoir, Dojlidy, is located also in Podlasie, in the south-east of Białystok as a part of Dojlidy Ponds. In contrast to Topiło, Dojlidy has agricultural catchment. Water samples collected from five sites along each reservoir were analysed for the presence of total nitrogen and phosphorus, chlorophyll "a", reaction, turbidity and conductivity. Researches took place in spring, summer and autumn 2013 (Topiło Lake) and 2014/2015 (Dojlidy). The lowest trophic state was observed in autumn and the highest in summer. Because of the high loads of phosphorus received by the reservoirs, this element did not limit primary production. Calculated TSI values based on total phosphorus were always markedly higher than calculated on chlorophyll-a and total nitrogen. Both reservoirs demonstrated TSI indexes specific to hypertrophic lakes due to large amount of total phosphorus.

  5. Sediment yield during typhoon events in relation to landslides, rainfall, and catchment areas in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Wen; Oguchi, Takashi; Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Saito, Hitoshi; Chen, Hongey; Lin, Guan-Wei; Wei, Lun-Wei; Chao, Yi-Chiung

    2018-02-01

    Debris sourced from landslides will result in environmental problems such as increased sediment discharge in rivers. This study analyzed the sediment discharge of 17 main rivers in Taiwan during 14 typhoon events, selected from the catchment area and river length, that caused landslides according to government reports. The measured suspended sediment and water discharge, collected from hydrometric stations of the Water Resources Agency of Taiwan, were used to establish rating-curve relationships, a power-law relation between them. Then sediment discharge during typhoon events was estimated using the rating-curve method and the measured data of daily water discharge. Positive correlations between sediment discharge and rainfall conditions for each river indicate that sediment discharge increases when a greater amount of rainfall or a higher intensity of rainfall falls during a typhoon event. In addition, the amount of sediment discharge during a typhoon event is mainly controlled by the total amount of rainfall, not by peak rainfall. Differences in correlation equations among the rivers suggest that catchments with larger areas produce more sediment. Catchments with relatively low sediment discharge show more distinct increases in sediment discharge in response to increases in rainfall, owing to the little opportunity for deposition in small catchments with high connectivity to rivers and the transportation of the majority of landslide debris to rivers during typhoon events. Also, differences in geomorphic and geologic conditions among catchments around Taiwan lead to a variety of suspended sediment dynamics and the sediment budget. Positive correlation between average sediment discharge and average area of landslides during typhoon events indicates that when larger landslides are caused by heavier rainfall during a typhoon event, more loose materials from the most recent landslide debris are flushed into rivers, resulting in higher sediment discharge. The high

  6. Rates of first episode of psychosis in a defined catchment area in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peritogiannis, Vaios; Mantas, Christos; Tatsioni, Athina; Mavreas, Venetsanos

    2013-01-01

    This is the first Greek study presenting epidemiologic data on first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients in a defined catchment area. Data for first episode psychotic patients during a two-year period (2008 and 2009) were obtained by all the mental health providers in the area, public or private. A total of 132 FEP patients were examined in the 2-year period in the catchment area. Most of the patients (61.4%) were diagnosed and treated by private practicing psychiatrists. Statistical analysis showed no differences between the two sectors in terms of patients' age, gender, family and social status, profession and duration of untreated psychosis (median duration 6 months). Patients who were abusing substances and had no family psychiatric history were less likely been treated in the public sector. Immigrants comprised only a small proportion of the patients, probably because they have difficulties in accessing the mental health system.

  7. Land use change impacts on discharge analysis using SWAT model at Ciherang Pondok DAM catchment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utamahadi, M. A.; Pandjaitan, N. H.; Rau, M. I.

    2018-05-01

    The prompt increase of population influenced the requirement for new regions to fulfill people’s primary needs. Its increased land use change and caused many impacts on the environment, including watersheds as well. Ciherang Pondok DAM catchment area is part of Cisadane watershed and was selected as the research area. This research aimed to analyse the water supply and water discharge change caused by the Urban Planning (RTRW) in 2020. The analysis was conducted using soil and water assessment tools (SWAT) model. Stages of this research were catchment area delineation, HRU identification, calibration and validation of models, and prediction of discharge and water demand. The result showed that RTRW of 2020 increased the maximum discharge of 1.6 m3/s and decreased the minimum discharge of 0.01 m3/s, hence the maximum and minimum discharge ratio increased 0.26% from 2016. Output discharge in 2020 at Ciherang Pondok Dam Catchment Area was classified as well, with discharge of 6.72 – 126.2 m3/s, and could fulfil water demand. For the best result, it is better to use climate data from weather stations inside the study area and it is required an improvement in data archiving system.

  8. Uniform Transnational Assessment of the Environmental Indices from the Romanian Catchment Area of the Tisa River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIU-FLORIN FONOGEA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The uniform transnational assessment of the environmental indices in the catchment area of the Tisa river aims at rehabilitating, protecting and conserving the environmental systems, as well as creating a commonly strategic demarche concerning a sustainable spatial development, based on integrated intersectorial approaches of environmental issues, viewed in their territorial dimension. The information necessary in underlining the current situation in the Romanian catchment area of the Tisa has been structured according to the following categories of analysed indices: sources of surface waters, resources of drinkable water and water supply resources, the risk of not reaching the environmental objectives, significant sources of water pollution (punctual sources of pollution, diffuse sources of pollution, significant hydromorphic pressure, the quality of water, significant sources of air pollution, soils affected by agricultural and industrial activities, nature protection and waste management.

  9. Soil map, area and volume calculations in Orrmyrberget catchment basin at Gideaa, Northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ittner, T.; Tammela, P.T.; Gustafsson, E.

    1991-06-01

    Fallout studies in the Gideaa study site after the Chernobyl fallout in 1986, has come to the point that a more exact surface mapping of the studied catchment basin is needed. This surface mapping is mainly made for area calculations of different soil types within the study site. The mapping focus on the surface, as the study concerns fallout redistribution and it is extended to also include materials down to a depth of 0.5 meter. Volume calculations are made for the various soil materials within the top 0.5 m. These volume and area calculations will then be used in the modelling of the migration and redistribution of the fallout radionuclides within the studied catchment basin. (au)

  10. Catchment conceptualisation for examining applicability of chloride mass balance method in an area with historical forest clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Of the various approaches for estimating groundwater recharge, the chloride mass balance (CMB method is one of the most frequently used, especially for arid and semiarid regions. Widespread native vegetation clearance, common in many areas globally, has changed the land surface boundary condition, posing the question as to whether the current system has reached new chloride equilibrium, required for a CMB application. Although a one-dimensional CMB can be applied at a point where the water and chloride fluxes are locally in steady state, the CMB method is usually applied at a catchment scale owing to significant lateral flows in mountains. The applicability of the CMB method to several conceptual catchment types of various chloride equilibrium conditions is examined. The conceptualisation, combined with some local climate conditions, is shown to be useful in assessing whether or not a catchment has reached new chloride equilibrium. The six conceptual catchment types are tested with eleven selected catchments in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area in South Australia having experienced widespread historical forest clearance. The results show that six of the eleven catchments match a type VI chloride balance condition (chloride non-equilibrium with a gaining stream, with the ratios of stream chloride output (O over atmospheric chloride input (I, or catchment chloride O/I ratios, ranging from 2 to 4. Two catchments match a type V chloride balance condition (chloride non-equilibrium with a losing stream, with catchment chloride O/I ratios about 0.5. For these type V and type VI catchments, the CMB method is not applicable. The results also suggest that neither a chloride O/I ratio less than one nor a low seasonal fluctuation of streamflow chloride concentration (a factor below 4 guarantees a chloride equilibrium condition in the study area. A large chloride O/I value (above one and a large fluctuation of streamflow chloride

  11. Forests in catchment areas with special reference to the MUDA and Ahning dams: their roles in biodiversity conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashhor Mansor

    2002-01-01

    During the field surveys conducted at the Muda and Ahning catchment areas, several rare and endemic plant species were recorded. The presence of relatively high population of Lagerstroemia speciosa in Muda is one of the conspicuous features of the forest in this catchment area. Unlike the Muda lake, a blue green algal bloom Oscillatoria kawamurde was observed at some parts of the Ahning lake particularly at the water surface. These catchment areas not only act as a buffer zone in the overall forest hydrological cycle but also play important roles in protecting and harbouring various species of plants and animals. (Author)

  12. MINIMUM AREAS FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL BUILDING FACILITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Public Instruction, Harrisburg.

    MINIMUM AREA SPACE REQUIREMENTS IN SQUARE FOOTAGE FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL BUILDING FACILITIES ARE PRESENTED, INCLUDING FACILITIES FOR INSTRUCTIONAL USE, GENERAL USE, AND SERVICE USE. LIBRARY, CAFETERIA, KITCHEN, STORAGE, AND MULTIPURPOSE ROOMS SHOULD BE SIZED FOR THE PROJECTED ENROLLMENT OF THE BUILDING IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE PROJECTION UNDER THE…

  13. 400 Area/Fast Flux Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 400 Area at Hanford is home primarily to the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), a DOE-owned, formerly operating, 400-megawatt (thermal) liquid-metal (sodium)-cooled...

  14. The morphological /settlement pattern classification of South African settlements based on a settlement catchment approach, to inform facility allocation and service delivery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sogoni, Z

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available / settlement pattern classification of South African settlements based on a settlement catchment approach, to inform facility allocation and service delivery Zukisa Sogoni Planning Africa Conference 2016 4 July 2Project Focus and Background • CSIR... services. • Purpose is to support application & planning for new investment & prevent “unsustainable” investments / White elephants. 3Outputs • National set of service delivery catchments • Profile information per individual catchment • Ranking...

  15. Extraction and representation of nested catchment areas from digital elevation models in lake-dominated topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, D. Scott; Band, Lawrence E.

    1998-04-01

    This paper presents a new method for extracting flow directions, contributing (upslope) areas, and nested catchments from digital elevation models in lake-dominated areas. Existing tools for acquiring descriptive variables of the topography, such as surface flow directions and contributing areas, were developed for moderate to steep topography. These tools are typically difficult to apply in gentle topography owing to limitations in explicitly handling lakes and other flat areas. This paper addresses the problem of accurately representing general topographic features by first identifying distinguishing features, such as lakes, in gentle topography areas and then using these features to guide the search for topographic flow directions and catchment marking. Lakes are explicitly represented in the topology of a watershed for use in water routing. Nonlake flat features help guide the search for topographic flow directions in areas of low signal to noise. This combined feature-based and grid-based search for topographic features yields improved contributing areas and watershed boundaries where there are lakes and other flat areas. Lakes are easily classified from remotely sensed imagery, which makes automated representation of lakes as subsystems within a watershed system tractable with widely available data sets.

  16. In-patient costs of agitation and containment in a mental health catchment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Rubio-Valera, Maria; Aznar-Lou, Ignacio; Baladón Higuera, Luisa; Gibert, Karina; Gracia Canales, Alfredo; Kaskens, Lisette; Ortiz, José Miguel; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2017-06-06

    There is a scarce number of studies on the cost of agitation and containment interventions and their results are still inconclusive. We aimed to calculate the economic consequences of agitation events in an in-patient psychiatric facility providing care for an urban catchment area. A mixed approach combining secondary analysis of clinical databases, surveys and expert knowledge was used to model the 2013 direct costs of agitation and containment events for adult inpatients with mental disorders in an area of 640,572 adult inhabitants in South Barcelona (Spain). To calculate costs, a seven-step methodology with novel definition of agitation was used along with a staff survey, a database of containment events, and data on aggressive incidents. A micro-costing analysis of specific containment interventions was used to estimate both prevalence and direct costs from the healthcare provider perspective, by means of a mixed approach with a probabilistic model evaluated on real data. Due to the complex interaction of the multivariate covariances, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to have empirical bounds of variability. During 2013, 918 patients were admitted to the Acute Inpatient Unit. Of these, 52.8% were men, with a mean age of 44.6 years (SD = 15.5), 74.4% were compulsory admissions, 40.1% were diagnosed with schizophrenia or non-affective psychosis, with a mean length of stay of 24.6 days (SD = 16.9). The annual estimate of total agitation events was 508. The cost of containment interventions ranges from 282€ at the lowest level of agitation to 822€ when verbal containment plus seclusion and restraint have to be used. The annual total cost of agitation was 280,535€, representing 6.87% of the total costs of acute hospitalisation in the local area. Agitation events are frequent and costly. Strategies to reduce their number and severity should be implemented to reduce costs to the Health System and alleviate patient suffering.

  17. Predicting forested catchment evapotranspiration and streamflow from stand sapwood area and Aridity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Estimating the water balance of ungauged catchments has been the subject of decades of research. An extension of the fundamental problem of estimating the hydrology is then understanding how do changes in catchment attributes affect the water balance component? This is a particular issue in forest hydrology where vegetation exerts such a strong influence on evapotranspiration (ET), and consequent streamflow (Q). Given the primacy of trees in the water balance, and the potential for change to species and density through logging, fire, pests and diseases and drought, methods that directly relate ET/Q to vegetation structure, species, and stand density are very powerful. Plot studies on tree water use routinely use sapwood area (SA) to calculate transpiration and upscale to the stand/catchment scale. Recent work in south eastern Australian forests have found stand-wide SA to be linearly correlated (R2 = 0.89) with long term mean annual loss (P-Q), and hence, long term mean annual catchment streamflow. Robust relationships can be built between basal area (BA), tree density and stand SA. BA and density are common forest inventory measurements. Until now, no research has related the fundamental stand attribute of SA to streamflow. The data sets include catchments that have been thinned and with varying age classes. Thus far these analyses have been for energy limited systems in wetter forest types. SA has proven to be a more robust biometric than leaf area index which varies seasonally. That long term ET/Q is correlated with vegetation conforms to the Budyko framework. Use of a downscaled (20 m) Aridity Index (AI) has shown distinct correlations with stand SA, and therefore T. Structural patterns at a the hillslope scale not only correlate with SA and T, but also with interception (I) and forest floor evaporation (Es). These correlations between AI and I and Es have given R2 > 0.8. The result of these studies suggest an ability to estimate mean annual ET fluxes at sub

  18. Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesbrecht, Alan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The Central Facilities Area (CFA) located in Butte County, Idaho at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell 1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell 2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell 3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5 acre land application site that utilizes a center pivot irrigation sprinkler system. The purpose of this current study is to update the analysis and conclusions of the December 2013 study. In this current study, the new seepage rate and influent flow rate data have been used to update the calculations, model, and analysis.

  19. Watershed area ratio accurately predicts daily streamflow in nested catchments in the Catskills, New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris C. Gianfagna

    2015-09-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Watershed area ratio was the most important basin parameter for estimating flow at upstream sites based on downstream flow. The area ratio alone explained 93% of the variance in the slopes of relationships between upstream and downstream flows. Regression analysis indicated that flow at any upstream point can be estimated by multiplying the flow at a downstream reference gage by the watershed area ratio. This method accurately predicted upstream flows at area ratios as low as 0.005. We also observed a very strong relationship (R2 = 0.79 between area ratio and flow–flow slopes in non-nested catchments. Our results indicate that a simple flow estimation method based on watershed area ratios is justifiable, and indeed preferred, for the estimation of daily streamflow in ungaged watersheds in the Catskills region.

  20. A sedimentation study in the Muda catchment area using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarudin Samuding; Wan Zakaria Wan Muhamad Tahir; Roslan Mohd Ali; Juhari Yusuf

    2002-01-01

    A study on the sediment size distribution and determination of sediment density profile was conducted in a selected area of the Muda Dam catchment area, Kedah. The objective of the study was to establish baseline data of the input sedimentation with regard to the effects of development within the catchment in the future. Three main sampling locations were identified, namely at Sungai Teliang, Sungai Muda and the Muda Reservoir. Results showed that the grain size distribution of sediment generally ranged from clay to gravel size. In the reservoir and downstream the river, most of the samples studied consisted of fine sediment Le, silt and clay (< 63 μm). However, sediment distribution in the upstream section of Sungai Teliang mainly consisted of fine to coarse sand. Based on the sediment distribution profile analysis, the study site could be divided into two parts comprising the dynamic area (region) covering selected locations along the river and the deposited sediment in the reservoir. Measurement of sediment thickness was performed using nuclear gauges, i.e. direct transmission and backscattering methods. The result also showed that the thickness of bed sediment varied from one location to another, whereby the thickness variation could reach up to 0.75 metre in some areas. This study could assist local authorities (AMDA) in identifying the rates and sources of accumulated sediment as well as quality and quantity of water in the study area in order to sustain distribution of good quality water to the farmers. (Author)

  1. The GRASP project - a multidisciplinary study of hydrology and biogeochemistry in a periglacial catchment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Emma; Lindborg, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    The Arctic region is sensitive to global warming, and permafrost thaw and release of old carbon are examples of processes that may have a positive feedback effect to the global climate system. Quantification and assumptions on future change are often based on model predictions. Such models require cross-disciplinary data of high quality that often is lacking. Biogeochemical processes in the landscape are highly influenced by the hydrology, which in turn is intimately related to permafrost processes. Thus, a multidisciplinary approach is needed when collecting data and setting up field experiments aiming at increase the understanding of these processes. Here we summarize and present data collected in the GRASP, Greenland Analogue Surface Project. GRASP is a catchment-scale field study of the periglacial area in the Kangerlussuaq region, West Greenland, focusing on hydrological and biogeochemical processes in the landscape. The site investigations were initiated in 2010 and have since then resulted in three separate data sets published in ESSD (Earth system and Science Data) each one focusing on i) meteorological data and hydrology, ii) biogeochemistry and iii) geometries of sediments and the active layer. The three data-sets, which are freely available via the PANGAEA data base, enable conceptual and coupled numerical modeling of hydrological and biogeochemical processes. An important strength with the GRASP data is that all data is collected within the same, relatively small, catchment area. This implies that measurements are more easily linked to the right source area or process. Despite the small catchment area it includes the major units of the periglacial hydrological system; a lake, a talik, a supra- and subpermafrost aquifer and, consequently, biogeochemical processes in each of these units may be studied. The new data from GRASP is both used with the aim to increase the knowledge of present day periglacial hydrology and biogeochemistry but also in order to

  2. Models for the runoff from a glaciated catchment area using measurements of environmental isotope contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, H.; Moser, H.; Oerter, H.; Rauert, W.; Stichler, W.; Ambach, W.; Kirchlechner, P.

    1979-01-01

    For several years, in the glaciated catchment area of the Rofenache (Oetztal Alps, Austria), measurements have been made of the environmental isotopes 2 H, 18 O and 3 H in precipitation, snow and ice samples and in the runoff. Furthermore, the electrolytic conductivity of runoff samples was measured and tracing experiments were made with fluorescent dyes. From core samples drilled in the accumulation area of the Vernagtferner, the gross beta activity was investigated and compared with the data from 2 H, 3 H and 18 O analyses and the data from mass balance studies. It is shown that the annual net balance from previous years can be recovered on temperate glaciers using environmental isotope techniques. From the diurnal variations of the 2 H and 3 H contents and the electrolytic conductivity, the following proportions in the runoff of the Vernagtferner catchment area were obtained during a 24-hour interval at a time of strong ablation (August 1976): about 50% ice meltwater, 25% direct runoff of firn and snow meltwater, and 7% of mineralized groundwater. The rest of the runoff consists of non-mineralized meltwater seeping from the glacier body. The annual variations of the 2 H and 3 H contents in the runoff of the glaciated catchment area permit conclusions on the time sequence of the individual ablation periods, and on the residence time, on the basis of model concepts. The residence times of approximately 100 days or four years, respectively, are obtained from the decrease in the 2 H content at the end of the ablation period and from the variation of the 3 H content in the winter discharge. (author)

  3. Models for the runoff from a glacierized catchment area using measurements of environmental isotope contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, H.; Moser, H.; Oerter, H.; Rauert, W.; Stichler, W.; Ambach, W.; Kirchlechner, P.

    1978-01-01

    In the glacierized catchment area of the Rofenache (Oetztal Alps, Austria) during several years measurements have been made of the environmental isotopes 2 H, 18 O and 3 H in the precipitation, in snow and ice samples and in the runoff. Furthermore the electrolytic conductivity of runoff samples was measured and tracing experiments were made with fluorescent dyes. From core samples drilled in the accumulation area of the Vernagtferner, the gross beta activity was investigated and compared with both, the data from 2 H, 3 H und 18 O analyses and the data from mass balance studies. It is shown that the annual net balance from previous years can be recovered on temperate glaciers using environmental isotope techniques. From the diurnal variations of the 2 H and 3 H contents and the electrolytic conductivity the following proportions in the runoff of the Vernagtferner catchment area were obtained during a 24-hour interval at a time of strong ablation (August 1976): about 50% of ice melt water, 25% of direct runoff fo firn- and snow melt water, and 7% of mineralized groundwater. The rest of the runoff consists of not mineralized melt water seeping from the glacier body. The annual variations of the 2 H and 3 H contents in the runoff of the glacierized catchment area permit conclusions on the time sequence of the individual ablation periods and on the residence time on the basis of model concepts. The residence times of approximately 100 days or 4 years, respectively, are obtained from the decrease in the 2 H content at the end of the ablation period and from the variation of the 3 H content in the winter discharge. (orig.) [de

  4. Source Areas of Water and Nitrate in a Peatland Catchment, Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebestyen, S. D.

    2017-12-01

    In nitrogen polluted forests, stream nitrate concentrations increase and some unprocessed atmospheric nitrate may be transported to streams during stormflow events. This understanding has emerged from forests with upland mineral soils. In contrast, catchments with northern peatlands may have both upland soils and lowlands with deep organic soils, each with unique effects on nitrate transport and processing. While annual budgets show nitrate yields to be relatively lower from peatland than upland-dominated catchments, little is known about particular runoff events when stream nitrate concentrations have been higher (despite long periods with little or no nitrate in outlet streams) or the reasons why. I used site knowledge and expansive/extensive monitoring at the Marcell Experimental Forest in Minnesota, along with a targeted 2-year study to determine landscape areas, water sources, and nitrate sources that affected stream nitrate variation in a peatland catchment. I combined streamflow, upland runoff, snow amount, and frost depth data from long-term monitoring with nitrate concentration, yield, and isotopic data to show that up to 65% of stream nitrate during snowmelt of 2009 and 2010 was unprocessed atmospheric nitrate. Up to 46% of subsurface runoff from upland soils during 2009 was unprocessed atmospheric nitrate, which shows the uplands to be a stream nitrate source during 2009, but not during 2010 when upland runoff concentrations were below the detection limit. Differences are attributable to variations in water and nitrate sources. Little snow (a nitrate source), less upland runoff relative to peatland runoff, and deeper soil frost in the peatland caused a relatively larger input of nitrate from the uplands to the stream during 2009 and the peatland to the stream during 2010. Despite the near-absence of stream nitrate during much of rest of the year, these findings show an important time when nitrate transport affected downstream aquatic ecosystems, reasons

  5. Correcting for catchment area nonresidency in studies based on tumor-registry data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sposto, R.; Preston, D.L.

    1993-05-01

    We discuss the effect of catchment area nonresidency on estimates of cancer incidence from a tumor-registry-based cohort study and demonstrate that a relatively simple correction is possible in the context of Poisson regression analysis if individual residency histories or the probabilities of residency are known. A comparison of a complete data maximum likelihood analysis with several Poisson regression analyses demonstrates the adequacy of the simple correction in a large simulated data set. We compare analyses of stomach-cancer incidence from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation tumor registry with and without the correction. We also discuss some implications of including cases identified only on the basis of death certificates. (author)

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF LANDSLIDES SUSCEPTIBILITY IN THE DOBRIC CATCHMENT AREA USING THE FREQUENCY RATE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA VĂIDEAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The landslides susceptibility of the Dobric catchment area (Ilişua river. The territorial geomorfological investigation focuses mainly on the analysis of the present situation, as context of future events occurrence. The previous evolutionary context is secondary in place due also to the particular attention it has received so far. The significance of the knowledge regarding the present events and their evolution is explicit in the attempt to mitigate their impact on the built area and on the resources. The identification of areas characterized by maximum susceptibility in the landslides occurrence is absolutely necessary. The method which makes the identification of these areas possible is none other than the method considering the conditional factors, as well as the spatial distribution of the events that have already occurred. In this regard, the use of the frequency rate model is considered to be ideal.

  7. The Concept of Directly Connected Impervious Areas and Its Implication on Sustainable Development in Urban Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongwon; Hwang, Junsik; Choi, Hyun Il

    2017-04-01

    The concept of directly connected impervious area (DCIA) or efficient impervious areas (EIA) refers to a subset of impervious cover, which is directly connected to a drainage system or a water body via continuous impervious surfaces. The concept of DCIA is important in that it is regarded as a better predictor of stream ecosystem health than the total impervious area (TIA). DCIA is a key concept for a better assessment of green infrastructures introduced in urban catchments. Green infrastructure can help restore water cycle; it improves water quality, manages stormwater, provides recreational environment even at lower cost compared to conventional alternatives. In this study, we evaluated several methods to obtain the DCIA based on a GIS database and showed the importance of the accurate measurement of DCIA in terms of resulting hydrographs. We also evaluated several potential green infrastructure scenarios and showed how the spatial planning of green infrastruesture affects the shape of hydrographs and reduction of peak flows. These results imply that well-planned green infrastructure can be introduced to urban catchments for flood risk managements and quantitative assessment of spatial distribution of DCIA is crucial for sustainable development in urban environment.

  8. Zoning of the White Sea catchment area by the degree of continental runoff influence on the marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulavina A. S.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Methodologies for the integral evaluation of the potential impact of continental runoff on the marine aquatic environment have been developed and tested in relation to the catchment area of the White Sea. Integral indicators of pollution potential (PP and self-purification capacity (SPC of the river waters have been calculated within the boundaries of the hydrologic areas. The following indicators have been used to calculate the PP: the volume of wastewater and the population density in the catchment area (anthropogenic components of pollution, sediment load (a natural component of pollution. Such natural settings of the catchment as the lake percentage, woodiness and the role of topography in self-purification of rivers have been used to calculate the SPC. The quality of river waters, entering the sea, is the result of the ratio of the proposed integrated indicators. On the basis of the quantitative ratios of PP and SPC, the zoning of the catchment area according to the degree of the negative impact of river waters on water quality in the White Sea has been performed. The resulting zoning scheme is demonstrated as a holistic picture, representing a complex of natural-economic factors on the river catchments of the White Sea basin. It has been revealed that river runoff from a considerable part of the catchment area has not a significant negative impact on the water quality on the White Sea. The greatest pollution effect on the waters of the White Sea has the Northern Dvina River and the Niva River. The obtained data are well correlated with the data of hydrochemical observations in the bays of the White Sea. The objectivity of integrated assessment has been provided by the base on a large number of field data and the exception of the indicators that have not quantitative expression. The obtained results can be used to develop scientifically valid environmental programmes and to plan industrial development in the catchment area.

  9. Long term effect of metal pollution in the catchment area of Tisza River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Győri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In January and March 2000 two tailings dam failures occurred in the upper Tisza catchment area near Baia Mare and Baia Borsa (Romania. These accidents focused attention on the metal pollution of the Tisza catchment area, and the short term effects of them were studied by many researchers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term effects of these pollutions by determining the Lakanen-Erviö extractable easily available metal contents of samples collected in 2011 from floodplains and pastures along the Tisza (Tivadar, Vásárosnamény, Rakamaz, Tiszacsege, and comparing them to our earlier results. Cu and Zn contents were measured by Optima 3300 DV ICP-OES (Perkin-Elmer. The measurement of Pb and Cd was conducted by QZ 939 GF-AAS (Unicam in 2000 and by an X7 ICP-MS (Thermo Fisher in 2011. We found that the Cd, Zn and Pb contents of the pasture near Vásárosnamény exceed limit values and natural background values. In addition, during a 11 year period the easily available Cd, Zn and Pb contents increased significantly, suggesting that the hazard of this pollution should not be neglected.

  10. Stream Sediment Geochemical Survey of Selected Element In Catchment Area Of Saguling Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardhani Eka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Saguling Lake is one of the largest lakes in West Java Province that accommodates domestic and non-domestic wastes via the Citarum River as its main water source. This study aims to determine the geochemical background concentration (Cbg in water catchment area of Saguling Lake. The knowledge of the Cbg of heavy metals is essential for defining pollution, identifying the source of contamination, and for establishing reliable environmental quality criteria for sediments. The value of Cbg will be used for assessment of the sediment quality in Saguling Lake. Assessment of sediment quality is very important to determine the actual condition of water in the lake and as the basis for management of waters environment in the future. The search was taken at 22 sampling points in the unpolluted water catchment area. Samples were collected and analyzed for Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb. Each sample was digested in agua regia and analyzed by ICP-EOS. Results showed Cbg which are: Cd 0.34 ± 0.10 mg/kg, Cr 110.57 ± 28.61 mg/kg, Cu 49.93 ± 9.28 mg/kg, and Pb 18.62 ± 9.83 mg/kg. Based on the assessment result, it is concluded that the sediment quality in Saguling Lake is categorized as polluted by Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb metals.

  11. Some climatological factors of pine in the lake toba catchment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, Z.

    2018-02-01

    The article deals with climatological factors of Pine at the Lake Toba Catchment Area also called drained basin, Pinus merkusii is a plant endemic in Sumatra. A central population of Pine in North Sumatra is located in the Tapanuli region to south of Lake Toba. Junghuhn discovered the species in the mountains range of Sipirok. He provisionally named the species as Pinus sumatrana. The article presents a detail analysis of approaches to climate factors, considers rainfall, air temperature, humidity, stemflow, throughfall and Interception following calculation of regression to determine relationship between precipitation with stemflow and interception. Stemflow, it is highly significant with significance of difference between correlation coefficients and z normal distribution. Temperature and relative humidity are the important components in the climate. These components influence the evaporation process and rainfall in the catchment. Pinus merkusii has the big crown interception. Stemflow and Interception has an opposite relation. Increasing of interception capacity will decrease stemflow. This type of Pine also has rough bark however significant channels so that, it flows water even during the wet season and caused the stemflow in Pinus merkusii relatively bigger.

  12. Climate change and its impact on the Crn Drim Catchment Area In Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovik, Oliviia; Aleksovska, Nina; Rikaloska, Gorica

    2004-01-01

    In this paper it will be presented the overview of the climate change and climate regimes of the world in general according different scenarios in the latest assessment (the 3d Report published in 2001) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and its impact on the Crn Drim catchment area in Macedonia.This analysis and interpretation only provides a preliminary investigation into climate change and how it will affect Ohrid and Prespa lake system as a part of Crn Drim catchment area, which is already attacked by the climate changed. From the climatological aspect two elements: temperature and rainfall, will be' calculated and their expected changes over the century in the same area. Dates used in these analyses are from the Hydro meteorological Service of Republic of Macedonia archives In the graphs are shown changes in average seasonal climate for the period around the 2080s, relative to 1961-1990 climate. Results are shown for the SRES A2 scenario, which assumes a future world of fairly conventional energy development, i.e., continuing dependence on fossil carbon fuels. The projections for average seasonal climate for temperature and precipitation are estimated and shown separately for two seasons: winter and summer. The estimated values are compared with annual mean global worming for the 2080s,-and for the SRES A2 scenario, as calculated by the IPCC (a value of about 3.2 o C). The results show rate of worming greater in summer than in winter for Ohrid Lake as well as for Prespa Lake. Concerning the precipitation, it increases slightly in winter and decreases substantially in summer, by around 30 per cent. As the conclusion it is obviously that the temperature will rise in all Crn Drim catchment area with implications for increasing water temperature and water quality, which would be degraded by higher water temperature. This will increase evaporation and as the results can be expected water level decreasing. Also, higher temperatures and heat

  13. 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility: Delisting petition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Waste water has been generated for over 40 years as a result of operations conducted on the Hanford Site. This waste water previously was discharged to cribs, ponds, or ditches. An example of such waste water includes process condensate that might have been in contact with dangerous waste or mixed waste (containing both radioactive and dangerous components). This petition presents the treatment technologies that are designed into the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility to eliminate the dangerous characteristics of the waste and to delist the effluent in accordance with the requirements found in 40 Code of Federal Regulations 260.20 and 260.22. The purpose of this petition is to demonstrate that the 242-A Evaporator process condensate will be treated adequately so that the effluent from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility will no longer require management as a regulated dangerous waste. This demonstration was performed by use of a surrogate (synthetic) waste, designed by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office to include species that represent all organic and inorganic constituents (but not radionuclide species) expected to be found on the Hanford Site. Thus, the surrogate will encompass not only the expected 242-A Evaporator process condensate characteristics, but those of other potential 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility waste streams and additional 40 CFR Appendix VIII constituents

  14. Importance of bottom-up approach in water management - sustainable development of catchment areas in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavic, M.; Cosic-Flajsig, G.; Petricec, M.; Blazevic, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Association for preservation of Croatian waters and sea SLAP is a non-governmental organization (NGO) that gathers more than 150 scientist, hydrologist and civil engineers. SLAP has been established in 2006 and since then had organized many conferences and participated in projects dealing with water management. We have started our work developing plans to secure water supply to the 22 (21) villages in the rural parts of Dubrovnik (Pozega) area and trough the years we have accumulated knowledge and experience in dealing with stakeholders in hydrology and water management. Within this paper we will present importance of bottom-up approach to the stakeholders in water management in Croatia on two case studies: (1) Management of River Trebizat catchment area - irrigation of the Imotsko-Bekijsko rural parts; (2) Development of multipurpose water reservoirs at the River Orljava catchment area. Both projects were designed in the mid and late 1980's but due to the war were forgotten and on halt. River Trebizat meanders between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina and acquires joint management by both countries. In 2010 and 2011 SLAP has organized conferences in both countries gathering all the relevant stakeholders from representatives of local and state governments, water management companies and development agencies to the scientist and interested NGO's. The conferences gave firm scientific background of the topic including presentation of all previous studies and measurements as well as model results but presented in manner appropriate to the stakeholders. The main result of the conference was contribution to the development of joint cross-border project sent to the EU Pre-Accession funds in December 2011 with the aim to strengthen capacities of both countries and prepare larger project dealing with management of the whole Trebizat catchment area to EU structural funds once Croatia enters EU in 2013. Similar approach was taken for the Orljava catchment in the northern

  15. Comorbid mental disorders in substance users from a single catchment area - a clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malt Ulrik F

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimal treatment of patients with substance use disorders (SUDs requires an awareness of their comorbid mental disorders and vice versa. The prevalence of comorbidity in first-time-admitted SUD patients has been insufficiently studied. Diagnosing comorbidity in substance users is complicated by symptom overlap, symptom fluctuations, and the limitations of the assessment methods. The aim of this study was to diagnose all mental disorders in substance users living in a single catchment area, without any history of treatment for addiction or psychiatric disorders, admitted consecutively to the specialist health services. The prevalence of substance-induced versus substance-independent disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV, in SUD patients will be described. Methods First-time consecutively admitted patients from a single catchment area, aged 16 years or older, admitted to addiction clinics or departments of psychiatry as outpatients or inpatients will be screened for substance-related problems using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and the Drug Use Disorder Identification Test. All patients with scores above the cutoff value will be asked to participate in the study. The patients included will be diagnosed for SUD and other axis I disorders by a psychiatrist using the Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders. This interview was designed for the diagnosis of primary and substance-induced disorders in substance users. Personality disorders will be assessed according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV axis II disorders. The Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms, the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale, the Young Mania Rating Scale, and the Angst Hypomania Check List will be used for additional diagnostic assessments. The sociodemographic data will be recorded with the Stanley

  16. Assessment of Socioeconomic Vulnerability to Floods in the Bâsca Chiojdului Catchment Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REMUS PRĂVĂLIE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological risk phenomena such as floods are among the most costly natural disasters worldwide, effects consisting of socioeconomic damages and deaths. The Bâsca Chiojdului catchment area, by its morphometric and hydrographic peculiarities, is prone to generate these hydrological risk phenomena, so there is a high vulnerability in the socioeconomic elements. This paper is focused on the identification of the main socioeconomic elements vulnerable to hydrological risk phenomena such as floods, based on the assessment of their manifestation potential. Thus, following the delimitation of areas with the highest flood occurrence potential (susceptibility to floods, major socioeconomic factors existing in the basin, considering human settlements (constructions, transport infrastructure, and agricultural areas (the most important category, were superimposed. Results showed a high vulnerability for all three exposed socioeconomic elements especially in valley sectors, of which household structures were the most vulnerable, given both their importance and the high number of areas highly exposed to floods (approximately 2,500 houses and outbuildings, out of a total of about 10,250, intersect the most susceptible area to floods in the study area.

  17. Late Pleistocene and Holocene landscape formation in a gully catchment area in Northern Hesse, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Döhler, Susanne; Damm, Bodo; Terhorst, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    the differentiation between Pleistocene and Holocene landforms. Radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating are applied to add numerical data to the relative ages of the sediments and landforms. The gully channels are oriented along Pleistocene depressions that are built up of periglacial cover beds...... and intercalated reworked loess. As the gully channels cut through the periglacial cover beds, especially the upper layer, the gully system is of Holocene age. At least two phases of gully erosion are identified in the alluvial fan sediments. The initial gully erosion is dated to the time span between the Late......Permanent gully channels under forest are common geomorphological features in Central European low mountain areas. In the Rehgraben/Fuchslöchergraben gully catchment in Northern Hesse, Germany the Late Pleistocene landscape formation is reconstructed based on periglacial cover beds. In addition...

  18. Flash flood warning in mountainaious areas: using damages reports to evaluate the method at small ungauged catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrance, Dimitri; Javelle, Pierre; Ecrepont, Stéphane; Andreassian, Vazken

    2013-04-01

    In Europe, flash floods mainly occur in the Mediterranean area on small catchments with a short concentration time. Anticipating this kind of events is a major issue in order to reduce the resulting damages. But for many of the impacted catchments, no data are available to calibrate and evaluate hydrological models. In this context, the aims of this study is to develop and evaluate a warning method for the Southern French Alps. This area is of particular interest, because it regroups different hydrological regimes, from purely Mediterranean to purely Alpine influences. Two main issues should be addressed: - How to define the hydrological model and its parameterization for an application in an ungauged context? - How to evaluate the final results on 'real' ungauged catchments? The first issue is a classic one. Using a 'observed' data set (154 streamflow stations with catchment areas ranging from 5 to 1000 km² and distributed rainfall available on the 1997-2006 period), we developed a regional model specifically for the studied area. For this purpose, the AIGA method, initially developed for Mediterranean catchments was adapted, in order to take into account snowmelt and to produce baseflows. Then, different parameterizations were tested, derived from different simple regionalisation techniques: - the same parameters set for the whole area defined as the median of the local calibrated parameters; - the same technique as the previous case, but by considering different sub-areas, defined as "hydro-climatically" homogeneous by previous studies; - and finally the neighbour's method. The second issue is more original. Indeed, in most studies the final evaluation is done using gauged stations as they were 'ungauged', ie keeping the at-site discharge data only for validation ant not for calibration. The main disadvantage of this approach is that the evaluation is made at the scale of the gauged catchments, which are in general greater than the catchments impacted by flash

  19. Abandoned Smolník mine (Slovakia – a catchment area affected by mining activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lintnerová, Otília

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Smolník is a historical Cu-mining area that was exploited from the 14th century to 1990. The Smolník mine was definitively closed and flooded in 1990–1994. Acid mine drainage discharging from the flooded mine (pH = 3.83, Fe = 542 mg/l, SO42– = 3642 mg/l, Cu = 1880 µg/l, Zn = 9599 µg/l, As = 108 mg/l acidified and contaminated the Smolník Creek water, which transported pollution into the Hnilec River catchment. The Smolník mine waste area has been used as a model area to document pollution of waters, stream sediments, and soils by metals and other toxic elements. Major goals of this complex study were to document creek water transport of the main pollutants (Fe, sulphates, Cu, Al, As, etc. in the form of suspended solids, to investigate elements mobility in common mine waste (rock and processing waste heaps and tailing impoundment and in the soil on the basis of neutralization and leach experiments. Different methodologies and techniques for sampling and chemical and mineralogical characterization of samples were used and checked to evaluate environmental risk of this abandoned mine area.

  20. Wood ash or dolomite treatment of catchment areas - effects of mercury in runoff water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkman, H; Munthe, J [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-11-01

    A future increased use of biomass as a source of energy, and the planned restoration of mineral nutrient balance in the forest soils by returning the wood ashes, has led to concern for new environmental disturbances. The objectives of the present study were to investigate if the outflow of total mercury (TotHg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) from catchment areas treated with granulated wood ash (1988, 2.2 tons/ha, `ashed area`) or dolomite (1985, 5 tons/ha, `limed area`) differed from the outflow from an untreated (reference) area, and if variations in Hg outflow were correlated with changes in the outflow of organic substances or pH. The study areas are situated in Vaermland, Sweden. Samples of run-off water were taken weekly or monthly (depending on water-flow) during on year (1993-94). The outflow of MeHg, TotHg as well as H+ and dissolved organic material (DOC) was lower from the limed area compared to the other two areas, which did not differ significantly. There was a strong covariation between concentrations of DOC and MeHg and a weaker relation between DOC and TotHg in the run-off waters. MeHg also covaried with temperature while TotHg covaried with pH and water-supply. No difference was found when comparing Hg-data from the limed area before, directly after and eight years after the liming event. 13 refs, 12 figs, 1 tab

  1. Frequency and severity of rheumatic heart disease in the catchment area of Gauteng hospitals, 1993-1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clur, Sally-Ann

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Identification of frequency and severity of rheumatic fever/rheumatic heart disease (RF/RHD) in the catchment area of Gauteng hospitals. DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive analysis using hospital-based computer databases. SETTING: Helen Joseph, Chris Hani Baragwanath and Johannesburg

  2. Effects of Channelisation, Riparian Structure and Catchment Area on Physical Habitats in Small Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge

    2009-01-01

    Rivers and streams form a longitudinal network in which physical conditions and biological processes change through the river system. Geomorphology, topography, geology and hydraulic conditions change from site to site within the river system, thereby creating a complex network of reaches that ar.......e. a confined and steep valley (V-shaped) is less likely to be used for agricultural production compared to a broad valley. The results are useful to water managers, who seek to identify natural and impacted physical conditions in large river systems....... that are dominated by a hierarchy of physical processes. The complexity is further enhanced by local human alteration of the physical structure, natural processes and alteration of the riparian areas. The aim of the study was to analyse variations in land use and riparian characteristics along small Danish streams...... and to determine the effect of channelisation on physical habitats. Physical stream characteristics were measured in 149 stream small and medium sized Danish streams (catchment area: 0.1 to 67.2 km2). The measured physical parameters included discharge, stream slope, width, depth, current velocity, substrata...

  3. A hydro-geochemical study of Nahr-Ibrahim catchment area: Fluvial metal transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korfali, Samira

    2004-01-01

    peaks only to calcite, dolomite and quartz. No speciation of metals in flood plain soils was done, nor XRD. The flood plain contains mostly terra rossa soils high in oxides and it is expected that the Ferric soil phase would have a major role in metal retention. The objective of this study is a complete hydro-geochemical survey of Nahr-Ibrahim catchment area and this study would clarify fluvial metal transport within the catchment area. The outcome of this work might assess the factors that influence water quality. This is attained through an improved knowledge of river hydrology, texture of sediment and soil, minerals in soil and sediment and soil and sediment geochemistry

  4. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenenberg, J.G.

    1997-08-15

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating

  5. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenenberg, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, 'operating' treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating

  6. Modeling of Faecal Contamination in Water from Catchment to Shellfish Growing Area

    OpenAIRE

    Bougeard, Morgane; Le Saux, Jean-claude; Perenne, Nicolas; Le Guyader, Soizick; Pommepuy, Monique

    2009-01-01

    During rainstorms, watersheds can introduce large amounts of faecal pollution into the rivers and sea, leading to shellfish contamination. In this study, we assessed Escherichia coli fluxes from a catchment, and their impact on estuarine water quality, using two assembled models. For the catchment, the agro-hydrological model SWAT was implemented integrating land uses, soil, topography, rainfall and other climatic data on Daoulas watershed (France). Initially, the SWAT model was calibrated an...

  7. Evaluation and Planning of Urban Green Space Distribution Based on Mobile Phone Data and Two-Step Floating Catchment Area Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban green space is closely related to the quality of life of residents. However, the traditional approach to its planning often fails to address its actual service capacity and users’ demand. In this study, facilitated by mobile phone location data, more specific features of the spatial distribution of urban residents are identified. Further, population distribution in relation to traffic analysis zones is mapped. On this basis, the two-step floating catchment area method (2SFCA is adopted in combination with urban green space planning to evaluate the per capita area of green space and its accessibility in practice. Subsequently, classification of per capita area and spatial distribution of green spaces within the study area are obtained; thus, urban districts currently with low accessibility to green areas are identified and can be deemed as key areas for the planning of green areas in the future. The study concludes that mobile phone data can be used to more accurately map the spatial distribution of residents; while, the 2SFCA offers a more comprehensive quantitative measuring of the supply and demand of green spaces. The two combined can be used as an important basis for decision-making in the planning of urban green spaces. Since urban green space can be regarded as a kind of public facility, the methodology of the present study is also believed to be applicable in studies of other types of urban facilities.

  8. Radioecological of the Vardar river catchment area after the Chernobyl release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetanovska, L.; Anovski, T.

    1997-01-01

    Vardar river with its length of 301.6 km and its catchment area of 28,338 km 2 covers almost 80% of the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Various usage of the surface and underground water flows of this hydro system (water supply, irrigation, etc.) to which gravitate cca 2/3 of the population of our Country, are subject of increased interest for their protection. In this sense, radioecological investigations (due to a presence of a local not well prospected uranium deposits and a factor, for phosphate fertilizers) were in progress. The first preliminary results of performed gamma-spectrometric analysis showed that besides many others, the following isotopes: I-131, I-132, Cs-134, Cs-137 and Ru-103, dominated into the investigated water, air and food samples. Different from the concentration of I-131 into the filtered Skopje air which was 12 Bq/m 3 on the 5th of May, 1986, the concentration of Cs-137 was up to 15 Bq/m 3 in air, 122 Bq/L in local precipitation, up to 800 Bq/kg in sediments and 0.29 Bq/L in the water samples from the Vardar river

  9. Land cover changes in catchment areas of lakes situated in headwaters of the Tyśmienica River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzywna Antoni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the history of land cover changes in the catchment area of lakes situated in the headwaters of the Tyśmienica River. The basis of the study were topographic maps in scale 1:50 000, from 1936 and 2014. We analyzed the quantitative aspect of these changes. The study was conducted in three natural lakes (Rogóźno, Krasne, Łukcze, and in one lake transformed into a storage reservoir (Krzczeń. The technical issues of georeferencing maps in the Geographic Information System (GIS software are addressed first. In the landscape of Łęczna and Włodawa Lake District, to the end of the 19th century wetlands and bushes dominated. The first type of human pressure on this area was agriculture. Another type of pressure was recreation. In the catchment areas of studied lakes increased mainly the area of buildings and forests. Significantly increased also the length of roads and watercourses. Almost completely disappeared bushes and wastelands. In most of the analyzed basins, the area of wetlands and arable lands decreased. The probable cause of the changes in catchment use was decline in the water table, and thus overgrowing of meadows and wetlands.

  10. Definition and coding of surface catchment areas: problems and solutions; Ausgrenzung und Verschluesselung oberirdischer Einzugsgebiete: Probleme und Loesungsansaetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, A.; Mehl, D. [biota - Institut fuer Oekologische Forschung und Planung GmbH, Guestrow (Germany); Klitzsch, S. [Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Geologie Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Guestrow (Germany). Abt. Wasser und Boden

    2000-12-01

    Due to certain hydrographic situations there are some difficulties in application of the LAWA-directive 'Coding of catchment areas and streams'. In this paper, solutions are shown by means of examples from the federal state of Mecklenburg-Pomerania. Priorities of streams influenced by lakes and the Baltic Sea, branched and linked streams, urban streams and catchment areas without surface run-off were discussed. (orig.) [German] Die Anwendung der LAWA-Richtlinie zur Gebietsbezeichnung und Verschluesselung von Fliessgewaessern stoesst bei Vorliegen bestimmter hydrographischer Konstellationen auf Schwierigkeiten. Anhand von Fallbeispielen aus Mecklenburg-Vorpommern werden Loesungswege zur entsprechenden Problembehandlung aufgezeigt. Wesentliche Schwerpunkte sind daher durchflossene Seen, verzweigte und vernetzte Fliessgewaesser, Fliessgewaesser im staedtischen Bereich, die Problematik der Binnenentwaesserungsgebiete sowie Gewaesser im Ostseerueckstau. (orig.)

  11. On the forecast of runoff based on the harmonic analysis of time series of precipitation in the catchment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherednichenko, A. V.; Cherednichenko, A. V.; Cherednichenko, V. S.

    2018-01-01

    It is shown that a significant connection exists between the most important harmonics, extracted in the process of harmonic analysis of time series of precipitation in the catchment area of rivers and the amount of runoff. This allowed us to predict the size of the flow for a period of up to 20 years, assuming that the main parameters of the harmonics are preserved at the predicted time interval. The results of such a forecast for three river basins of Kazakhstan are presented.

  12. Validation of a simple distributed sediment delivery approach in selected sub-basins of the River Inn catchment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Lucas; Kittlaus, Steffen; Scherer, Ulrike

    2015-04-01

    For large areas without highly detailed data the empirical Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is widely used to quantify soil loss. The problem though is usually the quantification of actual sediment influx into the rivers. As the USLE provides long-term mean soil loss rates, it is often combined with spatially lumped models to estimate the sediment delivery ratio (SDR). But it gets difficult with spatially lumped approaches in large catchment areas where the geographical properties have a wide variance. In this study we developed a simple but spatially distributed approach to quantify the sediment delivery ratio by considering the characteristics of the flow paths in the catchments. The sediment delivery ratio was determined using an empirical approach considering the slope, morphology and land use properties along the flow path as an estimation of travel time of the eroded particles. The model was tested against suspended solids measurements in selected sub-basins of the River Inn catchment area in Germany and Austria, ranging from the high alpine south to the Molasse basin in the northern part.

  13. 200 Area treated effluent disposal facility operational test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    This document reports the results of the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (200 Area TEDF) operational testing activities. These completed operational testing activities demonstrated the functional, operational and design requirements of the 200 Area TEDF have been met

  14. Personality and cognitive decline in the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Rebecca S; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Nestadt, Gerald; Samuels, Jack F; Parisi, Jeanine M; Costa, Paul T; Spira, Adam P

    2014-09-01

    To determine the association between personality domains and 11-year cognitive decline in a sample from a population-based study. Data from Waves 3 (1993-1996) and 4 (2003-2004) of the Baltimore cohort of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study were used for analyses. The sample included 561 adults (mean age ± SD: 45.2 ± 10.78 years) who completed the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised prior to Wave 4. Participants also completed the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and immediate and delayed word recall tests at Wave 3, and at Wave 4, 10.9 ± 0.6 years later. In models adjusted for baseline cognitive performance, demographic characteristics, medical conditions, depressive symptoms, and psychotropic medication use, each 10-point increase in Neuroticism T-scores was associated with a 0.15-point decrease in MMSE scores (B = -0.15, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.30, -0.01), whereas each 10-point increase in Conscientiousness T-scores was associated with a 0.18-point increase on the MMSE (B = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.32) and a 0.21-point increase in immediate recall (B = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.003, 0.41) between baseline and follow-up. Findings suggest that greater Neuroticism is associated with decline, and greater Conscientiousness is associated with improvement in performance on measures of general cognitive function and memory in adults. Further studies are needed to determine the extent to which personality traits in midlife are associated with clinically significant cognitive outcomes in older adults, such as mild cognitive impairment and dementia, and to identify potential mediators of the association between personality and cognitive trajectories. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Structure, composition and diversity of the vegetation of hub dam catchment area, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaukat, S.; Khan, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    A study of vegetation structure, composition and diversity of Hub-dam catchment area was conducted. A total of 106 species were recorded of which 57 were annuals while 49 were perennials. The vegetation was dominated by small trees and shrubs. Spatial patterns within-community of plant populations using variance/mean ratio and Morisita's index was also investigated. Of the 14 perennial species investigated seven (Barleria acanthoides, Grewia tenax, Indigofera oblongifolia, Aerva persica, Rhazya stricta, Iphiona grantioides and Cymbopogon jwarancusa) predominately exhibited aggregated pattern. Four species (Acacia senegal, Prosopis juliflora, Salvadora oleoides and Calotropis procera) usually exhibited random distribution but infrequently aggregated pattern. Three species (Senna holosericea, Zizyphus nummularia and Vernonia cinerescens) showed aggregated pattern or random distribution more or less equally often. The distribution pattern of vegetation composition and the underlying environmental gradients, correspondence analysis (CA) ordination and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were employed. Group structure inherent in the vegetation was disclosed using Ward's agglomerative cluster analysis. Species diversity was measured and diversity was averaged for each group. Diversity of group I (Acacia senegal and Prosopis juliflora community type) was highest because this community included a number of mid-succession species, while diversity was lowest for group 4 (Prosopis juliflora and Capparis decidua community type) as this community was highly disturbed. In the climax community (group 3), the diversity level slightly decreased, suggesting the monopolization of resources by this community. Four major community types were recognized by Ward's cluster analysis, each of which was associated with particular topographic-edaphic factors, while one was mainly governed by anthropogenic disturbance. Biological spectrum constructed for the flora showed dominance of

  16. 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities -- Quality assurance program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, L.

    1995-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance and management controls used by the 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities (LEF) to perform its activities in accordance with DOE Order 5700.6C. The 200 Area LEF consists of the following facilities: Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF); Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF); Liquid Effluent Retention facility (LERF); and Truck Loading Facility -- (Project W291). The intent is to ensure that all activities such as collection of effluents, treatment, concentration of secondary wastes, verification, sampling and disposal of treated effluents and solids related with the LEF operations, conform to established requirements

  17. Watershed Modeling with ArcSWAT and SUFI2 In Cisadane Catchment Area: Calibration and Validation of River Flow Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Ridwansyah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing of natural resources utilization as a result of population growth and economic development has caused severe damage on the watershed. The impacts of natural disasters such as floods, landslides and droughts become more frequent. Cisadane Catchment Area is one of 108 priority watershed in Indonesia. SWAT is currently applied world wide and considered as a versatile model that can be used to integrate multiple environmental processes, which support more effective watershed management and the development of better informed policy decision. The objective of this study is to examine the applicability of SWAT model for modeling mountainous catchments, focusing on Cisadane catchment Area in west Java Province, Indonesia. The SWAT model simulation was done for the periods of 2005 – 2010 while it used landuse information in 2009. Methods of Sequential Uncertainty Fitting ver. 2 (SUFI2 and combine with manual calibration were used in this study to calibrate a rainfall-runoff. The Calibration is done on 2007 and the validation on 2009, the R2 and Nash Sutchliffe Efficiency (NSE of the calibration were 0.71 and 0.72 respectively and the validation are 0.708 and 0.7 respectively. The monthly average of surface runoff and total water yield from the simulation were 27.7 mm and 2718.4 mm respectively. This study showed SWAT model can be a potential monitoring tool especially for watersheds in Cisadane Catchment Area or in the tropical regions. The model can be used for another purpose, especially in watershed management.

  18. State Wildlife Management Area Public Facilities - points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This point theme contains facilities and features for WMAs that are best represented as points. WMAs are part of the Minnesota state recreation system created to...

  19. State Wildlife Management Area Public Facilities - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This line theme contains facilities and features for WMAs that are best represented as lines. WMAs are part of the Minnesota state recreation system created to...

  20. Composite analysis E-area vaults and saltstone disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the Composite Analysis (CA) performed on the two active Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults (EAV) Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of SRS and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, chemical separations facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material. The analysis considered 114 potential sources of radioactive material containing 115 radionuclides. The results of the CA clearly indicate that continued disposal of low-level waste in the saltstone and EAV facilities, consistent with their respective radiological performance assessments, will have no adverse impact on future members of the public.

  1. Composite analysis E-area vaults and saltstone disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the Composite Analysis (CA) performed on the two active Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults (EAV) Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of SRS and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, chemical separations facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material. The analysis considered 114 potential sources of radioactive material containing 115 radionuclides. The results of the CA clearly indicate that continued disposal of low-level waste in the saltstone and EAV facilities, consistent with their respective radiological performance assessments, will have no adverse impact on future members of the public

  2. Distribution of 127Cs and 90Sr in southern part of Pyajyanne lake and in its catchment area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksen, R.; Rantavaara, A.; Yaakkola, T.

    1998-01-01

    Slight increase in 90 Sr content from river discharges was observed in the near-the-surface layers og the Asikkalanselk bay of the Pyajanne lake in the years directly following the Chernobyl accident; later it remained almost runchanged, whereas 137 Cs concentration is decreasing. 90 Sr was identified in the bottoms at greater depth than 137 Cs. Radionuclides transport by small rivers from water catchment zones to Asikkalanselsk was studied in 1995-1997. It is established that greater part of 137 Cs is leached into the surface waters from swamped areas. The swamped soils are also characterized by higher degree of 90 Sr washing out. The role of 137 Cs and 90 Sr surface discharges from catchment as compared to radionuclide exchange with other parts of the lake, containing greater water volumes

  3. Concentration of radiocesium in stream water from a mountainous catchment area during rainfall events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kimihito; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Hatakeyama, Masato

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial and aquatic systems were contaminated with radioactive materials following the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station on 11 March, 2011. It is important that levels of radiocesium (Cs) in stream water from affected areas be monitored as this water is used for paddy irrigation and domestic water. Additionally, soil particles and organic matter from the streams are deposited in rivers, estuaries and into the ocean. Predictions suggest that Cs levels will increase during intense rainfall-runoff events. To check this prediction, we monitored temporal changes in runoff events and Cs levels in stream water from a mountainous catchment area northwest of the Fukushima plant. In March and April, 2012, the concentrations of Cs and suspended solids (SS) in stream water taken from low-level water flow were found to be 0.2–0.3 Bq/L and 2–7 mg/L, respectively. A heavy rainfall event in July 2012 resulted in an increase and subsequent decrease of both the runoff volume and SS concentration. At the beginning of the rainfall event the concentration of Cs absorbed in the SS was measured to be 23 Bq/L, this decreased gradually to 0.3 Bq/L over the course of the event. The concentration of Cs dissolved in the water was 0.1 Bq/L, this decreased only slightly during the runoff event. During a low rainfall event in September 2012 the concentration of Cs absorbed in the SS at the beginning of the rainfall event was found to be 15 Bq/L, this decreased gradually to 0.5 Bq/L as the amount of SS in the water decreased. The concentration of Cs dissolved in the water was 0.2 Bq/L, again this decreased only slightly over the course of the runoff event. The Cs levels in stream water, during rainfall-runoff events, were primary influenced by the concentration of SS. The amount of Cs dissolved in the water, on the other hand, was roughly constant at 0.1–0.2 Bq/L. The results of this study indicate that, although the concentration of Cs in stream water is below

  4. Concentration of radiocesium in stream water from a mountainous catchment area during rainfall events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kimihito; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Hatakeyama, Masato

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial and aquatic systems were contaminated with radioactive materials following the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station on 11 March, 2011. It is important that levels of radiocesium (Cs) in stream water from affected areas be monitored as this water is used for paddy irrigation and domestic water. Additionally, soil particles and organic matter from the streams are deposited in rivers, estuaries and into the ocean. Predictions suggest that Cs levels will increase during intense rainfall-runoff events. To check this prediction, we monitored temporal changes in runoff events and Cs levels in stream water from a mountainous catchment area northwest of the Fukushima plant. In March and April, 2012, the concentrations of Cs and suspended solids (SS) in stream water taken from low-level water flow were found to be 0.2-0.3 Bq/L and 2-7 mg/L, respectively. A heavy rainfall event in July 2012 resulted in an increase and subsequent decrease of both the runoff volume and SS concentration. At the beginning of the rainfall event the concentration of Cs absorbed in the SS was measured to be 23 Bq/L, this decreased gradually to 0.3 Bq/L over the course of the event. The concentration of Cs dissolved in the water was 0.1 Bq/L, this decreased only slightly during the runoff event. During a low rainfall event in September 2012 the concentration of Cs absorbed in the SS at the beginning of the rainfall event was found to be 15 Bq/L, this decreased gradually to 0.5 Bq/L as the amount of SS in the water decreased. The concentration of Cs dissolved in the water was 0.2 Bq/L, again this decreased only slightly over the course of the runoff event. The Cs levels in stream water, during rainfall-runoff events, were primary influenced by the concentration of SS. The amount of Cs dissolved in the water, on the other hand, was roughly constant at 0.1-0.2 Bq/L. The results of this study indicate that, although the concentration of Cs in stream water is below the

  5. 200 Area Deactivation Project Facilities Authorization Envelope Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DODD, E.N.

    2000-01-01

    Project facilities as required by HNF-PRO-2701, Authorization Envelope and Authorization Agreement. The Authorization Agreements (AA's) do not identify the specific set of environmental safety and health requirements that are applicable to the facility. Therefore, the facility Authorization Envelopes are defined here to identify the applicable requirements. This document identifies the authorization envelopes for the 200 Area Deactivation

  6. Catchment area-based evaluation of the AMC-dependent SCS-CN-based rainfall-runoff models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S. K.; Jain, M. K.; Pandey, R. P.; Singh, V. P.

    2005-09-01

    Using a large set of rainfall-runoff data from 234 watersheds in the USA, a catchment area-based evaluation of the modified version of the Mishra and Singh (2002a) model was performed. The model is based on the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) methodology and incorporates the antecedent moisture in computation of direct surface runoff. Comparison with the existing SCS-CN method showed that the modified version performed better than did the existing one on the data of all seven area-based groups of watersheds ranging from 0.01 to 310.3 km2.

  7. Study Of Land Cover And Condition Catchment Area Groundwater Aquifer In Tanah Merah North Samarinda District Using Resistivity Geoelectric Sounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djayus

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Land cover is a biophysical cover that maintains land conditions in water balance. The purpose of this research is to know the condition of land cover water catchment groundwater aquifer and correlation. This research begins by collecting data on land cover soil type rainfall slopes and groundwaterinformation. Field activities include observation and data collection of land cover geological conditions community wells and geoelectric sounding. Land cover data is classified according to circumstances and conditions. Geoelectric sounding data was analyzed with IP2WIN software interpretation of lithologic variation of rocks and depth based on resistivity value. Plot the position of each lithology sounding with Surfer software obtained kontour rock field boundary and 3D model of the aquifer position.The results showed that the land cover consisted of vegetated areas forests 27221 Ha 4032 and agricultural land 18336 Ha 2716 non-vegetation area 9880 Ha 1464 constructed land Open land 116.33 Ha 17.23 and water body 4.35 Ha 0.64 The condition of land cover in this water catchment area has decreased 6838 Ha 1014 from the previous condition 34059 Ha 5046 to 27221 Ha 4032. Referring to Permenhut RI No. 32 in 2009 total score catchment area 33 including the somewhat critical condition. Groundwater aquifers based on 3D sounding geolistrik modeling consist of a free aquifer for shallow groundwater depth of water level between 2-30 m with thickness 2-65 m and a distorted aquifer for groundwaterin depth of water between 75-150 m With thickness 75-125 m depth of community well 10-45 m. The transfer of land into open pit mines resulted in the destruction of the balance and water system the decreasing decreasing the discharge of the well water of the community drill the failure and the lack of new water discharge of the new wells the loss of groundwaterin several dug wells landslides and mud floods on the farmland

  8. Typology of potential high contribution areas in the sediment budget in the Upper Guil Catchment (Queyras, French Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissak, Candide; Fort, Monique; Fassetta, Gilles Arnaud; Viel, Vincent; Carlier, Benoit

    2015-04-01

    In mountainous areas, especially in large river catchments with torrential tributaries, the production and sediment transport significantly increase flood impacts in the valley bottoms. For a better understanding of Alpine river catchments considered as complex systems, we focused our research on the Guil River catchment (Queyras, Southern French Alps - 317km²). This catchment is prone to catastrophic summer floods (June 1957 (> R.I. 100 yr), June 2000 (R.I. 30 yr)...) characterized by considerable sediment transport from tributaries to downvalley, very much facilitated by strong hillslope-channel connectivity (≈12,000 m3 volume of sediment aggraded during the June 2000 flood event). During the last flood events, several infrastructures and buildings were seriously damaged. Most of them were located at confluences and, at specific reaches such as canyon reaches constrained by infrastructures. For risk mitigation some protection equipments were built after the 1957 event, but most of them are now poorly maintained and might be less effective in case of flood event. In the frame of SAMCO (ANR 12 SENV-0004) project designed for mountain hazard mitigation in a context of Climate Change, one objective is to understand the hydro-geomorphological functioning of Alpine catchments for a sustainable management of sediment yield, transfer and deposition. Part of our study is aimed at a better assessment of sediment transfers, especially on adjacent sediment supply (i.e. from hillslope to channel, and from tributaries to the trunk river) for a better management of sediment fluxes in the frame of the local "River Scheme". For this reason, we decided to establish a sediment budget of the Guil River catchment, with a quantitative assessment and a spatial analysis of erosion, transport, and deposition processes. The initial phase of our study consists in identifying contributive, erosion and deposition areas with a twofold approach: (i) assessment of longitudinal sedimentary

  9. Eco-physiological Study on the Influence of Contaminated Waters from the Topolnitza River Catchment Area on Some Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana Velcheva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a small part of a program for an investigation of the water conditions in the Topolnitza Dam Lake, Topolnitza River and its catchment area. The sensitivity of seeds and young wheat, sunflower and mustard plants to heavy metal stress was examined at laboratory conditions. Our results showed that seedling growth was more sensitive to heavy metals in comparison to seed germination. The length of shoot and root has been adversely affected due to water contamination when compared to the control. A certain negative effect on the photosynthetic pigments content was registered.

  10. The Technical Integration of Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System to Predict the Peak Discharge Which Uses the Characteristic of Physical Environment of Catchments Area In Elo Sub Catchments Area in Central java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiharto Budi Santoso

    2004-01-01

    The results of the research show that: (1 the aerial photo of black and white panchromatic on the scale 1:50. 000 is obtained to interpret the slope area and it is not good to interpret the accuracy of the covered arm is about 87% and 77,4 %, (2 the current coeflicient which is accounted hased on the table of Cook method is about 40,36% - deviates 39,94% from the field data; (3 the peak discharge in Elo sub catchments area with rational formula is about 3022,03 m/second, while the peak discharge as the observation result is about 112,675 m/second. Its large of research area causs the time to peak takes a long time, which causes raining intensity increases. The increasing value of raining intensity and the flow coeficient makes the value of peak discharge increases that larger than measured peak discharge.

  11. On the impact of the development of the Verkhnyaya Sukhona river catchment area (the Vologda Region on the chemical composition of the waters in its tributaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivicheva Ksenya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to study the influence of anthropogenic burden on the catchment areas of the rivers in Vologda Region and to establish the dependence of the chemical composition of water on pollution sources in the rivers of the Verkhnyaya Sukhona basin. In the catchment areas hydro chemical samples were taken, population density was calculated as well as the automated and visual interpretation of the main elements of the landscape was carried out. At that, forests, populated areas, farmlands and other territories changed by economic activities were identified. An increase in the pollutants concentration in the catchment areas on drawing near the regional center was detected. The development of the catchment areas varies depending on the landscape pattern and on the proximity to the city of Vologda. The population density and the relative area of settlements and farmlands increase while approaching to the city, at the same time the ratio of forests decreases. The positive correlation dependence between the phosphate content and the relative size of farmlands was shown. The main source of pollutants in the catchment areas of the Verkhnyaya Sukhona basin is the presence of settlements and high population density. Under such conditions, high concentration of sodium, chlorine, nitrogen-containing compounds as well as permanganate oxidizability are observed in water.

  12. The situation of sanitary systems in rural areas in the Miyun catchment, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, C; Xu, A; Duan, S; Zhang, B; Eckstädt, H; Meissner, R

    2012-01-01

    The Miyun Reservoir provides most of Beijing's drinking water. Despite its importance, the Miyun reservoir suffers from decreasing water quality caused by uncontrolled wastewater discharges, inadequate land use and over fertilization, which increase the pressure on soil and water resources. The major pollutants are nitrogen and phosphorus which emanate to some extent from untreated sewage. So far there is little data about the existing wastewater quantity and quality in rural settlements in northern China. This study was conducted in typical villages situated along upstream rivers in the catchment of the Miyun Reservoir. The main objective was to determine the current situation and efficiency of the wastewater treatment system in rural settlements.

  13. Subproject L-045H 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The study focuses on the project schedule for Project L-045H, 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility is a Department of Energy subproject of the Hanford Environmental Compliance Project. The study scope is limited to validation of the project schedule only. The primary purpose of the study is to find ways and means to accelerate the completion of the project, thereby hastening environmental compliance of the 300 Area of the Hanford site. The ''300 Area'' has been utilized extensively as a laboratory area, with a diverse array of laboratory facilities installed and operational. The 300 Area Process Sewer, located in the 300 Area on the Hanford Site, collects waste water from approximately 62 sources. This waste water is discharged into two 1500 feet long percolation trenches. Current environmental statutes and policies dictate that this practice be discontinued at the earliest possible date in favor of treatment and disposal practices that satisfy applicable regulations

  14. APPLYING THIESSEN POLYGON CATCHMENT AREAS AND GRIDDED POPULATION WEIGHTS TO ESTIMATE CONFLICT-DRIVEN POPULATION CHANGES IN SOUTH SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jordan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent violence in South Sudan produced significant levels of conflict-driven migration undermining the accuracy and utility of both national and local level population forecasts commonly used in demographic estimates, public health metrics and food security proxies. This article explores the use of Thiessen Polygons and population grids (Gridded Population of the World, WorldPop and LandScan as weights for estimating the catchment areas for settlement locations that serve large populations of internally displaced persons (IDP, in order to estimate the county-level in- and out-migration attributable to conflict-driven displacement between 2014-2015. Acknowledging IDP totals improves internal population estimates presented by global population databases. Unlike other forecasts, which produce spatially uniform increases in population, accounting for displaced population reveals that 15 percent of counties (n = 12 increased in population over 20 percent, and 30 percent of counties (n = 24 experienced zero or declining population growth, due to internal displacement and refugee out-migration. Adopting Thiessen Polygon catchment zones for internal migration estimation can be applied to other areas with United Nations IDP settlement data, such as Yemen, Somalia, and Nigeria.

  15. Applying Thiessen Polygon Catchment Areas and Gridded Population Weights to Estimate Conflict-Driven Population Changes in South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, L.

    2017-10-01

    Recent violence in South Sudan produced significant levels of conflict-driven migration undermining the accuracy and utility of both national and local level population forecasts commonly used in demographic estimates, public health metrics and food security proxies. This article explores the use of Thiessen Polygons and population grids (Gridded Population of the World, WorldPop and LandScan) as weights for estimating the catchment areas for settlement locations that serve large populations of internally displaced persons (IDP), in order to estimate the county-level in- and out-migration attributable to conflict-driven displacement between 2014-2015. Acknowledging IDP totals improves internal population estimates presented by global population databases. Unlike other forecasts, which produce spatially uniform increases in population, accounting for displaced population reveals that 15 percent of counties (n = 12) increased in population over 20 percent, and 30 percent of counties (n = 24) experienced zero or declining population growth, due to internal displacement and refugee out-migration. Adopting Thiessen Polygon catchment zones for internal migration estimation can be applied to other areas with United Nations IDP settlement data, such as Yemen, Somalia, and Nigeria.

  16. Assessment of Useful Plants in the Catchment Area of the Proposed Ntabelanga Dam in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Maroyi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The developmental projects, particularly construction of dams, result in permanent changes of terrestrial ecosystems through inundation. Objective. The present study was undertaken aiming at documenting useful plant species in Ntabelanga dam catchment area that will be impacted by the construction of the proposed dam. Methods. A total of 55 randomly selected quadrats were used to assess plant species diversity and composition. Participatory rural appraisal (PRA methods were used to identify useful plant species growing in the catchment area through interviews with 108 randomly selected participants. Results. A total of 197 plant species were recorded with 95 species (48.2% utilized for various purposes. Use categories included ethnoveterinary and herbal medicines (46 species, food plants (37 species, construction timber and thatching (14 species, firewood (five species, browse, live fence, and ornamental (four species each, and brooms and crafts (two species. Conclusion. This study showed that plant species play an important role in the daily life and culture of local people. The construction of Ntabelanga dam is, therefore, associated with several positive and negative impacts on plant resources which are not fully integrated into current decision-making, largely because of lack of multistakeholder dialogue on the socioeconomic issues of such an important project.

  17. 300 Area fuel supply facilities deactivation mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of the 300 Area fuel supply facilities (formerly call ''N reactor fuel fabrication facilities'') Deactivation Project mission analysis. Hanford systems engineering (SE) procedures call for a mission analysis. The mission analysis is an important first step in the SE process

  18. 300 Area fuel supply shutdown facility hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the 300 Area Fuel Supply Shutdown Facilities on the Hanford Site. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and Emergency Planning Zone, is demonstrated

  19. Human impacts on river water quality- comparative research in the catchment areas of the Tone River and the Mur River-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogure, K.

    2013-12-01

    Human activities in river basin affect river water quality as water discharges into river with pollutant after we use it. By detecting pollutants source, pathway, and influential factor of human activities, it will be possible to consider proper river basin management. In this study, material flow analysis was done first and then nutrient emission modeling by MONERIS was conducted. So as to clarify land use contribution and climate condition, comparison of Japanese and European river basin area has been made. The model MONERIS (MOdelling Nutrient Emissions in RIver Systems; Behrendt et al., 2000) was applied to estimate the nutrient emissions in the Danube river basin by point sources and various diffuse pathways. Work for the Mur River Basin in Austria was already carried out by the Institute of Water Quality, Resources and Waste Management at the Vienna University of Technology. This study treats data collection, modelling for the Tone River in Japan, and comparative analysis for these two river basins. The estimation of the nutrient emissions was carried out for 11 different sub catchment areas covering the Tone River Basin for the time period 2000 to 2006. TN emissions into the Tone river basin were 51 kt/y. 67% was via ground water and dominant for all sub catchments. Urban area was also important emission pathway. Human effect is observed in urban structure and agricultural activity. Water supply and sewer system make urban water cycle with pipeline structure. Excess evapotranspiration in arable land is also influential in water cycle. As share of arable land is 37% and there provides agricultural products, it is thought that N emission from agricultural activity is main pollution source. Assumption case of 10% N surplus was simulated and the result was 99% identical to the actual. Even though N surplus reduction does not show drastic impact on N emission, it is of importance to reduce excess of fertilization and to encourage effective agricultural activity

  20. Compilation of historical information of 300 Area facilities and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1992-12-01

    This document is a compilation of historical information of the 300 Area activities and facilities since the beginning. The 300 Area is shown as it looked in 1945, and also a more recent (1985) look at the 300 Area is provided

  1. Compilation of historical information of 300 Area facilities and activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1992-12-01

    This document is a compilation of historical information of the 300 Area activities and facilities since the beginning. The 300 Area is shown as it looked in 1945, and also a more recent (1985) look at the 300 Area is provided.

  2. 200 area effluent treatment facility opertaional test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    This document reports the results of the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (200 Area ETF) operational testing activities. These Operational testing activities demonstrated that the functional, operational and design requirements of the 200 Area ETF have been met and identified open items which require retesting

  3. 300 Area fuel supply facilities deactivation function analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-09-01

    The document contains the functions, function definitions, function interfaces, function interface definitions, Input Computer Automated Manufacturing Definition (IDEFO) diagrams, and a function hierarchy chart that describe what needs to be performed to deactivate the 300 Area Fuel Supply Facilities

  4. 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Hazards Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAMPBELL, L.R.

    1999-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of emergency planning activities for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The technical basis for project-specific Emergency Action Levels and Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated

  5. Spatial Accessibility of Primary Care in England: A Cross-Sectional Study Using a Floating Catchment Area Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jan; Müller, Ruth; Brüggmann, Dörthe; Groneberg, David A

    2017-07-07

    To analyze the general practitioners (GPs) with regard to the degree of urbanization, social deprivation, general health, and disability. Small area population data and GP practice data in England. We used a floating catchment area method to measure spatial GP accessibility with regard to the degree of urbanization, social deprivation, general health, and disability. Data were collected from the Office for National Statistics and the general practice census and analyzed using a geographic information system. In all, 25.8 percent of the population in England lived in areas with a significant low GP accessibility (mean z-score: -4.2); 27.6 percent lived in areas with a significant high GP accessibility (mean z-score: 7.7); 97.8 percent of high GP accessibility areas represented urban areas, and 31.1 percent of low GP accessibility areas represented rural areas (correlation of accessibility and urbanity: r = 0.59; psocial deprivation was present (r = -0.19; paccessibility throughout England. However, socially deprived areas did not have poorer spatial access to GPs. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  6. Occurrence of Antibiotics in Surface and Groundwater of a Drinking Water Catchment Area in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Victoria; Richter, Doreen; Greskowiak, Janek; Mehrtens, Anne; Schulz, Lena; Massmann, Gudrun

    2016-07-01

    The contamination of the aquatic environment with organic micropollutants, such as veterinary pharmaceuticals, has become an increasingly serious problem and has aroused attention in the course of the last decades. This study presents a screening for a series of veterinary antibiotics, potentially introduced by the application of liquid manure, in ground- and surface water of a drinking water catchment in Lower Saxony, Germany. Of the 26 compounds analyzed, eight, including sulfadiazine, sulfapyridine, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, dehydrato-erythromycin, sulfadimidine, tylosin, and tetracycline were detected in surface water samples. Trimethoprim was detected in 11 out of 15 shallow groundwater samples, indicating its high environmental relevance. Column sorption experiments conducted on trimethoprim show a comparatively moderate sorption affinity to sandy aquifer material with a retardation coefficient of 5.7.

  7. Using catchment areas analysis and GIS based spatial analysis for prioritising spatial investment in non-metro South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, Chéri A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available for social facility provision. A geo-spatially targeted hierarchy of places was also identified to prioritise investment of regional middle order facilities in “Service Malls” located in the most optimal towns to best serve non-metropolitan areas in South...

  8. Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA). Power Systems Test Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Situ, Cindy H.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides a detailed description of the Johnson Space Center's Power Systems Facility located in the Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA). Facilities and the resources used to support power and battery systems testing are also shown. The contents include: 1) Power Testing; 2) Power Test Equipment Capabilities Summary; 3) Source/Load; 4) Battery Facilities; 5) Battery Test Equipment Capabilities Summary; 6) Battery Testing; 7) Performance Test Equipment; 8) Battery Test Environments; 9) Battery Abuse Chambers; 10) Battery Abuse Capabilities; and 11) Battery Test Area Resources.

  9. Sylvicultural procedures in catchment areas of the mountain streams as exemplified by the Skrzyczne massif in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małek Stanisław

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Extensive disintegration of spruce forests in the Beskidy Mts. in South Poland generates a need to regenerate sizeable areas as well as to rebuild forest stands which have defended themselves against breakdown. In practice, the magnitude of relevant management tasks does not allow for keeping up with the progressive destruction of forest, especially at higher altitudes, where natural regeneration does not occur as much as necessary. In addition, the species composition is limited to spruce, sometimes accompanied by beech and fir, whereas other species have a negligible share. What may be helpful in solving this problem is the method of regeneration of such areas and of establishment of under-canopy cultures, consisting of patchwork, multi-stage regeneration task performance, starting from the areas with the best chance of reforestation success and using the existing self-sown trees. Such areas undoubtedly include habitats with better water balance, i.e. humid habitats (in the case of larger areas, distinguished in the forest management plan as humid forest site types. The aim of the present study was to propose management of watercourses and headwater areas in the region of the Skrzyczne massif where the selected catchments are situated on the southern (the Malinowski Stream and the northern (the Roztoka Czyrna stream slopes of this massif. The research was carried out in August 2012 and included juxtaposition of available hydrological maps with actual field conditions along with identification of springs and streams and the course of their beds in order to update the existing data. The updating of the forest numerical maps in the existing databases of the State Forests IT System (SILP included verification of the course of streams and determination of their nature (permanent or periodic with a division into the existing ones and the added ones. The data was recorded against the background of the division of the forest surface, contour lines

  10. Hydrogeology and water chemistry of Infranz catchment springs, Bahir Dar Area, Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, F. N.

    2017-12-01

    The major springs in the Infranz catchment are a significant source of water for Bahir city and nearby villages, while they help to sustain Infranz River and the downstream wetlands. The aim of the research was to understand the hydrogeological conditions of these high-discharge springs, and to explain the hydrochemical composition of spring waters. Water samples from rainwater and springs were collected and analyzed and compared for major cations and anions. The hydrochemical data analysis showed that all water samples of the springs have freshwater chemistry, Ca-HCO3 type, while deep groundwater shows more evolved types. This indicates limited water-rock interaction and short residence time for the spring waters. The rise of NO3- and PO43- may indicate future water quality degradation unless the anthropogenic activities upgradient and nearby are restricted. The uptake of 75% of spring water for water supply of Bahir Dar results in wetland degradation. Key words: Spring water, Infranz River, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, hydrochemistry

  11. Managing the drinking water catchment areas: the French agricultural cooperatives feed back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, Séverine; Aumond, Claire

    2016-06-01

    The quality of raw water is problematic in France, largely polluted by nitrates and pesticides (Mueller and Helsel, Nutrients in the nation's waters-too much of a good thing? Geological Survey (U.S.), 1996; European Environment Agency, European waters-assessment of status and pressures, 2012).This type of pollution, even though not always due to agriculture (example of the catchment of Ambleville, county 95, France where the nitrate pollution is mainly due to sewers (2012)), has been largely related to the agricultural practices (Sci Total Environ 407:6034-6043, 2009).Taking note of this observation, and instead of letting it paralyze their actions, the agricultural cooperatives decided with Agrosolutions to act directly on the field with their subscribers to change the agricultural practices impacting the water and the environment.This article shows how the French agricultural cooperatives transformed the awareness of the raw water quality problem into an opportunity for the development and implementation of more precise and responsible practices, to protect their environment. They measure in order to pilot, co-construct and build the best action plans possible according to the three pillars of environment, economy and agronomy.

  12. Assessment of Potential Nitrate Pollution Sources in the Marano Lagoon (Italy) and its Catchment Area Using a Multi Isotope Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saccon, P.; Leis, A.; Marca, A.; Kaiser, J.; Campisi, L.; Savarino, J.; Erbland, J.; Boettcher, M.E.; Eisenhauer, A.; Sueltenfuss, J.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were mainly: (i) the identification and differentiation of the main anthropogenic nitrogen sources in the Marano Lagoon (Italy) and its catchment area; and (ii) the assessment of the intra-lagoonal water circulation, the morphological development of the lagoon and its anthropogenic pressure by applying a combined approach of hydrochemical, isotopic and remote sensing techniques. To achieve the aforementioned targets analyses of stable isotope signatures of nitrate, boron, water and sulphate have been used. Moreover the residence times of groundwater were determined by the tritium-helium dating method. To characterize the chemical composition of the different water types the concentrations of the major ions and nutrients as well as the physicochemical parameters have been measured. Remote sensing techniques have been applied to assess the spatial distribution of most superficial algal flora, water temperature as well as the key environmental and morphological changes of the lagoon since the beginning of the 1970s.

  13. Addendum to the composite analysis for the E-Area Vaults and Saltstone Disposal Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-03-13

    This report documents the composite analysis performed on the two active SRS low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility.

  14. Addendum to the composite analysis for the E-Area Vaults and Saltstone Disposal Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the composite analysis performed on the two active SRS low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

  15. Detection of Catchment-Scale Gully-Affected Areas Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV on the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Loess Plateau suffers from serious gully erosion induced by natural and human causes. Gully-affected areas detection is the basic work in this region for gully erosion assessment and monitoring. For the first time, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV was applied to extract gully features in this region. Two typical catchments in Changwu and Ansai were selected to represent loess tableland and loess hilly regions, respectively. A high-powered quadrocopter (md4-1000 equipped with a non-metric camera was used for image acquisition. InPho and MapMatrix were applied for semi-automatic workflow including aerial triangulation and model generation. Based on the stereo-imaging and the ground control points, the highly detailed digital elevation models (DEMs and ortho-mosaics were generated. Subsequently, an object-based approach combined with the random forest classifier was designed to detect gully-affected areas. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the influences of segmentation strategy and feature selection. Results showed that vertical and horizontal root-mean-square errors were below 0.5 and 0.2 m, respectively, which were ideal for the Loess Plateau region. The overall extraction accuracy in Changwu and Ansai achieved was 84.62% and 86.46%, respectively, which indicated the potential of the proposed workflow for extracting gully features. This study demonstrated that UAV can bridge the gap between field measurement and satellite-based remote sensing, obtaining a balance in resolution and efficiency for catchment-scale gully erosion research.

  16. Groundwater vulnerability assessment for the Banyas Catchment of the Syrian coastal area using GIS and the RISKE method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattaa, Bassam; Al-Fares, Walid; Al Charideh, Abdul Rahman

    2010-05-01

    Vulnerability assessment to delineate areas that are more susceptible to contamination from anthropogenic sources has become an important element for sensible resource management and landuse planning. This contribution aims at estimating aquifer vulnerability by applying the RISKE model in Banyas Catchment Area (BCA), Tartous Prefecture, west Syria. An additional objective is to demonstrate the combined use of the RISKE model and a geographical information system (GIS) as an effective method for groundwater pollution risk assessment. The RISKE model uses five environmental parameters (Rock of aquifer media, Infiltration, Soil media, Karst, and Epikarst) to characterize the hydro-geological setting and evaluate aquifer vulnerability. The elevated eastern and low western part of the study area was dominated by high vulnerability classes, while the middle part was characterized by moderate vulnerability classes. Based on the vulnerability analysis, it was found that 2% and 39% of BCA is under low and high vulnerability to groundwater contamination, respectively, while more than 52% and 5% of the area of BCA can be designated as an area of moderate and very high vulnerability to groundwater contamination, respectively. The GIS technique has provided an efficient environment for analyses and high capabilities of handling a large amount of spatial data. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. CONDITIONS OF FISH FARMING IN NATURA 2000 AREAS, BASED ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE CATCHMENT OF BARYCZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Tokarczyk-Dorociak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the factors that contributed to the construction of approx.77 km2 offish ponds in the catchment of Barycz starting from the 13th century, which in turn transformed the woods into a mosaic of waters, forests and arable land, were the advantageous physiographic conditions. Fish farming operations conducted in this area led to the creation of a cultural landscape characterised by unique natural values, similar to the natural landscape.Approx.240 species of birds are observed here, of which 170 are nesting species. Due to its natural values, this area has been subject to natural reserve protection as part of the Landscape Park "Dolina Baryczy" (the Barycz Valley. It was entered in the "Living Lakes" list and it is protected under the Ramsar Convention as well as under the European nature protection network Natura 2000.The established forms of nature protection mean the introduction of a certain binding regime, pursuant to which the economic activity conducted in protected areas must take into account the prohibitions and orders introduced by documents that establish the said forms of protection. Additionally, there is a legal requirement to create a protection plan or conservation plan that constitutes a basis for the realisation of conservation-related objectives. A commercial company Stawy Milickie S.A. (public limited company operates in the area of this largest fish pond complex in Poland. The scope of its operations includes more than just the breeding and sale of freshwater fish (6500 ha of ponds but also environmental protection, environmental education and the development of tourism as well as stimulating the development and professional activation of local communities basing on the natural resources that exist in the catchment of Barycz. This study presents the conditions related to fish farming operations conducted in this area. Conducting an extensive management (i.e. often uneconomical from the economic point of view is a

  18. Dover AFB Catchment Area TRICARE Marketing Plan, 436th Medical Group, Dover AFB, Delaware,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    cosmetic changes (Nadiu, Kleimenhagen, and Pillari 1992). Berkowitz classifies the debate in terms of eras. During the production era, the function was to...facilities in Smyrna and Fenton , Delaware. KGH has aggressive marketing and community education programs which include classes on: cardiopulmonary

  19. Groundwater impacts on surface water quality and nutrient loads in lowland polder catchments: monitoring the greater Amsterdam area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang; Rozemeijer, Joachim; van Breukelen, Boris M.; Ouboter, Maarten; van der Vlugt, Corné; Broers, Hans Peter

    2018-01-01

    The Amsterdam area, a highly manipulated delta area formed by polders and reclaimed lakes, struggles with high nutrient levels in its surface water system. The polders receive spatially and temporally variable amounts of water and nutrients via surface runoff, groundwater seepage, sewer leakage, and via water inlets from upstream polders. Diffuse anthropogenic sources, such as manure and fertiliser use and atmospheric deposition, add to the water quality problems in the polders. The major nutrient sources and pathways have not yet been clarified due to the complex hydrological system in lowland catchments with both urban and agricultural areas. In this study, the spatial variability of the groundwater seepage impact was identified by exploiting the dense groundwater and surface water monitoring networks in Amsterdam and its surrounding polders. A total of 25 variables (concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), NH4, NO3, HCO3, SO4, Ca, and Cl in surface water and groundwater, N and P agricultural inputs, seepage rate, elevation, land-use, and soil type) for 144 polders were analysed statistically and interpreted in relation to sources, transport mechanisms, and pathways. The results imply that groundwater is a large source of nutrients in the greater Amsterdam mixed urban-agricultural catchments. The groundwater nutrient concentrations exceeded the surface water environmental quality standards (EQSs) in 93 % of the polders for TP and in 91 % for TN. Groundwater outflow into the polders thus adds to nutrient levels in the surface water. High correlations (R2 up to 0.88) between solutes in groundwater and surface water, together with the close similarities in their spatial patterns, confirmed the large impact of groundwater on surface water chemistry, especially in the polders that have high seepage rates. Our analysis indicates that the elevated nutrient and bicarbonate concentrations in the groundwater seepage originate from the decomposition of

  20. Groundwater impacts on surface water quality and nutrient loads in lowland polder catchments: monitoring the greater Amsterdam area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Amsterdam area, a highly manipulated delta area formed by polders and reclaimed lakes, struggles with high nutrient levels in its surface water system. The polders receive spatially and temporally variable amounts of water and nutrients via surface runoff, groundwater seepage, sewer leakage, and via water inlets from upstream polders. Diffuse anthropogenic sources, such as manure and fertiliser use and atmospheric deposition, add to the water quality problems in the polders. The major nutrient sources and pathways have not yet been clarified due to the complex hydrological system in lowland catchments with both urban and agricultural areas. In this study, the spatial variability of the groundwater seepage impact was identified by exploiting the dense groundwater and surface water monitoring networks in Amsterdam and its surrounding polders. A total of 25 variables (concentrations of total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP, NH4, NO3, HCO3, SO4, Ca, and Cl in surface water and groundwater, N and P agricultural inputs, seepage rate, elevation, land-use, and soil type for 144 polders were analysed statistically and interpreted in relation to sources, transport mechanisms, and pathways. The results imply that groundwater is a large source of nutrients in the greater Amsterdam mixed urban–agricultural catchments. The groundwater nutrient concentrations exceeded the surface water environmental quality standards (EQSs in 93 % of the polders for TP and in 91 % for TN. Groundwater outflow into the polders thus adds to nutrient levels in the surface water. High correlations (R2 up to 0.88 between solutes in groundwater and surface water, together with the close similarities in their spatial patterns, confirmed the large impact of groundwater on surface water chemistry, especially in the polders that have high seepage rates. Our analysis indicates that the elevated nutrient and bicarbonate concentrations in the groundwater seepage originate

  1. Concentration and distribution patterns of naturally occurring radionuclides in sediments and flood plain soils of the catchment area of the river Elbe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, A.; Jurk, M.; Weiß, D.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of uranium mining and milling as well as that of traditional mining activities on river sediments and flood plain soils in the catchment area of the river Elbe was investigated over the years 1994 to 1995. Contamination resulting from mining activities has been identified by comparing the median values for the measured radionuclides, and by establishing the ratio between Ra-226 and Ra-228. The transport and deposition of contaminated materials as a result of high water events, and river discharge of waste water from mining and milling facilities, can be considered to be the main paths of sediment and soil contamination. Sediments and flood plain soils located in the vicinity of former uranium mining and milling sites are primarily influenced by discharges of waste water. Long distance transport and deposition at dams, barrages and on flood plains has mainly been caused by high water events. In many cases the radionuclide concentrations were higher in the subsurface layer than in the top layer of flood plain soil. Due to termination of uranium mining and milling activities, no significant contamination of newer or fresh sediments was found. Radiation exposure arising in relation to angling or walking on flood plains is low

  2. Design of the target area for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, R.J.; Karpenko, V.P.; Adams, C.H.

    1997-01-01

    The preliminary design of the target area for the National Ignition Facility has been completed. The target area is required to meet a challenging set of engineering system design requirements and user needs. The target area must provide the appropriate conditions before, during, and after each shot. The repeated introduction of large amounts of laser energy into the chamber and subsequent target emissions represent new design challenges for ICF facility design. Prior to each shot, the target area must provide the required target illumination, target chamber vacuum, diagnostics, and optically stable structures. During the shot, the impact of the target emissions on the target chamber, diagnostics, and optical elements is minimized and the workers and public are protected from excessive prompt radiation doses. After the shot, residual radioactivation is managed to allow the required accessibility. Diagnostic data is retrieved, operations and maintenance activities are conducted, and the facility is ready for the next shot. The target area subsystems include the target chamber, target positioner, structural systems, target diagnostics, environmental systems, and the final optics assembly. The engineering design of the major elements of the target area requires a unique combination of precision engineering, structural analysis, opto-mechanical design, random vibration suppression, thermal stability, materials engineering, robotics, and optical cleanliness. The facility has been designed to conduct both x- ray driven targets and to be converted at a later date for direct drive experiments. The NIF has been configured to provide a wide range of experimental environments for the anticipated user groups of the facility. The design status of the major elements of the target area is described

  3. Enhancing community role in catchment area of cascade-pond system at the campus of Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitri Caya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The population in the catchment area of Universitas Indonesia (UI campus cascade-pond system is growing rapidly. The rapid growth of population increases the activities intensity in the catchment area, so that a better water resource management is urgently needed. The Dublin Principles in Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM among others says that water development and management should be based on a participatory approach, which involves users, planners and policymakers at all levels. The Watershed Stewardship Program is one of the Eight-Tool for Watershed Protection developed by Center for Watershed Protection. Community as the main role holder, besides as beneficiary, is also as planner and executor of the program. The study aims to facilitate community in designing the activities towards water-friendly neighborhood, in the framework of community-potential-based watershed management, to increase the health of UI aquatic system and its catchment area. A combination of Participatory Action Research and Appreciative Inquiry method is applied. The required data and information is collected through field survey and focus group discussion (FGD. Field survey is conducted by interviewing random population inside the catchment area to get the behavior pattern overview of the community. FGD aims to unite the stakeholder and discuss their knowledge and potencies.

  4. Evaluation of stream discharges measurement using radioisotope and conventional method at Sungai Weng catchment area, Kedah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazrul Hizam Yusoff and Wan Zakaria Wan MuhdTahir

    2006-01-01

    A number of discharge measurements using radioisotope and current metering techniques at selected streams in Sg. Weng Experimental Catchment were conducted by MINT and JPS gauging teams starting from 2003-2005. This study aims to prepare stage-discharge relationships or rating curves of the selected streams during variable flow conditions. The rating curve of the stream is one of the important parameters and usually appraised in certain routine operations of hydrological studies. It may be used in the planning of water resources management and flood control scheme. The radioisotope method employed in this study involved the injection of short-lived radioisotope tracer, that is, technetium-99m ( 99m Tc having its half-life ∼ 6.023 hrs) which was supplied from a high activity technetium generator (55.5 Gbq). Measurement of stream discharges were concurrently undertaken by JPS staff using a current meter type 0TT-C2 mounted on a wading rod at selected gauging stations for comparison purposes. Methodologies from the two methods of discharge measurements, comparison of results and identifying the uncertainties (errors) in performing the measurement during low, medium and high turbulent flows were explained in this paper. Generally, the entire results of streamflow data (2003-2005) measured by both methods during low flows (Q 3 /s) exhibit almost comparable values to each other. However, for moderate flows (1.0 m 3 /s 3 /s), the different in gauging results are slightly higher using radioisotope method ( i.e. Q isotope > Q current meter and may goes up to 40%) , and during high turbulent flows (Q>6.0 m 3 /s) the radioisotope method presented more than 40% higher discharge values as compared to the measurement made by the conventional current-meter. Observation made on site anticipated that inaccurate gauging data measured by conventional means during high flow and turbulent conditions are expected. The average estimated measurement error associated with isotope method

  5. The Analysis of Land Use Based on CORINE Land Cover in the Romanian Part of the Tisa Catchment Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIPRIAN MOLDOVAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the land use structure of the 13 counties of the Romanian part of Tisa catchment area has been made according to the 2000 edition of CORINE Land Cover, while the 1990 edition has been used for comparative purposes. Out of the total area of 8,269,229.48 hectares, the forests cover 37.92%, the arable lands 35.02% and the grasslands 17.97%. The other types of land use have lower weights, such as the continuous and discontinuous urban fabric 4.81%, the orchards 1.10% and the vineyards 0.98%. In the category of forests, the following types of land use are included: broad-leaved forests, which form the majority (24.72%, coniferous forests (6.22%, mixed forests (3.46% and transitional woodland-shrub areas (3.52%. The forests are mainly located in the Carpathians and the hills. The non-irrigated arable lands (23.50% are predominant within the arable lands. They lie mostly in the Western Plain and in the basins and corridors of the Transylvanian Depression and the Western Hills. The analysis of the dynamics of the land use structure between 1990 and 2000 indicates a relative stability in the case of forests, a decrease of arable lands and an increase of grasslands.

  6. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application documentation consists of both Part A and a Part B permit application documentation. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this treatment and storage unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Once the initial Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit is issued, the following process will be used. As final, certified treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific documents are developed, and completeness notifications are made by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology, additional unit-specific permit conditions will be incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit through the permit modification process. All treatment, storage, and/or disposal units that are included in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application will operate under interim status until final status conditions for these units are incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility contains information current as of May 1, 1993

  7. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application documentation consists of both Part A and a Part B permit application documentation. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this treatment and storage unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Once the initial Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit is issued, the following process will be used. As final, certified treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific documents are developed, and completeness notifications are made by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology, additional unit-specific permit conditions will be incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit through the permit modification process. All treatment, storage, and/or disposal units that are included in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application will operate under interim status until final status conditions for these units are incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility contains information current as of May 1, 1993.

  8. Waste analysis plan for the 200 area effluent treatment facility and liquid effluent retention facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballantyne, N.A.

    1995-01-01

    This waste analysis plan (WAP) has been prepared for startup of the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) and operation of the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF), which are located on the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to obtain and analyze representative samples of dangerous waste managed in these units, and of the nondangerous treated effluent that is discharged to the State-Approved Land Disposal System (SALDS). Groundwater Monitoring at the SALDS will be addressed in a separate plan

  9. Verification of best available technology for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (310 Facility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, R.N.

    1994-01-01

    This compilation of Project L-045H reference materials documents that the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF, also designated the 310 Facility) was designed, built, and will be operated in accordance with the best available technology (BAT) identified in the Engineering Summary Report. The facility is intended for treatment of 300 Area process sewer wastewater. The following unit operations for 300 Area process sewer water treatment are specified as: influent receipt; iron co-precipitation and sludge handling for removal of heavy metals and initial suspended solids; ion exchanged for removal of mercury and other heavy metals; ultraviolet (UV)/peroxide treatment for destruction of organic compounds, cyanide, coliforms, sulfide, and nitrite; and effluent discharge to the Columbia River with pH monitoring/control capability

  10. Map Showing Geology and Hydrostratigraphy of the Edwards Aquifer Catchment Area, Northern Bexar County, South-Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Amy R.; Blome, Charles D.; Faith, Jason R.

    2009-01-01

    Rock units forming the Edwards and Trinity aquifers in northern Bexar County, Texas, are exposed within all or parts of seven 7.5-minute quadrangles: Bulverde, Camp Bullis, Castle Hills, Helotes, Jack Mountain, San Geronimo, and Van Raub. The Edwards aquifer is the most prolific ground-water source in Bexar County, whereas the Trinity aquifer supplies water for residential, commercial, and industrial uses for areas north of the San Antonio. The geologic map of northern Bexar County shows the distribution of informal hydrostratigraphic members of the Edwards Group and the underlying upper member of the Glen Rose Limestone. Exposures of the Glen Rose Limestone, which forms the Trinity aquifer alone, cover approximately 467 km2 in the county. This study also describes and names five informal hydrostratigraphic members that constitute the upper member of the Glen Rose Limestone; these include, in descending order, the Caverness, Camp Bullis, Upper evaporite, Fossiliferous, and Lower evaporite members. This study improves our understanding of the hydrogeologic connection between the two aquifers as it describes the geology that controls the infiltration of surface water and subsurface flow of ground water from the catchment area (outcropping Trinity aquifer rocks) to the Edwards water-bearing exposures.

  11. Analysis of interrelation between water quality and hydrologic conditions on a small karst catchment area of sinking watercourse Trbuhovica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinic, V; Grzetic, A; Ljubotina, M; Rubinic, J; Ruzic, I; Volf, G; Vuckovic, I; Kvas, N

    2008-01-01

    Sinking watercourse Trbuhovica is located at the topping karst of Gorski Kotar in Croatia, near the Slovenian border. About 900 inhabitants live in Trbuhovica catchment area. Sewage system had not been built. The project KEEP WATERS CLEAN (INTERREG III A project) was approved by EU commission and has a purpose of investigating water resources of that area, their appropriate protection and improving management of those resources. This paper presents project's 1st phase investigation results: hydrologic conditions and water quality at several locations on stream and at the springs of Trbuhovica, Mlake and Obrh. Climatologic (precipitation, air temperature and snow cover), basic hydrologic characteristics (flow and water temperature), water quality parameters (pH, electric conductivity, alkalinity, oxygen regime, nutrients and mineral oils) and microbiology indicators have been monitored. Samples of micro invertebrates and samples of periphyton have been collected in the field. Biological results have been elaborated via Saprobial Index according to Pantle-Buck. Analyses results showed a strong connection between hydrologic condition and selected water quality parameters. The groundwater quality changes are very quick. Maximum pollutions occur during the period of intensive rain. Water at the spring of Mlaka is very clean and is classified in the first to second water category, while Trbuhovica shows higher organic pollution.

  12. Analysis of interrelation between water quality and hydrologic conditions on a small karst catchment area of sinking watercourse Trbuhovica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinić, V.; Rubinić, J.; Vučković, I.; Ružić, I.; Gržetić, A.; Volf, G.; Ljubotina, M.; Kvas, N.

    2008-11-01

    Sinking watercourse Trbuhovica is located at the topping karst of Gorski Kotar in Croatia, near the Slovenian border. About 900 inhabitants live in Trbuhovica catchment area. Sewage system had not been built. The project KEEP WATERS CLEAN (INTERREG III A project) was approved by EU commission and has a purpose of investigating water resources of that area, their appropriate protection and improving management of those resources. This paper presents project's 1st phase investigation results: hydrologic conditions and water quality at several locations on stream and at the springs of Trbuhovica, Mlake and Obrh. Climatologic (precipitation, air temperature and snow cover), basic hydrologic characteristics (flow and water temperature), water quality parameters (pH, electric conductivity, alkalinity, oxygen regime, nutrients and mineral oils) and microbiology indicators have been monitored. Samples of micro invertebrates and samples of periphyton have been collected in the field. Biological results have been elaborated via Saprobial Index according to Pantle-Buck. Analyses results showed a strong connection between hydrologic condition and selected water quality parameters. The groundwater quality changes are very quick. Maximum pollutions occur during the period of intensive rain. Water at the spring of Mlaka is very clean and is classified in the first to second water category, while Trbuhovica shows higher organic pollution.

  13. Experimental area plans for an advanced hadron facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, E.W.; Macek, R.J.; Tschalear, C.

    1986-01-01

    A brief overview is presented of the current plans for an experimental area for a new advanced hadron facility for the exploration of nuclear and particle physics. The facility, LAMPF II, is presently visualized as consisting of the LAMPF linac sending 800 MeV protons to a 6 GeV booster ring followed by a 45 GeV main ring. Two experimental areas area planned. The first is intended to provide neutrinos via a pair of pulsed focusing horns. The other is designed to accommodate secondary beams that span the range of useful energies up to GeV/c. Beam specification goals are discussed with respect to source brightness, beam purity, and beam-line acceptance and length. The various beam lines are briefly described. Production cross sections and rates are estimated for antiproton production. Problems of thermal energy deposition in both components and targets and of effectiveness of particle separators are discussed. 9 refs. (LEW)

  14. Experimental area plans for an advanced hadron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.W.; Macek, R.J.; Tschalear, C.

    1986-01-01

    A brief overview is presented of the current plans for an experimental area for a new advanced hadron facility for the exploration of nuclear and particle physics. The facility, LAMPF II, is presently visualized as consisting of the LAMPF linac sending 800 MeV protons to a 6 GeV booster ring followed by a 45 GeV main ring. Two experimental areas area planned. The first is intended to provide neutrinos via a pair of pulsed focusing horns. The other is designed to accommodate secondary beams that span the range of useful energies up to GeV/c. Beam specification goals are discussed with respect to source brightness, beam purity, and beam-line acceptance and length. The various beam lines are briefly described. Production cross sections and rates are estimated for antiproton production. Problems of thermal energy deposition in both components and targets and of effectiveness of particle separators are discussed. 9 refs

  15. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 300 Area Fuels Fabrication Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.; Brendel, D.F.

    1991-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP- 0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the first annual report. It shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring system by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years. The Fuel Fabrication Facility in the Hanford 300 Area supported the production reactors from the 1940's until they were shut down in 1987. Prior to 1987 the Fuel Fabrication Facility released both airborne and liquid radioactive effluents. In January 1987 the emission of airborne radioactive effluents ceased with the shutdown of the fuels facility. The release of liquid radioactive effluents have continued although decreasing significantly from 1987 to 1990

  16. Primary schools, markets and choice: studying polarization and the core catchment areas of schools

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, R J; Johnston, RJ

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we distinguish polarization from other conceptions of segregation by conceiving the former as a local phenomenon. To this end we argue that evidence for any school-level separation of ethnic groups must be sought and contextualised within the local markets within which schools operate. By determining the ‘core catchment’ areas of primary schools from geographical micro-data reporting where pupils reside and which school they attend within the study region of Birmingham, England,...

  17. Use of standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index to investigate drought relative to maize, in the Luvuvhu River catchment area, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masupha, Teboho Elisa; Moeletsi, Mokhele Edmond

    2017-12-01

    Drought frequency and severity analysis during the growing period of maize was carried out by means of the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) based on climatic data from seven weather stations (1975-2014). The index was aggregated at different time scales following three consecutive planting dates (October, November and December), relative to the average start of the rainy season in the area. Temporal analysis of droughts was conducted and trends were evaluated using the non-parametric Spearman's Rank Correlation test. The relative frequency distributions of the different drought categories were plotted for each growth stage of maize, with respect to the three planting dates. Results revealed an average drought occurrence of once every two seasons. The 1991/92 drought was identified as the most extreme drought during the analysis period; and generally there were no significant trends across the catchment, except for weak increasing SPEI at Levubu, Lwamondo and Thohoyandou with Spearman's ρ values of 0.4. This implies that the severity of drought decreased over time in these regions following the respective planting dates. The study further revealed that planting a 120-day maturing maize crop in December would pose a high risk of frequent severe-extreme droughts (SPEI -1.5 to ≤ -2) during the flowering to grain-filling stage at the high and moderate rainfall regions, while results at the low rainfall region indicated this risk following planting in October.

  18. East Area Irradiation Test Facility: Preliminary FLUKA calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Lebbos, E; Calviani, M; Gatignon, L; Glaser, M; Moll, M; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of the Radiation to Electronics (R2E) mitigation project, the testing of electronic equipment in a radiation field similar to the one occurring in the LHC tunnel and shielded areas to study its sensitivity to single even upsets (SEU) is one of the main topics. Adequate irradiation test facilities are therefore required, and one installation is under consideration in the framework of the PS East area renovation activity. FLUKA Monte Carlo calculations were performed in order to estimate the radiation field which could be obtained in a mixed field facility using the slowly extracted 24 GeV/c proton beam from the PS. The prompt ambient dose equivalent as well as the equivalent residual dose rate after operation was also studied and results of simulations are presented in this report.

  19. Application of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to predict the impact of best management practices in Jatigede Catchment Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridwansyah, Iwan; Fakhrudin, M.; Wibowo, Hendro; Yulianti, Meti

    2018-02-01

    Cimanuk watershed is one of the national priority watersheds for rehabilitation considering its critical condition. In this area, Jatigede Reservoir operates, which is the second largest reservoir in Indonesia, after Jatiluhur Reservoir. The reservoir performs several functions, including flood control, irrigation for 90.000 ha of rice fields, water supply of 3.500 litres per second, and power generation of 110 MW. In 2004 the Jatigede Reservoir catchment area had a critical land area of 40.875 ha (28% of the catchment area). The sedimentation rate in Cimanuk River at Eretan station shows a high rate (5.32 mm/year), which potentially decreases the function of Jatigede Reservoir. Therefore, a strategy of Best Management Practice’s (BMP’s) is required to mitigate the problem by using SWAT hydrology modelling. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of BMP’s on surface runoff and sediment yield in Jatigede Reservoir Catchment Area. Simulations were conducted using land use in 2011. The results of this study suggest that SWAT model is considered as a reasonable modelling of BMP’s simulation concerning Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficients (0.71). The simulation is using terraces, silt pit, and dam trenches as BMP’s techniques. The BMP’s application can reduce surface runoff from 99.7 mm to 75.8 mm, and decrease sediment yield from 61.9 ton/ha/year to 40.8 ton/ha/year.

  20. Evaluation of the ORNL area for future waste burial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomenick, T.F.; Byerly, D.W.; Gonzales, S.

    1983-10-01

    Additional waste-burial facilities will be needed at ORNL within this decade. In order to find environmentally acceptable sites, the ORNL area must be systematically evaluated. This document represents the first step in that selection process. Geologic and hydrologic data from the literature and minor field investigations are used to identify more favorable sites for Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 7. Also underway at this time is a companion study to locate a Central Waste Storage Area which could be used in the future to accommodate wastes generated by the X-10, Y-12, and K-25 facilities. From the several watershed options available, the Whiteoak Creek drainage basin is selected as the most promising hydrologic regime. This area contains all past and present waste-disposal facilities and is thus already well monitored. The seven bedrock units within the ORNL area are evaluated as potential burial media. Shales of the Conasauga Group, which are currently used for waste burial in the Whiteoak Creek drainage basin, and the Knox Group are considered the leading candidates. Although the residuum derived from and overlying the Knox dolomite has many favorable characteristics and may be regarded as having a high potential for burial of low-level wastes, at the present it is unproven. Therefore, the Conasauga shales are considered a preferable option for SWSA 7 within the ORNL area. Since the Conasauga interval is currently used for waste burial, it is better understood. One tract in Melton Valley that is underlain by Conasauga shales is nominated for detailed site-characterization studies, and several other tracts are recommended for future exploratory drilling. Exploration is also suggested for a tract in the upper Whiteoak Creek basin where Knox residuum is the shallow subsurface material

  1. Caesium-137 behaviour in small agricultural catchments on the area of the Chernobyl contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvasnikova, E.V.; Stukin, E.D.; Golosov, V.N.; Ivanova, N.N.; Panin, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    The vertical distribution of 137 Cs from the Chernobyl accident in soils of the basin of the Gusinaya Lapka dry river, situated in the Eastern region, 550 km from the reactor, has been investigated. In this area the 137 Cs contamination levels range between 250 and 502 kBq.m -2 . In the accumulation zones, at the bottom of the valley, the sediment deposits over the last ten years represent a layer of not more than 10 cm. On arable lands, the erosion processes are limited and no perceptible redistribution of 137 Cs could be observed, except at the transition between ploughed lands on the inter-rivers and meadows on the Balka slopes. This study demonstrates the potential use of the 137 Cs from the Chernobyl accident for the quantification of the soil erosion process. (author)

  2. A new perspective on soil erosion: exploring a thermodynamic approach in a small area of the River Inn catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Lucas; Scherer, Ulrike; Zehe, Erwin

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion modeling has always struggled with compensating for the difference in time and spatial scale between model, data and the actual processes involved. This is especially the case with non-event based long-term models based on the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), yet USLE based soil erosion models are among the most common and widely used for they have rather low data requirements and can be applied to large areas. But the majority of mass from soil erosion is eroded within short periods of times during heavy rain events, often within minutes or hours. Advancements of the USLE (eg. the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation, MUSLE) allow for a daily time step, but still apply the same empirical methods derived from the USLE. And to improve the actual quantification of sediment input into rivers soil erosion models are often combined with a Sediment Delivery Ratio (SDR) to get results within the range of measurements. This is still a viable approach for many applications, yet it leaves much to be desired in terms of understanding and reproducing the processes behind soil erosion and sediment input into rivers. That's why, instead of refining and retuning the existing methods, we explore a more comprehensive, physically consistent description on soil erosion. The idea is to describe soil erosion as a dissipative process (Kleidon et al., 2013) and test it in a small sub-basin of the River Inn catchment area in the pre-Alpine foothills. We then compare the results to sediment load measurements from the sub-basin and discuss the advantages and issues with the application of such an approach.

  3. A Novel Low-Cost Approach to Estimate the Incidence of Japanese Encephalitis in the Catchment Area of Three Hospitals in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Repon C.; Rahman, Mahmudur; Gurley, Emily S.; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Diorditsa, Serguei; Hasan, ASM Mainul; Banu, Sultana S.; Alamgir, ASM; Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Sandhu, Hardeep; Fischer, Marc; Luby, Stephen P.

    2011-01-01

    Acute meningoencephalitis syndrome surveillance was initiated in three medical college hospitals in Bangladesh in October 2007 to identify Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases. We estimated the population-based incidence of JE in the three hospitals' catchment areas by adjusting the hospital-based crude incidence of JE by the proportion of catchment area meningoencephalitis cases who were admitted to surveillance hospitals. Instead of a traditional house-to-house survey, which is expensive for a disease with low frequency, we attempted a novel approach to identify meningoencephalitis cases in the hospital catchment area through social networks among the community residents. The estimated JE incidence was 2.7/100,000 population in Rajshahi (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8–4.9), 1.4 in Khulna (95% CI = 0.9–4.1), and 0.6 in Chittagong (95% CI = 0.4–0.9). Bangladesh should consider a pilot project to introduce JE vaccine in high-incidence areas. PMID:21813862

  4. Modelling of Radiological Health Risks from Gold Mine Tailings in Wonderfonteinspruit Catchment Area, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manny Mathuthu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mining is one of the major causes of elevation of naturally-occurring radionuclide material (NORM concentrations on the Earth’s surface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the human risk associated with exposure to NORMs in soils from mine tailings around a gold mine. A broad-energy germanium detector was used to measure activity concentrations of these NORMs in 66 soil samples (56 from five mine tailings and 10 from the control area. The RESidual RADioactivity (RESRAD OFFSITE modeling program (version 3.1 was then used to estimate the radiation doses and the cancer morbidity risk of uranium-238 (238U, thorium-232 (232Th, and potassium-40 (40K for a hypothetical resident scenario. According to RESRAD prediction, the maximum total effective dose equivalent (TEDE during 100 years was found to be 0.0315 mSv/year at year 30, while the maximum total excess cancer morbidity risk for all the pathways was 3.04 × 10−5 at year 15. The US Environmental Protection Agency considers acceptable for regulatory purposes a cancer risk in the range of 10−6 to 10−4. Therefore, results obtained from RESRAD OFFSITE code has shown that the health risk from gold mine tailings is within acceptable levels according to international standards.

  5. Testing the transferability of regression equations derived from small sub-catchments to a large area in central Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Xu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an ever increasing need to apply hydrological models to catchments where streamflow data are unavailable or to large geographical regions where calibration is not feasible. Estimation of model parameters from spatial physical data is the key issue in the development and application of hydrological models at various scales. To investigate the suitability of transferring the regression equations relating model parameters to physical characteristics developed from small sub-catchments to a large region for estimating model parameters, a conceptual snow and water balance model was optimised on all the sub-catchments in the region. A multiple regression analysis related model parameters to physical data for the catchments and the regression equations derived from the small sub-catchments were used to calculate regional parameter values for the large basin using spatially aggregated physical data. For the model tested, the results support the suitability of transferring the regression equations to the larger region. Keywords: water balance modelling,large scale, multiple regression, regionalisation

  6. Location of an electric source facility and local area promotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimohirao, Isao

    1999-01-01

    Here were described on energy demand and supply, energy policy and local area promotion policy for basic problems important on location of electric source facilities. At present, co-existence business between electricity business and electric source location area is lacking in its activity. It seems to be necessary to enforce some systems to intend to promote it earnestly, and to effort to promote industry promotions such as introduction of some national projects, induction of electricity cost reduction for a means of business invitation, and so forth. And it is necessary to promote them under cooperations with electricity businesses, governments, universities and communities for the industrial promotion and fixation of the youth at local areas. In order to realize such necessities, further larger efforts are expected for national and local governments. (G.K.)

  7. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Z-Area Saltstone Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, D.

    2002-01-01

    Groundwater monitoring has been conducted at the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility since 1987. At that time, groundwater monitoring was not required by the industrial landfill regulations, but a modest monitoring program was required by the operating permit. In 1996 SRS proposed a program based on direct push sampling. This program called for biennial direct push sampling within 25 feet of each waste-containing cell with additional samples being taken in areas where excessive cracking had been observed. The direct push proposal was accepted by The South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The Industrial Solid Waste Landfill Regulations were revised in 1998 and now include requirements for groundwater monitoring. The major elements of those regulations and their application at Z-Area are discussed. These are a point of compliance, groundwater protection standards, the groundwater monitoring system, sampling and analysis, and data evaluation and reporting

  8. Remote sensing appraisal of Lake Chad shrinkage connotes severe impacts on green economics and socio-economics of the catchment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onamuti, Olapeju Y; Okogbue, Emmanuel C; Orimoloye, Israel R

    2017-11-01

    Lake Chad commonly serves as a major hub of fertile economic activities for the border communities and contributes immensely to the national growth of all the countries that form its boundaries. However, incessant and multi-decadal drying via climate change pose greater threats to this transnational water resource, and adverse effects on ecological sustainability and socio-economic status of the catchment area. Therefore, this study assessed the extent of shrinkage of Lake Chad using remote sensing. Landsat imageries of the lake and its surroundings between 1987 and 2005 were retrieved from Global Land Cover Facility website and analysed using Integrated Land and Water Information System version 3.3 (ILWIS 3.3). Supervised classification of area around the lake was performed into various land use/land cover classes, and the shrunk part of its environs was assessed based on the land cover changes. The shrinkage trend within the study period was also analysed. The lake water size reduced from 1339.018 to 130.686 km 2 (4.08-3.39%) in 1987-2005. The supervised classification of the Landsat imageries revealed an increase in portion of the lake covered by bare ground and sandy soil within the reference years (13 490.8-17 503.10 km 2 ) with 4.98% total range of increase. The lake portion intersected with vegetated ground and soil also reduced within the period (11 046.44-10 078.82 km 2 ) with 5.40% (967.62 km 2 ) total decrease. The shrunk part of the lake covered singly with vegetation increased by 2.74% from 1987 to 2005. The shrunk part of the lake reduced to sand and turbid water showed 5.62% total decrease from 1987 to 2005 and a total decrease of 1805.942 km 2 in area. The study disclosed an appalling rate of shrinkage and damaging influences on the hydrologic potential, eco-sustainability and socio-economics of the drainage area as revealed using ILWIS 3.3.

  9. Identification of Vital Areas at Nuclear Facilities. Technical Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    nuclear installations against sabotage are contained in IAEA Nuclear Security Series No. 13, Nuclear Security Recommendations on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities (INFCIRC/225/Revision 5). After the attacks of 11 September 2001, the perception of the potential terrorist threat to nuclear installations changed significantly, and the IAEA initiated an effort to develop a series of guidance publications on the security of nuclear and radioactive material and facilities. This publication presents a structured approach to identifying the areas that contain equipment, systems, and components to be protected against sabotage. It specifically provides detailed guidance with regard to the identification of vital areas, that is, the areas to be protected in high consequence facilities. However, the process described is applicable to the identification of areas that should be protected at any nuclear facility. The method builds upon safety analyses to develop sabotage logic models for sabotage scenarios that could cause unacceptable radiological consequences. The sabotage actions represented in the logic models are linked to the areas from which they can be accomplished. The logic models are then analysed to determine areas that should be protected to prevent these unacceptable radiological consequences.

  10. 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility permit reopener run plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, A.R.

    1995-01-01

    The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) is authorized to discharge treated effluent to the Columbia River by National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit WA-002591-7. The letter accompanying the final permit noted the following: EPA recognizes that the TEDF is a new waste treatment facility for which full scale operation and effluent data has not been generated. The permit being issued by EPA contains discharge limits that are intended to force DOE's treatment technology to the limit of its capability.'' Because of the excessively tight limits the permit contains a reopener clause which may allow limits to be renegotiated after at least one year of operation. The restrictions for reopening the permit are as follows: (1) The permittee has properly operated and maintained the TEDF for a sufficient period to stabilize treatment plant operations, but has nevertheless been unable to achieve the limitation specified in the permit. (2) Effluent data submitted by the permittee supports the effluent limitation modifications(s). (3) The permittee has submitted a formal request for the effluent limitation modification(s) to the Director. The purpose of this document is to guide plant operations for approximately one year to ensure appropriate data is collected for reopener negotiations

  11. Investigation for the ecology in areas nearby a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Suyun; Zhou Caiyun; Zhou Zirong; Chen Wenying; Zhen Zhijiang

    1995-03-01

    Studies were undertaken for the general ecological environment around the evaporating ponds and Gobi desert areas receiving the low and very low level radioactive waste water from a nuclear facility and for the transport of radionuclides in food chains were undertaken. On basis of obtained results the following conclusions were made: (1) In consequence of controlled releases of low level radioactive waste water, a steady specific ecosystem had formed. (2) Concentration of radionuclides in sediments, soils, terrestrial and aquatic wild plants and animals, agricultural products irrigated with very low level radioactive waste water, and tissues of sheep pastured in very low level radioactive water drainage areas, were higher significantly than that of non-contaminated areas. (3) Radioactive waste water discharging might result in potential exposure to members of residents. The critical radionuclide was 137 Cs, and the critical pathway was ingesting polluted waterfowls of evaporating pond. On basis of very conservative assessing the maximum intake of 137 Cs of individual of local resident was 1.0 x 10 4 Bq·a -1 corresponding to 50% of ALI of individual of population. Maximum amount of redistribution of radioactive material as a result of carrying by migrating birds under extreme conditions might be about 10 7 Bq·a -1 . (16 refs., 9 tabs., 1 fig.)

  12. Investigation for the ecology in areas nearby a nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suyun, Qin; Caiyun, Zhou; Zirong, Zhou; Wenying, Chen; Zhijiang, Zhen [Ministry of Nuclear Industry, Taiyuan, SX (China). Inst. of Radiation Protection

    1995-03-01

    Studies were undertaken for the general ecological environment around the evaporating ponds and Gobi desert areas receiving the low and very low level radioactive waste water from a nuclear facility and for the transport of radionuclides in food chains were undertaken. On basis of obtained results the following conclusions were made: (1) In consequence of controlled releases of low level radioactive waste water, a steady specific ecosystem had formed. (2) Concentration of radionuclides in sediments, soils, terrestrial and aquatic wild plants and animals, agricultural products irrigated with very low level radioactive waste water, and tissues of sheep pastured in very low level radioactive water drainage areas, were higher significantly than that of non-contaminated areas. (3) Radioactive waste water discharging might result in potential exposure to members of residents. The critical radionuclide was {sup 137}Cs, and the critical pathway was ingesting polluted waterfowls of evaporating pond. On basis of very conservative assessing the maximum intake of {sup 137}Cs of individual of local resident was 1.0 x 10{sup 4} Bq{center_dot}a{sup -1} corresponding to 50% of ALI of individual of population. Maximum amount of redistribution of radioactive material as a result of carrying by migrating birds under extreme conditions might be about 10{sup 7} Bq{center_dot}a{sup -1}. (16 refs., 9 tabs., 1 fig.).

  13. Fault diagnosis method for area gamma monitors in Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas Reddy, P.; Amudhu Ramesh Kumar, R.; Geo Mathews, M.; Amarendra, G.

    2016-01-01

    Area Gamma Monitors (AGM) using Geiger-Muller (GM) counter are deployed in nuclear facilities for detection of gamma radiation. The AGMs display the dose rate locally and in Data Acquisition System (DAS) at central monitoring station. It also provides local visual and audio alarms in case of dose rate exceeding alarm set point. Regular surveillance checking, testing and calibration of AGMs are mandatory as per safety guidelines. This paper describes quick testing the AGMs without using radioactive source. The four point High Voltages (HV) and Discriminator Bias (DB) voltage characteristics are used to diagnose the state of health of GM counter. The profiles of HV and DB voltage are applied during testing of the AGMs

  14. Mapping for the management of diffuse pollution risks related to agricultural plant protection practices: case of the Etang de l'Or catchment area in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mghirbi, Oussama; Bord, Jean-Paul; Le Grusse, Philippe; Mandart, Elisabeth; Fabre, Jacques

    2018-03-08

    Faced with health, environmental, and socio-economic issues related to the heavy use of pesticides, diffuse phytosanitary pollution becomes a major concern shared by all the field actors. These actors, namely the farmers and territorial managers, have expressed the need to implement decision support tools for the territorial management of diffuse pollution resulting from the plant protection practices and their impacts. To meet these steadily increasing requests, a cartographic analysis approach was implemented based on GIS which allows the spatialization of the diffuse pollution impacts related to plant protection practices on the Etang de l'Or catchment area in the South of France. Risk mapping represents a support-decision tool that enables the different field actors to identify and locate vulnerable areas, so as to determine action plans and agri-environmental measures depending on the context of the natural environment. This work shows that mapping is helpful for managing risks related to the use of pesticides in agriculture by employing indicators of pressure (TFI) and risk on the applicator's health (IRSA) and on the environment (IRTE). These indicators were designed to assess the impact of plant protection practices at various spatial scales (field, farm, etc.). The cartographic analysis of risks related to plant protection practices shows that diffuse pollution is unequally located in the North (known for its abundant garrigues and vineyards) and in the South of the Etang de l'Or catchment area (the Mauguio-Lunel agricultural plain known for its diversified cropping systems). This spatial inequity is essentially related to land use and agricultural production system. Indeed, the agricultural lands cover about 60% of the total catchment area. Consequently, this cartographic analysis helps the territorial actors with the implementation of strategies for managing risks of diffuse pollution related to pesticides use in agriculture, based on environmental and

  15. PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION TESTING FOR THE 200 AREA EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halgren, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    The hydrogen peroxide decomposer columns at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) have been taken out of service due to ongoing problems with particulate fines and poor destruction performance from the granular activated carbon (GAC) used in the columns. An alternative search was initiated and led to bench scale testing and then pilot scale testing. Based on the bench scale testing three manganese dioxide based catalysts were evaluated in the peroxide destruction pilot column installed at the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The ten inch diameter, nine foot tall, clear polyvinyl chloride (PVC) column allowed for the same six foot catalyst bed depth as is in the existing ETF system. The flow rate to the column was controlled to evaluate the performance at the same superficial velocity (gpm/ft 2 ) as the full scale design flow and normal process flow. Each catalyst was evaluated on peroxide destruction performance and particulate fines capacity and carryover. Peroxide destruction was measured by hydrogen peroxide concentration analysis of samples taken before and after the column. The presence of fines in the column headspace and the discharge from carryover was generally assessed by visual observation. All three catalysts met the peroxide destruction criteria by achieving hydrogen peroxide discharge concentrations of less than 0.5 mg/L at the design flow with inlet peroxide concentrations greater than 100 mg/L. The Sud-Chemie T-2525 catalyst was markedly better in the minimization of fines and particle carryover. It is anticipated the T-2525 can be installed as a direct replacement for the GAC in the peroxide decomposer columns. Based on the results of the peroxide method development work the recommendation is to purchase the T-2525 catalyst and initially load one of the ETF decomposer columns for full scale testing.

  16. A plot tree structure to represent surface flow connectivity in rural catchments: definition and application for mining critical source areas and temporal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Cordier, Marie-Odile; Grimaldi, Catherine; Salmon-Monviola, Jordy; Masson, Veronique; Squividant, Herve; Trepos, Ronan

    2013-04-01

    Agricultural landscapes are structured by a mosaic of farmers'fields whose boundaries and land use change over time, and by linear elements such as hedgerows, ditches and roads, which are more or less connected to each other. Such man-made features are now well known to have an effect on catchment hydrology, erosion and water quality. In such agricultural landscapes, it is crucial to have an adequate functional representation of the flow pathways and define relevant indicators of surface flow connectivity over the catchment towards the stream, as a necessary step for improving landscape design and water protection. A new conceptual object oriented approach has been proposed by building the drainage network on the identification of the inlets and outlets for surface water flow on each farmers' field and surrounding landscape elements (Aurousseau et al., 2009 ; Gascuel-Odoux et al., 2011), then on delineating a set of elementary plot outlet trees labelled by attributes which feed the stream. This drainage network is therefore represented as a global plot outlet tree which conceptualizes the connectivity of the surface flow patterns over the catchment. This approach has been applied to different catchment areas, integrated in modelling (Gascuel-Odoux et al., 2009) and decision support tools. It provides a functional display of data for decision support which can highlight the plots of potential risk regarding the surface runoff, areas which are often shortly extended over catchments (suspended sediment application). Integrated in modelling and mining tools, it allows to catch typologies of the most spatial pattern involved in water quality degradation (herbicides transport model) (Trepos et al., 2012) and test their permanency in time regarding the variations of climate conditions and agricultural practices (Salmon-Monviola et al., 2011). This set of works joins skills in hydrology, agronomy and computer sciences. Aurousseau P., Gascuel-Odoux C., Squividant H

  17. Developing a playground as catchment area in effort to maintaining groundwater in Jaten village of Karanganyar district of Central Java, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legowo, Budi; Darsono; Wahyuningsih, Daru

    2016-01-01

    Changes in land use for housing indirectly disturb the hydrology balance of the area. Groundwater conservation efforts can be done by keeping the function the catchment area. One of the housing developer's obligations is providing open spaces (the playground) to play or activity of the residents. Playground in Bumi Graha Indah Housing, Jaten village, Karanganyar district, Central Java, Indonesia has a fundamental issue, that is, in the rainy season the water is difficult to seep due landfill process are not well planned. It causes the playground become in muddy conditions with tall grass, so that reduces the function as a playground and or activity the residents. In the dry season, the soil dry of landfill caused dust scattering and disrupt the activities of people around the playground. Lack of water resources lead watering process for solving the problem of dust during the dry season was considered ineffective. Structuring drainage combined with modified recharge wells can be used to catch water runoff housing. This modification of water catchment areas can make playground dry quickly after rain so the activities of people are not bothered when utilizing the open space provided. Surface runoff water absorbed in open aquifer so that the hydrological balance always be maintained. Adequacy groundwater in the area playground can be used to sprinkler dust and backup needs clean water residents by creating wells and reservoir stocks. (paper)

  18. Meal/smoking areas and personal hygiene facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Specific facilities for eating, drinking, smoking, washing, changing and laundering are necessary components in the overall radiation protection program. The location, design, construction, use, maintenance and monitoring of these facilities are considered in this guideline

  19. Community perception of water quality in a mining-affected area: a case study for the Certej catchment in the Apuseni Mountains in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaru, Diana; Zobrist, Jürg; Balteanu, Dan; Popescu, Claudia; Sima, Mihaela; Amini, Manouchehr; Yang, Hong

    2009-06-01

    Mining-contaminated sites and the affected communities at risk are important issues on the agenda of both researchers and policy makers, particularly in the former communist block countries in Eastern Europe. Integrated analyses and expert based assessments concerning mining affected areas are important in providing solid policy guidelines for environmental and social risk management and mitigation. Based on a survey for 103 households conducted in a former mining site in the Certej Catchment of the Apuseni Mountains, western Romania, this study assesses local communities' perceptions on the quality of water in their living area. Logistic regression was used to examine peoples' perception on the quality of the main river water and of the drinking water based on several predictors relating to social and economic conditions. The results from the perception analysis were then compared with the measurements of heavy metal contamination of the main river and drinking water undertaken in the same study area. The findings indicate that perception and measurement results for the water quality in the Certej Catchment are convergent, suggesting an obvious risk that mining activities pose on the surface water. However, the perception on drinking water quality was little predicted by the regression model and does not seem to be so much related to mining as to other explanatory factors, such as special mineralogy of rock and soils or improper water treatment infrastructure, facts suggested by the measurements of the contaminants. Discussion about the implications of these joint findings for risk mitigation policies completes this article.

  20. Community Perception of Water Quality in a Mining-Affected Area: A Case Study for the Certej Catchment in the Apuseni Mountains in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaru, Diana; Zobrist, Jürg; Balteanu, Dan; Popescu, Claudia; Sima, Mihaela; Amini, Manouchehr; Yang, Hong

    2009-06-01

    Mining-contaminated sites and the affected communities at risk are important issues on the agenda of both researchers and policy makers, particularly in the former communist block countries in Eastern Europe. Integrated analyses and expert based assessments concerning mining affected areas are important in providing solid policy guidelines for environmental and social risk management and mitigation. Based on a survey for 103 households conducted in a former mining site in the Certej Catchment of the Apuseni Mountains, western Romania, this study assesses local communities’ perceptions on the quality of water in their living area. Logistic regression was used to examine peoples’ perception on the quality of the main river water and of the drinking water based on several predictors relating to social and economic conditions. The results from the perception analysis were then compared with the measurements of heavy metal contamination of the main river and drinking water undertaken in the same study area. The findings indicate that perception and measurement results for the water quality in the Certej Catchment are convergent, suggesting an obvious risk that mining activities pose on the surface water. However, the perception on drinking water quality was little predicted by the regression model and does not seem to be so much related to mining as to other explanatory factors, such as special mineralogy of rock and soils or improper water treatment infrastructure, facts suggested by the measurements of the contaminants. Discussion about the implications of these joint findings for risk mitigation policies completes this article.

  1. Using environmental isotopes in the study of the recharge-discharge mechanisms of the Yarmouk catchment area in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Elias

    The recharge sources, the flow mechanisms and discharge areas of the different groundwater bodies underlying the Yarmouk River catchment area in Jordan, have, until now, not been adequately explained, although a wide range of hydrological, hydrogeological, and hydrochemical studies have been done. Along the Jordanian part of the catchment area of the Yarmouk River, groundwater issues from different aquifers with a variety of chemistries and types within the same aquifer and in between the different aquifers. Conventional recharge/discharge mechanisms, water balances and chemical analyses did not adequately explain the chemical variations and the different water types found in the area. Applying environmental isotopic tools combined with their altitude effects due to topographic variations (250-1,300 m a.s.l. within a distance of 20 km), and taking into consideration re-evaporation effects on the isotopic depletion and enrichment of rainwater, has greatly helped in understanding the recharge discharge mechanisms of the different aquifers. Precipitation along the highlands of an average of 600 mm/year is found to be depleted in its isotopic content of δO18 = -7.0 to -7.26 and δD = -32.2 to -33.28, whereas that of the Jordan Valley of 350 mm/year is highly enriched in isotopes with δO18 = -4.06 and δD = -14.5. The groundwater recharged along the highlands is depleted in isotopes (δO18 = -6, δD = -30), groundwater at the intermediate elevations is enriched (δO18 = -5, δD = -23) and that of the Jordan Valley aquifers containing meteoric water is highly enriched (δO18 -3.8, δD = -18). The deep aquifers in the Jordan Valley foothills are depleted in isotopes (δO18 -18 = -6, δD = -30) and resemble those of the highland aquifers. Only through using isotopes as a tool, were the sources of the different groundwater bodies and recharge and discharge mechanisms unambiguously explained. It was found that recharge takes place all over the study area and produces

  2. Wide-area monitoring to detect undeclared nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wogman, N.

    1994-09-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is committed to strengthening and streamlining the overall effectiveness of the IAEA safeguards system. The IAEA is investigating the use of environmental monitoring techniques to strengthen its capability to detect undeclared nuclear activities. The IAEA's Program 93+2 Initiative has been established to develop, test, and assess strengthening techniques and measures. Some of the techniques have been validated and are being implemented during routine safeguards inspections. The effectiveness of other techniques is being studied as a part of extensive field trials conducted at nuclear facilities of various Member States during 1993 and 1994. Proposals based on the results of these investigations and recommendations for new safeguards activities are expected to be presented to the March 1995 Board of Governors Meeting. The techniques in use or under study during IAEA field trials address various types of environmental monitoring applications as outlined under Program 93+2's Task 3, Environmental Monitoring Techniques for Safeguards Applications, namely, the use of short-range monitoring during inspections and visits to investigate sites of possible undeclared activities. With the exception of wide-area water sampling in Iraq, the use of long-range monitoring, in the absence of any indication of undeclared nuclear activities, remains largely unexamined by the IAEA. The efficacy of long-range monitoring depends on the availability of mobile signature isotopes or compounds and on the ability to distinguish the nuclear signatures from background signals and attributing them to a source. The scope of this paper is to provide technical information to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on possible wide-area survey techniques for the detection of undeclared nuclear activities. The primary focus is the detection of effluents from reprocessing activities

  3. Catchment Morphing (CM): A Novel Approach for Runoff Modeling in Ungauged Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Han, Dawei

    2017-12-01

    Runoff prediction in ungauged catchments has been one of the major challenges in the past decades. However, due to the tremendous heterogeneity of the catchments, obstacles exist in deducing model parameters for ungauged catchments from gauged ones. We propose a novel approach to predict ungauged runoff with Catchment Morphing (CM) using a fully distributed model. CM is defined as by changing the catchment characteristics (area and slope here) from the baseline model built with a gauged catchment to model the ungauged ones. As a proof of concept, a case study on seven catchments in the UK has been used to demonstrate the proposed scheme. Comparing the predicted with measured runoff, the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) varies from 0.03 to 0.69 in six catchments. Moreover, NSEs are significantly improved (up to 0.81) when considering the discrepancy of percentage runoff between the target and baseline catchments. A distinct advantage has been experienced by comparing the CM with a traditional method for ungauged catchments. The advantages are: (a) less demand of the similarity between the baseline catchment and the ungauged catchment, (b) less demand of available data, and (c) potentially widely applicable in varied catchments. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed scheme as a potentially powerful alternative to the conventional methods in runoff predictions of ungauged catchments. Clearly, more work beyond this pilot study is needed to explore and develop this new approach further to maturity by the hydrological community.

  4. Readiness Assessment Plan, Hanford 200 areas treated effluent disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmer, F.J.

    1995-01-01

    This Readiness Assessment Plan documents Liquid Effluent Facilities review process used to establish the scope of review, documentation requirements, performance assessment, and plant readiness to begin operation of the Treated Effluent Disposal system in accordance with DOE-RLID-5480.31, Startup and Restart of Facilities Operational Readiness Review and Readiness Assessments

  5. The provosion of wide-area networking facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    The academic community in the United Kingdom is currently engaged in an extensive programme to provide comprehensive networking facilities within and among the 47 universities and numerous research institutions in the British Isles. The programme is described and the possible provision of similar facilities on an international scale discussed. (orig.)

  6. Assessment of soil contamination in area surrounding Tuwaitha nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Taii, A.A.F.; AI-Jobori, S.H.; Al-Maadhidi, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    The wide spread looting of the Tuwaitha Nuclear Facilities as well as damaging of some buildings in 2003, had offered possibilities of contamination of soil environment inside the Site. The objective of the present work was to investigate soil contamination to help in future decontamination programs. A total of 25 soil surface samples (including one reference sample) covered different locations in the Site were collected in March 2011. High purity Ge detector was used for gamma spectrometry of soil samples. Data of total and spectral gamma for U series, Th series, 40 K and 137 Cs are presented. Slight variations were observed in specific activity of the U series 214 Bi or 214 Pb and 226 Ra among measured soil samples where the range was 10.3-12.7 for 214 Bi as compared with 12.2-33.4 Bq/kg for 226 Ra. Values of both 214 Bi and 226 Ra are in the range of reference sample specific activity indicating that no evidence of contamination had occurred in the investigated area. Results of activity concentrations of thorium series 228 Ac or 208 Tl, 212 Pb, and 212 Bi are in the range of reference sample and close to those values given worldwide for natural uranium in soil. The levels of 40 K in soil are within the natural abundance of this isotope in the soil where the range was 207.6-266.1 with 220.3 Bq/kg for the reference sample. On the other hand, 137 Cs specific activities showed great variation among measured samples. The minimum value for 137 Cs was 0.6 and the maximum 7.6 compared with 0.8 Bq/kg for the control soil sample. The non-uniformity of radioactivity concentration of 137 Cs suggest the presence of contamination in some locations although this level is considered as an acceptable level and no hazardous effect will be generated.

  7. Addendum to the Composite Analysis for the E-Area Vaults and Saltstone Disposal Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Revision 1 of the Composite Analysis (CA) Addendum has been prepared to respond to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Low-Level Waste Disposal Facilities Federal Review Group review of the CA. This addendum to the composite analysis responds to the conditions of approval. The composite analysis was performed on the two active SRS low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of the Savannah River Site and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, the chemical separation facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities, as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material

  8. Management and Area-wide Evaluation of Water Conservation Zones in Agricultural Catchments for Biomass Production, Water Quality and Food Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    Global land and water resources are under threat from both the agricultural and urban development to meet increased demand for food and from the resulting degradation of the environment. Poor crop yields due to water stress is one of the main reasons for the prevailing hunger and rural poverty in parts of the world. The Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s particularly in Latin America and Asia resulted in increased agricultural production and depended partly on water management. In the future, most food will still need to come from rain-fed agriculture. Water conservation zones in agricultural catchments, particularly in rainfed areas, play an important role in the capture and storage of water and nutrients from farmlands and wider catchments, and help improve crop production in times of need in these areas. Water conservation zones are considered to be an important part of water resource management strategies that have been developed to prevent reservoir siltation, reduce water quality degradation, mitigate flooding, enhance groundwater recharge and provide water for farming. In addition to making crop production possible in dry areas, water conservation zones minimize soil erosion, improve soil moisture status through capillary rise and enhance soil fertility and quality. These water conservation zones include natural and constructed wetlands (including riparian wetlands), farm ponds and riparian buffer zones. The management of water conservation zones has been a challenge due to the poor understanding of the relationship between upstream land use and the functions of these zones and their internal dynamics. Knowledge of sources and sinks of water and redefining water and nutrient budgets for water conservation zones are important for optimizing the capture, storage and use of water and nutrients in agricultural landscapes. The overall objective of this coordinated research project (CRP) was to assess and enhance ecosystem services provided by wetlands, ponds

  9. Selected examples of needs for long term pilot areas in Mediterranean catchments: a mountain traditional agricultural system and a large and regulated hydrographic basin in Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Polo, María; Herrero, Javier; Millares, Agustín; José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Aguilar, Cristina; Jurado, Alicia; Contreras, Eva; Gómez-Beas, Raquel; Carpintero, Miriam; Gulliver, Zacarías

    2015-04-01

    Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) aims at planning water, land and other natural resources for an equitable and sustainable management, also capable of preserving or restoring freshwater ecosystems. Long term series of significant variables at different scales and a sound knowledge of the river basin processes are needed to establish the current state and past&future evolution of the hydrological system, soil use and vegetation distribution, and their social impacts and feedbacks. This is particularly crucial if future scenario analyses are to be performed to assess decision-making processes and adaptive plans. This work highlights the need for an adequate design and development of process-oriented monitoring systems at the basin scale in a decision-making framework. First, the hydrologic monitoring network of the Guadalfeo River Basin, in the southern face of Sierra Nevada Range (Spain), is shown, in a pilot catchment of 1300 km2 in which snow processes in Mediterranean conditions have been studied over the last ten years with a holistic approach. The network development and the main features of the dataset are described together with their use for different scientific and environmental applications; their benefits for assessing social and economic impact in the rural environment are shown from a study case in which the sustainability of ancient channels fed by snowmelt, in use since the XIIIth century for traditional irrigated crops in the mountainous area, was assessed in a future scenarios analyses. Secondly, the standard flow and water quality monitoring networks in the Guadalquivir River Basin, a large (57400 km2) and highly regulated agricultural catchment in southern Spain, are shown, and their strengths and weaknessess for an IRBM framework are analysed. Sediments and selected pollutants are used to trace soil erosion and agricultural/urban exports throughout the catchment, and the final loads to the river estuary in the Atlantic Ocean are assessed

  10. REXPO: A catchment model designed to understand and simulate the loss dynamics of plant protection products and biocides from agricultural and urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmer, I. K.; Bader, H.-P.; Scheidegger, R.; Stamm, C.

    2016-02-01

    During rain events, biocides and plant protection products are transported from agricultural fields but also from urban sources to surface waters. Originally designed to be biologically active, these compounds may harm organisms in aquatic ecosystems. Although several models allow either urban or agricultural storm events to be predicted, only few combine these two sources, and none of them include biocide losses from building envelopes. This study therefore aims to develop a model designed to predict water and substance flows from urban and agricultural sources to surface waters. We developed a model based on physical principles for water percolation and substance flow including micro- (also called matrix-) and macropore-flows for the agricultural areas together with a model representing sources, sewer systems and a wastewater treatment plant for urban areas. In a second step, the combined model was applied to a catchment where an extensive field study had been conducted. The modelled and measured discharge and compound results corresponded reasonably well in terms of quantity and dynamics. The total cumulative discharge was only slightly lower than the total measured discharge (factor 0.94). The total modelled losses of the agriculturally used herbicide atrazine were slightly lower (∼25%) than the measured losses when the soil pore water distribution coefficient (describing the partition between soil particles and pore water) (Kd) was kept constant and slightly higher if it was increased with time. The modelled urban losses of diuron from facades were within a factor of three with respect to the measured values. The results highlighted the change in importance of the flow components during a rain event from urban sources during the most intensive rain period towards agricultural ones over a prolonged time period. Applications to two other catchments, one neighbouring and one on another continent showed that the model can be applied using site specific data for

  11. Physical-chemical modeling of elements' behavior in mixing sea and fresh waters of minor rivers in the White Sea catchment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimova, Victoria V; Mazukhina, Svetlana I; Cherepanova, Tatiana A; Gorbacheva, Tamara T

    2017-07-29

    The physical-chemical stage of marginal filters in minor rivers of the White Sea catchment area by the example of the Umba River, flowing to Kandalaksha Gulf, has been explored. Application of the method of physical-chemical modeling on the basis of field data allowed establishing migration forms of a number of elements in the "river-sea" system and deposition of solid phases when mixing waters. The mixing of river and sea water is accompanied by the sedimentation of predominantly goethite, hydromuscovite, and hydroxylapatite. Sediments in mixing river and sea waters were found to be mainly composed by goethite, hydromuscovite, and hydroxylapatite. The research has added to the knowledge of the role of the abiotic part in the marginal filters of small rivers in the Arctic.

  12. Case Studies of Child Play Areas and Child Support Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    facilities associated with other attractions like shopping centers. In fact, a franchise of children’s playgrounds for shopping centers is being...parade ground is in the center of town, surrounded on the north side by a library, cafe , garden shop, PX, bank, commissary, clothing store, thrift shop

  13. A population-based audit of ethnicity and breast cancer risk in one general practice catchment area in North London, UK: implications for practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferris Michelle

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To conduct a pilot population-based study within a general practice catchment area to determine whether the incidence of breast cancer was increased in the Ashkenazi population. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting A single general practice catchment area in North London. Participants 1947 women over the age of 16 who responded to a questionnaire about ethnicity and breast cancer. Main outcome measures Incidence of breast cancer, ethnicity. Results This study showed a 1.5-fold (95% CI 0.93–2.39 increase in breast cancer risk in the Ashkenazim compared with the non-Ashkenazi white population. The increased incidence was for both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer (expected incidence pre:post is 1:4 whereas in the Ashkenazim it was 1:1; 51 and 52% of cases respectively. This increase was not shown in the Sephardim. Asians had a reduction in incidence (OR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.10–1.89. Results were adjusted for other risk factors for breast cancer. Conclusion This study showed a 1.5-fold increase in breast cancer rates in Ashkenazim compared with the non-Jewish white population when adjusted for age (i.e. corrections were made to allow comparison of age groups and this is not observed in the Sephardic population. The proportion of premenopausal breast cancer was just over double that of the general population. This is the first general practice population-based study in the UK to address this issue and has implications for general practitioners who care for patients from the Ashkenazi community.

  14. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan TA-60 Roads and Grounds Facility and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) is applicable to operations at the Technical Area -60 (TA-60) Roads and Grounds Facility and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area off Eniwetok Drive, in Los Alamos County, New Mexico.

  15. Distribution of physical activity facilities in Scotland by small area measures of deprivation and urbanicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogilvie David

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of physical activity facilities by area-level deprivation in Scotland, adjusting for differences in urbanicity, and exploring differences between and within the four largest Scottish cities. Methods We obtained a list of all recreational physical activity facilities in Scotland. These were mapped and assigned to datazones. Poisson and negative binomial regression models were used to investigate associations between the number of physical activity facilities relative to population size and quintile of area-level deprivation. Results The results showed that prior to adjustment for urbanicity, the density of all facilities lessened with increasing deprivation from quintiles 2 to 5. After adjustment for urbanicity and local authority, the effect of deprivation remained significant but the pattern altered, with datazones in quintile 3 having the highest estimated mean density of facilities. Within-city associations were identified between the number of physical activity facilities and area-level deprivation in Aberdeen and Dundee, but not in Edinburgh or Glasgow. Conclusions In conclusion, area-level deprivation appears to have a significant association with the density of physical activity facilities and although overall no clear pattern was observed, affluent areas had fewer publicly owned facilities than more deprived areas but a greater number of privately owned facilities.

  16. Mapping flood and flooding potential indices: a methodological approach to identifying areas susceptible to flood and flooding risk. Case study: the Prahova catchment (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, Liliana; Costache, Romulus; Prăvălie, Remus; Ioana-Toroimac, Gabriela

    2017-04-01

    Given that floods continue to cause yearly significant worldwide human and material damages, flood risk mitigation is a key issue and a permanent challenge in developing policies and strategies at various spatial scales. Therefore, a basic phase is elaborating hazard and flood risk maps, documents which are an essential support for flood risk management. The aim of this paper is to develop an approach that allows for the identification of flash-flood and flood-prone susceptible areas based on computing and mapping of two indices: FFPI (Flash-Flood Potential Index) and FPI (Flooding Potential Index). These indices are obtained by integrating in a GIS environment several geographical variables which control runoff (in the case of the FFPI) and favour flooding (in the case of the FPI). The methodology was applied in the upper (mountainous) and middle (hilly) catchment of the Prahova River, a densely populated and socioeconomically well-developed area which has been affected repeatedly by water-related hazards over the past decades. The resulting maps showing the spatialization of the FFPI and FPI allow for the identification of areas with high susceptibility to flashfloods and flooding. This approach can provide useful mapped information, especially for areas (generally large) where there are no flood/hazard risk maps. Moreover, the FFPI and FPI maps can constitute a preliminary step for flood risk and vulnerability assessment.

  17. Usage of the cyclotron facility local area network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzmann, H.; Peters, J.; Thow, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Local area network of controllers at the Karlsruhe cyclotyron is shown. Experience after two years of usage is described. The system is applied controlling, data acquisition, management, databases usage

  18. Hydrological impacts of urbanization at the catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudin, Ludovic; Salavati, Bahar; Furusho-Percot, Carina; Ribstein, Pierre; Saadi, Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    The impacts of urbanization on floods, droughts and the overall river regime have been largely investigated in the past few decades, but the quantification and the prediction of such impacts still remain a challenge in hydrology. We gathered a sample of 142 catchments that have a documented increase in urban areas over the hydrometeorological record period in the United States. The changes in river flow regimes due to urban spread were differentiated from climate variability using the GR4J conceptual hydrological model. High, low and mean flows were impacted at a threshold of a 10% total impervious area. Moreover, the historical evolution of urban landscape spatial patterns was used to further detail the urbanization process in terms of extent and fragmentation of urban areas throughout the catchment and to help interpret the divergent impacts observed in streamflow behaviors. Regression analysis pointed out the importance of major wastewater treatment facilities that might overpass the effects of imperviousness, and therefore further research should either take them explicitly into account or select a wastewater facility-free catchment sample to clearly evaluate the impacts of urban landscape on low flows.

  19. Safety analysis--200 Area Savannah River Site: Separations Area operations Building 211-H Outside Facilities. Supplement 11, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The H-Area Outside Facilities are located in the 200-H Separations Area and are comprised of a number of processes, utilities, and services that support the separations function. Included are enriched uranium loadout, bulk chemical storage, water handling, acid recovery, general purpose evaporation, and segregated solvent facilities. In addition, services for water, electricity, and steam are provided. This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents an analysis of the H-Area Outside Facilities and is one of a series of documents for the Separations Area as specified in the SR Implementation Plan for DOE order 5481.1A. The primary purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate that the facility can be operated without undue risk to onsite or offsite populations, to the environment, and to operating personnel. In this report, risks are defined as the expected frequencies of accidents, multiplied by the resulting radiological consequences in person-rem. Following the summary description of facility and operations is the site evaluation including the unique features of the H-Area Outside Facilities. The facility and process design are described in Chapter 3.0 and a description of operations and their impact is given in Chapter 4.0. The accident analysis in Chapter 5.0 is followed by a list of safety related structures and systems (Chapter 6.0) and a description of the Quality Assurance program (Chapter 7.0). The accident analysis in this report focuses on estimating the risk from accidents as a result of operation of the facilities. The operations were evaluated on the basis of three considerations: potential radiological hazards, potential chemical toxicity hazards, and potential conditions uniquely different from normal industrial practice.

  20. Safety analysis--200 Area Savannah River Site: Separations Area operations Building 211-H Outside Facilities. Supplement 11, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The H-Area Outside Facilities are located in the 200-H Separations Area and are comprised of a number of processes, utilities, and services that support the separations function. Included are enriched uranium loadout, bulk chemical storage, water handling, acid recovery, general purpose evaporation, and segregated solvent facilities. In addition, services for water, electricity, and steam are provided. This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents an analysis of the H-Area Outside Facilities and is one of a series of documents for the Separations Area as specified in the SR Implementation Plan for DOE order 5481.1A. The primary purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate that the facility can be operated without undue risk to onsite or offsite populations, to the environment, and to operating personnel. In this report, risks are defined as the expected frequencies of accidents, multiplied by the resulting radiological consequences in person-rem. Following the summary description of facility and operations is the site evaluation including the unique features of the H-Area Outside Facilities. The facility and process design are described in Chapter 3.0 and a description of operations and their impact is given in Chapter 4.0. The accident analysis in Chapter 5.0 is followed by a list of safety related structures and systems (Chapter 6.0) and a description of the Quality Assurance program (Chapter 7.0). The accident analysis in this report focuses on estimating the risk from accidents as a result of operation of the facilities. The operations were evaluated on the basis of three considerations: potential radiological hazards, potential chemical toxicity hazards, and potential conditions uniquely different from normal industrial practice

  1. Influence of psychiatric morbidity and sociodemographic determinants on use of service in a catchment area in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Laura Helena; Viana, Maria Carmen; Tófoli, Luis Fernando Farah; Wang, Yuan-Pang

    2008-01-01

    Recent population-based studies in Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) countries brought evidence of the growing burden of mental illness in this region. The objective of this study is to examine determinants of health service utilization by individuals with psychiatric disorders in a defined area in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Data were derived from São Paulo Catchment Area Study (SP-ECA), a cross-sectional household prevalence survey, based on a representative adult sample (N=1,464) living in two defined boroughs. The psychiatric diagnosis was assessed through the CIDI 1.1 interview, yielding ICD-10 diagnoses. The past-month use of health services--for general medical (GM) care and mental health (MH) care sectors--was investigated in their relationship with sociodemographic features, insurance coverage, GM conditions, and psychiatric morbidity. Nearly one-third (32.2%) of the total sample used health services in the last month: 29.0% attended GM care and 7.8% used MH care. Logistic regression models showed that being female, older than 60 years, having private insurance coverage, and presence of psychiatric morbidity increased the level GM care seeking in the total sample. For those with 12-month psychiatric disorders, the determinants for GM sector use were female gender, age 45-59 years old, and private insurance coverage, whereas separated, divorced, or widowed women had the highest odds (OR 9.9; 95% CI: 2.7-36.5) for using MH service. Low-income people were less likely to seek MH services. The major contribution of this article is to underscore the impact of MH on health care systems, in a LAC country where service use information is scarce. The main finding is that inequalities in the access to MH care occurred, with low-income people having less likelihood of receiving treatment for their mental disorder. Access to health service in this catchment area reflected the great degree of deregulation and lack of integration. Additional efforts should

  2. Measuring preferences for parking facilities in old residential areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgers, A.W.J.; Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Toll, L.M.M.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2010-01-01

    One of the problems in restructuring old residential areas in European cities is parking. The narrow streets and lack of open spaces challenge city planners to find solutions to this problem. Insight in preferences regarding possible parking solutions may facilitate the development of restructure

  3. Integrated modeling of agricultural scenarios (IMAS) to support pesticide action plans: the case of the Coulonge drinking water catchment area (SW France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernier, Françoise; Leccia-Phelpin, Odile; Lescot, Jean-Marie; Minette, Sébastien; Miralles, André; Barberis, Delphine; Scordia, Charlotte; Kuentz-Simonet, Vanessa; Tonneau, Jean-Philippe

    2017-03-01

    Non-point source pollution is a cause of major concern within the European Union. This is reflected in increasing public and political focus on a more sustainable use of pesticides, as well as a reduction in diffuse pollution. Climate change will likely to lead to an even more intensive use of pesticides in the future, affecting agriculture in many ways. At the same time, the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and associated EU policies called for a "good" ecological and chemical status to be achieved for water bodies by the end of 2015, currently delayed to 2021-2027 due to a lack of efficiency in policies and timescale of resilience for hydrosystems, especially groundwater systems. Water managers need appropriate and user-friendly tools to design agro-environmental policies. These tools should help them to evaluate the potential impacts of mitigation measures on water resources, more clearly define protected areas, and more efficiently distribute financial incentives to farmers who agree to implement alternative practices. At present, a number of reports point out that water managers do not use appropriate information from monitoring or models to make decisions and set environmental action plans. In this paper, we propose an integrated and collaborative approach to analyzing changes in land use, farming systems, and practices and to assess their effects on agricultural pressure and pesticide transfers to waters. The integrated modeling of agricultural scenario (IMAS) framework draws on a range of data and expert knowledge available within areas where a pesticide action plan can be defined to restore the water quality, French "Grenelle law" catchment areas, French Water Development and Management Plan areas, etc. A so-called "reference scenario" represents the actual soil occupation and pesticide-spraying practices used in both conventional and organic farming. A number of alternative scenarios are then defined in cooperation with stakeholders, including socio

  4. A novel approach for runoff modelling in ungauged catchments by Catchment Morphing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Han, D.

    2017-12-01

    Runoff prediction in ungauged catchments has been one of the major challenges in the past decades. However, due to the tremendous heterogeneity of hydrological catchments, obstacles exist in deducing model parameters for ungauged catchments from gauged ones. We propose a novel approach to predict ungauged runoff with Catchment Morphing (CM) using a fully distributed model. CM is defined as by changing the catchment characteristics (area and slope here) from the baseline model built with a gauged catchment to model the ungauged ones. The advantages of CM are: (a) less demand of the similarity between the baseline catchment and the ungauged catchment, (b) less demand of available data, and (c) potentially applicable in varied catchments. A case study on seven catchments in the UK has been used to demonstrate the proposed scheme. To comprehensively examine the CM approach, distributed rainfall inputs are utilised in the model, and fractal landscapes are used to morph the land surface from the baseline model to the target model. The preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of the approach, which is promising in runoff simulation for ungauged catchments. Clearly, more work beyond this pilot study is needed to explore and develop this new approach further to maturity by the hydrological community.

  5. 200 area liquid effluent facility quality assurance program plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, N.J.

    1995-01-01

    Direct revision of Supporting Document WHC-SD-LEF-QAPP-001, Rev. 0. 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities Quality Assurance Program Plan. Incorporates changes to references in tables. Revises test to incorporate WHC-SD-LEF-CSCM-001, Computer Software Configuration Management Plan for 200 East/West Liquid Effluent Facilities

  6. The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law for the redevelopment of the surrounding areas of power generating facilities. Persons who install power generating facilities under the law include general electric power enterprises and wholesale electric power enterprises defined under the electric enterprises act and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The scale of these facilities defined under the law is 350,000 kilo-watts output for atomic and thermal power generating facilities, 10,000 kilo-watts output for the facilities utilizing geothermal energy, 100,000 kilo-watts output for facilities whose main fuel is coal, and 1,000 kilo-watts output for hydraulic power generating facilities, etc. The facilities closely related to atomic power generation include the reprocessing and examination facilities of fuel materials spent in atomic power reactors, the reactors installed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute for studying on the safety of atomic power reactors, the experimental fast reactors and the uranium enrichment facilities established by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The public facilities in this rule are those for communication, sport and recreation, environment hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting, etc. Governors of prefectures who intend to get approval under the law shall file redevelopment plans to the competent minister through the Minister of the International Trade and Industry. (Okada, K.)

  7. The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The enforcement order provides for grants concerning the arrangement of various public facilities in the areas surrounding a power generating facility; the public facilities in the arrangement for which the grants are given include communication, recreation activities, environmental sanitation, culture, medicine, etc. The prefectural governor concerned submits his plan for the arrangement to the Government, which then decides on the grants. Then, the grants are given to local governments concerned. The sums of the grants are determined on the basis of the output, construction cost of the nuclear power facility. (Mori, K.)

  8. A local area network and information management system for a submarine overhaul facility

    OpenAIRE

    Bushmire, Jeffrey D

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary design of a local area network for a submarine overhaul facility is developed using System Engineering concepts. SOFLAN, the Submarine Overhaul Facility Local Area Network, is necessary to provide more timely and accurate information to submarine overhaul managers in order to decrease the overhaul time period and become more competitive. The network is a microcomputer based system following the Ethernet and IEEE 802.3 standards with a server .. client architecture. SOFLAN serves...

  9. Opportunities for Skin Cancer Prevention Education among Individuals Attending a Community Skin Cancer Screening in a High-Risk Catchment Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Bridget Grahmann; Gren, Lisa H; Simonsen, Sara E; Harding, Garrett; Grossman, Douglas; Wu, Yelena P

    2018-04-01

    Despite the highly preventable nature of skin cancer, it remains the most commonly diagnosed form of cancer in the United States. Recommendations for a complete skin cancer prevention regimen include engaging in photoprotection (e.g., sunscreen use), avoiding skin cancer risk behaviors (e.g., tanning), and receiving total body skin exams from a health care provider. The current study examined reported engagement in these behaviors among participants attending a community skin cancer screening (N = 319) in a high-risk catchment area to assess the need for increased health education on skin cancer prevention. Participants' responses indicate a history of suboptimal avoidance of skin cancer risk behaviors. Over half of participants (52%) reported four or more blistering sunburns before age 20, and 46% reported indoor tanning at least one during their lifetime. There is a need among this population for education regarding a complete skin cancer prevention regimen, which could improve adherence to photoprotection and avoidance of skin cancer risk behaviors, thereby reducing morbidity and mortality due to skin cancer.

  10. A Future Estimation of the Surface Runoff in the Greek Region: A Case Study of one of the Main Catchments Areas (Aravissos - Central Macedonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulou, C.; Tolika, K.; Vafiadis, M.

    2010-09-01

    According to the IPCC latest report (IPCC, 2007) many semi-arid and arid areas, as the Mediterranean basin, are particularly exposed to the impacts of climate change and may suffer a decrease of water resources in the future. By the middle of the 21st century it is estimated that the annual average river runoff and water availability will decrease over these dry regions at mid-latitudes. So, it is of great importance the study of the future changes in the hydrological cycle, due to the increasing freshwater demands. The main scope of the present study is to estimate the future changes of the surface runoff in the Aravissos area (central Macedonia - Greece) due to the enhanced greenhouse effect until the end of the 21st century. The selection of Aravissos was based to the fact that the water needs of the second largest in population city in Greece (Thessaloniki) are covered mainly by the selected catchments area. Daily precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and sunlight duration data derived from updated regional climate models, are used for selected grid points covering the domain of study. The main two climatological parameters (precipitation -temperature) are on a first step evaluated in comparison to re-analysis data (E-Obs -Ensembles project) for the same grid points. On a second step, utilizing several different evapotranspiration methods we calculated the surface runoff for two different time periods: the first in the middle and the second at the end of the 21st century. The first results of the study showed that the surface runoff depends on the methodology used for the calculation of the evapotranspiration but also from the regional model. Acknowledgements: This study has been supported by the CC-WaterS project (Contract number SEE/A/022/2.1/X)

  11. The prevalence of ALK rearrangement in pulmonary adenocarcinomas in an unselected Caucasian population from a defined catchment area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Birgit G; Clementsen, Paul; Larsen, Klaus R

    2017-01-01

    . METHODS AND RESULTS: All patients diagnosed in the population of the greater Copenhagen area were included, irrespective of gender, age, smoking habits, stage or type of available diagnostic material. Tumours were stained with immunohistochemistry (clone 5A4). Immunohistochemistry-positive tumours were......AIMS: To assess the prevalence of EML4-ALK rearrangement gene measured by immunohistochemistry in an unselected population-based consecutive cohort of patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung (ACL), and the correlation with smoking history, thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1), gender and age...

  12. Land suitability assessment in the catchment area of four Southwestern Atlantic coastal lagoons: multicriteria and optimization modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Gallego, Lorena; Achkar, Marcel; Conde, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    In the present study, a land suitability assessment was conducted in the basin of four Uruguayan coastal lagoons (Southwestern Atlantic) to analyze the productive development while minimizing eutrophication, biodiversity loss and conflicts among different land uses. Suitable land for agriculture, forest, livestock ranching, tourism and conservation sectors were initially established based on a multi-attribute model developed using a geographic information system. Experts were consulted to determine the requirements for each land use sector and the incompatibilities among land use types. The current and potential conflicts among incompatible land use sectors were analyzed by overlapping land suitability maps. We subsequently applied a multi-objective model where land (pixels) with similar suitability was clustered into "land suitability groups", using a two-phase cluster analysis and the Akaike Information Criterion. Finally, a linear programming optimization procedure was applied to allocate land use sectors into land suitable groups, maximizing total suitability and minimizing interference among sectors. Results indicated that current land use overlapped by 4.7 % with suitable land of other incompatible sectors. However, the suitable land of incompatible sectors overlapped in 20.3 % of the study area, indicating a high potential for the occurrence of future conflict. The highest competition was between agriculture and conservation, followed by forest and agriculture. We explored scenarios where livestock ranching and tourism intensified, and found that interference with conservation and agriculture notably increased. This methodology allowed us to analyze current and potential land use conflicts and to contribute to the strategic planning of the study area.

  13. Revealed access to haemodialysis facilities in northeastern Iran: Factors that matter in rural and urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Behzad; Bagheri, Nasser; Tara, Ahmad; Hoseini, Benyamin; Tabesh, Hamed; Tara, Mahmood

    2017-11-07

    Poor access to haemodialysis facilities is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. This study investigated factors affecting revealed access to the haemodialysis facilities considering patients living in rural and urban areas without any haemodialysis facility (Group A) and those living urban areas with haemodialysis facilities (Group B). This study is based on selfreported Actual Access Time (AAT) to referred haemodialysis facilities and other information regarding travel to haemodialysis facilities from patients. All significant variables on univariate analysis were entered into a univariate general linear model in order to identify factors associated with AAT. Both spatial (driving time and distance) and non-spatial factors (sex, income level, caregivers, transportation mode, education level, ethnicity and personal vehicle ownership) influenced the revealed access identified in Group A. The non-spatial factors for Group B patients were the same as for Group A, but no spatial factor was identified in Group B. It was found that accessibility is strongly underestimated when driving time is chosen as accessibility measure to haemodialysis facilities. Analysis of revealed access determinants provides policymakers with an appropriate decision base for making appropriate decisions and finding solutions to decrease the access time for patients under haemodialysis therapy. Driving time alone is not a good proxy for measuring access to haemodialysis facilities as there are many other potential obstacles, such as women's special travel problems, poor other transportation possibilities, ethnicity disparities, low education levels, low caregiver status and low-income.

  14. PEMODELAN DAERAH TANGKAPAN AIR WADUK KELILING DENGAN MODEL SWAT (Keliling Reservoir Catchment Area Modeling Using SWAT Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuku Ferijal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to model watershed area of Keliling Reservoir using SWAT model. The reservoir is located in Aceh Besar District, Province of Aceh. The model was setup using 90m x 90m digital elevation model, land use data extracted from remote sensing data and soil characteristic obtained from laboratory analysis on soil samples. Model was calibrated using observed daily reservoir volume and the model performance was analyzed using RMSE-observations standard deviation ratio (RSR, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE and percent bias (PBIAS. The model delineated the study area into 3,448 Ha having 13 subwatersheds and 76 land units (HRUs. The watershed is mostly covered by forest (53% and grassland (31%. The analysis revealed the 10 most sensitive parameters i.e. GW_DELAY, CN2, REVAPMN, ALPHA_BF, SOL_AWC, GW_REVAP, GWQMN, CH_K2 and ESCO. Model performances were categorized into very good for monthly reservoir volume with ENS 0.95, RSR 0.23, and PBIAS 2.97. The model performance decreased when it used to analyze daily reservoir inflow with ENS 0.55, RSR 0.67, and PBIAS 3.46. Keywords: Keliling Reservoir, SWAT, Watershed   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk untuk memodelkan daerah tangkapan air Waduk Keliling dengan menggunakan Model SWAT. Waduk Keliling terletak di Kabupaten Aceh Besar, Propinsi Aceh. Dalam penelitian ini Model SWAT dikembangkan berdasarkan data digital elevasi model resolusi 90 m x90 m, tata guna lahan yang diperoleh dari intepretasi citra satelit dan data soil dari hasil analisa sampel tanah yang diperoleh di daerah penelitian. Model dikalibrasi dengan data volume waduk dan kinerja model dianalisa menggunakan parameter rasio akar rata-rata kuadrat error dan standard deviasi observasi (RSR, efesiensi Nash-Sutcliffe (NSE dan persentase bias (PBIAS. Hasil deleniasi untuk daerah penelitian menghasilkan suatu DAS dengan luas 3,448 Ha dan memiliki 13 Sub DAS yang dikelompokkan menjadi 76 unit lahan. Sebagian besar wilayah study

  15. The utilization characteristics of social facilities in the border area of Semarang city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setioko, Bambang; Olivia, Deasy; Pandelaki, Edward E.; Murtini, Titien Woro

    2017-06-01

    The rapid growth of settlement in border areas is often considered as a problem of big cities in Indonesia, where people from rural areas prefer to move out and settle in the border areas of big cities due to the provision of better social facilities. Border areas generally do not receive adequate attention and are often overlooked by the local government. It is a common phenomenon in Indonesian cities, including in Semarang City. Increased number of settlements in the border areas in Semarang City is in linear with spontaneous urbanization processes which indicate the heterogeneity emerging of settlement areas. In the early stages of Semarang City spatial planning, the need for social facilities in border areas is included based on the regular standard which is commonly applied to the urban core. In a very short period, the numbers and types of existing social facilities are insufficient to fulfill the needs of the community. Nowadays, in the context of rapid urbanization, the growth of social facilities in border areas is very high. The intense growth of settlements in border areas is very high due to the low price of land in Demak Regency in compared to those of other areas in Semarang City. However, only a few developers involved social facilities as a part of housing estate construction. Consequently, most of the occupants utilize a limited number of social facilities provided by the municipal government, which are actually intended to serve the citizens of Semarang City. This research was conducted at Sendang Mulyo Village which is located in the border of Semarang municipal administrative area and included in Demak Regency. This paper discusses the utilization characteristics of social facilities in the border area of Semarang City, with the aim to get the trigger factors. The method analysis consisted of a statistical test and descriptive analysis. The utilization characteristics were formulated based on the relationship between neighborhood and human

  16. The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Order is based on the prescriptions of the Law for the Arrangement of Surrounding Areas of Power Generating Facilities. Those establishing power generating facilities are general and wholesale electric enterprisers provided for by the Electricity Enterprises Act as well as the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The generating capacity is specified as 350,000 kilowatts for nuclear and steam power generating facilities, 150,000 kilowatts for those set up by the Corporation, 100,000 kilowatts for those using coal as main fuel, and 10,000 kilowatts for water power generation and geothermal plants. The facilities closely connected to nuclear power generation include the reprocessing facilities and test and examination facilities for nuclear fuel materials used for power-generating nuclear reactors, reactors used for the research on the safety of power generating reactors, and experimental reactors for fast breeder reactors. The public facilities consist of communication facilities, and the facilities for sports and recreations, environmental hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting, etc. Prefectural governors ought to file the arrangement plans to the competent minister through the Minister of International Trade and Industry to get the permission prescribed by the Law. The subsidy is not granted to the expenses of the enterprises undertaken by the nation or those enterprises, a part of the expenses of which is borne or subsidized by the nation. (Okada, K.)

  17. Biodegradation of free cyanide by bacterial species isolated from cyanide-contaminated artisanal gold mining catchment area in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razanamahandry, Lovasoa Christine; Andrianisa, Harinaivo Anderson; Karoui, Hela; Kouakou, Koffi Marcelin; Yacouba, Hamma

    2016-08-01

    Soil and water samples were collected from a watershed in Burkina Faso where illegal artisanal gold extraction using cyanidation occurs. The samples were used to evaluate cyanide contamination and the presence of cyanide degrading bacteria (CDB). Free cyanide (F-CN) was detected in all samples, with concentrations varying from 0.023 to 0.9 mg kg(-1), and 0.7-23 μg L(-1) in the soil and water samples, respectively. Potential CDB also were present in the samples. To test the effective F-CN degradation capacity of the isolated CDB species, the species were cultivated in growth media containing 40, 60 or 80 mg F-CN L(-1), with or without nutrients, at pH 9.5 and at room temperature. More than 95% of F-CN was degraded within 25 h, and F-CN degradation was associated with bacterial growth and ammonium production. However, initial concentrations of F-CN higher than 100 mg L(-1) inhibited bacterial growth and cyanide degradation. Abiotic tests showed that less than 3% of F-CN was removed by volatilization. Thus, the degradation of F-CN occurred predominately by biological mechanisms, and such mechanisms are recommended for remediation of contaminated soil and water. The bacteria consortium used in the experiment described above exist in a Sahelian climate, which is characterized by a long hot and dry season. Because the bacteria are already adapted to the local climate conditions and show the potential for cyanide biodegradation, further applicability to other contaminated areas in West Africa, where illegal gold cyanidation is widespread, should be explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Interannual variability of a precipitation gradient along the semi-arid catchment areas for the metropolitan region of Lima- Peru in relation to atmospheric circulation at the mesoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Marco; Seidel, Jochen; Trachte, Katja

    2013-04-01

    The main moisture source for precipitation on the western slopes of the Central Andes is located east of the mountain range known as the Amazon basin. However, the Andean mountains, which reach up to 6000 m a.s.l., strongly influence climatic conditions along the Pacific coastline of South America as a climatic barrier for the low-level tropospheric flow and associated moisture transport from the Amazon basin. Additional, large scale subsidence caused by the South Pacific High inhabits convective rainfall at the Pacific coast where large metropolitan areas such as the Peruvian capital Lima are located. Two contrasts in precipitation can be found while crossing the Andean mountains from West to East. On the Pacific coast, at the location of the metropolitan area of Lima, no more than 10 mm mean annual rainfall occurs. In contrast, up to 1000 mm mean annual rainfall occur only 100 km east of Lima within the upper region (4000 m .a.s.l.) of the Western Cordillera. The transition takes place along the western slopes of the Western Cordillera and is characterised by a strong precipitation gradient. Here, catchment areas are located that provide most of the water resources needed to sustain an urban area of approximately 10 million people. This study investigates the interannual variability of the precipitation gradient between 1998 and 2012. The analysis is based on daily precipitation data of 22 rain gauge station, daily rainfall data of the Tropical Rainfall Mission (TRMM 3B42) at 0.25 degrees and reanalysis data at 36 km spatial resolution at the mesoscale. The reanalysis data was produced using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model. Station data was provided by the Peruvian weather service during the project "Sustainable Water and Wastewater Management in Urban Growth Centres Coping with Climate Change - Concepts for Lima Metropolitana (Peru) (LiWa)", which is financed by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). We are interested in the

  19. Estimation of radon concentration in various operating areas of a reprocessing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayan, M.P.; Ashok Kumar, P.; Raman, Anand; Gopalakrishnan, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports 222 Rn concentration of various operating areas of a reprocessing facility and also the U-processing area, measured using a microcontroller based Continuous Radon Monitor (CRM) built indigenously by Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre

  20. The chemical behaviour and ecological transfer in human food chain of some radionuclides in aqueous ecosystems and their risk on population health. Part of a coordinated programme on radiological and environmental protection studies in the Danube River catchment area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furnica, G.

    1982-12-01

    The radioecological concentration of H-3, K-40, Sr-90, Cs-137, and Ra-226 in the Danube River catchment area in Romania as well as the migration of these radionuclides in the food chain was determined. It was found that the concentration of each of these radionuclides in the Danube water was very low and that the radioactivity in the food chain was lower than the maximum permissible level. Very low incidence of cancer was detected among the inhabitants along the river

  1. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Closure of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and Land Application Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    This quality assurance project plan describes the technical requirements and quality assurance activities of the environmental data collection/analyses operations to close Central Facilities Area Sewage treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and the land application area. It describes the organization and persons involved, the data quality objectives, the analytical procedures, and the specific quality control measures to be employed. All quality assurance project plan activities are implemented to determine whether the results of the sampling and monitoring performed are of the right type, quantity, and quality to satisfy the requirements for closing Lagoon 3 and the land application area.

  2. Annual Report for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility – Fiscal Year 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Birdsell, Kay H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-29

    As a condition to the disposal authorization statement issued to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) on March 17, 2010, a comprehensive performance assessment and composite analysis maintenance program must be implemented for the Technical Area 54, Area G disposal facility. Annual determinations of the adequacy of the performance assessment and composite analysis (PA/CA) are to be conducted under the maintenance program to ensure that the conclusions reached by those analyses continue to be valid. This report summarizes the results of the fiscal year (FY) 2015 annual review for Area G.

  3. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Closure of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and Land Application Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This quality assurance project plan describes the technical requirements and quality assurance activities of the environmental data collection/analyses operations to close Central Facilities Area Sewage treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and the land application area. It describes the organization and persons involved, the data quality objectives, the analytical procedures, and the specific quality control measures to be employed. All quality assurance project plan activities are implemented to determine whether the results of the sampling and monitoring performed are of the right type, quantity, and quality to satisfy the requirements for closing Lagoon 3 and the land application area.

  4. Annual Report for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birdsell, Kay Hanson [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Atchley, Adam Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Miller, Elizabeth D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-24

    As a condition to the disposal authorization statement issued to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) on March 17, 2010, a comprehensive performance assessment and composite analysis (PA/CA) maintenance program must be implemented for the Technical Area 54, Area G disposal facility. Annual determinations of the adequacy of the PA/CA are to be conducted under the maintenance program to ensure that the conclusions reached by those analyses continue to be valid. This report summarizes the results of the fiscal year (FY) 2016 annual review for Area G.

  5. The precipitation-/runoff model ZEMOKOST: development of a practical model for the determination of flood runoff in the catchment areas of torrents, including improved data field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohl, B.

    2010-01-01

    In hydrology a basic task is the estimation of design discharges and runoff changes in ungauged catchments. However, traditional empirical rules of thumb as well as regionalization of measured discharges are subject to uncertainty. It seems that precipitation-runoff modelling is the only comprehensible way to predict discharge alterations due to changes in ungauged basins, even though the results are perhaps not less uncertain. In order to minimize this uncertainty this work presents a new methodology for discharge estimation in ungauged basins by introducing runoff coefficients derived from field assessment, by a new adapted precipitation-runoff model (ZEMOKOST) and routines for a plausibility check. Subsequently ten gauged Austrian catchments were used as hypothetical ungauged catchments for application and verification of this method. Except for special questions in karst- and glacier-hydrology the procedure showed satisfying results. (author) [de

  6. Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the 100-N Area Ancillary Facilities and Integration Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.

    1997-09-01

    This document presents the results of an engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) that was conducted to evaluate alternatives for addressing final disposition of contaminated buildings and structures in the 100-N Area of the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State and is owned by the U.S. Government and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). In November 1989, the 100 Area of the Hanford Site (as well as the 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980. The 100 Area NPL includes the 100-N Area, which is in various stages of the remediation process. It has been determined by RL that hazardous substances in the 100-N Area ancillary facilities may present a potential threat to human health or the environment, and that a non-time critical removal action at these facilities is warranted. To help determine the most appropriate action, RL, in cooperation with the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the EPA, has prepared this EE/CA. The scope of the evaluation includes the inactive contaminated ancillary facilities in the 100-N Area, the facilities residing in the buffer zone, and the Hanford Generating Plant (HGP) and the solid waste management units (SWMUs) inside HGP support facilities. The 105-N Reactor and 109-N Heat Exchange facilities are excluded from this EE/CA evaluation

  7. Determination of the hydrological properties of a small-scale catchment area in Northern Greece from ASTER and SRTM DEMs and accuracy assessment with a local DTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanou, E. A.; Vergos, G. S.

    2012-04-01

    The combined use of Geographic Information Systems and recent high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) from Remote Sensing imagery offers a unique opportunity to study the hydrological properties of basin and catchment dynamics and derive the hydrological features of specific regions of various spatial scales. Until recently, the availability of global DEMs was restricted to low-resolution and accuracy models, e.g., ETOPO5, ETOPO2 and GTOPO30, compared to local Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) derived from photogrammetric methods and offered usually in the form of topographic maps of various scales. The advent of the SRTM and ASTER missions, offer some new tools and opportunities in order to use their data within a GIS to study the hydrological properties of basins and consequently validate their performance both amongst each other, as well as in terms of the results derived from a local DTM. The present work focuses on the use of the recent SRTM v2 90 m and ASTER v2 30 m DEMs along with the national 500 m DTM generated by the Hellenic Military Geographic Service (HMGS), within a GIS in order to assess their performance in determining the hydrological properties of basins. To this respect, the ArcHydro extension tool of ArcGIS v9.3 and HEC-GeoRAS v4.3 have been exploited to determine the hydrographic data of the basins under study which are located in Northern Greece. The hydrological characteristics refer to stream geometry, curve number, flooding areas, etc. as well as the topographic characteristics of the basin itself, such as aspect, hillshade, slope e.t.c..

  8. Evasion of CO2 and dissolved carbon in river waters of three small catchments in an area occupied by small family farms in the eastern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Silva da Rosa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available CO2 effluxes from streams and rivers have been hypothesized to be a critical pathway of carbon flow from the biosphere back to the atmosphere. This study was conducted in three small Amazonian catchments to evaluate carbon evasion and dynamics, where land-use change has occurred on small family-farms. Monthly field campaigns were conducted from June 2006 to May 2007 in the Cumaru (CM, Pachibá (PB and São João (SJ streams. Electrical conductivity, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen measurements were done in situ, while water samples were collected to determine dissolved organic carbon (DOC and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC concentrations, as well as carbon dioxide partial pressures (pCO2 and CO2 evasion fluxes. Instantaneous discharge measured by a current meter was used to calculate DOC fluxes. Considering all the sites, DOC, DIC, pCO2, and CO2 flux measurements ranged as follows, respectively: 0.27 - 12.13 mg L-1; 3.5 - 38.9 mg L-1; 2,265 - 26,974 ppm; and 3.39 - 75.35 μmol m-2 s-1. DOC annual flux estimates for CM, SJ and PB were, respectively, 281, 245, and 169 kg C ha-1. CO2 evasion fluxes had an average of 22.70 ± 1.67 μmol m-2 s-1. These CO2 evasion fluxes per unit area were similar to those measured for major Amazonian rivers, thus confirming our hypothesis that small streams can evade substantial quantities of CO2. As secondary vegetation is abundant as a result of family farming management in the region, we conclude that this vegetation can be a major driver of an abundant carbon cycle.

  9. Characterization of decontamination and decommissioning wastes expected from the major processing facilities in the 200 Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, L.C.; Franklin, J.D.; Hyre, R.A.; Lowy, R.M.; Millar, J.S.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Duncan, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    This study was intended to characterize and estimate the amounts of equipment and other materials that are candidates for removal and subsequent processing in a solid waste facility when the major processing and handling facilities in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site are decontaminated and decommissioned. The facilities in this study were selected based on processing history and on the magnitude of the estimated decommissioning cost cited in the Surplus Facilities Program Plan; Fiscal Year 1993 (Winship and Hughes 1992). The facilities chosen for this study include B Plant (221-B), T Plant (221-T), U Plant (221-U), the Uranium Trioxide (UO 3 ) Plant (224-U and 224-UA), the Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) or S Plant (202-S), the Plutonium Concentration Facility for B Plant (224-B), and the Concentration Facility for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and REDOX (233-S). This information is required to support planning activities for current and future solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal operations and facilities

  10. Characterization of decontamination and decommissioning wastes expected from the major processing facilities in the 200 Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amato, L.C.; Franklin, J.D.; Hyre, R.A.; Lowy, R.M.; Millar, J.S.; Pottmeyer, J.A. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This study was intended to characterize and estimate the amounts of equipment and other materials that are candidates for removal and subsequent processing in a solid waste facility when the major processing and handling facilities in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site are decontaminated and decommissioned. The facilities in this study were selected based on processing history and on the magnitude of the estimated decommissioning cost cited in the Surplus Facilities Program Plan; Fiscal Year 1993 (Winship and Hughes 1992). The facilities chosen for this study include B Plant (221-B), T Plant (221-T), U Plant (221-U), the Uranium Trioxide (UO{sub 3}) Plant (224-U and 224-UA), the Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) or S Plant (202-S), the Plutonium Concentration Facility for B Plant (224-B), and the Concentration Facility for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and REDOX (233-S). This information is required to support planning activities for current and future solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal operations and facilities.

  11. Layout effects and optimization of runoff storage and filtration facilities based on SWMM simulation in a demonstration area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xing

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The layout effects and optimization of runoff storage and filtration facilities are crucial to the efficiency and management of the cost of runoff control, but related research is still lacking. In this study, scenarios with different layouts were simulated using the storm water management model (SWMM, to investigate the layout effects on control efficiency with different precipitations. In a rainfall event with 50 mm of precipitation in two hours, 1820 scenarios with different layouts of four facilities constructed in 16 sub-catchments were simulated, the reduction rates of internal flow presented a standard deviation of 10.9%, and the difference between the maximum and minimum reduction rates reached 59.7%. Based on weighting analysis, an integrated ranking index was obtained and used to determine the optimal layout scenarios considering different rainfall events. In the optimal scenario (storage and filtration facilities constructed in sub-catchments 14, 12, 7, and 2, the reduction rates of the total outflow reached 31.4%, 26.4%, and 14.7%, respectively, with 30, 50, and 80 mm of precipitation. The reduction rate of the internal outflow reached 95% with 50 mm of precipitation and approximately 56% with 80 mm of precipitation.

  12. Abbreviated sampling and analysis plan for planning decontamination and decommissioning at Test Reactor Area (TRA) facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The objective is to sample and analyze for the presence of gamma emitting isotopes and hazardous constituents within certain areas of the Test Reactor Area (TRA), prior to D and D activities. The TRA is composed of three major reactor facilities and three smaller reactors built in support of programs studying the performance of reactor materials and components under high neutron flux conditions. The Materials Testing Reactor (MTR) and Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) facilities are currently pending D/D. Work consists of pre-D and D sampling of designated TRA (primarily ETR) process areas. This report addresses only a limited subset of the samples which will eventually be required to characterize MTR and ETR and plan their D and D. Sampling which is addressed in this document is intended to support planned D and D work which is funded at the present time. Biased samples, based on process knowledge and plant configuration, are to be performed. The multiple process areas which may be potentially sampled will be initially characterized by obtaining data for upstream source areas which, based on facility configuration, would affect downstream and as yet unsampled, process areas. Sampling and analysis will be conducted to determine the level of gamma emitting isotopes and hazardous constituents present in designated areas within buildings TRA-612, 642, 643, 644, 645, 647, 648, 663; and in the soils surrounding Facility TRA-611. These data will be used to plan the D and D and help determine disposition of material by D and D personnel. Both MTR and ETR facilities will eventually be decommissioned by total dismantlement so that the area can be restored to its original condition

  13. Source term development for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendixsen, R.B.

    1994-04-01

    A novel method for developing a source term for radiation and hazardous material content of sludge processing equipment and barrels in a new waste water treatment facility is presented in this paper. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF), located at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, will treat process sewer waste water from the 300 Area and discharge a permittable effluent flow into the Columbia River. A process information and hazards analysis document needed a process flowsheet detailing the concentrations of radionuclides, inorganics, and organics throughout the process, including the sludge effluent flow. A hazards analysis for a processing facility usually includes a flowsheet showing the process, materials, heat balances, and instrumentation for that facility. The flow sheet estimates stream flow quantities, activities, compositions, and properties. For the 300 Area TEDF, it was necessary to prepare the flow sheet with all of the information so that radiation doses to workers could be estimated. The noble method used to develop the 300 Area TEDF flowsheet included generating recycle factors. To prepare each component in the flowsheet, precipitation, destruction, and two recycle factors were developed. The factors were entered into a spreadsheet and provided a method of estimating the steady-state concentrations of all of the components in the facility. This report describes how the factors were developed, explains how they were used in developing the flowsheet, and presents the results of using these values to estimate radiation doses for personnel working in the facility. The report concludes with a discussion of the effect of estimates of radioactive and hazardous material concentrations on shielding design and the need for containment features for equipment in the facility

  14. The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The order is defined under the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities. Establishers of power generating facilities shall be hereunder general electric enterprisers, wholesale electric enterprisers and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The scale of power generating facilities provided by the order is 350,000 kilo-watts for atomic and steam power generation and 5,000 kilo-watts for hydroelectric power. Equipment closely related to atomic power generation shall include facilities for reprocessing and examination of nuclear fuel materials spent for power generating reactors, reactors used for research of the safety of power generating reactors, experimental fast breeding reactors and experimental uranium enrichment facilities. Requisites for the extent of industrial accumulation are that the area belongs to those self-governing bodies whose industrial accumulation is more than the 8th degree. Public facilities specified are those for communication, sports or recreation, environmental hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting and heat supplying, etc. Governors of the prefectures shall file arrangement programs to the Minister in charge through the Minister of International Trade and Industry to get the permission stipulated by the law. Subsidies shall not be paid to those enterprises which are executed by the government or a part of the expenses is born or supported by it. (Okada, K.)

  15. Quantifying the contributions of sediment, sediment-P and fertiliser-P from forested, cultivated and pasture areas at the landuse and catchment scale using fallout radionuclides and geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallbrink, P.J.; Martin, C.E.; Wilson, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we use a combination of fallout nuclides and geochemistry to determine the contributions of sediment and sediment bound phosphorus (sed-P) from the major diffuse sources in the Bundella Creek catchment (8700 ha), NSW, Australia. Sources include surface erosion from cultivated, pasture and steep forested land as well as subsoil erosion from channels and gullies. We determine these contributions to the <10 μm fraction of deposited sediments. Concentrations of P were higher in the surface soils of each landuse than the underlying subsoils, and erosion from these contributed more to offsite sediment-P (∼60%) than did subsoil erosion at the individual landuse scale. At the catchment outlet, the amount of surface sediment eroded from cultivated lands was a factor of ∼84 higher than from pastures; the steep forested lands contributed ∼9 times more than pastures. Sed-P eroded from cultivated land was ∼42 times higher than from pasturelands; the forests were ∼8 times greater than from pastures. At the catchment outlet the largest contribution of sediment (∼70%) and sed-P (∼62%) was from subsoil erosion of gullies and channels within and between the different landuse areas. There was little contribution of sediment or sed-P at the catchment scale from surface erosion of pastures. Concentrations of P were highest in 'storm event' suspended sediment samples taken from the pasture and cultivated areas without gullies. In a suite of samples selected for their high P contents, fertiliser P was detected in two storm event suspended sediment samples and one deposited sediment sample, using the ratio of Nd/P. This suggests fertiliser P may be transported-off land surfaces with sediments and contribute to offsite sediment-P concentrations in some situations. However, the fertiliser contributions were episodic and variable; and probably influenced by particle size selectivity as well as timing of fertiliser application with respect to size and occurrence

  16. Racial disparities in travel time to radiotherapy facilities in the Atlanta metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peipins, Lucy A; Graham, Shannon; Young, Randall; Lewis, Brian; Flanagan, Barry

    2013-07-01

    Low-income women with breast cancer who rely on public transportation may have difficulty in completing recommended radiation therapy due to inadequate access to radiation facilities. Using a geographic information system (GIS) and network analysis we quantified spatial accessibility to radiation treatment facilities in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area. We built a transportation network model that included all bus and rail routes and stops, system transfers and walk and wait times experienced by public transportation system travelers. We also built a private transportation network to model travel times by automobile. We calculated travel times to radiation therapy facilities via public and private transportation from a population-weighted center of each census tract located within the study area. We broadly grouped the tracts by low, medium and high household access to a private vehicle and by race. Facility service areas were created using the network model to map the extent of areal coverage at specified travel times (30, 45 and 60 min) for both public and private modes of transportation. The median public transportation travel time to the nearest radiotherapy facility was 56 min vs. approximately 8 min by private vehicle. We found that majority black census tracts had longer public transportation travel times than white tracts across all categories of vehicle access and that 39% of women in the study area had longer than 1 h of public transportation travel time to the nearest facility. In addition, service area analyses identified locations where the travel time barriers are the greatest. Spatial inaccessibility, especially for women who must use public transportation, is one of the barriers they face in receiving optimal treatment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Readiness plan, Hanford 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) is designed for the collection, treatment, and eventual disposal of liquid waste from the 300 Area Process Sewer (PS) system. The PS currently discharges water to the 300 Area Process Trenches. Facilities supported total 54 buildings, including site laboratories, inactive buildings, and support facilities. Effluent discharges to the process sewer from within these facilities include heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, heat exchangers, floor drains, sinks, and process equipment. The wastewaters go through treatment processes that include iron coprecipitation, ion exchange and ultraviolet oxidation. The iron coprecipitation process is designed to remove general heavy metals. A series of gravity filters then complete the clarification process by removing suspended solids. Following the iron coprecipitation process is the ion exchange process, where a specific resin is utilized for the removal of mercury. The final main unit operation is the ultraviolet destruction process, which uses high power ultraviolet light and hydrogen peroxide to destroy organic molecules. The objective of this readiness plan is to provide the method by which line management will prepare for a Readiness Assessment (RA) of the TEDF. The self-assessment and RA will assess safety, health, environmental compliance and management readiness of the TEDF. This assessment will provide assurances to both WHC and DOE that the facility is ready to start-up and begin operation

  18. Vegetation communities associated with the 100-Area and 200-Area facilities on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegen, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, lies within the broad semi-arid shrub-steppe vegetation zone of the Columbia Basin. Thirteen different habitat types on the Hanford Site have been mapped in Habitat Types on the Hanford Site: Wildlife and Plant Species of Concern (Downs et al. 1993). In a broad sense, this classification is correct. On a smaller scale, however, finer delineations are possible. This study was conducted to determine the plant communities and estimate vegetation cover in and directly adjacent to the 100 and 200 Areas, primarily in relation to waste sites, as part of a comprehensive ecological study for the Compensation Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) characterization of the 100 and 200 Areas. During the summer of 1993, field surveys were conducted and a map of vegetation communities in each area, including dominant species associations, was produced. The field surveys consisted of qualitative community delineations. The community delineations described were made by field reconnaissance and are qualitative in nature. The delineations were made by visually determining the dominant plant species or vegetation types and were based on the species most apparent at the time of inspection. Additionally, 38 transects were run in these plant communities to try to obtain a more accurate representation of the community. Because habitat disturbances from construction/operations activities continue to occur in these areas, users of this information should be cautious in applying these maps without a current ground survey. This work will complement large-scale habitat maps of the Hanford Site

  19. Vegetation communities associated with the 100-Area and 200-Area facilities on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegen, J.A.

    1994-01-17

    The Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, lies within the broad semi-arid shrub-steppe vegetation zone of the Columbia Basin. Thirteen different habitat types on the Hanford Site have been mapped in Habitat Types on the Hanford Site: Wildlife and Plant Species of Concern (Downs et al. 1993). In a broad sense, this classification is correct. On a smaller scale, however, finer delineations are possible. This study was conducted to determine the plant communities and estimate vegetation cover in and directly adjacent to the 100 and 200 Areas, primarily in relation to waste sites, as part of a comprehensive ecological study for the Compensation Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) characterization of the 100 and 200 Areas. During the summer of 1993, field surveys were conducted and a map of vegetation communities in each area, including dominant species associations, was produced. The field surveys consisted of qualitative community delineations. The community delineations described were made by field reconnaissance and are qualitative in nature. The delineations were made by visually determining the dominant plant species or vegetation types and were based on the species most apparent at the time of inspection. Additionally, 38 transects were run in these plant communities to try to obtain a more accurate representation of the community. Because habitat disturbances from construction/operations activities continue to occur in these areas, users of this information should be cautious in applying these maps without a current ground survey. This work will complement large-scale habitat maps of the Hanford Site.

  20. Environmental impacts of incineration of livestock manure with the purpose of energy utilization. Scenario analysis for a specific catchment area; Miljoekonsekvenser ved afbraending af husdyrgoedning med sigte pae energiudnyttelse. Scenarieanalyse for et udvalgt opland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schou, J.S.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Levin, G. [DMU, Afd. for Systemanalyse (Denmark); Grant, R. [DMU, Afdeling for Ferskvandsoekologi (Denmark); Elmegaard, N. [DMU, Afdeling for Terrestrisk Oekologi (Denmark); Palmgren, F. [DMU, Afd. for Atmosfaerisk Miljoe (Denmark)

    2006-04-15

    The analyses demonstrate the environmental consequences of incineration of livestock manure in a specific catchment area where an unchanged animal production is presumed. The scenarios are carried out for the Vesthimmerland area, located in the north of the peninsula of Jutland (Denmark) where the agricultural production is characterised by a relatively intensive production of broilers and furred animals. It is assumed that half of the total production of manure from farms with broilers and mink is incinerated on incineration plants on farm level and decentralised CHP plants. This corresponds to an incineration of manure from 1.951 DE (one animal unit corresponds to a production of 100 kg N per year) at which 219 tonnes N, 54 tonnes P and 118 tonnes K are removed, corresponding to 5 % N, 5.5 % P and 3 % K, respectively. The estimated environmental consequences are summarized in Table 19 and the results are commented below. Assuming the effective N content of the incinerated manure is replaced with artificial fertiliser while not compensating for the removed P, it is estimated that the N leaching in the catchment area is reduced by 46.5 tonnes (approx. 2 %) while the P surplus is reduced from 200 tonnes to 146 tonnes (approx. 27 % reduction). Furthermore the incineration of manure will impact the emission of ammonia as the loss from storage and spreading is reduced. Thus there will be a reduction of ammonia emissions from storage facilities by 25.3 tonnes N while the reduction of emission from spreading is estimated to 17.2 tonnes N. All together a reduction of the ammonia emissions of 42.5 tonnes N is thus achieved. Furthermore, analyses of additional deposition of gaseous N compounds, especially N{sub 2}O, NO, NO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} from the air in the area close to an incineration plant have been carried out. The analyses presume that the amount of N emitted from incineration corresponds to the amount of N in manure. The analyses show that if the NO{sub X

  1. Emergency preparedness hazards assessment for selected 100 Area Bechtel Hanford, Inc. facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The emergency preparedness hazards assessment for Bechtel Hanford Inc. (BHI) facilities in the 100 Areas of the Hanford Site. The purpose of a hazards assessment is to identify the hazardous material at each facility, identify the conditions that could release the hazardous material, and calculate the consequences of the releases. The hazards assessment is the technical basis for the facility emergency plans and procedures. There are many other buildings and past- practice burial grounds, trenches, cribs, etc., in the 100 Areas that may contain hazardous materials. Undisturbed buried waste sites that are not near the Columbia River are outside the scope of emergency preparedness hazards assessments because there is no mechanism for acute release to the air or ground water. The sites near the Columbia River are considered in a separate flood hazards assessment. This hazards assessment includes only the near-term soil remediation projects that involve intrusive activities

  2. Facility Closure Report for T-Tunnel (U12T), Area 12, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This Facility Closure Report (FCR) has been prepared to document the actions taken to permanently close the remaining accessible areas of U12t-Tunnel (T-Tunnel) in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The closure of T-Tunnel was a prerequisite to transfer facility ownership from the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). Closure of the facility was accomplished with the cooperation and concurrence of both NNSA/NSO and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). The purpose of this FCR is to document that the closure of T-Tunnel complied with the closure requirements specified in the Facility Closure Plan for N- and T-Tunnels Area 12, Nevada Test Site (Appendix D) and that the facility is ready for transfer to NNSA/NSO. The Facility Closure Plan (FCP) is provided in Appendix D. T-Tunnel is located approximately 42 miles north of Mercury in Area 12 of the NTS (Figure 1). Between 1970 and 1987, T-Tunnel was used for six Nuclear Weapons Effects Tests (NWETs). The tunnel was excavated horizontally into the volcanic tuffs of Rainier Mesa. The T-Tunnel complex consists of a main access drift with two NWET containment structures, a Gas Seal Plug (GSP), and a Gas Seal Door (GSD) (Figure 2). The T-Tunnel complex was mothballed in 1993 to preserve the tunnel for resumption of testing, should it happen in the future, to stop the discharge of tunnel effluent, and to prevent unauthorized access. This was accomplished by sealing the main drift GSD

  3. Atmospheric release model for the E-area low-level waste facility: Updates and modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None, None

    2017-01-01

    The atmospheric release model (ARM) utilizes GoldSim® Monte Carlo simulation software (GTG, 2017) to evaluate the flux of gaseous radionuclides as they volatilize from E-Area disposal facility waste zones, diffuse into the air-filled soil pores surrounding the waste, and emanate at the land surface. This report documents the updates and modifications to the ARM for the next planned E-Area PA considering recommendations from the 2015 PA strategic planning team outlined by Butcher and Phifer.

  4. M-Area hazardous waste management facility groundwater monitoring report -- first quarter 1994. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, C.S.; Washburn, F.; Jordan, J.; Van Pelt, R.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes the groundwater monitoring and corrective action program at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during first quarter 1994 as required by South Carolina Hazardous Waste Permit SC1-890-008-989 and section 264.100(g) of the South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations. During first quarter 1994, 42 point-of-compliance (POC) wells at the M-Area HWMF were sampled for drinking water parameters

  5. Hanford 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility inventory at risk calculations and safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, A.R.

    1995-11-01

    The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) is a wastewater treatment plant being constructed to treat the 300 Area Process Sewer and Retention Process Sewer. This document analyzes the TEDF for safety consequences. It includes radionuclide and hazardous chemical inventories, compares these inventories to appropriate regulatory limits, documents the compliance status with respect to these limits, and identifies administrative controls necessary to maintain this status

  6. Atmospheric release model for the E-area low-level waste facility: Updates and modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-11-16

    The atmospheric release model (ARM) utilizes GoldSim® Monte Carlo simulation software (GTG, 2017) to evaluate the flux of gaseous radionuclides as they volatilize from E-Area disposal facility waste zones, diffuse into the air-filled soil pores surrounding the waste, and emanate at the land surface. This report documents the updates and modifications to the ARM for the next planned E-Area PA considering recommendations from the 2015 PA strategic planning team outlined by Butcher and Phifer.

  7. Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment for solid waste management facilities in E-area not previously evaluated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadlock, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents the facility Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Solid Waste Management Department (SWMD) activities located on the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) within E Area that are not described in the EPHAs for Mixed Hazardous Waste storage, the TRU Waste Storage Pads or the E-Area Vaults. The hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in the SWMD operational emergency management program

  8. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... areas; construction and safety precautions. 75.1903 Section 75.1903 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND...; construction and safety precautions. (a) Permanent underground diesel fuel storage facilities must be— (1... with at least 240 pounds of rock dust and provided with two portable multipurpose dry chemical type...

  9. Operation and Maintenance Manual for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norm Stanley

    2011-02-01

    This Operation and Maintenance Manual lists operator and management responsibilities, permit standards, general operating procedures, maintenance requirements and monitoring methods for the Sewage Treatment Plant at the Central Facilities Area at the Idaho National Laboratory. The manual is required by the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000141-03) the sewage treatment plant.

  10. Elevation of water table and various stratigraphic surfaces beneath e area low level waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagwell, Laura [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bennett, Patti [; Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-02

    This memorandum describes work that supports revision of the Radiological Performance Assessment (PA) for the E Area Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF). The work summarized here addresses portions of the PA Strategic Planning Team's recommendation #148b (Butcher and Phifer, 2016).

  11. Radiation dose distribution monitoring at neutron radiography facility area, Nuclear Energy Unit, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Razak Daud

    1995-01-01

    One experiment was carried out to get the distribution of radiation doses at the neutron radiography facilities, Nuclear Energy Unit, Malaysia. The analysis was done to evaluate the safety level of the area. The analysis was used in neutron radiography work

  12. Alternative energy facility siting policies for urban coastal areas: executive summary of findings and policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morell, D; Singer, G

    1980-11-01

    An analysis was made of siting issues in the coastal zone, one of the nation's most critical natural resource areas and one which is often the target for energy development proposals. The analysis addressed the changing perceptions of citizens toward energy development in the coastal zone, emphasizing urban communities where access to the waterfront and revitalization of waterfront property are of interest to the citizen. The findings of this analysis are based on an examination of energy development along New Jersey's urban waterfront and along the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast, and on redevelopment efforts in Seattle, San Francisco, Boston, and elsewhere. The case studies demonstrate the significance of local attitudes and regional cooperation in the siting process. In highly urbanized areas, air quality has become a predominant concern among citizen groups and an influential factor in development of alternative energy facility siting strategies, such as consideration of inland siting connected by pipeline to a smaller coastal facility. The study addresses the economic impact of the permitting process on the desirability of energy facility investments, and the possible effects of the location selected for the facility on the permitting process and investment economics. The economic analysis demonstrates the importance of viewing energy facility investments in a broad perspective that includes the positive or negative impacts of various alternative siting patterns on the permitting process. Conclusions drawn from the studies regarding Federal, state, local, and corporate politics; regulatory, permitting, licensing, environmental assessment, and site selection are summarized. (MCW)

  13. 33 CFR 125.15 - Access to waterfront facilities, and port and harbor areas, including vessels and harbor craft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and port and harbor areas, including vessels and harbor craft therein. 125.15 Section 125.15....15 Access to waterfront facilities, and port and harbor areas, including vessels and harbor craft....09 to those waterfront facilities, and port and harbor areas, including vessels and harbor craft...

  14. A new perspective on catchment storage gained from a nested catchment experiment in Luxembourg (Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Laurent; Klaus, Julian; Hissler, Christophe; François Iffly, Jean; Gourdol, Laurent; Martinez-Carreras, Nuria; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2014-05-01

    Recent hydrological process research focussed on how much water a catchment can store and how these catchments store and release water. Storage can be a valuable metric for catchment description, inter-comparison, and classification. Further storage controls catchment mixing, non-linearities in rainfall-runoff transformation and eco-hydrological processes. Various methods exist to determine catchment storage (e.g. natural tracer, soil moisture and groundwater data, hydrological models). Today it remains unclear what parts of the catchment storage are measured with the different models. Here we present a new hydrometric approach to answer the question how much water a catchment can store. We tested our approach in a dense hydro-climatological monitoring network that encompasses 16 recording streamgauges and 21 pluviographs in the Alzette River basin in Luxembourg (Europe). Catchment scales are ranging from 0.47 to 285 km2 and they have clean- and mixed combinations of distinct geologies ranging from schists to marls, sandstone, dolomite and limestone. Previous investigations in the area of interest have shown that geology largely controls winter runoff coefficients. Here, we focus at how catchment geology is ultimately affecting catchment storage. We used the approach of Sayama et al. (2011) to compute catchment dynamic storage changes for each winter season over the period 2002-2012 (based on precipitation as input; discharge and evapotranspiration as output). We determined dynamic storage changes for each winter semester (October to March) in all 16 catchments over the period 2002-2012. At the beginning of each hydrological winter season, all catchments showed similar trends in storage change. A few weeks into the winter season, catchments with lowest permeability (e.g. marls) started to plateau. The highest storage values were reached several months later in the season in catchments dominated by permeable substrate (e.g. sandstone). For most catchments, we found

  15. Environmental risk analysis of oil handling facilities in port areas. Application to Tarragona harbor (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdor, Paloma F; Gómez, Aina G; Puente, Araceli

    2015-01-15

    Diffuse pollution from oil spills is a widespread problem in port areas (as a result of fuel supply, navigation and loading/unloading activities). This article presents a method to assess the environmental risk of oil handling facilities in port areas. The method is based on (i) identification of environmental hazards, (ii) characterization of meteorological and oceanographic conditions, (iii) characterization of environmental risk scenarios, and (iv) assessment of environmental risk. The procedure has been tested by application to the Tarragona harbor. The results show that the method is capable of representing (i) specific local pollution cases (i.e., discriminating between products and quantities released by a discharge source), (ii) oceanographic and meteorological conditions (selecting a representative subset data), and (iii) potentially affected areas in probabilistic terms. Accordingly, it can inform the design of monitoring plans to study and control the environmental impact of these facilities, as well as the design of contingency plans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ambient air quality at the wider area of an industrial mining facility at Stratoni, Chalkidiki, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidajis, Georgios; Angelakoglou, Komninos; Gazea, Emmy

    2012-01-01

    To assess ambient air quality at the wider area of a mining-industrial facility in Chalkidiki, Greece, the particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm (PM(10)) and its content in characteristic elements, i.e., As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn were monitored for a period of three years (2008-2010). Gravimetric air samplers were employed for the particulate matter sampling at three sampling stations located in the immediate vicinity of the industrial facility and at a neighbouring residential site. Monitoring data indicated that the 3-year median PM(10) concentrations were 23.3 μg/m(3) at the residential site close to the facility and 28.7 μg/m(3) at the site within the facility indicating a minimal influence from the industrial activities to the air quality of the neighbouring residential area. Both annual average and median PM(10) concentration levels were below the indicative European standards, whereas similar spatial and temporal variation was observed for the PM(10) constituents. The average Pb concentrations measured for the three sampling sites were 0.2, 0.146 and 0.174 μg/m(3) respectively, well below the indicative limit of 0.5 μg/m(3). The quantitative and qualitative comparison of PM(10) concentrations and its elemental constituent for the three sampling stations did not indicate any direct influence of the mining-industrial activities to the air quality of the Stratoni residential area.

  17. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    This report is the first revision to ''Radiological Performance Assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility, Revision 0'', which was issued in April 1994 and received conditional DOE approval in September 1994. The title of this report has been changed to conform to the current name of the facility. The revision incorporates improved groundwater modeling methodology, which includes a large data base of site specific geotechnical data, and special Analyses on disposal of cement-based wasteforms and naval wastes, issued after publication of Revision 0

  18. Staff Technical Position on geological repository operations area underground facility design: Thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nataraja, M.S.

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this Staff Technical Position (STP) is to provide the US Department of Energy (DOE) with a methodology acceptable to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff for demonstrating compliance with 10 CFR 60.133(i). The NRC staff's position is that DOE should develop and use a defensible methodology to demonstrate the acceptability of a geologic repository operations area (GROA) underground facility design. The staff anticipates that this methodology will include evaluation and development of appropriately coupled models, to account for the thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes that are induced by repository-generated thermal loads. With respect to 10 CFR 60.133(i), the GROA underground facility design: (1) should satisfy design goals/criteria initially selected, by considering the performance objectives; and (2) must satisfy the performance objectives 10 CFR 60.111, 60.112, and 60.113. The methodology in this STP suggests an iterative approach suitable for the underground facility design

  19. Prospects for a Muon Spin Resonance Facility in the MuCool Test Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstone, John A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2017-04-12

    This paper investigates the feasibility of re-purposing the MuCool Test Area beamline and experimental hall to support a Muon Spin Resonance facility, which would make it the only such facility in the US. This report reviews the basic muon production concepts studied and operationally implemented at TRIUMF, PSI, and RAL and their application to the MTA facility. Two scenarios were determined feasible. One represents an initial minimal-shielding and capital-cost investment stage with a single secondary muon beamline that transports the primary beam to an existing high-intensity beam absorber located outside of the hall. Another, upgraded stage, involves an optimized production target pile and high-intensity absorber installed inside the experimental hall and potentially multiple secondary muon lines. In either scenario, with attention to target design, the MTA can host enabling and competitive Muon Spin Resonance experiments

  20. Tech assist/fire safety assessment of 100K area facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.H.

    1994-01-01

    This Tech Assist/Fire Safety Assessment provides a comprehensive assessment of the 100K Area Facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site for fire protection upgrades that may be needed given the limited remaining service life of these facilities. This assessment considers the relative nature of observed fire risks and whether the installed fire protection systems adequately control this risk. The analysis is based on compliance with DOE Orders, NFPA Codes and Standards, and recognized industry practice. Limited remaining service life (i.e., 6 to 12 years), current value of each facility, comparison to the best protected class of industrial risk, and the potential for exemptions from DOE requirements are key factors for recommendations presented in this report

  1. E AREA LOW LEVEL WASTE FACILITY DOE 435.1 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, E

    2008-03-31

    This Performance Assessment for the Savannah River Site E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility was prepared to meet requirements of Chapter IV of the Department of Energy Order 435.1-1. The Order specifies that a Performance Assessment should provide reasonable assurance that a low-level waste disposal facility will comply with the performance objectives of the Order. The Order also requires assessments of impacts to water resources and to hypothetical inadvertent intruders for purposes of establishing limits on radionuclides that may be disposed near-surface. According to the Order, calculations of potential doses and releases from the facility should address a 1,000-year period after facility closure. The point of compliance for the performance measures relevant to the all pathways and air pathway performance objective, as well as to the impact on water resources assessment requirement, must correspond to the point of highest projected dose or concentration beyond a 100-m buffer zone surrounding the disposed waste following the assumed end of active institutional controls 100 years after facility closure. During the operational and institutional control periods, the point of compliance for the all pathways and air pathway performance measures is the SRS boundary. However, for the water resources impact assessment, the point of compliance remains the point of highest projected dose or concentration beyond a 100-m buffer zone surrounding the disposed waste during the operational and institutional control periods. For performance measures relevant to radon and inadvertent intruders, the points of compliance are the disposal facility surface for all time periods and the disposal facility after the assumed loss of active institutional controls 100 years after facility closure, respectively. The E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility is located in the central region of the SRS known as the General Separations Area. It is an elbow-shaped, cleared area, which curves to the northwest

  2. WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units and Areas of Concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This 2001 Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII, Section VII.M.1 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED, 1999a), and incorporates comments from the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) received on December 6, 2000 (NMED, 2000a). This February 2001 FWP describes the programmatic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) specified in the Permit. The permittees are evaluating data from previous investigations of the SWMUs and AOCs against the newest guidance proposed by the NMED. Based on these data, the permittees expect that no further sampling will be required and that a request for No Further Action (NFA) at the SWMUs and AOCs will be submitted to the NMED. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a Facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the Facility's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to the NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable alternative to the RFI Work Plan specified in the Permit.

  3. Request for modification of 200 Area effluent treatment facility final delisting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWMAN, R.C.

    1998-11-19

    A Delisting Petition submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in August 1993 addressed effluent to be generated at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility from treating Hanford Facility waste streams. This Delisting Petition requested that 71.9 million liters per year of treated effluent, bearing the designation 'F001' through 'F005', and/or 'F039' that is derived from 'F001' through 'F005' waste, be delisted. On June 13, 1995, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency published the final rule (Final Delisting), which formally excluded 71.9 million liters per year of 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility effluent from ''being listed as hazardous wastes'' (60 FR 31115 now promulgated in 40 CFR 261). Given the limited scope, it is necessary to request a modification of the Final Delisting to address the management of a more diverse multi-source leachate (F039) at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility. From past operations and current cleanup activities on the Hanford Facility, a considerable amount of both liquid and solid Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 regulated mixed waste has been and continues to be generated. Ultimately this waste will be treated as necessary to meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Land Disposal Restrictions. The disposal of this waste will be in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act--compliant permitted lined trenches equipped with leachate collection systems. These operations will result in the generation of what is referred to as multi-source leachate. This newly generated waste will receive the listed waste designation of F039. This waste also must be managed in compliance with the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  4. Request for modification of 200 Area effluent treatment facility final delisting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    A Delisting Petition submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in August 1993 addressed effluent to be generated at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility from treating Hanford Facility waste streams. This Delisting Petition requested that 71.9 million liters per year of treated effluent, bearing the designation 'F001' through 'F005', and/or 'F039' that is derived from 'F001' through 'F005' waste, be delisted. On June 13, 1995, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency published the final rule (Final Delisting), which formally excluded 71.9 million liters per year of 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility effluent from ''being listed as hazardous wastes'' (60 FR 31115 now promulgated in 40 CFR 261). Given the limited scope, it is necessary to request a modification of the Final Delisting to address the management of a more diverse multi-source leachate (F039) at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility. From past operations and current cleanup activities on the Hanford Facility, a considerable amount of both liquid and solid Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 regulated mixed waste has been and continues to be generated. Ultimately this waste will be treated as necessary to meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Land Disposal Restrictions. The disposal of this waste will be in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act--compliant permitted lined trenches equipped with leachate collection systems. These operations will result in the generation of what is referred to as multi-source leachate. This newly generated waste will receive the listed waste designation of F039. This waste also must be managed in compliance with the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

  5. 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility operational test specification. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    This document identifies the test specification and test requirements for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (200 Area TEDF) operational testing activities. These operational testing activities, when completed, demonstrate the functional, operational and design requirements of the 200 Area TEDF have been met. The technical requirements for operational testing of the 200 Area TEDF are defined by the test requirements presented in Appendix A. These test requirements demonstrate the following: pump station No.1 and associated support equipment operate both automatically and manually; pump station No. 2 and associated support equipment operate both automatically and manually; water is transported through the collection and transfer lines to the disposal ponds with no detectable leakage; the disposal ponds accept flow from the transfer lines with all support equipment operating as designed; and the control systems operate and status the 200 Area TEDF including monitoring of appropriate generator discharge parameters

  6. Annual Report for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shuman, Rob [WPS: WASTE PROJECTS AND SERVICES

    2012-05-22

    As a condition to the Disposal Authorization Statement issued to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) on March 17, 2010, a comprehensive performance assessment and composite analysis maintenance program must be implemented for the Technical Area 54, Area G disposal facility. Annual determinations of the adequacy of the performance assessment and composite analysis are to be conducted under the maintenance program to ensure that the conclusions reached by those analyses continue to be valid. This report summarizes the results of the fiscal year 2011 annual review for Area G. Revision 4 of the Area G performance assessment and composite analysis was issued in 2008 and formally approved in 2009. These analyses are expected to provide reasonable estimates of the long-term performance of Area G and, hence, the disposal facility's ability to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) performance objectives. Annual disposal receipt reviews indicate that smaller volumes of waste will require disposal in the pits and shafts at Area G relative to what was projected for the performance assessment and composite analysis. The future inventories are projected to decrease modestly for the pits but increase substantially for the shafts due to an increase in the amount of tritium that is projected to require disposal. Overall, however, changes in the projected future inventories of waste are not expected to compromise the ability of Area G to satisfy DOE performance objectives. The Area G composite analysis addresses potential impacts from all waste disposed of at the facility, as well as other sources of radioactive material that may interact with releases from Area G. The level of knowledge about the other sources included in the composite analysis has not changed sufficiently to call into question the validity of that analysis. Ongoing environmental surveillance activities are conducted at, and in the vicinity of, Area G. However, the information generated by

  7. Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mike [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This renewal application for a Recycled Water Reuse Permit is being submitted in accordance with the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.17 “Recycled Water Rules” and the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit LA-000141-03 for continuing the operation of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant located at the Idaho National Laboratory. The permit expires March 16, 2015. The permit requires a renewal application to be submitted six months prior to the expiration date of the existing permit. For the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant, the renewal application must be submitted by September 16, 2014. The information in this application is consistent with the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater and discussions with Idaho Department of Environmental Quality personnel.

  8. Characterization and monitoring of 300 Area facility liquid waste streams during 1994 and 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.J.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Damberg, E.G.; Riley, R.G.

    1997-07-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Facility Effluent Management Program characterized and monitored liquid waste streams from 300 Area buildings that are owned by the US Department of Energy and are operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The purpose of these measurements was to determine whether the waste streams would meet administrative controls that were put in place by the operators of the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. This report summarizes the data obtained between March 1994 and September 1995 on the following waters: liquid waste streams from Buildings 306, 320, 324, 325, 326, 327, 331, and 3,720; treated and untreated Columbia River water (influent); and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe)

  9. Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, J.L. Jr.

    1997-12-01

    Samples from the ZBG wells at the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility are analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Industrial Solid Waste Permit number-sign 025500-1603 (formerly IWP-217). No constituents were reported above SCDHEC-proposed groundwater monitoring standards or final Primary Drinking Water Standards during first or third quareters 1997. No constituents were detected above SRS flagging criteria during first or third quarters 1997

  10. Can spatial statistical river temperature models be transferred between catchments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Faye L.; Fryer, Robert J.; Hannah, David M.; Malcolm, Iain A.

    2017-09-01

    There has been increasing use of spatial statistical models to understand and predict river temperature (Tw) from landscape covariates. However, it is not financially or logistically feasible to monitor all rivers and the transferability of such models has not been explored. This paper uses Tw data from four river catchments collected in August 2015 to assess how well spatial regression models predict the maximum 7-day rolling mean of daily maximum Tw (Twmax) within and between catchments. Models were fitted for each catchment separately using (1) landscape covariates only (LS models) and (2) landscape covariates and an air temperature (Ta) metric (LS_Ta models). All the LS models included upstream catchment area and three included a river network smoother (RNS) that accounted for unexplained spatial structure. The LS models transferred reasonably to other catchments, at least when predicting relative levels of Twmax. However, the predictions were biased when mean Twmax differed between catchments. The RNS was needed to characterise and predict finer-scale spatially correlated variation. Because the RNS was unique to each catchment and thus non-transferable, predictions were better within catchments than between catchments. A single model fitted to all catchments found no interactions between the landscape covariates and catchment, suggesting that the landscape relationships were transferable. The LS_Ta models transferred less well, with particularly poor performance when the relationship with the Ta metric was physically implausible or required extrapolation outside the range of the data. A single model fitted to all catchments found catchment-specific relationships between Twmax and the Ta metric, indicating that the Ta metric was not transferable. These findings improve our understanding of the transferability of spatial statistical river temperature models and provide a foundation for developing new approaches for predicting Tw at unmonitored locations across

  11. Hydrological change during the last 600 years as observed from landscape analysis and historical maps: a case study from the Nete catchment, Campine area, NE-Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerten, Koen; Leterme, Bertrand

    2015-04-01

    Reliably predicting the future state of the hydrological system under transient climate and land use conditions is a major challenge. Hydrological models are usually calibrated and validated for a short time period (e.g. 30 years), for conditions that are similar to today's. In order to test model performance for future (unverifiable) projections, palaeohydrological modelling is first needed to build confidence in model output under different conditions. One of the major challenges of palaeohydrological modelling is the acquisition of verification data that is representative for the past state(s) of the hydrological system. Here, we present the reconstructed evolution of the groundwater table depth over the last six centuries, in a sandy interfluvium (20 km² with altitude varying between 16 m and 28 m a.s.l.) of the Nete catchment. For periods before 1770 AD, the altitude (depth) of blown-out surfaces in the drift sand landscape is used as a proxy for the average highest groundwater level. These surfaces are generally interpreted as the lower limit for wind erosion. Soil profiles investigations where these surfaces are overblown by younger drift sand show that they were created in the time period between ca. 1400 AD and 1600 AD. For younger periods, historical maps were analysed for the presence of surface water features, such as fens (shallow lakes that are groundwater fed in this sandy landscape under temperate climate), marshes and wetlands. The results clearly show declining water levels in the second half of the 19th century, i.e., between 1854 AD and 1909 AD. The decline is most pronounced for the higher areas of the interfluve (drift sand landscape) and becomes less clear towards the floodplains. The amount of groundwater level decline is 1-2 m on average. The cause for the synchronous groundwater level drop seems to be linked to land use and land cover changes during that period. In the time interval between 1854 AD and 1909 AD, the total length of drains

  12. State waste discharge permit application: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    As part of the original Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Concent Order negotiations, US DOE, US EPA and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground to the Hanford Site are subject to permitting in the State Waste Discharge Permit Program (SWDP). This document constitutes the SWDP Application for the 200 Area TEDF stream which includes the following streams discharged into the area: Plutonium Finishing Plant waste water; 222-S laboratory Complex waste water; T Plant waste water; 284-W Power Plant waste water; PUREX chemical Sewer; B Plant chemical sewer, process condensate, steam condensate; 242-A-81 Water Services waste water

  13. State waste discharge permit application: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    As part of the original Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Concent Order negotiations, US DOE, US EPA and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground to the Hanford Site are subject to permitting in the State Waste Discharge Permit Program (SWDP). This document constitutes the SWDP Application for the 200 Area TEDF stream which includes the following streams discharged into the area: Plutonium Finishing Plant waste water; 222-S laboratory Complex waste water; T Plant waste water; 284-W Power Plant waste water; PUREX chemical Sewer; B Plant chemical sewer, process condensate, steam condensate; 242-A-81 Water Services waste water.

  14. Nuclear criticality safety analysis summary report: The S-area defense waste processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    The S-Area Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) can process all of the high level radioactive wastes currently stored at the Savannah River Site with negligible risk of nuclear criticality. The characteristics which make the DWPF critically safe are: (1) abundance of neutron absorbers in the waste feeds; (2) and low concentration of fissionable material. This report documents the criticality safety arguments for the S-Area DWPF process as required by DOE orders to characterize and to justify the low potential for criticality. It documents that the nature of the waste feeds and the nature of the DWPF process chemistry preclude criticality

  15. RCRA Facilities Assessment (RFA), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, container storage accumulation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) remedial action strategy is based on a memorandum from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to the Department of Energy (DOE) in which EPA elected to enforce regulatory requirements for ORNL through its amended Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) authority. This report, which completes the requirements of II.A.1 of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit, identifies areas near the point of waste generation in which wastes are accumulated before they are transferred into the permitted waste storage facilities. In includes background information on each area and an assessment of the need for further remedial attention. The waste accumulation areas described in this addendum bear identification numbers indicative of the WAGs of which they are a part. Waste accumulation areas that are located inside a building and in which there is no potential for releases to the environment are not included in this report

  16. A systematic method for identifying vital areas at complex nuclear facilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, David Franklin; Hockert, John

    2005-05-01

    Identifying the areas to be protected is an important part of the development of measures for physical protection against sabotage at complex nuclear facilities. In June 1999, the International Atomic Energy Agency published INFCIRC/225/Rev.4, 'The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities.' This guidance recommends that 'Safety specialists, in close cooperation with physical protection specialists, should evaluate the consequences of malevolent acts, considered in the context of the State's design basis threat, to identify nuclear material, or the minimum complement of equipment, systems or devices to be protected against sabotage.' This report presents a structured, transparent approach for identifying the areas that contain this minimum complement of equipment, systems, and devices to be protected against sabotage that is applicable to complex nuclear facilities. The method builds upon safety analyses to develop sabotage fault trees that reflect sabotage scenarios that could cause unacceptable radiological consequences. The sabotage actions represented in the fault trees are linked to the areas from which they can be accomplished. The fault tree is then transformed (by negation) into its dual, the protection location tree, which reflects the sabotage actions that must be prevented in order to prevent unacceptable radiological consequences. The minimum path sets of this fault tree dual yield, through the area linkage, sets of areas, each of which contains nuclear material, or a minimum complement of equipment, systems or devices that, if protected, will prevent sabotage. This method also provides guidance for the selection of the minimum path set that permits optimization of the trade-offs among physical protection effectiveness, safety impact, cost and operational impact.

  17. Field Sampling Plan for Closure of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and Land Application Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Michael George

    2016-01-01

    This field sampling plan describes sampling of the soil/liner of Lagoon 3 at the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant. The lagoon is to be closed, and samples obtained from the soil/liner will provide information to determine if Lagoon 3 and the land application area can be closed in a manner that renders it safe to human health and the environment. Samples collected under this field sampling plan will be compared to Idaho National Laboratory background soil concentrations. If the concentrations of constituents of concern exceed the background level, they will be compared to Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act preliminary remediation goals and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels. If the concentrations of constituents of concern are lower than the background levels, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels, or the preliminary remediation goals, then Lagoon 3 and the land application area will be closed. If the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels and/or the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act preliminary remediation goals are exceeded, additional sampling and action may be required.

  18. Field Sampling Plan for Closure of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and Land Application Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This field sampling plan describes sampling of the soil/liner of Lagoon 3 at the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant. The lagoon is to be closed, and samples obtained from the soil/liner will provide information to determine if Lagoon 3 and the land application area can be closed in a manner that renders it safe to human health and the environment. Samples collected under this field sampling plan will be compared to Idaho National Laboratory background soil concentrations. If the concentrations of constituents of concern exceed the background level, they will be compared to Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act preliminary remediation goals and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels. If the concentrations of constituents of concern are lower than the background levels, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels, or the preliminary remediation goals, then Lagoon 3 and the land application area will be closed. If the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels and/or the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act preliminary remediation goals are exceeded, additional sampling and action may be required.

  19. Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. Facility description - Layout E. Spiral ramp with one operational area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Stig [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Forsgren, Ebbe [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Lange, Fritz [Lange Art AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    below ground. The proposal is based on a hypothetical inland location with a rail link. The report describes a layout with a spiral ramp as access to the deposition area and with a single operational area above ground. The ramp will be used as a transport route for heavy and bulky transports. A shaft, that connects the operational area with the central area of the deposition area, is used for utility systems and for staff transports between the surface and the deposition area. It has been assumed that the deposition areas and the central area are on the same level. The appendix, describing a two level alternative, shows how the underground area could be arranged if the deposition area for regular operation were to be divided into two levels. The facility description concentrates on the situation during regular operation. It also describes the gradual expansion programme, including land requirements and connections to existing infrastructure. The report concludes with some perspective sketches, which give a vision of how the repository might look when ready for operation. This facility description is a translation of the Swedish SKB report R-02-18. It is important to note that the report gives an example of one possible design for the deep repository. Many issues concerning system design, functional solutions, layout and design ought to be investigated further before deciding on the final design.

  20. Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. Facility description - Layout E. Spiral ramp with one operational area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, Stig; Forsgren, Ebbe; Lange, Fritz

    2002-04-01

    ground. The proposal is based on a hypothetical inland location with a rail link. The report describes a layout with a spiral ramp as access to the deposition area and with a single operational area above ground. The ramp will be used as a transport route for heavy and bulky transports. A shaft, that connects the operational area with the central area of the deposition area, is used for utility systems and for staff transports between the surface and the deposition area. It has been assumed that the deposition areas and the central area are on the same level. The appendix, describing a two level alternative, shows how the underground area could be arranged if the deposition area for regular operation were to be divided into two levels. The facility description concentrates on the situation during regular operation. It also describes the gradual expansion programme, including land requirements and connections to existing infrastructure. The report concludes with some perspective sketches, which give a vision of how the repository might look when ready for operation. This facility description is a translation of the Swedish SKB report R-02-18. It is important to note that the report gives an example of one possible design for the deep repository. Many issues concerning system design, functional solutions, layout and design ought to be investigated further before deciding on the final design

  1. Catchment Dispersion Mechanisms in an Urban Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironas, J. A.; Mejia, A.; Rossel, F.; Rinaldo, A.; Rodriguez, F.

    2014-12-01

    Dispersion mechanisms have been examined in-depth in natural catchments in previous studies. However, these dispersion mechanisms have been studied little in urban catchments, where artificial transport elements and morphological arrangements are expected to modify travel times and mobilize excess rainfall from spatially distributed impervious sites. Thus, these features can modify the variance of the catchment's travel times and hence the total dispersion. This work quantifies the dispersion mechanisms in an urban catchment using the theory of transport by travel times as represented by the Urban Morpho-climatic Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph (U-McIUH) model. This model computes travel times based on kinematic wave theory and accounts explicitly for the path heterogeneities and altered connectivity patterns characteristic of an urban drainage network. The analysis is illustrated using the Aubinière urban catchment (France) as a case study. We found that kinematic dispersion is dominant for small rainfall intensities, whereas geomorphologic dispersion becomes more dominant for larger intensities. The total dispersion scales with the drainage area in a power law fashion. The kinematic dispersion is dominant across spatial scales up to a threshold of approximately 2-3 km2, after which the geomorphologic dispersion becomes more dominant. Overall, overland flow is responsible for most of the dispersion, while conduits tend to counteract the increase of the geomorphologic dispersion with a negative kinematic dispersion. Further studies with other catchments are needed to assess whether the latter is a general feature of urban drainage networks.

  2. Final characterization report for the non-process areas of the 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encke, D.B.; Harris, R.A.

    1997-04-01

    This report addresses the 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility characterization survey data collected from January 21, 1997 through February 3, 1997. The characterization activities evaluated the radiological status and identified the hazardous materials locations. The scope of this report is limited to the nonprocess areas in the facility, which include the special work permit (SWP) change room, toilet, equipment room, electrical cubicle, control room, and pipe gallery. A portion of the roof (excluding the roof over the process hood and viewing room) was also included. Information in this report will be used to identify waste streams, provide specific chemical and radiological data to aid in planning decontamination and demolition activities, and allow proper disposal of the demolition debris, as required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980

  3. Allowable residual-contamination levels for decommissioning facilities in the 100 areas of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.

    1983-07-01

    This report contains the results of a study sponsored by UNC Nuclear Industries to determine Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for five generic categories of facilities in the 100 Areas of the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to provide ARCL data useful to UNC engineers in conducting safety and cost comparisons for decommissioning alternatives. The ARCL results are based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for three specific modes of future use of the land and facilities. These modes of use are restricted, controlled, and unrestricted. The information on ARCL values for restricted and controlled use provided by this report is intended to permit a full consideration of decommissioning alternatives. ARCL results are presented both for surface contamination remaining in facilities (in dpm/100 cm 2 ), and for unconfined surface and confined subsurface soil conditions (in pCi/g). Two confined soil conditions are considered: contamination at depths between 1 and 4 m, and contamination at depths greater than or equal to 5 m. A set of worksheets are presented in an appendix for modifying the ARCL values to accommodate changes in the radionuclide mixture or concentrations, to consider the impacts of radioactive decay, and to predict instrument responses. Finally, a comparison is made between the unrestricted release ARCL values for the 100 Area facilities and existing decommissioning and land disposal regulations. For surface contamination, the comparison shows good agreement. For soil contamination, the comparison shows good agreement if reasonable modification factors are applied to account for the differences in modeling soil contamination and licensed low-level waste

  4. Selection of possible candidate area for nuclear energy facility in Johor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Afifah Basri; Ahmad Termizi Ramli

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power is considered as one of the best option for future energy development in Malaysia. Since Malaysia has no experience in nuclear energy generation, commissioning the first nuclear power plant needs tremendous effort in various aspects. Site selection is one of important step in nuclear power plant commissioning process. This paper proposes candidate sites for nuclear power plant in Mersing, Kota Tinggi, Muar and Batu Pahat district in Johor, Malaysia. The candidate selection process uses the IAEA document and AELB guideline as main reference, supported by site selection procedure by various countries. MapInfo Professional software was used to stimulate the selection process for candidate areas for the nuclear power plant. This paper concluded that Tenggaroh and Jemaluang area are the most suitable area for nuclear power plant facilities in Johor, Malaysia. (Author)

  5. WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units and Areas of Concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII, Permit Condition VII.U.3 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit) (New Mexico Environment Department [NMED], 1999a), and incorporates comments from the NMED received on December 6, 2000 (NMED, 2000a). This February 2002 FWP describes the programmatic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMU) and Areas of Concern (AOC) specified in the Permit. The Permittees are evaluating data from previous investigations of the SWMUs and AOCs against the most recent guidance proposed by the NMED. Based on these data, and completion of the August 2001 sampling requested by the NMED, the Permittees expect that no further sampling will be required and that a request for No Further Action (NFA) at the SWMUs and AOCs will be submitted to the NMED. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the facility's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA processcan be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to the NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable

  6. Analyzing catchment behavior through catchment modeling in the Gilgel Abay, Upper Blue Nile River Basin, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Uhlenbrook

    2010-10-01

    model runs per catchment representation explained the different hydrologic responses of the two sub-catchments, which seems to be mainly caused by the presence of dambos in Koga sub-catchment. It is concluded that daily model transferability is not feasible, while it can produce acceptable results for the 15 and 30 days models. This is very useful for water resources planning and management, but not sufficient to capture detailed hydrological processes in an ungauged area.

  7. Facility effluent monitoring plan for K Area Spent Fuel. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunacek, G.S.

    1995-09-01

    The scope of this document includes program plans for monitoring and characterizing radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous materials discharged in the K Area effluents. This FEMP includes complete documentation for both airborne and liquid effluent monitoring systems that monitor radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous pollutants that could be discharged to the environment under routine and/or upset conditions. This documentation is provided for each K Area facility that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant quantities of radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous materials that could impact public and employee safety and the environment. This FEW describes the airborne and liquid effluent paths and the associated sampling and monitoring systems of the K Area facilities. Sufficient information is provided on the effluent characteristics and the effluent monitoring systems so that a compliance assessment against requirements may be performed. Adequate details are supplied such that radioactive and hazardous material source terms may be related to specific effluent streams which are, in turn, related to discharge points and finally compared to the effluent monitoring system capability

  8. Alien freshwater polychaetes Hypania invalida (Grube 1860 and Laonome calida Capa 2007 in the Upper Odra River (Baltic Sea catchment area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabis Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two polychaete species, Hypania invalida and Laonome calida, were found in the Upper Odra River in 2016. Both species were recorded close to a natural river bank down to 1 m depths. They inhabited sandy-gravelly and sandy-muddy sediments. H. invalida is an alien invasive Ponto-Caspian species, previously known in Poland from the Odra River estuary only. Our results may indicate a further rapid dispersal of H. invalida upstream the Odra River or an accidental introduction. This study is the first record of L. calida in the Baltic Sea catchment. This Australian species has been recently introduced into Europe. Prior to this study, it had been reported from Dutch rivers only. The present data suggest accidental introduction of the species to European rivers; however, our findings show an urgent need for a close monitoring of the polychaete in Europe.

  9. Integrated social facility location planning for decision support: Accessibility studies provide support to facility location and integration of social service provision

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, Cheri A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available for two or more facilities to create an integrated plan for development Step 6 Costing of development plan Case Study Access norms and thresholds guidelines in accessibility analysis Appropriate norms/provision guidelines facilitate both service... access norms and threshold standards ?Test the relationship between service demand and the supply (service capacity) of the facility provision points within a defined catchment area ?Promote the ?right?sizing? of facilities relative to the demand...

  10. Hypergol Maintenance Facility Hazardous Waste South Staging Areas, SWMU 070 Corrective Measures Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ralinda R.

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the Corrective Measures Implementation (CMI) Year 10 Annual Report for implementation of corrective measures at the Hypergol Maintenance Facility (HMF) Hazardous Waste South Staging Areas at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The work is being performed by Tetra Tech, Inc., for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) NNK12CA15B, Task Order (TO) 07. Mr. Harry Plaza, P.E., of NASA's Environmental Assurance Branch is the Remediation Project Manager for John F. Kennedy Space Center. The Tetra Tech Program Manager is Mr. Mark Speranza, P.E., and the Tetra Tech Project Manager is Robert Simcik, P.E.

  11. PCB usage at the Grand Junction Area Office Facility. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.E.; Donivan, S.

    1982-06-01

    The development, implementation, and results of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) identification project at the Grand Junction Area Office (GJAO) are summarized. Methodology for the PCB analysis is described, and results are tabulated. Of the 51 transformers and disconnects in use at GJAO, 15 unites were determined to be PCB-contaminated or filled with PCBs. This number falls within EPA's estimate of 25 to 40 percent of all transformers in use being at least contaminated. Approximately 324 gallons of PCBs and 515 gallons of PCB-contaminated fluids are being used currently. No contaminated transformers or disconnects are in a position to contaminate food or feed products at the facility

  12. Radio-Ecological Conditions of Groundwater in the Area of Uranium Mining and Milling Facility - 13525

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titov, A.V.; Semenova, M.P.; Seregin, V.A.; Isaev, D.V.; Metlyaev, E.G. [FSBU SRC A.I.Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of FMBA of Russia, Zhivopisnaya Street, 46, Moscow (Russian Federation); Glagolev, A.V.; Klimova, T.I.; Sevtinova, E.B. [FSESP ' Hydrospecgeologiya' (Russian Federation); Zolotukhina, S.B.; Zhuravleva, L.A. [FSHE ' Centre of Hygiene and Epidemiology no. 107' under FMBA of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Manmade chemical and radioactive contamination of groundwater is one of damaging effects of the uranium mining and milling facilities. Groundwater contamination is of special importance for the area of Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association, JSC 'PPMCA', because groundwater is the only source of drinking water. The paper describes natural conditions of the site, provides information on changes of near-surface area since the beginning of the company, illustrates the main trends of contaminators migration and assesses manmade impact on the quality and mode of near-surface and ground waters. The paper also provides the results of chemical and radioactive measurements in groundwater at various distances from the sources of manmade contamination to the drinking water supply areas. We show that development of deposits, mine water discharge, leakages from tailing dams and cinder storage facility changed general hydro-chemical balance of the area, contributed to new (overlaid) aureoles and flows of scattering paragenetic uranium elements, which are much smaller in comparison with natural ones. However, increasing flow of groundwater stream at the mouth of Sukhoi Urulyungui due to technological water infiltration, mixing of natural water with filtration streams from industrial reservoirs and sites, containing elevated (relative to natural background) levels of sulfate-, hydro-carbonate and carbonate- ions, led to the development and moving of the uranium contamination aureole from the undeveloped field 'Polevoye' to the water inlet area. The aureole front crossed the southern border of water inlet of drinking purpose. The qualitative composition of groundwater, especially in the southern part of water inlet, steadily changes for the worse. The current Russian intervention levels of gross alpha activity and of some natural radionuclides including {sup 222}Rn are in excess in drinking water; regulations for fluorine and manganese

  13. Radio-Ecological Conditions of Groundwater in the Area of Uranium Mining and Milling Facility - 13525

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titov, A.V.; Semenova, M.P.; Seregin, V.A.; Isaev, D.V.; Metlyaev, E.G.; Glagolev, A.V.; Klimova, T.I.; Sevtinova, E.B.; Zolotukhina, S.B.; Zhuravleva, L.A.

    2013-01-01

    Manmade chemical and radioactive contamination of groundwater is one of damaging effects of the uranium mining and milling facilities. Groundwater contamination is of special importance for the area of Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association, JSC 'PPMCA', because groundwater is the only source of drinking water. The paper describes natural conditions of the site, provides information on changes of near-surface area since the beginning of the company, illustrates the main trends of contaminators migration and assesses manmade impact on the quality and mode of near-surface and ground waters. The paper also provides the results of chemical and radioactive measurements in groundwater at various distances from the sources of manmade contamination to the drinking water supply areas. We show that development of deposits, mine water discharge, leakages from tailing dams and cinder storage facility changed general hydro-chemical balance of the area, contributed to new (overlaid) aureoles and flows of scattering paragenetic uranium elements, which are much smaller in comparison with natural ones. However, increasing flow of groundwater stream at the mouth of Sukhoi Urulyungui due to technological water infiltration, mixing of natural water with filtration streams from industrial reservoirs and sites, containing elevated (relative to natural background) levels of sulfate-, hydro-carbonate and carbonate- ions, led to the development and moving of the uranium contamination aureole from the undeveloped field 'Polevoye' to the water inlet area. The aureole front crossed the southern border of water inlet of drinking purpose. The qualitative composition of groundwater, especially in the southern part of water inlet, steadily changes for the worse. The current Russian intervention levels of gross alpha activity and of some natural radionuclides including 222 Rn are in excess in drinking water; regulations for fluorine and manganese concentrations are also in excess

  14. Catchment-scale evaluation of pollution potential of urban snow at two residential catchments in southern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillanpää, Nora; Koivusalo, Harri

    2013-01-01

    Despite the crucial role of snow in the hydrological cycle in cold climate conditions, monitoring studies of urban snow quality often lack discussions about the relevance of snow in the catchment-scale runoff management. In this study, measurements of snow quality were conducted at two residential catchments in Espoo, Finland, simultaneously with continuous runoff measurements. The results of the snow quality were used to produce catchment-scale estimates of areal snow mass loads (SML). Based on the results, urbanization reduced areal snow water equivalent but increased pollutant accumulation in snow: SMLs in a medium-density residential catchment were two- to four-fold higher in comparison with a low-density residential catchment. The main sources of pollutants were related to vehicular traffic and road maintenance, but also pet excrement increased concentrations to a high level. Ploughed snow can contain 50% of the areal pollutant mass stored in snow despite its small surface area within a catchment.

  15. Performance test of personal RF monitor for area monitoring at magnetic confinement fusion facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, M.; Uda, T.; Wang, J.; Fujiwara, O.

    2012-01-01

    For safety management at a magnetic confinement fusion-test facility, protection from not only ionising radiation, but also non-ionising radiation such as the leakage of static magnetic and electromagnetic fields is an important issue. Accordingly, the use of a commercially available personal RF monitor for multipoint area monitoring is proposed. In this study, the performance of both fast- and slow-type personal RF monitors was investigated by using a transverse electromagnetic cell system. The range of target frequencies was between 10 and 300 MHz, corresponding to the ion cyclotron range of frequency in a fusion device. The personal RF monitor was found to have good linearity, frequency dependence and isotropic response. However, the time constant for the electric field sensor of the slow-type monitor was much longer than that for the fast-type monitor. Considering the time-varying field at the facility, it is found that the fast-type monitor is suitable for multipoint monitoring at magnetic confinement fusion test facilities. (authors)

  16. 2010 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike lewis

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2009, through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2010 permit year, approximately 2.2 million gallons of treated wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area at Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment plant.

  17. Diatoms as a fingerprint of sub-catchment contributions to meso-scale catchment runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Julian; Wetzel, Carlos E.; Martinez-Carreras, Nuria; Ector, Luc; Pfister, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, calls were made for new eco-hydrological approaches to improve understanding of hydrological processes. Recently diatoms, one of the most common and diverse algal groups that can be easily transported by flowing water due to their small size (~10-200 µm), were used to detect the onset and cessation of surface runoff to small headwater streams and constrain isotopic and hydro-chemical hydrograph separation methods. While the method showed its potential in the hillslope-riparian zone-stream continuum of headwater catchments, the behavior of diatoms and their use for hydrological process research in meso-scale catchments remains uncertain. Diatoms can be a valuable support for isotope and hydro-chemical tracer methods when these become ambiguous with increasing scale. Distribution and abundance of diatom species is controlled by various environmental factors (pH, soil type, moisture conditions, exposition to sunlight, etc.). We therefore hypothesize that species abundance and composition can be used as a proxy for source areas. This presentation evaluates the potential for diatoms to trace source-areas in the nested meso-scale Attert River basin (250 km2, Luxembourg, Europe). We sampled diatom populations in streamwater during one flood event in Fall 2011 in 6 sub-catchments and the basin outlet - 17 to 28 samples/catchment for the different sampling locations. Diatoms were classified and counted in every individual sample. In total more than 400 diatom species were detected. Ordination analysis revealed a clear distinction between communities sampled in different sub-catchments. The species composition at the catchment outlet reflects a mixing of the diatom composition originating from different sub-catchments. This data suggests that diatoms indeed can reflect the geographic origin of stream water at the catchment outlet. The centroids of the ordination analysis might be linked to the physiographic characteristics (geology and land use) of the

  18. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.; Hunt, P.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1994-04-15

    The E-Area Vaults (EAVs) located on a 200 acre site immediately north of the current LLW burial site at Savannah River Site will provide a new disposal and storage site for solid, low-level, non-hazardous radioactive waste. The EAV Disposal Facility will contain several large concrete vaults divided into cells. Three types of structures will house four designated waste types. The Intermediate Level Non-Tritium Vaults will receive waste radiating greater than 200 mR/h at 5 cm from the outer disposal container. The Intermediate Level Tritium Vaults will receive waste with at least 10 Ci of tritium per package. These two vaults share a similar design, are adjacent, share waste handling equipment, and will be closed as one facility. The second type of structure is the Low Activity Waste Vaults which will receive waste radiating less than 200 mR/h at 5 cm from the outer disposal container and containing less than 10 Ci of tritium per package. The third facility, the Long Lived Waste Storage Building, provides covered, long term storage for waste containing long lived isotopes. Two additional types of disposal are proposed: (1) trench disposal of suspect soil, (2) naval reactor component disposal. To evaluate the long-term performance of the EAVs, site-specific conceptual models were developed to consider: (1) exposure pathways and scenarios of potential importance; (2) potential releases from the facility to the environment; (3) effects of degradation of engineered features; (4) transport in the environment; (5) potential doses received from radionuclides of interest in each vault type.

  19. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Hunt, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    The E-Area Vaults (EAVs) located on a 200 acre site immediately north of the current LLW burial site at Savannah River Site will provide a new disposal and storage site for solid, low-level, non-hazardous radioactive waste. The EAV Disposal Facility will contain several large concrete vaults divided into cells. Three types of structures will house four designated waste types. The Intermediate Level Non-Tritium Vaults will receive waste radiating greater than 200 mR/h at 5 cm from the outer disposal container. The Intermediate Level Tritium Vaults will receive waste with at least 10 Ci of tritium per package. These two vaults share a similar design, are adjacent, share waste handling equipment, and will be closed as one facility. The second type of structure is the Low Activity Waste Vaults which will receive waste radiating less than 200 mR/h at 5 cm from the outer disposal container and containing less than 10 Ci of tritium per package. The third facility, the Long Lived Waste Storage Building, provides covered, long term storage for waste containing long lived isotopes. Two additional types of disposal are proposed: (1) trench disposal of suspect soil, (2) naval reactor component disposal. To evaluate the long-term performance of the EAVs, site-specific conceptual models were developed to consider: (1) exposure pathways and scenarios of potential importance; (2) potential releases from the facility to the environment; (3) effects of degradation of engineered features; (4) transport in the environment; (5) potential doses received from radionuclides of interest in each vault type

  20. Identification of Vital Areas at Nuclear Facilities. Technical Guidance (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    nuclear installations against sabotage are contained in IAEA Nuclear Security Series No. 13, Nuclear Security Recommendations on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities (INFCIRC/225/Revision 5). After the attacks of 11 September 2001, the perception of the potential terrorist threat to nuclear installations changed significantly, and the IAEA initiated an effort to develop a series of guidance publications on the security of nuclear and radioactive material and facilities. This publication presents a structured approach to identifying the areas that contain equipment, systems, and components to be protected against sabotage. It specifically provides detailed guidance with regard to the identification of vital areas, that is, the areas to be protected in high consequence facilities. However, the process described is applicable to the identification of areas that should be protected at any nuclear facility. The method builds upon safety analyses to develop sabotage logic models for sabotage scenarios that could cause unacceptable radiological consequences. The sabotage actions represented in the logic models are linked to the areas from which they can be accomplished. The logic models are then analysed to determine areas that should be protected to prevent these unacceptable radiological consequences

  1. An aerial radiological survey of the Saxton Nuclear Experimental Corporation facility and surrounding area, Saxton, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, R.A.

    1991-10-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period July 5 to 22, 1989, over an 83-square kilometer (32-square-mile) area surrounding the Saxton Nuclear Experimental Corporation (SNEC) facility which is owned by General Public Utilities and located near Saxton, Pennsylvania. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) with line spacings of 91 meters (300 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a set of United States Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps of the area. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from about 9 to 11 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) over most of the survey area. The levels over the SNEC family did not differ from the exposure rates seen over the entire survey area. Cesium-137 (Cs-137) levels typical of worldwide fallout deposition were detected throughout the surveyed area. No other trends of Cs-137 were observed. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at six locations within the survey boundaries to support the aerial data

  2. A facile alternative technique for large-area graphene transfer via sacrificial polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Auchter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel method of transferring large-area graphene sheets onto a variety of substrates using Formvar (polyvinyl formal is presented. Due to the ease at which formvar can be dissolved in chloroform this method allows for a consistent, a clean, and a more rapid transfer than other techniques including the PMMA assisted one. This novel transfer method is demonstrated by transferring large-area graphene onto a range of substrates including commercial TEM grids, silicon dioxide and glass. Raman spectroscopy was used to confirm the presence of graphene and characterize the morphological properties of the large-area sheets. SEM and AFM analyses demonstrated the effectiveness of our rapid transfer technique for clean crystalline large-area graphene sheets. The removal of the sacrificial polymer was found to be one to two orders of magnitude faster than PMMA methods. Ultimately this facile transfer technique offers new opportunities for a wide range of applications for large-area graphene through the utilization of a new sacrificial polymer.

  3. A national study on nurses' retention in healthcare facilities in underserved areas in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Alameddine, Mohamad; Jamal, Diana; Dimassi, Hani; Dumit, Nuhad Y; McEwen, Mary K; Jaafar, Maha; Murray, Susan F

    2013-09-30

    Nursing shortages and maldistribution are priority issues for healthcare systems around the globe. Such imbalances are often aggravated in underserved areas, especially in developing countries. Despite the centrality of this issue, there is a dearth of studies that examine the retention of nurses in underserved areas in the Middle East Region. This study investigates the characteristic and the factors associated with the retention of nurses working in rural areas in Lebanon. This study uses a non-experimental cross-sectional design to survey nurses working in underserved areas of Lebanon. Underserved areas in Lebanon were identified using WHO definition. A total of 103 health facilities (hospitals and primary healthcare centers) located in these areas were identified and all nurses working at these facilities received a copy of the survey questionnaire. The questionnaire included five sections: demographic, work-life, career plan, job satisfaction, and assessment of work environment. Analysis included univariate and bivariate (chi-square, Student's t-test and ANOVA) tests to describe the respondents and examine the significance between nurses' characteristics and their intent to stay. A logistic regression model was constructed to identify factors associated with nurses' intent to stay in underserved areas. A total of 857 nurses from 63 Primary Healthcare (PHC) centers and hospitals responded to the questionnaire (75.5% response rate). Only 35.1% of nurses indicated their intent to stay in their current job over the coming one to three years. Surveyed nurses were most satisfied with relationship with co-workers and least satisfied with extrinsic rewards. Rural nurses working in PHC centers were more satisfied than their hospital counterparts on all aspects of work and had significantly higher intention to stay (62.5% compared to 31.5% in hospitals, P job satisfaction and their intent to stay. This study reveals poor retention of nurses in rural and underserved

  4. Groundwater monitoring plan for the Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DB Barnett

    2000-01-01

    Seven years of groundwater monitoring at the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) have shown that the uppermost aquifer beneath the facility is unaffected by TEDF effluent. Effluent discharges have been well below permitted and expected volumes. Groundwater mounding from TEDF operations predicted by various models has not been observed, and waterlevels in TEDF wells have continued declining with the dissipation of the nearby B Pond System groundwater mound. Analytical results for constituents with enforcement limits indicate that concentrations of all these are below Practical Quantitation Limits, and some have produced no detections. Likewise, other constituents on the permit-required list have produced results that are mostly below sitewide background. Comprehensive geochemical analyses of groundwater from TEDF wells has shown that most constituents are below background levels as calculated by two Hanford Site-wide studies. Additionally, major ion proportions and anomalously low tritium activities suggest that groundwater in the aquifer beneath the TEDF has been sequestered from influences of adjoining portions of the aquifer and any discharge activities. This inference is supported by recent hydrogeologic investigations which indicate an extremely slow rate of groundwater movement beneath the TEDF. Detailed evaluation of TEDF-area hydrogeology and groundwater geochemistry indicate that additional points of compliance for groundwater monitoring would be ineffective for this facility, and would produce ambiguous results. Therefore, the current groundwater monitoring well network is retained for continued monitoring. A quarterly frequency of sampling and analysis is continued for all three TEDF wells. The constituents list is refined to include only those parameters key to discerning subtle changes in groundwater chemistry, those useful in detecting general groundwater quality changes from upgradient sources, or those retained for comparison with end

  5. French practice in the area of seismic hazard assessment on nuclear facility sites and related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadioun, B.

    1986-06-01

    The methodology put into practice in the analysis of seismic hazard on the site of a nuclear facility relies upon a deterministic approach and endeavors to account for the particularities of every site considered insofar as available data and techniques allow. The calculation of a seismic reference motion for use in the facilities' design calls upon two basic sets of data. Regional seismicity over the past millennium, from historical sources, revised while preparing the seismotectonic map of France, is fundamental to this analysis. It is completed by instrumental data from the last quarter century. A collection of strong-motion accelerograph data from seismic areas worldwide reflects a variety of source characteristics and site conditions. A critical overview of current practice in France and elsewhere highlights shortcomings and areas of particular need both in experimental data and in methodology, and namely the scarcity of near-field data, the predominance of California records, and inaccurate approaches to integrating soil effects into ground-motion calculations. 16 refs

  6. Evaluation of groundwater monitoring results at the Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D.B.

    1998-09-01

    The Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) has operated since June 1995. Groundwater monitoring has been conducted quarterly in the three wells surrounding the facility since 1992, with contributing data from nearby B Pond System wells. Cumulative hydrologic and geochemical information from the TEDF well network and other surrounding wells indicate no discernable effects of TEDF operations on the uppermost aquifer in the vicinity of the TEDF. The lateral consistency and impermeable nature of the Ringold Formation lower mud unit, and the contrasts in hydraulic conductivity between this unit and the vadose zone sediments of the Hanford formation suggest that TEDF effluent is spreading laterally with negligible mounding or downward movement into the uppermost aquifer. Hydrographs of TEDF wells show that TEDF operations have had no detectable effects on hydraulic heads in the uppermost aquifer, but show a continuing decay of the hydraulic mound generated by past operations at the B Pond System. Comparison of groundwater geochemistry from TEDF wells and other, nearby RCRA wells suggests that groundwater beneath TEDF is unique; different from both effluent entering TEDF and groundwater in the B Pond area. Tritium concentrations, major ionic proportions, and lower-than-background concentrations of other species suggest that groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the TEDF bears characteristics of water in the upper basalt confined aquifer system. This report recommends retaining the current groundwater well network at the TEDF, but with a reduction of sampling/analysis frequency and some modifications to the list of constituents sought

  7. Statistical evaluation of effluent monitoring data for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C.J.; Johnson, V.G.

    2000-01-01

    The 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) consists of a pair of infiltration basins that receive wastewater originating from the 200 West and 200 East Areas of the Hanford Site. TEDF has been in operation since 1995 and is regulated by State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4502 (Ecology 1995) under the authority of Chapter 90.48 Revised Code of Washington (RCW) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 173-216. The permit stipulates monitoring requirements for effluent (or end-of-pipe) discharges and groundwater monitoring for TEDF. Groundwater monitoring began in 1992 prior to TEDF construction. Routine effluent monitoring in accordance with the permit requirements began in late April 1995 when the facility began operations. The State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4502 included a special permit condition (S.6). This condition specified a statistical study of the variability of permitted constituents in the effluent from TEDF during its first year of operation. The study was designed to (1) demonstrate compliance with the waste discharge permit; (2) determine the variability of all constituents in the effluent that have enforcement limits, early warning values, and monitoring requirements (WHC 1995); and (3) determine if concentrations of permitted constituents vary with season. Additional and more frequent sampling was conducted for the effluent variability study. Statistical evaluation results were provided in Chou and Johnson (1996). Parts of the original first year sampling and analysis plan (WHC 1995) were continued with routine monitoring required up to the present time

  8. Savannah River Plant engineering and design history. Volume 4: 300/700 Areas & general services and facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-01-01

    The primary function of the 300 Area is the production and preparation of the fuel and target elements required for the 100 Area production reactors. Uranium slugs and lithium-aluminium alloy control and blanket rods are prepared in separate structures. Other facilities include a test pile, a physics assembly laboratory, an office and change house, an electrical substation, and various service facilities such as rail lines, roads, sewers, steam and water distribution lines, etc. The 700 Area contains housing and facilities for plant management, general plant services, and certain technical activities. The technical buildings include the Main Technical Laboratory, the Waste Concentration Building, the Health Physics Headquarters, and the Health Physics Calibration building. Sections of this report describe the following: development of the 300-M Area; selection and description of process; design of main facilities of the 300 Area; development of the 700-A Area; design of the main facilities of the 700 Area; and general services and facilities, including transportation, plant protection, waste disposal and drainage, site work, pilot plants, storage, and furniture and fixtures.

  9. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 (Version 2.1) Catchments for the Conterminous United States: Facility Registry Services (FRS) : Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) , National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) , and Superfund Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the estimated density of georeferenced sites within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds based on the...

  10. Prediction of daily spring hydrographs for future climatic scenarios based on an integrated numerical modelling approach: Application on a snow-governed semi- arid karst catchment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doummar, J.; Kassem, A.; Gurdak, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    In the framework of a three-year USAID/NSF- funded PEER Science project, flow in a karst system in Lebanon (Assal Spring; discharge 0.2-2.5 m3/s yearly volume of 22-30 Mm3) dominated by snow and semi arid conditions was simulated using an integrated numerical model (Mike She 2016). The calibrated model (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of 0.77) is based on high resolution input data (2014-2017) and detailed catchment characterization. The approach is to assess the influence of various model parameters on recharge signals in the different hydrological karst compartments (Atmosphere, unsaturated zone, and saturated zone) based on an integrated numerical model. These parameters include precipitation intensity and magnitude, temperature, snow-melt parameters, in addition to karst specific spatially distributed features such as fast infiltration points, soil properties and thickness, topographical slopes, Epikarst and thickness of unsaturated zone, and hydraulic conductivity among others. Moreover, the model is currently simulated forward using various scenarios for future climate (Global Climate Models GCM; daily downscaled temperature and precipitation time series for Lebanon 2020-2045) in order to depict the flow rates expected in the future and the effect of climate change on hydrographs recession coefficients, discharge maxima and minima, and total spring discharge volume . Additionally, a sensitivity analysis of individual or coupled major parameters allows quantifying their impact on recharge or indirectly on the vulnerability of the system (soil thickness, soil and rock hydraulic conductivity appear to be amongst the highly sensitive parameters). This study particularly unravels the normalized single effect of rain magnitude and intensity, snow, and temperature change on the flow rate (e.g., a change of temperature of 3° on the catchment yields a Residual Mean Square Error RMSE of 0.15 m3/s in the spring discharge and a 16% error in the total annual volume with

  11. Savannah River Site plan for performing maintenance in Federal Facility Agreement areas (O and M Plan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Savannah River Site was placed on the National Priority List (NPL) in December 1989 and became subject to comprehensive remediation in accordance with CERCLA. The FFA, effective August 16, 1993, establishes the requirements for Site investigation and remediation of releases and potential releases of hazardous substances, and interim status corrective action for releases of hazardous wastes or hazardous constituents. It was determined that further direction was needed for the Operating Departments regarding operation and maintenance activities within those areas listed in the FFA. The Plan for Performing Maintenance (O and M Plan) provides this additional direction. Section 4.0 addresses the operation and maintenance activities necessary for continued operation of the facilities in areas identified as RCRA/CERCLA Units or Site Evaluation Areas. Certain types of the O and M activity could be construed as a remedial or removal action. The intent of this Plan is to provide direction for conducting operation and maintenance activities that are not intended to be remedial or removal actions. The Plan identifies the locations of the units and areas, defines intrusive O and M activities, classifies the intrusive activity as either minor or major, and identifies the requirements, approvals, and documentation necessary to perform the activity in a manner that is protective of human health and the environment; and minimizes any potential impact to any future removal and remedial actions

  12. An aerial radiological survey of the Babcock and Wilcox Nuclear Facilities and surrounding area, Lynchburg, Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guss, P.P.

    1993-04-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted from July 18 through July 25, 1988, over a 41-square-kilometer (16-square-mile) area surrounding the Babcock and Wilcox nuclear facilities located near Lynchburg, Virginia. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) with line spacings of 91 meters (300 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from 8 to 12 microroentgens per hour (μR/h). A search of the data for man-made radiation sources revealed the presence of three areas of high count rates in the survey area. Spectra accumulated over the main plant showed the presence of cobalt-60 ( 60 Co) and cesium-137 ( 137 Cs). A second area near the main plant indicated the presence of uranium-235 ( 235 U). Protactinium-234m ( 234m Pa) and 60 Co Were detected over a building to the east of the main plant. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries in support of the aerial data

  13. Pilot-scale ultrafiltration testing for the F and H area effluent treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    An F and H Area Effluent Treatment Facility (F/H ETF) is being designed to treat low activity aqueous effluents which are produced from F and H Area daily operations. The treatment scheme for the F/H ETF will include pretreatment (pH adjustment and filtration) followed by Reverse Osmosis and/or Ion Exchange to remove dissolved species. Several alternative treatment processes are being considered for the F/H ETF. One of the alternatives in the pretreatment step is tubular Ultrafiltration (UF), using a dynamically formed zirconium oxide membrane supported on a porous stainless steel backing. Pilot-scale testing with a single membrane module (13 ft 2 area) and 200-Area effluent simulant has demonstrated that UF is a viable filtration option for the F/H ETF. UF testing at TNX has defined the operating conditions necessary for extended operation and also demonstrated excellent filtration performance (filtrate SDI 2 /day) flux and will provide excellent pretreatment for both reverse osmosis and ion exchange. 2 refs

  14. A synoptic survey of ecosystem services from headwater catchments in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian H. Hill; Randall K. Kolka; Frank H. McCormick; Matthew A. Starry

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem production functions for water supply, climate regulation, and water purification were estimated for 568 headwater streams and their catchments. Results are reported for nine USA ecoregions. Headwater streams represented 74-80% of total catchment stream length. Water supply per unit catchment area was highest in the Northern Appalachian Mountains ecoregion...

  15. Suitable areas for a long-term radioactive waste storage facility in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, P.; Paiva, I.; Trindade, R. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Dept. de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal); Mateus, A. [Lisboa Univ., Dept. de Geologia and Creminer, Faculdade de Ciencias (Portugal)

    2006-07-01

    Radioactive wastes in Portugal result mainly from the application of radioactive materials in medicine, research, industry and from U-ores mining and milling activities. Sealed and unsealed sources (including liquid effluents and N.O.R.M.) classified as radioactive wastes have been collected, segregated, conditioned and stored in the Portuguese Radioactive Waste Interim Storage Facility (P.R.W.I.S.F.) since the sixties. The Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety Department (D.P.R.S.N.) of the Nuclear and Technological Institute (I.T.N.) is responsible for the R.W.I.S.F. management, located nearby Lisbon (S.a.c.a.v. ). Despite recent improvements performed at R.W.I.S.F., the 300 m3 storage capacity will be soon used up if current average store-rate remains unaltered. Being aware of the tendency for radioactive waste production increase in Portugal and of the international rules and recommendations on disposal sites for this kind of wastes, it becomes clear that the P.R.W.I.S.F. must be updated. In this work, a first evaluation of suitable areas to host a long-term radioactive waste storage facility was carried out using a Geographic Information System (G.I.S.) base. Preference and exclusionary criteria were applied, keeping constant the map scale (1:1000000). After processing exclusionary criteria, remaining areas were scored by overlaying three preference criteria. A composite score was determined for each polygon (problem solution) by summing the three preference criteria scores. The highest scores resulted from the combination of these criteria correspond to 4% of the territory, spatially distributed in seven of the eighteen Portuguese mainland administrative districts. Work in progress will use this area as reference for site selection, criss-crossing appropriate criteria for scales ranging from 1:50000 to 1:25000. (authors)

  16. Suitable areas for a long-term radioactive waste storage facility in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, P.; Paiva, I.; Trindade, R.; Mateus, A.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive wastes in Portugal result mainly from the application of radioactive materials in medicine, research, industry and from U-ores mining and milling activities. Sealed and unsealed sources (including liquid effluents and N.O.R.M.) classified as radioactive wastes have been collected, segregated, conditioned and stored in the Portuguese Radioactive Waste Interim Storage Facility (P.R.W.I.S.F.) since the sixties. The Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety Department (D.P.R.S.N.) of the Nuclear and Technological Institute (I.T.N.) is responsible for the R.W.I.S.F. management, located nearby Lisbon (S.a.c.a.v. ). Despite recent improvements performed at R.W.I.S.F., the 300 m3 storage capacity will be soon used up if current average store-rate remains unaltered. Being aware of the tendency for radioactive waste production increase in Portugal and of the international rules and recommendations on disposal sites for this kind of wastes, it becomes clear that the P.R.W.I.S.F. must be updated. In this work, a first evaluation of suitable areas to host a long-term radioactive waste storage facility was carried out using a Geographic Information System (G.I.S.) base. Preference and exclusionary criteria were applied, keeping constant the map scale (1:1000000). After processing exclusionary criteria, remaining areas were scored by overlaying three preference criteria. A composite score was determined for each polygon (problem solution) by summing the three preference criteria scores. The highest scores resulted from the combination of these criteria correspond to 4% of the territory, spatially distributed in seven of the eighteen Portuguese mainland administrative districts. Work in progress will use this area as reference for site selection, criss-crossing appropriate criteria for scales ranging from 1:50000 to 1:25000. (authors)

  17. Mobility and bioavailability of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn in surface runoff sediments in the urban catchment area of Guwahati, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Upama; Bhattacharyya, Krishna G.

    2018-03-01

    The sediments in stormwater runoff are recognised as the major sink of the heavy metals and affect the soil quality in the catchment. The runoff sediments are also important in the management of contaminant transport to receiving water bodies. In the present work, stormwater during several major rain events was collected from nine principal locations of Guwahati, India. The solid phase was separated from the liquid phase and was investigated for the total contents of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn as well as their distribution among the prominent chemical phases. Sequential extraction procedure was used for the chemical fractionation of the metals that contains five steps. The total metal concentration showed the trend, Cd < Co < Cu < Cr < Zn < Mn. The relative distribution of the metals showed that Cd was available mostly in the exchangeable and the carbonate bound fractions, which were the most mobile and high-risk fractions. Co with medium mobility was also found to be in the high-risk category. On the other hand, the mobilities of Cu and Zn were relatively low and these were, therefore, the least bioavailable metals in the runoff sediments falling in medium-risk category.

  18. Analysis of characteristics and radiation safety situation of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in north area of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ruilan; Li Jianhui; Wang Xiaoqing; Huang Mingquan

    2014-01-01

    According to the radiation safety management of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in north area of China, features and radiation safety conditions of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in north area of China were analyzed based on summarizing the inspection data for 2011-2013. So the main problems of radiation environment security on uranium mine were studied. The relevant management measures and recommendations were put forward, and the basis for environmental radiation safety management decision making of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in future was provided. (authors)

  19. Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, James P; Leyvraz, Magali; Sodani, Prahlad R; Aaron, Grant J; Sharma, Narottam D; Woodruff, Bradley A

    2016-01-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0-35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana's rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. In the catchment areas of Telangana's anganwadi centers, there is significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district. Future surveys in Telangana should measure the coverage of salt iodization in the general population using quantitative methods. Nonetheless, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers would help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana due to a large proportion of households producing their own rice and highly fragmented rice distribution. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana's public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population in Telangana.

  20. Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Wirth

    Full Text Available Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0-35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana's rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. In the catchment areas of Telangana's anganwadi centers, there is significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district. Future surveys in Telangana should measure the coverage of salt iodization in the general population using quantitative methods. Nonetheless, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers would help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana due to a large proportion of households producing their own rice and highly fragmented rice distribution. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana's public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population in Telangana.

  1. Fire criticality probability analysis for 300 Area N Reactor fuel fabrication and storage facility. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, J.E.

    1995-02-08

    Uranium fuel assemblies and other uranium associated with the shutdown N Reactor are stored in the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility (Facility). The 3712 Building, where the majority of the fuel assemblies and other uranium is stored, is where there could be a potential for a criticality bounding case. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the probability of potential fires in the Facility 3712 Building that could lead to criticality. This study has been done to support the criticality update. For criticality to occur, the wooden fuel assembly containers would have to burn such that the fuel inside would slump into a critical geometry configuration, a sufficient number of containers burn to form an infinite wide configuration, and sufficient water (about a 17 inch depth) be placed onto the slump. To obtain the appropriate geometric configuration, enough fuel assembly containers to form an infinite array on the floor would have to be stacked at least three high. Administrative controls require the stacks to be limited to two high for 1.25 wt% enriched finished fuel. This is not sufficient to allow for a critical mass regardless of the fire and accompanying water moderation. It should be noted that 0.95 wt% enriched fuel and billets are stacked higher than only two high. In this analysis, two initiating events will be considered. The first is a random fire that is hot enough and sufficiently long enough to burn away the containers and fuel separators such that the fuel can establish a critical mass. The second is a seismically induced fire with the same results.

  2. Fire hazards analysis for W-413, West Area Tank Farm Storage and Staging Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckfeldt, R.A.; Lott, D.T.

    1994-01-01

    In accordance with DOE Order 5480.7A, a Fire Hazards Analysis must be performed for all new facilities. The purpose of the analysis is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas in relation to proposed fire protection so as to ascertain whether the fire protection objectives of the Order are met. The Order acknowledges a graded approach commensurate with the hazards involved. Tank Farms Operations must sore/stage material and equipment such as pipes, fittings, conduit, instrumentation and others related items until work packages are ready to work. Consumable materials, such as nut, bolts and welding rod, are also requires to be stored for routine and emergency work. Connex boxes and open storage is currently used for much of the storage because of the limited space at and 272WA. Safety issues based on poor housekeeping and material deteriorating due to weather damage has resulted from this inadequate storage space. It has been determined that a storage building in close proximity to the Tank Farm work force would be cost effective. This facility is classified as a safety class 4 building

  3. Monitoring Plan for Fiscal Year 1999 Borehole Logging at 200 East Area Specific Retention Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    The Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project's vadose zone monitoring effort for fiscal year (FY) 1999 involves monitoring 30 boreholes for moisture content and gamma-ray emitting radionuclides. The boreholes are associated with specific retention trenches and cribs in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. The facilities to be monitored are the 216-A-2, -4, and -7 cribs, the 216-A-18 trench, the 216-B-14 through -19 cribs, the 216-B-20 through -34, -53A, and -58 trenches, the 216-B-35 through -42 trenches, and the 216-C-5 crib. This monitoring plan describes the facilities and the vadose zone at the cribs and trenches to be monitored; the field activities to be accomplished; the constituents of interest and the monitoring methods, including calibration issues; and the quality assurance and quality control requirements governing the monitoring effort. The results from the FY 1999 monitoring will show the current configuration of subsurface contamination and will be compared with past monitoring results to determine whether changes in contaminant distribution have occurred since the last monitoring effort

  4. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility, Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WELLS, DANIEL

    2005-01-01

    Groundwater monitoring has been conducted at the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility since 1987. At that time, groundwater monitoring was not required by the industrial landfill regulations, but a modest monitoring program was required by the operating permit. At the time of the 1996 permit renewal, it was determined that a more robust monitoring program was needed. The draft permit required new monitoring wells within 25 feet of each active disposal cell. As an alternative, SRS proposed a program based on direct push sampling. This program called for biennial direct push sampling within 25 feet of each waste-containing cell with additional samples being taken in areas where excessive cracking had been observed. The direct push proposal was accepted by The South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), and was incorporated by reference into the Z-Area Saltstone Industrial Solid Waste Permit, No.025500-1603. The Industrial Solid Waste Landfill Regulations were revised in 1998 and now include specific requirements for groundwater monitoring. SRS's plan for complying with those regulations is discussed below. The plan calls for a return to traditional monitoring with permanent wells. It also proposes a more technically sound monitoring list based on the actual composition of saltstone

  5. Target experimental area and systems of the Us national ignition facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, M.; Van Wonterghem, B.; MacGowan, B.J.; Hibbard, W.; Kalantar, D.; Lee, F.D.; Pittenger, L.; Wong, K.

    2000-01-01

    One of the major goals of the US National Ignition Facility is the demonstration of laser driven fusion ignition and burn of targets by inertial confinement and provide capability for a wide variety of high energy density physics experiments. The NIF target area houses the optical systems required to focus the 192 beamlets to a target precisely positioned at the center of the 10 meter diameter, 10-cm thick aluminum target chamber. The chamber serves as mounting surface for the 48 final optics assemblies, the target alignment and positioning equipment, and the target diagnostics. The internal surfaces of the chamber are protected by louvered steel beam dumps. The target area also provides the necessary shielding against target emission and environmental protection equipment. Despite its complexity, the design provides the flexibility to accommodate the needs of the various NIF user groups, such as direct and indirect drive irradiation geometries, modular final optics design, capability to handle cryogenic targets, and easily re-configurable diagnostic instruments. Efficient target area operations are ensured by using line-replaceable designs for systems requiring frequent inspection, maintenance and reconfiguration, such as the final optics, debris shields, phase plates and the diagnostic instruments. A precision diagnostic instrument manipulator (DIMS) allows fast removal and precise repositioning of diagnostic instruments. In addition we will describe several activities to enhance the target chamber availability, such as the target debris mitigation, the use of standard experimental configurations and the development of smart shot operations planning tools. (authors)

  6. Target experimental area and systems of the U.S. National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, M; Van Wonterghem, B; MacGowan, B J; Hibbard, W; Kalantar, D; Lee, F D; Pittenger, L; Wong, K

    1999-01-01

    One of the major goals of the US National Ignition Facility is the demonstration of laser driven fusion ignition and burn of targets by inertial confinement and provide capability for a wide variety of high energy density physics experiments. The NIF target area houses the optical systems required to focus the 192 beamlets to a target precisely positioned at the center of the 10 meter diameter, 10-cm thick aluminum target chamber. The chamber serves as mounting surface for the 48 final optics assemblies, the target alignment and positioning equipment, and the target diagnostics. The internal surfaces of the chamber are protected by louvered steel beam dumps. The target area also provides the necessary shielding against target emission and environmental protection equipment. Despite its complexity, the design provides the flexibility to accommodate the needs of the various NIF user groups, such as direct and indirect drive irradiation geometries, modular final optics design, capability to handle cryogenic targets, and easily re-configurable diagnostic instruments. Efficient target area operations are ensured by using line-replaceable designs for systems requiring frequent inspection, maintenance and reconfiguration, such as the final optics, debris shields, phase plates and the diagnostic instruments. A precision diagnostic instrument manipulator (DIMS) allows fast removal and precise repositioning of diagnostic instruments. In addition the authors describe several activities to enhance the target chamber availability, such as the target debris mitigation, the use of standard experimental configurations and the development of smart shot operations planning tools

  7. Urbanisation, coastal development and vulnerability, and catchments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ntombela, Cebile

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of urban areas that form coastal cities, especially in the WIO, places an increasing demand on natural coastal extractive and non-extractive resources. The use and conversion of coastal land and catchments is considered a permanent effect...

  8. Accident safety analysis for 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.J.; Brehm, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the accident safety analysis is to identify and analyze a range of credible events, their cause and consequences, and to provide technical justification for the conclusion that uranium billets, fuel assemblies, uranium scrap, and chips and fines drums can be safely stored in the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility, the contaminated equipment, High-Efficiency Air Particulate filters, ductwork, stacks, sewers and sumps can be cleaned (decontaminated) and/or removed, the new concretion process in the 304 Building will be able to operate, without undue risk to the public, employees, or the environment, and limited fuel handling and packaging associated with removal of stored uranium is acceptable.

  9. Transition plan: Project C-018H, 200-E Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this transition plan is to ensure an orderly transfer of project information to operations to satisfy Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) operational requirements and objectives, and ensure safe and efficient operation of Project C-018H, the 200-E Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). This plan identifies the deliverables for Project C-018H upon completion of construction and turnover to WHC for operations, and includes acceptance criteria to objectively assess the adequacy of the contract deliverables in relation to present requirements. The scope of this plan includes a general discussion of the need for complete and accurate design basis documentation and design documents as project deliverables. This plan also proposes that a configuration management plan be prepared to protect and control the transferred design documents and reconstitute the design basis and design requirements, in the event that the deliverables and project documentation received from the contractor are less than adequate at turnover

  10. Accident safety analysis for 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.J.; Brehm, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the accident safety analysis is to identify and analyze a range of credible events, their cause and consequences, and to provide technical justification for the conclusion that uranium billets, fuel assemblies, uranium scrap, and chips and fines drums can be safely stored in the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility, the contaminated equipment, High-Efficiency Air Particulate filters, ductwork, stacks, sewers and sumps can be cleaned (decontaminated) and/or removed, the new concretion process in the 304 Building will be able to operate, without undue risk to the public, employees, or the environment, and limited fuel handling and packaging associated with removal of stored uranium is acceptable

  11. Radiation protection during backfitting or dismantling work in the controlled area of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, J.; Kausch, S.; Palmowski, J.

    1980-01-01

    Backfitting measures or dismantling activities within the controlled area put special requirements on radiological protection. This is to be shown by the example of the following cases. Sanitation of the general decontamination services of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center; waste water, equipment decontamination, incineration and packaging facility; dismantling and disposal of high-radiation components including decontamination of buildings of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant at Mol; reconstruction of the HDR plant for safety experiments together with waste management for components and systems, as e.g. pressure vessel internals, pipes etc.; exchange of the steam dryer and the water separator including planning of the conditioning process in the Wuergassen nuclear power plant. This lecture deals with the engineering and organizational problems, especially accounting for radiological protection and enters into planning of measures for radiological protection, their organization and execution, problems of direct and remote-controlled work also being discussed. The question of personnel qualification is also commented on. (orig.) [de

  12. Temporal variability of surface runoff due to cropping systems in cultivated catchment areas: Use of the DIAR model for the assessment of environmental public policies in the Pays de Caux (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P; Joannon, A; Piskiewicz, N

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes the use of a new model, DIAR (Diagnostic Agronomique du Ruissellement, or Agronomic Assessment of Runoff), for the prediction of the timing of the risk of runoff. DIAR is dedicated to loamy soils which are very sensitive to surface crusting, leading to runoff, soil erosion and muddy flows. The approach is proposed for the north-western European loess belt regions where muddy flows severely impact human activities. The likelihood of runoff is assessed from the sequence of soil surface states generated by cultivation practices. DIAR is based on the calculation of curve number values, for each stage of the soil-surface-state sequence, for calculating runoff for each of these stages. In this study, DIAR is applied to a catchment of 912 ha, cultivated by 26 farmers in the Pays de Caux (Normandy, France) where infrastructures located at the outlet have been damaged several times by muddy flows. Local public authorities involved in reducing muddy flows are eager to limit the agricultural upstream runoff by extending the planting of mustard as a winter cover crop. We tested the efficiency of such a policy on the reduction of the mean runoff. We also tested the year-to-year variability of this efficiency using the acreages of four successive years (1999-2000 to 2002-2003). Finally, the cost-efficiency of the policy was also considered. Though we used the same weather scenario, the initial situation (without much mustard cover) showed a wide year-to-year variation in the total runoff. This variation can be associated with the structure of the farms that cultivate the catchment (Utilised Agricultural Area (UAA) of each farm and percentage of this UAA inside the catchment). Our results showed that the widespread planting of winter cover crops could reduce the runoff by 10-20% compared with the initial situation (depending on the year), and also reduce the year-to-year variability of runoff. For each of the 4 tested years, the cost of the infiltrated m(3

  13. The Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm): are remote areas benefiting from the intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yazoume; Arnold, Fred; Noor, Abdisalan; Wamukoya, Marilyn; Amuasi, John; Blay, Samuel; Mberu, Blessing; Ren, Ruilin; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Wekesah, Frederick; Gatakaa, Hellen; Toda, Mitsuru; Njogu, Julius; Evance, Illah; O'Connell, Kathryn; Shewchuk, Tanya; Thougher, Sarah; Mann, Andrea; Willey, Barbara; Goodman, Catherine; Hanson, Kara

    2015-10-09

    To assess the availability, price and market share of quality-assured artemisinin-based combination therapy (QAACT) in remote areas (RAs) compared with non-remote areas (nRAs) in Kenya and Ghana at end-line of the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm) intervention. Areas were classified by remoteness using a composite index computed from estimated travel times to three levels of service centres. The index was used to five categories of remoteness, which were then grouped into two categories of remote and non-remote areas. The number of public or private outlets with the potential to sell or distribute anti-malarial medicines, screened in nRAs and RAs, respectively, was 501 and 194 in Ghana and 9980 and 2353 in Kenya. The analysis compares RAs with nRAs in terms of availability, price and market share of QAACT in each country. QAACT were similarly available in RAs as nRAs in Ghana and Kenya. In both countries, there was no statistical difference in availability of QAACT with AMFm logo between RAs and nRAs in public health facilities (PHFs), while private-for-profit (PFP) outlets had lower availability in RA than in nRAs (Ghana: 66.0 vs 82.2 %, p price of QAACT with AMFm logo for PFP outlets in RAs (USD1.25 in Ghana and USD0.69 in Kenya) was above the recommended retail price in Ghana (US$0.95) and Kenya (US$0.46), and much higher than in nRAs for both countries. QAACT with AMFm logo represented the majority of QAACT in RAs and nRAs in Kenya and Ghana. In the PFP sector in Ghana, the market share for QAACT with AMFm logo was significantly higher in RAs than in nRAs (75.6 vs 51.4 %, p penetration of the AMFm programme into RAs is needed to inform actions to improve the healthcare delivery system, particularly in RAs.

  14. Catchment scale multi-objective flood management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Steve; Worrall, Peter; Rosolova, Zdenka; Hammond, Gene

    2010-05-01

    techniques will include: controlling headwater drainage, increasing evapotranspiration and interception by creating new woodlands in the upper catchment areas, enabling coarse woody debris dams to slow down water flows through steep valleys, improving soil water storage potential by appropriate soil and crop management, retaining water on lowland flood meadows and wet woodland creation within the floodplain. The project, due to run from 2009 until 2013, incorporates hydrometric and water quality monitoring, together with hydrologic and hydraulic modelling in order to attempt to demonstrate the effect of land management changes on flood dynamics and flood risk management. To date, the project team have undertaken the fundamental catchment characterisation work to understand its physical setting and the interaction of the physical processes that influence the hydrological response of the catchment to incident precipitation. The results of this initial work has led to the identification of a suitably robust hydrometric monitoring network within the catchments to meet the needs of providing both quantitative evidence of the impacts of land management change on flood risk, together with generating good quality datasets for the validation and testing of the new hydrologic models. As the project aims to demonstrate ‘best practice' in all areas, the opportunity has been taken to install a network of automatic hydrometric monitoring equipment, together with an associated telemetry system, in order to maximise data coverage, accuracy and reliability. Good quality datasets are a critical requirement for reliable modelling. The modelling will also be expanded to incorporate climate change scenarios. This paper will describe the catchment characterisation work undertaken to date, the proposed land management changes in relation to flood risk management, the initial catchment hydraulic modelling work and the implementation of the new hydrometric monitoring network within the study area.

  15. H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility Corrective Action Report, Third and Fourth Quarter 1998, Volumes I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, J.

    1999-01-01

    The groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF), also known as the H-Area Seepage Basins, at the Savannah Site (SRS) is monitored periodically for selected hazardous and radioactive constituents. This report presents the results of the required groundwater monitoring program

  16. Pilot-scale reverse osmosis testing for the F and H Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Pilot-scale reverse osmosis (RO) tests were completed with a 10 gpm unit to demonstrate the performance of RO in the F and H Area Effluent Treatment Facility (F/H ETF). RO will be used in the WMETF to remove soluble salts and soluble radioactivity. The advantage of using RO (over ion exchange) is that it is nondescriminanting and removes virtually all dissolved solids species, regardless of ionic charge. RO also generates less than half the waste volume produced by ion exchange. Test results using a 200-Area nonradioactive effluent simulant demonstrated salt rejections of 98% and water recoveries of 94% by using recycle on a single stage pilot unit. For a full-scale, multi-staged unit overall salt rejections will be 95% (DF = 20) while obtaining a 94% water recovery (94% discharge, 6% concentrated waste stream). Identical performance is expected on actual radioactive streams, based on shielded cells testing performed by Motyka and Stimson. Similarly, if the WMETF RO system is configured in the same manner as the SRL ECWPF, a DF of 20 and a water recvery of 94% should be obtained

  17. Final report for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Central Facilities Area Landfill 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doornbos, M.H.; Morgan, M.E.; Hubbell, J.M.

    1991-04-01

    This report summarize activities completed during FY-88 through FY-91 for the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Central Facilities Area (CFA) Landfill 2. The objectives of this program are to demonstrate new technologies or innovative uses of existing technologies for the identification and remediation of hazardous wastes within a municipal-type landfill. The site was chosen as a candidate site because it represents a problem typical of both DOE and public landfills. The HAZWRAP Technology Demonstration Project began at the INEL CFA Landfill 2 in 1987. During characterization and identification activities, several organic ''hotspots'' or anomalies were identified. Proposals were then solicited from the private sector for innovative technologies to remediate the isolated areas. Remediation was planned to be implemented using horizontal wells installed underneath a portion of the landfill. These innovative technologies and the well installation were planned to support the current goals of the DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency to treat hazardous waste in place. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Report of conceptual design for TRU solid waste facilities adjacent to 200H Area: Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    Facilities for consolidating Savannah River Plant solid transuranic (TRU) waste and placing in long-term safe, retrievable storage have been designed conceptually. A venture guidance appraisal of cost for the facilities has been prepared. The proposed site of the new processing area is adjacent to existing H Area facilities. The scopes of work comprising the conceptual design describe facilities for: exhuming high-level TRU waste from buried and pad-stored locations in the plant burial ground; opening, emptying, and sorting waste containers and their contents within shielded, regulated enclosures; volume-reducing the noncombustibles by physical processes and decontaminating the metal waste; burning combustibles; fixing the consolidated waste forms in a concrete matrix within a double-walled steel container; placing product containers in a retrievable surface storage facility adjacent to the existing plant burial ground; and maintaining accountability of all special nuclear materials. Processing, administration, and auxiliary service buildings are to be located adjacent to existing H Area facilities where certain power and waste liquid services will be shared

  19. 2013 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2012, through October 31, 2013. The report contains, as applicable, the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of compliance conditions and activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2013 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant and therefore, no effluent flow volumes or samples were collected from wastewater sampling point WW-014102. However, soil samples were collected in October from soil monitoring unit SU-014101.

  20. How old is upland catchment water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Harald; Cartwright, Ian; Morgenstern, Uwe; Gilfedder, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the dynamics of water supply catchments is an essential part of water management. Upland catchments provide a continuous, reliable source of high quality water not only for some of the world's biggest cities, but also for agriculture and industry. Headwater streams control river flow in lowland agricultural basins as the majority of river discharge emerges from upland catchments. Many rivers are perennial and flow throughout the year, even during droughts. However, it is still unclear how reliable and continuous upland catchment water resources really are. Despite many efforts in upland catchment research, there is still little known about where the water is stored and how long it takes to travel through upper catchments. Resolving these questions is crucial to ensure that this resource is protected from changing land use and to estimate potential impacts from a changing climate. Previous research in this important area has been limited by existing measurement techniques. Knowledge to date has relied heavily on the use of variation in stable isotope signals to estimate the age and origin of water from upland catchments. The problem with relying on these measures is that as the water residence time increases, the variation in the stable isotope signal decreases. After a maximum period of four years, no variation can be detected This means that to date, the residence time in upland catchments is likely to have been vastly underestimated. Consequently, the proportion of water flow out of upland river catchments to the total river flow is also underestimated. Tritium (3H) combines directly with water molecules and enters the flow paths with the infiltrating water. Its half-life (12.32 years) makes it ideal to describe residence times in upper catchment reservoirs as it can theoretically measure water up to about 150 years old. The bomb pulse peak in the southern hemisphere was several orders of magnitude lower than in the northern hemisphere. Hence the

  1. Interim Control Strategy for the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility Sewage Treatment Facility Disposal Pond - Two-year Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L. V. Street

    2007-01-01

    The Idaho Cleanup Project has prepared this interim control strategy for the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office pursuant to DOE Order 5400.5, Chapter 11.3e (1) to support continued discharges to the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility Sewage Treatment Facility Disposal Pond. In compliance with DOE Order 5400.5, a 2-year review of the Interim Control Strategy document has been completed. This submittal documents the required review of the April 2005 Interim Control Strategy. The Idaho Cleanup Project's recommendation is unchanged from the original recommendation. The Interim Control Strategy evaluates three alternatives: (1) re-route the discharge outlet to an uncontaminated area of the TSF-07; (2) construct a new discharge pond; or (3) no action based on justification for continued use. Evaluation of Alternatives 1 and 2 are based on the estimated cost and implementation timeframe weighed against either alternative's minimal increase in protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Evaluation of Alternative 3, continued use of the TSF-07 Disposal Pond under current effluent controls, is based on an analysis of four points: - Record of Decision controls will protect workers and the public - Risk of increased contamination is low - Discharge water will be eliminated in the foreseeable future - Risk of contamination spread is acceptable. The Idaho Cleanup Project recommends Alternative 3, no action other than continued implementation of existing controls and continued deactivation, decontamination, and dismantlement efforts at the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility

  2. An aerial radiological survey of the Savannah River Site TNX facility and surrounding area, Aiken, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over a 3.8-square-kilometer (1.5-square-mile) area, centered on the Savannah River Site (SRS) TNX facility. The survey was flown on July 25, 1986, prior to the Steel Creek Corridor survey. Radiological measurements were used to determine the extent of man-made radionuclides in the TNX area. This survey area had been covered during previous site surveys of the Savannah River Floodplain. Higher than typical levels of thorium-232 daughters were detected in the survey area just west of the TNX facility. The natural terrestrial radiation levels were consistent with those measured during prior surveys of this and other SRS areas. 5 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, J.P.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Gillies, D.C. [eds.

    1999-03-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the US Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the US Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Shallow infiltration is not discussed in detail in this report because the focus in on three major aspects of the deep unsaturated-zone system: geologic framework, the gaseous-phase system, and the aqueous-phase system. However, because the relation between shallow infiltration and deep percolation is important to an overall understanding of the unsaturated-zone flow system, a summary of infiltration studies conducted to date at Yucca Mountain is provided in the section titled Shallow Infiltration. This report describes results of several Site Characterization Plan studies that were ongoing at the time excavation of the ESF North Ramp began and that continued as excavation proceeded.

  4. Information on the confinement capability of the facility disposal area at West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, T.J.; Hurt, R.D.

    1985-12-01

    This report summarizes the previous NRC research studies, NRC licensee source term data and recent DOE site investigations that deal with assessment of the radioactive waste inventory and confinement capability of the Facility Disposal Area (FDA) at West Valley, New York. The radioactive waste inventory for the FDA has a total radioactivity of about 135,000 curies (Ci) and is comprised of H-3 (9,500 Ci), Co-60 (64,000 Ci), SR-90/Y-90 (24,300 Ci), Cs-137/Ba-137m (24,400 Ci), and Pu-241 (13,300 Ci). These wastes are buried in the Lavery Till, a glacial till unit comprised of a clayey silt with very low hydraulic conductivity properties. Recent studies of a tributylphosphate-kerosene plume moving through the shallow ground-water flow system in the FDA indicate a need to better assess the fracture flow components of this system particularly the weathered and fractured Lavery Till unit. The analysis of the deeper ground-water flow system studied by the USGS and NYSGS staffs indicated relatively long pathways and travel times to the accessible environment. Mass wasting, endemic to the glacial-filled valley, contributed to the active slumping in the ravines surrounding the FDA and also need attention. 31 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  5. Honeycomblike large area LaB6 plasma source for Multi-Purpose Plasma facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Hyun-Jong; Chung, Kyu-Sun; You, Hyun-Jong; Lee, Myoung-Jae; Lho, Taihyeop; Choh, Kwon Kook; Yoon, Jung-Sik; Jung, Yong Ho; Lee, Bongju; Yoo, Suk Jae; Kwon, Myeon

    2007-01-01

    A Multi-Purpose Plasma (MP 2 ) facility has been renovated from Hanbit mirror device [Kwon et al., Nucl. Fusion 43, 686 (2003)] by adopting the same philosophy of diversified plasma simulator (DiPS) [Chung et al., Contrib. Plasma Phys. 46, 354 (2006)] by installing two plasma sources: LaB 6 (dc) and helicon (rf) plasma sources; and making three distinct simulators: divertor plasma simulator, space propulsion simulator, and astrophysics simulator. During the first renovation stage, a honeycomblike large area LaB 6 (HLA-LaB 6 ) cathode was developed for the divertor plasma simulator to improve the resistance against the thermal shock fragility for large and high density plasma generation. A HLA-LaB 6 cathode is composed of the one inner cathode with 4 in. diameter and the six outer cathodes with 2 in. diameter along with separate graphite heaters. The first plasma is generated with Ar gas and its properties are measured by the electric probes with various discharge currents and magnetic field configurations. Plasma density at the middle of central cell reaches up to 2.6x10 12 cm -3 , while the electron temperature remains around 3-3.5 eV at the low discharge current of less than 45 A, and the magnetic field intensity of 870 G. Unique features of electric property of heaters, plasma density profiles, is explained comparing with those of single LaB 6 cathode with 4 in. diameter in DiPS

  6. TEMPERATURE PREDICTION IN 3013 CONTAINERS IN K AREA MATERIAL STORAGE (KAMS) FACILITY USING REGRESSION METHODS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, N

    2008-01-01

    3013 containers are designed in accordance with the DOE-STD-3013-2004. These containers are qualified to store plutonium (Pu) bearing materials such as PuO2 for 50 years. DOT shipping packages such as the 9975 are used to store the 3013 containers in the K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) facility at Savannah River Site (SRS). DOE-STD-3013-2004 requires that a comprehensive surveillance program be set up to ensure that the 3013 container design parameters are not violated during the long term storage. To ensure structural integrity of the 3013 containers, thermal analyses using finite element models were performed to predict the contents and component temperatures for different but well defined parameters such as storage ambient temperature, PuO 2 density, fill heights, weights, and thermal loading. Interpolation is normally used to calculate temperatures if the actual parameter values are different from the analyzed values. A statistical analysis technique using regression methods is proposed to develop simple polynomial relations to predict temperatures for the actual parameter values found in the containers. The analysis shows that regression analysis is a powerful tool to develop simple relations to assess component temperatures

  7. Tsunami risk assessment for facility group over a wide area using inundation assessment method considering energy conservation law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutani, Yo; Imamura, Fumihiko; Tokunaga, Takeshi; Sato, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    We propose a quantitative evaluation method of overall tsunami risk that the entire facility group over a wide area holds. We considerably reduced the calculation cost for tsunami inundation depth by adopting the evaluation method using energy conservation law as compared with the evaluation method using non-linear long wave equation. For financial institutions such as banks and insurance companies with contractors over a wide area and business companies with multiple their assets and facilities in various places, the proposed evaluation method in this study could be a useful approach to implement their risk-based management decisions for tsunami risk. (author)

  8. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements laser and target area building (LTAB) SSDR 1.2.2.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempel, P.; Hands, J.

    1996-01-01

    This Subsystem Design Requirements (SSDR) document establishes the performance, design, and verification requirements for the conventional building systems and subsystems of the Laser and Target Area Building (LTAB), including those that house and support the operation of high-energy laser equipment and the operational flow of personnel and materials throughout the facility. This SSDR addresses the following subsystems associated with the LTAB: Building structural systems for the Target Bay, Switchyards, Diagnostic Building, Decontamination Area, Laser Bays, Capacitor Bays and Operations Support Area, and the necessary space associated with building-support equipment; Architectural building features associated with housing the space and with the operational cleanliness of the functional operation of the facilities; Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems for maintaining a clean and thermally stable ambient environment within the facilities; Plumbing systems that provide potable water and sanitary facilities for the occupants, plus stormwater drainage for transporting rainwater; Fire Protection systems that guard against fire damage to the facilities and their contents; Material handling systems for transporting personnel and heavy materials within the building areas; Mechanical process piping systems for liquids and gases that provide cooling and other service to experimental laser equipment and components; Electrical power and grounding systems that provide service and standby power to building and experimental equipment, including lighting distribution and communications systems for the facilities; Instrumentation and control systems that ensure the safe operation of conventional facilities systems, such as those listed above. Detailed requirements for building subsystems that are not addressed in this document (such as specific sizes, locations, or capacities) are included in detail-level NIP Project Interface Control Documents (ICDS)

  9. Using biophysical models to manage nitrogen pollution from agricultural sources: Utopic or realistic approach for non-scientist users? Case study of a drinking water catchment area in Lorraine, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Pierre-Yves; Benoît, Marc; Roger-Estrade, Jean; Plantureux, Sylvain

    2016-12-01

    The objectives of this comparison of two biophysical models of nitrogen losses were to evaluate first whether results were similar and second whether both were equally practical for use by non-scientist users. Results were obtained with the crop model STICS and the environmental model AGRIFLUX based on nitrogen loss simulations across a small groundwater catchment area (<1 km(2)) located in the Lorraine region in France. Both models simulate the influences of leaching and cropping systems on nitrogen losses in a relevant manner. The authors conclude that limiting the simulations to areas where soils with a greater risk of leaching cover a significant spatial extent would likely yield acceptable results because those soils have more predictable leaching of nitrogen. In addition, the choice of an environmental model such as AGRIFLUX which requires fewer parameters and input variables seems more user-friendly for agro-environmental assessment. The authors then discuss additional challenges for non-scientists such as lack of parameter optimization, which is essential to accurately assessing nitrogen fluxes and indirectly not to limit the diversity of uses of simulated results. Despite current restrictions, with some improvement, biophysical models could become useful environmental assessment tools for non-scientists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of catchment research, with particular attention to Plynlimon and its forerunner, the East African catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackie, J. R.; Robinson, M.

    2007-01-01

    Dr J.S.G. McCulloch was deeply involved in the establishment of research catchments in East Africa and subsequently in the UK to investigate the hydrological consequences of changes in land use. Comparison of these studies provides an insight into how influential his inputs and direction have been in the progressive development of the philosophy, the instrumentation and the analytical techniques now employed in catchment research. There were great contrasts in the environments: tropical highland (high radiation, intense rainfall) vs. temperate maritime (low radiation and frontal storms), contrasting soils and vegetation types, as well as the differing social and economic pressures in developing and developed nations. Nevertheless, the underlying scientific philosophy was common to both, although techniques had to be modified according to local conditions. As specialised instrumentation and analytical techniques were developed for the UK catchments many were also integrated into the East African studies. Many lessons were learned in the course of these studies and from the experiences of other studies around the world. Overall, a rigorous scientific approach was developed with widespread applicability. Beyond the basics of catchment selection and the quantification of the main components of the catchment water balance, this involved initiating parallel process studies to provide information on specific aspects of catchment behaviour. This information could then form the basis for models capable of extrapolation from the observed time series to other periods/hydrological events and, ultimately, the capability of predicting the consequences of changes in catchment land management to other areas in a range of climates.

  11. Views of West Valley area residents concerning the Nuclear Fuel Services facility at West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamieniecki, S.; Milbrath, L.W.

    1978-06-01

    A number of major findings have emerged from this analysis. Although most people have heard or read about the Nuclear Fuel Services plant at West Valley, few exhibit a high level of knowledge about the issue area. A clear majority of residents living in the region are concerned about the presence of the facility. Many are particularly concerned about the health dangers that can result from radioactive contamination of the environment. People want to see something done about the facility, but do not know exactly what. When forced to choose one out of three possible alternatives, twice as many people preferred to ''completely remove the plant and restore the area'' than either of the two remaining alternatives. People who are concerned about the facility tend to favor removal of the plant and restoration of the area. Nearly three-fourths of West Valley area residents who believe that the plant did not employ enough people to significantly help the economy of the region favor removal of the facility and restoration of the area. The results of this study may help policymakers choose the most acceptable course of action

  12. An aerial radiological survey of the RMI facility and surrounding area, Ashtabula, Ohio: Date of survey, September 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over a 75-square-kilometer (30-square-mile) area surrounding the RMI facility in Ashtabula, Ohio, during the period between September 4 and 13, 1985. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 46 meters (150 ft). A second, more detailed survey was also performed over the RMI facility. This survey was conducted at an altitude of 30 meters (100 ft) and covered an area of about 2.6 square kilometers (1 sq mi) centered over the facility. Over most of the survey area, exposure rates varied from about 8 to 11 microentgens per hour (μR/h). Several areas of increased radioactivity were observed in addition to increased radioactivity over the RMI facility (exposure rates of up to 44 μR/h were detected). The increased radioactivity over the RMI facility was due to uranium; however, no evidence of uranium was found off site. A second site exhibiting increased radioactivity was located near a railroad siding. The anomalous radiation there was due primarily to elevated concentrations of radium. Ground samples from this location were found to contain 130,000 picocuries per gram (pCi/g) of radium-226. Two other regions of anomalous radiation were found on the shore of Lake Erie, near Pinney Dock. One of these sites contained elevated concentrations of potassium-40 (K-40). The spectrum from the second site indicated the source to be thorium. A fifth site was a facility located a few hundred meters east of the RMI plant. The spectrum from this site also indicated an increased amount of thorium. Finally, a sixth source was located in the eastern portion of the survey area. The spectrum from this site was found to be high in cesium-137 (Cs-137). 7 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  13. The identification of suitable areas for afforestation in order to reduce the potential for surface runoff in the upper and middle sectors of Buzãu catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMULUS COSTACHE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Deforestations, besides the global climate change, are the main cause of the intensification of f loods and flash - floods in the latest years. Since surface runoff is the main phenomenon leading to floods or flash - floods, afforestation is necessary, forest coverage being the element that retains most of the water from precipitation. The study area, repr esented by the upper and middle sectors of Buzau River basin, is one of the most affected regions of Romania by torrential phenomena. Also, the study area was chosen due to its considerable deforestation. This paper proposes a methodology created exclusive ly by GIS techniques in order to identify the areas suitable for afforestation. Thus, land cover and slope relief were taken into account when running the GIS model. Database processing and obtaining the final results were possible by implementing a workfl ow in Model Builder from ArcGIS 10.3, which can be later used as a tool for other study areas. The results of the study highlight Balaneasa, Bâsca Chiojdului and Sărăţel river basins, which record the highest shares of areas suitable for afforestation.

  14. Aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the UNC Recovery Systems Facility, Wood River Junction, Rhode Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluitt, C.M.

    1981-05-01

    An aerial radiological survey to measure terrestrial gamma radiation was carried out over the United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) Recovery Systems Facility located near Wood River Junction, Rhode Island. At the time of the survey (August 1979) materials were being processed at the facility. Gamma ray data were collected over a 3.28 km 2 area centered on the facility by flying north-south lines spaced 60 m apart. Processed data indicated that detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with those expected from normal background emitters, except directly over the UNC Facility. Average exposure rates 1 m above the ground, as calculated from the aerial data, are presented in the form of an isopleth map. No ground sample data were taken at the time of the aerial survey

  15. A New High-intensity Proton Irradiation Facility at the CERN PS East Area

    CERN Document Server

    Gkotse, B; Lima, P; Matli, E; Moll, M; Ravotti, F

    2014-01-01

    and IRRAD2), were heavily and successfully used for irradiation of particle detectors, electronic components and materials since 1992. These facilities operated with particle bursts - protons with momentum of 24GeV/c - delivered from the PS accelerator in “spills” of about 400ms (slow extraction). With the increasing demand of irradiation experiments, these facilities suffered from a number of restrictions such as the space availability, the maximum achievable particle flux and several access constraints. In the framework of the AIDA project, an upgrade of these facilities has been realized during the CERN long shutdown (LS1). While the new proton facility (IRRAD) will continue to be mainly devoted to the radiation hardness studies for the High Energy Physics (HEP) experimental community, the new mixed-field facility (CHARM) will mainly host irradiation experiments for the validation of electronic systems used in a...

  16. RCRA Facility Investigation report for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This report presents compiled information concerning a facility investigation of waste area group 6(WAG-6), of the solid waste management units (SWMU's) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The WAG is a shallow ground disposal area for low-level radioactive wastes and chemical wastes. The report contains information on hydrogeological data, contaminant characterization, radionuclide concentrations, risk assessment and baseline human health evaluation including a toxicity assessment, and a baseline environmental evaluation

  17. RCRA Facility Investigation report for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This report presents compiled information concerning a facility investigation of waste area group 6(WAG-6), of the solid waste management units (SWMU'S) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The WAG is a shallow ground disposal area for low-level radioactive wastes and chemical wastes. The report contains information on hydrogeological data, contaminant characterization, radionuclide concentrations, risk assessment from doses to humans and animals and associated cancer risks, exposure via food chains, and historical data

  18. E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility Vadose Zone Model: Confirmation of Water Mass Balance for Subsidence Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, J. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-30

    In preparation for the next revision of the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (LLWF) Performance Assessment (PA), a mass balance model was developed in Microsoft Excel to confirm correct implementation of intact- and subsided-area infiltration profiles for the proposed closure cap in the PORFLOW vadose-zone model. The infiltration profiles are based on the results of Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model simulations for both intact and subsided cases.

  19. 2015 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2014, through October 31, 2015.

  20. Engineering evaluation cost analysis for the 100-B/C area ancillary facilities at the 108-F Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    In 1995, the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) conducted a removal site evaluation of selected facilities in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site in accordance with CERCLA and 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 300.410. The scope of the evaluation included the aboveground portions of the 108-F Biology Laboratory in the 100-F Area and all inactive ancillary buildings and structures in the 100-B/C Area, excluding the reactor building and the river outfall. Based on the evaluation, RL determined that hazardous substances in the 108-F Biology Laboratory and five of the 100-B/C Area facilities may present a potential threat to human health or the environment, and that a non-time critical removal action at these facilities is warranted. This determination was documented in an engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) approval memorandum. The EE/CA approval memorandum is the basis on which to proceed with the performance of an EE/CA to determine the appropriate removal action. This report presents the results of the EE/CA for removal alternatives for final disposition of these six facilities. The EE/CA was conducted pursuant to the requirements of CERCLA and 40 CFR 300.415 and is intended to aid RL and the EPA in selecting a preferred removal action

  1. 2015 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Michael George

    2016-01-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2014, through October 31, 2015.

  2. User Delay Cost Model and Facilities Maintenance Cost Model for a Terminal Control Area : Volume 1. Model Formulation and Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    The User Delay Cost Model (UDCM) is a Monte Carlo computer simulation of essential aspects of Terminal Control Area (TCA) air traffic movements that would be affected by facility outages. The model can also evaluate delay effects due to other factors...

  3. Automated alignment of the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) target area at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Randy S.; Awwal, Abdul A. S.; Bliss, Erlan S.; Heebner, John E.; Leach, Richard R.; Orth, Charles D.; Rushford, Michael C.; Lowe-Webb, Roger R.; Wilhelmsen, Karl C.

    2015-09-01

    The Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a petawatt-class, short-pulse laser system designed to provide x-ray backlighting of NIF targets. ARC uses four NIF beamlines to produce eight beamlets to create a sequence of eight images of an imploding fuel capsule using backlighting targets and diagnostic instrumentation. ARC employs a front end that produces two pulses, chirps the pulses out to 2 ns, and then injects the pulses into the two halves of each of four NIF beamlines. These pulses are amplified by NIF pre- and main amplifiers and transported to compressor vessels located in the NIF target area. The pulses are then compressed and pointed into the NIF target chamber where they impinge upon an array of backlighters. The interaction of the ARC laser pulses and the backlighting material produces bursts of high-energy x-rays that illuminate an imploding fuel capsule. The transmitted x-rays are imaged by diagnostic instrumentation to produce a sequence of radiograph images. A key component of the success of ARC is the automatic alignment system that accomplishes the precise alignment of the beamlets to avoid damaging equipment and to ensure that the beamlets are directed onto the tens-of-microns scale backlighters. In this paper, we describe the ARC automatic alignment system, with emphasis on control loops used to align the beampaths. We also provide a detailed discussion of the alignment image processing, because it plays a critical role in providing beam centering and pointing information for the control loops.

  4. Air Pathway Dose Modeling for the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, K. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Minter, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2017-09-06

    Dose-release factors (DRFs) were calculated for potential atmospheric releases of several radionuclides from the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF). The ELLWF receives solid low-level radioactive waste from across the Savannah River Site (SRS) and offsite for disposal. These factors represent the maximum dose a receptor would receive if standing at either 100 m or 11,410 m (Site Boundary) from the edge of an ELLWF disposal unit which are points of assessment (POA) for Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 performance assessments (PA). The DRFs were calculated for 1 Ci of the specified radionuclide being released from the ground surface to the atmosphere (mrem per curie released). The calculation conservatively represented the ELLWF as a point source, and conservatively assumed the receptor was positioned at the center of the contaminant plume and continuously exposed for a period of one year. These DRFs can be refined to take into consideration disposal unit size, proximity and timing of peak dose to establish less conservative radionuclide specific disposal limits. DRFs were calculated for H-3 and C-14 in Revision 0 of this report. H-3 as HTO and C-14 as CO2 were identified as volatile radionuclides of potential concern in earlier radionuclide screening studies. In Revision 1, DRFs were calculated for eight additional radionuclides identified by an updated screening analysis as potentially important volatile radionuclides. These include Ar-37, Ar-39, Ar-42, Hg-194, Hg- 203, Kr-81, Kr-85, and Xe-127.

  5. Factors influencing sustainability of communally-managed water facilities in rural areas of Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kativhu, T.; Mazvimavi, D.; Tevera, D.; Nhapi, I.

    2017-08-01

    Sustainability of point water facilities is a major development challenge in many rural settings of developing countries not sparing those in the Sub-Saharan Africa region. This study was done in Zimbabwe to investigate the factors influencing sustainability of rural water supply systems. A total of 399 water points were studied in Nyanga, Chivi and Gwanda districts. Data was collected using a questionnaire, observation checklist and key informant interview guide. Multi-Criteria analysis was used to assess the sustainability of water points and inferential statistical analysis such as Chi square tests and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to determine if there were significant differences on selected variables across districts and types of lifting devices used in the study area. The thematic approach was used to analyze qualitative data. Results show that most water points were not functional and only 17% across the districts were found to be sustainable. A fusion of social, technical, financial, environmental and institutional factors was found to be influencing sustainability. On technical factors the ANOVA results show that the type of lifting device fitted at a water point significantly influences sustainability (F = 37.4, p planning stage of water projects was also found to be critical for sustainability although field results showed passive participation by communities at this critical project stage. Financial factors of adequacy of financial contributions and establishment of operation and maintenance funds were also found to be of great importance in sustaining water supply systems. It is recommended that all factors should be considered when assessing sustainability since they are interrelated.

  6. Probabilistic risk analysis for Test Area North Hot Shop Storage Pool Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meale, B.M.; Satterwhite, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    A storage pool facility used for storing spent fuel and radioactive debris from the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident was evaluated to determine the risk associated with its normal operations. Several hazards were identified and examined to determine if any any credible accident scenarios existed. Expected annual occurrence frequencies were calculated for hazards for which accident scenarios were identified through use of fault trees modeling techniques. Fault tree models were developed for two hazards: (1) increased radiation field and (2) spread of contamination. The models incorporated facets of the operations within the facility as well as the facility itself. 6 refs

  7. Plutonium Equivalent Inventory for Belowground Radioactive Waste at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, Sean B.; Shuman, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) generates radioactive waste as a result of various activities. Many aspects of the management of this waste are conducted at Technical Area 54 (TA-54); Area G plays a key role in these management activities as the Laboratory's only disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Furthermore, Area G serves as a staging area for transuranic (TRU) waste that will be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for disposal. A portion of this TRU waste is retrievably stored in pits, trenches, and shafts. The radioactive waste disposed of or stored at Area G poses potential short- and long-term risks to workers at the disposal facility and to members of the public. These risks are directly proportional to the radionuclide inventories in the waste. The Area G performance assessment and composite analysis (LANL, 2008a) project long-term risks to members of the public; short-term risks to workers and members of the public, such as those posed by accidents, are addressed by the Area G Documented Safety Analysis (LANL, 2011a). The Documented Safety Analysis uses an inventory expressed in terms of plutonium-equivalent curies, referred to as the PE-Ci inventory, to estimate these risks. The Technical Safety Requirements for Technical Area 54, Area G (LANL, 2011b) establishes a belowground radioactive material limit that ensures the cumulative projected inventory authorized for the Area G site is not exceeded. The total belowground radioactive waste inventory limit established for Area G is 110,000 PE-Ci. The PE-Ci inventory is updated annually; this report presents the inventory prepared for 2011. The approach used to estimate the inventory is described in Section 2. The results of the analysis are presented in Section 3.

  8. Social capital, outpatient care utilization and choice between different levels of health facilities in rural and urban areas of Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberholz, Chantal; Phuntsho, Sonam

    2018-06-18

    This study examines the factors that explain outpatient care utilization and the choice between different levels of health facilities in Bhutan, focusing on individual social capital, given Bhutan's geography of remote and sparsely populated areas. The more isolated the living, the more important individual social capital may become. Standard factors proposed by the Andersen model of healthcare utilization serve as control variables. Data for 2526 households from the 2012 Bhutan Living Standards Survey, which contains a social capital module covering structural, cognitive and output dimensions of social capital, are used. The results from the logistic regression analysis show that individual social capital is positively related with the probability of seeking treatment when ill or injured. Informal social contacts and perceived help and support are most important in rural areas, whereas specific trust matters in urban areas. The explanatory power of the model using a subset of the data for urban areas only, however, is very low as most predisposing and enabling factors are insignificant, which is not surprising though in view of better access to health facilities in urban areas and the fact that healthcare is provided free of charge in Bhutan. Multinomial regression results further show that structural and output dimensions of social capital influence the likelihood of seeking care at secondary or tertiary care facilities relative to primary care facilities. Moreover, economic status and place of residence are significantly associated with healthcare utilization and choice of health facility. The findings with respect to social capital suggest that strategizing and organizing social capital may help improve healthcare utilization in Bhutan. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nested Tracer Studies In Catchment Hydrology: Towards A Multiscale Understanding of Runoff Generation and Catchment Funtioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulsby, C.; Rodgers, P.; Malcolm, I. A.; Dunn, S.

    Geochemical and isotopic tracers have been shown to have widespread utility in catch- ment hydrology in terms of identifying hydrological source areas and characterising residence time distributions. In many cases application of tracer techniques has pro- vided insights into catchment functioning that could not be obtained from hydromet- ric and/or modelling studies alone. This paper will show how the use of tracers has contributed to an evolving perceptual model of hydrological pathways and runoff gen- eration processes in catchments in the Scottish highlands. In particular the paper will focus on the different insights that are gained at three different scales of analysis; (a) nested sub-catchments within a mesoscale (ca. 200 square kilometers) experimen- tal catchment; (b) hillslope-riparian interactions and (c) stream bed fluxes. Nested hydrometric and hydrochemical monitoring within the mesoscale Feugh catchment identified three main hydrological response units: (i) plateau peatlands which gener- ated saturation overland flow in the catchment headwaters, (ii) steep valley hillslopes which drain from the plateaux into (iii) alluvial and drift aquifers in the valley bottoms. End Member Mixing Analysis (EMMA) in 8 nested sub-catchments indicated that that stream water tracer concentrations can be modelled in terms of 2 dominant runoff pro- cesses; overland flow from the peat and groundwater from the drift aquifers. Ground- water contributions generally increased with catchment size, though this was moder- ated by the characteristics of individual sub-basins, with drift cover being particularly important. Hillslope riparian interactions were also examined using tracers, hydromet- ric data and a semi-distributed hydrological model. This revealed that in the glaciated, drift covered terrain of the Scottish highlands, extensive valley bottom aquifers effec- tively de-couple hillslope waters from the river channel. Thus, riparian groundwater appears to significantly

  10. Evaluation of the impact of farming activity in the water quality in surface catchment areas in hydrographic basin from Mogi-Guacu and Pardo Rivers, Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuoka, Lidia

    2001-01-01

    This study was performed in 10 small basins located in the Mogi-Guacu and Pardo Rivers, in the Northeastern area of Sao Paulo State. The land belonging of these basins is used to grow row crops of potato, coffee and pasture areas. This study aimed to characterize small basins, to evaluate water and sediment quality and to correlate basic aspects of climatology, hydrology, toxicology and land uses to the physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of the water in the streams. Geographic Information System (GIS) was used as a tool of evaluation of land uses and risk assessment was performed for a final evaluation. The samplings were carried out from June/1999 to June/2000 in the 13 collecting points. It was verified that water quality is dependent upon the rainy and dry periods and the harvest periods. In the beginning of rainy periods were found large concentrations of metals and traces of herbicides leachate from soil and, in the dry period the same event was verified, caused by concentration of the water. In August, September and October phosphorus concentrations were very low getting an improvement in the water quality. Al, Fe and Mn are majority elements of chemical compositions of rocks of the study area, and exceed the Brazilian Guidelines. The stream waters were classified as 44% oligotrophic, 42% mesotrophic and 14% eutrophic. Jaguari-Mirim River presented the largest values of Trophic Index (TI). Sediment analyses showed a great variety of organic compounds coming from anthropogenic activities (industrial and farming activity). Toxicity tests with hyalella azteca in the sediments presented toxicity for sediments from Sao Joao da Boa Vista and Divinolandia. A methodology was developed for organochlorinated pesticides by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GCMS). The presence of organochlorinated pesticides was not verified. (author)

  11. Nutrient fluxes from coastal California catchments with suburban development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melack, J. M.; Leydecker, A.; Beighley, E.; Robinson, T.; Coombs, S.

    2005-12-01

    Numerous streams originate in the mountains fringing California's coast and transport nutrients into coastal waters. In central California, these streams traverse catchments with land covers including chaparral, grazed grasslands, orchards, industrial agriculture and suburban and urban development. Fluvial nutrient concentrations and fluxes vary as a function of these land covers and as a function of considerable fluctuations in rainfall. As part of a long-term investigation of mobilization and fluvial transport of nutrients in catchments bordering the Santa Barbara Channel we have intensively sampled nutrient concentrations and measured discharge during storm and base flows in multiple catchments and subcatchments. Volume-weighted mean concentrations of nitrate generally ranged from 5 to 25 micromolar in undeveloped areas, increased to about 100 micromolar for suburban and most agricultural catchments, and were in excess of 1000 micromolar in catchments with greenhouse-based agriculture. Phosphate concentrations ranged from 2 to 20 micromolar among the catchments. These data are used to examine the premise that the suburbanized portion of the catchments is the primary source of nutrients to the streams.

  12. Spatial characterization of catchment dispersion mechanisms in an urban context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossel, Florian; Gironás, Jorge; Mejía, Alfonso; Rinaldo, Andrea; Rodriguez, Fabrice

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have examined in-depth the dispersion mechanisms in natural catchments. In contrast, these dispersion mechanisms have been studied little in urban catchments, where artificial transport elements and morphological arrangements are expected to modify travel times and mobilize excess rainfall from spatially distributed impervious sites. This has the ability to modify the variance of the catchment's travel times and hence the total dispersion. This work quantifies the dispersion mechanisms in an urban catchment using the theory of transport by travel times as represented by the Urban Morpho-climatic Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph (U-McIUH) model. The U-McIUH computes travel times based on kinematic wave theory and accounts explicitly for the path heterogeneities and altered connectivity patterns characteristic of an urban drainage network. The analysis is illustrated using the Aubinière urban catchment in France as a case study. We found that kinematic dispersion is dominant for small rainfall intensities, whereas geomorphologic dispersion becomes more dominant for larger intensities. The total dispersion scales with the drainage area in a power law fashion. The kinematic dispersion is dominant across spatial scales up to a threshold of approximately 2-3 km2, after which the geomorphologic dispersion becomes more dominant. Overall, overland flow is responsible for most of the dispersion in the catchment, while conduits tend to counteract the increase of the geomorphologic dispersion with a negative kinematic dispersion. Further study with other catchments is needed to asses if the latter is a general feature of urban drainage networks.

  13. F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility. Phase II. CAC basic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, W.W.; O'Leary, C.D.

    1984-01-01

    Project objectives and requirements are listed for both Phase I and II. Schedule is listed with startup targeted for 1989. Storage facilities will be provided for both chemical and radioactive effluents. 8 figs., 19 tabs

  14. Interim Control Strategy for the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility Sewage Treatment Facility Disposal Pond - Two-year Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. V. Street

    2007-04-01

    The Idaho Cleanup Project has prepared this interim control strategy for the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office pursuant to DOE Order 5400.5, Chapter 11.3e (1) to support continued discharges to the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility Sewage Treatment Facility Disposal Pond. In compliance with DOE Order 5400.5, a 2-year review of the Interim Control Strategy document has been completed. This submittal documents the required review of the April 2005 Interim Control Strategy. The Idaho Cleanup Project's recommendation is unchanged from the original recommendation. The Interim Control Strategy evaluates three alternatives: (1) re-route the discharge outlet to an uncontaminated area of the TSF-07; (2) construct a new discharge pond; or (3) no action based on justification for continued use. Evaluation of Alternatives 1 and 2 are based on the estimated cost and implementation timeframe weighed against either alternative's minimal increase in protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Evaluation of Alternative 3, continued use of the TSF-07 Disposal Pond under current effluent controls, is based on an analysis of four points: - Record of Decision controls will protect workers and the public - Risk of increased contamination is low - Discharge water will be eliminated in the foreseeable future - Risk of contamination spread is acceptable. The Idaho Cleanup Project recommends Alternative 3, no action other than continued implementation of existing controls and continued deactivation, decontamination, and dismantlement efforts at the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility.

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 116: Area 25 Test Cell C Facility, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2011-09-29

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 116, Area 25 Test Cell C Facility. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996 [as amended March 2010]). CAU 116 consists of the following two Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Area 25 of the Nevada National Security Site: (1) CAS 25-23-20, Nuclear Furnace Piping and (2) CAS 25-41-05, Test Cell C Facility. CAS 25-41-05 consisted of Building 3210 and the attached concrete shield wall. CAS 25-23-20 consisted of the nuclear furnace piping and tanks. Closure activities began in January 2007 and were completed in August 2011. Activities were conducted according to Revision 1 of the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 116 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2008). This CR provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and provides data confirming that closure objectives for CAU 116 were met. Site characterization data and process knowledge indicated that surface areas were radiologically contaminated above release limits and that regulated and/or hazardous wastes were present in the facility.

  16. GEODIVERSITY AUDIT AND ACTION PLAN FOR UPPER CATCHMENT AREA OF GERSA RIVER (RODNEI MOUNTAINS, BISTRIȚA-NĂSĂUD COUNTY, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Bâca

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Geodiversity Audit is an inventory and assessment process, wich represents the basis for elaborating the Geoconservation Action Plan. The geodiversity includes the abiotic factors (rocks, minerals, soils, landforms that sustain the life on the Earth, and owns economic, social, environmental, tourist and educational functions. This study proposes an audit of geodiversity from Gersa catcment area and an Action Plan for future planning and tourist valorization projects by local and county authorities. Gersa Valley is a geomorphological subunit located in the southern part of Rodnei Mountains (Bistrița-Năsăud County and contains in the superior sector some landforms with high degree of attractiveness, such as Izvorul Tăușoarelor Cave, Izvorul Calului Gorge and Bârlea Massif. By their configuration these landforms has a great potential for engaging in scientific and recreational activities (caving, hiking, gorge walking, canyoning, mountain biking.

  17. An assessment of the validity of the nutritional indices among under-fives in the catchment area of rural health and training center of a teaching institute in Bareilly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Katyal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Nutritional status is a sensitive indicator of community health and nutrition. There is a growing realization that adequate nutrition is a necessary first step in the improvement of quality of life. Malnutrition and infection are connected by a vicious cycle. It is one of the greatest international health problems and the biggest challenges being faced today. Thus, to know the magnitude of undernutrition among preschool children and to find out the sensitive tool for detection of undernutrition, this study was conducted among children under - 5 years of age. Aims: To assess the validity of the nutritional indices for screening malnutrition. Settings and Designs: The study was a community-based, cross-sectional survey carried out in the catchment area of Rural Health Training Center, Rohilkhand Medical College, Bareilly. Subjects and Methods: Various anthropometric criteria like, Kanawati, McLaren, Rao, Dugdale and weight for age according to the Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP (modified Gomez classification were used to define nutritional status. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were entered and analyzed in SPSS and receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves (sensitivity vs. 1 - specificity were calculated for all the above mentioned indices. Results: Age dependent criteria such as IAP (48.2% malnourished and McLaren (48.3% malnourished were followed by the age independent criteria such as Kanawati (74.3% malnourished, Dugdale (45.5% malnourished, and Rao (33.1% malnourished to classify the mild to moderate malnutrition. ROC showed Dugdale as the best index for the judgement of malnutrition showing maximum area under the curve. Conclusions: Malnutrition being a public health problem leads to morbidity which is a vicious cycle and needs proper attention to curb its detrimental effect on the children.

  18. Probability based hydrologic catchments of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    Greenland Ice Sheet melt water impacts ice sheet flow dynamics, fjord and coastal circulation, and sediment and biogeochemical fluxes. Melt water exiting the ice sheet also is a key term in its mass balance. Because of this, knowledge of the area of the ice sheet that contributes melt water to a given outlet (its hydrologic catchment) is important to many ice sheet studies and is especially critical to methods using river runoff to assess ice sheet mass balance. Yet uncertainty in delineating ice sheet hydrologic catchments is a problem that is rarely acknowledged. Ice sheet catchments are delineated as a function of both basal and surface topography. While surface topography is well known, basal topography is less certain because it is dependent on radar surveys. Here, I a present a Monte Carlo based approach to delineating ice sheet catchments that quantifies the impact of uncertain basal topography. In this scheme, over many iterations I randomly vary the ice sheet bed elevation within published error bounds (using Morlighem et al., 2014 bed and bed error datasets). For each iteration of ice sheet bed elevation, I calculate the hydraulic potentiometric surface and route water over its path of 'steepest' descent to delineate the catchment. I then use all realizations of the catchment to arrive at a probability map of all major melt water outlets in Greenland. I often find that catchment size is uncertain, with small, random perturbations in basal topography leading to large variations in catchments size. While some catchments are well defined, others can double or halve in size within published basal topography error bars. While some uncertainty will likely always remain, this work points to locations where studies of ice sheet hydrology would be the most successful, allows reinterpretation of past results, and points to where future radar surveys would be most advantageous.

  19. Hydrological impacts of land use change in three diverse South African catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Michele L.; Schulze, Roland E.; Jewitt, Graham P. W.

    2012-01-01

    SummaryIn order to meet society's needs for water, food, fuel and fibre, the earth's natural land cover and land use have been significantly changed. These changes have impacted on the hydrological responses and thus available water resources, as the hydrological responses of a catchment are dependent upon, and sensitive to, changes in the land use. The degree of anthropogenic modification of the land cover, the intensity of the land use changes and location of land uses within a catchment determines the extent to which land uses influences hydrological response of a catchment. The objective of the study was to improve understanding of the complex interactions between hydrological response and land use to aid in water resources planning. To achieve this, a hydrological model, viz. the ACRU agrohydrological model, which adequately represents hydrological processes and is sensitive to land use changes, was used to generate hydrological responses from three diverse, complex and operational South African catchments under both current land use and a baseline land cover. The selected catchments vary with respect to both land use and climate. The semi-arid sub-tropical Luvuvhu catchment has a large proportion of subsistence agriculture and informal residential areas, whereas in the winter rainfall Upper Breede catchment the primary land uses are commercial orchards and vineyards. The sub-humid Mgeni catchment is dominated by commercial plantation forestry in the upper reaches, commercial sugarcane and urban areas in the middle reaches, with the lower reaches dominated by urban areas. The hydrological responses of the selected catchments to land use change were complex. Results showed that the contributions of different land uses to the streamflow generated from a catchment is not proportional to the relative area of that land use, and the relative contribution of the land use to the catchment streamflow varies with the mean annual rainfall of the catchment. Furthermore

  20. GEODIVERSITY AUDIT AND ACTION PLAN FOR UPPER CATCHMENT AREA OF GERSA RIVER (RODNEI MOUNTAINS, BISTRIȚA-NĂSĂUD COUNTY, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Bâca

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Geodiversity Audit is an inventory and assessment process, wich represents the basis for elaborating the Geoconservation Action Plan. The geodiversity includes the abiotic factors (rocks, minerals, soils, landforms that sustain the life on the Earth, and owns economic, social, environmental, tourist and educational functions. This study proposes an audit of geodiversity from Gersa catcment area and an Action Plan for future planning and tourist valorization projects by local and county authorities. Gersa Valley is a geomorphological subunit located in the southern part of Rodnei Mountains (Bistrița-Năsăud County and contains in the superior sector some landforms with high degree of attractiveness, such as Izvorul Tăușoarelor Cave, Izvorul Calului Gorge and Bârlea Massif. By their configuration these landforms has a great potential for engaging in scientific and recreational activities (caving, hiking, gorge walking, canyoning, mountain biking. Keywords: geodiversity, geologic heritage, geoconservation, geosite, action plan, Rodnei Mountains, Gersa River, Izvorul Tăușoarelor Cave, speotourism, activ leisure

  1. Estimation and Validation of RapidEye-Based Time-Series of Leaf Area Index for Winter Wheat in the Rur Catchment (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaf Area Index (LAI is an important variable for numerous processes in various disciplines of bio- and geosciences. In situ measurements are the most accurate source of LAI among the LAI measuring methods, but the in situ measurements have the limitation of being labor intensive and site specific. For spatial-explicit applications (from regional to continental scales, satellite remote sensing is a promising source for obtaining LAI with different spatial resolutions. However, satellite-derived LAI measurements using empirical models require calibration and validation with the in situ measurements. In this study, we attempted to validate a direct LAI retrieval method from remotely sensed images (RapidEye with in situ LAI (LAIdestr. Remote sensing LAI (LAIrapideye were derived using different vegetation indices, namely SAVI (Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. Additionally, applicability of the newly available red-edge band (RE was also analyzed through Normalized Difference Red-Edge index (NDRE and Soil Adjusted Red-Edge index (SARE. The LAIrapideye obtained from vegetation indices with red-edge band showed better correlation with LAIdestr (r = 0.88 and Root Mean Square Devation, RMSD = 1.01 & 0.92. This study also investigated the need to apply radiometric/atmospheric correction methods to the time-series of RapidEye Level 3A data prior to LAI estimation. Analysis of the the RapidEye Level 3A data set showed that application of the radiometric/atmospheric correction did not improve correlation of the estimated LAI with in situ LAI.

  2. Facility effluent monitoring plan for K area spent fuel storage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunacek, G.S.

    1996-01-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400. 1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document was prepared using the specific guidelines identified in WHC-EP-0438-1, A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, and assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the second revision to the original annual report. Long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring system shall be ensured with updates of this report whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years

  3. Determination of radionuclides. Fingerprint determination on protection clothing from the controlled areas in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholand, Soeren

    2014-01-01

    ENS (Euro Nuclear Services) in Coevorden, Netherlands, is decontaminating und providing protection clothing for the personnel in nuclear facilities. The capacity of the laundry is about 750 kg/h. The clean laundry section is cleaning non-contaminated or very low contaminated articles, i.e. socks or underwear. Fingerprint is defined as the activity of certain radionuclides that differs in the different nuclear facilities. For the reception inspection the dose rate measured with scintillation detectors is compared with the customer specific fingerprint. The total activity is usually 2000 Bq/g. The dose rate limit is 0.3 mSv/h.

  4. Contamination history of suspended river sediments accumulated in oxbow lakes over the last 25 years. Morava river (Danube catchment area), Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babek, O. [Masaryk Univ., Brno (Czech Republic). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Palacky Univ., Olomouc (Czech Republic). Dept. of Geology; Hilscherova, K.; Holoubek, I.; Machat, J.; Klanova, J. [Masaryk Univ., Brno (Czech Republic). Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology; Nehyba, S.; Zeman, J.; Famera, M. [Masaryk Univ., Brno (Czech Republic). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Francu, J. [Czech Geological Survey, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2008-06-15

    Background, aims, and scope Embankment of meandering river systems in many industrial areas results in the formation of artificial oxbow lakes that may act as perennial or intermittent traps for river sediments. Their deposits can be dated using a combination of historical and stratigraphic data, providing a good means to study historical records of contamination transported by rivers. Contamination history over the last few decades is of special significance for Central and Eastern Europe as it can reflect high pollutant levels in the second half of the twentieth century and the subsequent improvement after the fall of the Iron Curtain. The purpose of this study was to investigate recent sediments of an oxbow lake of the Morava River, Czech Republic, their stratigraphic records, sediment architecture, and history of contamination. Materials and methods Seven ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles and three sediment cores up to 4 m deep were studied. The stratigraphy of the cores was inferred from visible-light spectrophotometry, X-ray radiography, grain size analysis, and semiquantitative modal analysis of sandy fractions. The sediments were dated using the {sup 137}Cs mass activity and combinations of stratigraphic and historical data. The cores were sampled for concentrations of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants. Wet sampled, lyophilized, and sieved sediments were extracted and analyzed for heavy metals by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) of aqua regia leachate and for persistent organic pollutants by gas chromatography (GC-ECD and GC-MS). Results Three distinct sedimentary sequences (S1, S2, and S3) were identified. The basal sequence S1 represents river channel sediments deposited before the formation of the oxbow lake, most likely before the 1930s. The boundary between the S1 and S2 sequence correlates with the level of sediment dredging from 1981 evidenced from historical data. The overlying sequences S2 and S3 represent a

  5. Contamination history of suspended river sediments accumulated in oxbow lakes over the last 25 years. Morava river (Danube catchment area), Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babek, O.

    2008-01-01

    Background, aims, and scope Embankment of meandering river systems in many industrial areas results in the formation of artificial oxbow lakes that may act as perennial or intermittent traps for river sediments. Their deposits can be dated using a combination of historical and stratigraphic data, providing a good means to study historical records of contamination transported by rivers. Contamination history over the last few decades is of special significance for Central and Eastern Europe as it can reflect high pollutant levels in the second half of the twentieth century and the subsequent improvement after the fall of the Iron Curtain. The purpose of this study was to investigate recent sediments of an oxbow lake of the Morava River, Czech Republic, their stratigraphic records, sediment architecture, and history of contamination. Materials and methods Seven ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles and three sediment cores up to 4 m deep were studied. The stratigraphy of the cores was inferred from visible-light spectrophotometry, X-ray radiography, grain size analysis, and semiquantitative modal analysis of sandy fractions. The sediments were dated using the 137 Cs mass activity and combinations of stratigraphic and historical data. The cores were sampled for concentrations of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants. Wet sampled, lyophilized, and sieved sediments were extracted and analyzed for heavy metals by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) of aqua regia leachate and for persistent organic pollutants by gas chromatography (GC-ECD and GC-MS). Results Three distinct sedimentary sequences (S1, S2, and S3) were identified. The basal sequence S1 represents river channel sediments deposited before the formation of the oxbow lake, most likely before the 1930s. The boundary between the S1 and S2 sequence correlates with the level of sediment dredging from 1981 evidenced from historical data. The overlying sequences S2 and S3 represent a

  6. Development of a process-oriented vulnerability concept for water travel time in karst aquifers-case study of Tanour and Rasoun springs catchment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Ibraheem; Sauter, Martin; Ptak, Thomas; Wiegand, Bettina; Margane, Armin; Toll, Mathias

    2017-04-01

    Key words: Karst aquifer, water travel time, vulnerability assessment, Jordan. The understanding of the groundwater pathways and movement through karst aquifers, and the karst aquifer response to precipitation events especially in the arid to semi-arid areas is fundamental to evaluate pollution risks from point and non-point sources. In spite of the great importance of the karst aquifer for drinking purposes, karst aquifers are highly sensitive to contamination events due to the fast connections between the land-surface and the groundwater (through the karst features) which is makes groundwater quality issues within karst systems very complicated. Within this study, different methods and approaches were developed and applied in order to characterise the karst aquifer system of the Tanour and Rasoun springs (NW-Jordan) and the flow dynamics within the aquifer, and to develop a process-oriented method for vulnerability assessment based on the monitoring of different multi-spatially variable parameters of water travel time in karst aquifer. In general, this study aims to achieve two main objectives: 1. Characterization of the karst aquifer system and flow dynamics. 2. Development of a process-oriented method for vulnerability assessment based on spatially variable parameters of travel time. In order to achieve these aims, different approaches and methods were applied starting from the understanding of the geological and hydrogeological characteristics of the karst aquifer and its vulnerability against pollutants, to using different methods, procedures and monitored parameters in order to determine the water travel time within the aquifer and investigate its response to precipitation event and, finally, with the study of the aquifer response to pollution events. The integrated breakthrough signal obtained from the applied methods and procedures including the using of stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, the monitoring of multi qualitative and quantitative parameters

  7. Final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of the exterior land areas at the Grand Junction Projects Office facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widdop, M.R.

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) facility occupies approximately 56.4 acres (22.8 hectares) along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. The site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium-refining activities conducted by the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot-milling experiments conducted for the US Atomic Energy Commission`s (AEC`s) domestic uranium procurement program. The GJPO facility was the collection and assay point for AEC uranium and vanadium oxide purchases until the early 1970s. The DOE Decontamination and Decommissioning Program sponsored the Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project (GJPORAP) to remediate the facility lands, site improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor, Rust Geotech, was the Remedial Action Contractor for GJPORAP. The exterior land areas of the facility assessed as contaminated have been remediated in accordance with identified standards and can be released for unrestricted use. Restoration of the aquifer will be accomplished through the natural flushing action of the aquifer during the next 50 to 80 years. The remediation of the DOE-GJPO facility buildings is ongoing and will be described in a separate report.

  8. Response of floodplain sedimentation to catchment disturbances in different environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notebaert, B.; Houbrechts, G.; Verstraeten, G.; Petit, F.

    2009-04-01

    Holocene floodplain sediments are an important environmental archive, that can be accesed for reconstructing the past landscape dynamics either qualitatively (e.g. palynology) and quantitatively (e.g. sediment budgeting). In this study Holocene alluvial sediment deposition in two contrasting Belgian catchments was quantified and dated: the Lienne (148 km2) in the Ardennes massif and the Dijle (750 km2) in the loess region. These catchments experienced a comparable Holocene climatic variation, but differ in topography and geology with highest relief energy in the Lienne catchment. Land use history also differs with high land use intensities in the Dijle catchment since Roman times, but at least since the Middle Ages there were also large deforestations in the Lienne catchment. Detailed cumulative Holocene sediment deposition was assessed for each catchment using more then 1000 hand augerings. Detailed radiocarbon dating of fluvial deposits was performed in the Dijle catchment, while iron slag was used as a tracer for sediments deposited after 1350 AD in the Lienne catchment. Results show that sediment deposition is much larger in the Dijle catchment (~4.5 Mg ha-1 catchment area) then in the Lienne catchment (~0.2 Mg ha-1 catchment area). Dating results from the Dijle catchment show an increase of sediment deposition in the late Holocene, first starting in the colluvial valleys and later on prograding towards the main valleys. Variations in sedimentation rates can clearly be related to anthropogenous land use pressure, and the majority of the sediments found in colluvial and alluvial valleys were deposited in the last 4000 years, and in many cases even in the last 1000 years. Variations in sediment deposition within the catchment can partially be explained by differences in river valley physical settings (mainly valley slope), while in other cases hill slope sediment delivery (upstream erosion, connectivity between hill slopes and the river system) is the explaining

  9. Environmental care in agricultural catchments: Toward the communicative catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter

    1991-11-01

    Substantial land degradation of agricultural catchments in Australia has resulted from the importation of European farming methods and the large-scale clearing of land. Rural communities are now being encouraged by government to take responsibility for environmental care. The importance of community involvement is supported by the view that environmental problems are a function of interactions between people and their environment. It is suggested that the commonly held view that community groups cannot care for their resources is due to inappropriate social institutions rather that any inherent disability in people. The communicative catchment is developed as a vision for environmental care into the future. This concept emerges from a critique of resource management through the catchment metaphors of the reduced, mechanical, and the complex, evolving catchment, which reflect the development of systemic and people-centered approaches to environmental care. The communicative catchment is one where both community and resource managers participate collaboratively in environmental care. A methodology based on action research and systemic thinking (systemic action research) is proposed as a way of moving towards the communicative catchment of the future. Action research is a way of taking action in organizations and communities that is participative and informed by theory, while systemic thinking takes into account the interconnections and relationships between social and natural worlds. The proposed vision, methodology, and practical operating principles stem from involvement in an action research project looking at extension strategies for the implementation of total catchment management in the Hunter Valley, New South Wales.

  10. Understanding Hydrological Processes in an Ungauged Catchment in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mul, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Ungauged catchments can be found in many parts of the world, but particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Information collected in a gauged catchment and its regionalisation to ungauged areas is crucial for water resources assessment. Especially farmers in semi-arid areas are in need of such information.

  11. Closure Plan for the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-10-30

    A closure plan has been developed to comply with the applicable requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.2 Manual and Guidance. The plan is organized according to the specifications of the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans.

  12. Biofouling of microfilters at the Savannah River Site F/H-Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, D.J.; Wiggins, A.W.; Poirier, M.R.; Hazen, T.C.

    1991-01-01

    The F/H-Effluent Treatment Facility uses state-of-the-art water treatment processes to remove contaminants from low-level radioactive wastewater at the Savannah River Site. The plant replaces seepage basins that were closed to comply with the 1984 amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The facility removes both radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants from the effluents orginating from onsite waste management facilities. The unit processes involve filtration, ion exchange, activated carbon absorption, and reverse osmosis. The filtration step is prone to considerable fouling, reducing the overall throughput of the facility. The filters utilized in the process are Norton Ceraflo trademark ceramic microfilters. It was discovered that bacteria were primarily responsible for the severe filter fouling. Inorganic fouling was also observed, but was not normally as severe as the bacterial fouling. The bacteria densities necessary to induce severe fouling were not significantly higher than those often found in surface water streams. Diversion of waste streams containing the highest quantity of bacteria, and various methods of source reduction were implemented, which dramatically improved the filter performance. Addition of aluminum nitrate at low pH further improved the filter performance

  13. Biofouling of microfilters at the Savannah River Site F/H-area effluent treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, D.J.; Wiggins, A.W.; Poirier, M.R.; Hazen, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    The F/H-Effluent Treatment Facility uses state-of-the-art water treatment processes to remove contaminants from low-level radioactive wastewater at the Savannah River Site, The plant replaces seepage basins that were closed to comply with the 1984 amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The facility removes both radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants from the effluents originating from onsite waste management facilities. The unit processes involve filtration, ion exchange, activated carbon absorption, and reverse osmosis. The filtration step is prone to considerable fouling, reducing the overall throughput of the facility. The Filters utilized in the process are Norton Ceraflo ceramic microfilters. It was discovered that bacteria were primarily responsible for the severe filter fouling. Inorganic fouling was also observed, but was not normally as severe as the bacterial fouling. The bacteria densities necessary to induce severe fouling were not significantly higher than those often found in surface water streams. Diversion of waste streams containing the highest quantity of bacteria, and various methods of source reduction were implemented, which dramatically unproved the filter performance. Addition of aluminum nitrate at low pH further improved the filter performance. (author)

  14. Closure Plan for the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    A closure plan has been developed to comply with the applicable requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.2 Manual and Guidance. The plan is organized according to the specifications of the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans

  15. Experimental characterization of HOTNES: A new thermal neutron facility with large homogeneity area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedogni, R., E-mail: roberto.bedogni@lnf.infn.it [INFN–LNF, via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Sperduti, A. [INFN–LNF, via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); ENEA C.R. Frascati, via E. Fermi n. 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Pietropaolo, A.; Pillon, M. [ENEA C.R. Frascati, via E. Fermi n. 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Pola, A. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); INFN–Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gómez-Ros, J.M. [INFN–LNF, via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-01-21

    A new thermal neutron irradiation facility, called HOTNES (HOmogeneous Thermal NEutron Source), was established in the framework of a collaboration between INFN-LNF and ENEA-Frascati. HOTNES is a polyethylene assembly, with about 70 cmx70 cm square section and 100 cm height, including a large, cylindrical cavity with diameter 30 cm and height 70 cm. The facility is supplied by a {sup 241}Am-B source located at the bottom of this cavity. The facility was designed in such a way that the iso-thermal-fluence surfaces, characterizing the irradiation volume, coincide with planes parallel to the cavity bottom. The thermal fluence rate across a given isofluence plane is as uniform as 1% on a disk with 30 cm diameter. Thermal fluence rate values from about 700 cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} to 1000 cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} can be achieved. The facility design, previously optimized by Monte Carlo simulation, was experimentally verified. The following techniques were used: gold activation foils to assess the thermal fluence rate, semiconductor-based active detector for mapping the irradiation volume, and Bonner Sphere Spectrometer to determine the complete neutron spectrum. HOTNES is expected to be attractive for the scientific community involved in neutron metrology, neutron dosimetry and neutron detector testing.

  16. Study on High energy efficiency photovoltaic facility agricultural system in tropical area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Zhiwu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic facility agriculture is developing rapidly in recent years, but there are many problems brought out, even in some important demonstration projects, due to the lack of standards. In order to solve some of these problems, we set up a photovoltaic facilities agricultural system in Guilinyang University City, Haikou, China and make an in-depth study on the photovoltaic facility agricultural system and its related problems. In this paper we disclose some of the experimental results. We plant corianders under two kinds of solar cell panels and general double glass assembly already sold on the market. Experiments showed that the square format cell panels are much better than row type, and the next one is general double glass assembly sold on the market, the last is the case without any shelter. 30 days after planting, the height of coriander plants are 50mm, 30mm, 23mm and 20mm correspondingly. The two typical solar cell panels have gaps between cells, and can save much more energy and improve power generation efficiency, we arrange the panels at optimum tilted angle, and design the system as open structure to save more energy. The photovoltaic facilities agricultural system we set up in Guilinyang University City can achieve much high solar energy efficiency than others and has broad application prospects.

  17. Assessing catchment connectivity using hysteretic loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jason; Masselink, Rens; Goni, Mikel; Gimenez, Rafael; Casali, Javier; Seeger, Manuel; Keesstra, Saskia

    2017-04-01

    Storm events mobilize large proportions of sediments in catchment systems. Therefore understanding catchment sediment dynamics throughout the continuity of storms and how initial catchment states act as controls on the transport of sediment to catchment outlets is important for effective catchment management. Sediment connectivity is a concept which can explain the origin, pathways and sinks of sediments within catchments (Baartman et al., 2013; Parsons et al., 2015; Masselink et al., 2016a,b; Mekonnen et al., 2016). However, sediment connectivity alone does not provide a practicable mechanism by which the catchment's initial state - and thus the location of entrained sediment in the sediment transport cascade - can be characterized. Studying the dynamic relationship between water discharge (Q) and suspended sediment (SS) at the catchment outlet can provide a valuable research tool to infer the likely source areas and flow pathways contributing to sediment transport because the relationship can be characterized by predictable hysteresis patterns. Hysteresis is observed when the sediment concentration associated with a certain flow rate is different depending on the direction in which the analysis is performed - towards the increase or towards the diminution of the flow. However, the complexity of the phenomena and factors which determine the hysteresis make its interpretation ambiguous. Previous work has described various types of hysteretic loops as well as the cause for the shape of the loop, mainly pointing to the origin of the sediments. The data set for this study comes from four experimental watersheds in Navarre (Spain), owned and maintained by the Government of Navarre. These experimental watersheds have been monitored and studied since 1996 (La Tejería and Latxaga) and 2001 (Oskotz principal and Oskotz woodland). La Tejería and Latxaga watersheds are similar to each other regarding size (approximately 200 ha), geology (marls and sandstones), soils (fine

  18. State waste discharge permit application for the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Application is being made for a permit pursuant to Chapter 173--216 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), to discharge treated waste water and cooling tower blowdown from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) to land at the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). The ETF is located in the 200 East Area and the SALDS is located north of the 200 West Area. The ETF is an industrial waste water treatment plant that will initially receive waste water from the following two sources, both located in the 200 Area on the Hanford Site: (1) the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and (2) the 242-A Evaporator. The waste water discharged from these two facilities is process condensate (PC), a by-product of the concentration of waste from DSTs that is performed in the 242-A Evaporator. Because the ETF is designed as a flexible treatment system, other aqueous waste streams generated at the Hanford Site may be considered for treatment at the ETF. The origin of the waste currently contained in the DSTs is explained in Section 2.0. An overview of the concentration of these waste in the 242-A Evaporator is provided in Section 3.0. Section 4.0 describes the LERF, a storage facility for process condensate. Attachment A responds to Section B of the permit application and provides an overview of the processes that generated the wastes, storage of the wastes in double-shell tanks (DST), preliminary treatment in the 242-A Evaporator, and storage at the LERF. Attachment B addresses waste water treatment at the ETF (under construction) and the addition of cooling tower blowdown to the treated waste water prior to disposal at SALDS. Attachment C describes treated waste water disposal at the proposed SALDS

  19. F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility Corrective Action Report - Third and Fourth Quarter 1999, Volumes I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, J.

    2000-01-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS) monitors groundwater quality at the F-Area Hazardous Waste management Facility (HWMF) and provides results of this monitoring to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) semiannually as required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit. SRS also performs monthly sampling of the Wastewater Treatment Unit (WTU) effluent in accordance with Section C of the Underground Injection Control (UIC) application

  20. Design Study and Optimization of Irradiation Facilities for Detector and Accelerator Equipment Testing in the SPS North Area at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079748; Stekl, Ivan

    Due to increasing performance of LHC during the last years, the strong need of new detector and electronic equipment test areas at CERN appeared from user communities. This thesis reports on two test facilities: GIF++ and H4IRRAD. GIF++, an upgrade of GIF facility, is a combined high-intensity gamma and particle beam irradiation facility for testing detectors for LHC. It combines a high-rate 137Cs source, providing photons with energy of 662 keV, together with the high-energy secondary particle beam from SPS. H4IRRAD is a new mixed-field irradiation area, designed for testing LHC electronic equipment for radiation damage effects. In particular, large volume assemblies such as full electronic racks of high current power converters can be tested. The area uses alternatively an attenuated primary 400 GeV/c proton beam from SPS, or a secondary, mainly proton, beam of 280 GeV/c directed towards a copper target. Different shielding layers are used to reproduce a radiation field similar to the LHC “tunnel” and �...

  1. Projected tritium releases from F ampersand H Area Seepage Basins and the Solid Waste Disposal Facilities to Fourmile Branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.B.; Haselow, J.S.; Lewis, C.M.; Harris, M.K.; Wyatt, D.E.; Hetrick, C.S.

    1993-01-01

    A large percentage of the radioactivity released to the environment by operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is due to tritium. Because of the relative importance of the releases of tritium from SRS facilities through the groundwater to the environment, periodic evaluation and documentation of the facility operational status, proposed corrective actions, and projected changes/reductions in tritium releases are justified. Past, current, and projected tritium releases from the F and H Area Seepage Basins and the Solid Waste Disposal Facilities (SWDF) to Fourmile Branch are described. Each section provides a brief operational history along with the current status and proposed corrective actions. A conceptual model and quantitative estimates of tritium release from the facilities into the groundwater and the environment are developed. Tritium releases from the F and H Area Seepage Basins are declining and will be further reduced by the implementation of a groundwater corrective action required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Tritium releases from the SWDF have been relatively stable over the past 10 years. It is anticipated that SWDF tritium releases to Fourmile Branch will remain approximately at current levels for at least 10--20 years. Specific characterization activities are recommended to allow an improved projection of tritium flux and to assist in developing plans for plume mitigation. SRS and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control are developing groundwater corrective action plans for the SWDF. Portions of the SWDF are also regulated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Reduction of tritium flux is one of the factors considered in the development of the RCRA/CERCLA groundwater corrective action. The final section of the document presents the sum of the projected tritium fluxes from these facilities to Fourmile Branch

  2. STREAMLINED APPROACH FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION PLAN FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 116: AREA 25 TEST CELL C FACILITY NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan identifies the activities required for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 116, Area 25 Test Cell C Facility. The Test Cell C Facility is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site approximately 25 miles northwest of Mercury, Nevada

  3. Groundwater monitoring plan: 200 Areas treated effluent disposal facility (Project W-049H)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D.B.; Davis, J.D.; Collard, L.B.; Freeman, P.B.; Chou, C.J.

    1995-04-01

    This groundwater monitoring plan provides information that supports the US Department of Energy's application (DOE-RL 1994) for waste water discharge permit No. WA-ST-4502 from the State of Washington, under the auspices of Washington Administrative Code 173-216. The monitoring plan has two functions: (1) to summarize the results of a 3-yr characterization of the current hydrogeology and groundwater quality of the discharge site and (2) to provide plans for evaluating the effects of the facility's operation on groundwater quality and document compliance with applicable groundwater quality standards. Three wells were drilled to define the stratigraphy, evaluate sediment characteristics, and establish a groundwater monitoring net work for the discharge facility. These wells monitor groundwater quality upgradient and downgradient in the uppermost aquifer. This report proposes plans for continuing the monitoring of groundwater quality and aquifer characteristics after waste water discharges begin

  4. Radiological performance assessment for the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.; Fowler, J.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-12-18

    This radiological performance assessment (RPA) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) was prepared in accordance with the requirements of Chapter III of the US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. The Order specifies that an RPA should provide reasonable assurance that a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility will comply with the performance objectives of the Order. The performance objectives require that: (1) exposures of the general public to radioactivity in the waste or released from the waste will not result in an effective dose equivalent of 25 mrem per year; (2) releases to the atmosphere will meet the requirements of 40 CFR 61; (3) inadvertent intruders will not be committed to an excess of an effective dose equivalent of 100 mrem per year from chronic exposure, or 500 mrem from a single acute exposure; and (4) groundwater resources will be protected in accordance with Federal, State and local requirements.

  5. Radiological performance assessment for the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Fowler, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    This radiological performance assessment (RPA) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) was prepared in accordance with the requirements of Chapter III of the US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. The Order specifies that an RPA should provide reasonable assurance that a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility will comply with the performance objectives of the Order. The performance objectives require that: (1) exposures of the general public to radioactivity in the waste or released from the waste will not result in an effective dose equivalent of 25 mrem per year; (2) releases to the atmosphere will meet the requirements of 40 CFR 61; (3) inadvertent intruders will not be committed to an excess of an effective dose equivalent of 100 mrem per year from chronic exposure, or 500 mrem from a single acute exposure; and (4) groundwater resources will be protected in accordance with Federal, State and local requirements

  6. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage effluent, continental and coastal waters from the Northwestern Mediterrean Sea: Comparison between two contrasted catchment areas (Marseilles Bay and Vermeille coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigue, Catherine; Ferretto, Nicolas; Méjanelle, Laurence; Tedetti, Marc; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Goutx, Madeleine

    2014-05-01

    combusted fossil fuels, whatever the season, revealing a very distinct pattern from the Marseilles area. These results show the importance of the dissolved compartment dynamics, especially spatio-temporal variability at catchment scale, when assessing the budget of organic pollutants in coastal environments.

  7. Analysis of glycerin waste in A-Area sanitary treatment facility material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    TNX has a large supply of 55 gallon drums containing pure glycerin and glycerin with additives. The glycerin drums were procured to simulate the glass stream in a pilot-scale melter process at TNX. Since the glycerin was not used for this process, TNX is looking at disposing the material in a sanitary waste treatment facility onsite. The effect of adding the contents of the drums to sewage bacteria was tested. A drum of pure glycerin and a drum of glycerin mixed with lithium chloride were tested. The test consisted of mixing sanitary sludge material with the glycerin material. The purpose of the test was to determine if the glycerin impacted the aerobic bacterial population. The bacterial densities were determined by taking samples from the sludge/glycerin mixtures and using aerobic plate count methods. The total organic carbon (TOC) levels were measured before and after testing. The results indicate that the cell density of the aerobic bacteria increased with the addition of glycerin and the glycerin mixture and the TOC removal rate was different for all tests. Disposal of glycerin in the wastewater treatment facilities should pose no problems. Additional testing and analysis of the mixed samples should be done before its disposal in a waste water treatment facility

  8. Decontamination and decommissioning of the Argonne National Laboratory East Area radioactively contaminated surplus facilities: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, W.H.; Fassnacht, G.F.; Moe, H.J.

    1987-07-01

    ANL has decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D) seven radiologically contaminated surplus facilities at its Illinois site: a ''Hot'' Machine Shop (Building 17) and support facilities; Fan House No. 1 (Building 37), Fan House No. 2 (Building 38), the Pangborn Dust Collector (Building 41), and the Industrial Waste Treatment Plant (Building 34) for exhaust air from machining of radioactive materials. Also included were a Nuclear Materials Storage Vault (Building 16F) and a Nuclear Research Laboratory (Building 22). The D and D work involved dismantling of all process equipment and associated plumbing, ductwork, drain lines, etc. After radiation surveys, floor and wall coverings, suspended ceilings, room partitions, pipe, conduit and electrical gear were taken down as necessary. In addition, underground sewers were excavated. The grounds around each facility were also thoroughly surveyed. Contaminated materials and soil were packaged and shipped to a low-level waste burial site, while nonactive debris was buried in the ANL landfill. Clean, reusable items were saved, and clean metal scrap was sold for salvage. After the decommissioning work, each building was torn down and the site relandscaped. The project was completed in 1985, ahead of schedule, with substantial savings

  9. Improving pedestrian facilities in congested urban areas: a case study of Chennai city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, B.; Prasanna Kumar, R.

    2017-07-01

    Traffic congestion and lack of public pedestrian space are some problems faced by most urban metropolises. Conventionally walking has been a mode of transportation in Indian cities. The percentage of pedestrians may vary from 16 to 57 depending upon the city. Encounters between vehicular traffic and pedestrian traffic are at its rise currently. Rapid industrialization and urbanization in India has resulted in neglecting of pedestrian facilities. Consequently pedestrian are at greater risk for their safety more especially in the commercial zones of large cities. A change in perspective spotlight will create a sense of awareness that the pedestrian traffic is also vital as the vehicular traffic. Soothing the traffic would moderately cut the driving expediency but the pedestrians will get a much safer and peaceful route to their terminuses. Safety and comfort are the two pans of a balance while considering the pedestrian traffic. Considering these aspects, this study deals a study in improving pedestrian facilities by analysing the existing skeleton of the selected locations. The adequacy of facility is checked based on IRC latest guidelines and counteractive measures are postulated.

  10. Susceptibility of Shallow Landslide in Fraser Hill Catchment, Pahang Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Nor Azmin Sulaiman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In tropical areas especially during monsoon seasons intense precipitation is the main caused that trigger the natural shallow landslide phenomena. This phenomenon can be disastrous and widespread in occurrence even in undisturbed forested catchment. In this paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate the susceptibility of natural hill slopes to failure for a popular hill resort area, the Fraser Hill Catchment under different rainfall regimes and soil thickness. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM was prepared for the 8.2 km2 catchment. A GIS based deterministic model was then applied to predict the spatial landslide occurrence within catchment. Model input parameters include bulk density, friction angle, cohesion and hydraulic conductivity were gathered through in situ and lab analysis as well as from previous soil analysis records. Landslides locations were recorded using GPS as well as previous air photos and satellite imagery to establish landslide source areas inventory. The landslide susceptibility map was produced under different precipitation event’s simulation to see the effects of precipitation to stability of the hill slopes of the catchment. The results were categorized into naturally unstable (Defended, Upper Threshold, Lower Threshold, marginal instability (Quasi Stable and stable area (Moderately Stable and Stable. Results of the simulation indicated notable change in precipitation effect on Defended area is between 10mm to 40mm range in a single storm event. However, when storm event is exceeded 120mm, the result on Defended area produced by the model tends to be constant further on. For area categorized as naturally unstable (Factor of Safety, SF<1, with 110 mm of precipitation in a single storm event and soil depth at 2 meters and 4 meters could affect 69.51% and 69.88% respectively of the catchment area fall under that class. In addition, the model was able to detect 4% more of the landslide inventory under shallower soil depth of

  11. The catchment based approach using catchment system engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonczyk, Jennine; Quinn, Paul; Barber, Nicholas; Wilkinson, Mark

    2015-04-01

    The catchment based approach (CaBa) has been championed as a potential mechanism for delivery of environmental directives such as the Water Framework Directive in the UK. However, since its launch in 2013, there has been only limited progress towards achieving sustainable, holistic management, with only a few of examples of good practice ( e.g. from the Tyne Rivers trust). Common issues with developing catchment plans over a national scale include limited data and resources to identify issues and source of those issues, how to systematically identify suitable locations for measures or suites of measures that will have the biggest downstream impact and how to overcome barriers for implementing solutions. Catchment System Engineering (CSE) is an interventionist approach to altering the catchment scale runoff regime through the manipulation of hydrological flow pathways throughout the catchment. A significant component of the runoff generation can be managed by targeting hydrological flow pathways at source, such as overland flow, field drain and ditch function, greatly reducing erosive soil losses. Coupled with management of farm nutrients at source, many runoff attenuation features or measures can be co-located to achieve benefits for water quality and biodiversity. A catchment, community-led mitigation measures plan using the CSE approach will be presented from a catchment in Northumberland, Northern England that demonstrate a generic framework for identification of multi-purpose features that slow, store and filter runoff at strategic locations in the landscape. Measures include within-field barriers, edge of field traps and within-ditch measures. Progress on the implementation of measures will be reported alongside potential impacts on the runoff regime at both local and catchment scale and costs.

  12. Remote sensing of surface water quality in relation to catchment condition in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masocha, Mhosisi; Murwira, Amon; Magadza, Christopher H. D.; Hirji, Rafik; Dube, Timothy

    2017-08-01

    The degradation of river catchments is one of the most important contemporary environmental problems affecting water quality in tropical countries. In this study, we used remotely sensed Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to assess how catchment condition varies within and across river catchments in Zimbabwe. We then used non-linear regression to test whether catchment condition assessed using the NDVI is significantly (α = 0.05) related with levels of Total Suspended Solids (TSS) measured at different sampling points in thirty-two sub-catchments in Zimbabwe. The results showed a consistent negative curvilinear relationship between Landsat 8 derived NDVI and TSS measured across the catchments under study. In the drier catchments of the country, 98% of the variation in TSS is explained by NDVI, while in wetter catchments, 64% of the variation in TSS is explained by NDVI. Our results suggest that NDVI derived from free and readily available multispectral Landsat series data (Landsat 8) is a potential valuable tool for the rapid assessment of physical water quality in data poor catchments. Overall, the finding of this study underscores the usefulness of readily available satellite data for near-real time monitoring of the physical water quality at river catchment scale, especially in resource-constrained areas, such as the sub-Saharan Africa.

  13. Hydro-economic modelling in mining catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossa Moreno, J. S.; McIntyre, N.; Rivera, D.; Smart, J. C. R.

    2017-12-01

    Hydro-economic models are gaining momentum because of their capacity to model both the physical processes related to water supply, and socio-economic factors determining water demand. This is particularly valuable in the midst of the large uncertainty upon future climate conditions and social trends. Agriculture, urban uses and environmental flows have received a lot of attention from researchers, as these tend to be the main consumers of water in most catchments. Mine water demand, although very important in several small and medium-sized catchments worldwide, has received less attention and only few models have attempted to reproduce its dynamics with other users. This paper describes an on-going project that addresses this gap, by developing a hydro-economic model in the upper Aconcagua River in Chile. This is a mountain catchment with large scale mining and hydro-power users at high altitudes, and irrigation areas in a downstream valley. Relevant obstacles to the model included the lack of input climate data, which is a common feature in several mining areas, the complex hydrological processes in the area and the difficulty of quantifying the value of water used by mines. A semi-distributed model developed within the Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP), was calibrated to reproduce water supply, and this was complemented with an analysis of the value of water for mining based on two methods; water markets and an analysis of its production processes. Agriculture and other users were included through methods commonly used in similar models. The outputs help understanding the value of water in the catchment, and its sensitivity to changes in climate variables, market prices, environmental regulations and changes in the production of minerals, crops and energy. The results of the project highlight the importance of merging hydrology and socio-economic calculations in mining regions, in order to better understand trade-offs and cost of opportunity of using

  14. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Joseph P.; Kwicklis, Edward M.; Gillies, Daniel C.; Rousseau, Joseph P.; Kwicklis, Edward M.; Gillies, Daniel C.

    1999-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the U.S. Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the U.S. Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that gas flow and liquid flow within the welded tuffs of the unsaturated zone occur primarily through fractures. Fracture densities are highest in the Tiva Canyon welded (TCw) and Topopah Spring welded (TSw) hydrogeologic units. Although fracture density is much lower in the intervening nonwelded and bedded tuffs of the Paintbrush nonwelded hydrogeologic unit (PTn), pneumatic and aqueous-phase isotopic evidence indicates that substantial secondary permeability is present locally in the PTn, especially in the vicinity of faults. Borehole air-injection tests indicate that bulk air-permeability ranges from 3.5x10-14 to 5.4x10-11 square meters for the welded tuffs and from 1.2x10-13 to 3.0x10-12 square meters for the non welded and bedded tuffs of the PTn. Analyses of in-situ pneumatic-pressure data from monitored boreholes produced estimates of bulk permeability that were comparable to those determined from the air-injection tests. In many cases, both sets of estimates are two to three orders of magnitude larger than estimates based on laboratory analyses of unfractured core samples. The in-situ pneumatic-pressure records also indicate that the unsaturated-zone pneumatic system consists of four subsystems that coincide with the four major hydrogeologic units of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In

  15. A Slicing Tree Representation and QCP-Model-Based Heuristic Algorithm for the Unequal-Area Block Facility Layout Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Shiang Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The facility layout problem is a typical combinational optimization problem. In this research, a slicing tree representation and a quadratically constrained program model are combined with harmony search to develop a heuristic method for solving the unequal-area block layout problem. Because of characteristics of slicing tree structure, we propose a regional structure of harmony memory to memorize facility layout solutions and two kinds of harmony improvisation to enhance global search ability of the proposed heuristic method. The proposed harmony search based heuristic is tested on 10 well-known unequal-area facility layout problems from the literature. The results are compared with the previously best-known solutions obtained by genetic algorithm, tabu search, and ant system as well as exact methods. For problems O7, O9, vC10Ra, M11*, and Nug12, new best solutions are found. For other problems, the proposed approach can find solutions that are very similar to previous best-known solutions.

  16. Integrated disposal Facility Sagebrush Habitat Mitigation Project: FY2007 Compensation Area Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, Robin E.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2007-09-01

    This report summarizes the first year survival of sagebrush seedlings planted as compensatory mitigation for the Integrated Disposal Facility Project. Approximately 42,600 bare root seedlings and 26,000 pluglings were planted at a mitigation site along Army Loop Road in February 2007. Initial baseline monitoring occurred in March 2007, and first summer survival was assessed in September 2007. Overall survival was 19%, with bare root survival being marginally better than pluglings (21% versus 14%). Likely major factors contributing to low survival were late season planting and insufficient soil moisture during seedling establishment.

  17. Subsonic Constant-Area MHD Generator Experiments with the CNEN Blow-Down Loop Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolini, E.; Gasparotto, M.; Gay, P.; Toschi, R. [Laboratorio Conversione Diretta, CNEN, Frascati (Italy)

    1968-11-15

    The design of the facility, described at the Salzburg Symposium, was somewhat modified following the results of the commissioning tests; the changes were mainly concerned with the thermal insulation, duct materials and caesium recovery system. The facility went into full operation in March 1967 and since then two series of MHD experiments, a total of twenty-six runs, have been performed. During the MHD runs the facility has been working mostly under the following operating conditions: stagnation temperature 1500 to 1800 Degree-Sign K; stagnation pressure-1 to 3 atm. abs.; mass How 50 to 150 g/sec; seeding 2 to 5 at.%- ; magnetic field 0 to 45 k G; Mach number 0.4 to 0.8; Hall parameter up to 6. The main purpose of the experiments was to study the performance of relatively small generators (cross-section 3 x 5 cm{sup 2}, length 8-20 cm) both when the non-equilibrium ionization is expected to be negligible and when it should be, in a very idealized model, relevant. As a first step, efforts were made to ascertain whether any of the unsatisfactory results reported in Salzburg, both for equilibrium and non-equilibrium generators, stemmed not from the basic functioning principle of an MHD small-scale generator but rather from some inadequacy of the experimental apparatus. Therefore particular attention was paid to: ceasium vaporization and mixing with helium; plasma insulation from ground; electrical insulation from ground and from each other of those electrically conductive parts of the facility which may, during the functioning, come into contact with the plasma; temperature control of the duct; purity level; duct materials; measurement system and control. In the equilibrium regime the Faraday field measured is very close to the ideal value and it reaches 80 V/cm (400 volts between electrodes); the Hall field still remains below the ideal value uB{beta}L (50% at {beta} = 3). The maximum Hall field was about 35 V/cm for a corresponding voltage of 600 V. Preionization

  18. The global lambda visualization facility: An international ultra-high-definition wide-area visualization collaboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, J.; Renambot, L.; Johnson, Aaron H.; Jeong, B.; Jagodic, R.; Schwarz, N.; Svistula, D.; Singh, R.; Aguilera, J.; Wang, X.; Vishwanath, V.; Lopez, B.; Sandin, D.; Peterka, T.; Girado, J.; Kooima, R.; Ge, J.; Long, L.; Verlo, A.; DeFanti, T.A.; Brown, M.; Cox, D.; Patterson, R.; Dorn, P.; Wefel, P.; Levy, S.; Talandis, J.; Reitzer, J.; Prudhomme, T.; Coffin, T.; Davis, B.; Wielinga, P.; Stolk, B.; Bum, Koo G.; Kim, J.; Han, S.; Corrie, B.; Zimmerman, T.; Boulanger, P.; Garcia, M.

    2006-01-01

    The research outlined in this paper marks an initial global cooperative effort between visualization and collaboration researchers to build a persistent virtual visualization facility linked by ultra-high-speed optical networks. The goal is to enable the comprehensive and synergistic research and development of the necessary hardware, software and interaction techniques to realize the next generation of end-user tools for scientists to collaborate on the global Lambda Grid. This paper outlines some of the visualization research projects that were demonstrated at the iGrid 2005 workshop in San Diego, California.

  19. Runoff of small rocky headwater catchments: Field observations and hydrological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoretti, C.; Degetto, M.; Bernard, M.; Crucil, G.; Pimazzoni, A.; De Vido, G.; Berti, M.; Simoni, A.; Lanzoni, S.

    2016-10-01

    In dolomitic headwater catchments, intense rainstorms of short duration produce runoff discharges that often trigger debris flows on the scree slopes at the base of rock cliffs. In order to measure these discharges, we placed a measuring facility at the outlet (elevation 1770 m a.s.l.) of a small, rocky headwater catchment (area ˜0.032 km2, average slope ˜320%) located in the Venetian Dolomites (North Eastern Italian Alps). The facility consists of an approximately rectangular basin, ending with a sharp-crested weir. Six runoff events were recorded in the period 2011-2014, providing a unique opportunity for characterizing the hydrological response of the catchment. The measured hydrographs display impulsive shapes, with an abrupt raise up to the peak, followed by a rapidly decreasing tail, until a nearly constant plateau is eventually reached. This behavior can be simulated by means of a distributed hydrological model if the excess rainfall is determined accurately. We show that using the Soil Conservation Service Curve-Number (SCS-CN) method and assuming a constant routing velocity invariably results in an underestimated peak flow and a delayed peak time. A satisfactory prediction of the impulsive hydrograph shape, including peak value and timing, is obtained only by combining the SCS-CN procedure with a simplified version of the Horton equation, and simulating runoff routing along the channel network through a matched diffusivity kinematic wave model. The robustness of the proposed methodology is tested through a comparison between simulated and observed timings of runoff or debris flow occurrence in two neighboring alpine basins.

  20. 200 Area effluent treatment facility process control plan 98-02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, E.Q.

    1998-01-01

    This Process Control Plan (PCP) provides a description of the background information, key objectives, and operating criteria defining Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) Campaign 98-02 as required per HNF-IP-0931 Section 37, Process Control Plans. Campaign 98-62 is expected to process approximately 18 millions gallons of groundwater with an assumption that the UP-1 groundwater pump will be shut down on June 30, 1998. This campaign will resume the UP-1 groundwater treatment operation from Campaign 97-01. The Campaign 97-01 was suspended in November 1997 to allow RCRA waste in LERF Basin 42 to be treated to meet the Land Disposal Restriction Clean Out requirements. The decision to utilize ETF as part of the selected interim remedial action of the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit is documented by the Declaration of the Record of Decision, (Ecology, EPA and DOE 1997). The treatment method was chosen in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (known as the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA), and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP)

  1. Basic Data Report -- Defense Waste Processing Facility Sludge Plant, Savannah River Plant 200-S Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amerine, D.B.

    1982-09-01

    This Basic Data Report for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)--Sludge Plant was prepared to supplement the Technical Data Summary. Jointly, the two reports were intended to form the basis for the design and construction of the DWPF. To the extent that conflicting information may appear, the Basic Data Report takes precedence over the Technical Data Summary. It describes project objectives and design requirements. Pertinent data on the geology, hydrology, and climate of the site are included. Functions and requirements of the major structures are described to provide guidance in the design of the facilities. Revision 9 of the Basic Data Report was prepared to eliminate inconsistencies between the Technical Data Summary, Basic Data Report and Scopes of Work which were used to prepare the September, 1982 updated CAB. Concurrently, pertinent data (material balance, curie balance, etc.) have also been placed in the Basic Data Report. It is intended that these balances be used as a basis for the continuing design of the DWPF even though minor revisions may be made in these balances in future revisions to the Technical Data Summary.

  2. Ecological studies in the Ratanica catchment (Carpathian foothills, southern Poland) - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodzinska, K.; Szarek, G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper includes an overview of ecological studies conducted since 1986 in the Ratanica pine-beech forested catchment located in the polluted, high populated southern part of Poland. General characteristics of the catchment (including soil and vegetation, air pollution, input/output of nutrients and pollutants, element budget data and forest health assessment) are presented. Based on biogeochemical and bioindication results, the Ratanica catchment has been classified as a moderately to heavily deteriorated area. Predictions for this forested catchment for various deposition of anthropogenic pollutants, are also discussed. 22 refs., 1 fig

  3. Evaluation of the 183-D Water Filtration Facility for Bat Roosts and Development of a Mitigation Strategy, 100-D Area, Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, C. T.; Gano, K. A.; Lucas, J. G.

    2011-03-07

    The 183-D Water Filtration Facility is located in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site, north of Richland, Washington. It was used to provide filtered water for cooling the 105-D Reactor and supplying fire-protection and drinking water for all facilities in the 100-D Area. The facility has been inactive since the 1980s and is now scheduled for demolition. Therefore, an evaluation was conducted to determine if any part of the facility was being used as roosting habitat by bats.

  4. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. N. Doyle

    2002-02-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The site is located within the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (R-MAD) compound and consists of Building 3126, two outdoor decontamination pads, and surrounding areas within an existing fenced area measuring approximately 50 x 37 meters (160 x 120 feet). The site was used from the early 1960s to the early 1970s as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station program to decontaminate test-car hardware and tooling. The site was reactivated in the early 1980s to decontaminate a radiologically contaminated military tank. This Closure Report (CR) describes the closure activities performed to allow un-restricted release of the R-MAD Decontamination Facility.

  5. INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATORY SURVEY REPORT FOR THE SECTION 4 AREA AT THE RIO ALGOM AMBROSIA LAKE FACILITY AMBROSIA LAKE, NEW MEXICO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, W.C.

    2010-01-01

    The Rio Algom Mining (RAM) Limited Liability Corporation Ambrosia Lake site began processing uranium-bearing ore in 1958. Operating under U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Source Material License SUA-1473, the site processed approximately 33 million tons of ore through 1985 and continued to be an active uranium production facility through December 2002. Reclamation of the tailings began in 1989 and included the excavation and disposal of unlined evaporation pond residues, contaminated soil cleanup, construction of surface water erosion protection features and the demolition of the mill buildings (NRC 2006). Construction of the Section 4 evaporation ponds commenced in 1976 and was completed in 1979. The ponds were used to evaporate liquid wastes generated from RAM's processing mill. The ponds remained in active service until April 2004; reclamation activities included the pond sediments being relocated to the main tailings disposal area (KOMEX 2006). Other reclamation activities included the excavation and disposal of unlined evaporation pond residues, contaminated soil clean-up, completion of the majority of the required reclamations for Impoundments 1 and 2, construction of a rock apron on Impoundment 2 and demolition of the conventional milling structures and most support facilities. Additional activities at the site included the construction of erosion protection features adjacent to the tailings disposal facility. On January 19, 2005, the RAM submitted a Soil Decommissioning Plan for its Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings facility, specifically the evaporation ponds, to the NRC. The NRC requested, in several comment letters, that RAM provide additional information and a revised plan (NRC 2006). RAM issued a revised decommissioning plan (DP) that addresses the methods and procedures implemented to ensure soil remediation meets the requirements of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) and NRC regulations contained within the Code of

  6. Facility Closure Report for Tunnel U16a, Area 16, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    U16a is not listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The closure of U16a was sponsored by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) and performed with the cooperation of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. This report documents closure of this site as identified in the DTRA Fiscal Year 2008 Statement of Work, Task 6.3. Closure activities included: (1) Removing and disposing of a shack and its contents; (2) Disposing of debris from within the shack and in the vicinity of the tunnel entrance; (3) Verifying that the tunnel is empty; (4) Welding screened covers over tunnel vent holes to limit access and allow ventilation; and (5) Constructing a full-tunnel cross-section fibercrete bulkhead to prevent access to the tunnel Field activities were conducted from July to August 2008.

  7. Multi-keV X-ray area source intensity at SGII laser facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui-rong; An, Hong-hai; Xie, Zhi-yong; Wang, Wei

    2018-05-01

    Experiments for investigating the feasibility of multi-keV backlighters for several different metallic foil targets were performed at the Shenguang II (SGII) laser facility in China. Emission spectra in the energy range of 1.65-7.0 keV were measured with an elliptically bent crystal spectrometer, and the X-ray source size was measured with a pinhole camera. The X-ray intensity near 4.75 keV and the X-ray source size for titanium targets at different laser intensity irradiances were studied. By adjusting the total laser energy at a fixed focal spot size, laser intensity in the range of 1.5-5.0 × 1015 W/cm2, was achieved. The results show that the line emission intensity near 4.75 keV and the X-ray source size are dependent on the laser intensity and increase as the laser intensity increases. However, an observed "peak" in the X-ray intensity near 4.75 keV occurs at an irradiance of 4.0 × 1015 W/cm2. For the employed experimental conditions, it was confirmed that the laser intensity could play a significant role in the development of an efficient multi-keV X-ray source. The experimental results for titanium indicate that the production of a large (˜350 μm in diameter) intense backlighter source of multi-keV X-rays is feasible at the SGII facility.

  8. AIRDOS-II computer code for estimating radiation dose to man from airborne radionuclides in areas surrouding nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.E.

    1977-04-01

    The AIRDOS-II computer code estimates individual and population doses resulting from the simultaneous atmospheric release of as many as 36 radionuclides from a nuclear facility. This report describes the meteorological and environmental models used is the code, their computer implementation, and the applicability of the code to assessments of radiological impact. Atmospheric dispersion and surface deposition of released radionuclides are estimated as a function of direction and distance from a nuclear power plant or fuel-cycle facility, and doses to man through inhalation, air immersion, exposure to contaminated ground, food ingestion, and water immersion are estimated in the surrounding area. Annual doses are estimated for total body, GI tract, bone, thyroid, lungs, muscle, kidneys, liver, spleen, testes, and ovaries. Either the annual population doses (man-rems/year) or the highest annual individual doses in the assessment area (rems/year), whichever are applicable, are summarized in output tables in several ways--by nuclides, modes of exposure, and organs. The location of the highest individual doses for each reference organ estimated for the area is specified in the output data

  9. Drought propagation and its relation with catchment biophysical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Garreton, C. D.; Lara, A.; Garreaud, R. D.

    2016-12-01

    Droughts propagate in the hydrological cycle from meteorological to soil moisture to hydrological droughts. To understand the drivers of this process is of paramount importance since the economic and societal impacts in water resources are directly related with hydrological droughts (and not with meteorological droughts, which have been most studied). This research analyses drought characteristics over a large region and identify its main exogenous (climate forcing) and endogenous (biophysical characteristics such as land cover type and topography) explanatory factors. The study region is Chile, which covers seven major climatic subtypes according to Köppen system, it has unique geographic characteristics, very sharp topography and a wide range of landscapes and vegetation conditions. Meteorological and hydrological droughts (deficit in precipitation and streamflow, respectively) are characterized by their durations and standardized deficit volumes using a variable threshold method, over 300 representative catchments (located between 27°S and 50°S). To quantify the propagation from meteorological to hydrological drought, we propose a novel drought attenuation index (DAI), calculated as the ratio between the meteorological drought severity slope and the hydrological drought severity slope. DAI varies from zero (catchment that attenuates completely a meteorological drought) to one (the meteorological drought is fully propagated through the hydrological cycle). This novel index provides key (and comparable) information about drought propagation over a wide range of different catchments, which has been highlighted as a major research gap. Similar drought indicators across the wide range of catchments are then linked with catchment biophysical characteristics. A thorough compilation of land cover information (including the percentage of native forests, grass land, urban and industrial areas, glaciers, water bodies and no vegetated areas), catchment physical

  10. Regional-scale lateral carbon transport and CO2 evasion in temperate stream catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magin, Katrin; Somlai-Haase, Celia; Schäfer, Ralf B.; Lorke, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    Inland waters play an important role in regional to global-scale carbon cycling by transporting, processing and emitting substantial amounts of carbon, which originate mainly from their catchments. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between terrestrial net primary production (NPP) and the rate at which carbon is exported from the catchments in a temperate stream network. The analysis included more than 200 catchment areas in southwest Germany, ranging in size from 0.8 to 889 km2 for which CO2 evasion from stream surfaces and downstream transport with stream discharge were estimated from water quality monitoring data, while NPP in the catchments was obtained from a global data set based on remote sensing. We found that on average 13.9 g C m-2 yr-1 (corresponding to 2.7 % of terrestrial NPP) are exported from the catchments by streams and rivers, in which both CO2 evasion and downstream transport contributed about equally to this flux. The average carbon fluxes in the catchments of the study area resembled global and large-scale zonal mean values in many respects, including NPP, stream evasion and the carbon export per catchment area in the fluvial network. A review of existing studies on aquatic-terrestrial coupling in the carbon cycle suggests that the carbon export per catchment area varies in a relatively narrow range, despite a broad range of different spatial scales and hydrological characteristics of the study regions.

  11. Water and salt balance modelling to predict the effects of land-use changes in forested catchments. 3. The large catchment model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapalan, Murugesu; Viney, Neil R.; Jeevaraj, Charles G.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents an application of a long-term, large catchment-scale, water balance model developed to predict the effects of forest clearing in the south-west of Western Australia. The conceptual model simulates the basic daily water balance fluxes in forested catchments before and after clearing. The large catchment is divided into a number of sub-catchments (1-5 km2 in area), which are taken as the fundamental building blocks of the large catchment model. The responses of the individual subcatchments to rainfall and pan evaporation are conceptualized in terms of three inter-dependent subsurface stores A, B and F, which are considered to represent the moisture states of the subcatchments. Details of the subcatchment-scale water balance model have been presented earlier in Part 1 of this series of papers. The response of any subcatchment is a function of its local moisture state, as measured by the local values of the stores. The variations of the initial values of the stores among the subcatchments are described in the large catchment model through simple, linear equations involving a number of similarity indices representing topography, mean annual rainfall and level of forest clearing.The model is applied to the Conjurunup catchment, a medium-sized (39·6 km2) catchment in the south-west of Western Australia. The catchment has been heterogeneously (in space and time) cleared for bauxite mining and subsequently rehabilitated. For this application, the catchment is divided into 11 subcatchments. The model parameters are estimated by calibration, by comparing observed and predicted runoff values, over a 18 year period, for the large catchment and two of the subcatchments. Excellent fits are obtained.

  12. 300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

  13. Characterization and monitoring of 300 Area Facility liquid waste streams: Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manke, K.L.; Riley, R.G.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Damberg, E.G.; Evans, J.C.; Ikenberry, A.S.; Olsen, K.B.; Ozanich, R.M.; Thompson, C.J.

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of characterizing and monitoring the following sources during a portion of this year: liquid waste streams from Buildings 331, 320, and 3720; treated and untreated Columbia River water; and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe). Characterization and monitoring data were evaluated for samples collected between March 22 and June 21, 1994, and subsequently analyzed for hazardous chemicals, radioactivity, and general parameters. Except for bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, concentrations of chemicals detected and parameters measured at end-of-pipe were below the US Environmental Protection Agency existing and proposed drinking water standards. The source of the chemicals, except bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, is not currently known. The bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate is probably an artifact of the plastic tubing used in the early stages of the sampling program. This practice was stopped. Concentrations and clearance times for contaminants at end-of-pipe depended strongly on source concentration at the facility release point, waste stream flow rates, dispersion, and the mechanical action of sumps. When present, the action of sumps had the greatest impact on contaminant clearance times. In the absence of sump activity, dispersion and flow rate were the controlling factors

  14. Competitive adsorption of heavy metals in soil underlying an infiltration facility installed in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M A; Furumai, H; Nakajima, F

    2009-01-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals at elevated concentration and potential of considerable amount of the accumulated heavy metals to reach the soil system was observed from earlier studies in soakaways sediments within an infiltration facility in Tokyo, Japan. In order to understand the competitive adsorption behaviour of heavy metals Zn, Ni and Cu in soil, competitive batch adsorption experiments were carried out using single metal and binary metal combinations on soil samples representative of underlying soil and surface soil at the site. Speciation analysis of the adsorbed metals was carried out through BCR sequential extraction method. Among the metals, Cu was not affected by competition while Zn and Ni were affected by competition of coexisting metals. The parameters of fitted 'Freundlich' and 'Langmuir' isotherms indicated more intense competition in underlying soil compared to surface soil for adsorption of Zn and Ni. The speciation of adsorbed metals revealed less selectivity of Zn and Ni to soil organic matter, while dominance of organic bound fraction was observed for Cu, especially in organic rich surface soil. Compared to underlying soil, the surface soil is expected to provide greater adsorption to heavy metals as well as provide greater stability to adsorbed metals, especially for Cu.

  15. Carbon redistribution by erosion processes in an intensively disturbed catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boix-Fayos, Carolina; Martínez-Mena, María; Pérez Cutillas, Pedro; de Vente, Joris; Barberá, Gonzalo G.; Mosch, Wouter; Navarro Cano, Jose Antonio; Gaspar, Leticia; Navas, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Understanding how organic carbon moves with sediments along the fluvial system is crucial to close catchment scale carbon budgets. Especially challenging is the analysis of organic carbon dynamics during fluvial transport in heterogeneous, fragile and disturbed environments with ephemeral and intense hydrological pulses, typical of Mediterranean conditions. This paper explores the catchment scale organic carbon redistribution by lateral flows in extreme Mediterranean environmental conditions from a geomorphological perspective. The study area is a catchment (Cárcavo) in SE Spain with a semiarid climate, erodible lithologies, shallow soils, and highly disturbed by agricultural terraces, land levelling, reforestations and construction of check-dams. To increase understanding of erosion induced catchment scale organic carbon redistribution, we studied the subcatchments of 8 check-dams distributed along the catchment main channel in detail. We determined 137Cs, physicochemical characteristics and organic carbon pools of soils and sediments deposited behind each check-dam, performed spatial analysis of properties of the catchment and buffer areas around check-dams, and carried out geomorphological analysis of the slope-channel connections. Soils showed very low Total Organic Carbon (TOC) values oscillating between 15.2 and 4.4 g Kg-1 for forest and agricultural soils, respectively. Sediments mobilized by erosion were poor in TOC compared to the eroded (forest) soils (6.6±0.7 g Kg-1), and the redistribution of organic carbon through the catchment, especially of the Mineral Associated Organic Carbon (MAC) pool, showed the same pattern as clay particles and 137Cs. The TOC erosion rates (0.031±0.03 Mg ha-1 y-1) were comparable to others reported for subhumid Mediterranean catchments and to those modelled worldwide for pasture land. Those lateral fluxes were equivalent to 10.4 % of the TOC stock from the topsoil at the moment of the check-dam construction and

  16. A facility for the test of large area muon chambers at high rates

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; Belli, G; Bonifas, A; Carabelli, V; Gatignon, L; Hessey, N P; Maggi, M; Peigneux, J P; Reithler, H; Silari, Marco; Vitulo, P; Wegner, M

    2000-01-01

    Operation of large area muon detectors at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be characterized by large sustained hit rates over the whole area, reaching the range of kHz/\\scm. We describe a dedicated test zone built at CERN to test the performance and the aging of the muon chambers currently under development. A radioactive source delivers photons causing the sustained rate of random hits, while a narrow beam of high energy muons is used to directly calibrate the detector performance. A system of remotely controlled lead filters serves to vary the rate of photons over four orders of magnitude, to allow the study of performance as a function of rate.

  17. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements target area auxiliary subsystem SSDR 1.8.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitz, T.

    1996-01-01

    This Subsystem Design Requirement (SSDR) establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Target Area Auxiliary Subsystems (WBS 1.8.6), which is part of the NIF Target Experimental System (WBS 1.8). This document responds directly to the requirements detailed in NIF Target Experimental System SDR 003 document. Key elements of the Target Area Auxiliary Subsystems include: WBS 1.8.6.1 Local Utility Services; WBS 1.8.6.2 Cable Trays; WBS 1.8.6.3 Personnel, Safety, and Occupational Access; WBS 1.8.6.4 Assembly, Installation, and Maintenance Equipment; WBS 1.8.6.4.1 Target Chamber Service System; WBS 1.8.6.4.2 Target Bay Service Systems

  18. A facility for the test of large-area muon chambers at high rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosteo, S.; Altieri, S.; Belli, G.; Bonifas, A.; Carabelli, V.; Gatignon, L.; Hessey, N.; Maggi, M.; Peigneux, J.-P.; Reithler, H. E-mail: hans.reithler@cern.ch; Silari, M.; Vitulo, P.; Wegner, M

    2000-09-21

    Operation of large-area muon detectors at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be characterized by large sustained hit rates over the whole area, reaching the range of kHz cm{sup -2}. We describe a dedicated test zone built at CERN to test the performance and the aging of the muon chambers currently under development. A radioactive source delivers photons causing the sustained rate of random hits, while a narrow beam of high-energy muons is used to directly calibrate the detector performance. A system of remotely controlled lead filters serves to vary the rate of photons over four orders of magnitude, to allow the study of performance as a function of rate. (authors)

  19. The sodium fire tests performed in the FAUNA facility on up to 12m2 fire areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherdron, W.; Jordan, S.

    1983-08-01

    The FAUNA test facility started operation in 1979. It serves to investigate large area sodium fires in closed containments and to study the generation, behaviour and removal of sodium fire aerosols. In this report, the experimental results of the 6 sodium pool fires are described which were performed with up to 500 kg of sodium in fire pans of 2 m 2 , 5 m 2 and 12 m 2 surface area, respectively. Both, the thermodynamic data and the data of the reaction kinetics of the fires were determined. In addition, the behaviour of the released aerosols during and after the fire was studied. On the basis of measurements of the temperature profiles at various levels above the fire areas it was shown that the convective flows above fire areas of different sizes in closed containments differ markedly and, obviously, exert an influence on the development of the fire and the release of particles. Whilst in rather small fires the gas above the pan rises as in a chimney and flows back on the walls, no chimney effect can be observed in a large pool fire. In rather large fires higher burning rates and aerosol release rates were observed. Some meters above the fire area temperatures around 300-400 0 C, temporarily even up to 700 0 C, were measured. The tests F5 and F6 were performed above all to observe the fire behaviour in terms of thermodynamics and reaction kinetics in a fully closed containment. (orig./RW) [de

  20. H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report, Third and fourth quarters 1995: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    Groundwater at the H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) is monitored in compliance with applicable regulations. Monitoring results are compared to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental control (SCDHEC) Groundwater Protection Standard (GWPS). Historically as well as currently, nitrate-nitrite as nitrogen, nonvolatile beta, and tritium have been among the primary constituents to exceed standards. Other radionuclides and hazardous constituents also exceeded the GWPS in the second half of 1995. Elevated constituents were found primarily in the water table (Aquifer Zone IIB 2 ), however, constitutents exceeding standards also occurred in several different aquifer zones monitoring wells. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the H-Area HWMF have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988

  1. F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report, Third and fourth quarters 1995: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    Groundwater at the F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) is monitored in compliance with applicable regulations. Monitoring results are compared to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Groundwater Protection Standard (GWPS). Historically and currently, gross alpha, nitrates, nonvolatile beta, and tritium are among the primary constituents to exceed standards. Numerous other radionuclides and hazardous constituents also exceed the GWPS in the groundwater during the second half of 1995, notably cadmium, lead, radium-226, radium-228, strontium-90, and total alpha-emitting radium. The elevated constituents were found primarily in the water table (aquifer zone IIB 2 ), however, several other aquifer unit monitoring wells contained elevated levels of constituents. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the F-Area HWMF have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988

  2. Radiological Monitoring Equipment For Real-Time Quantification Of Area Contamination In Soils And Facility Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. V. Carpenter; Jay A. Roach; John R Giles; Lyle G. Roybal

    2005-01-01

    The environmental restoration industry offers several systems that perform scan-type characterization of radiologically contaminated areas. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed and deployed a suite of field systems that rapidly scan, characterize, and analyze radiological contamination in surface soils. The base system consists of a detector, such as sodium iodide (NaI) spectrometers, a global positioning system (GPS), and an integrated user-friendly computer interface. This mobile concept was initially developed to provide precertification analyses of soils contaminated with uranium, thorium, and radium at the Fernald Closure Project, near Cincinnati, Ohio. INL has expanded the functionality of this basic system to create a suite of integrated field-deployable analytical systems. Using its engineering and radiation measurement expertise, aided by computer hardware and software support, INL has streamlined the data acquisition and analysis process to provide real-time information presented on wireless screens and in the form of coverage maps immediately available to field technicians. In addition, custom software offers a user-friendly interface with user-selectable alarm levels and automated data quality monitoring functions that validate the data. This system is deployed from various platforms, depending on the nature of the survey. The deployment platforms include a small all-terrain vehicle used to survey large, relatively flat areas, a hand-pushed unit for areas where maneuverability is important, an excavator-mounted system used to scan pits and trenches where personnel access is restricted, and backpack- mounted systems to survey rocky shoreline features and other physical settings that preclude vehicle-based deployment. Variants of the base system include sealed proportional counters for measuring actinides (i.e., plutonium-238 and americium-241) in building demolitions, soil areas, roadbeds, and process line routes at the Miamisburg Closure

  3. Environmental Assessment: Demolition of Munitions Storage Area Facilities at Ellsworth AFB, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    CEQ Council on Environmental Quality CFR Code of Federal Regulations CO Carbon Monoxide cpm Counts per Minute CRM Cultural Resource Manager...newspaper advertisement in the Rapid City Journal announcing the availability of the Draft EA for a 30-day public and agency review to facilitate...Ellsworth Air Force Base Munitions Storage Area Environmental Assessment Page 2-5 public involvement in the project. This advertisement was published one

  4. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan - TA-60 Roads and Grounds Facility and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-31

    This Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §§1251 et seq., as amended), and the Multi-Sector General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity (U.S. EPA, June 2015) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and using the industry specific permit requirements for Sector P-Land Transportation and Warehousing as a guide. This SWPPP applies to discharges of stormwater from the operational areas of the TA-60 Roads and Grounds and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory (also referred to as LANL or the “Laboratory”) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), and is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). Throughout this document, the term “facility” refers to the TA-60 Roads and Grounds and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area. The current permit expires at midnight on June 4, 2020.

  5. A simple distributed sediment delivery approach for rural catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Lucas; Scherer, Ulrike

    2014-05-01

    The transfer of sediments from source areas to surface waters is a complex process. In process based erosion models sediment input is thus quantified by representing all relevant sub processes such as detachment, transport and deposition of sediment particles along the flow path to the river. A successful application of these models requires, however, a large amount of spatially highly resolved data on physical catchment characteristics, which is only available for a few, well examined small catchments. For the lack of appropriate models, the empirical Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is widely applied to quantify the sediment production in meso to large scale basins. As the USLE provides long-term mean soil loss rates, it is often combined with spatially lumped models to estimate the sediment delivery ratio (SDR). In these models, the SDR is related to data on morphological characteristics of the catchment such as average local relief, drainage density, proportion of depressions or soil texture. Some approaches include the relative distance between sediment source areas and the river channels. However, several studies showed that spatially lumped parameters describing the morphological characteristics are only of limited value to represent the factors of influence on sediment transport at the catchment scale. Sediment delivery is controlled by the location of the sediment source areas in the catchment and the morphology along the flow path to the surface water bodies. This complex interaction of spatially varied physiographic characteristics cannot be adequately represented by lumped morphological parameters. The objective of this study is to develop a simple but spatially distributed approach to quantify the sediment delivery ratio by considering the characteristics of the flow paths in a catchment. We selected a small catchment located in in an intensively cultivated loess region in Southwest Germany as study area for the development of the SDR approach. The

  6. Groundwater screening evaluation/monitoring plan: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H). Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D.B.; Davis, J.D.; Collard, L.B.; Freeman, P.B.; Chou, C.J.

    1995-05-01

    This report consists of the groundwater screening evaluation required by Section S.8 of the State Waste Discharge Permit for the 200 Area TEDF. Chapter 1.0 describes the purpose of the groundwater monitoring plan. The information in Chapter 2.0 establishes a water quality baseline for the facility and is the groundwater screening evaluation. The following information is included in Chapter 2.0: Facility description;Well locations, construction, and development data; Geologic and hydrologic description of the site and affected area; Ambient groundwater quality and current use; Water balance information; Hydrologic parameters; Potentiometric map, hydraulic gradients, and flow velocities; Results of infiltration and hydraulic tests; Groundwater and soils chemistry sampling and analysis data; Statistical evaluation of groundwater background data; and Projected effects of facility operation on groundwater flow and water quality. Chapter 3.0 defines, based on the information in Chapter 2.0, how effects of the TEDF on the environment will be evaluated and how compliance with groundwater quality standards will be documented in accordance with the terms and conditions of the permit. Chapter 3.0 contains the following information: Media to be monitored; Wells proposed as the point of compliance in the uppermost aquifer; Basis for monitoring well network and evidence of monitoring adequacy; Contingency planning approach for vadose zone monitoring wells; Which field parameters will be measured and how measurements will be made; Specification of constituents to be sampled and analyzed; and Specification of the sampling and analysis procedures that will be used. Chapter 4.0 provides information on how the monitoring results will be reported and the proposed frequency of monitoring and reporting. Chapter 5.0 lists all the references cited in this monitoring plan. These references should be consulted for additional or more detailed information

  7. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obi, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    The Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Decontamination Facility is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254. CAU 254 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site and consists of a single Corrective Action Site CAS 25-23-06. CAU 254 will be closed, in accordance with the FFACO of 1996. CAU 254 was used primarily to perform radiological decontamination and consists of Building 3126, two outdoor decontamination pads, and surrounding soil within an existing perimeter fence. The site was used to decontaminate nuclear rocket test-car hardware and tooling from the early 1960s through the early 1970s, and to decontaminate a military tank in the early 1980s. The site characterization results indicate that, in places, the surficial soil and building materials exceed clean-up criteria for organic compounds, metals, and radionuclides. Closure activities are expected to generate waste streams consisting of nonhazardous construction waste. petroleum hydrocarbon waste, hazardous waste, low-level radioactive waste, and mixed waste. Some of the wastes exceed land disposal restriction limits and will require off-site treatment before disposal. The recommended corrective action was revised to Alternative 3- ''Unrestricted Release Decontamination, Verification Survey, and Dismantle Building 3126,'' in an addendum to the Correction Action Decision Document

  8. F and H Area Effluent Treatment Facility (F/H ETF): ultrafiltration and hyperfiltration systems testing at Carre, Inc. with simulated F and H area effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The F and H Area Effluent Treatment Facility is essentially a four-stage process that will decontaminate the waste water that is currently being discharged to seepage basins in the Separations Areas. The stages include pretreatment, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and evaporation. A series of tests were performed at Carre, Inc. (Seneca, SC) from March 5 through March 13, to determine the usefulness of ultrafiltration (UF) in the pretreatment stage of the ETF. The results of that testing program indicate that UF would be an excellent means of removing entrained activity from the 200 Area process effluents. Hyperfiltration (HF) was also tested as a means of providing an improved concentration factor from the reverse osmosis stage. The results show that the membranes that were tested would not reject salt well enough at high salt concentrations to be useful in the final reverse osmosis stage. However, there are several membranes which are commercially available that would provide the needed rejection if they could be applied (dynamically) on the Carre support structure. This avenue is still being explored, as theoretically, it could eliminate the need for the F/H ETF evaporator

  9. Modelling the Impact of Land Use Change on Water Quality in Agricultural Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnes, P. J.; Heathwaite, A. L.

    1997-03-01

    Export coefficient modelling was used to model the impact of agriculture on nitrogen and phosphorus loading on the surface waters of two contrasting agricultural catchments. The model was originally developed for the Windrush catchment where the highly reactive Jurassic limestone aquifer underlying the catchment is well connected to the surface drainage network, allowing the system to be modelled using uniform export coefficients for each nutrient source in the catchment, regardless of proximity to the surface drainage network. In the Slapton catchment, the hydrological pathways are dominated by surface and lateral shallow subsurface flow, requiring modification of the export coefficient model to incorporate a distance-decay component in the export coefficients. The modified model was calibrated against observed total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads delivered to Slapton Ley from inflowing streams in its catchment. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to isolate the key controls on nutrient export in the modified model. The model was validated against long-term records of water quality, and was found to be accurate in its predictions and sensitive to both temporal and spatial changes in agricultural practice in the catchment. The model was then used to forecast the potential reduction in nutrient loading on Slapton Ley associated with a range of catchment management strategies. The best practicable environmental option (BPEO) was found to be spatial redistribution of high nutrient export risk sources to areas of the catchment with the greatest intrinsic nutrient retention capacity.

  10. Process-based interpretation of conceptual hydrological model performance using a multinational catchment set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncelet, Carine; Merz, Ralf; Merz, Bruno; Parajka, Juraj; Oudin, Ludovic; Andréassian, Vazken; Perrin, Charles

    2017-08-01

    Most of previous assessments of hydrologic model performance are fragmented, based on small number of catchments, different methods or time periods and do not link the results to landscape or climate characteristics. This study uses large-sample hydrology to identify major catchment controls on daily runoff simulations. It is based on a conceptual lumped hydrological model (GR6J), a collection of 29 catchment characteristics, a multinational set of 1103 catchments located in Austria, France, and Germany and four runoff model efficiency criteria. Two analyses are conducted to assess how features and criteria are linked: (i) a one-dimensional analysis based on the Kruskal-Wallis test and (ii) a multidimensional analysis based on regression trees and investigating the interplay between features. The catchment features most affecting model performance are the flashiness of precipitation and streamflow (computed as the ratio of absolute day-to-day fluctuations by the total amount in a year), the seasonality of evaporation, the catchment area, and the catchment aridity. Nonflashy, nonseasonal, large, and nonarid catchments show the best performance for all the tested criteria. We argue that this higher performance is due to fewer nonlinear responses (higher correlation between precipitation and streamflow) and lower input and output variability for such catchments. Finally, we show that, compared to national sets, multinational sets increase results transferability because they explore a wider range of hydroclimatic conditions.

  11. 3Q/4Q98 Annual M-Area and Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility Groundwater Monitoring and Correction-Action Report, Volumes I, II, and III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, J.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the groundwater monitoring and corrective-action program at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) and the Metallurgical Laboratory (Met Lab) HWMF at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during 1998

  12. An overall index of environmental quality in coal mining areas and energy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatalis, Konstantinos I; Kaliampakos, Demetrios C

    2006-12-01

    An approach to measuring environmental quality and trends in coal mining and industrial areas was attempted in this work. For this purpose, the establishment of a reference scale characterizing the status of environmental quality is proposed by developing an Environmental Quality Index (EQI). The methodology involves three main components: social research, the opinion of environmental experts, and the combination of new or existing indices. A survey of public opinion was carried out to identify the main environmental problems in the region of interest. Environmental experts carried out a survey, and the weights of specific environmental problems were obtained through a fuzzy Delphi method and pairwise comparison. The weight attributed to each environmental problem was computed, using new or existing indices (subindices) in the relevant literature. The EQI comprises a combination of the subindices with their own weights. The methodology was applied to a heavily industrialized coal basin in northwestern Macedonia, Greece. The results show that the new index may be used as a reliable tool for evaluating environmental quality in different areas. In addition, the study of EQI trends on an interannual basis can provide useful information on the efficiency of environmental policies already implemented by the responsible authorities.

  13. Representing macropore flow at the catchment scale: a comparative modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D.; Li, H. Y.; Tian, F.; Leung, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    Macropore flow is an important hydrological process that generally enhances the soil infiltration capacity and velocity of subsurface water. Up till now, macropore flow is mostly simulated with high-resolution models. One possible drawback of this modeling approach is the difficulty to effectively represent the overall typology and connectivity of the macropore networks. We hypothesize that modeling macropore flow directly at the catchment scale may be complementary to the existing modeling strategy and offer some new insights. Tsinghua Representative Elementary Watershed model (THREW model) is a semi-distributed hydrology model, where the fundamental building blocks are representative elementary watersheds (REW) linked by the river channel network. In THREW, all the hydrological processes are described with constitutive relationships established directly at the REW level, i.e., catchment scale. In this study, the constitutive relationship of macropore flow drainage is established as part of THREW. The enhanced THREW model is then applied at two catchments with deep soils but distinct climates, the humid Asu catchment in the Amazon River basin, and the arid Wei catchment in the Yellow River basin. The Asu catchment has an area of 12.43km2 with mean annual precipitation of 2442mm. The larger Wei catchment has an area of 24800km2 but with mean annual precipitation of only 512mm. The rainfall-runoff processes are simulated at a hourly time step from 2002 to 2005 in the Asu catchment and from 2001 to 2012 in the Wei catchment. The role of macropore flow on the catchment hydrology will be analyzed comparatively over the Asu and Wei catchments against the observed streamflow, evapotranspiration and other auxiliary data.

  14. An area of protection around nuclear facilities - questions at issue in atomic law and law concerning the protection against nuisances. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blickle, D.

    1973-01-01

    The necessity for an area of protection around nuclear facilities could originate from the need to protect these facilities against outside effects. Danger to nuclear facilities can only threaten from a few industries which are of a dangerous nature. In order to keep away these industries there is no need for an area of protection around the nuclear facilities. It would be sufficient to consider in the licensing procedures, according to the trade regulations, that the close proximity of nuclear facilities can present a danger of a special kind, whereby the standards of the nuclear licensing procedures are to be applied. In this context it would be permissible, too, to make bigger demands on the safety requirements than requested by the trade regulations solely. Furthermore, the need to keep away human settlements from the area with nuclear facilities without creating an area of protection can be complied with area planning by interpreting the laws of area planning in such a way that subsequent planning which would increase the risks can be rejected. In any case, poltical clarification of this point seems to be necessary. (orig./LN) [de

  15. Aquifers Characterization and Productivity in Ellala Catchment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Aquifers Characterization and Productivity in Ellala Catchment, Tigray, ... using geological and hydrogeological methods in Ellala catchment (296.5km. 2. ) ... Current estimates put the available groundwater ... Aquifer characterization takes into.

  16. Advancing Land-Sea Conservation Planning: Integrating Modelling of Catchments, Land-Use Change, and River Plumes to Prioritise Catchment Management and Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G.; Pressey, Robert L.; Ban, Natalie C.; Brodie, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Human-induced changes to river loads of nutrients and sediments pose a significant threat to marine ecosystems. Ongoing land-use change can further increase these loads, and amplify the impacts of land-based threats on vulnerable marine ecosystems. Consequently, there is a need to assess these threats and prioritise actions to mitigate their impacts. A key question regarding prioritisation is whether actions in catchments to maintain coastal-marine water quality can be spatially congruent with actions for other management objectives, such as conserving terrestrial biodiversity. In selected catchments draining into the Gulf of California, Mexico, we employed Land Change Modeller to assess the vulnerability of areas with native vegetation to conversion into crops, pasture, and urban areas. We then used SedNet, a catchment modelling tool, to map the sources and estimate pollutant loads delivered to the Gulf by these catchments. Following these analyses, we used modelled river plumes to identify marine areas likely influenced by land-based pollutants. Finally, we prioritised areas for catchment management based on objectives for conservation of terrestrial biodiversity and objectives for water quality that recognised links between pollutant sources and affected marine areas. Our objectives for coastal-marine water quality were to reduce sediment and nutrient discharges from anthropic areas, and minimise future increases in coastal sedimentation and eutrophication. Our objectives for protection of terrestrial biodiversity covered species of vertebrates. We used Marxan, a conservation planning tool, to prioritise interventions and explore spatial differences in priorities for both objectives. Notable differences in the distributions of land values for terrestrial biodiversity and coastal-marine water quality indicated the likely need for trade-offs between catchment management objectives. However, there were priority areas that contributed to both sets of objectives. Our

  17. Advancing Land-Sea Conservation Planning: Integrating Modelling of Catchments, Land-Use Change, and River Plumes to Prioritise Catchment Management and Protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge G Álvarez-Romero

    Full Text Available Human-induced changes to river loads of nutrients and sediments pose a significant threat to marine ecosystems. Ongoing land-use change can further increase these loads, and amplify the impacts of land-based threats on vulnerable marine ecosystems. Consequently, there is a need to assess these threats and prioritise actions to mitigate their impacts. A key question regarding prioritisation is whether actions in catchments to maintain coastal-marine water quality can be spatially congruent with actions for other management objectives, such as conserving terrestrial biodiversity. In selected catchments draining into the Gulf of California, Mexico, we employed Land Change Modeller to assess the vulnerability of areas with native vegetation to conversion into crops, pasture, and urban areas. We then used SedNet, a catchment modelling tool, to map the sources and estimate pollutant loads delivered to the Gulf by these catchments. Following these analyses, we used modelled river plumes to identify marine areas likely influenced by land-based pollutants. Finally, we prioritised areas for catchment management based on objectives for conservation of terrestrial biodiversity and objectives for water quality that recognised links between pollutant sources and affected marine areas. Our objectives for coastal-marine water quality were to reduce sediment and nutrient discharges from anthropic areas, and minimise future increases in coastal sedimentation and eutrophication. Our objectives for protection of terrestrial biodiversity covered species of vertebrates. We used Marxan, a conservation planning tool, to prioritise interventions and explore spatial differences in priorities for both objectives. Notable differences in the distributions of land values for terrestrial biodiversity and coastal-marine water quality indicated the likely need for trade-offs between catchment management objectives. However, there were priority areas that contributed to both

  18. Advancing Land-Sea Conservation Planning: Integrating Modelling of Catchments, Land-Use Change, and River Plumes to Prioritise Catchment Management and Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Pressey, Robert L; Ban, Natalie C; Brodie, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Human-induced changes to river loads of nutrients and sediments pose a significant threat to marine ecosystems. Ongoing land-use change can further increase these loads, and amplify the impacts of land-based threats on vulnerable marine ecosystems. Consequently, there is a need to assess these threats and prioritise actions to mitigate their impacts. A key question regarding prioritisation is whether actions in catchments to maintain coastal-marine water quality can be spatially congruent with actions for other management objectives, such as conserving terrestrial biodiversity. In selected catchments draining into the Gulf of California, Mexico, we employed Land Change Modeller to assess the vulnerability of areas with native vegetation to conversion into crops, pasture, and urban areas. We then used SedNet, a catchment modelling tool, to map the sources and estimate pollutant loads delivered to the Gulf by these catchments. Following these analyses, we used modelled river plumes to identify marine areas likely influenced by land-based pollutants. Finally, we prioritised areas for catchment management based on objectives for conservation of terrestrial biodiversity and objectives for water quality that recognised links between pollutant sources and affected marine areas. Our objectives for coastal-marine water quality were to reduce sediment and nutrient discharges from anthropic areas, and minimise future increases in coastal sedimentation and eutrophication. Our objectives for protection of terrestrial biodiversity covered species of vertebrates. We used Marxan, a conservation planning tool, to prioritise interventions and explore spatial differences in priorities for both objectives. Notable differences in the distributions of land values for terrestrial biodiversity and coastal-marine water quality indicated the likely need for trade-offs between catchment management objectives. However, there were priority areas that contributed to both sets of objectives. Our

  19. Characterising groundwater-dominated lowland catchments: the UK Lowland Catchment Research Programme (LOCAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    quality for several decades, and new modelling tools for decision support have been developed to represent these effects. Conventional modelling approaches are limited by the complexities of the subsurface system; catchment areas are difficult to define, hence tracking pollutant pathways to stream receptors is also problematic. Conventional distributed groundwater models have difficulty in capturing key aspects of the groundwater system. This raises important questions concerning the confidence that can be placed in models as routinely used for decision support and the level of knowledge required for catchment management to be placed on a secure scientific foundation.

  20. Catchment power and the joint distribution of elevation and travel distance to the outlet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Sklar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The delivery of water, sediment, and solutes by catchments is influenced by the distribution of source elevations and their travel distances to the outlet. For example, elevation affects the magnitude and phase of precipitation, as well as the climatic factors that govern rock weathering, which influence the production rate and initial particle size of sediments. Travel distance, in turn, affects the timing of flood peaks at the outlet and the degree of sediment size reduction by wear, which affects particle size distributions at the outlet. The distributions of elevation and travel distance have been studied extensively but separately, as the hypsometric curve and width function. Yet a catchment can be considered as a collection of points, each with paired values of elevation and travel distance. For every point, the ratio of elevation to travel distance defines the mean slope for transport of mass to the outlet. Recognizing that mean slope is proportional to the average rate of loss of potential energy by water and sediment during transport to the outlet, we use the joint distribution of elevation and travel distance to define two new metrics for catchment geometry: "source-area power", and the corresponding catchment-wide integral "catchment power". We explore patterns in source-area and catchment power across three study catchments spanning a range of relief and drainage area. We then develop an empirical algorithm for generating synthetic source-area power distributions, which can be parameterized with data from natural catchments. This new way of quantifying the three-dimensional geometry of catchments can be used to explore the effects of topography on the distribution on fluxes of water, sediment, isotopes, and other landscape products passing through catchment outlets, and may provide a fresh perspective on problems of both practical and theoretical interest.

  1. Characterization and monitoring of 300 Area facility liquid waste streams: 1994 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manke, K.L.; Riley, R.G.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Damberg, E.G.; Evans, J.C.; Julya, J.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Ozanich, R.M.; Thompson, C.J.; Vogel, H.R.

    1995-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of characterizing and monitoring the following sources during calendar year 1994: liquid waste streams from Buildings 306, 320, 324, 326, 331, and 3720 in the 300 Area of Hanford Site and managed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory; treated and untreated Columbia River water (influent); and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe). Data were collected from March to December before the sampling system installation was completed. Data from this initial part of the program are considered tentative. Samples collected were analyzed for chemicals, radioactivity, and general parameters. In general, the concentrations of chemical and radiological constituents and parameters in building wastewaters which were sampled and analyzed during CY 1994 were similar to historical data. Exceptions were the occasional observances of high concentrations of chloride, nitrate, and sodium that are believed to be associated with excursions that were occurring when the samples were collected. Occasional observances of high concentrations of a few solvents also appeared to be associated with infrequent building r eases. During calendar year 1994, nitrate, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and gross beta exceeded US Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels

  2. Using GIS to develop socio-economic profiles of areas adjacent to DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.C.; Saraswatula, S.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the research addressed in this paper is to identify and analyze the offsite effects of DOE activities at the Savannah River Site. The paper presents the socio-economic conditions of the areas surrounding the site in order to evaluate the possible effects of DOE activities. The study employed a geographic information system (GIS) in order to evaluate spatial relationships between otherwise unrelated factors. Socio-economic data used in the study are publicly available and were obtained mainly from the Bureau of the Census. The Department of Energy (DOE), currently dealing with the environmental management of a large number of sites throughout the United States, must consider the effects of its activities on surrounding populations and ensure compliance with the various federal regulations, such as the executive order on environmental justice. Environmental justice is the process of studying and achieving equal distribution of the effects of environmental pollution on populations across social and economic lines. An executive order signed by the President has directed federal agencies, including the Department of Energy, to make achieving environmental justice a part of the agency's mission by identifying and addressing disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental effects of its programs, policies, and activities on minority and low-income populations

  3. 640 CLIMATE CHANGE IN GILGEL ABBAY CATCHMENT UPPER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Those areas of upper catchment with higher altitude have received more rainfall and ... climate systems (Lambin and Geist, 2006; ... This impact is ... agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and water supply. (USEPA ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol. ... greenhouse gases may be sought in historical.

  4. Computer system for catchment management: background, concepts and development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Maitre, David C

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Managers of natural areas require a wide variety of up-to-date and accurate information and maps to manage their lands effectively. This paper reviews the objectives of conservation management, and the problems faced by mountain catchment managers...

  5. Mathematical modeling of rainwater runoff over catchment surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The subject of an article is the mathematical modeling of the rainwater runoff along the surface catchment taking account the transport of pollution which permeates into the water flow from a porous media of soil at the certain areas of this surface. The developed mathematical model consists of two types of equations: the ...

  6. Nitrate reduction in geologically heterogeneous catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Auken, Esben; Bamberg, Charlotte A.

    2014-01-01

    In order to fulfil the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive nitrate load from agricultural areas to surface water in Denmark needs to be reduced by about 40%. The regulations imposed until now have been uniform, i.e. the same restrictions for all areas independent of the subsurface...... conditions. Studies have shown that on a national basis about 2/3 of the nitrate leaching from the root zone is reduced naturally, through denitrification, in the subsurface before reaching the streams. Therefore, it is more cost-effective to identify robust areas, where nitrate leaching through the root...... the entire catchment. However, as distributed models often do not include local scale hydrogeological heterogeneities, they are typically not able to make accurate predictions at scales smaller than they are calibrated. We present a framework for assessing nitrate reduction in the subsurface...

  7. Application of dispersion and dose assessment models to the solid and liquid wastes facilities of Ezeiza radioactive waste management area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amado, Valeria A.; Lopez, Fabio O.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a dose assessment of the critic group from the near surface facility for solid and liquid waste, located at Ezeiza Atomic Center in Argentina (Ezeiza Radioactive Waste Management Area-AGE). The calculations were made using several approaches about source term. The activities for each radionuclide and facility were taken from the National Atomic Energy Commission's Inventory that corresponds to the first trimester of 2005. The radioactive decay of each radionuclide was considered. The work was performed in two steps. In the first step, using the Nuclide Dispersion in Phreatic Aquifer Model (DRAF), the dispersion of the contaminants into the phreatic aquifer until the discharge point at a superficial water course was considered. In the second step, the Consequences of Releases to the Environment Assessment Methodology Program (PC CREAM) was used for the study of radionuclides dispersion in superficial water course and dose calculations. The results from this paper show that, for every studied radionuclide, the doses involved are significantly lower than the values established by current regulations. On the other hand, those results put in evidence the utility of simple models in estimating the order of magnitude of expected concentrations and doses. It is important to highlight that the obtained results can be used only in the context of the suppositions that were made. (author) [es

  8. ENGINEERING STUDY FOR THE 200 AREA EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY (ETF) SECONDARY WASTE TREATMENT OF PROJECTED FUTURE WASTE FEEDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    This report documents an engineering study conducted to evaluate alternatives for treating secondary waste in the secondary treatment train (STT) of the Hanford Site 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The study evaluates ETF STT treatment alternatives and recommends preferred alternatives for meeting the projected future missions of the ETF. The preferred alternative(s) will process projected future ETF influents to produce a solid waste acceptable for final disposal on the Hanford Site. The main text of this report summarizes the ETF past and projected operations, lists the assumptions about projected operations that provide the basis for the engineering evaluation, and summarizes the evaluation process. The evaluation process includes identification of available modifications to the current ETF process, screens those modifications for technical viability, evaluates the technically viable alternatives, and provides conclusions and recommendations based on that evaluation

  9. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 118: Area 27 Super Kukla Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark Burmeister

    2007-01-01

    This CR provides documentation and justification for the closure of CAU 118 without further corrective action. This justification is based on process knowledge and the results of the investigative and closure activities conducted in accordance with the CAU 118 SAFER Plan: Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for CAU 118: Area 27 Super Kukla Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (NNSA/NSO, 2006). The SAFER Plan provides information relating to site history as well as the scope and planning of the investigation. This CR also provides the analytical and radiological survey data to confirm that the remediation goals were met as specified in the CAU 118 SAFER Plan (NNSA/NSO, 2006). The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) approved the CAU 118 SAFER Plan (Murphy, 2006), which recommends closure in place with use restrictions (URs)

  10. M-area hazardous waste management facility groundwater monitoring and corrective-action report, First quarter 1995, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    This report, in three volumes, describes the ground water monitoring and c corrective-action program at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the fourth quarter 1994 and first quarter 1995. Concise description of the program and considerable data documenting the monitoring and remedial activities are included in the document. This is Volume 1 covering the following topics: sampling and results; hydrogeologic assessment; water quality assessment; effectiveness of the corrective-action program; corrective-action system operation and performance; monitoring and corrective-action program assessment; proposed monitoring and corrective-action program modifications. Also included are the following appendicies: A-standards; B-flagging criteria; C-figures; D-monitoring results tables; E-data quality/usability assessment

  11. F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility Semiannual Corrective Action Report, First and Second Quarter 1998, Volume I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, J.

    1998-01-01

    This report addresses groundwater quality and monitoring data during first and second quarter 1998 for the F-Area Hazardous Waste management Facility (HWMF). The report fulfills the semiannual reporting requirements of Module III, Section D, of the 1995 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Renewal Permit (South Carolina Hazardous and Mixed Waste Permit SC1-890-008-989), effective October 5, 1995 (hereafter referred to as the RCRA permit), and Section C of the Underground Injection Control Permit Application hereafter referred to as the Section C of the Underground Injection Control Permit Application (hereafter referred to as the UIC permit). The HWMF is described in the Introduction to Module III, Section C, of the RCRA permit

  12. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization plan. Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility at the Nevada Test Site which will be conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Environmental Restoration Division. The objectives of the planned activities are to: obtain sufficient, sample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies may be developed for the site; obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste. The scope of the characterization may include surface radiation survey(s), surface soil sampling, subsurface soil boring (i.e., drilling), and sampling of soil in and around the pond; in situ sampling of the soil within subsurface soil borings; and sample analysis for both site characterization and waste management purposes

  13. Runoff Responses to Forest Thinning at Plot and Catchment Scales in a Headwater Catchment Draining Japanese Cypress Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the effect of forest thinning on runoff generation at plot and catchment scales in headwater basins draining a Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) forest. We removed 58.3% of the stems (corresponding to 43.2% of the basal area) in the treated headwater basin (catc...

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 254 is comprised of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-06, Decontamination Facility. A corrective action investigation for this CAS as conducted in January 2000 as set forth in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Samples were collected from various media throughout the CAS and sent to an off-site laboratory for analysis. The laboratory results indicated the following: radiation dose rates inside the Decontamination Facility, Building 3126, and in the storage yard exceeded the average general dose rate; scanning and static total surface contamination surveys indicated that portions of the locker and shower room floor, decontamination bay floor, loft floor, east and west decon pads, north and south decontamination bay interior walls, exterior west and south walls, and loft walls were above preliminary action levels (PALs). The investigation-derived contaminants of concern (COCs) included: polychlorinated biphenyls, radionuclides (strontium-90, niobium-94, cesium-137, uranium-234 and -235), total volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Metals). During the investigation, two corrective action objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate human exposure to COCs. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the Nevada Test Site, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Unrestricted Release Decontamination and Verification Survey; and Alternative 3 - Unrestricted

  15. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant: Separations area operations. Building 221-H, B-Line, Scrap Recovery Facility (Supplement 2A): Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-07-01

    The now HB-Line is located an top of the 221-H Building on the fifth and sixth levels and is designed to replace the aging existing HB-Line production facility. The new HB-Line consists of three separate facilities: the Scrap Recovery Facility, Neptunium Facility, and Plutonium Oxide Facility. The Scrap Recovery Facility is designed to routinely generate nitrate solutions of {sup 235}U{sup 239}Pu and Pu-238 fromscrap for purification by anion exchange or by solvent extraction in the canyon. The now facility incorporates improvements in: (1) engineered controls for nuclear criticality, (2) cabinet integrity and engineered barriers to contain contamination and minimize personnel exposure to airborne contamination, (3) shielding and remote operations to decrease radiation exposure, and (4) equipment and ventilation design to provide flexibility and improved process performance.

  16. User Delay Cost Model and Facilities Maintenance Cost Model for a Terminal Control Area : Volume 3. User's Manual and Program Documentation for the Facilities Maintenance Cost Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    The Facilities Maintenance Cost Model (FMCM) is an analytic model designed to calculate expected annual labor costs of maintenance within a given FAA maintenance sector. The model is programmed in FORTRAN IV and has been demonstrated on the CDC Krono...

  17. The influences of Taiwan's National Health Insurance on women's choice of prenatal care facility: Investigation of differences between rural and non-rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chi-Liang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI, implemented in 1995, substantially increased the number of health care facilities that can deliver free prenatal care. Because of the increase in such facilities, it is usually assumed that women would have more choices regarding prenatal care facilities and thus experience reduction in travel cost. Nevertheless, there has been no research exploring these issues in the literature. This study compares how Taiwan's NHI program may have influenced choice of prenatal care facility and perception regarding convenience in transportation for obtaining such care for women in rural and non-rural areas in Taiwan. Methods Based on data collected by a national survey conducted by Taiwan's National Health Research Institutes (NHRI in 2000, we tried to compare how women chose prenatal care facility before and after Taiwan's National Health Insurance program was implemented. Basing our analysis on how women answered questionnaire items regarding "the type of major health care facility used and convenience of transportation to and from prenatal care facility," we investigated whether there were disparities in how women in rural and non-rural areas chose prenatal care facilities and felt about the transportation, and whether the NHI had different influences for the two groups of women. Results After NHI, women in rural areas were more likely than before to choose large hospitals for prenatal care services. For women in rural areas, the relative probability of choosing large hospitals to choosing non-hospital settings in 1998–1999 was about 6.54 times of that in 1990–1992. In contrast, no such change was found in women in non-rural areas. For a woman in a non-rural area, she was significantly more likely to perceive the transportation to and from prenatal care facilities to be very convenient between 1998 and 1999 than in the period between 1990 and 1992. No such improvement was found for women in

  18. Leaching of organic carbon and nitrogen from peatland-dominated catchments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortelainen, P.

    1992-01-01

    The area of 13 study catchments is 2.5-56-3 km 2 and 37-87 % of the catchments is covered by peatlands. Ditching intensities varied from 0 to 100 %. Median total organic carbon (TOC) in runoff waters from the catchments was 10-30 mg/l - 1 and median nitrogen (N tot ) 380-1000 μg/1 -1 . The annual leaching of TOC and Ntot was calculated for five catchments for which daily runoff data was available. The range for mean annual leaching of TOC and N tot from the catchments was 4700-7300 kg/km 2 a and 190-250 kg/km -2 a -1 , respectively. The variation between different years was high and annual leaching was closely related to annual runoff. The regional variation in the leaching of TOC and N tot was small compared to the annual variation

  19. Forest fire impact on the hydrological response in small catchment of NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Canceio-González

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological studies were carried out in two catchments (burnt and unburned, to determine the processes related to the streamflow changes and the possible effects on the runoff coefficients produced by a forest fire in the summer of 2007, which affected 50% of the area of one of the catchments. Comparative analysis of the changes in the monthly streamflow values revealed that during the wettest months, the runoff was higher in the burnt catchment during the first two years, and was very similar in both catchments during the third year. Calculation of the annual runoff coefficient confirmed these findings and showed that the differences between the coefficients in the catchments were negligible in the final year. In both cases, this can be explained by regeneration of the vegetation after fire.

  20. Association between Gastrointestinal Illness and Precipitation in Areas Impacted by Combined Sewer Facilities: Analysis of Massachusetts Data, 2003-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Combined sewer systems (CSS) collect rainwater runoff, sewage, and industrial wastewater for transit to treatment facilities. With heavy precipitation, volumes can exceed capacity of treatment facilities, and wastewater discharges directly to receiving waters. These c...

  1. The complex scenario of obesity, diabetes and hypertension in the area of influence of primary healthcare facilities in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde-Rabanal, J E; Orozco-Núñez, E; Espinosa-Henao, O E; Arredondo-López, A; Alcayde-Barranco, L

    2018-01-01

    Among non-communicable chronic diseases (NCCD), diabetes and hypertension are the main cause of adult mortality worldwide. Among the members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Mexico is first in prevalence of diabetes and second in obesity. To face this problematic situation of NCCDs the Ministry of Health declared a national epidemiological alert against the overweight, obesity and diabetes. The target of this study is to characterize the status of obesity, diabetes and hypertension in the adult population in the area of influence of primary health facilities located in high social marginality areas. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study and used a convenience sample. A survey was conducted on a population of 18 years old and above in four primary health facilities in four Mexican States. The survey explored sociodemographic characteristics, the presence of chronic diseases, the access to healthcare services, risk factors and life styles. We also applied a complementary questionnaire to 20% of the participants, in order to explore food consumption during the last week and physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire). We based our analysis on descriptive statistics and logistic multivariate regression to analyze factors associated with diabetes and hypertension. 73% (n = 7531, CI 0.72-0.74) percent of the population reported being diabetic, hypertensive and/or overweight. The majority of them receive healthcare in public health services. People over 40 years old, are 11 times more probable of living with diabetes and 8.7 times more probable of living with hypertension. Both conditions affect mostly women, whose main activity is to be a housewife. People who have lunch and dinner out of home are more likely to develop diabetes. People who perform intense physical activity are less likely to live with hypertension. According to the self-report, more than 70% of adult population living in areas with high

  2. Urbanization increased metal levels in lake surface sediment and catchment topsoil of waterscape parks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hong-Bo [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yu, Shen, E-mail: syu@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Li, Gui-Lin [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Liu, Yi; Yu, Guang-Bin [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Deng, Hong [Department of Environmental Sciences, Tiantong National Station of Forest Ecosystem, Key Laboratory of Urbanization and Ecological Restoration, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Wu, Sheng-Chun [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Biology and Chemistry Department, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Wong, Ming-Hung [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2012-08-15

    Lake surface sediment is mainly derived from topsoil in its catchment. We hypothesized that distribution of anthropogenic metals would be homogenous in lake surface sediment and the lake's catchment topsoil. Anthropogenic metal distributions (cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)) in fourteen waterscape parks were investigated in surface sediments and catchment topsoils and possible source homogeneity was tested using stable Pb isotopic ratio analysis. The parks were located along an urbanization gradient consisting of suburban (SU), developing urban (DIU), developed urban (DDU), and central urban core (CUC) areas in Shanghai, China. Results indicated that surface lake sediments and catchment topsoils in the CUC parks were highly contaminated by the investigated anthropogenic metals. Total metal contents in surface sediment and topsoil gradually increased along the urbanization gradient from the SU to CUC areas. Generally, the surface sediments had greater total metal contents than their catchment topsoils. These results suggest that urbanization drives the anthropogenic metal enrichment in both surface sediment and its catchment topsoil in the waterscape parks. Soil fine particles (< 63 {mu}m) and surface sediments had similar enrichment ratios of metals, suggesting that surface runoff might act as a carrier for metals transporting from catchment to lake. Stable Pb isotope ratio analysis revealed that the major anthropogenic Pb source in surface sediment was coal combustion as in the catchment topsoil. Urbanization also correlated with chemical fractionation of metals in both surface sediment and catchment topsoil. From the SU to the CUC parks, amounts of labile metal fractions increased while the residual fraction of those metals remained rather constant. In short, urbanization in Shanghai drives anthropogenic metal distribution in environmental matrices and the sources were homogenous. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Obvious

  3. Urbanization increased metal levels in lake surface sediment and catchment topsoil of waterscape parks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hong-Bo; Yu, Shen; Li, Gui-Lin; Liu, Yi; Yu, Guang-Bin; Deng, Hong; Wu, Sheng-Chun; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Lake surface sediment is mainly derived from topsoil in its catchment. We hypothesized that distribution of anthropogenic metals would be homogenous in lake surface sediment and the lake's catchment topsoil. Anthropogenic metal distributions (cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)) in fourteen waterscape parks were investigated in surface sediments and catchment topsoils and possible source homogeneity was tested using stable Pb isotopic ratio analysis. The parks were located along an urbanization gradient consisting of suburban (SU), developing urban (DIU), developed urban (DDU), and central urban core (CUC) areas in Shanghai, China. Results indicated that surface lake sediments and catchment topsoils in the CUC parks were highly contaminated by the investigated anthropogenic metals. Total metal contents in surface sediment and topsoil gradually increased along the urbanization gradient from the SU to CUC areas. Generally, the surface sediments had greater total metal contents than their catchment topsoils. These results suggest that urbanization drives the anthropogenic metal enrichment in both surface sediment and its catchment topsoil in the waterscape parks. Soil fine particles (< 63 μm) and surface sediments had similar enrichment ratios of metals, suggesting that surface runoff might act as a carrier for metals transporting from catchment to lake. Stable Pb isotope ratio analysis revealed that the major anthropogenic Pb source in surface sediment was coal combustion as in the catchment topsoil. Urbanization also correlated with chemical fractionation of metals in both surface sediment and catchment topsoil. From the SU to the CUC parks, amounts of labile metal fractions increased while the residual fraction of those metals remained rather constant. In short, urbanization in Shanghai drives anthropogenic metal distribution in environmental matrices and the sources were homogenous. -- Highlights: ► Obvious urbanization effect on metal

  4. Vulnerability of European freshwater catchments to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Danijela; Carrizo, Savrina F; Kärcher, Oskar; Walz, Ariane; David, Jonathan N W

    2017-09-01

    Climate change is expected to exacerbate the current threats to freshwater ecosystems, yet multifaceted studies on the potential impacts of climate change on freshwater biodiversity at scales that inform management planning are lacking. The aim of this study was to fill this void through the development of a novel framework for assessing climate change vulnerability tailored to freshwater ecosystems. The three dimensions of climate change vulnerability are as follows: (i) exposure to climate change, (ii) sensitivity to altered environmental conditions and (iii) resilience potential. Our vulnerability framework includes 1685 freshwater species of plants, fishes, molluscs, odonates, am