WorldWideScience

Sample records for facilitating behavior change

  1. Increasing public awareness and facilitating behavior change: Two guiding heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibach, E.

    2016-12-01

    If there is a single aspiration that unifies the professionals who work on the challenges associated with global change, it is likely their desire to see policy makers, business managers and members of the public make decisions that are better informed by the realities of what we know about how to stabilize the climate and prevent needless harm to people and eco-systems. This calls an obvious question: What can we - as scientists and science organizations - to do more effectively promote evidence-based decision-making and actions by important decision-makers? In this talk I will distinguish between two related challenges: more effectively sharing what we know (i.e., improving our communication); and more effectively helping decision-makers take helpful actions (i.e., improving our efforts to facilitate behavior change). Drawing on both theory and empirical evidence in communication science, behavioral science and other related social sciences, I suggest two guiding heurstics - one for each of the two challenges - that will help scientists and science organizations improve the impact of their outreach efforts. To more effectively share what we know, we need "simple clear messages, repeated often, by a variety of trusted sources." To help people convert their good intentions into effective actions, we need to do more to "make the behaviors we are promoting easy, fun and popular." I refer to each of these as "heuristics" in the sense that they organize a relatively large amount of prescriptive information into a relatively easy to use method or process. In this talk, I will unpack each of these heurtistics with the aim of making them practical for all in attendance.

  2. Positive Exercise Experience Facilitates Behavior Change via Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parschau, Linda; Fleig, Lena; Warner, Lisa Marie; Pomp, Sarah; Barz, Milena; Knoll, Nina; Schwarzer, Ralf; Lippke, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Motivational processes can be set in motion when positive consequences of physical exercise are experienced. However, relationships between positive exercise experience and determinants of the motivational and the volitional phases of exercise change have attracted only sparse attention in research. Method: This research examines direct…

  3. State of the evidence regarding behavior change theories and strategies in nutrition counseling to facilitate health and food behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Joanne M; Reeves, Rebecca S; Keim, Kathryn S; Laquatra, Ida; Kellogg, Molly; Jortberg, Bonnie; Clark, Nicole A

    2010-06-01

    Behavior change theories and models, validated within the field of dietetics, offer systematic explanations for nutrition-related behavior change. They are integral to the nutrition care process, guiding nutrition assessment, intervention, and outcome evaluation. The American Dietetic Association Evidence Analysis Library Nutrition Counseling Workgroup conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature related to behavior change theories and strategies used in nutrition counseling. Two hundred fourteen articles were reviewed between July 2007 and March 2008, and 87 studies met the inclusion criteria. The workgroup systematically evaluated these articles and formulated conclusion statements and grades based upon the available evidence. Strong evidence exists to support the use of a combination of behavioral theory and cognitive behavioral theory, the foundation for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), in facilitating modification of targeted dietary habits, weight, and cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors. Evidence is particularly strong in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving intensive, intermediate-duration (6 to 12 months) CBT, and long-term (>12 months duration) CBT targeting prevention or delay in onset of type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Few studies have assessed the application of the transtheoretical model on nutrition-related behavior change. Little research was available documenting the effectiveness of nutrition counseling utilizing social cognitive theory. Motivational interviewing was shown to be a highly effective counseling strategy, particularly when combined with CBT. Strong evidence substantiates the effectiveness of self-monitoring and meal replacements and/or structured meal plans. Compelling evidence exists to demonstrate that financial reward strategies are not effective. Goal setting, problem solving, and social support are effective strategies, but additional research is needed in more diverse populations. Routine documentation

  4. Facilitating behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy—theoretic premises and practical strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient’s everyday speech. The SLP’s plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit...... are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3...... change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy...

  5. Facilitating behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy--theoretic premises and practical strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2015-12-01

    A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient's everyday speech. The SLP's plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3) Repetition; 4) Cognitive activation; 5) Negative practice; 6) Inhibition through interruption; 7) Decomposing complex behavior; 8) The 'each time-every time' principle; and 9) Successive implementation of automaticity.

  6. Major factors for facilitating change in behavioral strategies to reduce obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalle Grave R

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Riccardo Dalle Grave,1 Elena Centis,2 Rebecca Marzocchi,2 Marwan El Ghoch,1 Giulio Marchesini21Department of Eating and Weight Disorders, Villa Garda Hospital, Garda VR, 2Unit of Metabolic Diseases and Clinical Dietetics, Alma Mater Studiorum University, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: It is very unlikely that our obesity-promoting environment will change in the near future. It is therefore mandatory to improve our knowledge of the main factors associated with successful adoption of obesity-reducing behaviors. This may help design more powerful procedures and strategies to facilitate the adoption of healthy lifestyles in a "toxic" environment favoring the development of a positive energy balance. The aim of this review is to describe the main factors associated with successful adoption of obesity-reducing behaviors and to describe the most recent development, limits, and outcomes of lifestyle modification programs. The evidence regarding predictors of weight loss and weight loss maintenance remains largely incomplete. It is necessary to develop strategies matching treatments to patients' needs to improve successful weight loss and its maintenance. How to detect and how to address these needs is a continuous, challenging, research problem.Keywords: weight loss, physical activity, food intake, motivational interviewing, behavioral therapy

  7. A qualitative study of social facilitators and barriers to health behavior change among persons with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbrenner, Kelly; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth; Mueser, Kim; Kinney, Allison; Pratt, Sarah; Bartels, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    This qualitative focus group study was conducted to explore social facilitators and barriers to health behavior change in persons with serious mental illness engaged in a healthy lifestyle intervention. Six focus group interviews were conducted with a total of 30 clients stratified by "high" and "low" achievers in the program based on clinically significant weight loss or significant increase in fitness. Thematic analysis of focus group discussions revealed that emotional, practical, and mutual support from family members and significant others were social facilitators to health behavior change, while unhealthy social environments was a barrier. Participants in the "high" achiever group reported more mutual support for health behavior change than participants in the "low" achiever group. Results highlight the need for researchers and clinicians to consider the potential role of family and significant others as health supporters for persons with mental illness who could encourage healthy behavior in the social environment.

  8. Facilitating behavioral change in voice therapy: the relevance of motivational interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Alison

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an exploration of some of the issues surrounding adherence to vocal behavioral change in voice therapy within the context of Motivational Interviewing (MI) and to explore MI's potential for integration into voice therapy (MI-adapted voice therapy). MI is a style of interpersonal communication in which resistance is minimized through the use of skillful listening in a directive, constructive discussion about behavior change. The goal of MI-adapted voice therapy is to enhance patient adherence to vocal behavioral change. A narrative review of the literature is presented, together with the experiences of the author with 10 adult patients with voice disorders who participated in MI-adapted voice therapy. It is shown that the principles of MI can be applied throughout the therapy program. Points of resistance to vocal behavioral change that were common across many patients appeared to be addressed appropriately by specific MI dialogue strategies. It is concluded that MI-adapted voice therapy holds promise as an approach to address patient adherence to vocal behavioral change. However, research is necessary to define the efficacy of this approach and the factors associated with its efficacy.

  9. An Adolescent Nutrition Learning Model to Facilitate Behavior Change in Overweight Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kimberly J.; Ramsay, Samantha A.; Holyoke, Laura B.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the process by which adolescents learn about nutrition is necessary for developing tailored education that leads to sustainable behavior change. Teens aged 15-17 participating in an obesity prevention program were interviewed. From the data, three themes emerged and informed development of an adolescent nutrition learning model. The…

  10. The use of individualized goal setting to facilitate behavior change in women with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuifbergen, Alexa K; Becker, Heather; Timmerman, Gayle M; Kullberg, Vicki

    2003-04-01

    Setting goals is a useful strategy for changing behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a wellness intervention for women with multiple sclerosis (MS) on achieving health-related goals set individually by each participant in the experimental group (N = 57) using goal attainment scaling. The two-phase intervention included lifestyle-change classes over 8 weeks, then telephone follow-up over 3 months. Participants were followed over an 8-month period. Goal achievement was assessed at baseline, 2 months (following class), 3 1/2 months (6 weeks after class), 5 months (following 3 months of telephone follow-up), and at 8 months. The majority of the women met or exceeded all their individualized goals for changing behavior at the 6-week postclass assessment. Achievement and maintenance of individual goals remained high (59%-84%) over the 5 months after class follow-ups. These data support the positive effects of wellness interventions for helping women with MS to meet their own individualized health goals. Setting goals with incremental steps helped participants to articulate their individual goals and monitor achievement over time.

  11. Eliciting behavior change in a US sexual violence and intimate partner violence prevention program through utilization of Freire and discussion facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Atiba; Lewy, Robin; Ricardo, Francine; Dovydaitis, Tiffany; Hunter, Amber; Mitchell, Ashley; Loe, Claire; Kugel, Candace

    2010-09-01

    Designed by Migrant Clinicians Network, the Hombres Unidos Contra La Violencia Familiar (Men United Against Family Violence) Project used facilitated discussion groups as the method to encourage self-reflection and behavior change. Male participants were not taught to rectify any past sexual or intimate partner violence (SV/IPV) 'tendencies', rather the discussion facilitation allowed them to reflect on the SV/IPV that was present in their lives and in the Hispanic community. Subsequently, the sessions and self-reflection, coupled with the discussions with other participating males, empowered several participants to have further interactions about SV/IPV with individuals in their community. The discussions led participants to realize that SV/IPV existed in their community, but that there were males within their community that wanted to change. The Hombres Unidos Contra La Violencia Familiar project demonstrated that behavior change does not need to be actively persuaded, but that self-reflection, which elicits behavior change, can be achieved through facilitated discussion and by permitting the facilitators to become participants. By creating sessions that allow participants to construct their own understanding of the perceived problem while reflecting on their past behavior, true behavior change that is initiated by the participant can be achieved. Through discussion facilitation, a targeted and structured behavior change intervention can assist participants in realizing that their past actions were damaging to themselves and their community, while aiding the participant in employing self-initiated responses, learned within the discussions, to alter their behaviors.

  12. Understanding the role of the OneLove campaign in facilitating drivers of social and behavioral change in southern Africa: a qualitative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Michael; Letsela, Lebohang; Scheepers, Esca; Weiner, Renay

    2015-01-01

    In the wake of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, health communication has played an important role in social and behavior change in HIV prevention and treatment efforts. Despite this significant role, it is not always clear how health communication influences individuals and communities to facilitate social and behavior change. Guided predominantly by Lewin's theory of change in the context of complexity thinking, and supported by qualitative evidence from Soul City Institute's midterm evaluation of the OneLove multimedia campaign in 9 southern African countries, this article illustrates how carefully designed health edutainment communication materials facilitate drivers of social and behavior change. Thus, researched and theory-based health communication aimed at behavior and social change remains an important pillar in HIV prevention and treatment, where personal and social agency remain key.

  13. Do empowerment strategies facilitate knowledge and behavioral change? The impact of family health advocacy on health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffour, Tiffany D; Chonody, Jill M

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of a Family Health Advocacy (FHA) intervention on 46 African American women ages 13 to 35 living in a rural southern community. FHA utilizes empowerment strategies to provide education and social support to reduce risk factors for poor pregnancy outcomes. Use of a paired t test demonstrated a statistically significant difference between pretest and posttest scores in the acquisition of knowledge of safer sex practices, alcohol consumption, early prenatal care, maternal infection, and nutrition. Behavioral change was not realized in the areas of nutrition or behaviors that cause risk of maternal infection. Social workers can influence behavioral change for at-risk populations by addressing microlevel barriers such as education and resources and macrolevel barriers such as advocacy for expanded health and social services.

  14. Barriers and Facilitators to Exercise Participation in People with Hip and/or Knee Osteoarthritis: Synthesis of the Literature Using Behavior Change Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Fiona; Bennell, Kim L; French, Simon D; Nicolson, Philippa J A; Klaasman, Remco N; Holden, Melanie A; Atkins, Lou; Hinman, Rana S

    2016-05-01

    Exercise is recommended for hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA). Patient initiation of, and adherence to, exercise is key to the success of managing symptoms. This study aimed to (1) identify modifiable barriers and facilitators to participation in intentional exercise in hip and/or knee OA, and (2) synthesize findings using behavior change theory. A scoping review with systematic searches was conducted through March 2015. Two reviewers screened studies for eligibility. Barriers and facilitators were extracted and synthesized according to the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) by two independent reviewers. Twenty-three studies (total of 4633 participants) were included. The greatest number of unique barriers and facilitators mapped to the Environmental Context and Resources domain. Many barriers were related to Beliefs about Consequences and Beliefs about Capabilities, whereas many facilitators were related to Reinforcement. Clinicians should take a proactive role in facilitating exercise uptake and adherence, rather than trusting patients to independently overcome barriers to exercise. Strategies that may be useful include a personalized approach to exercise prescription, considering environmental context and available resources, personalized education about beneficial consequences of exercise and reassurance about exercise capability, and use of reinforcement strategies. Future research should investigate the effectiveness of behavior change interventions that specifically target these factors.

  15. Changing Napoleonic Leadership In The Department Of Homeland Security: The Identification Of Toxic Leadership Behaviors And How To Facilitate Change To Those Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-06

    negative workforce behaviors, and how it correlates to practices within the US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and US Customs and Border...aspects: sociability , self-control, well-being, and emotionality.”30 10 Table 1. Models of Emotional Intelligence31 As illustrated above, many of...program is designed to provide basic knowledge, practical skills, and tools needed to successfully manage supervisory responsibilities and challenges

  16. Programmatic effects of a large-scale multiple-micronutrient supplementation trial in Indonesia: using community facilitators as intermediaries for behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Anita V; Asrilla, Zaitu; Kadha, Josephine K; Sebayang, Susy; Apriatni, Mandri; Sulastri, Ari; Sunarsih, Euis; Shankar, Anuraj H

    2009-06-01

    micronutrients (RR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.64 to 1.72; p = .8568). Systematic enhancements to the quality of implementation of SUMMIT led to significant increases in use of SBAs at delivery, resulting in a 30% reduction in early infant mortality independent of the impact of micronutrient supplementation. Therefore, if women were to consume multiple micronutrients on a regular basis and were to use a SBA at delivery, the risk of early infant mortality could be reduced by nearly 50%. The impacts of community facilitators in effecting changes in women's health behaviors are notable and are applicable to other health programs. Enhancements to program implementation should be driven by evidence, be accountable to the communities the program serves, and be evaluated on the basis of measurable gains in health for women and children.

  17. Rapid response to intensive treatment for bulimia nervosa and purging disorder: A randomized controlled trial of a CBT intervention to facilitate early behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Danielle E; McFarlane, Traci L; Dionne, Michelle M; David, Lauren; Olmsted, Marion P

    2017-09-01

    Rapid response to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for eating disorders (i.e., rapid and substantial change to key eating disorder behaviors in the initial weeks of treatment) robustly predicts good outcome at end-of-treatment and in follow up. The objective of this study was to determine whether rapid response to day hospital (DH) eating disorder treatment could be facilitated using a brief adjunctive CBT intervention focused on early change. 44 women (average age 27.3 [8.4]; 75% White, 6.3% Black, 6.9% Asian) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 4-session adjunctive interventions: CBT focused on early change, or motivational interviewing (MI). DH was administered as usual. Outcomes included binge/purge frequency, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Intent-to-treat analyses were used. The CBT group had a higher rate of rapid response (95.7%) compared to MI (71.4%; p = .04, V = .33). Those who received CBT also had fewer binge/purge episodes (p = .02) in the first 4 weeks of DH. By end-of-DH, CBT participants made greater improvements on overvaluation of weight and shape (p = .008), and emotion regulation (ps rapid and nonrapid responders (ps > .05). The results of this study demonstrate that rapid response can be clinically facilitated using a CBT intervention that explicitly encourages early change. This provides the foundation for future research investigating whether enhancing rates of rapid response using such an intervention results in improved longer term outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Activation-induced spatiotemporal cerebral blood flow changes and behavioral deficit after developmental mTBI in rats can be favorably altered by facilitating mitochondrial calcium uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuvika eMurugan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (mTBI leads to secondary neuronal loss via excitotoxic mechanisms, including mitochondrial Ca2+ overload. However in the surviving cellular population, mitochondrial Ca2+ influx and oxidative metabolism are diminished leading to suboptimal neuronal circuit activity and poor prognosis. Hence we tested the impact of boosting neuronal electrical activity and oxidative metabolism by facilitating mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in a rat model of mTBI. In developing rats (P25-P26 sustaining an mTBI, we demonstrate post-traumatic changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF in the sensorimotor cortex in response to whisker stimulation compared to sham using functional Laser Doppler Imaging (fLDI at adulthood (P67-P73. Compared to sham, whisker stimulation-evoked positive CBF responses decreased while negative CBF responses increased in the mTBI animals. The spatiotemporal CBF changes representing underlying neuronal activity suggested profound changes to neurovascular activity after mTBI. Behavioral assessment of the same cohort of animals prior to fLDI showed that mTBI resulted in persistent contralateral sensorimotor behavioral deficit along with ipsilateral neuronal loss compared to sham. Treating mTBI rats with Kaempferol, a dietary flavonol compound that enhanced mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, eliminated the inter-hemispheric asymmetry in the whisker stimulation-induced positive CBF responses and the ipsilateral negative CBF responses otherwise observed in the untreated and vehicle-treated mTBI animals in adulthood. Kaempferol also improved somatosensory behavioral measures compared to untreated and vehicle treated mTBI animals without augmenting post-injury neuronal loss. The results indicate that reduced mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in the surviving populations affect post-traumatic neural activation leading to persistent behavioral deficits. Improvement in sensorimotor behavior and spatiotemporal neurovascular activity

  19. Using Action Research and Peer Perspectives to Develop Technology That Facilitates Behavioral Change and Self-Management in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Catherine; Dinsmore, John; Brady, Anne Marie; Mckee, Gabrielle; O'Donnell, Sharon; Prendergast, David

    2014-01-01

    Background. Behavioural change and self-management in patients with chronic illness may help to control symptoms, avoid rehospitalization, enhance quality of life, and decrease mortality and morbidity. Objective. Guided by action research principles and using mixed methods, the aim of this project was to develop peer based educational, motivational, and health-promoting peer based videos, using behavioural change principles, to support self-management in patients with COPD. Methods. Individuals (n = 32) living with COPD at home and involved in two community based COPD support groups were invited to participate in this project. Focus group/individual interviews and a demographic questionnaire were used to collect data. Results. Analysis revealed 6 categories relevant to behavioural change which included self-management, support, symptoms, knowledge, rehabilitation, and technology. Participants commented that content needed to be specific, and videos needed to be shorter, to be tailored to severity of condition, to demonstrate "normal" activities, to be positive, and to ensure that content is culturally relevant. Conclusions. This study demonstrated that detailed analysis of patient perspectives and needs for self-management is essential and should underpin the development of any framework, materials, and technology. The action research design principles provided an effective framework for eliciting the data and applying it to technology and testing its relevance to the user.

  20. Managerial intervention to facilitate organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, J R

    1983-07-01

    Facilitating change in the clinical laboratory is a constant managerial responsibility. Change is often met with resistance when staff members perceive it as threatening their convenience, interpersonal relationships, position, or economic security. This paper examines the application of the Concerns-Based Adoption Model to assess individual concerns regarding change. The model views change as a process rather than an event and examines the various motivations, perceptions, attitudes, and feelings of individuals regarding an innovation. After an individual's concerns have been identified, the manager is better able to target intervention strategies to facilitate organizational change.

  1. Effective strategies for behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Pasternak, Ryan H

    2012-06-01

    Strategies that are most effective in both prevention and management of chronic disease consider factors such as age, ethnicity, community, and technology. Most behavioral change strategies derive their components from application of the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory. Many tools such as the readiness ruler and personalized action plan form are available to assist health care teams to facilitate healthy behavior change. Primary care providers can support behavior changes by providing venues for peer interventions and family meetings and by making new partnerships with community organizations.

  2. Facilitating nurturant fathering behavior in the NICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, J C

    1990-09-01

    Many of the roles required of the father of a NICU infant are new and unfamiliar, difficult to carry out, unrehearsed, and yet called for in an unexpected crisis. At a time when they too need nurturing, fathers of high-risk infants are expected to adapt readily and be models of self-control. It is apparent from this investigation that the primary nurse is in a strategic position to assist the new father in his acquaintance with and early adjustment to his infant. Although some of the fathers will become actively involved with their children, others prefer less involvement in infant care taking and display minimal nurturant behaviors. A nurse must be able to recognize these differences and support a father's (and mother's) choice. A couple's sociocultural ideology and perceptions of the father's role, as well as the family dynamics and values, need to be given primary consideration in planning nursing care. In order for the nurse to fulfill an important teaching role for the fathers (parents) of NICU infants, the nurse must meet the needs of each individual father in relation to the family system. This requires systematic and nonjudgmental assessment and caring facilitation of paternal role development and early father-infant and father-mother-infant interactions.

  3. Facilitating Lasting Changes at an Elementary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie JAMES

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine how to minimize waste in a school setting by reducing, reusing, recycling, and composting waste products. Specifically, the desire was to identify what steps could be taken to decrease waste practices at a Title I elementary school. Through the Washington Green Schools certification process, a Waste and Recycling Assessment and Characterization Audit allowed for the collection of data. The assessment examined how much and what types of waste products were disposed of at the school. Based on the audit, 93% of waste products in the cafeteria were recyclable or compostable. The results provided ways for the students and staff to take action resulting in behavioral changes that taught and modeled environmental conservation. This study can help revolutionize school communities by serving as a prototype for environmental sustainability enhancing an eco-friendly citizenry.

  4. How interpersonal synchrony facilitates early prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirelli, Laura K

    2017-08-09

    When infants and children affiliate with others, certain cues may direct their social efforts to 'better' social partners. Interpersonal synchrony, or when two or more people move together in time, can be one such cue. In adults, experiencing interpersonal synchrony encourages affiliative behaviors. Recent studies have found that these effects also influence early prosociality-for example, 14-month-olds help a synchronous partner more than an asynchronous partner. These effects on helping are specifically directed to the synchronous movement partner and members of that person's social group. In older children, the prosocial effects of interpersonal synchrony may even cross group divides. How synchrony and other cues for group membership influence early prosociality is a promising avenue for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Coaching the Mentor: Facilitating Reflection and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Stephen P.; Brobeck, Sonja R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the process of coaching a mentor of experienced teachers. In particular, we sought to determine if coaching would help a mentor to compare her espoused beliefs about mentoring to her mentoring behaviors and possibly resolve any dissonance. The mentor and coach (the co-researchers) participated in a platform…

  6. Inhibition not facilitation of sexual behavior by PCPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzalka, B B; Whalen, R E

    1975-01-01

    It has been proposed that estrous behavior in the female rat may be under tonic inhibition by a central serotonergi system. Studies conbining estrogen priming and the pharmacological depletion of serotonin have provided some support for this hypothesis. Some evidence, however, is not consistent with this hypothesis. In the present study estrogen primed ovariectomized-adrenalectomized rats were administered p-chlorophenylalanine and were tested for lordosis behavior 66 and 70 hr later. Lordosis was not facilitated. The animals were then administered progesterone and retested at hour 74. PCPA inhibited progesterone-induced lordosis behavior in a dose dependent manner.

  7. [Behavioral approach to facilitate appropriate use of antibiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Osamu; Higuchi, Kazuko; Ishii, Noriko; Negayama, Kiyoshi; Taminato, Tomohiko

    2008-11-01

    Many hospitals have infection control education programs to facilitate the appropriate use of antimicrobial agents. Even with these efforts, however, it is not rare to encounter irregular prescriptions. In order to solve this discrepancy between knowledge and actual behavior, we chose an alternative approach to improve the decision making process. Recent advances in information technology have made it possible to not only instantly integrate various bacterial examination results using a computer, but to simultaneously carry out the statistical analyses at a much lower cost. We employed a client-server system to accomplish these tasks in Kagawa University Hospital. By connecting CCD camera-equipped microscopes to the system directly, image uploading has become a single-clicking job. Various microbial examination data were automatically transferred to the system once they became available in analytical devices such as BacT/ALERT 3D, VITEK, and an MIC analyzer. These data were presented to hospital doctors in well-designed web windows without delay. By removing psychological barriers to access laboratory examination data, statistics, and relevant information, more doctors seemed to independently follow scientific processes to choose antimicrobial agents. The daily behavior of hospital doctors has also been influenced by the system, e. g., pasting the microscopic images onto clinical records, or starting Gram staining in their own wards. These subtle but fundamental changes will eventually alter the way they make prescription decisions. The computer system was also useful for the infection control team to monitor and detect nosocomial infections, which has become essential to carry out its daily activities.

  8. Smartphone technology facilitates dietary change in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipjian, Michelle L; Johnston, Carol S

    2017-01-01

    Many individuals are advised to adhere to specific diet plans for their personal health; hence, it is important that tools are available to support these behaviors. Smartphone applications (apps) may assist health care professionals in educating their clients on specific dietary modifications. This pilot study focused on a single dietary modification, reducing sodium intake, to determine whether a commercial health app is useful for promoting dietary change. Thirty healthy adults (age 34.4 ± 15.7 y; body mass index 25.6 ± 4.3 kg/m(2)) were recruited from a university community and completed this 4-wk randomized parallel trial. Participants were instructed to reduce their sodium intake to ≤2300 mg/d by using the MyFitnessPal app to receive feedback on sodium content of foods or by paper tallying of estimated sodium intake. The predicted 24-h sodium excretion, estimated using the ratio of sodium to creatinine from the first morning urine void, and participant satisfaction were the main outcomes measured. The change in the predicted 24-h sodium excretion differed between groups: -838 ± 1093 and +236 ± 1333 mg/24 h predicted for the app and journal groups, respectively (P = 0.010). Moreover, participants in the app group reported significantly greater satisfaction with their method of diet tracking than the journal group (P = 0.001). These data suggest that smartphone apps have the potential to facilitate the implementation of dietary advice. This was a small pilot study with limited scope, and more research is necessary to determine the value of smartphone apps for facilitating dietary change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Trajectories of Positive and Negative Behavior during Participation in Equine Facilitated Learning Program for Horse-Novice Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendry, Patricia; Roeter, Stephanie; Smith, Annelise; Jacobson, Sue; Erdman, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    To explore the efficacy of equine programming to support positive behavioral development of horse-novice youth, researchers examined trajectories of behavioral change of 5-8th grade students as they participate in an equine facilitated learning program. Behaviors were rated and analyzed to examine group trajectories of change. Results indicated…

  10. A New DREADD Facilitates the Multiplexed Chemogenetic Interrogation of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardy, Eyal; Robinson, J. Elliott; Li, Chia; Olsen, Reid H. J.; DiBerto, Jeffrey F.; Giguere, Patrick M.; Sassano, Flori M.; Huang, Xi-Ping; Zhu, Hu; Urban, Daniel J.; White, Kate L.; Rittiner, Joseph E.; Crowley, Nicole A.; Pleil, Kristen E.; Mazzone, Christopher M.; Mosier, Philip D.; Song, Juan; Kash, Thomas L.; Malanga, C. J.; Krashes, Michael J.; Roth, Bryan L.

    2015-01-01

    DREADDs are chemogenetic tools widely used to remotely control cellular signaling, neuronal activity and behavior. Here we used a structure-based approach to develop a new Gi coupled DREADD using the kappa-opioid receptor as template (KORD) that is activated by the pharmacologically inert ligand salvinorin B (SALB). Activation of virally-expressed KORD in several neuronal contexts robustly attenuated neuronal activity and modified behaviors. Additionally, co-expression of the KORD and the Gq coupled M3-DREADD within the same neuronal population facilitated the sequential and bi-directional remote control of behavior. The availability of DREADDs activated by different ligands provides enhanced opportunities for investigating diverse physiological systems using multiplexed chemogenetic actuators. PMID:25937170

  11. An experiment on the social facilitation of gambling behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockloff, Matthew Justus; Dyer, Victoria

    2007-03-01

    Research and theory regarding the social facilitation effect generates the expectation that the presence of other gamblers (or co-actors) in a gaming venue is likely to intensify individual gambling behavior and magnify losses. Fifty male and 66 female participants (116 total) played a computer-simulated electronic gaming machine with a fixed winning sequence, followed by an indefinite losing sequence. Measures of the intensity of gambling behavior included the final payout (a direct measure of losses), average bet-size, number of trials played, and the speed of play. Some participants received false feedback from the computer designed to suggest that other gamers in adjacent rooms were playing and sometimes winning at the same game. Persons who received both sight and sound information, including winning bells and instant messages regarding the wins of other (fake) players, placed more bets and lost more money compared to the other conditions with less information.

  12. Academic Professional Development Strategies to Facilitate Educational Changes in Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Alonso, Gloria Amparo

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative within-case study explored how planned educational change in universities can be facilitated through academic professional development strategies. Thus this study attempted to shed some light on the dynamics of educational planned change in universities and their implications for academic professional development of faculty. The…

  13. Workplace Financial Education Facilitates Improvement in Personal Financial Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prawitz, Aimee D.; Cohart, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Based on the life-cycle theory of consumption, this quasi-experimental study of 995 employees examined changes in financial behaviors following employee-needs-driven workplace financial education. Repeated-measures ANOVA compared participants and non-participants on perceived financial wellness and savings ratios; main effects indicated that both…

  14. Facilitating organisational change in an organic dairy corporation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe; Sriskandarajah, Nadarajah

    2005-01-01

    The paper sets focus on the notion of sustainable development as the challenge of creating self-referential systems that are continually learning how to persist in a complex and ever-changing environment. For this learning to be accomplished, facilitating it with a systemic perspective may...... be an option available to an organisation....

  15. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Students' Understanding of Electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    2002-01-01

    Constructs a teaching strategy to facilitate conceptual change in freshman students' understanding of electrochemistry. Provides students with the correct response along with alternative responses (teaching experiments), producing a conflicting situation that is conducive to an equilibration of their cognitive structures. Concludes that the…

  16. Scaling Climate Change Communication for Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, V. C.; Lappé, M.; Flora, J. A.; Ardoin, N. M.; Robinson, T. N.

    2014-12-01

    Ultimately, effective climate change communication results in a change in behavior, whether the change is individual, household or collective actions within communities. We describe two efforts to promote climate-friendly behavior via climate communication and behavior change theory. Importantly these efforts are designed to scale climate communication principles focused on behavior change rather than soley emphasizing climate knowledge or attitudes. Both cases are embedded in rigorous evaluations (randomized controlled trial and quasi-experimental) of primary and secondary outcomes as well as supplementary analyses that have implications for program refinement and program scaling. In the first case, the Girl Scouts "Girls Learning Environment and Energy" (GLEE) trial is scaling the program via a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) for Troop Leaders to teach the effective home electricity and food and transportation energy reduction programs. The second case, the Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) Assembly Program, is advancing the already-scaled assembly program by using communication principles to further engage youth and their families and communities (school and local communities) in individual and collective actions. Scaling of each program uses online learning platforms, social media and "behavior practice" videos, mastery practice exercises, virtual feedback and virtual social engagement to advance climate-friendly behavior change. All of these communication practices aim to simulate and advance in-person train-the-trainers technologies.As part of this presentation we outline scaling principles derived from these two climate change communication and behavior change programs.

  17. You Should Know Better: Can Self-Affirmation Facilitate Information-Seeking Behavior and Interpersonal Discussion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetriades, Stefanie Z; Walter, Nathan

    2016-11-01

    This study explores whether self-affirmation has the capacity not merely to reduce the perceived threat associated with health-related information but also to facilitate interpersonal discussion and affect health information-seeking behavior. The context for the study is the ongoing California drought, which serves as suitable context to examine the intersection of self-affirmation and information-seeking behavior because it involves a threatening message (the destructive consequences of the drought) and highlights discrepancies between actual (water waste) and prosocial (water conservation) behavior. Results of a month-long longitudinal panel study demonstrate significant effects of self-affirmation on interpersonal discussion, information seeking, knowledge, and water-conserving behavior across time. Implications for theorizing longer term effects of self-affirmation and practical implications for promoting behavioral change through the enhancement of knowledge and self-esteem are considered.

  18. A facilitative effect of punishment on unpunished behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRETHOWER, D M; REYNOLDS, G S

    1962-04-01

    The key pecking of two pigeons was reinforced on a variable-interval schedule of reinforcement during the presentation of each of two stimuli. In various phases of the experiment, punishment followed every response emitted in the presence of one of the stimuli. In general, when the rate of punished responding changed during the presentation of one stimulus, the rate of unpunished responding during the other stimulus changed in the opposite direction. This sort of change in rate is an example of behavioral contrast. When punishment was introduced, the rate of punished responding decreased and the rate of unpunished responding increased as functions of shock intensity. When the rate of previously punished responding increased after the termination of the shock, the rate of the always unpunished responding decreased. When the procedure correlated with a red key was changed from variable-interval reinforcement and punishment for each response to extinction and no punishment, the rate of reinforced responding during presentations of a green key decreased and then increased while the rate of the previously punished responding during red first increased and then decreased during extinction.

  19. Self-Determination Theory: Intrinsic Motivation and Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Marie

    2017-03-01

    Motivation is a central concept in behavioral change. This article reviews the self-determination theory with an emphasis on "intrinsic motivation," which is facilitated when three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) are met. Intrinsic motivation is associated with improved well-being and sustained behavioral change.

  20. Innovation adoption as facilitated by a change-oriented workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becan, Jennifer E; Knight, Danica K; Flynn, Patrick M

    2012-03-01

    One of the unique contributions of this study is a glimpse into the process by which counselors decide to try new innovations in their clinical work. Data were collected from 421 counseling staff from 71 outpatient treatment programs in 4 U.S. regions. Using hierarchical linear modeling, results reveal that the propensity to adopt workshop-based interventions is facilitated by two important mechanisms: (a) an innovative organization with creative leadership and (b) change-oriented staff attributes (i.e., seeking professional growth, efficacy, adaptability, and influence on others). Innovative leaders and a climate receptive to change also bolster the development of these change-oriented attributes. One implication of these findings is the cascading effect of leaders' support of innovative thinking and action resulting in employees strengthening their own adaptive skills and carrying this innovative thinking into individual adoption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Employing external facilitation to implement cognitive behavioral therapy in VA clinics: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blevins Dean

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although for more than a decade healthcare systems have attempted to provide evidence-based mental health treatments, the availability and use of psychotherapies remains low. A significant need exists to identify simple but effective implementation strategies to adopt complex practices within complex systems of care. Emerging evidence suggests that facilitation may be an effective integrative implementation strategy for adoption of complex practices. The current pilot examined the use of external facilitation for adoption of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT in 20 Department of Veteran Affairs (VA clinics. Methods The 20 clinics were paired on facility characteristics, and 23 clinicians from these were trained in CBT. A clinic in each pair was randomly selected to receive external facilitation. Quantitative methods were used to examine the extent of CBT implementation in 10 clinics that received external facilitation compared with 10 clinics that did not, and to better understand the relationship between individual providers' characteristics and attitudes and their CBT use. Costs of external facilitation were assessed by tracking the time spent by the facilitator and therapists in activities related to implementing CBT. Qualitative methods were used to explore contextual and other factors thought to influence implementation. Results Examination of change scores showed that facilitated therapists averaged an increase of 19% [95% CI: (2, 36] in self-reported CBT use from baseline, while control therapists averaged a 4% [95% CI: (-14, 21] increase. Therapists in the facilitated condition who were not providing CBT at baseline showed the greatest increase (35% compared to a control therapist who was not providing CBT at baseline (10% or to therapists in either condition who were providing CBT at baseline (average 3%. Increased CBT use was unrelated to prior CBT training. Barriers to CBT implementation were therapists' lack of

  2. Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change: background and intervention development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Polly

    2009-01-01

    An essential characteristic of advanced practice nurses is the use of theory in practice. Clinical nurse specialists apply theory in providing or directing patient care, in their work as consultants to staff nurses, and as leaders influencing and facilitating system change. Knowledge of technology and pharmacology has far outpaced knowledge of how to facilitate health behavior change, and new theories are needed to better understand how practitioners can facilitate health behavior change. In this article, the Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change is described, and an example of its use as foundation to intervention development is presented. The Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change suggests that health behavior change can be enhanced by fostering knowledge and beliefs, increasing self-regulation skills and abilities, and enhancing social facilitation. Engagement in self-management behaviors is seen as the proximal outcome influencing the long-term distal outcome of improved health status. Person-centered interventions are directed to increasing knowledge and beliefs, self-regulation skills and abilities, and social facilitation. Using a theoretical framework improves clinical nurse specialist practice by focusing assessments, directing the use of best-practice interventions, and improving patient outcomes. Using theory fosters improved communication with other disciplines and enhances the management of complex clinical conditions by providing holistic, comprehensive care.

  3. Culture change in care homes: development and facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Deidre; Kydd, Angela

    2016-09-29

    This article is the second of a two-part series that explores a programme of culture change in care homes. In this article, the authors describe their independent development and facilitation of a flexible learning programme for care homes, designed to meet a quality improvement request made by a care home company. The two selected care homes' staff conducted a review of their care culture, as a precursor to their creation of a new care philosophy. These activities provided a firm foundation from which the homes could, in theory, become a Remedial Enterprise Active Learning care home. Although the learning programme was not completed due to unavoidable circumstances, the staff's experiences highlight some of the challenges and successes that may be experienced when seeking to improve care homes' learning culture and practice.

  4. Facilitating conditions for boundary-spanning behavior in governance networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.F. van Meerkerk (Ingmar); J. Edelenbos (Jurian)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines the impact of two facilitating conditions for boundary-spanning behaviour in urban governance networks. While research on boundary spanning is growing, there is little attention for antecedents. Combining governance network literature on project management and

  5. Smart health and innovation: facilitating health-related behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, J

    2017-08-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are the leading cause of death globally. Smart health technology and innovation is a potential strategy for increasing reach and for facilitating health behaviour change. Despite rapid growth in the availability and affordability of technology there remains a paucity of published and robust research in the area as it relates to health. The objective of the present paper is to review and provide a snapshot of a variety of contemporary examples of smart health strategies with a focus on evidence and research as it relates to prevention with a CVD management lens. In the present analysis, five examples will be discussed and they include a physician-directed strategy, consumer directed strategies, a public health approach and a screening strategy that utilises external hardware that connects to a smartphone. In conclusion, NCD have common risk factors and all have an association with nutrition and health. Smart health and innovation is evolving rapidly and may help with diagnosis, treatment and management. While on-going research, development and knowledge is needed, the growth of technology development and utilisation offers opportunities to reach more people and achieve better health outcomes at local, national and international levels.

  6. Social inclusion facilitates risky mating behavior in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Donald F; Brown, Christina M; Young, Steven G; Bernstein, Michael J; Hugenberg, Kurt

    2011-07-01

    Although past research has reliably established unique effects of social exclusion on human cognition and behavior, the current research focuses on the unique effects of social inclusion. Recent evidence indicates that social inclusion leads to enhanced prioritization of reproductive interests. The current study extends these findings by showing that the pursuit of these inclusion-induced reproductive goals occurs in sex-specific ways. Across three experiments, social inclusion led men, but not women, to endorse riskier, more aggressive mating strategies compared to control and socially excluded participants. Specifically, included men were more likely to endorse sexual aggression (Experiment 1), high-risk mate poaching behaviors (Experiment 2), and high-risk mate retention tactics (Experiment 3). These results demonstrate that the experience of social inclusion can affect sex-differentiated preferences for risky mating strategies.

  7. Amphetamine administration into the ventral striatum facilitates behavioral interaction with unconditioned visual signals in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Shin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Administration of psychomotor stimulants like amphetamine facilitates behavior in the presence of incentive distal stimuli, which have acquired the motivational properties of primary rewards through associative learning. This facilitation appears to be mediated by the mesolimbic dopamine system, which may also be involved in facilitating behavior in the presence of distal stimuli that have not been previously paired with primary rewards. However, it is unclear whether psychomotor stimulants facilitate behavioral interaction with unconditioned distal stimuli. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that noncontingent administration of amphetamine into subregions of the rat ventral striatum, particularly in the vicinity of the medial olfactory tubercle, facilitates lever pressing followed by visual signals that had not been paired with primary rewards. Noncontingent administration of amphetamine failed to facilitate lever pressing when it was followed by either tones or delayed presentation or absence of visual signals, suggesting that visual signals are key for enhanced behavioral interaction. Systemic administration of amphetamine markedly increased locomotor activity, but did not necessarily increase lever pressing rewarded by visual signals, suggesting that lever pressing is not a byproduct of heightened locomotor activity. Lever pressing facilitated by amphetamine was reduced by co-administration of the dopamine receptor antagonists SCH 23390 (D1 selective or sulpiride (D2 selective. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that amphetamine administration into the ventral striatum, particularly in the vicinity of the medial olfactory tubercle, activates dopaminergic mechanisms that strongly enhance behavioral interaction with unconditioned visual stimuli.

  8. Health behavior change in hearing healthcare: a discussion paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaya K. C. Manchaiah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Health behavior change (HBC refers to facilitating changes to habits and/or behavior related to health. In healthcare practice, it is quite common that the interactions between practitioner and patient involve conversations related to HBC. This could be mainly in relation to the practitioner trying to directly persuade the patients to make some changes in their health behavior. However, the patients may not be motivated to do so as they do not see this change as important. For this reason, direct persuasion may result in a breakdown of communication. In such instances, alternative approaches and means of indirect persuasion, such as empowering the patient and their family members, could be helpful. Furthermore, there are several models and/or theories proposed which explain the health behavior and also provide a structured framework for health behavior change. Many such models/approaches have been proven effective in facilitating HBC and health promotion in areas such as cessation of smoking, weight loss and so on. This paper provides an overview of main models/theories related to HBC and some insights into how these models/approaches could be adapted to facilitate behavior change in hearing healthcare, mainly in relation to: i hearing help-seeking and hearing-aid uptake; and ii hearing conservation in relation to music-induced hearing loss (MIHL. In addition, elements of current research related to this area and future directions are highlighted.

  9. Health behavior change in hearing healthcare: a discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchaiah, Vinaya K C

    2012-01-09

    Health behavior change (HBC) refers to facilitating changes to habits and/or behavior related to health. In healthcare practice, it is quite common that the interactions between practitioner and patient involve conversations related to HBC. This could be mainly in relation to the practitioner trying to directly persuade the patients to make some changes in their health behavior. However, the patients may not be motivated to do so as they do not see this change as important. For this reason, direct persuasion may result in a breakdown of communication. In such instances, alternative approaches and means of indirect persuasion, such as empowering the patient and their family members, could be helpful. Furthermore, there are several models and/or theories proposed which explain the health behavior and also provide a structured framework for health behavior change. Many such models/approaches have been proven effective in facilitating HBC and health promotion in areas such as cessation of smoking, weight loss and so on. This paper provides an overview of main models/theories related to HBC and some insights into how these models/approaches could be adapted to facilitate behavior change in hearing healthcare, mainly in relation to: i) hearing help-seeking and hearing-aid uptake; and ii) hearing conservation in relation to music-induced hearing loss (MIHL). In addition, elements of current research related to this area and future directions are highlighted.

  10. Benefits, Facilitators, Barriers, and Strategies to Improve Pesticide Protective Behaviors: Insights from Farmworkers in North Carolina Tobacco Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, AnnMarie Lee; LePrevost, Catherine E; Linnan, Laura; Sanchez-Birkhead, Ana; Mooney, Kathi

    2017-06-23

    Pesticide exposure is associated with deleterious health effects. Prior studies suggest Latino farmworkers perceive little control over their occupational health. Using the Health Belief Model as a theoretical guide, we explored the perceptions of Latino farmworkers working in tobacco in North Carolina (n = 72) about benefits and facilitators of pesticide protective behaviors as well as barriers, and strategies to overcome barriers to their use. Interviews were conducted with participants at farmworker housing during non-work time. Qualitative data were analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Farmworkers recognized pesticide protective behaviors as helping them to not get sick and stay healthy. Farmworkers perceived work experience as facilitating protective behaviors. Wetness in the field was the most commonly cited barrier to protective behavior use. To overcome this barrier, farmworkers suggested use of water-resistant outerwear, as well as packing a change of clothes for mid-day, with space and time to change provided by employers. Examination of the efficacy and feasibility of farmworkers' suggestions for addressing barriers is warranted. Training and behavior modeling by experienced peers may improve behavior adoption and perceived control.

  11. The facilitation by church leaders in overcoming resistance to change.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Little has been done to address the issue of how to overcome resistance to change in a change effort in the church world. “How to overcome resistance to change?” is a question that requires serious consideration among church leaders. Church leaders continue to act in ways that produce resistance to change and ultimately failed change efforts. These actions on the part of church leaders often strengthen and reinforce the sources of resistance to change, making it very difficult for change to b...

  12. Health Behavior Change after Blood Pressure Feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Pu

    Full Text Available Better understanding is needed for antihypertensive medication initiation and lifestyle modification among younger populations with elevated blood pressure. This study aimed to assess health behavior change after receiving a report of elevated blood pressure among African Americans and Caucasians younger than 50 years old. We used the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA repository dataset. By examination year twenty, 424 out of 2,478 Caucasian and 2,637 African American participants had received feedback from the CARDIA study due to elevated blood pressure readings. Blood pressure was measured by trained CARDIA researchers at the participant's home and was repeatedly recorded at seven examinations over twenty years. A feedback/referral letter was sent to participants with an elevated blood pressure reading. On average, participants first had an elevated blood pressure reading at the age of 34. After receiving the feedback letter, 44% of the previously undiagnosed participants received a formal diagnosis. In addition, 23% initiated the use of antihypertensive medication if they had not received medication treatment before. Among the participants with at-risk lifestyle behaviors, 40% reduced alcohol consumption, 14% increased exercise level, 11% stopped smoking, and 8% reached normal weight. While none of the studied patient factors were associated with lifestyle modification, age had a positive impact on antihypertensive medication initiation (p<0.05. We found no evidence of differences in health behavior change between African American and Caucasian participants after receiving the feedback letter. This research is one of the first to study what followed after receiving a feedback letter about elevated blood pressure outside of healthcare settings. Although additional referral care and behavior interventions are needed to facilitate medication initiation and lifestyle modification, our observations suggest that providing

  13. Massage Changes Babies' Body, Brain and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Chihiro; Shiga, Takashi

    Tactile stimulation is an important factor in mother-infant interactions. Many studies on both human and animals have shown that tactile stimulation during the neonatal period has various beneficial effects in the subsequent growth of the body and brain. In particular, massage is often applied to preterm human babies as “touch care”, because tactile stimulation together with kinesthetic stimulation increases body weight, which is accompanied by behavioral development and the changes of endocrine and neural conditions. Among them, the elevation of insulin-like growth factor-1, catecholamine, and vagus nerve activity may underlie the body weight gain. Apart from the body weight gain, tactile stimulation has various effects on the nervous system and endocrine system. For example, it has been reported that tactile stimulation on human and animal babies activates parasympathetic nervous systems, while suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenalcortical (HPA) axis, which may be related to the reduction of emotionality, anxiety-like behavior, and pain sensitivity. In addition, animal experiments have shown that tactile stimulation improves learning and memory. Facilitation of the neuronal activity and the morphological changes including the hippocampal synapse may underlie the improvement of the learning and memory. In conclusion, it has been strongly suggested that tactile stimulation in early life has beneficial effects on body, brain structure and function, which are maintained throughout life.

  14. The Role of Metacognition in Facilitating Conceptual Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuruk, Nejla; Ozdemir, Omer; Beeth, Michael E.

    This paper describe the intertwined nature of metacognition and conceptual change and proposes a taxonomy that classifies the types of metacognitive knowledge and activities that are likely to influence the change in students' conceptions. The initial conceptual change model is introduced to provide background and context for the theoretical…

  15. Changes in sensitivity to ethanol-induced social facilitation and social inhibition from early to late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2004-06-01

    Adolescent rats are more sensitive than adults to ethanol-induced social facilitation, but are less sensitive to the suppression of social interactions seen at higher ethanol doses. Given recent findings that point to age differences in ethanol responsiveness, even within the adolescent period, the present study assessed acute effects of low to moderate doses of ethanol on social behavior of early, mid- or late adolescent rats. Age-related changes in responsiveness to the effects of ethanol on social behavior were apparent even within the adolescent period, with early adolescents being more sensitive to ethanol-induced social facilitation and less sensitive to ethanol-induced social inhibition than mid- and late adolescents. Given that ethanol-induced social facilitation as well as a lower sensitivity to the adverse effects of ethanol may contribute to heavy drinking, this pattern of early adolescent responsiveness to ethanol's social consequences may put them at higher risk for extensive alcohol use.

  16. Consulting to Facilitate Planned Organizational Change in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zins, Joseph E.; Illback, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    We present an update of our 1984 chapter on organizational interventions in educational settings. Our view of the organizational change process is described, followed by a discussion of the gap between current theory and practice. We describe several examples of promising organizational change initiatives, followed by our observations of future…

  17. Consulting to Facilitate Planned Organizational Change in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zins, Joseph E.; Illback, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    We present an update of our 1984 chapter on organizational interventions in educational settings. Our view of the organizational change process is described, followed by a discussion of the gap between current theory and practice. We describe several examples of promising organizational change initiatives, followed by our observations of future…

  18. Problem-based learning as a facilitator of conceptual change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyens, Sofie M M; Jones, Suzanne H.; Mikkers, Jeroen; van Gog, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether problem-based learning (PBL) can foster conceptual change. Students were randomly assigned to a PBL, lecture-based, or self-study group, all receiving instruction about the topic of Newtonian laws. Conceptual change was measured from pre- to immediate post-test (directly

  19. Problem-based learning as a facilitator of conceptual change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyens, Sofie M M; Jones, Suzanne H.; Mikkers, Jeroen; van Gog, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether problem-based learning (PBL) can foster conceptual change. Students were randomly assigned to a PBL, lecture-based, or self-study group, all receiving instruction about the topic of Newtonian laws. Conceptual change was measured from pre- to immediate post-test (directly afte

  20. Problem-based learning as a facilitator of conceptual change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyens, Sofie M M; Jones, Suzanne H.; Mikkers, Jeroen; van Gog, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether problem-based learning (PBL) can foster conceptual change. Students were randomly assigned to a PBL, lecture-based, or self-study group, all receiving instruction about the topic of Newtonian laws. Conceptual change was measured from pre- to immediate post-test (directly afte

  1. Facilitators and inhibitors of health-promoting behaviors: The experience of Iranian women of reproductive age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Baheiraei

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: In these women′s experience, factors influencing health-promoting behaviors were either facilitators or inhibitors; most were inhibitors. The findings of this study show that, in addition to personal factors, the pursuit of health-promoting behaviors is affected by socio-environmental factors. These results will be useful in designing interventions and plans for women′s health promotion that focus on the improvement of their environment and the modification of social factors.

  2. A Field Guide for Change Facilitators Working with Low-Performing Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bruce; Campbell, Jean

    2005-01-01

    The Field Guide for Change Facilitators Working With Low-Performing Schools was written to assist those working with schools in the improvement process, especially low-performing ones. As a primer for change facilitators, this research-based guide is arranged in sections so that the user can easily find needed information on specific topics.…

  3. SECI model and facilitation in change management in metallurgical enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Grzybowska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Organisational change management is not efficient without gaining and sharing knowledge by the members of the enterprise. Both in the conditions of relative organisational stability and in organisational chaos resulting from dynamic introduction and management of changes there is a constant need of improvement and of shaping competences and distribution of knowledge in the enterprise. The publication presents key programs of building knowledge conducted in a metallurgical enterprise.

  4. Why behavior change is difficult to sustain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Mark E

    2014-11-01

    Unhealthy behavior is responsible for much human disease, and a common goal of contemporary preventive medicine is therefore to encourage behavior change. However, while behavior change often seems easy in the short run, it can be difficult to sustain. This article provides a selective review of research from the basic learning and behavior laboratory that provides some insight into why. The research suggests that methods used to create behavior change (including extinction, counterconditioning, punishment, reinforcement of alternative behavior, and abstinence reinforcement) tend to inhibit, rather than erase, the original behavior. Importantly, the inhibition, and thus behavior change more generally, is often specific to the "context" in which it is learned. In support of this view, the article discusses a number of lapse and relapse phenomena that occur after behavior has been changed (renewal, spontaneous recovery, reinstatement, rapid reacquisition, and resurgence). The findings suggest that changing a behavior can be an inherently unstable and unsteady process; frequent lapses should be expected. In the long run, behavior-change therapies might benefit from paying attention to the context in which behavior change occurs.

  5. The use and abuse of prescription medication to facilitate or enhance sexual behavior among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, T R; Moser, N C

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents naturally experience an increased interest in sexual behavior, but they usually lack much experience. Thus, any prescription medication that holds the potential to ease or facilitate sexual matters holds a unique allure. Widespread cultural awareness of medications to treat erectile dysfunction (ED) has combined with a recent trend toward increased adolescent prescription drug abuse to create unique challenges for industry, clinicians, and researchers.

  6. Training Programs That Facilitate Lasting Change in Student Academic Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Brad

    2014-01-01

    A range of evidence suggests that changing a person's pattern of behaviour is extremely difficult, with past behaviour being one of the strongest predictors of future behaviour. This is particularly evident in the university setting where students tend to use the same academic processes they have used throughout their schooling despite any…

  7. Collaboration: Getting All Hands on Deck Facilitates School Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Henry A.; Walker, Bradford L.

    1993-01-01

    A collaborative change process under way in North Carolina uses teacher input and supports the notion of school leaders working cooperatively with many others interested in improving schools, including higher education institutions, the state education agency, colleagues from other schools, and consultants. In the North Carolina project, successes…

  8. How psychological resources facilitate adaptation to organizational change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, M.; Demerouti, E.; Bakker, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this 1-year follow-up study among 580 police officers is to investigate whether identity-related resources are positively related to adaptive behaviour during times of organizational change. Combining the social identity perspective with resources theories, we hypothesized that leader

  9. Facilitating participatory processes for policy change in natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    of policy instruments that can influence behaviour for the adoption of ... probability that research results will translate into policies that can be ... and ranging from 0 to 38, with the average size of individual ... also makes collective action on soil conservation and ...... Figure 4: The Five “INs” Model for policy change in NRM.

  10. Changing Behaviors by Changing the Classroom Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardino, Caroline A.; Fullerton, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This case study explores the possibility of affecting classroom behaviors by modifying the classroom environment. Although this type of research previously has been conducted in self-contained special education classrooms (Guardino, 2009), this is the first study to explore modifications in an inclusive classroom. The results of this study align…

  11. Terminal Strip Facilitates Printed-Circuit Board Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, E. A.; Mcosker, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    Laminanted copper and polyimide terminal strip makes it easy to modify printed-circuit (PC) board, after board has been fabricated. When epoxied over conductors or insulating portion of PC board, strip provides series of solder-coated copper conductor pads to which integrated-circuit leads are soldered for functional changes. Terminal strips accommodate leads on dual inline IC package or as staggered single or multiple leads on planar mounted flatpacks.

  12. Early auditory change detection implicitly facilitated by ignored concurrent visual change during a Braille reading task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Atsushi; Haruyama, Tomohiro; Kuriki, Shinya

    2013-09-01

    Unconscious monitoring of multimodal stimulus changes enables humans to effectively sense the external environment. Such automatic change detection is thought to be reflected in auditory and visual mismatch negativity (MMN) and mismatch negativity fields (MMFs). These are event-related potentials and magnetic fields, respectively, evoked by deviant stimuli within a sequence of standard stimuli, and both are typically studied during irrelevant visual tasks that cause the stimuli to be ignored. Due to the sensitivity of MMN/MMF to potential effects of explicit attention to vision, however, it is unclear whether multisensory co-occurring changes can purely facilitate early sensory change detection reciprocally across modalities. We adopted a tactile task involving the reading of Braille patterns as a neutral ignore condition, while measuring magnetoencephalographic responses to concurrent audiovisual stimuli that were infrequently deviated either in auditory, visual, or audiovisual dimensions; 1000-Hz standard tones were switched to 1050-Hz deviant tones and/or two-by-two standard check patterns displayed on both sides of visual fields were switched to deviant reversed patterns. The check patterns were set to be faint enough so that the reversals could be easily ignored even during Braille reading. While visual MMFs were virtually undetectable even for visual and audiovisual deviants, significant auditory MMFs were observed for auditory and audiovisual deviants, originating from bilateral supratemporal auditory areas. Notably, auditory MMFs were significantly enhanced for audiovisual deviants from about 100 ms post-stimulus, as compared with the summation responses for auditory and visual deviants or for each of the unisensory deviants recorded in separate sessions. Evidenced by high tactile task performance with unawareness of visual changes, we conclude that Braille reading can successfully suppress explicit attention and that simultaneous multisensory changes can

  13. Promoting Behavioral Change in Psychoanalytic Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Fredric N

    2017-01-01

    One of the shibboleths of psychoanalysis is that treatment should not target behavioral change, focusing instead on gaining insight and the therapeutic relationship (Freud, 1917; 1923; Gabbard, 2014; Greenson, 1967). Such an approach is believed to be accompanied by disruptions of exploration or problematic distortions of the transference (Freud, 1917; 1923; Gabbard, 2014; Greenson, 1967). However, ignoring behavioral change can put patients at increased risk for stalemates in treatment and persistent problematic behaviors that interfere with improvement and impair relationships. This article suggests that rather than being at odds or disruptive, efforts at behavioral change can be part of the development and employment of a psychodynamic formulation, and can be used to enhance self-understanding and exploration of the transference. Psychoanalytic approaches provide strategies for behavioral change not included in other psychotherapeutic treatments. This article describes a variety of ways in which efforts at behavioral change can be integrated with and enhanced by psychodynamic exploration.

  14. A Mechanism Facilitates Pollination due to Stigma Behavior in Campsis radicans (Bignoniaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGShu-Xiang; YANGChun-Feng; ZHANGTao; WANGQing-Feng

    2004-01-01

    The precise factors affecting stigma behavior in Campsis radicans (L.) Seem. ex Bureau. remain unclear up to now. In this study mechanical touch, self- and cross-pollination, and pollination with variable amounts of pollen grains separately contacting with stigmas have been conducted to determine the exact factor affecting the stigma behavior. Results show that mechanical touch alone cannot make the stigmas close permanently. It is the adequate pollen (>350) deposition that causes the stigma permanent closure, which is in accordance with previous reports that sufficient pollen grains are necessary for fruit development. In addition, the stigma behavior does not display differences when pollinated with cross- or self-pollen separately; both self and cross pollen grains can germinate and grow successfully. Our results cannot demonstrate that the stigma behavior in C. radicans is an outcrossing mechanism, but strongly indicate it acts as a mechanism to facilitate pollination, and then enhance the reproductive success.

  15. Spreading the Eco-Message: Using Proactive Coping to Aid Eco-Rep Behavior Change Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Zawadzki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Making pro-environmental behavior changes can be difficult, particularly when these changes challenge daily routines and comfortable lifestyles. We designed and implemented an eco-representative intervention program to help students reduce their energy use by proactively coping with barriers to pro-environmental behavior change, and then communicate effective behavior change strategies to student peers. Twenty-nine first-year college students participated in a four-week proactive coping training to change five environmentally impactful behaviors and then spread behavior change messages to fellow residents during a two-week energy challenge. Eco-reps successfully changed their own behaviors in a pro-environmental direction by generating important barriers and successful facilitators for behavior change, and eco-rep residence halls were more likely to reduce energy and maintain reductions compared to non-eco-rep halls. Implications for future environmental behavior change interventions are discussed.

  16. PS-109 Barriers and facilitators to implementing drug changes caused by drug tenders and shortages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishøj, Rikke Mie; Christrup, Lona Louring; Clemmensen, Marianne H

    2015-01-01

    Background Drug tenders and shortages result in drug changes. International studies found that drug changes can adversely affect patient safety and the working procedures of healthcare professionals.1,2 The challenges of drug changes in Danish public hospitals have not previously been studied...... for drug identification during drug shortages were proposed. Conclusion This study identified different barriers and facilitators for implementing drug changes. The barriers and facilitators included specific features related to drugs, health care technology as well as to financial and organisational...... aspects. Future studies should focus on removal of barriers and development and implementation of appropriate facilitators which may indeed improve patient safety and the working procedures of healthcare professionals during drug changes....

  17. Chronic inhibition of dopamine β-hydroxylase facilitates behavioral responses to cocaine in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriem Gaval-Cruz

    Full Text Available The anti-alcoholism medication, disulfiram (Antabuse, decreases cocaine use in humans regardless of concurrent alcohol consumption and facilitates cocaine sensitization in rats, but the functional targets are unknown. Disulfiram inhibits dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH, the enzyme that converts dopamine (DA to norepinephrine (NE in noradrenergic neurons. The goal of this study was to test the effects of chronic genetic or pharmacological DBH inhibition on behavioral responses to cocaine using DBH knockout (Dbh -/- mice, disulfiram, and the selective DBH inhibitor, nepicastat. Locomotor activity was measured in control (Dbh +/- and Dbh -/- mice during a 5 day regimen of saline+saline, disulfiram+saline, nepicastat+saline, saline+cocaine, disulfiram+cocaine, or nepicastat+cocaine. After a 10 day withdrawal period, all groups were administered cocaine, and locomotor activity and stereotypy were measured. Drug-naïve Dbh -/- mice were hypersensitive to cocaine-induced locomotion and resembled cocaine-sensitized Dbh +/- mice. Chronic disulfiram administration facilitated cocaine-induced locomotion in some mice and induced stereotypy in others during the development of sensitization, while cocaine-induced stereotypy was evident in all nepicastat-treated mice. Cocaine-induced stereotypy was profoundly increased in the disulfiram+cocaine, nepicastat+cocaine, and nepicastat+saline groups upon cocaine challenge after withdrawal in Dbh +/- mice. Disulfiram or nepicastat treatment had no effect on behavioral responses to cocaine in Dbh -/- mice. These results demonstrate that chronic DBH inhibition facilitates behavioral responses to cocaine, although different methods of inhibition (genetic vs. non-selective inhibitor vs. selective inhibitor enhance qualitatively different cocaine-induced behaviors.

  18. Family-Based Behavioral Treatment for Childhood Obesity: Caretaker-Reported Barriers and Facilitators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Marker, Arwen M.; Comeaux, James; Frelier, Johannah M.; Hsia, Daniel S.; Broyles, Stephanie T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Family-based behavioral treatments are effective ways to promote children's weight management through healthy eating and exercise. However, programs typically have high attrition and low attendance. The aim of this study was to obtain in-depth caregiver input on barriers and facilitators to participate in a family-based, behavioral childhood obesity treatment program. Methods: Three focus groups were facilitated among 21 parents/guardians at 2 school-based health centers and 1 federally qualified health center. Audio recordings were transcribed and uploaded into NVivo software to assist in thematic coding. Results: Focus group participants were females aged 18-57 years, of whom 71% were black, and 81% were not married. Participants listed numerous barriers: lack of time, frustration from prior unsuccessful weight-loss attempts, and the perceived cost of healthy foods and exercise options. Facilitators included a convenient location, a supportive weight-loss program leader, and rewards for the child's progress. Conclusion: Future interventions should incorporate caregivers' perspectives to develop sustainable, feasible strategies for the treatment of childhood obesity. PMID:28331454

  19. Collaborative self-management and behavioral change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kathryn; Bourbeau, Jean; MacDonald, Roderick; Wilt, Timothy J

    2014-06-01

    Behavioral change is critical for improving health outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. An educational approach alone is insufficient; changes in behavior, especially the acquisition of self-care skills, are also required. There is mounting evidence that embedding collaborative self-management (CSM) within existing health care systems provides an effective model to meet these needs. CSM should be integrated with pulmonary rehabilitation programs, one of the main goals of which is to induce long-term changes in behavior. More research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of assimilating CSM into primary care, patient-centered medical homes, and palliative care teams. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Clinical nurse educators' perceptions of research utilization: barriers and facilitators to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Rosemary J; O'Leary-Kelley, Colleen

    2009-01-01

    Translation of research to practice remains a challenge. The educator, as a role model and change agent, is strategically placed to facilitate staff development and organizational change, thereby helping to close the gap from research to practice. Understanding barriers to research utilization may facilitate the application of evidence-based practice. [corrected] In this study, the BARRIERS scale was used to assess perceptions of research utilization in a convenience sample of 122 clinical nurse educators in California. Greatest barriers were organizational and nurse characteristics, including lack of authority to change, insufficient time, and limited research knowledge and awareness. Educators from Magnet hospitals and educators with advanced degrees perceived the organization as less of a barrier. Strategies to facilitate and implement change are discussed.

  1. A Qualitative Study Exploring Facilitators for Improved Health Behaviors and Health Behavior Programs: Mental Health Service Users’ Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candida Graham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Mental health service users experience high rates of cardiometabolic disorders and have a 20–25% shorter life expectancy than the general population from such disorders. Clinician-led health behavior programs have shown moderate improvements, for mental health service users, in managing aspects of cardiometabolic disorders. This study sought to potentially enhance health initiatives by exploring (1 facilitators that help mental health service users engage in better health behaviors and (2 the types of health programs mental health service users want to develop. Methods. A qualitative study utilizing focus groups was conducted with 37 mental health service users attending a psychosocial rehabilitation center, in Northern British Columbia, Canada. Results. Four major facilitator themes were identified: (1 factors of empowerment, self-value, and personal growth; (2 the need for social support; (3 pragmatic aspects of motivation and planning; and (4 access. Participants believed that engaging with programs of physical activity, nutrition, creativity, and illness support would motivate them to live more healthily. Conclusions and Implications for Practice. Being able to contribute to health behavior programs, feeling valued and able to experience personal growth are vital factors to engage mental health service users in health programs. Clinicians and health care policy makers need to account for these considerations to improve success of health improvement initiatives for this population.

  2. Curriculum Change in Universities: Conditions that Facilitate Education for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Harpe, Barbara; Thomas, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Many universities have begun to introduce curriculum innovation and change to facilitate the curricular integration of generic skills underlying education for sustainable development (ESD). However, the literature and research in the area to date show few successful examples of comprehensive large-scale curriculum change. From the literature on…

  3. Uses of self-regulation to facilitate and restrain addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Roy F; Vonasch, Andrew J

    2015-05-01

    We apply self-regulation theory to understand addictive behavior. Self-regulation and volition depend on a limited resource, and when that resource has been depleted, self-regulation becomes prone to fail. Moving beyond traditional models that have emphasized the relevance of self-regulation to quitting addiction, we propose that self-regulation is used both to facilitate and resist addictive behaviors. Self-regulation is often needed to overcome initial aversion to drugs and alcohol, as well as to maintain addictive usage patterns despite situational obstacles (e.g., illegality, erratic availability, family disapproval). Sustaining addiction also requires preventing use from spiraling out of control and interfering with other aspects of life. More generally, the automaticity and irresistibility of addictive responses may have been overrated, as indicated by how addictive behaviors respond rationally to incentives and other concerns. Self-regulation does facilitate quitting, and relapse may be especially likely when self-regulatory capabilities are depleted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Endogenous opiates mediate radiogenic behavioral change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickley, G.A.; Stevens, K.E.; White, G.A.; Gibbs, G.L.

    1983-07-10

    Exposure of C57BL/6J mice to ionizing radiation caused stereotypical locomotor hyperactivity similar to that produced by morphine. Naloxone administration prevented this radiation-induced behavioral activation. These results support the hypothesis that endorphins are involved in some aspects of radiogenic behavioral change.

  5. Changing Food Related Behavior Through Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermanssdottir, Sunna; Fisker, Anna Marie; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    The aim of the workshop is to explore how designers can work actively and deliberately with changing food related behavior through socially responsible design. There will be focus on the holistic aspect of behavioral food design with active involving of the users experience. The workshop is based...

  6. Can language acquisition be facilitated in cochlear implanted children? Comparison of cognitive and behavioral psychologists' viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshizadeh, Leila; Vameghi, Roshanak; Yadegari, Fariba; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Hashemi, Seyed Basir

    2016-11-08

    To study how language acquisition can be facilitated for cochlear implanted children based on cognitive and behavioral psychology viewpoints? To accomplish this objective, literature related to behaviorist and cognitive psychology prospects about language acquisition were studied and some relevant books as well as Medline, Cochrane Library, Google scholar, ISI web of knowledge and Scopus databases were searched. Among 25 articles that were selected, only 11 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. Based on the inclusion criteria, review articles, expert opinion studies, non-experimental and experimental studies that clearly focused on behavioral and cognitive factors affecting language acquisition in children were selected. Finally, the selected articles were appraised according to guidelines of appraisal of medical studies. Due to the importance of the cochlear implanted child's language performance, the comparison of behaviorist and cognitive psychology points of view in child language acquisition was done. Since each theoretical basis, has its own positive effects on language, and since the two are not in opposition to one another, it can be said that a set of behavioral and cognitive factors might facilitate the process of language acquisition in children. Behavioral psychologists believe that repetition, as well as immediate reinforcement of child's language behavior help him easily acquire the language during a language intervention program, while cognitive psychologists emphasize on the relationship between information processing, memory improvement through repetitively using words along with "associated" pictures and objects, motor development and language acquisition. It is recommended to use a combined approach based on both theoretical frameworks while planning a language intervention program.

  7. Can language acquisition be facilitated in cochlear implanted children? Comparison of cognitive and behavioral psychologists’ viewpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshizadeh, Leila; Vameghi, Roshanak; Yadegari, Fariba; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Hashemi, Seyed Basir

    2016-01-01

    AIM To study how language acquisition can be facilitated for cochlear implanted children based on cognitive and behavioral psychology viewpoints? METHODS To accomplish this objective, literature related to behaviorist and cognitive psychology prospects about language acquisition were studied and some relevant books as well as Medline, Cochrane Library, Google scholar, ISI web of knowledge and Scopus databases were searched. Among 25 articles that were selected, only 11 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. Based on the inclusion criteria, review articles, expert opinion studies, non-experimental and experimental studies that clearly focused on behavioral and cognitive factors affecting language acquisition in children were selected. Finally, the selected articles were appraised according to guidelines of appraisal of medical studies. RESULTS Due to the importance of the cochlear implanted child’s language performance, the comparison of behaviorist and cognitive psychology points of view in child language acquisition was done. Since each theoretical basis, has its own positive effects on language, and since the two are not in opposition to one another, it can be said that a set of behavioral and cognitive factors might facilitate the process of language acquisition in children. Behavioral psychologists believe that repetition, as well as immediate reinforcement of child’s language behavior help him easily acquire the language during a language intervention program, while cognitive psychologists emphasize on the relationship between information processing, memory improvement through repetitively using words along with “associated” pictures and objects, motor development and language acquisition. CONCLUSION It is recommended to use a combined approach based on both theoretical frameworks while planning a language intervention program. PMID:27872829

  8. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  9. Attitude toward the out-patient cardiac rehabilitation program and facilitators for maintenance of exercise behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Eliza M L; Zhong, Xue Bing; Sit, Janet W H; Chair, Sek Ying; Leung, Doris Y P; Leung, Carmen; Leung, K C

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the attitudes of Chinese patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) toward the outpatient cardiac rehabilitation program (OCRP), as well as their exercise behavior, intention, maintenance and related factors. A qualitative descriptive study design was used, and 22 CHD patients were recruited in Hong Kong in 2014. In-depth interviews and content analyses were conducted. The tripartite model of attitudes was adopted as research framework. Two themes were identified: (1) informant attitude (perception, affection, and practice) toward the OCRP and (2) Exercise Behavior - intention, maintenance and its related factors. Most informants showed positive perception and affection regarding the outpatient rehabilitation program, leading to regular practice of exercise in the program and at home. Peer, group dynamic, social support and Chinese culture influences on exercise behavior may serve as major facilitators to maintain exercise behavior. Positive attitude toward the OCRP enhanced the participation rate, whereas peer and social support from the family and workplace were useful to improve the maintenance of exercise behavior. Overall, this study provides insights into strategic planning for the OCRP and continual support for CHD patients in the community.

  10. Perceived Behavioral Changes in Early Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Souza Lima

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired behavioral changes have essentially been described in advanced multiple sclerosis (MS. The present study was designed to determine whether behavioral modifications specifically related to the MS pathological process could be identified in the initial phase of the disease, as compared to control patients with chronic, relapsing and progressive inflammatory disorders not involving the central nervous system (CNS. Eighty-eight early MS patients (Expanded Disability Status Scale score ≤ 2.5 and 48 controls were tested. Perceived changes by informants in behavioral control, goal-directed behavior, decision making, emotional expression, insight and interpersonal relationships were assessed using the Iowa Scale of Personality Change (ISPC. Executive behavioral disturbances were screened using the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX. The mean change between the premorbid and postmorbid ISPC ratings was similar in the MS [12.2 (SD 15.6] and in the control [11.5 (SD 15.1] group. The perceived behavioral changes (PBCs most frequently reported in both groups were lack of stamina, lability/moodiness, anxiety, vulnerability to stress and irritability. Pathological scores in the DEX were also similar in both groups. Correlations between PBCs and DEX scores were different in MS and control groups. MS patients with cognitive impairment had a marginally higher number of PBCs than control patients (p = 0.056 and a significantly higher DEXp score (p = 0.04. These results suggest that (1 PBCs occurring in early MS patients were not different from those induced by comparable chronic non-CNS disorders, (2 qualitative differences in the relationship between behavioral symptoms and executive-behavioral changes may exist between MS and control groups, and (3 behavioral symptoms seem associated with cognitive deficits in MS. We further plan to assess these observations longitudinally.

  11. Consumer behavior changing: methods of evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elīna Gaile-Sarkane

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to methods of analyses of consumer buying behavior as well as to evaluation of most important factors what influences consumer behavior. This research aims at investigations about the changes in consumer behavior caused by globalization and development of information technologies; it helps to understand the specific factors what should be taken into account in evaluation of consumer behavior. The authors employ well-established quantitative and qualitative methods of research: grouping, analysis, synthesis, expert method, statistic method, etc. Research findings disclosed that there is possibility to introduce new methods for evaluation of changing consumer behavior.

  12. Is work keeping us from acting healthy? How workplace barriers and facilitators impact nutrition and exercise behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Joseph J; Moore, J Taylor; Alexander, Katherine

    2016-11-27

    The purpose of this study was to identify common barriers and facilitators to healthy nutrition and exercise behaviors in the workplace and examine their relationships to those actual daily health behaviors. We utilized a concurrent embedded mixed methods approach to collect data from 93 participants over the span of four days. Participants reported 2.80 nutrition and 3.28 exercise barriers on average over the 4 days, while reporting 2.93 nutrition and 1.98 exercise facilitators in the same timeframe. Results indicated that workload and temptations around the office prevented nutritious eating; exercise behaviors were frequently hindered by workload. The most commonly mentioned eating facilitator was proper planning, while having time to exercise facilitated physical activity. Furthermore, the number of barriers reported negatively related to their respective health behaviors (i.e., more nutrition barriers translated to poorer nutrition habits) and facilitators were positively related to them, both overall and more so on the specific day they were reported. The implications of these finding show the importance of barriers/facilitators in the workplace and aid in the creation of more targeted health promotion that could increase positive employee health behaviors by eliminating common barriers and enhancing facilitators.

  13. Pubertal pair-housing facilitates adult sexual behavior in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenda-Figueira, Heather A; Bell, Margaret R; De Lorme, Kayla C; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of pubertal testosterone (T) and social housing manipulations on male sexual behavior in adult rats. Prepubertal rats were castrated at 21 days of age (P21) and implanted with either blank or T-releasing pellets. At the onset of puberty, P28, half the rats in each treatment group were either single- or pair-housed with a male of the same hormone condition through P56, at which time pellets were removed and all rats were single-housed. In adulthood (P84), all rats received T replacement and were tested for sexual behavior. Rats pair-housed during adolescence showed more sexual behavior and greater improvement of sexual performance over repeated tests than single-housed rats, regardless of pubertal T status. Pubertal T, however, did facilitate the frequency of anogenital investigation. Thus, in male rats, social interactions during adolescence are more important than exposure to pubertal T in enhancing adult sexual behavior. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Improving care for people after stroke: how change was actively facilitated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, David; Rothwell, Katy; Tyrrell, Pippa; Boaden, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to report on the approach to change used in the development of a tool to assess patient status six months after stroke (the Greater Manchester Stroke Assessment Tool: GM-SAT). The overall approach to change is based on the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARiHS) Framework, which involves extensive stakeholder engagement before implementation. A key feature was the use of a facilitator without previous clinical experience. The active process of change involved a range of stakeholders--commissioners, patients and professionals--as well as review of published research evidence. The result of this process was the creation of the GM-SAT. The details of the decision processes within the tool included a range of perspectives; the process of localisation led commissioners to identify gaps in care provision as well as learning from others in terms of how services might be provided and organised. The facilitator role was key at all stages in bringing together the wide range of perspectives; the relatively neutral perceived status of the facilitator enabled resistance to change to be minimised. The output of this project, the GM-SAT, has the potential to significantly improve patients' physical, psychological and social outcomes and optimise their quality of life. This will be explored further in future phases of work. A structured process of change which included multiple stakeholder involvement throughout, localisation of approaches and a dedicated independent facilitator role was effective in achieving the development of a useful tool (GM-SAT).

  15. Facilitation among plants in alpine environments in the face of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien eAnthelme

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available While there is a large consensus that plant–plant interactions are a crucial component of the response of plant communities to the effects of climate change, available data remain scarce, particularly in alpine systems. This represents an important obstacle to making consistent predictions about the future of plant communities. Here, we review current knowledge on the effects of climate change on facilitation among alpine plant communities and propose directions for future research. In established alpine communities, while warming seemingly generates a net facilitation release, earlier snowmelt may increase facilitation. Some nurse plants are able to buffer microenvironmental changes in the long term and may ensure the persistence of other alpine plants through local migration events. For communities migrating to higher elevations, facilitation should play an important role in their reorganization because of the harsher environmental conditions. In particular, the absence of efficient nurse plants might slow down upward migration, possibly generating chains of extinction. Facilitation–climate change relationships are expected to shift along latitudinal gradients because (1 the magnitude of warming is predicted to vary along these gradients, and (2 alpine environments are significantly different at low vs. high latitudes. Data on these expected patterns are preliminary and thus need to be tested with further studies on facilitation among plants in alpine environments that have thus far not been considered. From a methodological standpoint, future studies will benefit from the spatial representation of the microclimatic environment of plants to predict their response to climate change. Moreover, the acquisition of long-term data on the dynamics of plant–plant interactions, either through permanent plots or chronosequences of glacial recession, may represent powerful approaches to clarify the relationship between plant interactions and

  16. Managing Postsocialist Transitions: Politicized Sense Making as a Facilitator of Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiplic, Dijana

    2011-01-01

    This study explores what organizational strategies are employed to initiate and facilitate organizational change in higher education institutions in the increasingly complex and competitive postsocialist environment of Bosnia-Herzegovina. By studying organizations trapped between their inert socialist-era legacies and desired organizational…

  17. 31 CFR 560.417 - Facilitation; change of policies and procedures; referral of business opportunities offshore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Facilitation; change of policies and procedures; referral of business opportunities offshore. 560.417 Section 560.417 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. Facilitating Learning in the Workplace. EEE700 Adults Learning: The Changing Workplace A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Karen

    This publication is part of the study materials for the distance education course, Adults Learning: The Changing Workplace A, in the Open Campus Program at Deakin University. The first part of the document examines the roles, skills, and methods used by facilitators of workplace learning in light of a social action view of learning. The following…

  19. Managing Postsocialist Transitions: Politicized Sense Making as a Facilitator of Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiplic, Dijana

    2011-01-01

    This study explores what organizational strategies are employed to initiate and facilitate organizational change in higher education institutions in the increasingly complex and competitive postsocialist environment of Bosnia-Herzegovina. By studying organizations trapped between their inert socialist-era legacies and desired organizational…

  20. The Information Architecture of Behavior Change Websites

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The extraordinary growth in Internet use offers researchers important new opportunities to identify and test new ways to deliver effective behavior change programs. The information architecture (IA)—the structure of website information—is an important but often overlooked factor to consider when adapting behavioral strategies developed in office-based settings for Web delivery. Using examples and relevant perspectives from multiple disciplines, we describe a continuum of website IA designs ra...

  1. A Culture-Change Approach to School Discipline: Reaction Paper to "School Organization and Student Behavior".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkey, Stewart C.

    Organizational changes, within the existing structure of public schooling, have the potential to decrease the oppositional behavior of students and to foster humane, positive learning and working enviroments. It has been documented that managers can create organizational structures that promote positive behaviors and facilitate people's…

  2. Social facilitation of exploratory foraging behavior in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindo, Marietta; Whiten, Andrew; de Waal, Frans B M

    2009-05-01

    Much of the research on animal social learning focuses on complex cognitive functions such as imitation and emulation. When compelling evidence for such processes is not forthcoming, simpler processes are often assumed but rarely directly tested for. In this study we address the phenomenon of social facilitation, whereby the presence of a feeding conspecific is hypothesized to affect the motivation and behavior of the subject, elevating the likelihood of exploration and discovery in relation to the task at hand. Using a novel foraging task, sufficiently challenging that only just over half the subjects successfully gained food from it, we compared the performance of capuchin monkeys working either alone, or in a "social" condition where an actively feeding conspecific was in an adjacent chamber. Although similar numbers of subjects in these conditions were eventually successful during the 20 trials presented, the latency to successful solution of the task was over three times faster for monkeys in the social condition. The minority of monkeys that failed to learn (9/23) were then exposed to a proficient model. Only those older than 5 years provided evidence of learning from this. Accordingly, we obtained evidence for the social facilitation the study was designed to test for, and limited supplementary evidence for social learning in the older individuals who had not learned individually. These results are discussed in relation to other recent evidence for social learning in monkeys. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Behavioral changes in mice following benzene inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, H L; Dempster, A M; Snyder, C A

    1981-01-01

    Although benzene is an important occupational health hazard and a carcinogen, the possibility that behavioral changes may forewarn of the later-occurring hematological changes has not been investigated. A time-sampling protocol was used to quantify the occurrence of 7 categories of behavior in the homecage following daily 6-hr exposures to two strains of adult mice (CD1 and C57BL/6J). The behavioral categories were stereotypic behavior, sleeping, resting, eating, grooming, locomotion, and fighting. The inhalation exposures were designed to reflect occupational exposure. Dynamic vapor exposure techniques in standard inhalation chambers were employed. Exposure to 300 or 900 ppm benzene increased the occurrence of eating and grooming and reduced the number of mice that were sleeping or resting. The responses to benzene of both the CD1 and the C57 strains were similar. The positive findings with benzene inhalation indicate the utility of behavioral investigations into the toxicology of inhaled organic solvents. The methods described herein illustrate an objective observation of animal behavior that is capable of documenting toxicity and of guiding detailed follow-up studies aimed at mechanism of action.

  4. Instructional design strategies for health behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzie, Mable B

    2005-01-01

    To help health educators build upon the best of different health behavior change theories, this paper offers a unified set of instructional design strategies for health education interventions. This set draws upon the recommendations of Rosenstock (Health Belief Model), Bandura (Social Cognitive Theory), and Dearing (Diffusion Theory), and uses a modified Events of Instruction framework (adapted from Robert Gagne): gain attention (convey health threats and benefits), present stimulus material (tailor message to audience knowledge and values, demonstrate observable effectiveness, make behaviors easy-to-understand and do), provide guidance (use trustworthy models to demonstrate), elicit performance and provide feedback (to enhance trialability, develop proficiency and self-efficacy), enhance retention and transfer (provide social supports and deliver behavioral cues). Sample applications of these strategies are provided. A brief review of research on adolescent smoking prevention enables consideration of the frequency with which these strategies are used, and possible patterns between strategy use and behavioral outcomes.

  5. Changing health behaviors with social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Almazor, M E

    2011-08-01

    Social marketing uses marketing techniques to promote healthy attitudes and behaviors. As in traditional marketing, the development and implementation of social marketing programs is based on the four P's: product, price, place, and promotion, but it also incorporates the partnership and participation of stakeholders to enhance public health and engage policy makers. The "product" in social marketing is generally a behavior, such as a change in lifestyle (e.g., diet) or an increase in a desired health practice (e.g., screening). In order for people to desire this product, it must offer a solution to a problem that is weighed with respect to the price to pay. The price is not just monetary, and it often involves giving something up, such as time (e.g., exercising) or a wanted, satisfying behavior (e.g., smoking). In its development phase, social marketing incorporates qualitative methods to create messages that are powerful and potentially effective. The implementation of the programs commonly involves mass campaigns with advertisement in various media. There have been a few social media campaigns targeting bone health that have been disseminated with substantial outreach. However, these have not been systematically evaluated, specifically with respect to change in behavior and health outcomes. Future campaigns should identify target behaviors that are amenable to change such as bone mass measurement screening or exercise. Audience segmentation will be crucial, since a message for young women to increase peak bone mass would be very different from a message for older individuals who have just experienced a fracture. Campaigns should involve key stakeholders, including policy makers, health providers, and the public. Finally, success must be carefully evaluated, not just by the outreach of the campaign, but also by a change in relevant behaviors and a decrease in deleterious health outcomes.

  6. Action-potential duration and the modulation of transmitter release from the sensory neurons of Aplysia in presynaptic facilitation and behavioral sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochner, B; Klein, M; Schacher, S; Kandel, E R

    1986-11-01

    Presynaptic facilitation of transmitter release from Aplysia sensory neurons is an important contributor to behavioral sensitization of the gill and siphon withdrawal reflex. The enhanced release is accompanied by reduction of the serotonin-sensitive S current in the sensory neurons and a consequent increase in duration of the presynaptic action potential (ranging from 10% to 30%). We find that changes of similar magnitude in the duration of depolarizing voltage-clamp steps in sensory neurons in intact abdominal ganglia yield increases in synaptic potentials of 45-120%. In dissociated cell culture, these changes lead to increases of 25-60% in the synaptic potential. Prolongation of presynaptic depolarization using voltage clamp or prolongation of the duration of the action potential by K(+)-channel blockers leads to prolongation of the time-to-peak of the synaptic potentials; similar changes in time-to-peak occur during presynaptic facilitation. The time-to-peak is not changed by homosynaptic depression or by changing the Ca(2+) concentration, procedures that alter release without changing the duration of the action potential. Preventing the spike from broadening by voltage clamping the presynaptic neuron substantially reduces or blocks the facilitation. These results suggest that broadening of the action potential during facilitation is a causal factor in the enhancement of transmitter release.

  7. Chronic consumption of trans fat can facilitate the development of hyperactive behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pase, C S; Roversi, Kr; Trevizol, F; Kuhn, F T; Dias, V T; Roversi, K; Vey, L T; Antoniazzi, C T; Barcelos, R C S; Bürger, M E

    2015-02-01

    In recent decades, the increased consumption of processed foods, which are rich in hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF), has led to a decreased consumption of fish and oilseed, rich in omega-3 fatty acids. This eating habit provides an increased intake of trans fatty acids (TFA), which may be related to neuropsychiatric conditions, including inattention and hyperactivity. In this study, we evaluated the potential connection between prolonged trans fat consumption and development of hyperactivity-like symptoms in rats using different behavioral paradigms. Trans fat intake for 10 months (Experiment 1), as well as during pregnancy and lactation across two sequential generations of rats, (Experiment 4) induced active coping in the forced swimming task (FST). In addition, HVF supplementation was associated with increased locomotion before and after amphetamine (AMPH) administration (Experiment 2). Similarly, HVF supplementation during pregnancy and lactation were associated with increased locomotion in both young and adult rats (Experiment 3). Furthermore, trans fat intake across two sequential generations increased locomotor and exploratory activities following stressors (Experiment 4). From these results, we suggest that chronic consumption of trans fat is able to enhance impulsiveness and reactivity to novelty, facilitating hyperactive behaviors.

  8. Neuroimaging mechanisms of change in psychotherapy for addictive behaviors: emerging translational approaches that bridge biology and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Chung, Tammy

    2013-06-01

    Research on mechanisms of behavior change provides an innovative method to improve treatment for addictive behaviors. An important extension of mechanisms of change research involves the use of translational approaches, which examine how basic biological (i.e., brain-based mechanisms) and behavioral factors interact in initiating and sustaining positive behavior change as a result of psychotherapy. Articles in this special issue include integrative conceptual reviews and innovative empirical research on brain-based mechanisms that may underlie risk for addictive behaviors and response to psychotherapy from adolescence through adulthood. Review articles discuss hypothesized mechanisms of change for cognitive and behavioral therapies, mindfulness-based interventions, and neuroeconomic approaches. Empirical articles cover a range of addictive behaviors, including use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, cocaine, and pathological gambling and represent a variety of imaging approaches including fMRI, magneto-encephalography, real-time fMRI, and diffusion tensor imaging. Additionally, a few empirical studies directly examine brain-based mechanisms of change, whereas others examine brain-based indicators as predictors of treatment outcome. Finally, two commentaries discuss craving as a core feature of addiction, and the importance of a developmental approach to examining mechanisms of change. Ultimately, translational research on mechanisms of behavior change holds promise for increasing understanding of how psychotherapy may modify brain structure and functioning and facilitate the initiation and maintenance of positive treatment outcomes for addictive behaviors. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  9. Facilitating climate-change-induced range shifts across continental land-use barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Cassandra M; Coristine, Laura E; Soares, Rosana N; Kerr, Jeremy T

    2015-12-01

    Climate changes impose requirements for many species to shift their ranges to remain within environmentally tolerable areas, but near-continuous regions of intense human land use stretching across continental extents diminish dispersal prospects for many species. We reviewed the impact of habitat loss and fragmentation on species' abilities to track changing climates and existing plans to facilitate species dispersal in response to climate change through regions of intensive land uses, drawing on examples from North America and elsewhere. We identified an emerging analytical framework that accounts for variation in species' dispersal capacities relative to both the pace of climate change and habitat availability. Habitat loss and fragmentation hinder climate change tracking, particularly for specialists, by impeding both propagule dispersal and population growth. This framework can be used to identify prospective modern-era climatic refugia, where the pace of climate change has been slower than surrounding areas, that are defined relative to individual species' needs. The framework also underscores the importance of identifying and managing dispersal pathways or corridors through semi-continental land use barriers that can benefit many species simultaneously. These emerging strategies to facilitate range shifts must account for uncertainties around population adaptation to local environmental conditions. Accounting for uncertainties in climate change and dispersal capabilities among species and expanding biological monitoring programs within an adaptive management paradigm are vital strategies that will improve species' capacities to track rapidly shifting climatic conditions across landscapes dominated by intensive human land use.

  10. Behavioral changes in fish exposed to phytoestrogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clotfelter, Ethan D. [Department of Biology, Amherst College, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States)]. E-mail: edclotfelter@amherst.edu; Rodriguez, Alison C. [Department of Biology, Amherst College, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    We investigated the behavioral effects of exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens in male fighting fish, Betta splendens. Adult fish were exposed to a range of concentrations of genistein, equol, {beta}-sitosterol, and the positive control 17{beta}-estradiol. The following behaviors were measured: spontaneous swimming activity, latency to respond to a perceived intruder (mirror reflection), intensity of aggressive response toward a perceived intruder, probability of constructing a nest in the presence of a female, and the size of the nest constructed. We found few changes in spontaneous swimming activity, the latency to respond to the mirror, and nest size, and modest changes in the probability of constructing a nest. There were significant decreases, however, in the intensity of aggressive behavior toward the mirror following exposure to several concentrations, including environmentally relevant ones, of 17{beta}-estradiol, genistein, and equol. This suggests that phytoestrogen contamination has the potential to significantly affect the behavior of free-living fishes. - Environmentally relevant concentrations of phytoestrogens reduce aggressive behavior in fish.

  11. Action-potential duration and the modulation of transmitter release from the sensory neurons of Aplysia in presynaptic facilitation and behavioral sensitization

    OpenAIRE

    Hochner, Binyamin; Klein, Marc; Schacher, Samuel; Kandel, Eric R.

    1986-01-01

    Presynaptic facilitation of transmitter release from Aplysia sensory neurons is an important contributor to behavioral sensitization of the gill and siphon withdrawal reflex. The enhanced release is accompanied by reduction of the serotonin-sensitive S current in the sensory neurons and a consequent increase in duration of the presynaptic action potential (ranging from 10% to 30%). We find that changes of similar magnitude in the duration of depolarizing voltage-clamp steps in sensory neurons...

  12. Spatial vision in insects is facilitated by shaping the dynamics of visual input through behavioral action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egelhaaf, Martin; Boeddeker, Norbert; Kern, Roland; Kurtz, Rafael; Lindemann, Jens P

    2012-01-01

    Insects such as flies or bees, with their miniature brains, are able to control highly aerobatic flight maneuvres and to solve spatial vision tasks, such as avoiding collisions with obstacles, landing on objects, or even localizing a previously learnt inconspicuous goal on the basis of environmental cues. With regard to solving such spatial tasks, these insects still outperform man-made autonomous flying systems. To accomplish their extraordinary performance, flies and bees have been shown by their characteristic behavioral actions to actively shape the dynamics of the image flow on their eyes ("optic flow"). The neural processing of information about the spatial layout of the environment is greatly facilitated by segregating the rotational from the translational optic flow component through a saccadic flight and gaze strategy. This active vision strategy thus enables the nervous system to solve apparently complex spatial vision tasks in a particularly efficient and parsimonious way. The key idea of this review is that biological agents, such as flies or bees, acquire at least part of their strength as autonomous systems through active interactions with their environment and not by simply processing passively gained information about the world. These agent-environment interactions lead to adaptive behavior in surroundings of a wide range of complexity. Animals with even tiny brains, such as insects, are capable of performing extraordinarily well in their behavioral contexts by making optimal use of the closed action-perception loop. Model simulations and robotic implementations show that the smart biological mechanisms of motion computation and visually-guided flight control might be helpful to find technical solutions, for example, when designing micro air vehicles carrying a miniaturized, low-weight on-board processor.

  13. Nursing Care for Lifestyle Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Margaret; Bolton, Paula; Coakley, Catherine; Kopeski, Lynne; Slifka, Karen

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if metabolic risk factors can be stabilized or improved with weekly motivational interviewing/coaching and medical follow-up care focused on lifestyle behavioral change in individuals with serious mental illness. Individuals were followed for 18 weeks following discharge from an inpatient psychiatric service. All individuals were prescribed an antipsychotic medication and had at least two risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, LDLs, triglycerides, and blood glucose levels were evaluated during the study period. In addition, each individual selected a lifestyle behavior to improve over the 18-week period. Weekly motivational interviewing, and staggered health promotion appointments were designed to keep individuals focused on health and behavior change. While some individuals showed improvement, others showed deterioration in the physiological markers for metabolic syndrome. Only a small number completed the 18-week study. The nature of current psychiatric care is focused on rapid stabilization and discharge; individuals with serious mental illness may have difficulty focusing on lifestyle behavioral change while transitioning to independent living following an acute exacerbation of mental illness.

  14. Structures of Community and Democratic Practices in Graduate Teacher Education, Teacher Change, and Linkages Facilitating Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainer, Julie A.; Guyton, Edith M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined practices in a constructivist graduate teacher education program, documenting changes in teachers and their practice and analyzing connections between program practices and teacher change. Data from field notes, teacher and faculty interviews, classroom observations, faculty ratings of teachers, and artifacts helped develop a model for…

  15. Structures of Community and Democratic Practices in Graduate Teacher Education, Teacher Change, and Linkages Facilitating Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainer, Julie A.; Guyton, Edith M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined practices in a constructivist graduate teacher education program, documenting changes in teachers and their practice and analyzing connections between program practices and teacher change. Data from field notes, teacher and faculty interviews, classroom observations, faculty ratings of teachers, and artifacts helped develop a model for…

  16. Facilitation and Dominance in a Schooling Predator: Foraging Behavior of Florida Pompano, Trachinotus carolinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meagan N Schrandt

    Full Text Available Presumably an individual's risk of predation is reduced by group membership and this 'safety in numbers' concept has been readily applied to investigations of schooling prey; however, foraging in groups may also be beneficial. We tested the hypothesis that, when feeding in groups, foraging of a coastal fish (Florida Pompano, Trachinotus carolinus on a benthic prey source would be facilitated (i.e. fish feeding in groups will consume more prey items. Although this question has been addressed for other fish species, it has not been previously addressed for Florida Pompano, a fish known to exhibit schooling behavior and that is used for aquaculture, where understanding the feeding ecology is important for healthy and efficient grow-out. In this experiment, juvenile Florida Pompano were offered a fixed number of coquina clams (Donax spp. for one hour either in a group or as individuals. The following day they were tested in the opposite configuration. Fish in groups achieved greater consumption (average of 26 clams consumed by the entire group than the individuals comprising the group (average of 14 clams consumed [sum of clams consumed by all individuals of the group]. Fish in groups also had fewer unsuccessful foraging attempts (2.75 compared to 4.75 hr(-1 and tended to have a shorter latency until the first feeding activity. Our results suggest fish in groups were more comfortable feeding and more successful in their feeding attempts. Interestingly, the consumption benefit of group foraging was not shared by all--not all fish within a group consumed equal numbers of clams. Taken together, the results support our hypothesis that foraging in a group provides facilitation, but the short-term benefits are not equally shared by all individuals.

  17. Cross-generational trans fat intake facilitates mania-like behavior: oxidative and molecular markers in brain cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevizol, F; Roversi, Kr; Dias, V T; Roversi, K; Barcelos, R C S; Kuhn, F T; Pase, C S; Golombieski, R; Veit, J C; Piccolo, J; Pochmann, D; Porciúncula, L O; Emanuelli, T; Rocha, J B T; Bürger, M E

    2015-02-12

    Since that fast food consumption have raised concerns about people's health, we evaluated the influence of trans fat consumption on behavioral, biochemical and molecular changes in the brain-cortex of second generation rats exposed to a model of mania. Two successive generations of female rats were supplemented with soybean oil (SO, rich in n-6 FA, control group), fish oil (FO, rich in n-3 FA) and hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF, rich in trans FA) from pregnancy, lactation to adulthood, when male rats from 2nd generation received amphetamine (AMPH-4 mg/kg-i.p., once a day, for 14 days) treatment. AMPH increased locomotor index in all animals, which was higher in the HVF group. While the FO group showed increased n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) incorporation and reduced n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio, HVF allowed trans fatty acid (TFA) incorporation and increased n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in the brain-cortex. In fact, the FO group showed minor AMPH-induced hyperactivity, decreased reactive species (RS) generation per se, causing no changes in protein carbonyl (PC) levels and dopamine transporter (DAT). FO supplementation showed molecular changes, since proBDNF was increased per se and reduced by AMPH, decreasing the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level following drug treatment. Conversely, HVF was related to increased hyperactivity, higher PC level per se and higher AMPH-induced PC level, reflecting on DAT, whose levels were decreased per se as well as in AMPH-treated groups. In addition, while HVF increased BDNF-mRNA per se, AMPH reduced this value, acting on BDNF, whose level was lower in the same AMPH-treated experimental group. ProBDNF level was influenced by HVF supplementation, but it was not sufficient to modify BDNF level. These findings reinforce that prolonged consumption of trans fat allows TFA incorporation in the cortex, facilitating hyperactive behavior, oxidative damages and molecular changes. Our study is a warning about cross-generational consumption

  18. Facilitation promotes changes in leaf economics traits of a perennial forb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cervigón, Ana I; Linares, Juan Carlos; Aibar, Pablo; Olano, José M

    2015-09-01

    Optimal allocation of resources is crucial to maximize plant success. Plants modify their economic strategies by adjusting functional traits in response to shifts in environmental conditions. Facilitation has been recognized as a major biotic filter of trait distribution in communities, although the effect of facilitation on intraspecific variability has been scarcely explored. We evaluated intraspecific shifts in leaf functional traits of a perennial forb (Helleborus foetidus) in relation to the presence of a nurse plant (Juniperus sabina) in two sites with contrasting abiotic stress levels. The effects of abiotic (site) and biotic (juniper presence, microsite) environments on specific leaf area (SLA), leaf area (LA), lamina/petiole length ratio (LPR), intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) and leaf nutrient content (N, P and N:P) per mass were evaluated. Alleviation of drought stress associated with nurse plant presence was reflected in SLA, LA, LPR and iWUE at the high-stress site. Individuals growing in open areas showed more resource-conservative traits, supporting the argument that this strategy is advantageous in environments that limit opportunities for rapid carbon gain. Leaf nutrients were unrelated to other traits. The large amount of intraspecific variation in leaf functional traits related to facilitative processes highlights the importance of facilitation as a major source of plant trait variation. Both positive and negative biotic interactions, as well as intraspecific trait variability, should be considered in mechanistic models of plant communities' functional responses to environmental changes.

  19. Rewarding safe behavior: strategies for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell-Carlson, Deborah

    2004-12-01

    Effective, sustainable safety incentives are integrated into a performance management system designed to encourage long term behavior change. Effective incentive program design integrates the fundamental considerations of compensation (i.e., valence, instrumentality, expectancy, equity) with behavior change theory in the context of a strong merit based performance management system. Clear expectations are established and communicated from the time applicants apply for the position. Feedback and social recognition are leveraged and used as rewards, in addition to financial incentives built into the compensation system and offered periodically as short term incentives. Rewards are tied to specific objectives intended to influence specific behaviors. Objectives are designed to challenge employees, providing opportunities to grow and enhance their sense of belonging. Safety contests and other awareness activities are most effective when used to focus safety improvement efforts on specific behaviors or processes, for a predetermined period of time, in the context of a comprehensive safety system. Safety incentive programs designed around injury outcomes can result in unintended, and undesirable, consequences. Safety performance can be leveraged by integrating safety into corporate cultural indicators. Symbols of safety remind employees of corporate safety goals and objectives (e.g., posted safety goals and integrating safety into corporate mission and vision). Rites and ceremonies provide opportunities for social recognition and feedback and demonstrate safety is a corporate value. Feedback opportunities, rewards, and social recognition all provide content for corporate legends, those stories embellished over time, that punctuate the overall system of organizational norms, and provide examples of the organizational safety culture in action.

  20. Connecting today's climates to future climate analogs to facilitate movement of species under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Caitlin E; McRae, Brad H; Michalak, Julia L; Lawler, Joshua J; Carroll, Carlos

    2017-03-24

    Increasing connectivity is an important strategy for facilitating species range shifts and maintaining biodiversity in the face of climate change. To date, however, few researchers have included future climate projections in efforts to prioritize areas for increasing connectivity. We identified key areas likely to facilitate climate-induced species' movement across western North America. Using historical climate data sets and future climate projections, we mapped potential species' movement routes that link current climate conditions to analogous climate conditions in the future (i.e., future climate analogs) with a novel moving-window analysis based on electrical circuit theory. In addition to tracing shifting climates, the approach accounted for landscape permeability and empirically derived species' dispersal capabilities. We compared connectivity maps generated with our climate-change-informed approach with maps of connectivity based solely on the degree of human modification of the landscape. Including future climate projections in connectivity models substantially shifted and constrained priority areas for movement to a smaller proportion of the landscape than when climate projections were not considered. Potential movement, measured as current flow, decreased in all ecoregions when climate projections were included, particularly when dispersal was limited, which made climate analogs inaccessible. Many areas emerged as important for connectivity only when climate change was modeled in 2 time steps rather than in a single time step. Our results illustrate that movement routes needed to track changing climatic conditions may differ from those that connect present-day landscapes. Incorporating future climate projections into connectivity modeling is an important step toward facilitating successful species movement and population persistence in a changing climate. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Cross-behavior associations and multiple health behavior change: A longitudinal study on physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleig, Lena; Küper, Carina; Lippke, Sonia; Schwarzer, Ralf; Wiedemann, Amelie U

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the interrelation of physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake. The influence of stage congruence between physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake on multiple behavior change was also investigated. Health behaviors, social-cognitions, and stages of change were assessed in 2693 adults at two points in time. Physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake were assessed 4 weeks after the baseline. Social-cognitions, stages as well as stage transitions across behavior domains were positively interrelated. Stage congruence was not related to changes in physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake. Physical activity and nutrition appear to facilitate rather than hinder each other. Having intentions to change both behaviors simultaneously does not seem to overburden individuals.

  2. The Role of External Facilitators in Whole School Reform: Teachers' Perceptions of How Coaches Influence School Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Collaborative Education, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This is the second in a series of reports that examines the role of coaches in facilitating school change. The report explains that as coaching, or external facilitation of school change, becomes a more widespread strategy for helping schools undergo comprehensive restructuring to create more professional collaborative cultures and to increase…

  3. Conceptual Change Text: A Supplementary Material To Facilitate Conceptual Change in Electrochemical Cell Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuruk, Nejla; Geban, Omer

    The main purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of conceptual change text (CCT) oriented instruction over traditionally designed instruction on students' understanding of electrochemical (galvanic and electrolytic) cell concepts. The subjects of the study consisted of 64 students from the two classes of a high school in Turkey.…

  4. Conceptual Change Text: A Supplementary Material To Facilitate Conceptual Change in Electrochemical Cell Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuruk, Nejla; Geban, Omer

    The main purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of conceptual change text (CCT) oriented instruction over traditionally designed instruction on students' understanding of electrochemical (galvanic and electrolytic) cell concepts. The subjects of the study consisted of 64 students from the two classes of a high school in Turkey.…

  5. Rapid changes in desiccation resistance in Drosophila melanogaster are facilitated by changes in cuticular permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazinet, Aimee L; Marshall, Katie E; MacMillan, Heath A; Williams, Caroline M; Sinclair, Brent J

    2010-12-01

    Insects can improve their desiccation resistance by one or more of (1) increasing their water content; (2) decreasing water loss rate; or (3) increasing the amount of water able to be lost before death. Female Drosophila melanogaster have previously been reported to increase their resistance to desiccation after a desiccation pre-treatment and recovery, but the mechanism of this increased desiccation resistance has not been explored. We show that female, but not male adult D. melanogaster increased their resistance to desiccation after 1h of recovery from a 3 to 4.5h pre-treatment that depletes them of 10% of their water content. The pre-treatment did not result in an increase in water content after recovery, and there is a slight increase in water content at death in pre-treated females (but no change in males), suggesting that the amount of water loss tolerated is not improved. Metabolic rate, measured on individual flies with flow-through respirometry, did not change with pre-treatment. However, a desiccation pre-treatment did result in a reduction in water loss rate, and further investigation indicated that a change in cuticular water loss rate accounted for this decrease. Thus, the observed increase in desiccation resistance appears to be based on a change in cuticular permeability. However, physiological changes in response to the desiccation pre-treatment were similar in male and female, which therefore does not account for the difference in rapid desiccation hardening between the sexes. We speculate that sex differences in fuel use during desiccation may account for the discrepancy.

  6. Decision making in the transtheoretical model of behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, James O

    2008-01-01

    Decision making is an integral part of the transtheoretical model of behavior change. Stage of change represents a temporal dimension for behavior change and has been the key dimension for integrating principles and processes of change from across leading theories of psychotherapy and behavior change. The decision-making variables representing the pros and cons of changing have been found to have systematic relationships across the stages of change for 50 health-related behaviors. Implications of these patterns of relationships are discussed in the context of helping patients make more effective decisions to decrease health risk behaviors and increase health-enhancing behaviors.

  7. Novel behavioral indicator of explicit awareness reveals temporal course of frontoparietal neural network facilitation during motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Regan R; Gayle, Jordan O; Wheaton, Lewis A

    2017-01-01

    Deficits in sequential motor learning have been observed in many patient populations. Having an understanding of the individual neural progression associated with sequential learning in healthy individuals may provide valuable insights for effective interventions with these patients. Due to individual variability in motor skill acquisition, the temporal course of such learning will be vary, suggesting a need for a more individualized approach. Knowing when a subject becomes aware of movement patterns may provide a marker with which to identify each individual's learning time course. To avoid interfering with the incidental nature of discovery during learning, such an indicator requires an indirect, behaviorally-based approach. In Part I, our study aimed to identify a reliable behavioral indicator predictive of the presence of incidental explicit awareness in a sequential motor learning task. Part II, utilized the predictive indicator and EEG to provide neural validation of perceptual processing changes temporally correlated with the indicator. Results of Part I provide a reliable predictive indicator for the timing of explicit awareness development. Results from Part II demonstrates strong classification reliability, as well as a significant neural correlation with behavior for subjects developing awareness (EXP), not observed with subjects without awareness (NOEXP). Additionally, a temporal correlation of peak activation between neural regions was noted over frontoparietal regions, suggesting that the incidental discovery of motor patterns may involve a facilitative network during awareness development. The proposed indicator provides a tool in which to further examine potential impacts of awareness associated with incidental, or exploratory, motor learning, while the individual nature of the indicator provides a tool for monitoring progress in rehabilitative, exploratory motor learning paradigms.

  8. Personality influences on change in smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, David; Poulton, Richie

    2009-05-01

    To investigate associations between personality traits in early adulthood (and changes in them) and change in smoking status. Prospective, longitudinal study of a general-population birth cohort. We measured smoking at ages 18, 26, and 32, and personality at ages 18 and 26 using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (Tellegen & Waller, in press). We assessed personality's ability to predict future smoking, and assessed how changes in personality traits relate to change in smoking status. Higher aggression and alienation at age 18 predicted smoking at 26; higher self-control and traditionalism at age 18 predicted nonsmoking at 26; and higher alienation at age 26 predicted persistence of smoking to age 32. Personality change between 18 and 26 was associated with change in smoking behavior; those who stopped smoking decreased more than others in negative emotionality and increased more in constraint. These findings suggest that interventions fostering personality change may be effective in reducing smoking and indicate appropriate targets for such antismoking interventions in young people. In particular, high alienation predicted smoking persistence, perhaps due to resistance to existing antismoking messages; we discuss approaches that may overcome this.

  9. Facilitating climate change adaptation through communication: Insights from the development of a visualization tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaas, Erik; Ballantyne, Anne Gammelgaard; Neset, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Climate change communication on anticipated impacts and adaptive responses is frequently presented as an effective means to facilitate implementation of adaptation to mitigate risks to residential buildings. However, it requires that communication is developed in a way that resonates...... with the context of the target audience, provides intelligible information and addresses perceived barriers to adaptation. In this paper we reflect upon criteria for useful climate change communication gained over a three year development process of a web-based tool - VisAdaptTM – aimed at increasing the adaptive...... capacity among Nordic homeowners. Based on the results from continuous user-testing and focus group interviews we outline lessons learned and key aspects to consider in the design of tools for communicating complex issues such as climate change effects and adaptive response measures....

  10. Decoupling Actions from Consequences: Dorsal Hippocampal Lesions Facilitate Instrumental Performance, but Impair Behavioral Flexibility in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Sebastian; Schwarting, Rainer K. W.

    2016-01-01

    The present study is part of a series of experiments, where we analyze why and how damage of the rat’s dorsal hippocampus (dHC) can enhance performance in a sequential reaction time task (SRTT). In this task, sequences of distinct visual stimulus presentations are food-rewarded in a fixed-ratio-13-schedule. Our previous study (Busse and Schwarting, 2016) had shown that rats with lesions of the dHC show substantially shorter session times and post-reinforcement pauses (PRPs) than controls, which allows for more practice when daily training is kept constant. Since sequential behavior is based on instrumental performance, a sequential benefit might be secondary to that. In order to test this hypothesis in the present study, we performed two experiments, where pseudorandom rather than sequential stimulus presentation was used in rats with excitotoxic dorsal hippocampal lesions. Again, we found enhanced performance in the lesion-group in terms of shorter session times and PRPs. During the sessions we found that the lesion-group spent less time with non-instrumental behavior (i.e., grooming, sniffing, and rearing) after prolonged instrumental training. Also, such rats showed moderate evidence for an extinction impairment under devalued food reward conditions and significant deficits in a response-outcome (R-O)-discrimination task in comparison to a control-group. These findings suggest that facilitatory effects on instrumental performance after dorsal hippocampal lesions may be primarily a result of complex behavioral changes, i.e., reductions of behavioral flexibility and/or alterations in motivation, which then result in enhanced instrumental learning. PMID:27375453

  11. Changes in electoral behavior in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana DUARTE RECALDE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Paraguayan electoral process has been historically conditioned by the control of the Asociación Nacional Republicana, the dominant political party during the Stroessner’s regime and the period of transition towards democracy. For this reason, the change of political representation in the Presidency that occurred in 2008 as a result of the electoral process was a milestone in the country’s political history and it highlighted the importance of analyzing the voting behavior of the Paraguayan population, its trends and the the conjectural and structural elements that condition them. In this opportunity we review the parameters of electoral behavior present in the country’s last three general elections, considering the electoral volatility rates resulting from such elections and the effective participation levels recorded, analyzing the socio-political context in which they occurred.

  12. Facilitating Change in Undergraduate STEM: Initial Results from an Interdisciplinary Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Charles; Beach, Andrea; Finkelstein, Noah; Larson, R. Sam

    2008-10-01

    Although decades of research have identified effective instructional practices for improving Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education, these practices are not widely implemented. Scholars in three fields are interested in promoting these practices and have engaged in research on pedagogical change: Disciplinary-based STEM Education Researchers, Faculty Development Researchers, and Higher Education Researchers. There is little interaction between the fields and efforts in all areas have met with only modest success. In this paper we present an initial examination of 130 randomly chosen articles from a set of 295 we identified as addressing efforts to promote change in the instructional practices of STEM faculty. We identify four core change strategies and note that change strategies differ by fields. Articles in all fields frequently do not provide enough evidence to convincingly argue for the success of the change strategy studied and have few connections to theoretical or empirical literature related to change. This literature review and related efforts sit within broader efforts to promote interdisciplinary directed at facilitating lasting change.

  13. How action researchers use anxiety to facilitate change in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nicola; Hopkinson, Jane

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to report on the role of an action researcher in a study investigating the change process in a health service context where a new assessment clinic was developed to manage the excessive waiting list for that service. For effective organisational change in health, there is a suggestion that change agents need to be emotionally intelligent; recognising the emotional state of individuals, reconciling that with the organisational drivers and making an assessment of readiness for organisational change. Anxiety features throughout this literature and there is a suggestion that being aware of anxiety and managing anxiety is within the emotionally intelligent change agent's repertoire, but there is a gap in the literature that explains this relationship in detail. Data were generated to investigate the discrete nature of the role of the action researcher during this organisational change that spanned two years, through three methods: participant observations in the field captured in field notes (n = 72); observations of team meetings that had been recorded and transcribed (n = 13); interviews with key informants pre- and postintervention (n = 14); a reflexive diary one document of 8920 words (n = 1). The data illuminating the interaction between the action researcher and participants were synthesised into two broad themes: how the action researcher introduced anxiety into the system; how the action researcher facilitated the participants to tolerate change anxiety. The findings from this study can be applied in clinical practice where change in practice is planned. Part of the requirement of a change agent in the NHS might be to be sufficiently emotionally literate to understand anxiety in the participant system and manage it to effect change. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Hybridization may facilitate in situ survival of endemic species through periods of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Matthias; Gruenheit, Nicole; Steel, Mike; Voelckel, Claudia; Deusch, Oliver; Heenan, Peter B.; McLenachan, Patricia A.; Kardailsky, Olga; Leigh, Jessica W.; Lockhart, Peter J.

    2013-12-01

    Predicting survival and extinction scenarios for climate change requires an understanding of the present day ecological characteristics of species and future available habitats, but also the adaptive potential of species to cope with environmental change. Hybridization is one mechanism that could facilitate this. Here we report statistical evidence that the transfer of genetic information through hybridization is a feature of species from the plant genus Pachycladon that survived the Last Glacial Maximum in geographically separated alpine refugia in New Zealand's South Island. We show that transferred glucosinolate hydrolysis genes also exhibit evidence of intra-locus recombination. Such gene exchange and recombination has the potential to alter the chemical defence in the offspring of hybridizing species. We use a mathematical model to show that when hybridization increases the adaptive potential of species, future biodiversity will be best protected by preserving closely related species that hybridize rather than by conserving distantly related species that are genetically isolated.

  15. The Importance of Autonomous Regulation for Students' Successful Translation of Intentions into Behavior Change via Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dian Sheng; Lippke, Sonia; Liu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity has a high prevention potential in adolescents. This study investigated the relations between physical activity and intention, autonomous regulation, and planning. We hypothesized that planning mediates the relationship between intention and behavior and that this mediation should depend on the level of autonomous regulation. Stratified randomization sampling method was administered to assemble a sample of N = 534 students among two schools in China. To test the hypothesis, autonomous regulation, intention, and physical activity were assessed at baseline as well as planning and follow-up physical activity four weeks after the pretest. A moderated mediation model confirmed that planning mediated the intention-behavior relation with the effect of planning being moderated by autonomous regulation. Study results demonstrated that autonomous regulation facilitated the translation of intention into behavior change via planning. To promote physical activity among adolescents, interventions targeting planning and autonomous regulation might facilitate successful translation of intentions into behavior change.

  16. Unfolding Online Learning Behavioral Patterns and Their Temporal Changes of College Students in SPOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hercy N. H.; Liu, Zhi; Sun, Jianwen; Liu, Sanya; Yang, Zongkai

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of massive open online courses not only changes the ecology of higher education, but also facilitates a blending learning paradigm, also known as small private online courses (SPOCs). In order to understand how college students interact with an SPOC platform, this study collects their online behaviors for a semester and adopts a lag…

  17. The information architecture of behavior change websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, Brian G; McKay, H Garth; Seeley, John R

    2005-05-18

    The extraordinary growth in Internet use offers researchers important new opportunities to identify and test new ways to deliver effective behavior change programs. The information architecture (IA)-the structure of website information--is an important but often overlooked factor to consider when adapting behavioral strategies developed in office-based settings for Web delivery. Using examples and relevant perspectives from multiple disciplines, we describe a continuum of website IA designs ranging from a matrix design to the tunnel design. The free-form matrix IA design allows users free rein to use multiple hyperlinks to explore available content according to their idiosyncratic interests. The more directive tunnel IA design (commonly used in e-learning courses) guides users step-by-step through a series of Web pages that are arranged in a particular order to improve the chances of achieving a goal that is measurable and consistent. Other IA designs are also discussed, including hierarchical IA and hybrid IA designs. In the hierarchical IA design, program content is arranged in a top-down manner, which helps the user find content of interest. The more complex hybrid IA design incorporates some combination of components that use matrix, tunnel, and/or hierarchical IA designs. Each of these IA designs is discussed in terms of usability, participant engagement, and program tailoring, as well as how they might best be matched with different behavior change goals (using Web-based smoking cessation interventions as examples). Our presentation underscores the role of considering and clearly reporting the use of IA designs when creating effective Web-based interventions. We also encourage the adoption of a multidisciplinary perspective as we move towards a more mature view of Internet intervention research.

  18. Competition and facilitation may lead to asymmetric range shift dynamics with climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Ailene; HilleRisLambers, Janneke

    2017-09-01

    Forecasts of widespread range shifts with climate change stem from assumptions that climate drives species' distributions. However, local adaptation and biotic interactions also influence range limits and thus may impact range shifts. Despite the potential importance of these factors, few studies have directly tested their effects on performance at range limits. We address how population-level variation and biotic interactions may affect range shifts by transplanting seeds and seedlings of western North American conifers of different origin populations into different competitive neighborhoods within and beyond their elevational ranges and monitoring their performance. We find evidence that competition with neighboring trees limits performance within current ranges, but that interactions between adults and juveniles switch from competitive to facilitative at upper range limits. Local adaptation had weaker effects on performance that did not predictably vary with range position or seed origin. Our findings suggest that competitive interactions may slow species turnover within forests at lower range limits, whereas facilitative interactions may accelerate the pace of tree expansions upward near timberline. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Fishing for leadership: The role diversification plays in facilitating change agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Joshua S

    2017-09-01

    Leadership is often viewed as being critical to successful natural resource management. This research focuses on a set of leaders identified through a social network analysis of fishers in a rural coastal region. Leaders' connections to different fisheries are evaluated, and these actors are found to be significantly more diversified than other fishers in the area. Drawing on theory related to institutional entrepreneurship and a series of in-depth interviews with these actors, this paper puts forward several hypotheses to explain how diverse social-ecological connections facilitate leadership. Three mechanisms are identified. Being diversified facilitates: (1) production of alternative visions; (2) framing of tractable strategies to sustain local marine resource; and (3) participation in the management process. While more research is needed to understand the relationship between diversification and leadership, these exploratory results suggest that leadership is, in part, a manifestation of ecological circumstance, supporting recent assertions that scholarship on leadership in natural resource management settings could benefit from being more attentive to the processes that shape leadership rather than fixating on individuals and their personal attributes. Given that fisheries policies increasingly constrain diversification, policymakers and managers should consider how specialization of fishers might change the form and function of leaders in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Behavior Change without Behavior Change Communication: Nudging Handwashing among Primary School Students in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreibelbis, Robert; Kroeger, Anne; Hossain, Kamal; Venkatesh, Mohini; Ram, Pavani K

    2016-01-14

    Behavior change communication for improving handwashing with soap can be labor and resource intensive, yet quality results are difficult to achieve. Nudges are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary schools in rural Bangladesh. We completed direct observation of behaviors at baseline, after providing traditional handwashing infrastructure, and at multiple time periods following targeted handwashing nudges (1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks). No additional handwashing education or motivational messages were completed. Handwashing with soap among school children was low at baseline (4%), increasing to 68% the day after nudges were completed and 74% at both 2 weeks and 6 weeks post intervention. Results indicate that nudge-based interventions have the potential to improve handwashing with soap among school-aged children in Bangladesh and specific areas of further inquiry are discussed.

  1. Implementation of a health care policy: An analysis of barriers and facilitators to practice change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sword Wendy

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Governments often create policies that rely on implementation by arms length organizations and require practice changes on the part of different segments of the health care system without understanding the differences in and complexities of these agencies. In 2000, in response to publicity about the shortening length of postpartum hospital stay, the Ontario government created a universal program offering up to a 60-hour postpartum stay and a public health follow-up to mothers and newborn infants. The purpose of this paper is to examine how a health policy initiative was implemented in two different parts of a health care system and to analyze the barriers and facilitators to achieving practice change. Methods The data reported came from two studies of postpartum health and service use in Ontario Canada. Data were collected from newly delivered mothers who had uncomplicated vaginal deliveries. The study samples were drawn from the same five purposefully selected hospitals for both studies. Questionnaires prior to discharge and structured telephone interviews at 4-weeks post discharge were used to collect data before and after policy implementation. Qualitative data were collected using focus groups with hospital and community-based health care practitioners and administrators at each site. Results In both studies, the respondents reflected a population of women who experienced an "average" or non-eventful hospital-based, singleton vaginal delivery. The findings of the second study demonstrated wide variance in implementation of the offer of a 60-hour stay among the sites and focus groups revealed that none of the hospitals acknowledged the 60-hour stay as an official policy. The uptake of the offer of a 60-hour stay was unrelated to the rate of offer. The percentage of women with a hospital stay of less than 25 hours and the number with the guideline that the call be within 48 hours of hospital discharge. Public health

  2. Short-interval cortical inhibition and intracortical facilitation during submaximal voluntary contractions changes with fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Sandra K; McNeil, Chris J; Butler, Jane E; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

    2016-09-01

    This study determined whether short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) change during a sustained submaximal isometric contraction. On 2 days, 12 participants (6 men, 6 women) performed brief (7-s) elbow flexor contractions before and after a 10-min fatiguing contraction; all contractions were performed at the level of integrated electromyographic activity (EMG) which produced 25 % maximal unfatigued torque. During the brief 7-s and 10-min submaximal contractions, single (test) and paired (conditioning-test) transcranial magnetic stimuli were applied over the motor cortex (5 s apart) to elicit motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in biceps brachii. SICI and ICF were elicited on separate days, with a conditioning-test interstimulus interval of 2.5 and 15 ms, respectively. On both days, integrated EMG remained constant while torque fell during the sustained contraction by ~51.5 % from control contractions, perceived effort increased threefold, and MVC declined by 21-22 %. For SICI, the conditioned MEP during control contractions (74.1 ± 2.5 % of unconditioned MEP) increased (less inhibition) during the sustained contraction (last 2.5 min: 86.0 ± 5.1 %; P contractions at 2 min (82.0 ± 3.8 %; P contractions (conditioned MEP 129.7 ± 4.8 % of unconditioned MEP) decreased (less facilitation) during the sustained contraction (last 2.5 min: 107.6 ± 6.8 %; P contractions after 2 min of recovery. Both intracortical inhibitory and facilitatory circuits become less excitable with fatigue when assessed during voluntary activity, but their different time courses of recovery suggest different mechanisms for the fatigue-related changes of SICI and ICF.

  3. Facilitating and Inhibiting Factors of Sexual Behavior among Migrants in Transition from Mexico to the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra-Ordoñez, Jesús Alejandro; Benavides-Torres, Raquel A.; Zapata-Garibay, Rogelio; Onofre-Rodríguez, Dora Julia; Márquez-Vega, María Aracely; Zamora-Carmona, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the border region of Mexico due to the flow of migrants under desperate conditions, encouraging casual and unprotected sex. Since this has become a binational public health problem, it is important to understand the factors that predict these sexual behaviors. The aim of the current study was to investigate the facilitators and inhibitors of transitio...

  4. Facilitating and Inhibiting Factors of Sexual Behavior among Migrants in Transition from Mexico to the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Alejandro Guerra-Ordoñez; Benavides-Torres, Raquel A.; Rogelio Zapata-Garibay; Dora Julia Onofre-Rodríguez; María Aracely Márquez-Vega; Gabriela Zamora-Carmona

    2017-01-01

    IntroductionHuman immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the border region of Mexico due to the flow of migrants under desperate conditions, encouraging casual and unprotected sex. Since this has become a binational public health problem, it is important to understand the factors that predict these sexual behaviors. The aim of the current study was to investigate the facilitators and inhibitors of transition in...

  5. A Report on Facilitating Educational Change with Local School Districts through the National Diffusion Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Ralph

    The National Diffusion Network was initiated in 1974 by the United States Office of Education (USOE). Thirty states developed state facilitators the first year and 36 states had facilitators the second year. Among the facilitators in the network, there appears to be considerable difference in the approaches that are taken to diffuse the projects…

  6. Musical experience facilitates lexical tone processing among Mandarin speakers: Behavioral and neural evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Xiong, Wen; Zhang, Yu-Xuan; Dong, Qi; Nan, Yun

    2016-10-01

    Music and speech share many sound attributes. Pitch, as the percept of fundamental frequency, often occupies the center of researchers' attention in studies on the relationship between music and speech. One widely held assumption is that music experience may confer an advantage in speech tone processing. The cross-domain effects of musical training on non-tonal language speakers' linguistic pitch processing have been relatively well established. However, it remains unclear whether musical experience improves the processing of lexical tone for native tone language speakers who actually use lexical tones in their daily communication. Using a passive oddball paradigm, the present study revealed that among Mandarin speakers, musicians demonstrated enlarged electrical responses to lexical tone changes as reflected by the increased mismatch negativity (MMN) amplitudes, as well as faster behavioral discrimination performance compared with age- and IQ-matched nonmusicians. The current results suggest that in spite of the preexisting long-term experience with lexical tones in both musicians and nonmusicians, musical experience can still modulate the cortical plasticity of linguistic tone processing and is associated with enhanced neural processing of speech tones. Our current results thus provide the first electrophysiological evidence supporting the notion that pitch expertise in the music domain may indeed be transferable to the speech domain even for native tone language speakers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Activation of prefrontal cortical parvalbumin interneurons facilitates extinction of reward-seeking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparta, Dennis R; Hovelsø, Nanna; Mason, Alex O; Kantak, Pranish A; Ung, Randall L; Decot, Heather K; Stuber, Garret D

    2014-03-05

    Forming and breaking associations between emotionally salient environmental stimuli and rewarding or aversive outcomes is an essential component of learned adaptive behavior. Importantly, when cue-reward contingencies degrade, animals must exhibit behavioral flexibility to extinguish prior learned associations. Understanding the specific neural circuit mechanisms that operate during the formation and extinction of conditioned behaviors is critical because dysregulation of these neural processes is hypothesized to underlie many of the maladaptive and pathological behaviors observed in various neuropsychiatric disorders in humans. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) participates in the behavioral adaptations seen in both appetitive and aversive-cue-mediated responding, but the precise cell types and circuit mechanisms sufficient for driving these complex behavioral states remain largely unspecified. Here, we recorded and manipulated the activity of parvalbumin-positive fast spiking interneurons (PV+ FSIs) in the prelimbic area (PrL) of the mPFC in mice. In vivo photostimulation of PV+ FSIs resulted in a net inhibition of PrL neurons, providing a circuit blueprint for behavioral manipulations. Photostimulation of mPFC PV+ cells did not alter anticipatory or consummatory licking behavior during reinforced training sessions. However, optical activation of these inhibitory interneurons to cues associated with reward significantly accelerated the extinction of behavior during non-reinforced test sessions. These data suggest that suppression of excitatory mPFC networks via increased activity of PV+ FSIs may enhance reward-related behavioral flexibility.

  8. Changing Places, Changing Plates? A Binational Comparison of Barriers and Facilitators to Healthful Eating Among Central American Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Melissa; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán

    2017-04-19

    To understand the process by which immigrants adopt dietary practices, this study offers a binational comparison of factors that predispose, enable, and reinforce healthful eating in the sending and receiving countries. Data are from two qualitative studies that examined barriers and facilitators to healthful eating in El Salvador (four focus groups, n = 28 adults) and in the US (30 in-depth interviews n = 15 mothers recently migrated from Central America). There was a strong emphasis on hygiene and vitamin-content of foods among participants in El Salvador. In both settings, participants perceived that their respective community food environments (schools, food stores) exposed their families to highly processed, unhealthful foods. In both settings, they described similar struggles to encourage their families to eat foods healthfully (traditional, home-made foods). These results underscore the importance of acknowledging the changing food environment in sending countries where people may already be exposed to processed foods.

  9. Behavioral Economics and Climate Change Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Gowdy, John M.

    2007-01-01

    The policy recommendations of most economists are based on the rational actor model of human behavior. Behavior is assumed to be self-regarding, preferences are assumed to be stable, and decisions are assumed to be unaffected by social context or frame of reference. The related fields of behavioral economics, game theory, and neuroscience have confirmed that human behavior is other regarding, and that people exhibit systematic patterns of decision-making that are "irrational" according to the...

  10. Leptin facilitates lordosis behavior through GnRH-1 and progestin receptors in estrogen-primed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Juárez, Marcos; Beyer, Carlos; Soto-Sánchez, Alfonso; Domínguez-Ordoñez, Raymundo; Gómora-Arrati, Porfirio; Lima-Hernández, Francisco Javier; Eguibar, José R; Etgen, Anne M; González-Flores, Oscar

    2011-02-01

    Dose response curves for leptin facilitation of estrous behavior (lordosis and proceptivity) were made by infusing the peptide into the lateral ventricle (icv) of ovariectomized (ovx), ad libitum-fed rats injected 40h previously with 5μg of estradiol benzoate. Leptin doses of 1 and 3μg produced significant lordosis quotient at 60min post-injection, with maximal lordosis being displayed at 120min. Yet the intensity of lordosis was weak, and a high incidence of rejection behaviors was found. Moreover, leptin did not induce significant proceptive behaviors at any dose. The leptin doses of 1 and 3μg were selected for determining whether antide, a GnRH-1 receptor antagonist, or the progestin receptor antagonist RU486 could modify the lordosis response to leptin. Icv injection of either antide or RU486 1h before leptin significantly depressed leptin facilitation of lordosis. The results suggest that leptin stimulates lordosis by releasing GnRH, which in turn activates GnRH-1 and progestin receptors. The physiological role of leptin in the control of estrous behavior remains to be determined. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Facilitating small-group learning: A comparison of student and staff tutors' behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.C. Moust (Jos); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThis study focused on students' observations of student and staff tutors' behavior during two academic courses, using a thirtynine-item rating scale. The study took place within an integrated problem-based law curriculum. Six major factors in tutors' behavior were identified. Differences

  12. Energy Behavior Change and Army Net Zero Energy; Gaps in the Army’s Approach to Changing Energy Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    Strategy including energy security, job creation, investment in innovation, and fighting climate change . The Assistant Secretary of the Army for...company (Energy Trust of Oregon 2014). Energy behavior change efforts at Fort Carson, Colorado are part of a large information campaign and...behavior changes . Information they used included awareness on climate change and energy conservation. The researchers established a website to share

  13. Metacognition and the facilitation of conceptual and status change in students' concepts of ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Lisa M.

    Over a decade ago the Conceptual Change Model (CCM) was introduced as an explanation of the science learning process. Central to this model is the assertion that knowledge is constructed when students restructure or replace existing conceptions. The model predicts that conceptual change will not occur without corresponding changes in the status of new and existing conceptions. While the CCM is extensively cited in the literature, little work has been done on clarifying whether a teaching strategy which requires students to reveal and reflect upon the status of their conceptions significantly impacts the nature and process of science learning. In response, this study explored the relationship between metacognitive teaching strategies, status, and conceptual change during a three month unit on ecology. Working collaboratively, the researcher and a seventh grade classroom teacher developed an ecology unit designed to facilitate conceptual change and reveal status-related interactions. Case studies of two classrooms were developed. Both classrooms received instruction based on the conceptual change model, but only one classroom's instructional format included a metacognitive element in which the student was encouraged to reveal and reflect upon the status of his or her conceptions--how they know what they know. Three significant findings were revealed in the results. One, the quality of classroom discourse in the metacognitive class was altered. By developing in students the ability to explicitly consider and talk about the condition of their own conceptions, students began to understand the value of critically investigating ideas before incorporating them into their knowledge structures. Two, while there was no statistically significant difference observed in the level of conceptual understanding across treatment groups, there was a significant difference observed on the scores of the delayed ecology post-assessment. While the students in the metacognitive class did

  14. Uncovering spider silk nanocrystalline variations that facilitate wind-induced mechanical property changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamires, Sean J; Wu, Chao-Chia; Wu, Chung-Lin; Sheu, Hwo-Shuenn; Tso, I-Min

    2013-10-14

    Spider major ampullate (MA) silk varies in mechanical properties when spun in different environments. Amino acid compositional changes induced by variations in MaSp1 and MaSp2 expression, and various biochemical and physiological glandular processes induce silk property variability. Quantifying the contributions of these mechanisms on silk variability may facilitate the development of silk biomimetics. Wind is a medium that induces variations in MA silk mechanics. We exposed the spider Cyclosa mulmeinensis to wind and measured the amino acid composition, tensile mechanics, and crystalline structure of its MA silk using HPLC, tensile tests, and X-ray diffraction. We found the mechanical properties of MA silks from spiders exposed to wind to differ from unexposed spiders. The amino acid compositions did not differ, but X-ray diffraction found a lower crystal density and greater β-sheet alignment relative to the fiber axis in the silks of spiders exposed to wind. We found no evidence that the mechanical property variations were a product of profound changes to the alignment of the protein within the amorphous region. We conclude that variations in the density and alignment of the crystalline β-sheets, probably accompanied by some alignment change in the amorphous region as a result of "stretching" during spinning of the silk, probably explains the mechanical property variations that we found across treatment subgroups. As C. mulmeinensis MA silk increases both in strength and elasticity when the spiders are exposed to wind, bioengineers may consider it as a model for the development of high-performance silk biomimetics.

  15. Predicting Persuasion-Induced Behavior Change from the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Emily B.; Berkman, Elliot T.; Mann, Traci; Harrison, Brittany; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    Although persuasive messages often alter people’s self-reported attitudes and intentions to perform behaviors, these self-reports do not necessarily predict behavior change. We demonstrate that neural responses to persuasive messages can predict variability in behavior change in the subsequent week. Specifically, an a priori region of interest (ROI) in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) was reliably associated with behavior change (r = 0.49, p < 0.05). Additionally, an iterative cross-validation approach using activity in this MPFC ROI predicted an average 23% of the variance in behavior change beyond the variance predicted by self-reported attitudes and intentions. Thus, neural signals can predict behavioral changes that are not predicted from self-reported attitudes and intentions alone. Additionally, this is the first functional magnetic resonance imaging study to demonstrate that a neural signal can predict complex real world behavior days in advance. PMID:20573889

  16. Dynamic changes in phase-amplitude coupling facilitate spatial attention control in fronto-parietal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M Szczepanski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Attention is a core cognitive mechanism that allows the brain to allocate limited resources depending on current task demands. A number of frontal and posterior parietal cortical areas, referred to collectively as the fronto-parietal attentional control network, are engaged during attentional allocation in both humans and non-human primates. Numerous studies have examined this network in the human brain using various neuroimaging and scalp electrophysiological techniques. However, little is known about how these frontal and parietal areas interact dynamically to produce behavior on a fine temporal (sub-second and spatial (sub-centimeter scale. We addressed how human fronto-parietal regions control visuospatial attention on a fine spatiotemporal scale by recording electrocorticography (ECoG signals measured directly from subdural electrode arrays that were implanted in patients undergoing intracranial monitoring for localization of epileptic foci. Subjects (n = 8 performed a spatial-cuing task, in which they allocated visuospatial attention to either the right or left visual field and detected the appearance of a target. We found increases in high gamma (HG power (70-250 Hz time-locked to trial onset that remained elevated throughout the attentional allocation period over frontal, parietal, and visual areas. These HG power increases were modulated by the phase of the ongoing delta/theta (2-5 Hz oscillation during attentional allocation. Critically, we found that the strength of this delta/theta phase-HG amplitude coupling predicted reaction times to detected targets on a trial-by-trial basis. These results highlight the role of delta/theta phase-HG amplitude coupling as a mechanism for sub-second facilitation and coordination within human fronto-parietal cortex that is guided by momentary attentional demands.

  17. Transtheoretical Model of Health Behavior Change Applied to Voice Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Studies of patient adherence to health behavior programs, such as physical exercise, smoking cessation, and diet, have resulted in the formulation and validation of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of behavior change. Although widely accepted as a guide for the development of health behavior interventions, this model has not been applied to vocal rehabilitation. Because resolution of vocal difficulties frequently depends on a patient’s ability to make changes in vocal and health behaviors, th...

  18. Barriers and Facilitators to Implementing a Change Initiative in Long-Term Care Using the INTERACT® Quality Improvement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappen, Ruth M; Wolf, David G; Rahemi, Zahra; Engstrom, Gabriella; Rojido, Carolina; Shutes, Jill M; Ouslander, Joseph G

    Implementation of major organizational change initiatives presents a challenge for long-term care leadership. Implementation of the INTERACT® (Interventions to Reduce Acute Care Transfers) quality improvement program, designed to improve the management of acute changes in condition and reduce unnecessary emergency department visits and hospitalizations of nursing home residents, serves as an example to illustrate the facilitators and barriers to major change in long-term care. As part of a larger study of the impact of INTERACT® on rates of emergency department visits and hospitalizations, staff of 71 nursing homes were called monthly to follow-up on their progress and discuss successful facilitating strategies and any challenges and barriers they encountered during the yearlong implementation period. Themes related to barriers and facilitators were identified. Six major barriers to implementation were identified: the magnitude and complexity of the change (35%), instability of facility leadership (27%), competing demands (40%), stakeholder resistance (49%), scarce resources (86%), and technical problems (31%). Six facilitating strategies were also reported: organization-wide involvement (68%), leadership support (41%), use of administrative authority (14%), adequate training (66%), persistence and oversight on the part of the champion (73%), and unfolding positive results (14%). Successful introduction of a complex change such as the INTERACT® quality improvement program in a long-term care facility requires attention to the facilitators and barriers identified in this report from those at the frontline.

  19. Mechanisms of action in integrated cognitive-behavioral treatment versus twelve-step facilitation for substance-dependent adults with comorbid major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasner-Edwards, Suzette; Tate, Susan R; McQuaid, John R; Cummins, Kevin; Granholm, Eric; Brown, Sandra A

    2007-09-01

    In a population of veterans with co-occurring substance use disorders and concomitant major depressive disorder, the current study compared mechanisms of change and therapeutic effects relevant to both disorders between integrated, dual disorder-specific cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) and twelve-step facilitation (TSF). Veterans (N = 148) were given standard pharmacotherapy for depression and were randomly assigned to receive 24 weeks of either TSF or ICBT. Process measures were selected to quantify (1) changes in self-efficacy in ICBT, (2) changes in ability to terminate negative affect in ICBT, (3) twelve-step affiliation (TSA) in TSF, and (4) changes in social support in both conditions. Measures of depression and substance use were administered to all participants before treatment, during treatment, and at the end of treatment. Self-efficacy increased among both TSF and ICBT participants during treatment, whereas self-reported ability to regulate negative affect did not change. Consistent with predictions, TSF participants increased community TSA during treatment, whereas those receiving ICBT reduced TSA. Changes in self-efficacy and TSA were associated with improvement in substance use outcomes at the end of treatment. Hypothesized changes in social support were not supported. Both ICBT and TSF produce improvements in self-efficacy, and these changes are related to substance use outcomes for depressed substance abusers. In TSF, intervention-specific changes in TSA occur during the course of treatment and are related to substance use outcomes.

  20. Behavior Change without Behavior Change Communication: Nudging Handwashing among Primary School Students in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Dreibelbis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavior change communication for improving handwashing with soap can be labor and resource intensive, yet quality results are difficult to achieve. Nudges are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary schools in rural Bangladesh. We completed direct observation of behaviors at baseline, after providing traditional handwashing infrastructure, and at multiple time periods following targeted handwashing nudges (1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks. No additional handwashing education or motivational messages were completed. Handwashing with soap among school children was low at baseline (4%, increasing to 68% the day after nudges were completed and 74% at both 2 weeks and 6 weeks post intervention. Results indicate that nudge-based interventions have the potential to improve handwashing with soap among school-aged children in Bangladesh and specific areas of further inquiry are discussed.

  1. Predictors of behavior change intention using health risk appraisal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzec, Mary L; Lee, Seung Pil; Cornwell, T Bettina; Burton, Wayne N; McMullen, Judith; Edington, Dee W

    2013-07-01

    To investigate predictors of behavior change intention and discuss potential implications for practitioners. Health risk appraisal (HRA) data from 2 organizations were used to develop and confirm a path analysis model for predictors of intention to change behavior. Lower self-rated health perception and higher ratings of stress corresponded to higher behavior-change intention scores. Stress was associated with poorer health perception. Higher stress and lower perception of health status were directly associated with intention to change behavior. Incorporating stress management and awareness of health perception into health promotion strategies could enhance wellness programs by aligning programs with motivating factors.

  2. Effects of habitual anger on employees' behavior during organizational change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bönigk, Mareike; Steffgen, Georges

    2013-01-01

    ... with it. Anger is a frequently experienced emotion under these conditions. This study analyses the influence of employees' habitual anger reactions on their reported behavior during organizational change...

  3. Behavioral flexibility as a mechanism for coping with climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, Erik; Hall, L. Embere; Varner, Johanna; Loosen, Anne E.; Dunham, Jason; Gahl, Megan K.; Smith, Felisa A.; Lawler, Joshua J.

    2017-01-01

    Of the primary responses to contemporary climate change – “move, adapt, acclimate, or die” – that are available to organisms, “acclimate” may be effectively achieved through behavioral modification. Behavioral flexibility allows animals to rapidly cope with changing environmental conditions, and behavior represents an important component of a species’ adaptive capacity in the face of climate change. However, there is currently a lack of knowledge about the limits or constraints on behavioral responses to changing conditions. Here, we characterize the contexts in which organisms respond to climate variability through behavior. First, we quantify patterns in behavioral responses across taxa with respect to timescales, climatic stimuli, life-history traits, and ecology. Next, we identify existing knowledge gaps, research biases, and other challenges. Finally, we discuss how conservation practitioners and resource managers can incorporate an improved understanding of behavioral flexibility into natural resource management and policy decisions.

  4. Some preliminary evidence of the social facilitation of mounting behavior in a juvenile bull asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Paul A

    2004-01-01

    This study recorded sexual behavior within a captive herd of 8 Asian elephants for approximately 230 hr on 50 days over a period of 10 months. The study observed a single adult and a single juvenile bull mounting cows more than 160 times. When the juvenile bull was between 4 years, 2 months and 4 years, 8 months old, he exhibited mounting behavior only on days when adult mounting occurred. Adult mounting always occurred first. Beyond the age of 4 years, 8 months, the juvenile bull exhibited spontaneous mounting behavior in the absence of adult mounting. This suggests that mounting behavior may develop because of social facilitation. Determining the significance of the presence of sexually active adults in the normal development of sexual behavior in juveniles will require further studies. Encouraging the establishment of larger captive herds containing adults and calves of both sexes-if their presence is important-would improve the welfare of elephants in zoos and increase their potential conservation value.

  5. Barriers and Facilitators to Deaf Trauma Survivors' Help-Seeking Behavior: Lessons for Behavioral Clinical Trials Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Melissa L.; Wolf Craig, Kelly S.; Ziedonis, Douglas M.

    2017-01-01

    Deaf individuals experience significant obstacles to participating in behavioral health research when careful consideration is not given to accessibility during the design of study methodology. To inform such considerations, we conducted an exploratory secondary analysis of a mixed-methods study that originally explored 16 Deaf trauma survivors'…

  6. Supporting implementation of evidence-based behavioral interventions: the role of data liquidity in facilitating translational behavioral medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, Amy P; Wheeler, Jane L; Courtney, Paul K; Keefe, Francis J

    2011-03-01

    The advancement of translational behavioral medicine will require that we discover new methods of managing large volumes of data from disparate sources such as disease surveillance systems, public health systems, and health information systems containing patient-centered data informed by behavioral and social sciences. The term "liquidity," when applied to data, refers to its availability and free flow throughout human/computer interactions. In seeking to achieve liquidity, the focus is not on creating a single, comprehensive database or set of coordinated datasets, nor is it solely on developing the electronic health record as the "one-stop shopping" source of health-related data. Rather, attention is on ensuring the availability of secure data through the various methods of collecting and storing data currently existent or under development-so that these components of the health information infrastructure together support a liquid data system. The value of accessible, interoperable, high-volume, reliable, secure, and contextually appropriate data is becoming apparent in many areas of the healthcare system, and health information liquidity is currently viewed as an important component of a patient-centered healthcare system. The translation from research interventions to behavioral and psychosocial indicators challenges the designers of healthcare systems to include this new set of data in the correct context. With the intention of advancing translational behavioral medicine at the local level, "on the ground" in the clinical office and research institution, this commentary discusses data liquidity from the patient's and clinician's perspective, requirements for a liquid healthcare data system, and the ways in which data liquidity can support translational behavioral medicine.

  7. Changes in Illegal Behavior During Emerging Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badiah Haffejee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging adulthood marks a critical developmental juncture during which some individuals disengage from the illegal behavior of their adolescence while others continue to use substances and commit crimes. While risk factors for delinquency during adolescence are well studied, factors that influence persisting or desisting from illegal activities during emerging adulthood have not been fully explored. This mixed methods study utilizes a sample of college students aged 18-25 (N=74 and examines factors differentiating those who abstained from illegal behaviors, desisted from illegal behaviors, and persisted in illegal behaviors. Multinomial logistic regression models indicated peers offending and hours spent studying predicted desisting and peers offending predicted persisting (compared to the abstaining group. Three qualitative themes: family and peer bonds, morals and values, and fear of consequences further explained factors influencing emerging adults’ persisting and desisting choices. Implications for social work practice are explored.

  8. Avoidance Prone Individuals Self Reporting Behavioral Inhibition Exhibit Facilitated Acquisition and Altered Extinction of Conditioned Eyeblinks With Partial Reinforcement Schedules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Todd Allen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Avoidance in the face of novel situations or uncertainty is a prime feature of behavioral inhibition which has been put forth as a risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders. Recent work has found that behaviorally inhibited individuals acquire conditioned eyeblinks faster than non-inhibited individuals in omission and yoked paradigms in which the predictive relationship between the conditioned stimulus (CS and unconditional stimulus (US is less than optimal as compared to standard training with CS-US paired trials (Holloway et al., 2014. In the current study, we tested explicitly partial schedules in which half the trials were CS alone or US alone trials in addition to the standard CS-US paired trials. One hundred and forty nine college-aged undergraduates participated in the study. All participants completed the Adult Measure of Behavioral Inhibition (i.e., AMBI which was used to group participants as behaviorally inhibited and non-inhibited. Eyeblink conditioning consisted of 3 US alone trials, 60 acquisition trials, and 20 CS-alone extinction trials presented in one session. Conditioning stimuli were a 500 ms tone conditioned stimulus (CS and a 50-ms air puff unconditional stimulus (US. Behaviorally inhibited individuals receiving 50% partial reinforcement with CS alone or US alone trials produced facilitated acquisition as compared to non-inhibited individuals. A partial reinforcement extinction effect was evident with CS alone trials in behaviorally inhibited but not non-inhibited individuals. These current findings indicate that avoidance prone individuals self-reporting behavioral inhibition over-learn an association and are slow to extinguish conditioned responses when there is some level of uncertainty between paired trials and CS or US alone presentations.

  9. Theory as a Foundation for Behavior Change in Serious Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will highlight the benefits of designing Games for Health (i.e., games created to change health behavior) using informed by behavioral and communication theories. The need to include choice, link adoption of new behavior to personal values, and build confidence in ability to succes...

  10. Impact of Developing Teacher Commitment to Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin-Scherer, Roberta

    A study examined the effects of one aspect of trainer behavior on teachers' classroom behavioral change. The trainer behavior studied was elicitation of trainee public commitment. Seventeen teachers participated in a series of workshops from the Stallings' Effective Use of Time program. These workshops were team led by teacher, principal, and…

  11. Design and protocol of a randomized multiple behavior change trial: Make Better Choices 2 (MBC2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Christine A; Steglitz, Jeremy; Johnston, Winter; Warnick, Jennifer; Adams, Tiara; McFadden, H G; Siddique, Juned; Hedeker, Donald; Spring, Bonnie

    2015-03-01

    Suboptimal diet and inactive lifestyle are among the most prevalent preventable causes of premature death. Interventions that target multiple behaviors are potentially efficient; however the optimal way to initiate and maintain multiple health behavior changes is unknown. The Make Better Choices 2 (MBC2) trial aims to examine whether sustained healthful diet and activity change are best achieved by targeting diet and activity behaviors simultaneously or sequentially. Study design approximately 250 inactive adults with poor quality diet will be randomized to 3 conditions examining the best way to prescribe healthy diet and activity change. The 3 intervention conditions prescribe: 1) an increase in fruit and vegetable consumption (F/V+), decrease in sedentary leisure screen time (Sed-), and increase in physical activity (PA+) simultaneously (Simultaneous); 2) F/V+ and Sed- first, and then sequentially add PA+ (Sequential); or 3) Stress Management Control that addresses stress, relaxation, and sleep. All participants will receive a smartphone application to self-monitor behaviors and regular coaching calls to help facilitate behavior change during the 9 month intervention. Healthy lifestyle change in fruit/vegetable and saturated fat intakes, sedentary leisure screen time, and physical activity will be assessed at 3, 6, and 9 months. MBC2 is a randomized m-Health intervention examining methods to maximize initiation and maintenance of multiple healthful behavior changes. Results from this trial will provide insight about an optimal technology supported approach to promote improvement in diet and physical activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Barriers and Facilitators to Deaf Trauma Survivors' Help-Seeking Behavior: Lessons for Behavioral Clinical Trials Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Melissa L; Wolf Craig, Kelly S; Ziedonis, Douglas M

    2017-01-01

    Deaf individuals experience significant obstacles to participating in behavioral health research when careful consideration is not given to accessibility during the design of study methodology. To inform such considerations, we conducted an exploratory secondary analysis of a mixed-methods study that originally explored 16 Deaf trauma survivors' help-seeking experiences. Our objective was to identify key findings and qualitative themes from consumers' own words that could be applied to the design of behavioral clinical trials methodology. In many ways, the themes that emerged were not wholly dissimilar from the general preferences of members of other sociolinguistic minority groups-a need for communication access, empathy, respect, strict confidentiality procedures, trust, and transparency of the research process. Yet, how these themes are applied to the inclusion of Deaf research participants is distinct from any other sociolinguistic minority population, given Deaf people's unique sensory and linguistic characteristics. We summarize our findings in a preliminary "Checklist for Designing Deaf Behavioral Clinical Trials" to operationalize the steps researchers can take to apply Deaf-friendly approaches in their empirical work.

  13. Social facilitation of fur rubbing behavior in white-faced capuchins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, H; Petit, O; Deneubourg, J-L

    2008-02-01

    In their natural environment, capuchins select certain plants, containing secondary compounds with bactericide, insecticide or fungicide properties, to rub their pelage energetically (i.e. fur rubbing). Fur rubbing can be performed in solitary, or collectively in subgroups of variable size and composition, and most of the time fur rubbing happens in synchrony with other group members. The aim of this study is to understand the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon, and, more particularly, to determine the processes involved in its synchronization. For this purpose, we designed a set of experiments where white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) were presented with onions (Allium cepa) that they use to fur rub. We conducted a detailed kinetic study of fur rubbing behavior to determine if its synchronization is the consequence of simultaneous responses of different individuals to the same stimulus or if, on the contrary, there is a real collective phenomenon where individuals respond to conspecific behavior. Our results reveal that fur rubbing is a collective behavior with a mimetic underlying mechanism. If fur rubbing with onions (a plant with antifungal and repellent properties) allows capuchins to treat their fur against parasites or pathogens, its synchronization would optimize the treatment by acting as a group barrier to ectoparasite propagation. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Working memory cells' behavior may be explained by cross-regional networks with synaptic facilitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Verduzco-Flores

    Full Text Available Neurons in the cortex exhibit a number of patterns that correlate with working memory. Specifically, averaged across trials of working memory tasks, neurons exhibit different firing rate patterns during the delay of those tasks. These patterns include: 1 persistent fixed-frequency elevated rates above baseline, 2 elevated rates that decay throughout the tasks memory period, 3 rates that accelerate throughout the delay, and 4 patterns of inhibited firing (below baseline analogous to each of the preceding excitatory patterns. Persistent elevated rate patterns are believed to be the neural correlate of working memory retention and preparation for execution of behavioral/motor responses as required in working memory tasks. Models have proposed that such activity corresponds to stable attractors in cortical neural networks with fixed synaptic weights. However, the variability in patterned behavior and the firing statistics of real neurons across the entire range of those behaviors across and within trials of working memory tasks are typical not reproduced. Here we examine the effect of dynamic synapses and network architectures with multiple cortical areas on the states and dynamics of working memory networks. The analysis indicates that the multiple pattern types exhibited by cells in working memory networks are inherent in networks with dynamic synapses, and that the variability and firing statistics in such networks with distributed architectures agree with that observed in the cortex.

  15. Designing, Modeling and Evaluating Influence Strategiesfor Behavior Change Support Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Öörni, Anssi; Kelders, Saskia Marion; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri

    2014-01-01

    Behavior change support systems (BCSS) research is an evolving area. While the systems have been demonstrated to work to the effect, there is still a lot of work to be done to better understand the influence mechanisms of behavior change, and work out their influence on the systems architecture. The

  16. Influencing behavioral change by customer engagement amongst youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sonal SinghMarketing and Management Department, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaAbstract: It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work followed a theoretical deduction by use of a literature review. Social marketing places emphasis on behavior change, and one of the key challenges for social marketers is to ensure a perceived value for customers in taking up and maintaining positive behavior. If perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and values influence behavior, then the central focus should be on the youth. Integrating youth is a prerequisite for effective social marketing programs and ultimately behavioral change. This approach will pave the way for effective brand positioning and brand loyalty in social marketing which has been lacking and requires more attention from researchers and policymakers. This paper outlines theoretical developments in social marketing that will increase the effectiveness of social marketing programs overall. Existing social marketing literature typically focuses on social marketing interventions and behavioral change. This paper uses customer engagement within a social marketing context so that social marketing programs are perceived as brands to which youth can relate.Keywords: social marketing, customer engagement, behavioral influence, change, youth

  17. Goal setting as a strategy for health behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecher, V J; Seijts, G H; Kok, G J; Latham, G P; Glasgow, R; DeVellis, B; Meertens, R M; Bulger, D W

    1995-05-01

    This article discusses the beneficial effects of setting goals in health behavior change and maintenance interventions. Goal setting theory predicts that, under certain conditions, setting specific difficult goals leads to higher performance when compared with no goals or vague, nonquantitative goals, such as "do your best." In contrast to the graduated, easy goals often set in health behavior change programs, goal setting theory asserts a positive linear relationship between degree of goal difficulty and level of performance. Research on goal setting has typically been conducted in organizational and laboratory settings. Although goal setting procedures are used in many health behavior change programs, they rarely have been the focus of systematic research. Therefore, many research questions still need to be answered regarding goal setting in the context of health behavior change. Finally, initial recommendations for the successful integration of goal setting theory in health behavior change programs are offered.

  18. Propensity for Voluntary Travel Behavior Changes: An Experimental Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meloni, Italo; Sanjust, Benedetta; Sottile, Eleonora;

    2013-01-01

    implementation, which consisted of providing car users with a personalized travel plan after the first week of observation (before) and using the second week to monitoring the post-behavior (after). These data have then been used to estimate a Mixed Logit for the choice to use a personal vehicle or a light metro......In this paper we analyze individual propensity to voluntary travel behavior change combining concepts from theory of change with the methodologies deriving from behavioral models. In particular, following the theory of voluntary changes, we set up a two-week panel survey including soft measure......; and a Multinomial Logit for the decision to change behavior. Results from both models show the relevance of providing information about available alternatives to individuals while promoting voluntary travel behavioral change....

  19. Serious Game Leverages Productive Negativity to Facilitate Conceptual Change in Undergraduate Molecular Biology: A Mixed-Methods Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Andrea; Jenkinson, Jodie

    2017-01-01

    We designed a serious game, MolWorlds, to facilitate conceptual change about molecular emergence by using game mechanics (resource management, immersed 3rd person character, sequential level progression, and 3-star scoring system) to encourage cycles of productive negativity. We tested the value-added effect of game design by comparing and…

  20. Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to Positive Therapeutic Change for People with Intellectual Disabilities: Client, Carer and Clinical Psychologist Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsden, Sarah; Tickle, Anna; Dawson, David L.; Harris, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Studies have highlighted successful outcomes of psychological therapies for people with intellectual disabilities. However, processes underlying these outcomes are uncertain. Thematic analysis was used to explore the perceptions of three clinical psychologists, six clients and six carers of barriers and facilitators to therapeutic change for…

  1. Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to Positive Therapeutic Change for People with Intellectual Disabilities: Client, Carer and Clinical Psychologist Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsden, Sarah; Tickle, Anna; Dawson, David L.; Harris, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Studies have highlighted successful outcomes of psychological therapies for people with intellectual disabilities. However, processes underlying these outcomes are uncertain. Thematic analysis was used to explore the perceptions of three clinical psychologists, six clients and six carers of barriers and facilitators to therapeutic change for…

  2. Using goal setting as a strategy for dietary behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, K W; Baranowski, T; Smith, S P

    2001-05-01

    Recent reviews have noted that behavioral theory-based nutrition education programs are more successful at achieving food behavior change than knowledge-based programs and that a clear understanding of the mechanisms of behavior change procedures enable dietetics professionals to more effectively promote change. Successful dietary behavior change programs target 1 or more of the personal, behavioral, or environmental factors that influence the behavior of interest and apply theory-based strategies to influence or change those factors. Goal setting is a strategy that is frequently used to help people change. A 4-step goal-setting process has been identified: recognizing a need for change; establishing a goal; adopting a goal-directed activity and self-monitoring it; and self-rewarding goal attainment. The applications of goal setting in dietary interventions for adults and children are reviewed here. Because interventions using goal setting appear to promote dietary change, dietitians should consider incorporating the goal-setting strategies to enhance the behavior change process in nutrition education programs.

  3. Barriers and facilitators of adolescent behavioral health in primary care: Perceptions of primary care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, George W; Springer, Paul; Gee, Robert; Graff, Chad; Schydlower, Manuel

    2009-12-01

    Several major policy reports describe the central role of primary care in improving the delivery of behavioral health care services to children and adolescents. Although primary care providers are uniquely positioned to provide these services, numerous obstacles hinder the integration of these services, including time, clinic management and organization issues, training, and resources. Although many of these obstacles have been described in the literature, few studies have investigated these issues from the first-person perspective of front-line providers. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to provide an in-depth description of primary care providers' attitudes and perceptions of adolescent behavioral health care across a diversity of primary care settings (i.e., Federally Qualified Health Center [FQHC], FQHC-Look Alike, school-based, military). Sixteen focus groups were conducted at 5 primary care clinics. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the focus group data. Obstacles to integration are presented as well as strategies to overcome these challenges, using training and education, working groups, and community collaboratives.

  4. On the role of the plasmodial cytoskeleton in facilitating intelligent behavior in slime mold Physarum polycephalum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Richard; Adamatzky, Andrew; Jones, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The plasmodium of slime mold Physarum polycephalum behaves as an amorphous reaction-diffusion computing substrate and is capable of apparently 'intelligent' behavior. But how does intelligence emerge in an acellular organism? Through a range of laboratory experiments, we visualize the plasmodial cytoskeleton-a ubiquitous cellular protein scaffold whose functions are manifold and essential to life-and discuss its putative role as a network for transducing, transmitting and structuring data streams within the plasmodium. Through a range of computer modeling techniques, we demonstrate how emergent behavior, and hence computational intelligence, may occur in cytoskeletal communications networks. Specifically, we model the topology of both the actin and tubulin cytoskeletal networks and discuss how computation may occur therein. Furthermore, we present bespoke cellular automata and particle swarm models for the computational process within the cytoskeleton and observe the incidence of emergent patterns in both. Our work grants unique insight into the origins of natural intelligence; the results presented here are therefore readily transferable to the fields of natural computation, cell biology and biomedical science. We conclude by discussing how our results may alter our biological, computational and philosophical understanding of intelligence and consciousness.

  5. Understanding and changing human behaviour—antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate modification of provider and consumer behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Ashok J. Tamhankar

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses: 1) Situations where human behaviour is involved in relation to antibiotics, focusing on providers and consumers; 2) Theories about human behaviour and factors influencing behaviour in relation to antibiotics; 3) How behaviour in relation to antibiotics can change; and, 4) Antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate changes in human behaviour as regards antibiotics. Influencing human behaviour in relation to antibiotics is a complex process which includes factor...

  6. Emotional reaction facilitates the brain and behavioral impact of graphic cigarette warning labels in smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, An-Li; Lowen, Steven B; Romer, Daniel; Giorno, Mario; Langleben, Daniel D

    2015-01-01

    Background Warning labels on cigarette packages are an important venue for information about the hazards of smoking. The 2009 US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act mandated replacing the current text-only labels with graphic warning labels. However, labels proposed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were challenged in court by the tobacco companies, who argued successfully that the proposed labels needlessly encroached on their right to free speech, in part because they included images of high emotional salience that indiscriminately frightened rather than informed consumers. Methods We used functional MRI to examine the effects of graphic warning labels' emotional salience on smokers' brain activity and cognition. Twenty-four smokers viewed a random sequence of blocks of graphic warning labels that have been rated high or low on an ‘emotional reaction’ scale in previous research. Results We found that labels rated high on emotional reaction were better remembered, associated with reduction in the urge to smoke, and produced greater brain response in the amygdala, hippocampi, inferior frontal gyri and the insulae. Conclusions Recognition memory and craving are, respectively, correlates of effectiveness of addiction related public health communications and interventions, and amygdala activation facilitates the encoding of emotional memories. Thus, our results suggest that emotional reaction to graphic warning labels contributes to their public health impact and may be an integral part of the neural mechanisms underlying their effectiveness. Given the urgency of the debate about the constitutional risks and public health benefits of graphic warning labels, these preliminary findings warrant consideration while longitudinal clinical studies are underway PMID:25564288

  7. Avoidance prone individuals self reporting behavioral inhibition exhibit facilitated acquisition and altered extinction of conditioned eyeblinks with partial reinforcement schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael Todd; Myers, Catherine E; Servatius, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Avoidance in the face of novel situations or uncertainty is a prime feature of behavioral inhibition which has been put forth as a risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders. Recent work has found that behaviorally inhibited (BI) individuals acquire conditioned eyeblinks faster than non-inhibited (NI) individuals in omission and yoked paradigms in which the predictive relationship between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditional stimulus (US) is less than optimal as compared to standard training with CS-US paired trials (Holloway et al., 2014). In the current study, we tested explicitly partial schedules in which half the trials were CS alone or US alone trials in addition to the standard CS-US paired trials. One hundred and forty nine college-aged undergraduates participated in the study. All participants completed the Adult Measure of Behavioral Inhibition (i.e., AMBI) which was used to group participants as BI and NI. Eyeblink conditioning consisted of three US alone trials, 60 acquisition trials, and 20 CS-alone extinction trials presented in one session. Conditioning stimuli were a 500 ms tone CS and a 50-ms air puff US. Behaviorally inhibited individuals receiving 50% partial reinforcement with CS alone or US alone trials produced facilitated acquisition as compared to NI individuals. A partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE) was evident with CS alone trials in BI but not NI individuals. These current findings indicate that avoidance prone individuals self-reporting behavioral inhibition over-learn an association and are slow to extinguish conditioned responses (CRs) when there is some level of uncertainty between paired trials and CS or US alone presentations.

  8. Facilitating Learning and Physical Change in Complex Systems through Employee Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Eva; Dahl, Susanne

    In a Danish workplace an experiment with mobile seating was carried out. Instead of implementing a certain concept designed by the management team the process was facilitated as a user involvement process based on Stacey´s theory of complex responsive processes. Here providing alternative pictures...

  9. New to Facilitating Self-Directed Learning: The Changing Perceptions of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Conttia; Gardner, David; Law, Ellie

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a study examining the attitudes and perceptions of a group of in-service teachers who are new or relatively new to facilitating self-directed learning (SDL) before and after they taught a course with an integrated SDL component. The study also investigates the impact on those teachers' attitudes of an orientation package…

  10. Cohabitation with a sterile male facilitates the development of retrieval behavior in nulliparous female rats exposed to pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Tanco, S A; Walsh, M L

    1992-10-01

    Female rats were housed with a sterile male or another female. After 3 weeks, half of the females that had been housed with a female were rehoused with an intact male. At the end of 6 weeks female or sterile male cagemates were removed. Intact male cagemates and pups were removed 3 to 12 h following parturition. All females were tested for retrieval of three unfamiliar pups placed in their cage on the day following removal of their cagemate. Three unfamiliar pups were placed with each female and the female's behavior observed for 10 min. Observations were made in this way for 13 days or until the female retrieved all three pups within the 10-min interval. Pups were left with the female on days they were not retrieved. Females housed with a sterile male reached criterion for pup retrieval in 2.9 days, significantly fewer days than were required for females housed with another female (6.6 days) but significantly more than were required for a postpartum female (0.8 days). By demonstrating that cohabitation with a male fosters the development of retrieval, these results support evidence from the study of aggressive behavior that pseudopregnancy facilitates the development of behaviors associated with pregnancy and lactation.

  11. Scaling Behavior and Phase Change in Complex Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cheng

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Scaling behavior is a extremely typical phenomenon in complex system research, as well as it can act that many Macro indicators in system or distribution function of some variables meet exactly power-law behavior, which possesses different kinds of Exponents. In this article, according to Phase Change concept in Physics, it is researched that the nature in critical state of complex network with Seepage model, and it is totally stated that the basic reason of Self-similar behavior, Fractal behavior, and so on, and also Phase Change in complex network in critical state of complex network in accord with power-law distribution.    

  12. The search for mechanisms of change in behavioral treatments for alcohol use disorders: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longabaugh, Richard

    2007-10-01

    Definitive results from efforts to identify mechanisms of change in behavioral treatments for alcohol use disorders have been elusive. The working hypothesis guiding this paper is that one of the reasons for this elusiveness is that the models we hypothesize to account for treatments effectiveness are unnecessarily restricted and too simple. This paper aims to accomplish 3 things. First, a typography for locating potential mediators of change will be presented. In the course of doing so, a nomenclature will be proposed with the hope that this will facilitate communications among alcohol treatment researchers studying mechanisms of change. Second, alternatives to the classic test of mediation of alcohol treatment effects will be considered and one such alternative described. Third, alternative ways of conceptualizing, constructing and analyzing variables to measure mediators will be suggested. It is hoped that this commentary will facilitate research on mechanisms of change in behavioral treatments for alcohol use disorders. Behavioral change is a complex process, and the models that we develop to account for this process need to reflect this complexity. Advances in statistical approaches for testing mediation, along with a better understanding as to how to use these tools should help in moving toward this goal.

  13. Health Behavior Change Interventions for Teenage and Young Adult Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Gemma; Gravestock, Helen L; Hough, Rachael E; King, Wendy M; Wardle, Jane; Fisher, Abigail

    2016-06-01

    It is important that teenage and young adult (TYA) cancer survivors adopt a healthy lifestyle, since health vulnerabilities associated with their diagnosis and treatment may be exacerbated by poor health behaviors. This review aims to synthesize the current literature on health behavior change interventions created specifically for TYA-aged cancer survivors. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases were searched for studies investigating interventions targeting one or more health behaviors, including: physical activity, diet, smoking cessation, and alcohol consumption. Studies were eligible for review if the study population were defined as TYA cancer survivors and the mean age of the sample was younger than 30 years of age. Twelve studies were identified, of which nine were randomized controlled trials. Physical activity was the most commonly targeted health behavior. Six of the 12 interventions included within this review were successful in changing health behavior. Due to the heterogeneity of intervention characteristics, the relationship between intervention efficacy or outcome and intervention content, delivery mode, or theoretical framework was not discernible. Nevertheless, trends emerged relating to the delivery and content of health behavior interventions designed specifically for TYA cancer survivors. More research is required to identify the most effective means of promoting health behavior change among the TYA cancer survivor population. Specifically, future research should focus on providing evidence of the efficiency and feasibility of interventions that use online technologies to facilitate remote intervention delivery and peer support.

  14. Facilitated acquisition of standard but not long delay classical eyeblink conditioning in behaviorally inhibited adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, M D; VanMeenen, K M; Servatius, R J

    2015-02-01

    Adolescence is a key age in the development of anxiety disorders. The present study assessed the relationship between behavioral inhibition, a risk factor for anxiety typified by avoidance, and acquisition of the classically conditioned eyeblink response. 168 healthy high school students (mean age 15.7 years, 54% female) were given a battery of self-report measures including the Adult Measure of Behavioural Inhibition (AMBI). The study compared acquisition of three experimental training conditions. Two groups were given paired CS-US training: standard delay of 500-ms or long delay of 1000-ms with CS overlapping and co-terminating with a 50-ms airpuff US. A third group received unpaired training of 1000-ms CS and 50-ms airpuff US. Inhibited individuals showed greater acquisition of the conditioned eyeblink response in the 500-ms CS condition, but not in the paired 1000-ms condition. No differences in spontaneous blinks or reactivity to the stimulus were evident in the 1000-ms unpaired CS condition. Results support a relationship between associative learning and anxiety vulnerability that may be mediated by cerebellar functioning in inhibited individuals.

  15. Aerobic exercise training facilitates the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy in panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudlitz, Katharina; Plag, Jens; Dimeo, Fernando; Ströhle, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    Physical activity has been discussed as a therapeutic alternative or add-on for the treatment of anxiety disorders. We studied whether aerobic exercise compared to physical activity with low impact can improve the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients with panic disorder (PD) with/without agoraphobia. Forty-seven patients received group CBT treatment over 1 month, which was augmented with an 8-week protocol of either aerobic exercise (three times/week, 30 min, 70% VO(2) max; n = 24) or a training program including exercises with very low intensity (n = 23) in a randomized controlled double-blind design. The primary outcome measure was the total score on the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (Ham-A). A 2 × 3 analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with baseline value as a covariate was conducted for data analysis. Time × group interaction for the Ham-A revealed a significant effect (P = .047, η(2) p = .072), which represented the significant group difference at a 7-month follow-up. For the other clinical outcome measures no statistical significance emerged, although improvement was more sustained in the exercise group. For patients with PD, regular aerobic exercise adds an additional benefit to CBT. This supports previous results and provides evidence about the intensity of exercise that needs to be performed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Influencing behavioral change by customer engagement amongst youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sonal

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work followed a theoretical deduction by use of a literature review. Social marketing places emphasis on behavior change, and one of the key challenges for social marketers is to ensure a perceived value for customers in taking up and maintaining positive behavior. If perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and values influence behavior, then the central focus should be on the youth. Integrating youth is a prerequisite for effective social marketing programs and ultimately behavioral change. This approach will pave the way for effective brand positioning and brand loyalty in social marketing which has been lacking and requires more attention from researchers and policymakers. This paper outlines theoretical developments in social marketing that will increase the effectiveness of social marketing programs overall. Existing social marketing literature typically focuses on social marketing interventions and behavioral change. This paper uses customer engagement within a social marketing context so that social marketing programs are perceived as brands to which youth can relate. PMID:24600281

  17. Influencing behavioral change by customer engagement amongst youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sonal

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work followed a theoretical deduction by use of a literature review. Social marketing places emphasis on behavior change, and one of the key challenges for social marketers is to ensure a perceived value for customers in taking up and maintaining positive behavior. If perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and values influence behavior, then the central focus should be on the youth. Integrating youth is a prerequisite for effective social marketing programs and ultimately behavioral change. This approach will pave the way for effective brand positioning and brand loyalty in social marketing which has been lacking and requires more attention from researchers and policymakers. This paper outlines theoretical developments in social marketing that will increase the effectiveness of social marketing programs overall. Existing social marketing literature typically focuses on social marketing interventions and behavioral change. This paper uses customer engagement within a social marketing context so that social marketing programs are perceived as brands to which youth can relate.

  18. Collective purchase behavior toward retail price changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiromichi; Watanabe, Tsutomu; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2011-02-01

    By analyzing a huge amount of point-of-sale data collected from Japanese supermarkets, we find power law relationships between price and sales numbers. The estimated values of the exponents of these power laws depend on the category of products; however, they are independent of the stores, thereby implying the existence of universal human purchase behavior. The rate of sales numbers around these power laws are generally approximated by log-normal distributions implying that there are hidden random parameters, which might proportionally affect the purchase activity.

  19. Posterior cingulate cortex: adapting behavior to a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, John M; Heilbronner, Sarah R; Barack, David L; Hayden, Benjamin Y; Platt, Michael L

    2011-04-01

    When has the world changed enough to warrant a new approach? The answer depends on current needs, behavioral flexibility and prior knowledge about the environment. Formal approaches solve the problem by integrating the recent history of rewards, errors, uncertainty and context via Bayesian inference to detect changes in the world and alter behavioral policy. Neuronal activity in posterior cingulate cortex - a key node in the default network - is known to vary with learning, memory, reward and task engagement. We propose that these modulations reflect the underlying process of change detection and motivate subsequent shifts in behavior.

  20. Weight loss and related behavior changes among lesbians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Sarah; Young, Laura; Dietrich, Mary; Blakemore, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are known risk factors for several modifiable, if not preventable diseases. Growing evidence suggests that lesbians may have higher rates of obesity than other women. This study was designed to describe weight loss and behavior changes related to food choices and exercise habits among lesbians who participated in a predominantly lesbian, mainstream, commercial weight loss program. Behavioral changes were recorded in exercise, quality of food choices, and number of times dining out. Although there were several limitations based on sample size and heterogeneity, the impact of a lesbian-supportive environment for behavior change was upheld.

  1. Social cognitive determinants of dietary behavior change in university employes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerksen, Shawna E; McAuley, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Many adults have poor dietary habits and few studies have focused on mechanisms underlying these behaviors. This study examined psychosocial determinants of dietary behavior change in university employes across a 5-month period. Participants completed measures of fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) and low fat food consumption (LFC) and social cognitive constructs. Multiple regression analyses accounted for a unique proportion of variation in dietary change. Outcome expectations significantly predicted FVC and LFC. Self-efficacy significantly predicted LFC. Goals were not associated with dietary behaviors. Further research into implementation strategies may provide insight into how goals work to bring about change.

  2. Social Cognitive Determinants of Dietary Behavior Change in University Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawna eDoerksen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many adults have poor dietary habits and few studies have focused on mechanisms underlying these behaviors. This study examined psychosocial determinants of dietary behavior change in university employees across a 5-month period. Participants completed measures of fruit and vegetable and low-fat food consumption and social cognitive constructs. Multiple regression analyses accounted for a unique proportion of variation in dietary change. Outcome expectations significantly predicted fruit and vegetable and low-fat consumption. Self-efficacy significantly predicted low-fat consumption. Goals were not associated with dietary behaviors. Further research into implementation strategies may provide insight into how goals work to bring about change.

  3. Collectively Facilitated Behavior of the Neonate Caterpillars of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence D. Fitzgerald

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The behavioral biology of the first instar larva of Cactoblastis cactorum was studied from the time of eclosion until the colony penetrated and initiated excavation of the host plant. Hatching from an egg stick was asynchronous, requiring 20 h for the entire cohort to eclose at 50%–70% RH and significantly longer at a lower range of RHs. On eclosion, neonates aggregated in an arena at the base of their egg stick and did not attempt to excavate the cladode until an average of 25 caterpillars had collected, approximately 15 h after the onset of egg hatch. Typically only a single entrance hole was formed, limiting the active process of excavating to one or a few individuals at-a-time until the host was fully penetrated and enlarged internally. Olfactometer tests showed that the neonates are strongly attracted to volatile chemicals released when caterpillars chewed into the cladode, accounting for the strong fidelity of the whole cohort to the initial site of penetration. In one instance, the caterpillars were observed to deal with an explosive release of mucilage by imbibing the liquid until the flooded zone was drained and the caterpillars could reenter the plant through the original entrance hole. Once inside the cladode, marked individuals adopted a regular cycle of defecating at the surface at a mean interval of approximately 10 min when followed for 35 successive cycles. Blanket spraying cladodes with a mandibular gland extract prior to hatching led to the independent dispersal of neonates and a failure to form an arena. When the cladode was impenetrable at the site of eclosion, the active cohort of unfed neonates set off together in search of a new site, marking and following a persistent trail that allowed late-to-eclose caterpillars to join their departed siblings. The adaptive significance of these observations is discussed in the context of the life history of the caterpillar.

  4. Anxiety-mediated facilitation of behavioral inhibition: Threat processing and defensive reactivity during a go/no-go task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillon, Christian; Robinson, Oliver J; Krimsky, Marissa; O'Connell, Katherine; Alvarez, Gabriella; Ernst, Monique

    2017-03-01

    Anxiety can be broken down into multiple facets including behavioral components, such as defensive reactivity, and cognitive components, such as distracting anxious thoughts. In a previous study, we showed that anticipation of unpredictable shocks facilitated response inhibition to infrequent no-go trials during a go/no-go task. The present study extends this work to examine the distinct contribution of defensive reactivity, measures with fear-potentiated startle, and anxious thought, assessed with thought probes, on go and no-go performance. Consistent with our prior findings, shock anticipation facilitated response inhibition (i.e., reduced errors of commission) on the no-go trials. Regression analyses showed that (a) no-go accuracy was positively associated with fear-potentiated startle and negatively associated with threat-related/task-unrelated thoughts and (b) go accuracy correlated negatively with fear-potentiated startle. Thus, while the present findings confirm the influence of anxiety on response inhibition, they also show that such influence reflects the balance between the positive effect of defensive reactivity and the negative effect of distracting anxious thoughts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Facilitating Change in School Health: A Qualitative Study of Schools’ Experiences Using the School Health Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bryn Austin, ScD

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionAs school-based efforts increase to address the epidemic of childhood obesity, a priority for health professionals and educators will be to identify effective tools appropriate for use in schools to help guide health promotion programs and policies. This article describes the results of a qualitative research study examining school staff and community members’ experiences working with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s School Health Index, a self-assessment and planning tool that addresses nutrition and physical activity.MethodsIn-depth interviews were carried out with faculty, staff, and community collaborators in nine public schools that were using the School Health Index to develop nutrition and physical activity initiatives for students. Interviews were conducted twice: once after a school had completed the School Health Index and once approximately 1 year later. Transcript data from interviews with 34 participants were analyzed using thematic analysis.ResultsFindings indicated that school experiences differed markedly depending on whether they received help from an outside facilitator to work with the School Health Index. Unlike staff in schools working on their own, school staff working with outside facilitators described completing the School Health Index in a collaborative way, creating action plans, and working as a team to implement health promotion initiatives. In addition, the involvement of an outside facilitator supported schools in undertaking more complex tasks with a greater degree of collaboration across the school and local communities in order to achieve goals.ConclusionOutside facilitators may significantly enhance schools’ efforts to work with the School Health Index and influence the organizational strategies they use to implement health promotion initiatives.

  6. Facilitating Learning and Physical Change in Complex Systems through Employee Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Eva; Dahl, Susanne

    In a Danish workplace an experiment with mobile seating was carried out. Instead of implementing a certain concept designed by the management team the process was facilitated as a user involvement process based on Stacey´s theory of complex responsive processes. Here providing alternative pictures...... of the organisation challenged the discursive practice of the organisation and engaged employees in a process where they challenged each other’s accepted understandings of the organisation and of their work....

  7. Patient-provider concordance with behavioral change goals drives measures of motivational interviewing consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Michael Barton; Rose, Gary S; Beach, Mary Catherine; Lee, Yoojin; Rogers, William S; Velasco, Alyssa Bianca; Wilson, Ira B

    2015-06-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) consistent talk by a counselor is thought to produce "change talk" in clients. However, it is possible that client resistance to behavior change can produce MI inconsistent counselor behavior. We applied a coding scheme which identifies all of the behavioral counseling about a given issue during a visit ("episodes"), assesses patient concordance with the behavioral goal, and labels providers' counseling style as facilitative or directive, to a corpus of routine outpatient visits by people with HIV. Using a different data set of comparable encounters, we applied the concepts of episode and concordance, and coded using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity system. Patient concordance/discordance was not observed to change during any episode. Provider directiveness was strongly associated with patient discordance in the first study, and MI inconsistency was strongly associated with discordance in the second. Observations that MI-consistent behavior by medical providers is associated with patient change talk or outcomes should be evaluated cautiously, as patient resistance may provoke MI-inconsistency. Counseling episodes in routine medical visits are typically too brief for client talk to evolve toward change. Providers with limited training may have particular difficulty maintaining MI consistency with resistant clients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Improving adolescent social competence and behavior: a randomized trial of an 11-week equine facilitated learning prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendry, Patricia; Carr, Alexa M; Smith, Annelise N; Roeter, Stephanie M

    2014-08-01

    There is growing evidence that promoting social competence in youth is an effective strategy to prevent mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders in adulthood. Research suggests that programs delivered in collaboration with schools are particularly effective when they target social and emotional skill building, utilize an interactive instructional style, provide opportunities for youth participation and self-direction, and include explicit attempts to enhance youth social competence. A relatively new but popular approach that incorporates these characteristics is human animal interaction, which can be implemented in educational settings. We report the results from a randomized clinical trial examining the effects of an 11-week equine facilitated learning (EFL) program on the social competence and behavior of 5th-8th grade children. Children (N = 131) were recruited through referral by school counselors and school-based recruitment and then screened for low social competence. Researchers randomly assigned children to an experimental (n = 53) or waitlisted control group (n = 60). Children in the experimental group participated in an 11-week EFL program consisting of once-weekly, 90-min sessions of individual and team-focused activities, whereas children in the control group served as a wait-listed control and participated 16 weeks later. Parents of children in both groups rated child social competence at pretest and posttest. Three independent raters observed and reported children's positive and negative behavior using a validated checklist during each weekly session. Results indicated that program participation had a moderate treatment effect (d = .55) on social competence (p = .02) that was independent of pretest levels, age, gender, and referral status. Results showed that higher levels of program attendance predicted children's trajectories of observed positive (β = .500; p = .003) and negative behavior (β = -.062; p < .001) over the 11-week program.

  9. Psychology Departments Are Changing Their Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, David

    2008-01-01

    The neuroscience revolution has brought a set of difficult, at times uncomfortable, changes in university-based research psychology. The technologies that allow scholars to probe the structures and functions of the human brain are also causing profound alterations in the structures and functions of psychology departments: curricula, hiring…

  10. Behavior Change Techniques in Popular Alcohol Reduction Apps: Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Claire; Brown, James; West, Robert; Michie, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile phone apps have the potential to reduce excessive alcohol consumption cost-effectively. Although hundreds of alcohol-related apps are available, there is little information about the behavior change techniques (BCTs) they contain, or the extent to which they are based on evidence or theory and how this relates to their popularity and user ratings. Objective Our aim was to assess the proportion of popular alcohol-related apps available in the United Kingdom that focus on alcohol reduction, identify the BCTs they contain, and explore whether BCTs or the mention of theory or evidence is associated with app popularity and user ratings. Methods We searched the iTunes and Google Play stores with the terms “alcohol” and “drink”, and the first 800 results were classified into alcohol reduction, entertainment, or blood alcohol content measurement. Of those classified as alcohol reduction, all free apps and the top 10 paid apps were coded for BCTs and for reference to evidence or theory. Measures of popularity and user ratings were extracted. Results Of the 800 apps identified, 662 were unique. Of these, 13.7% (91/662) were classified as alcohol reduction (95% CI 11.3-16.6), 53.9% (357/662) entertainment (95% CI 50.1-57.7), 18.9% (125/662) blood alcohol content measurement (95% CI 16.1-22.0) and 13.4% (89/662) other (95% CI 11.1-16.3). The 51 free alcohol reduction apps and the top 10 paid apps contained a mean of 3.6 BCTs (SD 3.4), with approximately 12% (7/61) not including any BCTs. The BCTs used most often were “facilitate self-recording” (54%, 33/61), “provide information on consequences of excessive alcohol use and drinking cessation” (43%, 26/61), “provide feedback on performance” (41%, 25/61), “give options for additional and later support” (25%, 15/61) and “offer/direct towards appropriate written materials” (23%, 14/61). These apps also rarely included any of the 22 BCTs frequently used in other health behavior change

  11. Surgery-induced behavioral changes in aged rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, Iris B.; Schoemaker, Regien G.; van der Zee, Eddy A.; Heineman, Erik; Nyakas, Csaba; van Leeuwen, Barbara L.; Humpel, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Elderly patients may experience impairments in cognition or mood following surgery. To study the development and underlying mechanisms of these postoperative behavioral changes, young (3 months) and aged (18-20 months) male rats were subjected to abdominal surgery followed by behavioral testing duri

  12. A Longitudinal Study Examining Changes in Students' Leadership Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Barry Z.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a leadership development program in students' first year with the subsequent leadership behaviors of those students in their senior year. Significant changes were reported in the frequency of engaging in leadership behaviors from freshman to senior years. No differences were found on the basis of gender. In…

  13. Surgery-induced behavioral changes in aged rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, Iris B.; Schoemaker, Regien G.; van der Zee, Eddy A.; Heineman, Erik; Nyakas, Csaba; van Leeuwen, Barbara L.; Humpel, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Elderly patients may experience impairments in cognition or mood following surgery. To study the development and underlying mechanisms of these postoperative behavioral changes, young (3 months) and aged (18-20 months) male rats were subjected to abdominal surgery followed by behavioral testing

  14. Determinants of Students' Interracial Behavior and Opinion Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchen, Martin; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Describes a study of interracial behavior and opinion change among black and white high school students in Indianapolis. Factors such as personal aggressiveness, initial racial attitudes, and opportunities for interracial contact within and prior to school are analyzed in terms of their influence on negative and positive interracial behavior.…

  15. The Role of Communication in Ensuring Sustained Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Part 2 of a three-part webinar series on communications strategies and methods, we address how communications tools can be used throughout the implementation of climate and clean energy programs to achieve behavior change and ensure sustained.

  16. The Role of Communication in Ensuring Sustained Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Part 2 of a three-part webinar series on communications strategies and methods, we address how communications tools can be used throughout the implementation of climate and clean energy programs to achieve behavior change and ensure sustained.

  17. Social Cognitive Determinants of Dietary Behavior Change in University Employes

    OpenAIRE

    Shawna eDoerksen; Edward eMcAuley

    2014-01-01

    Many adults have poor dietary habits and few studies have focused on mechanisms underlying these behaviors. This study examined psychosocial determinants of dietary behavior change in university employees across a 5-month period. Participants completed measures of fruit and vegetable and low-fat food consumption and social cognitive constructs. Multiple regression analyses accounted for a unique proportion of variation in dietary change. Outcome expectations significantly predicted fruit and ...

  18. Facilitation visits as a method for implementing change in general practice - What lies beneath the label?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Tina Drud

    2016-01-01

    ingen klar og konsistent definition af facilitering, og der er markante variationer i indholdet mellem forskellige facilitatorinterventioner. Facilitatorer beskrives at have mange forskellige roller og mangeartede aktiviteter er beskrevet både inden for enkelte interventioner og på tværs af...... at opgaver blev defineret, uddelegeret og udført. Facilitatorerne udmøntede generelt ikke en også tiltænkt coaching-baseret facilitatorrolle, hvor de under besøgene understøttede interne diskussioner og refleksioner over den besøgte praksis’ organisering og implementering. Studiet identificerede desuden både...

  19. Collective learning, change and improvement in health care: trialling a facilitated learning initiative with general practice teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunniss, Suzanne; Gray, Francesca; Kelly, Diane

    2012-06-01

    Many patients, families, health care professionals and politicians desire for quality improvement within the UK National Health Service. One way to achieve this change is for health care teams to work and learn together more effectively. This research aimed to design and trial a facilitated learning programme with the aim of supporting general practice teams in fostering the characteristics of learning organizations. This is an action research study. Qualitative data were captured during and after the trial from 40 participants in two multi-professional general practice teams within different Scottish health boards. Data were gathered using observations, semi-structured interviews and written learning notes. Taking part in the LPP was a positive experience of learning together as a practice and enhanced communication within the team was a particular outcome. External facilitation helped provide focus and reduce inter-professional barriers. Teams found working in small, mixed role discussion groups particularly valuable in understanding each others' perspectives. The active learning style of the LPP could be daunting at times but teams valued the chance to identify their own quality improvement goals. Teams introduced a number of changes to improve the quality of care within their practice as a result of their participation. This trial of the learning practice programme shows that, with facilitation and the appropriate input of resources, general practice teams can successfully apply learning organization principles to produce quality improvement outcomes. The study also demonstrates the value of action research in researching iterative change over time. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Enhancing behavioral change with motivational interviewing: a case study in a Cardiac Rehabilitation Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrabissa, Giada; Ceccarini, Martina; Borrello, Maria; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Titon, Annamaria; Nibbio, Ferruccio; Montano, Mariella; Bertone, Gianandrea; Gondoni, Luca; Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Psychological interventions in cardiac rehabilitation programs appear relevant in as much they significantly contribute to achieve the goals of rehabilitation, to reduce the risk of relapses and to improve patients' adherence to therapy. To this aim, motivational interviewing (MI) has shown promising results in improving motivation to change and individuals' confidence in their ability to do so. The purpose of this article is to integrate theory with practice by describing a three-session case scenario. It illustrates how MI's skills and strategies can be used to enhance heart-healthy habits. MI may be synergistic with other treatment approaches and it is used here in conjunction with brief strategic therapy. By the use of MI principles and techniques, the patient reported an increase in his motivation and ability to change, developing a post discharge plan that incorporates self-care behaviors. MI may be effective in motivating and facilitating health behavior change among obese patients suffering from heart failure.

  1. How Traumatic Violence Permanently Changes Shopping Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigirci, Ozge; Rockmore, Marc; Wansink, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic experiences - such as combat, living in a conflict country or war-torn nation, or experiencing a violent crime or natural disaster - change social relationships and may also influence a life-time of consumer relationships with brands and shopping. Our focus on this previously overlooked area is centered on an analysis of the long-term shopping habits of 355 combat veterans. We show that those who experienced heavy trauma (e.g., heavy combat) exhibited similar disconnection from brands as others have experienced in social relationships. They became more transactional in that they were more open to switching brands, to trying new products, and buying the least expensive alternative (p < 0.01). In contrast, those who had experienced a light trauma were more influenced by ads and more open to buying brands even when they cost more (p < 0.00). Trauma, such as combat, may change one's decision horizon. Functionality and price become more important, which is consistent with the idea that they are more focused on the present moment than on building on the past or saving for the future.

  2. How Traumatic Violence Permanently Changes Shopping Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Sigirci

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic experiences – such as combat, living in a conflict country or war-torn nation, or experience a violent crimes or natural disasters – change social relationships and may also influence a life-time of consumer relationships with brands and shopping. Our focus on this previously overlooked area is centered on an analysis of the long-term shopping habits 355 combat veterans. We show that those who experienced heavy trauma (e.g., heavy combat exhibited similar disconnection from brands as others have experienced in social relationships. They became more transactional in that they were more open to switching brands, to trying new products, and buying the least expensive alternative (p<0.01. In contrast, those who had experienced a light trauma were more influenced by ads and more open to buying brands even when they cost more (p<0.00. Trauma, such as combat, may change one’s decision horizon. Functionality and price become more important, which is consistent with the idea that they are more focused on the present moment than on building on the past or saving for the future.

  3. Facilitating and Inhibiting Factors of Sexual Behavior among Migrants in Transition from Mexico to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Ordoñez, Jesús Alejandro; Benavides-Torres, Raquel A; Zapata-Garibay, Rogelio; Onofre-Rodríguez, Dora Julia; Márquez-Vega, María Aracely; Zamora-Carmona, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the border region of Mexico due to the flow of migrants under desperate conditions, encouraging casual and unprotected sex. Since this has become a binational public health problem, it is important to understand the factors that predict these sexual behaviors. The aim of the current study was to investigate the facilitators and inhibitors of transition in the sexual behavior of migrants from two border regions on the Mexico-United States (US) border. This was a predictive and cross-sectional study. A sample of 256 migrants in shelters for migrants on the border between Mexico and US were selected through systematic random sampling. Predictor variables investigated for effect on the safe sexual behavior (SSB) of the migrant were reasons for having sex; sexual attitudes; sexual machismo; knowledge about HIV; access to health services; and social discrimination. The sample was predominantly male (89.5%), with 46.1% reporting being single. The average age was 33.38 years (SD = 9.73) and the average number of years of education reported was 8.05 (SD = 3.37). A permissive sexual attitude and sexual machismo both correlated with condom use (rs = 0.130, p machismo (β = -0.28, t = -4.83, p machismo, and HIV knowledge were all variables capable of predicting SSB. It is recommended that the study is extended to study migrant populations from other parts of the border, as well undertaking as a qualitative approach to explore new variables.

  4. Folkbiology meets microbiology: a study of conceptual and behavioral change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Terry Kit-fong; Chan, Carol K K; Chan, Tsz-Kit; Cheung, Mike W L; Ho, Johnson Y S; Ip, Grace W M

    2008-08-01

    Health education can offer a valuable window onto conceptual and behavioral change. In Study 1, we mapped out 3rd-grade Chinese children's beliefs about causes of colds and flu and ways they can be prevented. We also explored older adults' beliefs as a possible source of the children's ideas. In Study 2, we gave 3rd- and 4th-grade Chinese children either a conventional cold/flu education program or an experimental "Think Biology" program that focused on a biological causal mechanism for cold/flu transmission. The "Think Biology" program led children to reason about cold/flu causation and prevention more scientifically than the conventional program, and their reasoning abilities dovetailed with their mastery of the causal mechanism. Study 3, a modified replication of Study 2, found useful behavioral change as well as conceptual change among children who received the "Think Biology" program and documented coherence among knowledge enrichment, conceptual change, and behavioral change.

  5. Prolonged rote learning produces delayed memory facilitation and metabolic changes in the hippocampus of the ageing human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prendergast Julie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeated rehearsal is one method by which verbal material may be transferred from short- to long-term memory. We hypothesised that extended engagement of memory structures through prolonged rehearsal would result in enhanced efficacy of recall and also of brain structures implicated in new learning. Twenty-four normal participants aged 55-70 (mean = 60.1 engaged in six weeks of rote learning, during which they learned 500 words per week every week (prose, poetry etc.. An extensive battery of memory tests was administered on three occasions, each six weeks apart. In addition, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS was used to measure metabolite levels in seven voxels of interest (VOIs (including hippocampus before and after learning. Results Results indicate a facilitation of new learning that was evident six weeks after rote learning ceased. This facilitation occurred for verbal/episodic material only, and was mirrored by a metabolic change in left posterior hippocampus, specifically an increase in NAA/(Cr+Cho ratio. Conclusion Results suggest that repeated activation of memory structures facilitates anamnesis and may promote neuronal plasticity in the ageing brain, and that compliance is a key factor in such facilitation as the effect was confined to those who engaged fully with the training.

  6. Prolonged rote learning produces delayed memory facilitation and metabolic changes in the hippocampus of the ageing human brain.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roche, Richard Ap

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Repeated rehearsal is one method by which verbal material may be transferred from short- to long-term memory. We hypothesised that extended engagement of memory structures through prolonged rehearsal would result in enhanced efficacy of recall and also of brain structures implicated in new learning. Twenty-four normal participants aged 55-70 (mean = 60.1) engaged in six weeks of rote learning, during which they learned 500 words per week every week (prose, poetry etc.). An extensive battery of memory tests was administered on three occasions, each six weeks apart. In addition, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was used to measure metabolite levels in seven voxels of interest (VOIs) (including hippocampus) before and after learning. RESULTS: Results indicate a facilitation of new learning that was evident six weeks after rote learning ceased. This facilitation occurred for verbal\\/episodic material only, and was mirrored by a metabolic change in left posterior hippocampus, specifically an increase in NAA\\/(Cr+Cho) ratio. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that repeated activation of memory structures facilitates anamnesis and may promote neuronal plasticity in the ageing brain, and that compliance is a key factor in such facilitation as the effect was confined to those who engaged fully with the training.

  7. Some current dimensions of the behavioral economics of health-related behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Warren K; Moody, Lara; Higgins, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Health-related behaviors such as tobacco, alcohol and other substance use, poor diet and physical inactivity, and risky sexual practices are important targets for research and intervention. Health-related behaviors are especially pertinent targets in the United States, which lags behind most other developed nations on common markers of population health. In this essay we examine the application of behavioral economics, a scientific discipline that represents the intersection of economics and psychology, to the study and promotion of health-related behavior change. More specifically, we review what we consider to be some core dimensions of this discipline when applied to the study health-related behavior change. Behavioral economics (1) provides novel conceptual systems to inform scientific understanding of health behaviors, (2) translates scientific understanding into practical and effective behavior-change interventions, (3) leverages varied aspects of behavior change beyond increases or decreases in frequency, (4) recognizes and exploits trans-disease processes and interventions, and (5) leverages technology in efforts to maximize efficacy, cost effectiveness, and reach. These dimensions are overviewed and their implications for the future of the field discussed.

  8. Changing Family Habits: A Case Study into Climate Change Mitigation Behavior in Families

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    Leger, Michel T.; Pruneau, Diane

    2012-01-01

    A case-study methodology was used to explore the process of change as experienced by 3 suburban families in an attempt to incorporate climate change mitigation behavior into their day to day life. Cross-case analysis of the findings revealed the emergence of three major conceptual themes associated with behavior adoption: collectively applied…

  9. Effects of habitual anger on employees' behavior during organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönigk, Mareike; Steffgen, Georges

    2013-11-25

    Organizational change is a particularly emotional event for those being confronted with it. Anger is a frequently experienced emotion under these conditions. This study analyses the influence of employees' habitual anger reactions on their reported behavior during organizational change. It was explored whether anger reactions conducive to recovering or increasing individual well-being will enhance the likelihood of functional change behavior. Dysfunctional regulation strategies in terms of individual well-being are expected to decrease the likelihood of functional change behavior-mediated by the commitment to change. Four hundred and twelve employees of different organizations in Luxembourg undergoing organizational change participated in the study. Findings indicate that the anger regulation strategy venting, and humor increase the likelihood of deviant resistance to change. Downplaying the incident's negative impact and feedback increase the likelihood of active support for change. The mediating effect of commitment to change has been found for humor and submission. The empirical findings suggest that a differentiated conceptualization of resistance to change is required. Specific implications for practical change management and for future research are discussed.

  10. Counseling for health behavior change in people with COPD: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams MT

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Marie T Williams,1 Tanja W Effing,2,3 Catherine Paquet,4 Carole A Gibbs,5 Hayley Lewthwaite,1 Lok Sze Katrina Li,6 Anna C Phillips,6 Kylie N Johnston6 1Health and Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA, School of Health Sciences, Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Repatriation General Hospital, 3School of Medicine, Flinders University, 4Division of Health Sciences, Centre for Population Health Research, School of Health Sciences, Sansom Institute for Health Research, 5Library, University of South Australia, 6Division of Health Sciences, School of Health Sciences, Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: Counseling has been suggested as a promising approach for facilitating changes in health behavior. The aim of this systematic review of counseling interventions for people with COPD was to describe: 1 counseling definitions, 2 targeted health behaviors, 3 counseling techniques and 4 whether commonalities in counseling techniques were associated with improved health behaviors. Ten databases were searched for original randomized controlled trials which included adults with COPD, used the term “counseling” as a sole or component of a multifaceted intervention and were published in the previous 10 years. Data extraction, study appraisal and coding for behavior change techniques (BCTs were completed by two independent reviewers. Data were synthesized descriptively, with meta-analysis conducted where possible. Of the 182 studies reviewed as full-text, 22 were included. A single study provided a definition for counseling. Two key behaviors were the main foci of counseling: physical activity (n=9 and smoking cessation (n=8. Six studies (27% reported underlying models and/or theoretical frameworks. Counseling was the sole intervention in 10 studies and part of a multicomponent intervention in 12

  11. Building a Sense of Ownership to Facilitate Change: The New Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-Montemayor, Leticia; Hernandez-Escobar, Claudia; Ayala-Aguirre, Francisco; Aguilar, Graciela Medina

    2008-01-01

    Just as trends in medical education are changing continuously, so must curricula. To keep pace with such trends the School of Medicine Tec de Monterrey, Mexico, underwent a curriculum reform process with the goal of developing a new educational model and reducing resistance to change. The Curriculum Committee created seven subcommittees involving…

  12. Facilitating Students' Conceptual Change and Scientific Reasoning Involving the Unit of Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chin-Quen; She, Hsiao-Ching

    2010-01-01

    This article reports research from a 3 year digital learning project to unite conceptual change and scientific reasoning in the learning unit of combustion. One group of students had completed the course combining conceptual change and scientific reasoning. The other group of students received conventional instruction. In addition to the…

  13. Facilitating Students' Conceptual Change and Scientific Reasoning Involving the Unit of Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chin-Quen; She, Hsiao-Ching

    2010-01-01

    This article reports research from a 3 year digital learning project to unite conceptual change and scientific reasoning in the learning unit of combustion. One group of students had completed the course combining conceptual change and scientific reasoning. The other group of students received conventional instruction. In addition to the…

  14. Building a Sense of Ownership to Facilitate Change: The New Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-Montemayor, Leticia; Hernandez-Escobar, Claudia; Ayala-Aguirre, Francisco; Aguilar, Graciela Medina

    2008-01-01

    Just as trends in medical education are changing continuously, so must curricula. To keep pace with such trends the School of Medicine Tec de Monterrey, Mexico, underwent a curriculum reform process with the goal of developing a new educational model and reducing resistance to change. The Curriculum Committee created seven subcommittees involving…

  15. Human Behavioral Contributions to Climate Change: Psychological and Contextual Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swim, Janet K.; Clayton, Susan; Howard, George S.

    2011-01-01

    We are facing rapid changes in the global climate, and these changes are attributable to human behavior. Humans produce this global impact through our use of natural resources, multiplied by the vast increase in population seen in the past 50 to 100 years. Our goal in this article is to examine the underlying psychosocial causes of human impact,…

  16. Understanding and changing human behaviour--antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate modification of provider and consumer behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Tamhankar, Ashok J

    2014-05-01

    This paper addresses: 1) Situations where human behaviour is involved in relation to antibiotics, focusing on providers and consumers; 2) Theories about human behaviour and factors influencing behaviour in relation to antibiotics; 3) How behaviour in relation to antibiotics can change; and, 4) Antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate changes in human behaviour as regards antibiotics. Influencing human behaviour in relation to antibiotics is a complex process which includes factors like knowledge, attitudes, social norms, socio-economic conditions, peer pressure, experiences, and bio-physical and socio-behavioural environment. Further, key concepts are often perceived in different ways by different individuals. While designing and implementing projects or programmes for behavioural change with respect to antibiotics for professionals or consumers it is helpful to consider theories or models of behaviour change, e.g. the 'stages of change model', including pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. People in different stages of change are susceptible to different behaviour modification strategies. Application of marketing principles to 'global good', so-called 'social marketing', to improve 'welfare of the individual and society' is gaining increased attention in public health. In conclusion, just providing correct knowledge is not sufficient although it is a pre-requisite for behaviour modification in the desired direction. We can never change the behaviour of any other human, but we can facilitate for others to change their own behaviour. One possibility is to implement 'antibiotic mainstreaming' as a potentially effective way for behaviour modification, i.e. to address consequences for maintaining effective antibiotics in all activities and decisions in society.

  17. How Multilevel Societal Learning Processes Facilitate Transformative Change: A Comparative Case Study Analysis on Flood Management

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    Claudia Pahl-Wostl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable resources management requires a major transformation of existing resource governance and management systems. These have evolved over a long time under an unsustainable management paradigm, e.g., the transformation from the traditionally prevailing technocratic flood protection toward the holistic integrated flood management approach. We analyzed such transformative changes using three case studies in Europe with a long history of severe flooding: the Hungarian Tisza and the German and Dutch Rhine. A framework based on societal learning and on an evolutionary understanding of societal change was applied to identify drivers and barriers for change. Results confirmed the importance of informal learning and actor networks and their connection to formal policy processes. Enhancing a society's capacity to adapt is a long-term process that evolves over decades, and in this case, was punctuated by disastrous flood events that promoted windows of opportunity for change.

  18. Facilitating Conceptual Change Learning: The Need for Teachers To Support Metacognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeth, Michael E.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that two theoretical components of a model known as the Conceptual Change Model (CCM) are beneficial constructs for teachers to use when helping students negotiate scientific discourse. Contains 34 references. (DDR)

  19. A Change Impact Analysis to Characterize Evolving Program Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungta, Neha Shyam; Person, Suzette; Branchaud, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Change impact analysis techniques estimate the potential effects of changes made to software. Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution (DiSE) is an intraprocedural technique for characterizing the impact of software changes on program behaviors. DiSE first estimates the impact of the changes on the source code using program slicing techniques, and then uses the impact sets to guide symbolic execution to generate path conditions that characterize impacted program behaviors. DiSE, however, cannot reason about the flow of impact between methods and will fail to generate path conditions for certain impacted program behaviors. In this work, we present iDiSE, an extension to DiSE that performs an interprocedural analysis. iDiSE combines static and dynamic calling context information to efficiently generate impacted program behaviors across calling contexts. Information about impacted program behaviors is useful for testing, verification, and debugging of evolving programs. We present a case-study of our implementation of the iDiSE algorithm to demonstrate its efficiency at computing impacted program behaviors. Traditional notions of coverage are insufficient for characterizing the testing efforts used to validate evolving program behaviors because they do not take into account the impact of changes to the code. In this work we present novel definitions of impacted coverage metrics that are useful for evaluating the testing effort required to test evolving programs. We then describe how the notions of impacted coverage can be used to configure techniques such as DiSE and iDiSE in order to support regression testing related tasks. We also discuss how DiSE and iDiSE can be configured for debugging finding the root cause of errors introduced by changes made to the code. In our empirical evaluation we demonstrate that the configurations of DiSE and iDiSE can be used to support various software maintenance tasks

  20. Facilitating conceptual change in students’ understanding of concepts related to pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Gulbin; Sezgin Selcuk, Gamze

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the effects of three different types of methods of learning physics (conceptual change-based, real life context-based and traditional learning) on high school physics students in the 11th grade in terms of conceptual change they achieved in learning about the various topics (pressure exerted by solids, pressure in stagnant liquids and gases, buoyancy, Bernoulli’s principle). In this study, a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental method with nonequivalent control group, involving a 3 (group) × 2 (time) factorial design was used. Study group 1 were given the conceptual change texts on the mentioned subjects, study group 2 were offered a teaching approach based on real life context-based learning, whereas the control group was taught in the traditional style. Data for the research were collected with the ‘pressure conceptual test’. As a result of research, the number of misconceptions had been reduced or shifted altogether in all three groups. After the instruction, it was seen that none of the students formed new misconceptions. It was found that the most positive change could be seen in the conceptual change text group followed by context-based and lastly traditional. The fact that none of the students formed new misconceptions is important, particularly since research such as the following shows that conceptual change is tenuous and inconsistent, taking time to shift in a sustained manner.

  1. [Cognitive changes in decision making process underlying prosocial behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, K; Takagi, O

    1987-08-01

    Using a method of monitoring information acquisition, 76 subjects were instructed to simulate the information search process in which they selected a behavior from available behavioral alternatives which were expected to occur in a situation where donating behavior was needed. In order to measure the cognitive changes, they were asked to rate the importance of behavioral attributes both before and after the decision task. After the decision task, they were asked to rate the inner states. (1) Defensive cognitive changes were found which increased the importance of behavioral costs and decreased the importance of personal moral obligation feelings. This pattern of changes was consistent with the Schwartz & Howard model (1981, 1982, 1984). (2) The defensive cognitive changes were related to the information search strategies. This pattern of relationship partly confirmed the prediction derived from the Schwartz & Howard model (1981, 1982, 1984). (3) The result that the cognitive changes were not related to the inner states was inconsistent with the model of either Piliavin, Dovidio, Gaertner, & Clark (1981, 1982) or Schwartz & Howard (1981, 1982, 1984). An alternative model was proposed and discussed.

  2. Behavioral change related to Wenchuan devastating earthquake in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghong; Liu, Yanyou; Jiang, Zhou; Guan, Junwen; Yi, Guixi; Cheng, Shuting; Yang, Bo; Fu, Tianming; Wang, Zhengrong

    2009-12-01

    It has been suggested that some animals are much more capable of perceiving certain kinds of geophysical stimuli which may precede earthquakes than humans, but the anecdotal phenomena or stories about unusual animal behaviors prior to an earthquake should be interpreted with objective data. During the Wenchuan magnitude 8.0 earthquake that happened in Wenchuan county (31.0 degrees north latitude, 103.4 degrees east longitude) of Sichuan province, China, on May 12, 2008, eight mice were monitored for locomotor activity and circadian rhythm in constant darkness with temperature 22-24 degrees C and humidity 55-65% for 38 days. The ongoing monitoring of locomotor activity of mice in our laboratory made it possible to design a posteriori study investigating whether the earthquake was associated with any change in animal behavior. Based on analyzing the recorded data with single cosinor, we found that the locomotor activity dramatically decreased in six of these eight mice on day 3 before the earthquake, and the circadian rhythm of their locomotor activity was no longer detected. The behavioral change lasted for 6 days before the locomotor activity returned to its original state. Analyses of concurrent geomagnetic data showed a higher total intensity during the span when the circadian rhythm in locomotor activity weakened. These results indicated that the behaviors, including circadian rhythm and activity, in these mice indeed changed prior to the earthquake, and the behavioral change might be associated with a change of geomagnetic intensity.

  3. Social integration and health behavioral change in San Luis, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuestion, Michael J; Quijano Calle, Ana; Drasbek, Christopher; Harkins, Thomas; Sagastume, Lourdes J

    2010-10-01

    This study explores the effects of social integration on behavioral change in the course of an intensive, community-based public health intervention. The intervention trained volunteers and mobilized local organizations to promote 16 key family health practices in rural San Luis, Honduras, during 2004 to 2006. A mixed methods approach is used. Standard household sample surveys were performed in 22 villages before and after the intervention. Eight villages were then resurveyed. A household survey, focus groups, and key informant interviews measured health behaviors and several social structural and psychosocial variables. The villages were then ranked on their mean behavioral and social integration scores. The quantitative and qualitative rankings were in close agreement (Kendall's coefficient of concordance = .707, p behavioral change. Health interventions can be made more effective by analyzing these features a priori.

  4. Activation of AMPA receptor in the infralimbic cortex facilitates extinction and attenuates the heroin-seeking behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weisheng; Wang, Yiqi; Sun, Anna; Zhou, Linyi; Xu, Wenjin; Zhu, Huaqiang; Zhuang, Dingding; Lai, Miaojun; Zhang, Fuqiang; Zhou, Wenhua; Liu, Huifen

    2016-01-26

    Infralimbic cortex (IL) is proposed to suppress cocaine seeking after extinction, but whether the IL regulates the extinction and reinstatement of heroin-seeking behavior is unknown. To address this issue, the male SD rats were trained to self-administer heroin under a FR1 schedule for consecutive 14 days, then the rats underwent 7 daily 2h extinction session in the operant chamber. The activation of IL by microinjection PEPA, an allosteric AMPA receptor potentiator into IL before each of extinction session facilitated the extinction responding after heroin self-administration, but did not alter the locomotor activity in an open field testing environment. Other rats were first trained under a FR1 schedule for heroin self-administration for 14 days, followed by 14 days of extinction training, and reinstatement of heroin-seeking induced by cues was measured for 2h. Intra-IL microinjecting of PEPA at 15min prior to test inhibited the reinstatement of heroin-seeking induced by cues. Moreover, the expression of GluR1 in the IL and NAc remarkably increased after treatment with PEPA during the reinstatement. These finding suggested that activation of glutamatergic projection from IL to NAc shell may be involved in the extinction and reinstatement of heroin-seeking.

  5. Facilitative Project Management: Constructing A Model For Integrated Change Implementation By Utilizing Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Hodgson

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Change management theory is extensive, and organisations constantly adapt to and embrace change. In post-apartheid South Africa we are building a racially integrated business environment and society, and leverage its competitive re-entry into the world business arena. Research to date has found that the majority of change initiatives fail due to resistance caused by poor conceptualisation and planning, and the lack of proper integration of the people and business dimensions of change. The model to implement a successful change program will be designed using a combination of readily available skills and techniques. Its development and testing will take place within the context of three case studies. OpsommingDie teorie van veranderingsbestuur is omvattend. Organisasies moet op konstante wyse daarby aanpas en dit integreer. In Post-Apartheid Suid-Afrika bou ons tans ’n ras geïntegreerde besigheidsomgewing en gemeenskap, en benut dit maksimaal in ons toetrede tot die mededingende wêreld besigheidsarena. Huidige navorsing het bevind dat die meeste veranderingsinitiatiewe faal weens weerstand teen verandering wat deur swak konseptualisering en beplanning, en ’n gebrek aan behoorlike integrering van mense en die besigheidsdimensies van verandering veroorsaak is. Die model om ’n suksesvolle veranderingsprogram te implementeer, sal ontwerp word met geredelik beskikbare vaardighede en tegnieke. Die ontwikkeling en toetsing sal binne die konteks van drie gevallestudies plaasvind.

  6. [Severe behavioral changes in a patient with Fahr's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmer, Arthur; de Castro, Maila; Caramelli, Paulo; Cardoso, Francisco; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio

    2006-09-01

    We report on a case of a 40 year-old man with Fahrs disease, defined by idiopathic bilateral basal ganglia calcification, who developed depressive disorder, motor and phonic tics, stereotyped behaviors such as punding and personality changes with significant social and familiar implications. We discuss about the psychopathology of Fahrs disease and the relevance of the basal ganglia in the determination of humans behavior.

  7. Implicit Processes, Self-Regulation, and Interventions for Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Quinton, Tom; Brunton, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to regulate and subsequently change behavior is influenced by both reflective and implicit processes. Traditional theories have focused on conscious processes by highlighting the beliefs and intentions that influence decision making. However, their success in changing behavior has been modest with a gap between intention and behavior apparent. Dual-process models have been recently applied to health psychology; with numerous models incorporating implicit processes that influence behavior as well as the more common conscious processes. Such implicit processes are theorized to govern behavior non-consciously. The article provides a commentary on motivational and volitional processes and how interventions have combined to attempt an increase in positive health behaviors. Following this, non-conscious processes are discussed in terms of their theoretical underpinning. The article will then highlight how these processes have been measured and will then discuss the different ways that the non-conscious and conscious may interact. The development of interventions manipulating both processes may well prove crucial in successfully altering behavior.

  8. Facilitating and Inhibiting Factors of Sexual Behavior among Migrants in Transition from Mexico to the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Alejandro Guerra-Ordoñez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHuman immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the border region of Mexico due to the flow of migrants under desperate conditions, encouraging casual and unprotected sex. Since this has become a binational public health problem, it is important to understand the factors that predict these sexual behaviors. The aim of the current study was to investigate the facilitators and inhibitors of transition in the sexual behavior of migrants from two border regions on the Mexico–United States (US border.MethodsThis was a predictive and cross-sectional study. A sample of 256 migrants in shelters for migrants on the border between Mexico and US were selected through systematic random sampling. Predictor variables investigated for effect on the safe sexual behavior (SSB of the migrant were reasons for having sex; sexual attitudes; sexual machismo; knowledge about HIV; access to health services; and social discrimination.ResultsThe sample was predominantly male (89.5%, with 46.1% reporting being single. The average age was 33.38 years (SD = 9.73 and the average number of years of education reported was 8.05 (SD = 3.37. A permissive sexual attitude and sexual machismo both correlated with condom use (rs = 0.130, p < 0.01 and rs = −0.174, p < 0.01, respectively. Regression analysis showed that a permissive sexual attitude decreased the practice of safe sex (β = 0.17, t = 4.16, p < 0.001, as did sexual machismo (β = −0.28, t = −4.83, p < 0.001 and HIV knowledge (β = −0.11, t = −2.62, p = 0.006.DiscussionIt was found that access to health services did not influence the SSB of migrants, as suggested by the literature. However, a permissive sexual attitude, sexual machismo, and HIV knowledge were all variables capable of predicting SSB. It is recommended that the study is extended to study migrant

  9. Structural equation modeling facilitates transdisciplinary research on agriculture and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is representative of many of the “grand challenges” facing agriculture and the environment—it is complex, spans traditional disciplinary boundaries, and is both a consequence and driver of coupled physical, biological, and socioeconomic processes acting at multiple spatial and tempora...

  10. Boots on the Ground: Science-Management Partnerships Facilitate Climate Change Adaptation in National Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D. L.; Halofsky, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Effective climate change engagement on public lands is characterized by (1) an enduring science-management partnership, (2) involvement of key stakeholders, (3) consideration of broad landscapes with multiple landowners, (4) science-based, peer-reviewed assessments of sensitivity of natural resources to climate change, (5) adaptation strategies and tactics developed by resource managers, and (6) leadership and a workforce motivated to implement climate-smart practices in resource planning and project management. Using this sequence of steps, the U.S. Forest Service, in collaboration with other agencies and universities, has developed climate change vulnerability assessments and adaptation plans for national forests and other lands. Although implementation (step 6) has been slow in some cases, the success of this process has been documented in 25 national forests and is now being accelerated across the National Forest System (155 national forests). Although hundreds of meetings, strategies, plans, and panels have focused on climate change adaptation over the past decade, only direct engagement between scientists and resource managers (less planning, more doing) has resulted in substantive outcomes.

  11. "Expectations to Change" ((E2C): A Participatory Method for Facilitating Stakeholder Engagement with Evaluation Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Adrienne E.; Nnawulezi, Nkiru A.; Vandenberg, Lela

    2015-01-01

    From a utilization-focused evaluation perspective, the success of an evaluation is rooted in the extent to which the evaluation was used by stakeholders. This paper details the "Expectations to Change" (E2C) process, an interactive, workshop-based method designed to engage primary users with their evaluation findings as a means of…

  12. Use of Task-Value Instructional Inductions for Facilitating Engagement and Conceptual Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marcus Lee; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between task values, engagement, and conceptual change. One hundred and sixty-six under graduate students were randomly assigned to one of three task value instructional inductions (utility, attainment, and control) to determine whether induced task values would result in different degrees of engagement and…

  13. Helping organizations help others: organization development as a facilitator of social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Neil M

    2011-01-01

    This article explores organization development (OD) interventions and their likelihood of increasing social change outcomes in public agencies. The central argument of this work is that public and nonprofit organizations can deliver better social outcomes by systematically engaging in OD interventions. An in-depth survey was conducted in 3 agencies of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania at the end of the gubernatorial administration of Tom Ridge (1995-2002). During his administration, Governor Ridge led the agencies of Pennsylvania government through a large-scale change effort to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery to the citizens of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The change effort was a remarkable event for the Commonwealth because no other governor in the history of the state had attempted to conceptualize and deliver a comprehensive large-scale change management initiative. The successes and setbacks served as a fertile context to shed light on the following research question: Do OD interventions increase the likelihood that public organizations will deliver better social outcomes? This question is important in that public organizations may need to engage in organization development activities to improve their internal operations, which in turn may help them provide exemplary social outcomes to those whom they serve. In short, organization development interventions might allow public organizations to help themselves to help others.

  14. Conceptual Change in Science Is Facilitated Through Peer Collaboration for Boys but Not for Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, Patrick J; Skipper, Yvonne; Watling, Dawn; Rutland, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Three hundred and forty-one children (Mage = 9,0 years) engaged in a series of science tasks in collaborative, same-sex pairs or did not interact. All children who collaborated on the science tasks advanced in basic-level understanding of the relevant task (motion down an incline). However, only boys advanced in their conceptual understanding at a 3-week posttest. Discussion of concepts and procedural aspects of the task led to conceptual development for boys but not girls. Gender differences in behavioral style did not influence learning. Results are discussed in terms of the links between gender and engagement in conversations, and how gender differences in collaboration may relate to differences in participation in science.

  15. Facilitating adaptation in montane plants to changing precipitation along an elevation gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steve; Leopold, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Montane plant communities throughout the world have responded to changes in precipitation and temperature regimes by shifting ranges upward in elevation. Continued warmer, drier climate conditions have been documented and are projected to increase in high-elevation areas in Hawai‘i, consistent with climate change effects reported in other environments throughout the world. Organisms that cannot disperse or adapt biologically to projected climate scenarios in situ may decrease in distributional range and abundance over time. Restoration efforts will need to accommodate future climate change and account for the interactive effects of existing invasive species to ensure long-term persistence. As part of a larger, ongoing restoration effort, we hypothesized that plants from a lower-elevation forest ecotype would have higher rates of survival and growth compared to high-elevation forest conspecifics when grown in common plots along an elevation gradient. We monitored climate conditions at planting sites to identify whether temperature or rainfall influenced survival and growth after 20 weeks. We found that origin significantly affected survival in only one of three native montane species, Dodonaea viscosa. Contrary to our hypothesis, 75.2% of seedlings from high-elevation origin survived in comparison to 58.7% of seedlings from low elevation across the entire elevation gradient. Origin also influenced survival in linearized mixed models that controlled for temperature, precipitation, and elevation in D. viscosa and Chenopodium oahuense. Only C. oahuense seedlings had similar predictors of growth and survival. There were no common patterns of growth or survival between species, indicating that responses to changing precipitation and emperature regimes varied between montane plant species. Results also suggest that locally sourced seed is important to ensure highest survival at restoration sites. Further experimentation on larger spatial and temporal scales is necessary

  16. Architectural mechanisms for dynamic changes of behavior selection strategies in behavior-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheutz, Matthias; Andronache, Virgil

    2004-12-01

    Behavior selection is typically a "built-in" feature of behavior-based architectures and hence, not amenable to change. There are, however, circumstances where changing behavior selection strategies is useful and can lead to better performance. In this paper, we demonstrate that such dynamic changes of behavior selection mechanisms are beneficial in several circumstances. We first categorize existing behavior selection mechanisms along three dimensions and then discuss seven possible circumstances where dynamically switching among them can be beneficial. Using the agent architecture framework activation, priority, observer, and component (APOC), we show how instances of all (nonempty) categories can be captured and how additional architectural mechanisms can be added to allow for dynamic switching among them. In particular, we propose a generic architecture for dynamic behavior selection, which can integrate existing behavior selection mechanisms in a unified way. Based on this generic architecture, we then verify that dynamic behavior selection is beneficial in the seven cases by defining architectures for simulated and robotic agents and performing experiments with them. The quantitative and qualitative analyzes of the results obtained from extensive simulation studies and experimental runs with robots verify the utility of the proposed mechanisms.

  17. Effects of Habitual Anger on Employees’ Behavior during Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönigk, Mareike; Steffgen, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Organizational change is a particularly emotional event for those being confronted with it. Anger is a frequently experienced emotion under these conditions. This study analyses the influence of employees’ habitual anger reactions on their reported behavior during organizational change. It was explored whether anger reactions conducive to recovering or increasing individual well-being will enhance the likelihood of functional change behavior. Dysfunctional regulation strategies in terms of individual well-being are expected to decrease the likelihood of functional change behavior—mediated by the commitment to change. Four hundred and twelve employees of different organizations in Luxembourg undergoing organizational change participated in the study. Findings indicate that the anger regulation strategy venting, and humor increase the likelihood of deviant resistance to change. Downplaying the incident’s negative impact and feedback increase the likelihood of active support for change. The mediating effect of commitment to change has been found for humor and submission. The empirical findings suggest that a differentiated conceptualization of resistance to change is required. Specific implications for practical change management and for future research are discussed. PMID:24287849

  18. Effects of Habitual Anger on Employees’ Behavior during Organizational Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Bönigk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Organizational change is a particularly emotional event for those being confronted with it. Anger is a frequently experienced emotion under these conditions. This study analyses the influence of employees’ habitual anger reactions on their reported behavior during organizational change. It was explored whether anger reactions conducive to recovering or increasing individual well-being will enhance the likelihood of functional change behavior. Dysfunctional regulation strategies in terms of individual well-being are expected to decrease the likelihood of functional change behavior—mediated by the commitment to change. Four hundred and twelve employees of different organizations in Luxembourg undergoing organizational change participated in the study. Findings indicate that the anger regulation strategy venting, and humor increase the likelihood of deviant resistance to change. Downplaying the incident’s negative impact and feedback increase the likelihood of active support for change. The mediating effect of commitment to change has been found for humor and submission. The empirical findings suggest that a differentiated conceptualization of resistance to change is required. Specific implications for practical change management and for future research are discussed.

  19. Behavioral Change Strategies for Improving Complementary Feeding and Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osendarp, Saskia J M; Roche, Marion L

    2016-01-01

    Improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices, including breastfeeding and complementary feeding, has been identified as one of the most effective interventions to improve child survival, stunting and wasting. Evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that effective promotion of breastfeeding and complementary feeding, with or without food provision, has the potential to improve IYCF practices and child nutrition. However, in many countries, breastfeeding practices and complementary feeding practices are still far from optimal. The lack of implementation of available, effective, affordable interventions in scale-up programs is in part attributed to a lack of innovative, creative and effective behavioral change strategies that enable and encourage caregivers. Successful behavioral change strategies should be based on a rigorous situational analysis and formative research, and the findings and insights of formative research should be used to further design interventions that address the identified barriers and enablers, to select delivery channels, and to formulate appropriate and effective messages. In addition, successful behavioral change interventions should a priori define and investigate the program impact pathway to target behavioral change and should assess intermediary behavioral changes and indicators to learn why the expected outcome was achieved or not achieved by testing the program theory. The design of behavioral change communication must be flexible and responsive to shifts in societies and contexts. Performance of adequate IYCF also requires investments to generate community demand through social mobilization, relevant media and existing support systems. Applying these principles has been shown to be effective in improving IYCF practices in Vietnam, Bangladesh and Ethiopia and is recommended to be adopted by other programs and countries in order to accelerate progress in improving child nutrition. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Has microblogging changed stock market behavior? Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xi; Shen, Dehua; Zhang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the stock market behavior for a long-lived subset of firms in Shanghai and Shenzhen CSI 300 Index (CSI 300 Index) both before and after the establishment of firms' Microblogging in Sina Weibo. The empirical results show a significant increase in the relative trading volume as well as the decreases in the daily expected stock return and firm-level volatility in the post-Sina Weibo period. These findings suggest that Sina Weibo as an alternative information interaction channel has changed the information environment for individual stock, enhanced the speed of information diffusion and therefore changed the overall stock market behavior.

  1. Facilitating Lewin's change model with collaborative evaluation in promoting evidence based practices of health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester, Julianne; Gray-Miceli, Deanna L; Metcalf, Judith A; Paolini, Charlotte A; Napier, Anne H; Coogle, Constance L; Owens, Myra G

    2014-12-01

    Evidence based practices (EBPs) in clinical settings interact with and adapt to host organizational characteristics. The contextual factors themselves, surrounding health professions' practices, also adapt as practices become sustained. The authors assert the need for better planning models toward these contextual factors, the influence of which undergird a well-documented science to practice gap in literature on EBPs. The mechanism for EBP planners to anticipate contextual effects as programs Unfreeze their host settings, create Movement, and become Refrozen (Lewin, 1951) is present in Lewin's 3-step change model. Planning for contextual change appears equally important as planning for the actual practice outcomes among providers and patients. Two case studies from a Geriatric Education Center network will illustrate the synthesis of Lewin's three steps with collaborative evaluation principles. The use of the model may become an important tool for continuing education evaluators or organizations beginning a journey toward EBP demonstration projects in clinical settings.

  2. Behavioral Disinhibition Can Foster Intentions to Healthy Lifestyle Change by Overcoming Commitment to Past Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennis, Bob M; Andreassen, Tor W; Lervik-Olsen, Line

    2015-01-01

    To curb the trend towards obesity and unhealthy living, people may need to change their entire lifestyle to a healthier alternative, something that is frequently perceived to be problematic. The present research, using a large, representative community sample, hypothesized and found that a key factor responsible for why people do not intend to change lifestyles is a sense of commitment to past behavior. However we also found that the contribution of commitment was attenuated for individuals with a stronger tendency for behavioral disinhibition thus underscoring the "bright side" of this individual difference characteristic that traditionally has been mainly associated with impulsive and indulging behavior. Overall, the present findings add to our understanding of factors inhibiting and promoting healthy behavior change.

  3. Assessing the Use of Metaphors to Facilitate and Improve the Effectiveness of Climate Change Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh-Thomas, J.; Maibach, E.

    2014-12-01

    Metaphors are sometimes used in science communication to explain unfamiliar scientific concepts and processes in more familiar terms. Empirical research has shown that metaphors can help audiences better understand complicated scientific concepts. A growing number of metaphors are used to explain various climate science concepts, but the only empirical evaluation of climate metaphors to date (van der Linden et al, 2014, Climatic Change) found that medical and bridge safety metaphors did not enhance the effectiveness of a simple corrective statement about the scientific consensus on human-caused climate change. Drawing on a recent meta-analysis by Sopory and Dillard (2002, Hum Commun. Res.), we will briefly review what is known about appropriate metaphor usage in communicating scientific concepts. We will also present preliminary findings from an experiment currently underway to further explain the conditions in which metaphors are likely to help in communicating climate science concepts. We hypothesize that metaphors will be more effective in communicating high complexity climate science concepts that are less easily understood by the public than more easily understood low complexity concepts (such as scientific consensus on climate change). We also hypothesize that the more familiar people are with the referent (performance enhancing drugs in baseball is a metaphor about "the climate system on steroids"), the more effective the metaphor will be. To test these hypotheses, we are randomly assigning ~1000 adults - approximately representative of the US adult population - to read one brief passage in which one of four relatively simple or complex climate concepts is presented and explained with or without a metaphor. The outcome measures will include climate change belief, concern, knowledge, and involvement. This study is intended to add to the knowledge base about use of metaphors in science communication, and provide practical advice to climate communicators.

  4. Common Pool Water Markets and their Role in Facilitating Land Use Change in Drying Climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasley, R. L.; Milke, M.; Raffensperger, J. F.; Zargar, M.

    2010-12-01

    Concern is growing worldwide that climate change will lead to drier climates in many regions and in turn diminish water resources. To protect these limited resources, users may need to shift water use to more economically productive areas. However, changing the land use associated with water permits can be quite difficult, because water is not easily traded. Water markets have been well researched as a method for trading water between users, but these markets can often be difficult and costly requiring one-to-one trades between buyers and sellers. In contrast to a one-to-one market, a common pool market can reduce the transaction costs associated with trading water. In this research, a common pool market is applied to an example groundwater system set up in GWM2000 with ten users and various environmental constraints. The users represent three types of the largest groundwater users in the Canterbury region of New Zealand: agricultural, dairy and livestock. The response matrix from GWM2000 is used to develop constraints in the market model along with user bids. Bids are calculated from economic and water use data for Canterbury, New Zealand. Varying spatial distributions of water users by type are evaluated for the effect on the market under drying conditions. These conditions are simulated from climate change scenarios produced by the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research in New Zealand. The results demonstrate potential land use changes falls under drying conditions. As water availability falls, the price for additional water increases, particularly near environmental constraints, driving the land and water towards more efficient uses.

  5. The role of U.S. states in facilitating effective water governance under stress and change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Christine J.; Dilling, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    Worldwide water governance failures undermine effective water management under uncertainty and change. Overcoming these failures requires employing more adaptive, resilient water management approaches; yet, while scholars have advance theory of what adaptive, resilient approaches should be, there is little empirical evidence to support those normative propositions. To fill this gap, we reviewed the literature to derive theorized characteristics of adaptive, resilient water governance including knowledge generation and use, participation, clear rules for water use, and incorporating nonstationarity. Then, using interviews and documentary analysis focused on five U.S. states' allocation and planning approaches, we examined empirically if embodying these characteristics made states more (or less) adaptive and resilient in practice. We found that adaptive, resilient water governance requires not just possessing these characteristics but combining and building on them. That is, adaptive, resilient water governance requires well-funded, transparent knowledge systems combined with broad, multilevel participatory processes that support learning, strong institutional arrangements that establish authorities and rules and that allow flexibility as conditions change, and resources for integrated planning and allocation. We also found that difficulty incorporating climate change or altering existing water governance paradigms and inadequate funding of water programs undermine adaptive, resilient governance.

  6. [Effects of environmental change and others' behavior on cooperative behavior and solution preference in social dilemma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuma, S

    2001-12-01

    This study examined how environmental change and others' behavior affected cooperative behavior and solution preference of the person in social dilemma situation. Participants in two experiments played an "environment game," in which gradual pollution in environment and reduction in profit rate were simulated. Information on behavior of other players was manipulated: in "free rider" condition, one person was an extreme free rider, and the others were cooperative; in "loafing" condition, everyone loafed. In both experiments, "Bad Apple Effect" was not observed clearly, and cooperative behavior increased as environmental pollution worsened. In Experiment 2, there was no main effect of others' behavior on solution preference. However, significant correlations were found among solution preference, motivation to control others' behavior, and perceived seriousness of the situation, only when an extreme free rider was among them.

  7. Cognitive and behavioral changes in Huntington disease before diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Jane S; Miller, Amanda C; Hayes, Terry; Shaw, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Phenotypic manifestations of Huntington disease (HD) can be detected at least 15 years prior to the time when a motor diagnosis is given. Advances in clinical care and future research will require consistent use of HD definitions and HD premanifest (prodromal) stages being used across clinics, sites, and countries. Cognitive and behavioral (psychiatric) changes in HD are summarized and implications for ongoing advancement in our knowledge of prodromal HD are suggested. The earliest detected cognitive changes are observed in the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Stroop Interference, Stroop Color and Word Test-interference condition, and Trail Making Test. Cognitive changes in the middle and near motor diagnostic stages of prodromal HD involve nearly every cognitive test administered and the greatest changes over time (i.e., slopes) are found in those prodromal HD participants who are nearest to motor diagnosis. Psychiatric changes demonstrate significant worsening over time and remain elevated compared with healthy controls throughout the prodromal disease course. Psychiatric and behavior changes in prodromal HD are much lower than that obtained using cognitive assessment, although the psychiatric and behavioral changes represent symptoms most debilitating to independent capacity and wellness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of behavioral change techniques in community-led total sanitation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, Rachel; Mahmoudi, Lyana; Graham, Jay Paul

    2015-03-01

    The lack of sanitation facilitates the spread of diarrheal diseases-a leading cause of child deaths worldwide. As of 2012, an estimated 1 billion people still practiced open defecation (OD). To address this issue, one behavioral change approach used is community-led total sanitation (CLTS). It is now applied in an estimated 66 countries worldwide, and many countries have adopted this approach as their main strategy for scaling up rural sanitation coverage. While it appears that many of the activities used in CLTS-that target community-level changes in sanitation behaviors instead of household-level changes-have evolved out of existing behavior change frameworks and techniques, it is less clear how these activities are adapted by different organizations and applied in different country contexts. The aims of this study are to (i) show which behavior change frameworks and techniques are the most common in CLTS interventions; (ii) describe how activities are implemented in CLTS interventions by region and context; and (3) determine which activities program implementers considered the most valuable in achieving open defecation free (ODF) status and sustaining it. The results indicate that a wide range of activities are conducted across the different programs and often go beyond standard CLTS activities. CLTS practitioners ranked follow-up and monitoring activities as the most important activities for achieving an ODF community, yet only 1 of 10 organizations conducted monitoring and follow-up throughout their project. Empirical studies are needed to determine which specific behavioral change activities are most effective at ending OD and sustaining it. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. FACILITATION OF ESTROUS BEHAVIOR BY VAGINAL CERVICAL STIMULATION IN FEMALE RATS INVOLVES α1-ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR ACTIVATION OF THE NITRIC OXIDE PATHWAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Flores, Oscar; Beyer, Carlos; Lima-Hernández, Francisco Javier; Gómora-Arrati, Porfirio; Gómez-Camarillo, Madaí A.; Hoffman, Kurt; Etgen, Anne M.

    2007-01-01

    In estrogen-primed female rats, vaginal cervical stimulation (VCS) provided by male intromissions or by an experimenter enhances estrous behaviors exhibited by females during subsequent mating with a male. We tested the hypothesis that α1-adrenergic receptors, acting via the nitric oxide-cGMPprotein kinase G pathway, mediate VCS- induced facilitation of female reproductive behaviors. Ovariectomized, estradiol-primed rats received intracerebroventricular (icv) infusions of vehicle or pharmacological antagonists 15 or 60 min before VCS. Estrous behaviors (lordosis and proceptivity) in the presence of a male were recorded immediately (0 min), and 120 min following VCS. First we verified that VCS, but not manual flank stimulation alone, enhanced estrous behaviors when females received icv infusion of the vehicles used to administer drugs. Increased estrous behavior was apparent immediately following VCS and persisted for 120 min. We then infused prazosin, phenoxybenzamine (α1-adrenergic receptor antagonists), yohimbine, idaxozan (α2-adrenergic receptor antagonists), or propranolol (β–adrenergic receptor antagonist) 15 min prior to the application of VCS in females primed with 5 μg estradiol benzoate. Only α1-adrenergic antagonists inhibited VCS facilitation of estrous behavior, apparent 120 min after VCS. Finally, we administered specific inhibitors of soluble guanylyl cyclase, nitric oxide synthase or protein kinase G icv 15 or 60 min before VCS. All three agents significantly attenuated VCS facilitation of estrous behavior. These data support the hypothesis that endogenously released norepinephrine, acting via α1-adrenergic receptors, mediates the facilitation of lordosis by VCS, and are consistent with a mechanism involving α1-adrenergic activation of the nitric oxide/cGMP/protein kinase G pathway. PMID:17095102

  10. Facilitating the Concept of Universal Design Among Design Students - Changes in Teaching in the Last Decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavik, Tom

    2016-01-01

    This short paper describes and reflects on how the teaching of the concept of Universal Design (UD) has developed in the last decade at the Institute of Design at the Oslo School of Architecture and Design (AHO). Four main changes are described. Firstly, the curriculum has evolved from teaching guidelines and principles to focusing on design processes. Secondly, an increased emphasis is put on cognitive accessibility. Thirdly, non-stigmatizing aesthetics expressions and solutions that communicate through different senses have become more important subjects. Fourthly the teaching of UD has moved from the second to the first year curriculum.

  11. A Brief Review of the Usefulness of "The Health Behavior Theory" in Changing Human Health Behavior for Good

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Eating, physical acting and resting behavior is considered as important health behavior to promote our health level. Several health behavior theories have been developed applying to change our health behaviors for good in counseling, health education and action programs. There are three types of health behavior theory, mainly utilizing to person, mainly applying to group and to population. The stages of behavior change theory is useful for groups as well as for people in health counseling, in...

  12. Human Papillomavirus Vaccination at a Time of Changing Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baussano, Iacopo; Lazzarato, Fulvio; Brisson, Marc; Franceschi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence varies widely worldwide. We used a transmission model to show links between age-specific sexual patterns and HPV vaccination effectiveness. We considered rural India and the United States as examples of 2 heterosexual populations with traditional age-specific sexual behavior and gender-similar age-specific sexual behavior, respectively. We simulated these populations by using age-specific rates of sexual activity and age differences between sexual partners and found that transitions from traditional to gender-similar sexual behavior in women sexual behavior and that increased risk for HPV infection attributable to transition is preventable by early vaccination. Our study highlights the importance of using time-limited opportunities to introduce HPV vaccination in traditional populations before changes in age-specific sexual patterns occur.

  13. Barriers to lifestyle behavioral change in migrant South Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mihir; Phillips-Caesar, Erica; Boutin-Foster, Carla

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to describe and assess the cultural barriers to behavior change in migrant South Asians, given the high morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease in this population. We reviewed studies that explored the relationship between South Asian culture in the Diaspora and lifestyle behaviors. Our review produced 91 studies, of which 25 discussed the relationship between various aspects of South Asians' belief system and their approach to modifying lifestyle habits. We identify 6 specific categories of beliefs which play the largest role in the difficulties South Asians describe with behavior change: gender roles, body image, physical activity misconceptions, cultural priorities, cultural identity, and explanatory model of disease. Future research and interventions should account for these cultural factors to successfully improve dietary habits and physical activity levels in migrant South Asian populations.

  14. Motivational improvements for health behavior change from wellness coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Emily A; Preston, Heather R; Jenkins, Sarah M; Lackore, Kandace A; Werneburg, Brooke L; Larson, Brent G; Bradley, Karleah L; Warren, Beth A; Olsen, Kerry D; Hagen, Philip T; Vickers, Kristin S; Clark, Matthew M

    2014-01-01

    To identify client priorities prior to wellness coaching, and examine motivational improvements for health behaviors on follow-up. Clients completed a wellness questionnaire at baseline (before coaching) and at a 3-month follow-up. Overall, 177 participants (92% female, average age 42.9 (SD 11.2) years) were included in the analysis. Clients indicated priorities for coaching, and levels of importance, confidence, and readiness to change within each domain were compared between baseline and follow-up. Participants identified weight management as their top priority and successfully reduced their BMI. Participants also demonstrated significant improvements in motivation and confidence in most health behavior domains. These results provide further support for the effectiveness of wellness coaching for weight management and for improving motivational readiness for behavior change.

  15. Hemiballismus, Hyperphagia, and Behavioral Changes following Subthalamic Infarct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Etemadifar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of subthalamic nucleus (STN which is a part of the basal ganglia system is not clear, but it is hypothesized that this component might be involved in action selection. Unilateral damage to STN, which can commonly occur due to the small vessel stroke mainly, causes hemiballismus and sometimes hemichorea-hemiballismus. This paper deals with a 60-year-old patient with sudden onset of abnormal movements in his right limbs. He had increased appetite and hyperphagia and also developed mood and behavioral changes (aggressiveness, irritability, anxiety, and sometimes obscene speech. The magnetic resonance imaging revealed infarct area in left subthalamus. In our case, hemiballismus is caused by infarction in left subthalamic area. Occurrence of irritability, anxiety, and some behavioral changes such as aggressiveness and obscene speech can be explained by impairment of STN role in nonmotor behavior and cognitive function as a result of infarct.

  16. Design for healthy behavior: design interventions and stages of change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, Geke D.S.; Hekkert, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Designers have increasingly used the capacity of design to influence human behavior and consequently to address the challenges that our society faces. One of these challenges is the rise of ‘lifestyle diseases’, such as obesity and diabetes. A change towards a more healthy lifestyle could in many ca

  17. Ethical Theories for Promoting Health through Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Janelle K.; Price, James H.

    1983-01-01

    Arguments based on the philosophies of natural law, utilitarianism, paternalism, and distributive justice are examined for their pertinence to health behavior change strategies. Health educators should prepare individuals to make health-generating decisions but may need to limit the conditions under which they intervene. (Author/PP)

  18. Ethical Theories for Promoting Health through Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Janelle K.; Price, James H.

    1983-01-01

    Arguments based on the philosophies of natural law, utilitarianism, paternalism, and distributive justice are examined for their pertinence to health behavior change strategies. Health educators should prepare individuals to make health-generating decisions but may need to limit the conditions under which they intervene. (Author/PP)

  19. Information acquisition and behavioral change: a social marketing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, L L; Johnson, K

    1991-01-01

    Previous literature provides insight into the importance of beliefs and other intrapersonal variables for health-related information acquisition and behavioral change. The results of an empirical investigation evidence the unique strength of the role of core health beliefs for each of the multi-level measures. Directions for the development of effective marketing strategy are discussed.

  20. Religion Does Matter for Climate Change Attitudes and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Mark; Duncan, Roderick; Parton, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Little research has focused on the relationship between religion and climate change attitudes and behavior. Further, while there have been some studies examining the relationship between environmental attitudes and religion, most are focused on Christian denominations and secularism, and few have examined other religions such as Buddhism. Using an online survey of 1,927 Australians we examined links between membership of four religious groupings (Buddhists, Christian literalists and non-literalists, and Secularists) and climate change attitudes and behaviors. Differences were found across religious groups in terms of their belief in: (a) human induced climate change, (b) the level of consensus among scientists, (c) their own efficacy, and (d) the need for policy responses. We show, using ordinal regression, that religion explains these differences even after taking into account socio-demographic factors, knowledge and environmental attitude, including belief in man's dominion over nature. Differences in attitude and behavior between these religious groups suggest the importance of engaging denominations to encourage change in attitudes and behavior among their members.

  1. Social Integration and Health Behavioral Change in San Luis, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuestion, Michael J.; Calle, Ana Quijano; Drasbek, Christopher; Harkins, Thomas; Sagastume, Lourdes J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the effects of social integration on behavioral change in the course of an intensive, community-based public health intervention. The intervention trained volunteers and mobilized local organizations to promote 16 key family health practices in rural San Luis, Honduras, during 2004 to 2006. A mixed methods approach is used.…

  2. Anger Management Program Participants Gain Behavioral Changes in Interpersonal Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pish, Suzanne; Clark-Jones, Teresa; Eschbach, Cheryl; Tiret, Holly

    2016-01-01

    RELAX: Alternatives to Anger is an educational anger management program that helps adults understand and manage anger, develop communication skills, manage stress, and make positive behavioral changes in their interpersonal relationships. A sample of 1,168 evaluation surveys were collected from RELAX: Alternatives to Anger participants over 3…

  3. Social gaming rules: Changing people's behavior through games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegt, N.J.H.; Visch, V.T.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose an approach towards designing social games or game elements for changing people’s social behavior for serious applications. We use the concept of the magic circle, which outlines the experience of a game world as different from the real world. We can design a connection betw

  4. Help Preferences among Employees Who Wish to Change Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Roger; Cleal, Bryan; Jakobsen, Mette Øllgaard; Villadsen, Ebbe; Andersen, Lars L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the help preferences of employees in the Danish police who had acknowledged that they wished to change health behaviors. In addition, we explored whether preferences varied with age, gender, chronic health concerns, positive expectations of good health, and past experiences of in-house health promotion services (i.e.,…

  5. The Limiting Behavior for Observations That Change with Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuyun WANG; Zhengyan LIN

    2007-01-01

    Consider a system where units have random magnitude entering according to a homogeneous or nonhomogeneous Poisson process, while in the system, a unit's magnitude may change with time. In this paper, the authors obtain some results for the limiting behavior of the sum process of all unit magnitudes present in the system at time t.

  6. Anger Management Program Participants Gain Behavioral Changes in Interpersonal Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pish, Suzanne; Clark-Jones, Teresa; Eschbach, Cheryl; Tiret, Holly

    2016-01-01

    RELAX: Alternatives to Anger is an educational anger management program that helps adults understand and manage anger, develop communication skills, manage stress, and make positive behavioral changes in their interpersonal relationships. A sample of 1,168 evaluation surveys were collected from RELAX: Alternatives to Anger participants over 3…

  7. Behavior Change after Adventure Education Courses: Do Work Colleagues Notice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Heather M.; Martin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    In this case study, a mixed-method approach is used to examine the extent and type of changes in workplace attitudes and behavior, as self-reported by soldiers who had participated in 6- to 10-day "Experiential Leadership Development Activities" (ELDAs) delivered by the New Zealand Army Leadership Centre. Observations made by workplace…

  8. Using Regrets to Elicit Behavior Change in Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, Leilani A.; Robbins, Jamie E.; Stanley, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to support the notion of regret as a useful tool rather than merely a negative emotion. The article introduces means for using feelings of regret to change past behaviors, increase motivation to reach goals, and minimize future regrets in athletes and teams.

  9. Energy Challenges: Isolating Results Due to Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Kelly; Pallant, Eric; Bradshaw-Wilson, Casey; Choate, Beth; Carbone, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Approximately 700 colleges and universities have committed to climate neutrality, which will require significant reductions in energy consumption. This paper aims to explore the effectiveness of an Annual Energy Challenge in curtailing electricity use by changing consumption behaviors at one liberal arts college.…

  10. Changing Climate, Changing Behavior: Adaptive Economic Behavior and Housing Markets Responses to Flood Risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filatova, Tatiana; Bin, Okmyung; Kaminski, Bogumil; Koloch, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Spatial econometrics and analytical spatial economic modeling advanced significantly in the recent years. Yet, methodologically they are designed to tackle marginal changes in the underlying dynamics of spatial urban systems. In the world with climate change, however, abrupt sudden non-marginal chan

  11. Barriers, facilitators, and benefits of implementation of dialectical behavior therapy in routine care: results from a national program evaluation survey in the Veterans Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, Sara J; Rodriguez, Allison L; Smith, Brandy N; Matthieu, Monica M; Trent, Lindsay R; Kemp, Janet; Thompson, Caitlin

    2017-02-06

    National implementation of evidence-based psychotherapies (EBPs) in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) provides important lessons on the barriers and facilitators to implementation in a large healthcare system. Little is known about barriers and facilitators to the implementation of a complex EBP for emotional and behavioral dysregulation-dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT). The purpose of this study was to understand VHA clinicians' experiences with barriers, facilitators, and benefits from implementing DBT into routine care. This national program evaluation survey measured site characteristics of VHA sites (N = 59) that had implemented DBT. DBT was most often implemented in general mental health outpatient clinics. While 42% of sites offered all four modes of DBT, skills group was the most frequently implemented mode. Fifty-nine percent of sites offered phone coaching in any form, yet only 11% of those offered it all the time. Providers were often provided little to no time to support implementation of DBT. Barriers that were difficult to overcome were related to phone coaching outside of business hours. Facilitators to implementation included staff interest and expertise. Perceived benefits included increased hope and functioning for clients, greater self-efficacy and compassion for providers, and ability to treat unique symptoms for clinics. There was considerable variability in the capacity to address implementation barriers among sites implementing DBT in VHA routine care. Mental health policy makers should note the barriers and facilitators reported here, with specific attention to phone coaching barriers.

  12. Increasing Knowledge and Confidence in Behavioral Change: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frates, Elizabeth P; Xiao, Ryan C; Simeon, Kate; McCargo, Tracie; Guo, Michelle; Stern, Theodore A

    2016-11-24

    To assess whether and how effectively an interactive presentation about lifestyle medicine could impact the knowledge and attitudes of medical students to prepare them for managing chronic conditions in their patients. Chronic diseases are increasingly prevalent and problematic. Although chronic disease management involves lifestyle modification, few physicians are adequately trained in effective motivational interventions. We surveyed first- and second-year Harvard Medical School students in October 2015 before and after a presentation on lifestyle medicine and quantified changes in their knowledge, attitudes/confidence, and skills. Medical students learned the basics of behavioral change after a 1-hour presentation, and their confidence with regard to implementing interventions increased. Median scores of confidence in counseling patients on lifestyle changes improved as did their ability to counsel patients on exercise, nutrition, sleep, stress management, and smoking cessation. After a brief intervention, medical students can learn principles of behavioral management and how to implement the skills with patients suffering from chronic illnesses.

  13. Context change explains resurgence after the extinction of operant behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, Sydney; Schepers, Scott T.; Bouton, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Extinguished operant behavior can return or “resurge” when a response that has replaced it is also extinguished. Typically studied in nonhuman animals, the resurgence effect may provide insight into relapse that is seen when reinforcement is discontinued following human contingency management (CM) and functional communication training (FCT) treatments, which both involve reinforcing alternative behaviors to reduce behavioral excess. Although the variables that affect resurgence have been studied for some time, the mechanisms through which they promote relapse are still debated. We discuss three explanations of resurgence (response prevention, an extension of behavioral momentum theory, and an account emphasizing context change) as well as studies that evaluate them. Several new findings from our laboratory concerning the effects of different temporal distributions of the reinforcer during response elimination and the effects of manipulating qualitative features of the reinforcer pose a particular challenge to the momentum-based model. Overall, the results are consistent with a contextual account of resurgence, which emphasizes that reinforcers presented during response elimination have a discriminative role controlling behavioral inhibition. Changing the “reinforcer context” at the start of testing produces relapse if the organism has not learned to suppress its responding under conditions similar to the ones that prevail during testing. PMID:27429503

  14. School promotion of healthful diet and exercise behavior: an integration of organizational change and social learning theory interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcel, G S; Simons-Morton, B G; O'Hara, N M; Baranowski, T; Kolbe, L J; Bee, D E

    1987-04-01

    In the Go For Health project, interventions based on organizational change and social learning theory facilitate changes in diet and exercise behavior by elementary school children. Baseline data documented the need for behavior change. Based on chemical analyses, average per meal amounts of total fat and sodium were higher than national recommendations: total fat was 29.3% higher than U.S. Dietary Goals; sodium was 107.4% greater than recommended levels. Observations of students in physical education class revealed children moved through space 50.1% of the time and moved continuously an average of 2.2 minutes per class period. These findings suggest the need for policy and practice changes in the school environment to enable children to engage in more healthful diet and exercise behavior.

  15. Workplace exercise for changing health behavior related to physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Antonio José; Cieslak, Fabrício; Silva, Valter

    2015-01-01

    Physical Activity in the workplace has received special attention from researchers who are looking to promote lifelong health and well-being. The workplace is being investigated as a possible place to assess and create strategies to help people to become healthier. The transtheoretical model and stages of change has been adapted as a tool to assess the stages of behavioral change towards exercising. To assess the change in health behavior following a three-month exercise program based in the workplace. A quasi-experimental study design was used in which 165 employees participated in the study. An intervention program of workplace exercise was applied for three months. Participants were assessed through the transtheoretical model and stages of change questionnaire before and after intervention to understand changes in their position on the behavioral change continuum. The number of employees who were physically active increased after the workplace exercise intervention (13.9% , 95% CI 9.5 to 20.1; P = 0.009). There was a significant decrease in the proportion of employees in the pre-contemplation stage (-6.1% , 95% CI 3.3 to 10.8; P = 0.045) and contemplation stage (-11.5% , 95% CI 7.5 to 17.3; P = 0.017), and a significant increase in the action stage (10.9% , 95% CI 7.0 to 16.6; P = 0.003). Engaging in workplace exercise has a significant positive effect on health behavior and willingness to become more physically active.

  16. Facilitating change and adaptation: the experiences of current and bereaved carers of patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Jennifer; Gold, Michelle; Brand, Caroline; Miller, Belinda; Douglass, Jo; Sundararajan, Vijaya

    2014-04-01

    Patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience substantial symptom burden, psychological and social morbidity. The experience of this illness has an impact beyond the patient. This study seeks to understand the experiences and needs of family carers of people with severe COPD. Semistructured interviews were held with current and bereaved carers of people with severe COPD. Several areas of content were targeted in the interviews, including the experience of caring for someone with COPD, views of treatment and prognosis, information and communication needs, and the understanding of palliative care. Data were analyzed thematically. The carers' and bereaved carers' experiences and needs around COPD are best understood as a dynamic of change, recognition, and adaptation. Carers faced many changes as the patients' general condition deteriorated. These were changes in the nature of caring tasks, in their relationships, and their own expectations. Carers usually recognized change had happened and sought to adapt through new approaches, new equipment, a new stance of thinking, and in most cases, continued caring. Within this theme of change, recognition, and adaptation were a series of subthemes: (1) the impact of caring, (2) recognizing the role of the carer, and (3) the needs of the carer including their needs from palliative care services. The impact of caring borne by family carers is substantial and life changing. Health professionals may assist carers in their role through acknowledgement, facilitating recognition of the changes that have occurred (and their implications), and enabling creative adaptive responses for carers. Such assistance is likely to enhance the ability of carers to continue in this demanding role.

  17. Using consecutive Rapid Participatory Appraisal studies to assess, facilitate and evaluate health and social change in community settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Scott A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate how a relatively socio-economically deprived community's needs have changed over time, assess which recommendations from an earlier assessment were implemented and sustained, and consider whether serial Rapid Participatory Appraisal is an effective health research tool that can promote community development and has utility in assessing longitudinal change. Methods Rapid Participatory Appraisal involves communities in identifying and challenging their own health-related needs. Information on ten health and social aspects was collated from existing documentation, neighbourhood observations, and interviews with a range of residents and key informants, providing a composite picture of the community's structure, needs and services. Results The perceived needs after 10 years encompassed a wide construct of health, principally the living environment, housing, and lack of finance. Most identified upstream determinants of health rather than specific medical conditions as primary concerns. After the initial Rapid Participatory Appraisal many interviewees took the recommendations forward, working to promote a healthier environment and advocate for local resources. Interventions requiring support from outwith the community were largely not sustained. Conclusion Rapid Participatory Appraisal proved valuable in assessing long-term change. The community's continuing needs were identified, but they could not facilitate and sustain change without the strategic support of key regional and national agencies. Many repeatedly voiced concerns lay outwith local control: local needs assessment must be supported at higher levels to be effective.

  18. Neuroscience-Inspired, Behavioral Change Program for University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudziak, James J; Tiemeier, Gesa L

    2017-04-01

    It is clear that environmental influences impact the structure and function of the human brain, and thus, thoughts, actions, and behaviors. These in turn influence whether an individual engages in high-risk (drugs, alcohol, violence) or health-promoting (exercise, meditation, music) activities. The developmental mismatch between cortical and subcortical maturation of the transitional age brain places college students at risk for negative outcomes. This article argues that the prescription of incentive-based behavioral change and brain-building activities simply make good scientific, programmatic, and financial sense for colleges and universities. The authors present University of Vermont Wellness Environment as an example. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Experiences of patients with hypertension at primary health care in facilitating own lifestyle change of regular physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomasonto B.D. Magobe

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular physical exercise is one of the lifestyle modification general measures to control the blood pressure (BP of patients with hypertension. Globally, hypertension is considered a non-communicable disease (NCD, as well as a chronic condition of lifestyle, that contributes to the mortality rate caused by complications of cardiovascular burden of diseases. In South Africa, NCDs account for nearly 40% of adult deaths, with a high prevalence among black people in urban areas such as Soweto.The first step in treating hypertension is lifestyle modification, referred to in this study as health-promoting lifestyle change measures. Despite the positive benefits of regular physical exercise in controlling hypertension, in 2014, only 10% of men and 18% of women with hypertension had their BP controlled to a level that would eliminate the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD complications.Objectives: The aim of this article is to present the experiences of patients with hypertension regarding the facilitation of their own health-promoting lifestyle change measure of regular physical exercise.Method: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was used. The accessible population of patients with hypertension at three primary health care (PHC clinics in Soweto was targeted and purposefully sampled. Focus group and individual interviews were conducted to collect data till data saturation occurred. Tesch’s open-coding method of data analysis was used.Results and conclusions: Findings show that participants experienced poor self-care due to poor self-efficacy, demonstrated by not engaging in regular physical exercise, which in turn, resulted in uncontrolled BP and cardiovascular complications from hypertension. More should be done to educate, motivate and empower patients with the necessary knowledge, skills and the values in facilitating their own regular physical exercise in order to improve their own quality of

  20. Medical errors; causes, consequences, emotional response and resulting behavioral change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Attia; Khan, Rehan Ahmed; Rathore, Ahsan Waheed

    2016-01-01

    To determine the causes of medical errors, the emotional and behavioral response of pediatric medicine residents to their medical errors and to determine their behavior change affecting their future training. One hundred thirty postgraduate residents were included in the study. Residents were asked to complete questionnaire about their errors and responses to their errors in three domains: emotional response, learning behavior and disclosure of the error. The names of the participants were kept confidential. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. A total of 130 residents were included. Majority 128(98.5%) of these described some form of error. Serious errors that occurred were 24(19%), 63(48%) minor, 24(19%) near misses,2(2%) never encountered an error and 17(12%) did not mention type of error but mentioned causes and consequences. Only 73(57%) residents disclosed medical errors to their senior physician but disclosure to patient's family was negligible 15(11%). Fatigue due to long duty hours 85(65%), inadequate experience 66(52%), inadequate supervision 58(48%) and complex case 58(45%) were common causes of medical errors. Negative emotions were common and were significantly associated with lack of knowledge (p=0.001), missing warning signs (p=<0.001), not seeking advice (p=0.003) and procedural complications (p=0.001). Medical errors had significant impact on resident's behavior; 119(93%) residents became more careful, increased advice seeking from seniors 109(86%) and 109(86%) started paying more attention to details. Intrinsic causes of errors were significantly associated with increased information seeking behavior and vigilance (p=0.003) and (p=0.01) respectively. Medical errors committed by residents have inadequate disclosure to senior physicians and result in negative emotions but there was positive change in their behavior, which resulted in improvement in their future training and patient care.

  1. Timeless and Timely Advice: A Commentary on "Consultation to Facilitate Planned Organizational Change in Schools," an Article by Joseph E. Zins and Robert J. Illback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Cynthia E.

    2007-01-01

    This commentary on Zins and Illback's (1995) article, Consultation to Facilitate Planned Organizational Change in Schools, argues that the authors provided a solid foundation for well-planned, proactive, sustainable, internally-driven systemic change in schools that has yet to be widely realized. Their school organizational change model and more…

  2. Timeless and Timely Advice: A Commentary on "Consultation to Facilitate Planned Organizational Change in Schools," an Article by Joseph E. Zins and Robert J. Illback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Cynthia E.

    2007-01-01

    This commentary on Zins and Illback's (1995) article, Consultation to Facilitate Planned Organizational Change in Schools, argues that the authors provided a solid foundation for well-planned, proactive, sustainable, internally-driven systemic change in schools that has yet to be widely realized. Their school organizational change model and more…

  3. Behavioral Changes Over Time Following Ayahuasca Exposure in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Savoldi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The combined infusion of Banisteriopsis caapi stem and Psychotria viridis leaves, known as ayahuasca, has been used for centuries by indigenous tribes. The infusion is rich in N, N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, with properties similar to those of serotonin. Despite substantial progress in the development of new drugs to treat anxiety and depression, current treatments have several limitations. Alternative drugs, such as ayahuasca, may shed light on these disorders. Here, we present time-course behavioral changes induced by ayahuasca in zebrafish, as first step toward establishing an ideal concentration for pre-clinical evaluations. We exposed adult zebrafish to five concentrations of the ayahuasca infusion: 0 (control, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 3 ml/L (n = 14 each group, and behavior was recorded for 60 min. We evaluated swimming speed, distance traveled, freezing and bottom dwelling every min for 60 min. Swimming speed and distance traveled decreased with an increase in ayahuasca concentration while freezing increased with 1 and 3 ml/L. Bottom dwelling increased with 1 and 3 ml/L, but declined with 0.1 ml/L. Our data suggest that small amounts of ayahuasca do not affect locomotion and reduce anxiety-like behavior in zebrafish, while increased doses of the drug lead to crescent anxiogenic effects. We conclude that the temporal analysis of zebrafish behavior is a sensitive method for the study of ayahuasca-induced functional changes in the vertebrate brain.

  4. Behavioral Changes Over Time Following Ayahuasca Exposure in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoldi, Robson; Polari, Daniel; Pinheiro-da-Silva, Jaquelinne; Silva, Priscila F; Lobao-Soares, Bruno; Yonamine, Mauricio; Freire, Fulvio A M; Luchiari, Ana C

    2017-01-01

    The combined infusion of Banisteriopsis caapi stem and Psychotria viridis leaves, known as ayahuasca, has been used for centuries by indigenous tribes. The infusion is rich in N, N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, with properties similar to those of serotonin. Despite substantial progress in the development of new drugs to treat anxiety and depression, current treatments have several limitations. Alternative drugs, such as ayahuasca, may shed light on these disorders. Here, we present time-course behavioral changes induced by ayahuasca in zebrafish, as first step toward establishing an ideal concentration for pre-clinical evaluations. We exposed adult zebrafish to five concentrations of the ayahuasca infusion: 0 (control), 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 3 ml/L (n = 14 each group), and behavior was recorded for 60 min. We evaluated swimming speed, distance traveled, freezing and bottom dwelling every min for 60 min. Swimming speed and distance traveled decreased with an increase in ayahuasca concentration while freezing increased with 1 and 3 ml/L. Bottom dwelling increased with 1 and 3 ml/L, but declined with 0.1 ml/L. Our data suggest that small amounts of ayahuasca do not affect locomotion and reduce anxiety-like behavior in zebrafish, while increased doses of the drug lead to crescent anxiogenic effects. We conclude that the temporal analysis of zebrafish behavior is a sensitive method for the study of ayahuasca-induced functional changes in the vertebrate brain.

  5. Validation of Health Behavior and Stages of Change Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Ramirez, Leivy Patricia; De la Roca-Chiapas, Jose Maria; Colunga-Rodriguez, Cecilia; Preciado-Serrano, Maria de Lourdes; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Pedroza-Cabrera, Francisco Javier; Martinez-Arriaga, Reyna Jazmin

    2017-01-01

    Background The transtheoretical model (TTM) has been widely used to promote healthy behaviors in different groups. However, a questionnaire has not yet been developed to evaluate the health behaviors that medical practitioners often consider in individuals with cancer or at a high risk of developing cancer. Purpose The aim of this study was to construct and validate the Health Behavior and Stages of Change Questionnaire (HBSCQ), which is based on the TTM and health recommendations related to risk and factors that protect against cancer. Methods Content validity was conducted in two phases (qualitative and quantitative). Item difficulty index, item discrimination index, and discrimination coefficient were obtained based on the classical test theory. Finally, Cronbach’s alpha was used. Results Measure of concordance showed scores considered adequate and excellent. The item discrimination index obtained a rating of “excellent” and suggested the preservation of all items. The discrimination coefficient scores are >0.74. The global internal consistency of the HBSCQ was 0.384. HBSCQ specification between groups of internal consistency for the sample of men was 0.712 and that for the sample of women was 0.378. Conclusion/implications for practice The HBSCQ represents a proposal for a fast, simple, and innovative screening test, which aims to identify persons who may benefit from interventions to promote health behaviors delimited to the stage of change. PMID:28356769

  6. Knowledge gain and behavioral change in citizen-science programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Rebecca C; Gray, Steven A; Howe, David V; Brooks, Wesley R; Ehrenfeld, Joan G

    2011-12-01

    Citizen-science programs are often touted as useful for advancing conservation literacy, scientific knowledge, and increasing scientific-reasoning skills among the public. Guidelines for collaboration among scientists and the public are lacking and the extent to which these citizen-science initiatives change behavior is relatively unstudied. Over two years, we studied 82 participants in a three-day program that included education about non-native invasive plants and collection of data on the occurrence of those plants. Volunteers were given background knowledge about invasive plant ecology and trained on a specific protocol for collecting invasive plant data. They then collected data and later gathered as a group to analyze data and discuss responsible environmental behavior with respect to invasive plants. We tested whether participants without experience in plant identification and with little knowledge of invasive plants increased their knowledge of invasive species ecology, participation increased knowledge of scientific methods, and participation affected behavior. Knowledge of invasive plants increased on average 24%, but participation was insufficient to increase understanding of how scientific research is conducted. Participants reported increased ability to recognize invasive plants and increased awareness of effects of invasive plants on the environment, but this translated into little change in behavior regarding invasive plants. Potential conflicts between scientific goals, educational goals, and the motivation of participants must be considered during program design. ©2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Behavioral Disinhibition Can Foster Intentions to Healthy Lifestyle Change by Overcoming Commitment to Past Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Fennis, Bob M.; Andreassen, Tor W.; Line Lervik-Olsen

    2015-01-01

    To curb the trend towards obesity and unhealthy living, people may need to change their entire lifestyle to a healthier alternative, something that is frequently perceived to be problematic. The present research, using a large, representative community sample, hypothesized and found that a key factor responsible for why people do not intend to change lifestyles is a sense of commitment to past behavior. However we also found that the contribution of commitment was attenuated fo...

  8. Changes in Families' Caregiving Experiences through Involvement as Participants then Facilitators in a Family Peer-Education Program for Mental Disorders in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Masako; Yokoyama, Keiko; Nakamura, Yukako; Kobayashi, Sayaka

    2017-06-01

    A family peer-education program for mental disorders was developed in Japan, similar to existing programs in the United States and Hong Kong. Families that serve as facilitators in such programs may enhance their caregiving processes and, thereby, their well-being. This study's aim was to describe how families' caregiving experiences change, beginning with the onset of a family member's mental illness, through their involvement in a family group or peer-education program as participants then facilitators. Thus, this study was conducted in a family peer-education program for mental disorders in Japan. Group interviews were conducted with 27 facilitators from seven program sites about their experiences before, during, and after becoming facilitators. Interview data were coded and categorized into five stages of caregiving processes: (1) withdrawing and suppressing negative experiences with difficulty and regret; (2) finding comfort through being listened to about negative experiences; (3) supporting participants' sharing as facilitators; (4) understanding and affirming oneself through repeated sharing of experiences; and (5) finding value and social roles in one's experiences. The third, fourth, and fifth stages were experienced by the facilitators. The value that the facilitators placed on their caregiving experiences changed from negative to positive, which participants regarded as helpful and supportive. We conclude that serving as facilitators may improve families' caregiving processes. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  9. Hydrologic predictions in a changing environment: behavioral modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Schaefli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Most hydrological models are valid at most only in a few places and cannot be reasonably transferred to other places or to far distant time periods. Transfer in space is difficult because the models are conditioned on past observations at particular places to define parameter values and unobservable processes that are needed to fully characterize the structure and functioning of the landscape. Transfer in time has to deal with the likely temporal changes to both parameters and processes under future changed conditions. This remains an important obstacle to addressing some of the most urgent prediction questions in hydrology, such as prediction in ungauged basins and prediction under global change. In this paper, we propose a new approach to catchment hydrological modeling, based on universal principles that do not change in time and that remain valid across many places. The key to this framework, which we call behavioral modeling, is to assume that these universal and time-invariant organizing principles can be used to identify the most appropriate model structure (including parameter values and responses for a given ecosystem at a given moment in time. The organizing principles may be derived from fundamental physical or biological laws, or from empirical laws that have been demonstrated to be time-invariant and to hold at many places and scales. Much fundamental research remains to be undertaken to help discover these organizing principles on the basis of exploration of observed patterns of landscape structure and hydrological behavior and their interpretation as legacy effects of past co-evolution of climate, soils, topography, vegetation and humans. Our hope is that the new behavioral modeling framework will be a step forward towards a new vision for hydrology where models are capable of more confidently predicting the behavior of catchments beyond what has been observed or experienced before.

  10. Health, Human Capital, and Behavior Change: Essays in Development Microeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk, Angeli Elise

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation combines three empirical studies of household behaviors as they relate to investment in health and human capital in developing countries. The first explores how changes in children's nutrition in Uganda correspond to composition of a household's income. The second studies measurement activities in a cookstove intervention in Darfur, Sudan, with insights into what may be missed in traditional evaluation approaches as well as how technology adoption may benefit from an uninten...

  11. HESS Opinions: Hydrologic predictions in a changing environment: behavioral modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Schymanski

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Most hydrological models are valid at most only in a few places and cannot be reasonably transferred to other places or to far distant time periods. Transfer in space is difficult because the models are conditioned on past observations at particular places to define parameter values and unobservable processes that are needed to fully characterize the structure and functioning of the landscape. Transfer in time has to deal with the likely temporal changes to both parameters and processes under future changed conditions. This remains an important obstacle to addressing some of the most urgent prediction questions in hydrology, such as prediction in ungauged basins and prediction under global change. In this paper, we propose a new approach to catchment hydrological modeling, based on universal principles that do not change in time and that remain valid across many places. The key to this framework, which we call behavioral modeling, is to assume that there are universal and time-invariant organizing principles that can be used to identify the most appropriate model structure (including parameter values and responses for a given ecosystem at a given moment in time. These organizing principles may be derived from fundamental physical or biological laws, or from empirical laws that have been demonstrated to be time-invariant and to hold at many places and scales. Much fundamental research remains to be undertaken to help discover these organizing principles on the basis of exploration of observed patterns of landscape structure and hydrological behavior and their interpretation as legacy effects of past co-evolution of climate, soils, topography, vegetation and humans. Our hope is that the new behavioral modeling framework will be a step forward towards a new vision for hydrology where models are capable of more confidently predicting the behavior of catchments beyond what has been observed or experienced before.

  12. Collapsibility and Volume Change Behavior of Unsaturated Residual Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azalan A. Aziz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual soils occur in most countries of the world but the greater areas and depths are normally found in tropical humid areas. In these places, the soil forming processes are still very active and the weathering development is much faster than the erosive factor. Most residual soil exhibit high suctions for most of the year. The absence of positive pore water pressure except immediately after rain, makes conventional soil mechanics for saturated soil not so relevant. Ignorance or lack of understanding of the geotechnical behavior of soil in the partially or unsaturated state has caused a lot of damages to infrastructures, buildings and other structures. For instance, the collapsibility and volume change of partially saturated soils in connection with the drying or wetting causes a lot of damage in foundation, roads and other structures. It is also observed that many shallow slope failures involve a slumping (collapse type of failure. As such, the development of extended soil mechanics, which embraces the soil in the unsaturated state or subjected to soil suction, is essential. This study examines the collapsibility and volume change behavior specifically of an unsaturated residual soil under various levels of applied matric suction (ua-uw and net mean stress (σ-ua in a predetermined stress path. The volume change of the soil is found to be sensitive to both the applied matric suction and net mean stress. The soil is found to exhibit a collapsibility behavior upon a reduction in applied matric suction at constant net mean stress.

  13. Behavior change to prevent or delay Type 2 diabetes: Psychology in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Elizabeth M

    2016-10-01

    Self-management is critical for the prevention and control of chronic health conditions. Research shows that dietary and physical activity behaviors related to obesity are inextricably linked to the development, course, and outcomes of Type 2 diabetes and its comorbidities. Therefore, a compelling case has been made for behavioral lifestyle intervention as the first-line approach. Academic psychologists and other behavioral scientists have contributed to all stages of obesity and diabetes prevention research and practice. They have made seminal contributions to the evidence-based science of health behavior change with the National Institutes of Health funded Diabetes Prevention Program randomized clinical trial and subsequent translation and dissemination efforts as exemplars. Beginning with social-cognitive learning theory and behavior modification for obesity, research psychologists have elucidated the critical elements associated with treatment efficacy and have demonstrated the benefits of identifying individuals at elevated risk and providing early intervention. Most often, the psychologist's role has been to design and evaluate programs based on behavioral principles, or supervise, train, and facilitate adherence to interventions, rather than function as the primary provider. Lifestyle interventions have made a strong public health impact, but pressing challenges remain. Issues include difficulties with long-term weight loss maintenance, heterogeneity of treatment response, pragmatic translation and dissemination concerns such as optimal training and delivery formats, scalability of lifestyle intervention programs, reimbursement, and a need for environmental and policy approaches that promote healthy lifestyle norms and behaviors for all communities. Health psychology should be at the forefront in addressing all of these concerns. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Behavioral changes in female Swiss mice exposed to tannery effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Ferreira de Almeida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the anthropic activities generating potentially toxic residues are those involved with bovine hide processing (tannery industries. However, knowledge is scant regarding the damage caused to the health of various organisms by tannery waste and studies are rare, especially in mammalian experimental models. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the physical and behavioral effects of the exposure of female Swiss mice to tannery effluent. To accomplish this, for a period of 15 days the animals were fed tannery effluent diluted with water in the following concentrations: 0% (control group, received only potable water, 5% and 10%. The body mass of the animals was evaluated at the beginning and end of the experiment, as well as the daily consumption of water and food. After 15 days of exposure to the effluent, the animals were submitted to the elevated plus maze (predictive of anxiety and the forced swim test (predictive of depression. The treatments did not affect the animals' body mass, either in eating behavior or in consumption of water. However, it was found that the animals that ingested tannery effluent concentrations of 5% and 10% exhibited an anxiolytic (lower level of anxiety, greater percentage of time in the open arms, longer time and frequency in the diving behavior, less time of lurks and less frequency of freezing and an antidepressant effect (more time in climbing behavior and less time of immobility when compared to the control group. It was concluded that the exposure of female Swiss mice to tannery effluents (5% and 10% diluted with water causes behavioral changes, possibly related to the neurotoxicity of this waste, without causing physical changes in the animals.

  15. The significance of 'facilitator as a change agent'--organisational learning culture in aged care home settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grealish, Laurie; Henderson, Amanda; Quero, Fritz; Phillips, Roslyn; Surawski, May

    2015-04-01

    To explore the impact of an educational programme focused on social behaviours and relationships on organisational learning culture in the residential aged care context. The number of aged care homes will continue to rise as the frail older elderly live longer, requiring more formal care and support. As with other small- to medium-sized health services, aged care homes are faced with the challenge of continuous development of the workforce and depend upon registered nurses to lead staff development. A mixed-method evaluation research design was used to determine the impact of an educational programme focused on social aspects of learning on organisational learning culture. One hundred and fifty-nine (pre) and 143 (post) participants from three aged care homes completed the Clinical Learning Organisational Culture survey, and three participant-researcher registered nurse clinical educators provided regular journal entries for review. While each site received the same educational programme over a six-month period, the change in organisational learning culture at each site was notably different. Two aged care homes had significant improvements in affiliation, one in accomplishment and one in recognition. The educators' journals differed in the types of learning observed and interventions undertaken, with Eucalyptus focused on organisational change, Grevillea focused on group (student) change and the Wattle focused on individual or situational change. Clinical educator activities appear to have a significant effect on organisational learning culture, with a focus on the organisational level having the greatest positive effect on learning culture and on individual or situational level having a limited effect. Clinical educator facilitation that is focused on organisational rather than individual interests may offer a key to improving organisational learning culture. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Resilience Thinking as a Framing Mechanism to Facilitate Collective Community Response to Various Implications of Global Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Y.; Sharifi, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Future Earth initiative highlights single-disciplinary focus as a serious problem on the way of full utilization of the large body of existing knowledge and calls for "co-design", "co-production", and "co-dissemination" of knowledge. Resilience thinking is an approach to stewardship of social-ecological systems that seeks to bring the (often) fragmented diverse efforts and practices under an integrated framework. The notion of resilience is rapidly gaining ground in the sustainability literature. As a concept with broad scope and increasing popularity, resilience can be utilized to frame various problems related to different climate- and non-climate-induced disruptions in urban areas. Acknowledging that resilience thinking can provide a platform for communication between different parties operating in diverse research areas related to cities, this presentation describes the meaning of resilience in human communities. It emphasizes the essential role of social capital in mobilizing residents for collective action and facilitating collaboration between various groups and organizations that exist in an urban setting. It is argues that diffusion and implementation of such a collective and bottom-up approach to address the consequences of global environmental change warrants a governance shift from the conventional "persuasive communication processes" to "emergent dialogue" mechanisms that acknowledge the existence of complexities and uncertainties and advocate adopting a participatory process to create desired future communities that are capable of coping with the adverse consequences of global environmental change.

  17. Mass media and behavior change: hand in hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, Johns Hopkins University's Population communication Services has conducted evaluations of mass media campaigns in developing countries which communications personnel have designed to change health and sex behavior. The mass media campaigns involved relaying health and family planning information via radio, television, and pamphlets. The evaluations showed that these campaigns were an effective technique to promote behavior change, e.g. they have boosted demand for contraceptives, condom sales, clinic visits, and inquiries to hotlines. A 6-part television drama incorporating health and family planning into its storyline stimulated behavior change in Pakistan in 1991. 36% of people surveyed after the drama series said they would limit the number of children they would have. 44% planned to improve communication with their spouse. An amusing television promotion in Brazil which ran for 6 months in the late 1980s prompted 58% of new clinic patients in 1 town to seek a vasectomy. 1 clinic experienced an 81% increase in vasectomies. A 6-month campaign to promote condom use in Colombia in 1988-89 resulted in a 75% rise in condom sales. In the mid 1980, a 6-9 month mass media popular music campaign (2 songs and videos disseminated via television, radio, and print materials) in Mexico and Latin America strove to encourage youth to be responsible for their sexual behavior. During the campaign, an adult counseling center received an 800% increase in letters (50-450 letters/month). 4 radio and 5 television spots promoting health and family planning in Kwara State, Nigeria in 1984-87 increased family planning acceptors 500% from 258 to 1526 in the 7 existing clinics. Other successful campaigns took place in the Philippines, Zimbabwe, Indonesia, Turkey, Bolivia and Honduras.

  18. Development and validation of a questionnaire to detect behavior change in multiple advance care planning behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudore, Rebecca L; Stewart, Anita L; Knight, Sara J; McMahan, Ryan D; Feuz, Mariko; Miao, Yinghui; Barnes, Deborah E

    2013-01-01

    Advance directives have traditionally been considered the gold standard for advance care planning. However, recent evidence suggests that advance care planning involves a series of multiple discrete behaviors for which people are in varying stages of behavior change. The goal of our study was to develop and validate a survey to measure the full advance care planning process. The Advance Care Planning Engagement Survey assesses "Process Measures" of factors known from Behavior Change Theory to affect behavior (knowledge, contemplation, self-efficacy, and readiness, using 5-point Likert scales) and "Action Measures" (yes/no) of multiple behaviors related to surrogate decision makers, values and quality of life, flexibility for surrogate decision making, and informed decision making. We administered surveys at baseline and 1 week later to 50 diverse, older adults from San Francisco hospitals. Internal consistency reliability of Process Measures was assessed using Cronbach's alpha (only continuous variables) and test-retest reliability of Process and Action Measures was examined using intraclass correlations. For discriminant validity, we compared Process and Action Measure scores between this cohort and 20 healthy college students (mean age 23.2 years, SD 2.7). Mean age was 69.3 (SD 10.5) and 42% were non-White. The survey took a mean of 21.4 minutes (±6.2) to administer. The survey had good internal consistency (Process Measures Cronbach's alpha, 0.94) and test-retest reliability (Process Measures intraclass correlation, 0.70; Action Measures, 0.87). Both Process and Action Measure scores were higher in the older than younger group, pPlanning Engagement Survey that measures behavior change (knowledge, contemplation, self-efficacy, and readiness) and multiple advance care planning actions demonstrates good reliability and validity. Further research is needed to assess whether survey scores improve in response to advance care planning interventions and whether scores

  19. Behavioral responses of Atlantic cod to sea temperature changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Carla; Olsen, Esben Moland; Moland, Even; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Knutsen, Halvor

    2015-05-01

    Understanding responses of marine species to temperature variability is essential to predict impacts of future climate change in the oceans. Most ectotherms are expected to adjust their behavior to avoid extreme temperatures and minimize acute changes in body temperature. However, measuring such behavioral plasticity in the wild is challenging. Combining 4 years of telemetry-derived behavioral data on juvenile and adult (30-80 cm) Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), and in situ ocean temperature measurements, we found a significant effect of sea temperature on cod depth use and activity level in coastal Skagerrak. During summer, cod were found in deeper waters when sea surface temperature increased. Further, this effect of temperature was stronger on larger cod. Diel vertical migration, which consists in a nighttime rise to shallow feeding habitats, was stronger among smaller cod. As surface temperature increased beyond ∼15°C, their vertical migration was limited to deeper waters. In addition to larger diel vertical migrations, smaller cod were more active and travelled larger distances compared to larger specimens. Cold temperatures during winter tended, however, to reduce the magnitude of diel vertical migrations, as well as the activity level and distance moved by those smaller individuals. Our findings suggest that future and ongoing rises in sea surface temperature may increasingly deprive cod in this region from shallow feeding areas during summer, which may be detrimental for local populations of the species.

  20. Controlling Your "App"etite: How Diet and Nutrition-Related Mobile Apps Lead to Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joshua H; Belvedere, Lindsay M; Andreasen, Rebecca; Frandsen, Christine; Hall, P Cougar; Crookston, Benjamin T

    2017-07-10

    In recent years, obesity has become a serious public health crisis in the United States. Although the problem of obesity is being addressed through a variety of strategies, the use of mobile apps is a relatively new development that could prove useful in helping people to develop healthy dietary habits. Though such apps might lead to health behavior change, especially when relevant behavior change theory constructs are integrated into them, the mechanisms by which these apps facilitate behavior change are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify which behavior change mechanisms are associated with the use of diet- and nutrition-related health apps and whether the use of diet- and nutrition-related apps is associated with health behavior change. A cross-sectional survey was administered to a total of 217 participants. Participants responded to questions on demographics, use of diet and nutrition apps in the past 6 months, engagement and likability of apps, and changes in the participant's dietary behaviors. Regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with reported changes in theory and separately for reported changes in actual behavior, after controlling for potential confounding variables. The majority of study participants agreed or strongly agreed with statements regarding app use increasing their motivation to eat a healthy diet, improving their self-efficacy, and increasing their desire to set and achieve health diet goals. Additionally, majority of participants strongly agreed that using diet/nutrition apps led to changes in their behavior, namely increases in actual goal setting to eat a healthy diet (58.5%, 127/217), increases in their frequency of eating healthy foods (57.6%, 125/217), and increases in their consistency of eating healthy foods (54.4%, 118/217). Participants also responded favorably to questions related to engagement and likability of diet/nutrition apps. A number of predictors were also positively

  1. Climate change winners: receding ice fields facilitate colony expansion and altered dynamics in an Adélie penguin metapopulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRue, Michelle A.; Ainley, David G.; Swanson, Matt; Dugger, Katie M.; Lyber, Phil O'B.; Barton, Kerry; Ballard, Grant

    2013-01-01

    There will be winners and losers as climate change alters the habitats of polar organisms. For an Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) colony on Beaufort Island (Beaufort), part of a cluster of colonies in the southern Ross Sea, we report a recent population increase in response to increased nesting habitat as glaciers have receded. Emigration rates of birds banded as chicks on Beaufort to colonies on nearby Ross Island decreased after 2005 as available habitat on Beaufort increased, leading to altered dynamics of the metapopulation. Using aerial photography beginning in 1958 and modern satellite imagery, we measured change in area of available nesting habitat and population size of the Beaufort colony. Population size varied with available habitat, and both increased rapidly since the 1990s. In accord with glacial retreat, summer temperatures at nearby McMurdo Station increased by ~0.50°C per decade since the mid-1980s. Although the Ross Sea is likely to be the last ocean with an intact ecosystem, the recent retreat of ice fields at Beaufort that resulted in increased breeding habitat exemplifies a process that has been underway in the Ross Sea during the entire Holocene. Furthermore, our results are in line with predictions that major ice shelves and glaciers will retreat rapidly elsewhere in the Antarctic, potentially leading to increased breeding habitat for Adélie penguins. Results further indicated that satellite imagery may be used to estimate large changes in Adélie penguin populations, facilitating our understanding of metapopulation dynamics and environmental factors that influence regional populations.

  2. Climate change winners: receding ice fields facilitate colony expansion and altered dynamics in an Adelie penguin metapopulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A LaRue

    Full Text Available There will be winners and losers as climate change alters the habitats of polar organisms. For an Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae colony on Beaufort Island (Beaufort, part of a cluster of colonies in the southern Ross Sea, we report a recent population increase in response to increased nesting habitat as glaciers have receded. Emigration rates of birds banded as chicks on Beaufort to colonies on nearby Ross Island decreased after 2005 as available habitat on Beaufort increased, leading to altered dynamics of the metapopulation. Using aerial photography beginning in 1958 and modern satellite imagery, we measured change in area of available nesting habitat and population size of the Beaufort colony. Population size varied with available habitat, and both increased rapidly since the 1990s. In accord with glacial retreat, summer temperatures at nearby McMurdo Station increased by ~0.50 °C per decade since the mid-1980s. Although the Ross Sea is likely to be the last ocean with an intact ecosystem, the recent retreat of ice fields at Beaufort that resulted in increased breeding habitat exemplifies a process that has been underway in the Ross Sea during the entire Holocene. Furthermore, our results are in line with predictions that major ice shelves and glaciers will retreat rapidly elsewhere in the Antarctic, potentially leading to increased breeding habitat for Adélie penguins. Results further indicated that satellite imagery may be used to estimate large changes in Adélie penguin populations, facilitating our understanding of metapopulation dynamics and environmental factors that influence regional populations.

  3. Change in the relative contributions of habit and working memory facilitates serial reversal learning expertise in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Thomas C; Hampton, Robert R

    2017-02-09

    Functionally distinct memory systems likely evolved in response to incompatible demands placed on learning by distinct environmental conditions. Working memory appears adapted, in part, for conditions that change frequently, making rapid acquisition and brief retention of information appropriate. In contrast, habits form gradually over many experiences, adapting organisms to contingencies of reinforcement that are stable over relatively long intervals. Serial reversal learning provides an opportunity to simultaneously examine the processes involved in adapting to rapidly changing and relatively stable contingencies. In serial reversal learning, selecting one of the two simultaneously presented stimuli is positively reinforced, while selection of the other is not. After a preference for the positive stimulus develops, the contingencies of reinforcement reverse. Naïve subjects adapt to such reversals gradually, perseverating in selection of the previously rewarded stimulus. Experts reverse rapidly according to a win-stay, lose-shift response pattern. We assessed whether a change in the relative control of choice by habit and working memory accounts for the development of serial reversal learning expertise. Across three experiments, we applied manipulations intended to attenuate the contribution of working memory but leave the contribution of habit intact. We contrasted performance following long and short intervals in Experiments 1 and 2, and we interposed a competing cognitive load between trials in Experiment 3. These manipulations slowed the acquisition of reversals in expert subjects, but not naïve subjects, indicating that serial reversal learning expertise is facilitated by a shift in the control of choice from passively acquired habit to actively maintained working memory.

  4. Being surveyed can change later behavior and related parameter estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwane, Alix Peterson; Zinman, Jonathan; Van Dusen, Eric; Pariente, William; Null, Clair; Miguel, Edward; Kremer, Michael; Hornbeck, Richard; Giné, Xavier; Duflo, Esther; Devoto, Florencia; Crepon, Bruno; Banerjee, Abhijit

    2011-01-01

    Does completing a household survey change the later behavior of those surveyed? In three field studies of health and two of microlending, we randomly assigned subjects to be surveyed about health and/or household finances and then measured subsequent use of a related product with data that does not rely on subjects' self-reports. In the three health experiments, we find that being surveyed increases use of water treatment products and take-up of medical insurance. Frequent surveys on reported diarrhea also led to biased estimates of the impact of improved source water quality. In two microlending studies, we do not find an effect of being surveyed on borrowing behavior. The results suggest that limited attention could play an important but context-dependent role in consumer choice, with the implication that researchers should reconsider whether, how, and how much to survey their subjects. PMID:21245314

  5. Joint modeling of longitudinal data in multiple behavioral change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnigo, Richard; Kryscio, Richard; Bardo, Michael T; Lynam, Donald; Zimmerman, Rick S

    2011-06-01

    Multiple behavioral change is an exciting and evolving research area, albeit one that presents analytic challenges to investigators. This manuscript considers the problem of modeling jointly trajectories for two or more possibly non-normally distributed dependent variables, such as marijuana smoking and risky sexual activity, collected longitudinally. Of particular scientific interest is applying such modeling to elucidate the nature of the interaction, if any, between an intervention and personal characteristics, such as sensation seeking and impulsivity. The authors describe three analytic approaches: generalized linear mixed modeling, group-based trajectory modeling, and latent growth curve modeling. In particular, the authors identify identify the strengths and weaknesses of these analytic approaches and assess their impact (or lack thereof) on the psychological and behavioral science literature. The authors also compare what investigators have been doing analytically versus what they might want to be doing in the future and discuss the implications for basic and translational research.

  6. The oscillatory behavior of the CoM facilitates mechanical energy balance between push-off and heel strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seyoung; Park, Sukyung

    2012-01-10

    Humans use equal push-off and heel strike work during the double support phase to minimize the mechanical work done on the center of mass (CoM) during the gait. Recently, a step-to-step transition was reported to occur over a period of time greater than that of the double support phase, which brings into question whether the energetic optimality is sensitive to the definition of the step-to-step transition. To answer this question, the ground reaction forces (GRFs) of seven normal human subjects walking at four different speeds (1.1-2.4 m/s) were measured, and the push-off and heel strike work for three differently defined step-to-step transitions were computed based on the force, work, and velocity. To examine the optimality of the work and the impulse data, a hybrid theoretical-empirical analysis is presented using a dynamic walking model that allows finite time for step-to-step transitions and incorporates the effects of gravity within this period. The changes in the work and impulse were examined parametrically across a range of speeds. The results showed that the push-off work on the CoM was well balanced by the heel strike work for all three definitions of the step-to-step transition. The impulse data were well matched by the optimal impulse predictions (R(2)>0.7) that minimized the mechanical work done on the CoM during the gait. The results suggest that the balance of push-off and heel strike energy is a consistent property arising from the overall gait dynamics, which implies an inherited oscillatory behavior of the CoM, possibly by spring-like leg mechanics.

  7. Fertility and marriage behavior in Israel: Diversity, change, and stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Okun

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Based on aggregate statistics, the population of Israel, as compared to all or most other developed societies, has very high levels of fertility and marriage (e.g. TFR of 2.96 in 2009 and only 9.7Š never married among women aged 40-44 in 2009. However, studying aggregate demographic measures is problematic, because Israel is an extremely heterogeneous society, with family formation patterns differing greatly across numerically important social groups. Until now, little has been documented about the basic fertility and marriage behavior of different population groups. OBJECTIVE We describe the fertility and marriage behavior of populations in Israel, broken down by nationality, religion, religiosity and nativity-status. Although our main focus is on a detailed presentation of fertility patterns, we also look at marriage behavior, as it is closely related to fertility in Israel. METHODS We analyze recently available annual data from the Israel Social Surveys for 2002-2009, which, for the first time in several decades,, provides detailed information on family and household demographic behavior and direct information on level of religiosity. We focus primarily on comparisons across cohorts born from the late 1940s to the late 1960s and between periods in the early and late 2000s. RESULTS We provide a detailed portrait of striking diversity in fertility and marriage behavior across population groups, along with important patterns of change and stability across cohorts and over time. We document findings and differential patterns, some unexpected, regarding comparisons across groups and across cohorts. CONCLUSIONS The descriptive findings form the basis for a clearer understanding of fertility and marriage patterns in different population subgroups in Israel. In addition, the reported results suggest many questions for future research, which are outlined in the paper.

  8. Can We Really Get our Patients to Change Unhealthy Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    behavior shaped by reinforcement or lack of it Basis for all behavior modification Positive Reinforcement – strengthen behavior Negative...behaviors, consequences Positive Reinforcement : Compliments, approval, encouragement Affirmation: 5 compliments to every 1 complaint Extinction

  9. Understanding and Promoting Effective Engagement With Digital Behavior Change Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Lucy; Spring, Bonnie J; Riper, Heleen; Morrison, Leanne G; Crane, David H; Curtis, Kristina; Merchant, Gina C; Naughton, Felix; Blandford, Ann

    2016-11-01

    This paper is one in a series developed through a process of expert consensus to provide an overview of questions of current importance in research into engagement with digital behavior change interventions, identifying guidance based on research to date and priority topics for future research. The first part of this paper critically reflects on current approaches to conceptualizing and measuring engagement. Next, issues relevant to promoting effective engagement are discussed, including how best to tailor to individual needs and combine digital and human support. A key conclusion with regard to conceptualizing engagement is that it is important to understand the relationship between engagement with the digital intervention and the desired behavior change. This paper argues that it may be more valuable to establish and promote "effective engagement," rather than simply more engagement, with "effective engagement" defined empirically as sufficient engagement with the intervention to achieve intended outcomes. Appraisal of the value and limitations of methods of assessing different aspects of engagement highlights the need to identify valid and efficient combinations of measures to develop and test multidimensional models of engagement. The final section of the paper reflects on how interventions can be designed to fit the user and their specific needs and context. Despite many unresolved questions posed by novel and rapidly changing technologies, there is widespread consensus that successful intervention design demands a user-centered and iterative approach to development, using mixed methods and in-depth qualitative research to progressively refine the intervention to meet user requirements.

  10. Separate neural systems for behavioral change and for emotional responses to failure during behavioral inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wanlu; Rolls, Edmund T; Ji, Xiaoxi; Robbins, Trevor W; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Buechel, Christian; Desrivières, Sylvane; Conrod, Patricia; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Juergen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Lemaitre, Herve; Nees, Frauke; Papadopoulos Orfanos, Dimitri; Poustka, Luise; Smolka, Michael N; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Schumann, Gunter; Feng, Jianfeng

    2017-04-21

    To analyze the involvement of different brain regions in behavioral inhibition and impulsiveness, differences in activation were investigated in fMRI data from a response inhibition task, the stop-signal task, in 1709 participants. First, areas activated more in stop-success (SS) than stop-failure (SF) included the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) extending into the inferior frontal gyrus (ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, BA 47/12), and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Second, the anterior cingulate and anterior insula (AI) were activated more on failure trials, specifically in SF versus SS. The interaction between brain region and SS versus SF activations was significant (P = 5.6 * 10(-8) ). The results provide new evidence from this "big data" investigation consistent with the hypotheses that the lateral OFC is involved in the stop-related processing that inhibits the action; that the DLPFC is involved in attentional processes that influence task performance; and that the AI and anterior cingulate are involved in emotional processes when failure occurs. The investigation thus emphasizes the role of the human lateral OFC BA 47/12 in changing behavior, and inhibiting behavior when necessary. A very similar area in BA47/12 is involved in changing behavior when an expected reward is not obtained, and has been shown to have high functional connectivity in depression. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Enhancing Behavioral Change with Motivational Interviewing: a case study in a Cardiac Rehabilitation Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giada ePietrabissa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: psychological interventions in Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR programs appear relevant in as much they significantly contribute to achieve the goals of rehabilitation, to reduce the risk of relapses and to improve patients’ adherence to therapy. To this aim, Motivational Interviewing (MI has shown promising results in improving motivation to change and individuals’ confidence in their ability to do so. Objective: the purpose of this article is to integrate theory with practice by describing a 3-session case scenario. It illustrates how the use of MI’s skills and strategies can be used to enhance health. MI may be synergistic with other treatment approaches and it is used here in conjunction with Brief Strategic Therapy (BST. Conclusions: by the use of Motivational Interviewing principles and technique, the patient reported an increase in his motivation and ability to change, developing a post discharge plan that incorporates self-care behaviors. Clinical Implications: Motivational Interviewing may be effective in motivating and facilitating health behavior change in patients suffering from heart failure.

  12. Diet, Exercise, Behavior: The Promise and Limits of Lifestyle Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Brian; Sothern, Melinda S.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalent surge in childhood and adolescent obesity within the past 3 decades poses a significant challenge for many pediatric clinicians who are charged with treating this condition. The need for comprehensive, research-based pediatric obesity treatment programs are essential in addressing this problem and preventing the transition of obesity and its many co-morbidities into adulthood. This paper will identify dietary, physical activity, and behavioral approaches to lifestyle change and describe how they are incorporated as part of multidisciplinary treatment interventions in youth. Specific tailoring of treatment programs to address age and varying degrees of overweight and obesity will also be presented along with recommendations for future research. PMID:19573757

  13. eHealth Applications Promising Strategies for Behavior Change

    CERN Document Server

    Noar, Seth M

    2012-01-01

    eHealth Applications: Promising Strategies for Behavior Change provides an overview of technological applications in contemporary health communication research, exploring the history and current uses of eHealth applications in disease prevention and management. This volume focuses on the use of these technology-based interventions for public health promotion and explores the rapid growth of an innovative interdisciplinary field. The chapters in this work discuss key eHealth applications by presenting research examining a variety of technology-based applications. Authors Seth M. Noar and Nancy

  14. Moving forward on facilitation research : Response to changing environments and effects on the diversity, functioning and evolution of plant communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soliveres, Santiago; Smit, Christian; Maestre, Fernando T

    2015-01-01

    Once seen as anomalous, facilitative interactions among plants and their importance for community structure and functioning are now widely recognized. The growing body of modelling, descriptive and experimental studies on facilitation covers a wide variety of terrestrial and aquatic systems througho

  15. Characterizing Behavioral and Brain Changes Associated with Practicing Reasoning Skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson P Mackey

    Full Text Available We have reported previously that intensive preparation for a standardized test that taxes reasoning leads to changes in structural and functional connectivity within the frontoparietal network. Here, we investigated whether reasoning instruction transfers to improvement on unpracticed tests of reasoning, and whether these improvements are associated with changes in neural recruitment during reasoning task performance. We found behavioral evidence for transfer to a transitive inference task, but no evidence for transfer to a rule generation task. Across both tasks, we observed reduced lateral prefrontal activation in the trained group relative to the control group, consistent with other studies of practice-related changes in brain activation. In the transitive inference task, we observed enhanced suppression of task-negative, or default-mode, regions, consistent with work suggesting that better cognitive skills are associated with more efficient switching between networks. In the rule generation task, we found a pattern consistent with a training-related shift in the balance between phonological and visuospatial processing. Broadly, we discuss general methodological considerations related to the analysis and interpretation of training-related changes in brain activation. In summary, we present preliminary evidence for changes in brain activation associated with practice of high-level cognitive skills.

  16. Changing behavior: evidence based practice supporting hair removal with clippers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Evidence based practice demonstrates using clippers immediately before surgery, when perioperative hair removal is necessary, results in the fewest surgical site infections (Kjonniksen, Andersen, Sondenaa, & Segadal, 2002). In addition, one of The Joint Commission's national patient safety goals for 2008 is "to reduce the risk of healthcare associated infections" (The Joint Commission, 2008, Goal 7). Therefore, a project was undertaken to change perioperative nursing care in a large teaching hospital from using razors for hair removal in the perioperative setting to using clippers. Change is difficult and encompasses many interdisciplinary areas. A description of the process of utilizing evidence to change behavior in the perioperative setting and its outcomes will be provided in this paper. Klevens, et al., (2007) reported that 22% of healthcare associated infections were the result of surgical site infections (SSIs). Changing practice to utilizing clippers for hair removal is an extrinsic factor of SSIs that can be easily modified. Otorhinolaryngology (ORL) patients that require hair removal before surgery (i.e., acoustic neuroma, cranial-facial resections, and head and neck reconstruction) may benefit from this change in practice. Perioperative nurses are in a prime position to reduce the incidence of SSIs in ORL patients.

  17. Characterizing Behavioral and Brain Changes Associated with Practicing Reasoning Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Allyson P; Miller Singley, Alison T; Wendelken, Carter; Bunge, Silvia A

    2015-01-01

    We have reported previously that intensive preparation for a standardized test that taxes reasoning leads to changes in structural and functional connectivity within the frontoparietal network. Here, we investigated whether reasoning instruction transfers to improvement on unpracticed tests of reasoning, and whether these improvements are associated with changes in neural recruitment during reasoning task performance. We found behavioral evidence for transfer to a transitive inference task, but no evidence for transfer to a rule generation task. Across both tasks, we observed reduced lateral prefrontal activation in the trained group relative to the control group, consistent with other studies of practice-related changes in brain activation. In the transitive inference task, we observed enhanced suppression of task-negative, or default-mode, regions, consistent with work suggesting that better cognitive skills are associated with more efficient switching between networks. In the rule generation task, we found a pattern consistent with a training-related shift in the balance between phonological and visuospatial processing. Broadly, we discuss general methodological considerations related to the analysis and interpretation of training-related changes in brain activation. In summary, we present preliminary evidence for changes in brain activation associated with practice of high-level cognitive skills.

  18. The Jekyll and Hyde of emotional intelligence: emotion-regulation knowledge facilitates both prosocial and interpersonally deviant behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Stéphane; Decelles, Katherine A; McCarthy, Julie M; Van Kleef, Gerben A; Hideg, Ivona

    2011-08-01

    Does emotional intelligence promote behavior that strictly benefits the greater good, or can it also advance interpersonal deviance? In the investigation reported here, we tested the possibility that a core facet of emotional intelligence--emotion-regulation knowledge--can promote both prosocial and interpersonally deviant behavior. Drawing from research on how the effective regulation of emotion promotes goal achievement, we predicted that emotion-regulation knowledge would strengthen the effects of other-oriented and self-oriented personality traits on prosocial behavior and interpersonal deviance, respectively. Two studies supported our predictions. Among individuals with higher emotion-regulation knowledge, moral identity exhibited a stronger positive association with prosocial behavior in a social dilemma (Study 1), and Machiavellianism exhibited a stronger positive association with interpersonal deviance in the workplace (Study 2). Thus, emotion-regulation knowledge has a positive side and a dark side.

  19. Changing energy-related behavior: An Intervention Mapping approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, Gerjo, E-mail: g.kok@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Lo, Siu Hing, E-mail: siu-hing.lo@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y., E-mail: gj.peters@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Ruiter, Robert A.C., E-mail: r.ruiter@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    This paper's objective is to apply Intervention Mapping, a planning process for the systematic development of theory- and evidence-based health promotion interventions, to the development of interventions to promote energy conservation behavior. Intervention Mapping (IM) consists of six steps: needs assessment, program objectives, methods and applications, program development, planning for program implementation, and planning for program evaluation. Examples from the energy conservation field are provided to illustrate the activities associated with these steps. It is concluded that applying IM in the energy conservation field may help the development of effective behavior change interventions, and thus develop a domain specific knowledge-base for effective intervention design. - Highlights: > Intervention Mapping (IM) is a planning process for developing evidence-based interventions.> IM takes a problem-driven rather than theory-driven approach. > IM can be applied to the promotion of energy-conservation in a multilevel approach. > IM helps identifying determinants of behaviors and environmental conditions. > IM helps selecting appropriate theory-based methods and practical applications.

  20. Sensory Systems and Environmental Change on Behavior during Social Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bierbower

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of environmental conditions for transmitting sensory cues and the ability of crayfish to utilize olfaction and vision were examined in regards to social interactive behavior. The duration and intensity of interactions were examined for conspecific crayfish with different sensory abilities. Normally, vision and chemosensory have roles in agonistic communication of Procambarus clarkii; however, for the blind cave crayfish (Orconectes australis packardi, that lack visual capabilities, olfaction is assumed to be the primary sensory modality. To test this, we paired conspecifics in water and out of water in the presence and absence of white light to examine interactive behaviors when these various sensory modalities are altered. For sighted crayfish, in white light, interactions occurred and escalated; however, when the water was removed, interactions and aggressiveness decreased, but, there was an increase in visual displays out of the water. The loss of olfaction abilities for blind cave and sighted crayfish produced fewer social interactions. The importance of environmental conditions is illustrated for social interactions among sighted and blind crayfish. Importantly, this study shows the relevance in the ecological arena in nature for species survival and how environmental changes disrupt innate behaviors.

  1. Changes in Rational Economic Behavior Model, Caused By the Development of E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menzeleev Ilya, A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the author examines the origins of rationality concept and its transformation within the framework of economic science. According to the author, rationality is a fundamental concept both for philosophy and for economics. Changes in rational economic behavior model significantly effect on informal institutes (in short-term perspective and on formal institutes (in long-term period. In the paper it is said about significant changes taking place with humanity right now. Today it becomes more and more difficult to describe human behavior by uniform concept of rationality. Now people live in a world that is developing unprecedentedly fast, with the usage of incredible amount of information, countless tasks and social contacts. The development of the Internet and IT tools facilitate this process. Already since the midtwentieth century advertising and marketing has been influencing people’s lifestyle like politics or news. Media resources brands today are comparable to the resources of some political parties or even TV channels what means that advertising today is one of the main factors affecting consumers ' minds and their behavioral model, main feature of which is the premise of rationality or justification of actions. The author analyzes the changes of models of rationality over time and, above all, the changes caused by the development of Internet marketing and its tools for monitoring user activity and the impact on decision making in the Network. In conclusion a number of recommendations is given, which can help consumers to save an independence in making decisions in the Internet environment.

  2. Perspectives of obese children and their parents on lifestyle behavior change: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalkwijk, A A H; Bot, S D M; de Vries, L; Westerman, M J; Nijpels, G; Elders, P J M

    2015-08-19

    In order to improve and optimize future behavioral family lifestyle intervention programs, more information on the perceptions of obese children and their parents of these programs is needed. As such, the aim of this qualitative study is 1) to explore the expectations of obese children and their parents in relation to lifestyle interventions; 2) to identify barriers to making lifestyle changes that parents and children face within their social context (within the family, at school and amongst friends and peers) as well as the things that facilitate these changes and 3) to identify the needs of obese children and their parents in the context of a lifestyle intervention. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted. Interviewees were participants in a lifestyle intervention program in the Netherlands. Eighteen children (mean age 10 years) and 24 parents were interviewed. The respondents expected to lose weight by being physically active or by eating healthily. Parents struggled with adopting and adhering to new rules and the absence of support of family members. Children struggled with inconsistent parenting and a lack of support from their parents. Bullying experienced at school impeded the children in their ability to make the necessary changes. Support from peers, on the other hand, stimulated their progress. Parents identified the need for the general practitioner to discuss overweight in a non-offensive way and to show an interest in the process of weight loss. Participants in a lifestyle behavior intervention program benefit from parental support and help from their (extended) family, peers and friends. They would also profit from the sustained involvement of their general practitioner in assisting in the maintenance of lifestyle behavior changes.

  3. Accounting standard changes and foreign analyst behavior:Evidence from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutao Wang; Yu Hou; Xiaolin Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates changes in foreign analyst behavior before and after Chinese New Accounting Standards was implemented during 2007.The empirical results show that after the new accounting standards were implemented,forecast error among foreign analysts decreased in both absolute and relative terms in comparison with domestic analysts,and foreign analysts forecast earnings more frequently than they did before the new accounting standards.These results imply that the implementation of new accounting standards in the Chinese capital market helped mitigate both information asymmetry between listed firms in China and foreign investors,and the "home bias" of foreign analysts.It also increased the attractiveness of listed firms and facilitated international communication and cooperation.This study also has significant implications for how resource allocation efficiency in the Chinese capital market can be raised and how the "introducing in" policy should be assessed.

  4. Older persons' experiences of a home-based exercise program with behavioral change support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkkukangas, Marina; Sundler, Annelie J; Söderlund, Anne; Eriksson, Staffan; Johansson, Ann-Christin

    2017-08-16

    It is a challenge to promote exercise among older persons. Knowledge is needed regarding the maintenance of exercise aiming at preventing falls and promoting health and well-being in older persons. This descriptive study used a qualitative inductive approach to describe older persons' experiences of a fall-preventive, home-based exercise program with support for behavioral change. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 elderly persons aged 75 years or older, and a qualitative content analysis was performed. Four categories emerged: facilitators of performing exercise in everyday life, the importance of support, perceived gains from exercise, and the existential aspects of exercise. With support from physiotherapists (PTs), home-based exercise can be adapted to individual circumstances in a meaningful way. Including exercises in everyday life and daily routines could support the experience of being stronger, result in better physical functioning, and give hope for an extended active life in old age.

  5. Changes in physical therapy providers' use of fall prevention strategies following a multicomponent behavioral change intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cynthia J; Gottschalk, Margaret; Van Ness, Peter H; Fortinsky, Richard H; Tinetti, Mary E

    2005-05-01

    An abundance of evidence suggests that interventions targeting fall risk factors are effective; however, it remains unknown whether, or to what extent, this body of evidence has affected the clinical practice of physical therapy providers. The purposes of this study were: (1) to describe knowledge of, and attitudes toward, fall risk factors and fall reduction strategies; (2) to assess self-reported use of fall reduction strategies with patients; and (3) to identify factors associated with increased use of fall reduction strategies with patients among physical therapy providers exposed to a behavioral change strategy. A cross-sectional survey of physical therapy providers from hospital-based and freestanding outpatient physical therapy facilities throughout north-central Connecticut was conducted between October 2002 and April 2003. The participants were 94 physical therapy providers who had been exposed to the Connecticut Collaboration for Fall Prevention (CCFP) behavioral change effort. The CCFP program uses multicomponent professional behavioral change strategies to embed fall risk factor assessment and management, based on evidence from randomized controlled trials, into the clinical care of older patients. A telephone questionnaire--focusing on fall risk factor knowledge and attitudes and self-reported fall risk factor assessment and management practices before and after exposure to the CCFP efforts--was administered to consenting physical therapy providers. Environmental hazards and gait and balance deficits were named as fall risk factors by 86 (91%) and 73 (78%) participants, respectively. All of the targeted risk factors were mentioned by at least 30% of the participants. Sixty-four participants (68%) reported increased fall reduction practice behaviors. The area of multiple medications was noted most frequently, with 77 participants (82%) noting new practices related to medication use. Only knowledge of fall risk factors and pre-CCFP behaviors were

  6. Development and validation of a questionnaire to detect behavior change in multiple advance care planning behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L Sudore

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Advance directives have traditionally been considered the gold standard for advance care planning. However, recent evidence suggests that advance care planning involves a series of multiple discrete behaviors for which people are in varying stages of behavior change. The goal of our study was to develop and validate a survey to measure the full advance care planning process. METHODS: The Advance Care Planning Engagement Survey assesses "Process Measures" of factors known from Behavior Change Theory to affect behavior (knowledge, contemplation, self-efficacy, and readiness, using 5-point Likert scales and "Action Measures" (yes/no of multiple behaviors related to surrogate decision makers, values and quality of life, flexibility for surrogate decision making, and informed decision making. We administered surveys at baseline and 1 week later to 50 diverse, older adults from San Francisco hospitals. Internal consistency reliability of Process Measures was assessed using Cronbach's alpha (only continuous variables and test-retest reliability of Process and Action Measures was examined using intraclass correlations. For discriminant validity, we compared Process and Action Measure scores between this cohort and 20 healthy college students (mean age 23.2 years, SD 2.7. RESULTS: Mean age was 69.3 (SD 10.5 and 42% were non-White. The survey took a mean of 21.4 minutes (±6.2 to administer. The survey had good internal consistency (Process Measures Cronbach's alpha, 0.94 and test-retest reliability (Process Measures intraclass correlation, 0.70; Action Measures, 0.87. Both Process and Action Measure scores were higher in the older than younger group, p<.001. CONCLUSION: A new Advance Care Planning Engagement Survey that measures behavior change (knowledge, contemplation, self-efficacy, and readiness and multiple advance care planning actions demonstrates good reliability and validity. Further research is needed to assess whether survey

  7. Association among change in medical costs, level of comorbidity, and change in adherence behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kymes, Steven M; Pierce, Richard L; Girdish, Charmaine; Matlin, Olga S; Brennan, Tryoen; Shrank, William H

    2016-08-01

    Interventions to improve medication adherence are effective, but resource intensive. Interventions must be targeted to those who will potentially benefit most. We examined what heterogeneity exists in the value of adherence based on levels of comorbidity, and the changes in spending on medical services that followed changes in adherence behavior. Retrospective cohort study examining medical spending for 2 years (April 1, 2011, to March 31, 2013) in commercial insurance beneficiaries. Multivariable linear modeling was used to adjust for differences in patient characteristics. Analyses were performed at the patient/condition level in 2 cohorts: adherent at baseline and nonadherent at baseline. We evaluated 857,041 patients, representing 1,264,797 patient therapies consisting of 40% high cholesterol, 48% hypertension, and 12% diabetes. Among those with 3 or more conditions, annual savings associated with becoming adherent were $5341, $4423, and $2081 for patients with at least diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol, respectively. The increased costs for patients in this group who became nonadherent were $4653, $7946, and $4008, respectively. Depending on the condition and the direction of behavior change, savings were 2 to 7 times greater than the value for individuals with fewer than 3 conditions. In most cases, the value of preventing nonadherence (ie, persistence) was greater than the value of moving people who are nonadherent to an adherent state. There is important heterogeneity in the impact of medication adherence on medical spending. Clinicians and policy makers should consider this when promoting the change of adherence behavior.

  8. Facilitation of extinction and re-extinction of operant behavior in mice by chlordiazepoxide and D-cycloserine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Julian C; Norwood, Kelly

    2013-05-01

    The aim was to compare operant extinction with re-extinction following re-acquisition and to investigate neuropharmacological mechanisms through administration of drugs potentiating GABAergic or glutamatergic systems. Groups of C57Bl/6 mice were trained to lever press for food on a fixed ratio schedule, then extinguished with or without pre-session chlordiazepoxide or post-session d-cycloserine administration (15mg/kg in each case), then retrained to lever press for food, then re-extinguished with or without pre-session chlordiazepoxide or post-session d-cycloserine. Under vehicle injections, extinction and re-extinction curves were indistinguishable, but drug treatments showed that there was less resistance to extinction in the re-extinction phase. Chlordiazepoxide facilitated extinction and re-extinction, with an earlier effect during re-extinction. d-Cycloserine also facilitated extinction and re-extinction, with some evidence of an earlier effect during re-extinction. These results replicate and extend earlier findings with operant extinction, but differ from some previous reports of d-cycloserine on re-extinction of Pavlovian conditioned fear. Implications for accounts of the similarities and differences between neural mechanisms of extinction following either Pavlovian or operant conditioning, and applications of these findings, are discussed.

  9. Validation of Health Behavior and Stages of Change Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Ramirez LP

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Leivy Patricia Gonzalez-Ramirez,1,2 Jose Maria De la Roca-Chiapas,2 Cecilia Colunga-Rodriguez,3,4 Maria de Lourdes Preciado-Serrano,3 Adrian Daneri-Navarro,5 Francisco Javier Pedroza-Cabrera,6 Reyna Jazmin Martinez-Arriaga1 1Department of Health Sciences, University Centre of Tonala, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, 2Department of Psychology, Division of Health Sciences, Campus Leon, University of Guanajuato, Guanajuato, 3Department of Public Health, University Centre for Health Sciences, University of Guadalajara, 4Paediatric Hospital, Western National Medical Centre, Mexican Social Security Institute, 5Departament of Physiology, University Centre for Health Sciences, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, 6Department of Psychology, Autonomous University of Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Mexico Background: The transtheoretical model (TTM has been widely used to promote healthy behaviors in different groups. However, a questionnaire has not yet been developed to evaluate the health behaviors that medical practitioners often consider in individuals with cancer or at a high risk of developing cancer.Purpose: The aim of this study was to construct and validate the Health Behavior and Stages of Change Questionnaire (HBSCQ, which is based on the TTM and health recommendations related to risk and factors that protect against cancer. Methods: Content validity was conducted in two phases (qualitative and quantitative. Item difficulty index, item discrimination index, and discrimination coefficient were obtained based on the classical test theory. Finally, Cronbach’s alpha was used.Results: Measure of concordance showed scores considered adequate and excellent. The item discrimination index obtained a rating of “excellent” and suggested the preservation of all items. The discrimination coefficient scores are >0.74. The global internal consistency of the HBSCQ was 0.384. HBSCQ specification between groups of internal consistency for the

  10. A novel EEG for alpha brain state training, neurobiofeedback and behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Bruce; Arthur, David

    2013-08-01

    Mindfulness meditation, with the resulting alpha brain state, is gaining a strong following as an adjunct to health, so too is applying self-affirmation to stimulate behavior change through subconscious re-programming. Until recently the EEG technology needed to demonstrate this has been cumbersome and required specialist training. This paper reports a pilot study using a remote EEG headband, which through a sophisticated algorithm, provides a real-time EEG readout unencumbered by conventional artifacts. In a convenience sample of 13, the difference in brain waves was examined while the subjects were occupied in an 'attention' and an 'alpha mind state' exercise. There was a significant difference in the mean scores for theta, delta, beta and gamma brain waves. Alpha brain waves remained static suggesting an ability of the headset to discriminate a mindful state and to provide real-time, easy to interpret feedback for the facilitator and subject. The findings provide encouragement for research applications in health care activities providing neurobiofeedback to subjects involved in mindfulness behavior change activities.

  11. From the External to the Internal: Behavior Clarifications Facilitate Theory of Mind (ToM) Development in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanchun; Wang, Yijie; Luo, Rufan; Su, Yanjie

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated how Chinese children develop theory of mind (ToM) in a language environment with limited mental state talk that is rich in behavior discourse. In Study 1, 60 mothers shared a wordless storybook with their 3-4-year-olds. The children completed two false-belief tasks and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised at…

  12. The Jekyll and Hyde of emotional intelligence: emotion-regulation knowledge facilitates both prosocial and interpersonally deviant behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Côté, S.; DeCelles, K.A.; McCarthy, J.M.; van Kleef, G.A.; Hideg, I.

    2011-01-01

    Does emotional intelligence promote behavior that strictly benefits the greater good, or can it also advance interpersonal deviance? In the investigation reported here, we tested the possibility that a core facet of emotional intelligence—emotion-regulation knowledge—can promote both prosocial and

  13. The Jekyll and Hyde of emotional intelligence: emotion-regulation knowledge facilitates both prosocial and interpersonally deviant behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Côté, S.; DeCelles, K.A.; McCarthy, J.M.; van Kleef, G.A.; Hideg, I.

    2011-01-01

    Does emotional intelligence promote behavior that strictly benefits the greater good, or can it also advance interpersonal deviance? In the investigation reported here, we tested the possibility that a core facet of emotional intelligence—emotion-regulation knowledge—can promote both prosocial and i

  14. Changes in Pilot Behavior with Predictive System Status Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    1998-01-01

    Research has shown a strong pilot preference for predictive information of aircraft system status in the flight deck. However, changes in pilot behavior associated with using this predictive information have not been ascertained. The study described here quantified these changes using three types of predictive information (none, whether a parameter was changing abnormally, and the time for a parameter to reach an alert range) and three initial time intervals until a parameter alert range was reached (ITIs) (1 minute, 5 minutes, and 15 minutes). With predictive information, subjects accomplished most of their tasks before an alert occurred. Subjects organized the time they did their tasks by locus-of-control with no predictive information and for the 1-minute ITI, and by aviatenavigate-communicate for the time for a parameter to reach an alert range and the 15-minute conditions. Overall, predictive information and the longer ITIs moved subjects to performing tasks before the alert actually occurred and had them more mission oriented as indicated by their tasks grouping of aviate-navigate-communicate.

  15. Changes in Thai sexual behavior lower HIV spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-02

    More than 700,000 people are thought to be HIV positive in Thailand. A booming sex industry and social attitudes which support the male patronage of prostitutes are major factors in the spread of disease in the country. A 4-day workshop on sexual behavior and AIDS in Thailand was attended by representatives from Burma, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. According to the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the percentage of military conscripts in northern Thailand who visited a brothel in the past year fell from 58% in 1991 to 23% in 1995, while the percentage of recruits using condoms during their most recent brothel visits increased from 60% to 90% over the same period. Statistics from the Thai Public Health Ministry indicate that the percentage of men in the general population who used condoms when visiting a brothel increased from 40% in 1990 to 90% in 1994. Furthermore, a nationwide survey among military conscripts found the prevalence of HIV infection fell from 3.7% in 1993 to 2.5% in 1995, with the downward trend continuing in 1996. This success in reducing the level of sexual risk behavior and the incidence of HIV infection in Thailand lends hope for the possibility of changing the course of the HIV/AIDS epidemic elsewhere.

  16. HURRICANE CHANGES: EXAMINING ENHANCED MOTIVATION TO CHANGE DRUG USING BEHAVIORS AMONG KATRINA EVACUEES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcio, Nelson Jose; Twiggs, Robert; Dunlap, Eloise E.

    2010-01-01

    Substance use disorders are credited with greater amounts of death and illness than all other preventable health problems. Billions of dollars are spent on efforts to control drug supplies and fund various treatment approaches, but relatively little resources have been directed towards investigating how environmental conditions can contribute to or detract from substance user’s individual motivation to change behavior. Hurricane Katrina caused untold property damage and upheaval, in addition to the vast numbers of people whose lives it drastically affected. This article examines how surviving this ordeal, subsequent evacuation, and eventual resettlement in New Orleans or re-location to a different city (in this case, Houston) impacted individuals’ motivation to change their substance use patterns and behaviors. This article’s approach is grounded in the values of the social work profession and examines: 1) the role of life events in motivating change of substance using behaviors in the absence of formal treatment interventions; and 2) participant resilience in overcoming the adversities inherent to this disaster. PMID:21852981

  17. Dynamic brain mapping of behavior change: tracking response initiation and inhibition to changes in reinforcement rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlund, Michael W; Magee, Sandy; Hudgins, Caleb D

    2012-10-01

    Adaptive behavior change is supported by executive control processes distributed throughout a prefrontal-striatal-parietal network. Yet, the temporal dynamics of regions in the network have not been characterized. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we tracked changes brain activation while subjects initiated and inhibited responding in accordance with changes in reinforcement rate. During imaging, subjects completed a free-operant task that involved repeated transitions between fixed-ratio reinforcement and extinction (RF:EXT), where reinforcement rate decreased and responding was inhibited, and between extinction and fixed-ratio reinforcement (EXT:RF), where reinforcement rate increased and responding was initiated. Our whole-brain temporal assessment revealed that transitions which required initiating and inhibiting responding prompted positive phasic responses in a prefrontal-parietal network, the insula and thalamus. However, response initiation prompted by an increase in reinforcement rate during the EXT:RF transition elicited positive phasic responses in reward-sensitive striatal regions. Furthermore, response inhibition prompted by a decrease in reinforcement rate during the RF:EXT transition elicited negative phasic responses in ventral frontal regions sensitive to value and contingency. Our findings highlight the temporal dynamics of a brain network that supports behavioral changes (initiation and inhibition) resulting from changes in local reinforcement rates.

  18. The high-capacity specific fructose facilitator ZrFfz1 is essential for the fructophilic behavior of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii CBS 732T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandro, Maria José; Cabral, Sara; Prista, Catarina; Loureiro-Dias, Maria C; Sychrová, Hana

    2014-11-01

    Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a fructophilic yeast that consumes fructose preferably to glucose. This behavior seems to be related to sugar uptake. In this study, we constructed Z. rouxii single-, double-, and triple-deletion mutants in the UL4 strain background (a ura3 strain derived from CBS 732(T)) by deleting the genes encoding the specific fructose facilitator Z. rouxii Ffz1 (ZrFfz1), the fructose/glucose facilitator ZrFfz2, and/or the fructose symporter ZrFsy1. We analyzed the effects on the growth phenotype, on kinetic parameters of fructose and glucose uptake, and on sugar consumption profiles. No growth phenotype was observed on fructose or glucose upon deletion of FFZ genes. Deletion of ZrFFZ1 drastically reduced fructose transport capacity, increased glucose transport capacity, and eliminated the fructophilic character, while deletion of ZrFFZ2 had almost no effect. The strain in which both FFZ genes were deleted presented even higher consumption of glucose than strain Zrffz1Δ, probably due to a reduced repressing effect of fructose. This study confirms the molecular basis of the Z. rouxii fructophilic character, demonstrating that ZrFfz1 is essential for Z. rouxii fructophilic behavior. The gene is a good candidate to improve the fructose fermentation performance of industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Mapping Coaches' Views of Participation in CrossFit to the Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change and Sense of Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Katie M; Carlisle, Taran; Kehler, Ainslie; Cosgrove, Sarah J

    Group-based training through CrossFit has recently exploded in popularity. Anecdotally, participants often make lifestyle changes and experience improved fitness. Participation factors were mapped to the Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change and "sense of community" constructs. Key informant interviews were conducted with 6 CrossFit gym owners/coaches. Data were thematically coded with NVivo 10. Results revealed key factors that both facilitated and restricted participation in CrossFit. Findings provide implications for future theory application and highlight how to improve initiation and adherence by capitalizing on community building and taking steps to reduce intimidation and cost, facilitate realistic goals, and ensure social support.

  20. Designing Serious Video Games for Health Behavior Change: Current Status and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Guidelines discussed include how to develop video games that provide a solid foundation for behavior change by enhancing a player’s knowledge and skill, ways in which per...

  1. Desistance From Sexual Offending: Behavioral Change Without Cognitive Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Danielle Arlanda

    2015-08-05

    The treatment and management of sexual offenders has long been focused on risk and recidivism. As a consequence, the phenomenon of desistance from sexual offending has only recently gained research attention. Unsurprisingly, the area of theory building to account for this empirical reality has been slow. Although a number of psychological theories of behavioral change and criminological theories of desistance exist, a comprehensive theoretical understanding of desistance from sexual offending is lacking. A theme common across a number of theories of internal desistance is cognitive transformation and specifically, one's readiness for and willingness to change. This study tested the relevance of that particular theme for a sample of 45 men convicted of sexual offenses who are living offense-free lives in the community. In contrast to this theme, long-term desistance was observed in most cases in the absence of any initial desire for intervention. The impact of current approaches such as mandatory treatment is discussed and implications for future research and practice are presented. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Evidence that implementation intentions reduce drivers' speeding behavior: testing a new intervention to change driver behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Sarah E; Elliott, Mark A; Kelly, Steve W

    2015-01-01

    Implementation intentions have the potential to break unwanted habits and help individuals behave in line with their goal intentions. We tested the effects of implementation intentions in the context of drivers' speeding behavior. A randomized controlled design was used. Speeding behavior, goal intentions and theoretically derived motivational pre-cursors of goal intentions were measured at both baseline and follow-up (one month later) using self-report questionnaires. Immediately following the baseline questionnaire, the experimental (intervention) group (N=117) specified implementation intentions using a volitional help sheet, which required the participants to link critical situations in which they were tempted to speed with goal-directed responses to resist the temptation. The control group (N=126) instead received general information about the risks of speeding. In support of the hypotheses, the experimental group reported exceeding the speed limit significantly less often at follow-up than did the control group. This effect was specific to 'inclined abstainers' (i.e., participants who reported speeding more than they intended to at baseline and were therefore motivated to reduce their speeding) and could not be attributed to any changes in goal intentions to speed or any other measured motivational construct. Also in line with the hypotheses, implementation intentions attenuated the past-subsequent speeding behavior relationship and augmented the goal intention - subsequent speeding behavior relationship. The findings imply that implementation intentions are effective at reducing speeding and that they do so by weakening the effect of habit, thereby helping drivers to behave in accordance with their existing goal intentions. The volitional help sheet used in this study is an effective tool for promoting implementation intentions to reduce speeding.

  3. Behavioral Change and Building Performance: Strategies for Significant, Persistent, and Measurable Institutional Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Amy K.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Heerwagen, Judith H.; Dion, Jerome P.

    2014-04-01

    The people who use Federal buildings — Federal employees, operations and maintenance staff, and the general public — can significantly impact a building’s environmental performance and the consumption of energy, water, and materials. Many factors influence building occupants’ use of resources (use behaviors) including work process requirements, ability to fulfill agency missions, new and possibly unfamiliar high-efficiency/high-performance building technologies; a lack of understanding, education, and training; inaccessible information or ineffective feedback mechanisms; and cultural norms and institutional rules and requirements, among others. While many strategies have been used to introduce new occupant use behaviors that promote sustainability and reduced resource consumption, few have been verified in the scientific literature or have properly documented case study results. This paper documents validated strategies that have been shown to encourage new use behaviors that can result in significant, persistent, and measureable reductions in resource consumption. From the peer-reviewed literature, the paper identifies relevant strategies for Federal facilities and commercial buildings that focus on the individual, groups of individuals (e.g., work groups), and institutions — their policies, requirements, and culture. The paper documents methods with evidence of success in changing use behaviors and enabling occupants to effectively interact with new technologies/designs. It also provides a case study of the strategies used at a Federal facility — Fort Carson, Colorado. The paper documents gaps in the current literature and approaches, and provides topics for future research.

  4. Gay Rights and School Policy: A Case Study in Community Factors that Facilitate or Impede Educational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgillivray, Ian K.

    2004-01-01

    This article highlights factors that either facilitated or hampered the work of a local Safe Schools Coalition in advocating adoption and implementation of their school district's policies that include sexual orientation. Non-discrimination policies that include sexual orientation and gender identity are needed to help stop anti-gay peer abuse…

  5. Understanding change in recycling and littering behavior across a school social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jennifer; Harré, Niki; Atkinson, Quentin D

    2014-06-01

    Understanding how communities change requires examining how individuals' beliefs and behaviors are shaped by those around them. This paper investigates behavior change across a large social network following a recycling intervention in a New Zealand high school community. We used a mixed methods design, combining focus group data with social network analysis from two waves of a questionnaire that measured friendship networks; recycling and littering behaviors; perceived behavioral norms; and teacher, friend, and parent encouragement for these behaviors. Recycling behavior increased significantly over the course of our study. Supporting the importance of social networks in this context, both littering and recycling behavior showed clear social clustering. Further, the degree of change in an individuals' littering and recycling behavior across time was predicted by friends' prior behavior. Focus group data provided insight into students' perceptions of social interactions and how these contributed to littering and recycling behavior.

  6. So much data, so little time: Using sequential data analysis to monitor behavioral changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Tywanquila

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-three infants (M = 13.7 months, SD = 3.73) and their primary caregivers were observed and video-taped in three 20-min play sessions. Over the course of a month, changes in infant behaviors and caregiver responsiveness to those behaviors were monitored. Repeated-measures ANOVAs indicated that caregiver responsiveness to infant object-related and dyadic behaviors significantly increased over the course of the sessions. However, the ANOVAs did not specify exactly which caregiver behaviors changed. Sequential data analysis revealed that caregivers specifically increased their use of dyadic vocal behaviors in response to all infant behaviors. This study reveals that although ANOVAs are useful for providing information about macro, overall changes in caregiver behavior, sequential data analysis is a useful tool for evaluating micro, moment-to-moment changes in behavior. With sequential analysis, specific behavioral patterns can be examined and, if necessary, steps can be taken to modify and monitor those behaviors over time. •Sequential data analysis was used to monitor changes in caregiver behavior.•Non-culture-specific behavioral codes and techniques were used to quantify caregiver responsiveness to infant object-related and dyadic behaviors.•When compared to ANOVA, sequential data analysis is more useful for assessing micro-level behavioral changes in infant-caregiver interactions.

  7. Effects of trunk stability exercise using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation with changes in chair height on the gait of patients who had a stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Si-Eun; Moon, Sang-Hyun

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of trunk stability exercise using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation with changes in chair heights on the gait of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 11 stroke patients. The intervention method was trunk stability exercise using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation with different chair heights (50, 60, and 70 cm). These exercises were performed 5 times per week for 6 weeks. Gait velocity, cadence, stride length, gait cycle, and stance phase duration were used to measure gait function. [Results] Significant changes in gait velocity, cadence, and stride length were observed on the affected side. However, no significant changes in gait cycle and stance phase were observed on the affected side. [Conclusion] These results indicate that trunk stability exercise using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation with change in chair heights were effective in improving gait velocity, cadence, and stride length on the affected side. However, in this study, no significant changes were observed in gait cycle and stance phase on the affected side. Therefore, various interventions for stroke patients should be investigated in further studies.

  8. Self-Regulation, Self-Efficacy and Health Behavior Change in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdie, Nola; McCrindle, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Presents an overview of self-regulation models: theory of planned behavior, protection motivation theory, health belief model, action control theory, transtheoretical model of behavior change, health action process, and precaution adoption process. Applies models to health behavior change in older adults with cardiovascular disease or diabetes.…

  9. Behavioral science in video games for children's diet and physical activity change: Key research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innovative intervention programs are needed to overcome the limitations in previous programs that promoted change in diabetes risk behaviors in children. Serious video games show promise of changing dietary and physical activity behaviors, but research is needed on the optimal design of behavior-cha...

  10. Designing serious video games for health behavior change: Current status and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of o...

  11. Non-occupational sedentary behaviors: Population changes in the Netherlands, 1975-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, H.P. van der; Venugopal, K.; Chau, J.Y.; Poppel, M.N.M. van; Breedveld, K.; Merom, D.; Bauman, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Evidence is accumulating that sedentary behaviors have detrimental health effects. Comprehensive data on population changes in various sedentary behaviors over time are scarce. Purpose: This study aimed to determine changes in non-occupational sedentary behaviors in the Dutch adult popul

  12. Determinants of intention to change health-related behavior and actual change in patients with TIA or minor ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer-Goossensen, Dorien; Genugten, Lenneke van; Lingsma, Hester; Dippel, Diederik; Koudstaal, Peter; Hertog, Heleen den

    2016-04-01

    To assess determinants of intention to change health-related behavior and actual change in patients with TIA or ischemic stroke. In this prospective cohort study, 100 patients with TIA or minor ischemic stroke completed questionnaires on behavioral intention and sociocognitive factors including perception of severity, susceptibility, fear, response-efficacy and self-efficacy at baseline. Questionnaires on physical activity, diet and smoking were completed at baseline and at 3 months. Associations between sociocognitive factors and behavioral intention and actual change were studied with multivariable linear and logistic regression. Self-efficacy, response efficacy, and fear were independently associated with behavioral intention, with self-efficacy as the strongest determinant of intention to increase physical activity (aBeta 0.40; 95% CI 0.12-0.71), adapt a healthy diet (aBeta 0.49; 95% CI 0.23-0.75), and quit smoking (aBeta 0.51; 95% CI 0.13-0.88). Intention to change tended to be associated with actual health-related behavior change. Self-efficacy, fear, and response-efficacy were determinants of intention to change health-related behavior after TIA or ischemic stroke. These determinants of intention to change health-related behavior after TIA or ischemic stroke should be taken into account in the development of future interventions promoting health-related behavior change in these group of patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Facilitating Sustainable Waste Management Behaviors Within the Health Sector: A Case Study of the National Health Service (NHS in Southwest England, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Richardson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste costs the National Health Service (NHS £71.2 million in 2007/2008; recycling all papers, newspapers and cardboard produced by the NHS in England and Wales could save up to 42,000 tonnes of CO2. As the largest employer in the UK, the NHS is in a prime position to both lead the way towards a sustainable future, but also act as a test bed for organizational change and provide evidence of what works at an individual level to change attitudes and behavior. However these require changes in mindset, including values, attitudes, norms and behaviors which are required along with clear definitions of the problems faced in terms of economics, society and culture. Initial investigations of the literature indicate that behavior change theory may provide a feasible means of achieving constructive changes in clinical waste management; such approaches require further investigation. This paper describes a feasibility study designed to examine issues that might affect the introduction of a behavior change strategy and improve waste management in a healthcare setting. Guided by the evidence gained from our systematic review, 20 interviews were carried out with senior managers, clinicians and support staff involved in the management of healthcare waste from a broad range of agencies in South West England. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed for analysis. Thematic content analysis was conducted in order to identify key issues and actions. Data extraction, coding and analysis were cross checked independently by the four members of the research team. Initial findings suggest tensions, between Government and local policies, between packaging and storage space at ward level and, and between the operational requirements of infection control and maintaining appropriate and ethical patient care. These tensions increase pressures on staff already trying to maintain high quality care in a resource restricted and changing environment.

  14. Changes in marriage and fertility behavior. Behavior versus attitudes of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K A; Stief, T M

    1991-03-01

    Hoping to determine whether recent changes in marriage and fertility behavior are simply temporary or more permanent, the attitudes and values of young adults were compared to the recent trends. The data come from the 1987 wave of the National Survey of Children, which has tracked a nationally representative sample of young people since 1976. The following behaviors and their corresponding attitudes are discussed: sexual activity, pregnancy, nonmarital childbearing, abortion, marriage and cohabitation, and divorce. Also considered are how blacks and whites differ in their behavior and attitudes. Since the 1970s, the incidence of premarital intercourse has increased substantially among adolescents and has resulted in a rise in the pregnancy rate. Adolescents strongly disapprove of sexual activity among younger teens, but accept it for older adolescents. Nonmarital childbearing increased by about 50% from 1970 to 1987. Adolescents, however, generally hold negative attitudes toward adolescent pregnancy, and the majority of sexually experienced teens report wanting to avoid pregnancy. In 1985, over 40% of teens who became pregnant obtained an abortion. Adolescents are divided on the acceptability of abortion -- except in instances of rape, in which case most accept abortion. Young adults strongly favor delayed marriage and oppose divorce, feeling that couples should not get married unless they intend to stay together for life. About 1/2 of young adults approve of cohabitation and only 1/5 are opposed to nonmarital childbearing. Based on the policy implications of the findings, it is concluded that the attitudes and values of young adults do not reflect the demise of the family, as has been predicted.

  15. Social marketing of condoms: selling protection and changing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, S

    1991-06-01

    Social marketing of condoms in Zaire began in 1987 and sales rose to 8 million in 1990, a notable change from the previous situation where about half a million condoms were distributed by government health clinics only. Social marketing is the use of for-profit sales and marketing techniques for public health problem.s When the Zaire National AIDS Committee initiated social marketing of condoms, with the assistance of Population Services International, they had the experience of successful Asian programs of the 1970s, and the political sanction resulting from the AIDS threat to back them up. Efforts were made to find just the right product name, "Prudence," logo, package, color and slogan by consumer research. Prudence implies responsible behavior, capturing both the AIDS and STD prevention and the family planning markets. Consumers like the package and associate it with quality, since most condoms sold before in Zaire had no special packaging. Distribution outlets include 7000 retail shops, groceries, pharmacies, hotel, social clubs, 300 bars and even Congo River barges which sex workers frequent. The price was set close to that of a pack of gum for 3, or that of a bottle of beer for a dozen. Promotion is limited by a government ban of advertising in mass media, so point of purchase materials, special offers and promotional items are being used. Prudence condoms are now being marketed in Cameroon and Burundi.

  16. Concordance between Stages of Behavior Change Questionnaire and IPAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Missaki Nakamura

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A low rate of physical activity (PA participation is observed worldwide. The identification of feasible and reliable instruments able to accurately measuring PA and help in the development of interventions to promote PA are necessary. This study aimed to analyze the concordance between the Stages of Behavior Change Questionnaire (SBCQ and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ long-version in assessing adult leisure-time physical activity (LTPA. A total of 1.588 adults completed the IPAQ to assess LTPA and the participants who performed more than 10 min/week were classified in active individuals. Using the SBCQ, active individuals were those classified in the action or maintenance stage and inactive individuals were those classified in the precontemplation, contemplation or preparation stage. The concordance between SBCQ and IPAQ was found to be 0.80. Separated by gender, it was observed a concordance between the two instruments of 0.82 for women, and 0.77 for men. Regarding age group, it was found to be 0.81 for young and middle-aged adults, and 0.77 for older people. The SBCQ presented a very good concordance with IPAQ to assess LTPA.

  17. Impact of Leader’s Change-Promoting Behavior on Readiness for Change: A Mediating Role of Organizational Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shahnawaz Adil

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of the leader’s change-promoting behavior on employee’s readiness for change and whether the organizational culture mediates this relationship. A sample of 205 responses is drawn from employees having junior or senior level of managerial responsibilities in Karachi. The method of both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses is employed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the measurement model. The structural equation modeling method was then applied to examine the theoretical framework with the help of seven frequently reported goodness-of-fit indices. The results indicate that leader’s change-promoting behavior has a significant positive impact on change readiness and the organizational culture partially mediates the positive relationship between the leader’s change-promoting behavior and change readiness. The present study supports the theory of one of the six conceptual formations of change readiness that it is reflected as employee’s capacity to change. Therefore, managers should clearly advocate the desired change with the help of their own change-prompting behavior as well as establishing a trusting culture in their organization. Future studies may ascertain the impact of employees’ readiness for change in their commitment to change in the context of Pakistan which could further lead to passive or active change-related behaviors.

  18. Cognitive changes in cardiovascular patients following a tailored behavioral smoking cessation intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, FJ; Dijkstra, A; de Haes, JCJM; Legemate, DA; Smets, EMA

    2005-01-01

    Background. Action aimed at changing smoking behavior to prevent cardiovascular patients from further impairing their health is advisable. Cognitive behavioral interventions can be effective in this regard since they attempt to influence cognitive determinants that presumably lead to smoking cessati

  19. Educating dental students about diet-related behavior change: does experiential learning work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George W; Stumpos, Madelyn L; Kerschbaum, Wendy; Inglehart, Marita Rohr

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore whether an experiential exercise in a nutrition class would a) increase dental students' motivation to change their own diet-related behavior, b) improve their understanding of theoretical concepts related to behavior change, and c) improve their attitudes towards educating their patients about diet-related behavior. Data were collected from 218 senior dental students in one dental school (2010: 106; 2011: 112) during their nutrition class. The students agreed at the beginning that it was important to change their own diet-related behavior. After one week, the majority agreed that they had changed how they felt and thought about the targeted behavior and what they actually did. After three weeks and at the end of the term, they rated the exercise as helpful for gaining a better understanding of health education theories. The majority indicated that the exercise had helped them understand the difficulty of diet-related behavior change and that it had increased their interest in helping patients change their diet-related behavior. In conclusion, this study suggests that experiential learning about diet-related behavior change is likely to affect students' own behavior positively and to result in increased understanding of behavior change theories and positive behavioral intentions concerning future health education efforts with patients.

  20. Heart and liver lipid fatty acid and behavior changes in mice after a diet change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchell, B B

    1984-04-23

    270-Day old, male Ham/ICR mice were subjected to a diet change from high protein and carbohydrate and low fat to a diet higher in fat and lower in carbohydrate and protein. Age matched mice were maintained on laboratory rodent chow as controls. The diet change was not defined so the observed differences could not necessarily be ascribed to altered protein, carbohydrate, or fat intake. Comparison of the controls with the experimental mice revealed the " junk food" mice differed in lipid fatty acid profiles of the heart and liver and in percentage of lipid palmitic and oleic acids in these organs and also in plasma. Appearance was altered in the experimental mice which had dull, greasy coats. In addition, the experimental animals were less active, slept singly, and were slower in negotiating a three-choice maze than their comparably housed counterparts, indicating altered activity/curiosity behavior.

  1. Change leadership behaviors to change performance results: the foundation of top customer satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Stephanie G

    2002-01-01

    Raising customer satisfaction in health-care organizations has been a priority for the past 5 years or more. Articles and books continue to be written on the topic and speeches and presentations are given to eager audiences of professionals who have a deep desire to improve customer satisfaction. Yet research indicates that customer satisfaction, on average, in the health-care industry barely has improved. This column will examine why some organizations, using the same best practice techniques and approaches for top customer satisfaction, achieve wonderful results as most others achieve meager results, at best. The answer to achieving top customer satisfaction lies in the leadership of the organization. When leaders change their thinking and behaviors, results will change.

  2. Granular flow behavior at sharp changes in slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Giovanni; De Blasio, Fabio; Locatelli, Michele

    2015-04-01

    This study extends some recent experiments and analyses performed by the authors to examine the behavior of granular flows along path characterised by sharp changes in slope. In particular, various series of experiments along a bi-linear broken slope (an inclined initial sector followed by a horizontal one) have been completed using a uniform (Hostun, 0.32 mm) sand and a uniform fine gravel (2 mm grains). 60 new have been performed by releasing different volumes (1.5, 2.1 and 5.1 L) on surfaces characterized by different slope angles (35-60°), type of materials (wood and plexiglass), with or without an erodible layer (sand), or in presence of a shallow water pond (0.5 cm). These geometrical features are typical of many large rock and snow avalanches, rock falls and of chalk flows. The latter are usually typical of coastal cliffs where a shallow water environment is typical. The evolution of the flow has been monitored through a laser profilometer at 120 Hz sampling frequency and high speed camera, and in this way it has been possible to follow the evolution of the flow and deposition, and to analyse the change in deposition mode at varying the slope angle, the material and the basal friction. This is an extremely interesting development in the study of the evolution of the deposition and of the final morphology typical of such phenomena, and can support the testing of numerical models. Propagation and deposition occur forward or backward accordingly to the slope angle and the basal friction. Forward movement and deposition occur at high slope angles and with low basal friction. The opposite is true for the backward deposition. The internal "layering" within the deposit is also strongly controlled by the combination of such parameters. The time evolution of the flow allowed to determine the velocity of flow and the mode of deposition through the analysis of the change in thickness, position of the front and of the flow tail. Presence of water reduces the runout of

  3. Behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus coinfected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa Leite de Queiroz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Using an elevated plus maze apparatus and an activity cage, behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii were studied, during a period of 120 days. Rats infected by Toxocara canis or Toxoplasma gondii showed significant behavioral changes; however, in the group coinfected by both parasites a behavioral pattern similar to that found in the group not infected was observed thirty days after infection, suggesting the occurrence of modulation in the behavioral response.

  4. Frequency, Clinical Correlates, and Ratings of Behavioral Changes in Primary Brain Tumor Patients: A Preliminary Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Grahame K.; Eng-Siew eKoh; Diane eWhiting; Wright, Kylie M.; Teresa eSimpson; Rochelle eFirth; Lauren eGillett; Kathryn eYounan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Few studies have addressed the specific behavioral changes associated with primary brain tumor (PBT). This paper will report on the frequency and demographic/clinical correlates of such behaviors, and the reliability of rating such behaviors among people with PBT, family informants, and clinicians. The association of behavioral changes and patient functional status will also be discussed. Methods A total of 57 patients with 37 family informants were recruited from two large...

  5. African-American and Caribbean-Born Men's Perceptions of Prostate Cancer Fear and Facilitators for Screening Behavior: a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobran, Ewan K; Hall, Jori N; Aiken, William D

    2017-01-16

    This study describes how a concurrent exploratory mixed methodology (CEMM) approach was used to investigate perceptions of prostate cancer (CaP) fear and facilitators of screening behavior in African-American (AA) and Caribbean-born (CB) black men for instrument development. A quantitative paper-based questionnaire was modified, adapted, and administered to participants from the Personal Integrative Model of Prostate Cancer Disparity Survey and the Powe Fatalism Inventory. Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted and analyzed using thematic analysis. Of the 31 participants, 17 (55%) were CB black men and 14 (45%) were AA men. CB black men reported significantly higher mean perception of CaP treatment scores compared to AA men (8.23 versus 6.14, p < 0.05). Overall, the focus group and interview data revealed highly interrelated key themes. These themes included perceived barriers to CaP screening (e.g., health-care affordability), misconceptions about CaP (e.g., limited knowledge), and misinformation about CaP (e.g., conflicting CaP screening information from health-care providers). Feeling responsible to make sure family members were taken care of and the role of a significant other were reported as motivation for visiting the doctor. As a result of the CEMM design, a reliable survey instrument was developed to measure CaP fear and facilitators for screening behavior within subpopulations of AA men, which is important because despite their shared genetic ancestry, AA and CB black males may have very different lifestyles.

  6. Behavioral Disinhibition Can Foster Intentions to Healthy Lifestyle Change by Overcoming Commitment to Past Behavior: e0142489

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bob M Fennis; Tor W Andreassen; Line Lervik-Olsen

    2015-01-01

    .... The present research, using a large, representative community sample, hypothesized and found that a key factor responsible for why people do not intend to change lifestyles is a sense of commitment to past behavior...

  7. Age-related striatal BOLD changes without changes in behavioral loss aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans C Breiter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Loss aversion (LA, the idea that negative valuations have a higher psychological impact than positive ones, is considered an important variable in consumer research. The literature on aging and behavior suggests older individuals may show more LA, although it is not clear if this is an effect of aging in general (as in the continuum from age 20 and 50 years, or of the state of older age (e.g., past age 65 years. We also have not yet identified the potential biological effects of aging on the neural processing of LA. In the current study we used a cohort of subjects with a 30 year range of ages, and performed whole brain functional MRI (fMRI to examine the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAc response during a passive viewing of affective faces with model-based fMRI analysis incorporating behavioral data from a validated approach/avoidance task with the same stimuli. Our a priori focus on the VS/NAc was based on (1 the VS/NAc being a central region for reward/aversion processing, (2 its activation to both positive and negative stimuli, (3 its reported involvement with tracking LA. LA from approach/avoidance to affective faces showed excellent fidelity to published measures of LA. Imaging results were then compared to the behavioral measure of LA using the same affective faces. Although there was no relationship between age and LA, we observed increasing neural differential sensitivity (NDS of the VS/NAc to avoidance responses (negative valuations relative to approach responses (positive valuations with increasing age. These findings suggest that a central region for reward/aversion processing changes with age, and may require more activation to produce the same LA behavior as in younger individuals, consistent with the idea of neural efficiency observed with high IQ individuals showing less brain activation to complete the same task.

  8. Behavioral effects of cyclic changes in serotonin during the human menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, D E; Tedford, W H; Flynn, W E

    1979-03-01

    Many cyclic changes during the menstrual cycle (temperature, depression, motor activity, pain sensitivity, etc.) are closely paralleled by changes in brain serotonin level. These changes, in turn, are associated with peripheral hormone levels which are comparatively regular and easily measured. Their measurement may be useful both in predicting behavior and in accounting for atypical menstrual-related behavior.

  9. Behavioral changes during dental appointments in children having tooth extractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gonzalez Cademartori

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tooth extractions are associated with anxiety-related situations that can cause behavioral problems in pediatric dental clinics. Aim: We aimed to describe the behavior of children during tooth extraction appointments, compare it to their behavior in preceding and subsequent dental appointments, and assess the behavioral differences according to gender, age, type of dentition, and reason for extraction. Settings and Design: This was a retrospective study based on information obtained from records of children between 6 and 13 years of age who were cared for at the Dentistry School in Pelotas, Brazil. Materials and Methods: Child behavior was assessed during the dental appointment that preceded the tooth extraction, during the tooth extraction appointment, and in the subsequent dental appointment using the Venham Behavior Rating Scale. Statistical Analysis: Results were analyzed using the Pearson Chi-square and McNemar tests. Results: Eighty-nine children were included. Cooperative behavior prevailed in all the dental appointments. The prevalence of “mild/intense protest” was higher in the tooth extraction appointments than in the previous or subsequent dental appointments (P < 0.001. No significant differences in behavior were detected between the type of dentition (primary or permanent teeth, reason for extraction or gender. Conclusion: In this sample of children treated at a dental school, the occurrence of uncooperative behavior was higher during the tooth extraction appointments than in the preceding and subsequent dental appointments.

  10. Problem Internet Overuse Behaviors in College Students: Readiness-to-Change and Receptivity to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer E; Li, Wen; Snyder, Susan M; Howard, Matthew O

    2016-01-01

    This mixed methods study explores college students' readiness-to-change and receptivity to treatment for problem Internet overuse behaviors. Focus groups were conducted with 27 college students who self-identified as Internet over-users, and had experienced biopsychosocial problems related to Internet overuse. Participants completed standardized questionnaires assessing their Internet use and sociodemographic forms. Focus groups explored readiness to change problem Internet overuse behaviors and receptivity to treatment. Similar to college students with other addictive behaviors, students with problem Internet overuse fall along a continuum vis-à-vis readiness-to-change their behaviors. Over half of the participants were receptive to treatment for their problem Internet overuse behaviors.

  11. Change in science teaching behaviors: Evaluating the impact of a collaborative learning network at the level of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Teresa Mae

    influencing the types of teaching behaviors used by elementary and middle school teachers. However, network offerings must employ a combination of adaptable features that meet the individual learning needs of the teachers as well as the individual contextual they serve. Another major conclusion drawn from this study is that to be successful agents of change, collaborative networks must allow teachers to behave in ways atypical of most change efforts. First, participation in collaborative networks must be participatory. Moreover, teachers must be able to participate as they deem fit. There can be no predetermined prescription for level of participation. Second, network facilitators or activities should not be intent on bringing a teacher to a particular standard of behavior. Finally, teachers must be allowed to construct the network elements intended to change their practice. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  12. More Than a Text Message: Dismantling Digital Triggers to Curate Behavior Change in Patient-Centered Health Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, Frederick; Baumel, Amit

    2017-05-26

    Digital triggers such as text messages, emails, and push alerts are designed to focus an individual on a desired goal by prompting an internal or external reaction at the appropriate time. Triggers therefore have an essential role in engaging individuals with digital interventions delivered outside of traditional health care settings, where other events in daily lives and fluctuating motivation to engage in effortful behavior exist. There is an emerging body of literature examining the use of digital triggers for short-term action and longer-term behavior change. However, little attention has been given to understanding the components of digital triggers. Using tailoring as an overarching framework, we separated digital triggers into 5 primary components: (1) who (sender), (2) how (stimulus type, delivery medium, heterogeneity), (3) when (delivered), (4) how much (frequency, intensity), and (5) what (trigger's target, trigger's structure, trigger's narrative). We highlighted key considerations when tailoring each component and the pitfalls of ignoring common mistakes, such as alert fatigue and habituation. As evidenced throughout the paper, there is a broad literature base from which to draw when tailoring triggers to curate behavior change in health interventions. More research is needed, however, to examine differences in efficacy based on component tailoring, to best use triggers to facilitate behavior change over time, and to keep individuals engaged in physical and mental health behavior change efforts. Dismantling digital triggers into their component parts and reassembling them according to the gestalt of one's change goals is the first step in this development work. ©Frederick Muench, Amit Baumel. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 26.05.2017.

  13. Behavioral change in longitudinal studies: adoption of condom use by homosexual/bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, J G; Adib, S M; Koopman, J S; Ostrow, D G

    1990-12-01

    We compared reporting serial cross-sectional prevalence of sexual behavior over time, to reporting individual patterns of behavioral change in a cohort of homosexual men at a six-month interval. Aggregate prevalence rates underestimated the magnitude of change to safer practices, and failed to provide information on relapse to less safe practices. We conclude that it is important to report data based on individual fluctuations in behavior for the evaluation of change over time.

  14. Use of Motivational Interview Technique with Transtheoretical Model for Behavioral Change in Smoking Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Smoking addiction is an important problem and disease for public health. Researches show that transtheoretical model which is used as a guide to make behavior change easy is one of guide model which would provide that individuals would understand better the reasons of changing and/or not changing with motivational interviews focused on change steps and would make behavior change easy. The goal of this article is to present sample interview plans as to make core knowledge for researchers/nurse...

  15. Stress-induced enhancement of fear conditioning and sensitization facilitates extinction-resistant and habituation-resistant fear behaviors in a novel animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Michael J; Caruso, Michael J; Takahashi, Lorey K

    2012-01-18

    -like behavior continued to be observed. In summary, our animal model provides novel information on the effects of different intensities of footshock stress, auditory-predator odor fear conditioning, and their interactions on facilitating either extinction-resistant or habituation-resistant fear-related behavior. These results lay the foundation for exciting new investigations of the hallmarks of PTSD that include the stress-induced formation and persistence of traumatic memories and sensitized fear.

  16. Umbilical cord care in Ethiopia and implications for behavioral change: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, Yared

    2014-04-18

    Infections account for up to a half of neonatal deaths in low income countries. The umbilicus is a common source of infection in such settings. This qualitative study investigates practices and perspectives related to umbilical cord care in Ethiopia. In-depth interviews (IDI) were conducted in a district in each of the four most populous regions in the country: Oromia, Amhara, Tigray and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR). In each district, one community was purposively selected; and in each study community, IDIs were conducted with 6 mothers, 4 grandmothers, 2 Traditional Birth Attendants and 2 Health Extension Workers (HEWs). The two main questions in the interview guide related to cord care were: How was the umbilical cord cut and tied? Was anything applied to the cord stump immediately after cutting/in the first 7 days? Why was it applied/not applied? The study elucidates local cord care practices and the rational for these practices. Concepts underlying cord tying practices were how to stem blood flow and facilitate delivery of the placenta. Substances were applied on the cord to moisturize it, facilitate its separation and promote healing. Locally recognized cord problems were delayed healing, bleeding or swelling. Few respondents reported familiarity with redness of the cord - a sign of infection. Grandmothers, TBAs and HEWs were influential regarding cord care. This study highlights local rationale for cord practices, concerns about cord related problems and recognition of signs of infection. Behavioral change messages aimed at improving cord care including cleansing with CHX should address these local perspectives. It is suggested that HEWs and health facility staff target mothers, grandmothers, TBAs and other community women with messages and counseling.

  17. Health behavior change among office workers: an exploratory study to prevent repetitive strain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Els R

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this evidence-based study is to investigate the impact of a multi-component intervention on health behavior change among office/computer workers in preventing repetitive strain injuries. Forty office workers employed in an administrative office in Michigan participated in this project. The subjects completed a comprehensive questionnaire at three different times in 1994 and 1995. The intervention took place between time 2 and time 3 and included posters, e-mail tips, mini-workshops, and activities of a Wellness Ergonomic Team. A theoretical model was tested to identify factors influencing healthy behaviors. Study findings revealed positive behavior change for 62% of the participants. The factors most strongly related to health behavior change appear to be self-efficacy, the intention to change one's behavior, and perceived health status. Better understanding of health behavior change coupled with ergonomic modifications is a significant step toward the prevention of repetitive strain injuries resulting from computer use.

  18. On their best behavior: how animal behavior can help determine the combined effects of species interactions and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Jason P; Barton, Brandon T

    2013-09-01

    The increasingly appreciated link between climate change and species interactions has the potential to help us understand and predict how organisms respond to a changing environment. As this connection grows, it becomes even more important to appreciate the mechanisms that create and control the combined effect of these factors. However, we believe one such important set of mechanisms comes from species' behavior and the subsequent trait-mediated interactions, as opposed to the more often studied density-mediated effects. Behavioral mechanisms are already well appreciated for mitigating the separate effects of the environment and species interactions. Thus, they could be at the forefront for understanding the combined effects. In this review, we (1) show some of the known behaviors that influence the individual and combined effects of climate change and species interactions; (2) conceptualize general ways behavior may mediate these combined effects; and (3) illustrate the potential importance of including behavior in our current tools for predicting climate change effects. In doing so, we hope to promote more research on behavior and other mechanistic factors that may increase our ability to accurately predict climate change effects.

  19. Alliance-focused therapy for anorexia nervosa: integrative relational and behavioral change treatments in a single-case experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satir, Dana A; Goodman, David M; Shingleton, Rebecca M; Porcerelli, John H; Gorman, Bernard S; Pratt, Elizabeth M; Barlow, David H; Thompson-Brenner, Heather

    2011-12-01

    Evidence supporting outpatient treatments for anorexia nervosa (AN) is severely lacking, due to low retention and poor outcome. One explanation for drop-out is weak treatment alliances. A single-case experimental analysis accompanied by in-depth qualitative description is presented for Ms. O, who received a novel treatment for AN called Alliance Focused Treatment (AFT) that attends to ruptures in the alliance, interpersonal difficulties and emotional avoidance. At intake Ms. O met diagnostic criteria for AN, Major Depressive Disorder, and Social Phobia. She was characterized as having symptoms of Obsessive Compulsive, Avoidant, and Depressive personality disorders. Treatment began with a Baseline followed by the experimental (AFT) and comparison treatments (Behavioral Change Treatment [BCT]) using a replicated experimental single-case phase change design. Graphs of slopes of kilocalorie and alliance change facilitated observation of treatment effects. Ms. O participated in 16 sessions of AFT and 8 sessions of BCT with specific benefits. Ratings of the treatment alliance were consistently high and she evidenced significant changes in weight, quality of life, and personality pathology. Associations between rupture/repair episodes and kilocalorie increases were observed. The utility of the treatment relationship in facilitating emotional expression was evident. At posttreatment, Ms. O endorsed cognitive AN symptoms, although these were not explicitly treated. This study provides preliminary support for the feasibility and effect of AFT and BCT, and highlights the importance of the alliance in treating adults with AN. Further research on emotion regulation in AN and its effect on the treatment relationship are needed.

  20. Parents' obesity-related behavior and confidence to support behavioral change in their obese child: data from the STAR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Lisa N; Xu, Kathleen; Taveras, Elsie M; Hacker, Karen A

    2014-01-01

    Successful childhood obesity interventions frequently focus on behavioral modification and involve parents or family members. Parental confidence in supporting behavior change may be an element of successful family-based prevention efforts. We aimed to determine whether parents' own obesity-related behaviors were related to their confidence in supporting their child's achievement of obesity-related behavioral goals. Cross-sectional analyses of data collected at baseline of a randomized control trial testing a treatment intervention for obese children (n = 787) in primary care settings (n = 14). Five obesity-related behaviors (physical activity, screen time, sugar-sweetened beverage, sleep duration, fast food) were self-reported by parents for themselves and their child. Behaviors were dichotomized on the basis of achievement of behavioral goals. Five confidence questions asked how confident the parent was in helping their child achieve each goal. Logistic regression modeling high confidence was conducted with goal achievement and demographics as independent variables. Parents achieving physical activity or sleep duration goals were significantly more likely to be highly confident in supporting their child's achievement of those goals (physical activity, odds ratio 1.76; 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.60; sleep, odds ratio 1.74; 95% confidence interval 1.09-2.79) independent of sociodemographic variables and child's current behavior. Parental achievements of TV watching and fast food goals were also associated with confidence, but significance was attenuated after child's behavior was included in models. Parents' own obesity-related behaviors are factors that may affect their confidence to support their child's behavior change. Providers seeking to prevent childhood obesity should address parent/family behaviors as part of their obesity prevention strategies. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Behavioral changes in preschoolers treated with/without rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maru, Viral Pravin; Kumar, Amit; Badiyani, Bhumika Kamal; Sharma, Anant Raghav; Sharma, Jitendra; Dobariya, Chintan Vinodbhai

    2014-05-01

    Behavioral dentistry is an interdisciplinary science which needs to be learned, practiced, and reinforced in order to provide quality dental care in children. To assess the anxiety experienced during dental treatment in preschool children with/without rotary instruments using behavioral scale. Sixty pediatric patients of preschool age with bilateral occlusal carious lesions extending into dentin were selected for the study. Carious lesions were removed using conventional rotary instruments on one side and Papacarie - chemomechanical caries removal of approach on contra lateral side. Both cavities were restored with glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX). Anxiety scores were determined using 'Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale' (Wong et al, 1998) during the various clinical stages of the treatment course. Children experienced relaxed behavior when subjected to Papacarie method of caries removal compared to conventional method using rotary instruments. This study helped us to provide behavioral measures and introduce children to dentistry in a nonthreatening setting.

  2. Changing work, changing health: can real work-time flexibility promote health behaviors and well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin L; Tranby, Eric; Huang, Qinlei

    2011-12-01

    This article investigates a change in the structuring of work time, using a natural experiment to test whether participation in a corporate initiative (Results Only Work Environment; ROWE) predicts corresponding changes in health-related outcomes. Drawing on job strain and stress process models, we theorize greater schedule control and reduced work-family conflict as key mechanisms linking this initiative with health outcomes. Longitudinal survey data from 659 employees at a corporate headquarters shows that ROWE predicts changes in health-related behaviors, including almost an extra hour of sleep on work nights. Increasing employees' schedule control and reducing their work-family conflict are key mechanisms linking the ROWE innovation with changes in employees' health behaviors; they also predict changes in well-being measures, providing indirect links between ROWE and well-being. This study demonstrates that organizational changes in the structuring of time can promote employee wellness, particularly in terms of prevention behaviors.

  3. ClimateQUAL® and Thinklets: Using ClimateQUAL® with Group Support Systems to Facilitate Discussion and Set Priorities for Organizational Change at Criss Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Hillyer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This article discusses a series of actions taken by the Criss Library at the University of Nebraska at Omaha to implement organizational change, using the ClimateQUAL® survey and facilitated discussions with ThinkTank™ group decision software. The library had experienced significant changes over a five-year period, with a renovation of the facility and three reorganizations resulting in a 50% staff turnover. Recognizing the strain that years of construction and personnel changes had placed on the organization, there was a desire to uncover the mood of the employees and reveal the issues behind low morale, uneasiness, and fear.Methods – In November 2009, the library conducted a ClimateQUAL® survey to develop a baseline to assess the effectiveness of any changes. After the results were distributed to library faculty and staff, a series of two-hour facilitated discussions was held to gather opinions and ideas for solutions using thinkLets, a pattern language for reasoning toward a goal. The group support system ThinkTank™ software was loaded onto computers, and employees were able to add their ideas anonymously during the sessions. Finally, 12 employees (29% completed a four-question survey on their perceptions of the facilitated discussions.Results – The facilitated discussions returned 76 sub-themes in 12 categories: staffing and scheduling issues, staff unity/teamwork, communication, goodwill/morale, accountability, decision-making, policy issues, skills and training, leadership, ergonomics/physical work environment, respect, and bullying. An advisory team culled the 76 sub-themes into 40 improvement strategies. Five were implemented immediately, and the remaining 35 were scheduled to be presented to the faculty and staff via an online survey. Participants’ perceptions of the facilitated discussions were mixed. Eighty-three percent of respondents reported that they did not feel safe speaking out about issues, most

  4. Changes in perception of and participation in unprofessional behaviors during internship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Vineet M; Wayne, Diane B; Anderson, R Andy; Didwania, Aashish; Farnan, Jeanne M; Reddy, Shalini T; Humphrey, Holly J

    2010-10-01

    Do perceptions of and participation in unprofessional behaviors change during internship? Interns at three Chicago medicine residencies anonymously reported participation in unprofessional behaviors before and after internship. On the basis of a prior survey, interns rated 28 unprofessional behaviors from 1 (unprofessional) to 5 (professional). Site-adjusted regression examined changes in participation rates and perception scores. Response rates were 93% (105) before and 88% (99) after internship. Participation in on-call unprofessional behaviors increased ("blocking" admissions [12% versus 41%, P internship, participation in on-call unprofessional behaviors increased.

  5. Impact of social problem-solving training on aggressive boys: skill acquisition, behavior change, and generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevremont, D C; Foster, S L

    1993-02-01

    This study examined the impact of social problem-solving training on the behavior of five aggressive boys. Acquisition of problem-solving skills and changes in classroom behavior were evaluated using multiple-baseline designs within and across subjects. A generalization-programming procedure to promote the use of problem-solving skills in the natural environment was introduced across children in multiple-baseline fashion. Direct observation and behavior ratings were used to evaluate the treatment. Results indicated that each subject acquired the problem-solving skills at levels comparable to well-adjusted peers. Only one child showed behavioral improvement coincident with problem-solving skill acquisition. Three others showed moderate behavior change after the generalization-programming procedure was introduced. Only one child's gains on teacher ratings were maintained at the 6-month followup. The results suggest that cognitive-behavioral treatment of childrens' aggressive behavior may produce changes of limited magnitude and durability.

  6. A computer-assisted 3D model for analyzing the aggregation of tumorigenic cells reveals specialized behaviors and unique cell types that facilitate aggregate coalescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Scherer

    Full Text Available We have developed a 4D computer-assisted reconstruction and motion analysis system, J3D-DIAS 4.1, and applied it to the reconstruction and motion analysis of tumorigenic cells in a 3D matrix. The system is unique in that it is fast, high-resolution, acquires optical sections using DIC microscopy (hence there is no associated photoxicity, and is capable of long-term 4D reconstruction. Specifically, a z-series at 5 μm increments can be acquired in less than a minute on tissue samples embedded in a 1.5 mm thick 3D Matrigel matrix. Reconstruction can be repeated at intervals as short as every minute and continued for 30 days or longer. Images are converted to mathematical representations from which quantitative parameters can be derived. Application of this system to cancer cells from established lines and fresh tumor tissue has revealed unique behaviors and cell types not present in non-tumorigenic lines. We report here that cells from tumorigenic lines and tumors undergo rapid coalescence in 3D, mediated by specific cell types that we have named "facilitators" and "probes." A third cell type, the "dervish", is capable of rapid movement through the gel and does not adhere to it. These cell types have never before been described. Our data suggest that tumorigenesis in vitro is a developmental process involving coalescence facilitated by specialized cells that culminates in large hollow spheres with complex architecture. The unique effects of select monoclonal antibodies on these processes demonstrate the usefulness of the model for analyzing the mechanisms of anti-cancer drugs.

  7. Gamification: what it is and why it matters to digital health behavior change developers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugelman, Brian

    2013-12-12

    This editorial provides a behavioral science view on gamification and health behavior change, describes its principles and mechanisms, and reviews some of the evidence for its efficacy. Furthermore, this editorial explores the relation between gamification and behavior change frameworks used in the health sciences and shows how gamification principles are closely related to principles that have been proven to work in health behavior change technology. Finally, this editorial provides criteria that can be used to assess when gamification provides a potentially promising framework for digital health interventions.

  8. Changes in root hydraulic conductivity facilitate the overall hydraulic response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars to salt and osmotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Delong; Fricke, Wieland

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the significance of changes in root AQP gene expression and hydraulic conductivity (Lp) in the regulation of water balance in two hydroponically-grown rice cultivars (Azucena, Bala) which differ in root morphology, stomatal regulation and aquaporin (AQP) isoform expression. Plants were exposed to NaCl (25 mM, 50 mM) and osmotic stress (5%, 10% PEG6000). Root Lp was determined for exuding root systems (osmotic forces driving water uptake; 'exudation Lp') and transpiring plants (hydrostatic forces dominating; 'transpiration-Lp'). Gene expression was analysed by qPCR. Stress treatments caused a consistent and significant decrease in plant growth, transpirational water loss, stomatal conductance, shoot-to-root surface area ratio and root Lp. Comparison of exudation-with transpiration-Lp supported a significant contribution of AQP-facilitated water flow to root water uptake. Changes in root Lp in response to treatments were correlated much stronger with root morphological characteristics, such as the number of main and lateral roots, surface area ratio of root to shoot and plant transpiration rate than with AQP gene expression. Changes in root Lp, involving AQP function, form an integral part of the plant hydraulic response to stress and facilitate changes in the root-to-shoot surface area ratio, transpiration and stomatal conductance.

  9. Rural electrification, climate change, and local economies: Facilitating communication in development policy and practice on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, Christian E.

    I explore the role of information and communication in the world of institution-led development. Through a series of case studies from the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua, I present several projects and their implications for uncovering information that may lead to greater local benefit from externally-planned development projects. In order to construct policies and implement projects, development institutions collect, analyze, and simplify information, collapsing messy physical and social realities into narrow sets of metrics. In addition, local stakeholders often aren't privy to the analysis and assumptions of the "expert" planners. An evolved set of methods for dialogue and planning, which focus on sharing available information, can help facilitate outcomes that are more beneficial for targeted groups. Carbon abatement cost curves provide a clear example where the relations of complex social, economic, and environmental systems are reduced to a narrow set of metrics, specifically the cost of carbon mitigation and the total tons reduced. When the carbon abatement cost curve is applied to the community level, it reveals information and allows for conclusions obscured by aggregated national level studies. I show that there are opportunities for augmenting the limited metrics of these cost curves to include those that relate to welfare, beginning to highlight how costs and savings are distributed among stakeholders. In particular, the benefits to the most marginalized groups are heavily dependent on planners taking a pro-poor approach. However, planners typically remain blind to the priorities, capabilities, and values of the target stakeholders. There is a dearth of methods that effectively open up the development expert's black box of project designs, allowing their proposed solutions to be transparent to the target beneficiaries. I address this challenge through the presentation of a participatory modeling process that was utilized with groups of artisanal fishers

  10. Facilitating Controlled Tests of Website Design Changes Using Aspect-Oriented Software Development and Software Product Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara, Javier; Kobsa, Alfred

    Controlled online experiments in which envisaged changes to a website are first tested live with a small subset of site visitors have proven to predict the effects of these changes quite accurately. However, these experiments often require expensive infrastructure and are costly in terms of development effort. This paper advocates a systematic approach to the design and implementation of such experiments in order to overcome the aforementioned drawbacks by making use of Aspect-Oriented Software Development and Software Product Lines.

  11. Using consecutive Rapid Participatory Appraisal studies to assess, facilitate and evaluate health and social change in community settings

    OpenAIRE

    Murray Scott A; Lloyd Simon; Brown Colin S

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background To investigate how a relatively socio-economically deprived community's needs have changed over time, assess which recommendations from an earlier assessment were implemented and sustained, and consider whether serial Rapid Participatory Appraisal is an effective health research tool that can promote community development and has utility in assessing longitudinal change. Methods Rapid Participatory Appraisal involves communities in identifying and challenging their own hea...

  12. The influence of behavior preceding a reinforced response on behavior change in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazdin, A E

    1977-01-01

    The influence of behavior that immediately precedes a reinforced target response on the effectiveness of a reinforcement contingency was examined in two experiments with mentally retarded children in a special-education classroom. Two reinforcement schedules were examined in each experiment. For each schedule, a prespecified period of attentive behavior served as the target response. The schedules differed in whether inattentive or attentive behavior was required immediately to precede the target response. These schedules were examined with one child in a simultaneous treatment design using praise as the reinforcer (Experiment I), and with two children in separate reversal designs using tokens as the reinforcer (Experiment II). While attentive behavior increased under each schedule, the increase was greater when attentive rather than inattentive behavior preceded the reinforced response. The results indicated that the effect of a contingency may be determined not only by the specific response reinforced but also by the behavior that immediately precedes that response.

  13. A Prospective Study of Extreme Weight Change Behaviors among Adolescent Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined changes in extreme weight change attitudes and behaviors (exercise dependence, food supplements, drive for thinness, bulimia) among adolescent boys and girls over a 16 month period. It also investigated the impact of body mass index, puberty, body image, depression and positive affect on these attitudes and behaviors 16 months…

  14. Promoting Behavior Change Using Social Norms: Applying a Community Based Social Marketing Tool to Extension Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Warner, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Most educational programs are designed to produce lower level outcomes, and Extension educators are challenged to produce behavior change in target audiences. Social norms are a very powerful proven tool for encouraging sustainable behavior change among Extension's target audiences. Minor modifications to program content to demonstrate the…

  15. Testing theories of dietary behavior change in youth using the mediating variable model with intervention programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our purpose was to review and critique current experimentally based evidence of theoretical mechanisms of dietary behavior change in youth, and provide recommendations on ways to enhance theory evaluation. Interventions that examined mediators of dietary behavior change in youth (age 5-18 years) wer...

  16. Promoting Behavior Change Using Social Norms: Applying a Community Based Social Marketing Tool to Extension Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Warner, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Most educational programs are designed to produce lower level outcomes, and Extension educators are challenged to produce behavior change in target audiences. Social norms are a very powerful proven tool for encouraging sustainable behavior change among Extension's target audiences. Minor modifications to program content to demonstrate the…

  17. The socio-cognitive links between road pricing acceptability and changes in travel-behavior

    OpenAIRE

    COOLS, Mario; Brijs, Kris; Tormans, Hans; Moons, Elke; Janssens, Davy; WETS, Geert

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the effect of road pricing on people’s tendency to adapt their current travel behavior. To this end, the relationship between changes in activity-travel behavior on the one hand and public acceptability and its most important determinants on the other are investigated by means of a stated adaptation experiment. Using a two-stage hierarchical model, it was found that behavioral changes themselves are not dependent on the perceived acceptability of road...

  18. Insight in ALS: awareness of behavioral change in patients with and without FTD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Susan C; Moore, Dan H; Katz, Jonathan S

    2010-01-01

    Although impaired insight is a core diagnostic criterion for establishing the diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), insight has rarely been studied in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To determine differences between patient and informant (caregiver) reports of behavior and behavioral change in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Behavioral data for 17 patients with ALS and 4 patients with ALS-FTD were analyzed. Behavioral changes were evaluated using the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe). We compared premorbid to current behavioral profiles and patient self-reports with those of their informants to determine the level of awareness regarding behavioral changes since the onset of ALS. ALS patients without FTD had normal insight, as defined by this study, although self-reports suggested mild behavioral abnormalities. In contrast, patients with ALS-FTD revealed a marked loss of insight regarding profound changes in behavior. Patients with ALS-FTD exhibit a profound lack of insight, which is not found in non-demented ALS patients. Patients without dementia have normal insight, although they report mild behavioral changes that might reflect a psychological response to the disease.

  19. Differential pathways of positive and negative health behavior change in congestive heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Covadonga; Park, Crystal L

    2016-08-01

    This longitudinal study applied a stress and coping model to examine the differential pathways of perceived positive and negative health behavior changes. Participants with congestive heart failure completed self-report measures of psychological resources, coping strategies, and perceived behavior changes and were assessed again 6 months later. Patients with higher positive affect and spiritual well-being reported more positive health behavior changes over time, effects mediated by approach coping. Alternatively, patients with lower psychological resources reported more negative behavior changes over time, effects mediated by avoidance coping. The results suggest that different psychological resources are related to different types of coping which, in turn, are associated with perceived positive or negative changes in health behavior over time.

  20. Facilitating Changes in College Teaching Practices: Instructional Reform, Identity Conflict and Professional Community in a K-20 Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olitsky, Stacy

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, I explain variation in the adoption of student-centred teaching practices among college faculty members in a program designed to promote K-20 instructional reform. I analyze data from a qualitative study of a Math and Science Partnership in order to understand why some faculty members had undergone extensive changes to their practices whereas others had not, even though both groups had demonstrated changes in their beliefs. Findings show that when collective identities focused on reform become more salient than the role identities associated with their teaching positions, faculty members are able to persist through the loss of self-efficacy that results from struggles with new student-centred practices. This study demonstrates how professional communities can enhance "collective efficacy", thereby affecting whether the cognitive dissonance that accompanies professional development leads to instructional change rather than disengagement from reform initiatives.

  1. Responsiveness of a simple tool for assessing change in behavioral intention after continuing professional development activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Légaré, France; Freitas, Adriana; Turcotte, Stéphane; Borduas, Francine; Jacques, André; Luconi, Francesca; Godin, Gaston; Boucher, Andrée; Sargeant, Joan; Labrecque, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Continuing professional development (CPD) activities are one way that new knowledge can be translated into changes in practice. However, few tools are available for evaluating the extent to which these activities change health professionals' behavior. We developed a questionnaire called CPD-Reaction for assessing the impact of CPD activities on health professionals' clinical behavioral intentions. We evaluated its responsiveness to change in behavioral intention and verified its acceptability among stakeholders. We enrolled 376 health professionals who completed CPD-Reaction before and immediately after attending a CPD activity. We contacted them three months later and asked them to self-report on any behavior change. We compared the mean rankings on each CPD-Reaction construct before and immediately after CPD activities. To estimate its predictive validity, we compared the median behavioral intention score (post-activity) of health professionals reporting a behavior change three months later with the median behavioral intention score of physicians who reported no change. We explored stakeholders' views on CPD-Reaction in semi-structured interviews. Participants were mostly family physicians (62.2%), with an average of 19 years of clinical practice. Post-activity, we observed an increase in intention-related scores for all constructs (P behavior change. We observed no statistically significant difference in intention between health professionals who later reported a behavior change and those who reported no change (P = 0.30). Overall, CPD stakeholders found the CPD-Reaction questionnaire of interest and suggested potential solutions to perceived barriers to its implementation. The CPD-Reaction questionnaire seems responsive to change in behavioral intention. Although CPD stakeholders found it interesting, future implementation will require addressing barriers they identified.

  2. Responsiveness of a simple tool for assessing change in behavioral intention after continuing professional development activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Légaré, France; Freitas, Adriana; Turcotte, Stéphane; Borduas, Francine; Jacques, André; Luconi, Francesca; Godin, Gaston; Boucher, Andrée; Sargeant, Joan; Labrecque, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Background Continuing professional development (CPD) activities are one way that new knowledge can be translated into changes in practice. However, few tools are available for evaluating the extent to which these activities change health professionals’ behavior. We developed a questionnaire called CPD-Reaction for assessing the impact of CPD activities on health professionals’ clinical behavioral intentions. We evaluated its responsiveness to change in behavioral intention and verified its acceptability among stakeholders. Methods and findings We enrolled 376 health professionals who completed CPD-Reaction before and immediately after attending a CPD activity. We contacted them three months later and asked them to self-report on any behavior change. We compared the mean rankings on each CPD-Reaction construct before and immediately after CPD activities. To estimate its predictive validity, we compared the median behavioral intention score (post-activity) of health professionals reporting a behavior change three months later with the median behavioral intention score of physicians who reported no change. We explored stakeholders’ views on CPD-Reaction in semi-structured interviews. Participants were mostly family physicians (62.2%), with an average of 19 years of clinical practice. Post-activity, we observed an increase in intention-related scores for all constructs (P < 0.001) with the most appreciable for the construct beliefs about capabilities. A total of 313 participants agreed to be contacted at follow up, and of these only 69 (22%) reported back. Of these, 43 (62%) self-reported a behavior change. We observed no statistically significant difference in intention between health professionals who later reported a behavior change and those who reported no change (P = 0.30). Overall, CPD stakeholders found the CPD-Reaction questionnaire of interest and suggested potential solutions to perceived barriers to its implementation. Conclusion The CPD

  3. Proposing a conceptual framework for integrated local public health policy, applied to childhood obesity - the behavior change ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a ‘wicked’ public health problem that is best tackled by an integrated approach, which is enabled by integrated public health policies. The development and implementation of such policies have in practice proven to be difficult, however, and studying why this is the case requires a tool that may assist local policy-makers and those assisting them. A comprehensive framework that can help to identify options for improvement and to systematically develop solutions may be used to support local policy-makers. Discussion We propose the ‘Behavior Change Ball’ as a tool to study the development and implementation of integrated public health policies within local government. Based on the tenets of the ‘Behavior Change Wheel’ by Michie and colleagues (2011), the proposed conceptual framework distinguishes organizational behaviors of local policy-makers at the strategic, tactical and operational levels, as well as the determinants (motivation, capability, opportunity) required for these behaviors, and interventions and policy categories that can influence them. To illustrate the difficulty of achieving sustained integrated approaches, we use the metaphor of a ball in our framework: the mountainous landscapes surrounding the ball reflect the system’s resistance to change (by making it difficult for the ball to roll). We apply this framework to the problem of childhood obesity prevention. The added value provided by the framework lies in its comprehensiveness, theoretical basis, diagnostic and heuristic nature and face validity. Summary Since integrated public health policies have not been widely developed and implemented in practice, organizational behaviors relevant to the development of these policies remain to be investigated. A conceptual framework that can assist in systematically studying the policy process may facilitate this. Our Behavior Change Ball adds significant value to existing public health policy frameworks by

  4. Proposing a conceptual framework for integrated local public health policy, applied to childhood obesity--the behavior change ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Anna-Marie; Jansen, Maria W J; Gubbels, Jessica S; De Vries, Nanne K; Paulussen, Theo; Kremers, Stef P J

    2013-04-18

    Childhood obesity is a 'wicked' public health problem that is best tackled by an integrated approach, which is enabled by integrated public health policies. The development and implementation of such policies have in practice proven to be difficult, however, and studying why this is the case requires a tool that may assist local policy-makers and those assisting them. A comprehensive framework that can help to identify options for improvement and to systematically develop solutions may be used to support local policy-makers. We propose the 'Behavior Change Ball' as a tool to study the development and implementation of integrated public health policies within local government. Based on the tenets of the 'Behavior Change Wheel' by Michie and colleagues (2011), the proposed conceptual framework distinguishes organizational behaviors of local policy-makers at the strategic, tactical and operational levels, as well as the determinants (motivation, capability, opportunity) required for these behaviors, and interventions and policy categories that can influence them. To illustrate the difficulty of achieving sustained integrated approaches, we use the metaphor of a ball in our framework: the mountainous landscapes surrounding the ball reflect the system's resistance to change (by making it difficult for the ball to roll). We apply this framework to the problem of childhood obesity prevention. The added value provided by the framework lies in its comprehensiveness, theoretical basis, diagnostic and heuristic nature and face validity. Since integrated public health policies have not been widely developed and implemented in practice, organizational behaviors relevant to the development of these policies remain to be investigated. A conceptual framework that can assist in systematically studying the policy process may facilitate this. Our Behavior Change Ball adds significant value to existing public health policy frameworks by incorporating multiple theoretical perspectives

  5. Functions of behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork at an emergency department: a comparative case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background While there is strong support for the benefits of working in multi-professional teams in health care, the implementation of multi-professional teamwork is reported to be complex and challenging. Implementation strategies combining multiple behavior change interventions are recommended, but the understanding of how and why the behavior change interventions influence staff behavior is limited. There is a lack of studies focusing on the functions of different behavior change interventions and the mechanisms driving behavior change. In this study, applied behavior analysis is used to analyze the function and impact of different behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork. Methods A comparative case study design was applied. Two sections of an emergency department implemented multi-professional teamwork involving changes in work processes, aimed at increasing inter-professional collaboration. Behavior change interventions and staff behavior change were studied using observations, interviews and document analysis. Using a hybrid thematic analysis, the behavior change interventions were categorized according to the DCOM® model. The functions of the behavior change interventions were then analyzed using applied behavior analysis. Results The two sections used different behavior change interventions, resulting in a large difference in the degree of staff behavior change. The successful section enabled staff performance of teamwork behaviors with a strategy based on ongoing problem-solving and frequent clarification of directions. Managerial feedback initially played an important role in motivating teamwork behaviors. Gradually, as staff started to experience positive outcomes of the intervention, motivation for teamwork behaviors was replaced by positive task-generated feedback. Conclusions The functional perspective of applied behavior analysis offers insight into the behavioral mechanisms that describe how and why behavior

  6. Behavioral changes in preschoolers treated with/without rotary instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maru, Viral Pravin; Kumar, Amit; Badiyani, Bhumika Kamal; Sharma, Anant Raghav; Sharma, Jitendra; Dobariya, Chintan Vinodbhai

    2014-01-01

    Background: Behavioral dentistry is an interdisciplinary science which needs to be learned, practiced, and reinforced in order to provide quality dental care in children. Aim: To assess the anxiety experienced during dental treatment in preschool children with/without rotary instruments using behavioral scale. Study and Design: Sixty pediatric patients of preschool age with bilateral occlusal carious lesions extending into dentin were selected for the study. Carious lesions were removed using conventional rotary instruments on one side and Papacarie – chemomechanical caries removal of approach on contra lateral side. Both cavities were restored with glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX). Anxiety scores were determined using ‘Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale’ (Wong et al, 1998) during the various clinical stages of the treatment course. Results: Children experienced relaxed behavior when subjected to Papacarie method of caries removal compared to conventional method using rotary instruments. Conclusion: This study helped us to provide behavioral measures and introduce children to dentistry in a nonthreatening setting. PMID:25254189

  7. Developing games for health behavior change: Getting started

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many investigators are considering developing video games for health (video-G4Hs) but have questions about how to get started. This report provides guidance for investigators considering a G4H as a behavioral intervention procedure from a team of experienced G4H developers. Thirteen commonly asked q...

  8. Changes in Conventional Attitudes and Delinquent Behavior in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott; Huizinga, David

    1994-01-01

    Data from the National Youth Study of 1976 are analyzed to explore the relations between conventional beliefs and attitudes and delinquent behavior. Using a stage-state analysis in addition to structural-equation models reveals aspects of the relation that are not apparent from structural equations alone. (SLD)

  9. Psychological aspects of diabetes care: Effecting behavioral change in patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boon-How; Chew; Sazlina; Shariff-Ghazali; Aaron; Fernandez

    2014-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus(DM) need psychological support throughout their life span from the time of diagnosis. The psychological make-up of the patients with DM play a central role in self-management behaviors. Without patient’s adherence to the effective therapies, there would be persistent sub-optimal contro of diseases, increase diabetes-related complications,causing deterioration in quality of life, resulting in increased healthcare utilization and burden on healthcare systems. However, provision of psychosocial support is generally inadequate due to its challenging nature of needs and demands on the healthcare systems. This review article examines patient’s psychological aspects in general, elaborates in particular about emotion effects on health, and emotion in relation to other psychological domains such as cognition, self-regulation,self-efficacy and behavior. Some descriptions are also provided on willpower, resilience, illness perception and proactive coping in relating execution of new behaviors,coping with future-oriented thinking and influences of illness perception on health-related behaviors. These psychological aspects are further discussed in relationto DM and interventions for patients with DM. Equipped with the understanding of the pertinent nature of psychology in patients with DM; and knowing the links between the psychological disorders, inflammation and cardiovascular outcomes would hopefully encourages healthcare professionals in giving due attention to the psychological needs of patients with DM.

  10. A Selectionist Perspective on Systemic and Behavioral Change in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandaker, Ingunn

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a discussion of how different dynamics in production processes and communication structures in the organization serve as different environmental contingencies favoring different behavioral patterns and variability of performance in organizations. Finally, an elaboration on a systems perspective on the selection of corporate…

  11. Collective Behavior of Market Participants during Abrupt Stock Price Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskawa, Jun-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Under uncertainty, human and animal collectives often respond stochastically to events they encounter. Human or animal individuals behave depending on others' actions, and sometimes follow choices that are sub-optimal for individuals. Such mimetic behaviors are enhanced during emergencies, creating collective behavior of a group. A stock market that is about to crash, as markets did immediately after the Lehman Brothers bankruptcy, provides illustrative examples of such behaviors. We provide empirical evidence proving the existence of collective behavior among stock market participants in emergent situations. We investigated the resolution of extreme supply-and-demand order imbalances by increased balancing counter orders: buy and sell orders for excess supply and demand respectively, during times of price adjustment, so-called special quotes on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Counter orders increase positively depending on the quantity of revealed counter orders: the accumulated orders in the book until then. Statistics of the coming counter order are well described using a logistic regression model with the ratio of revealed orders until then to the finally revealed orders as the explanatory variable. Results given here show that the market participants make Bayesian estimations of optimal choices to ascertain whether to order using information about orders of other participants.

  12. Thinking Socially: Teaching Social Knowledge to Foster Social Behavioral Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooke, Pamela J.; Winner, Michelle Garcia; Olswang, Lesley B.

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the complexity of what it means to "be social" from the perspective of social thinking. This perspective recognizes social cognitive processing abilities as the foundation for social knowledge and, in turn, social behaviors. The article further describes variables that influence how one understands how to do what…

  13. Psychological aspects of diabetes care: Effecting behavioral change in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Boon-How; Shariff-Ghazali, Sazlina; Fernandez, Aaron

    2014-12-15

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) need psychological support throughout their life span from the time of diagnosis. The psychological make-up of the patients with DM play a central role in self-management behaviors. Without patient's adherence to the effective therapies, there would be persistent sub-optimal control of diseases, increase diabetes-related complications, causing deterioration in quality of life, resulting in increased healthcare utilization and burden on healthcare systems. However, provision of psychosocial support is generally inadequate due to its challenging nature of needs and demands on the healthcare systems. This review article examines patient's psychological aspects in general, elaborates in particular about emotion effects on health, and emotion in relation to other psychological domains such as cognition, self-regulation, self-efficacy and behavior. Some descriptions are also provided on willpower, resilience, illness perception and proactive coping in relating execution of new behaviors, coping with future-oriented thinking and influences of illness perception on health-related behaviors. These psychological aspects are further discussed in relation to DM and interventions for patients with DM. Equipped with the understanding of the pertinent nature of psychology in patients with DM; and knowing the links between the psychological disorders, inflammation and cardiovascular outcomes would hopefully encourages healthcare professionals in giving due attention to the psychological needs of patients with DM.

  14. Chinese Tourists’ Perceptions of Climate Change and Mitigation Behavior: An Application of Norm Activation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiqiang Qiao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that tourism development is a prominent contributor to climate change, but is also a “victim” of climate change. Therefore, to mitigate climate change is of great importance for the sustainability of tourism. Yet extant studies regarding tourism and climate change tend to be dominated by a supply-side stance, albeit the core role of the tourist in the tourism industry. While researchers are increasingly adopting a tourist perspective, few seek to understand the linkage between climate change and tourists’ specific mitigation behaviors in a tourism context; this is especially so in China. This study investigates the impact of Chinese tourists’ perceptions of climate change on their mitigation behaviors based on norm activation theory. Drawing on 557 self-administrated questionnaires collected in China, it finds that tourists’ perceptions of climate change and perceived contribution of tourism to climate change both positively affect energy saving and carbon reduction behavior in tourism. Yet, compared with perceived contribution of tourism to climate change, tourists’ perceptions of climate change are found to be a much stronger predictor for energy saving and carbon reduction behavior. Therefore, it suggests that tourists’ perceptions of climate change in a general context is more strongly related to climate change mitigation behavior in tourism, calling for attention to go beyond the tourism context to alleviate the negative impacts of tourism on climate change.

  15. Pregnancy-related Health Behavior of Women with Congenital Heart Disease : Room for Behavioral Change Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moons, Philip; Budts, Werner; Costermans, Els; Huyghe, Els; Pieper, Petronella G.; Drenthen, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Background. Pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease is associated with maternal and neonatal complications. In order to reduce risks for unfavorable outcomes, pregnant women need to adopt specific health behaviors. We investigated the pregnancy-related health behavior of women with congenit

  16. A framework for facilitating dialogue between policy planners and local climate change adaptation professionals: Cases from Sweden, Canada and Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, R.K.; Swartling, A.G.; Powell, N.; May, B.; Plummer, R.; Simonsson, L.; Osbeck, M.

    2012-01-01

    The dominant approach to mainstreaming climate adaptation into sectoral policies relies on an ‘upscaling’ model in which it is envisaged to extract lessons from local change processes to inspire generic sub-national and national policies. One of the central methodological questions, which remain

  17. Selection of a New Spiritual Leader: Adult Education Strategies Applied to the Facilitation of Change and Acceptance in Religious Congregations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macduff, Nancy

    The challenge of change in the transition from one spiritual leader to another has two facets: the "letting go" of the departing pastor and the adoption of a new spiritual leader. A Transition Committee of a midsized Episcopal church in rural Washington State has used the Rogers 1962 Adoption Model to develop an intentional plan to influence the…

  18. Planning versus action: Different decision-making processes predict plans to change one's diet versus actual dietary behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Brown-Kramer, Carolyn R

    2015-05-01

    Most health decision-making models posit that deciding to engage in a health behavior involves forming a behavioral intention which then leads to actual behavior. However, behavioral intentions and actual behavior may not be functionally equivalent. Two studies examined whether decision-making factors predicting dietary behaviors were the same as or distinct from those predicting intentions. Actual dietary behavior was proximally predicted by affective associations with the behavior. By contrast, behavioral intentions were predicted by cognitive beliefs about behaviors, with no contribution of affective associations. This dissociation has implications for understanding individual regulation of health behaviors and for behavior change interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. A Science-Faith Partnership to Provide Education and Facilitate Action on Climate Change and Energy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervenec, J. M.; Hitzhusen, G.; Ward, S.; Foster, C.

    2014-12-01

    In 2009, the Byrd Polar Research Center (BPRC) and Ohio Interfaith Power and Light (OhIPL) collaborated on a climate change education summit for scientists and clergy. Since that first program, a robust partnership has been nurtured where researchers at the center regularly contribute to events within the faith community. In 2014 alone, BPRC supported OhIPL in hosting a Teach-In event on climate change before a live audience that was simultaneously broadcast to three remote sites across Ohio; a State of the Climate event at the Ohio Statehouse that featured presentations by a scientist, a policymaker, and a member of the faith community; and an Earthkeeping Summit to bring together members of the faith community from across Ohio. OhIPL has helped BPRC fulfill one of our mission objectives of communicating science to a broad community. OhIPL engages houses of worship of all denominations through faith and education with a goal of moving them towards actions that reduce energy consumption. Houses of worship take actions for various reasons - including creation care, concerns of social justice related to climate change, or a desire to save money through building efficiency.

  20. Does Product Placement Change Television Viewers' Social Behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Levy Paluck

    Full Text Available To what extent are television viewers affected by the behaviors and decisions they see modeled by characters in television soap operas? Collaborating with scriptwriters for three prime-time nationally-broadcast Spanish-language telenovelas, we embedded scenes about topics such as drunk driving or saving money at randomly assigned periods during the broadcast season. Outcomes were measured unobtrusively by aggregate city- and nation-wide time series, such as the number of Hispanic motorists arrested daily for drunk driving or the number of accounts opened in banks located in Hispanic neighborhoods. Results indicate that while two of the treatment effects are statistically significant, none are substantively large or long-lasting. Actions that could be taken during the immediate viewing session, like online searching, and those that were relatively more integrated into the telenovela storyline, specifically reducing cholesterol, were briefly affected, but not behaviors requiring sustained efforts, like opening a bank account or registering to vote.

  1. Make Better Choices (MBC: Study design of a randomized controlled trial testing optimal technology-supported change in multiple diet and physical activity risk behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Malaina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suboptimal diet and physical inactivity are prevalent, co-occurring chronic disease risk factors, yet little is known about how to maximize multiple risk behavior change. Make Better Choices, a randomized controlled trial, tests competing hypotheses about the optimal way to promote healthy change in four bundled risk behaviors: high saturated fat intake, low fruit and vegetable intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary leisure screen time. The study aim is to determine which combination of two behavior change goals - one dietary, one activity - yields greatest overall healthy lifestyle change. Methods/Design Adults (n = 200 with poor quality diet and sedentary lifestyle will be recruited and screened for study eligibility. Participants will be trained to record their diet and activities onto a personal data assistant, and use it to complete two weeks of baseline. Those who continue to show all four risk behaviors after baseline recording will be randomized to one of four behavior change prescriptions: 1 increase fruits and vegetables and increase physical activity, 2 decrease saturated fat and increase physical activity, 3 increase fruits and vegetable and decrease saturated fat, or 4 decrease saturated fat and decrease sedentary activity. They will use decision support feedback on the personal digital assistant and receive counseling from a coach to alter their diet and activity during a 3-week prescription period when payment is contingent upon meeting behavior change goals. They will continue recording on an intermittent schedule during a 4.5-month maintenance period when payment is not contingent upon goal attainment. The primary outcome is overall healthy lifestyle change, aggregated across all four risk behaviors. Discussion The Make Better Choices trial tests a disseminable lifestyle intervention supported by handheld technology. Findings will fill a gap in knowledge about optimal goal prescription to

  2. Design of Video Games for Children’s Diet and Physical Activity Behavior Change

    OpenAIRE

    Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard; Lu, Amy Shirong; Baranowski, Janice

    2010-01-01

    Serious video games (VG) offer new opportunities for promoting health related diet and physical activity change among children. Games can be designed to use storylines, characters, and behavior change procedures, including modeling (e.g., engaging characters make changes themselves, and face and overcome challenges related to fruit and vegetable (FV) and physical activity (PA) goal attainment and/or consumption), skill development (e.g., asking behaviors; virtual recipe preparation), self reg...

  3. Facilitation as a teaching strategy : experiences of facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Lekalakala-Mokgele

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in nursing education involve the move from traditional teaching approaches that are teacher-centred to facilitation, a student centred approach. The studentcentred approach is based on a philosophy of teaching and learning that puts the learner on centre-stage. The aim of this study was to identify the challenges of facilitators of learning using facilitation as a teaching method and recommend strategies for their (facilitators development and support. A qualitative, explorative and contextual design was used. Four (4 universities in South Africa which utilize facilitation as a teaching/ learning process were identified and the facilitators were selected to be the sample of the study. The main question posed during in-depth group interviews was: How do you experience facilitation as a teaching/learning method?. Facilitators indicated different experiences and emotions when they first had to facilitate learning. All of them indicated that it was difficult to facilitate at the beginning as they were trained to lecture and that no format for facilitation was available. They experienced frustrations and anxieties as a result. The lack of knowledge of facilitation instilled fear in them. However they indicated that facilitation had many benefits for them and for the students. Amongst the ones mentioned were personal and professional growth. Challenges mentioned were the fear that they waste time and that they do not cover the content. It is therefore important that facilitation be included in the training of nurse educators.

  4. Behavioral Ecology of Narwhals in a Changing Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    bioenergetic models using updated narwhal abundance estimates, recent fisheries survey data, and knowledge of populations hot spots? 4. Predation...longitudinal and cross-population analyses will use a suite of ecological modeling approaches over a >2 decade period that encompass a period of sea ice...diving behavior. Analysis and habitat modeling We are using an extensive data analysis of over 18 years of satellite tracking and dive data (1993

  5. Improving hand hygiene compliance in healthcare settings using behavior change theories: reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Pittet, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Although hand hygiene is the most effective method for preventing healthcare-associated infections, hand hygiene practice falls short in many healthcare facilities. The compliance rate is mostly linked to system design and easily accessible hand hygiene products. System change, healthcare worker motivation, and complex behavioral considerations seem to play a significant role. This article discusses the application of behavioral theories in hand hygiene promotion in a theoretical manner. The program relies on the transtheoretical model (TTM) of health behavior change, John Keller's (ARCS) Model of Motivational Design, and the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Thus, the program links attitudes and behavior to hand hygiene promotion. The TTM of health behavior change helps to tailor interventions to predict and motivate individual movement across the pathway to change. A program could be based on this theory with multiple intercalations with John Keller's ARCS and the TPB. Such a program could be strengthened by linking attitudes and behavior to promote hand hygiene. The program could utilize different strategies such as organization cultural change that may increase the attention as well as fostering the movement in the ARCS stages. In addition, modeling TPB by creating peer pressure, ability to overcome obstacles, and increasing knowledge of the role of hand hygiene may lead to the desired outcome. The understanding and application of behavior change theories may result in an effective program to improve awareness and raise intention and thus may increase the potential for success of hand hygiene promotion programs.

  6. Determinants of Behavior Change Intention Among Heterosexual Thai Males Diagnosed with Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thato, Ratsiri; Daengsaard, Ekkachai

    2016-11-01

    This study sought to identify factors associated with intention to change sexual practices among heterosexual Thai males diagnosed with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STI clinic patients (n = 247) reported their sexual behaviors and condom use during the previous 3 months. STI and HIV knowledge, motivation to change sexual practices, and behavioral skills were assessed. Then, self-reported behavior change intention, including consistent condom use, reducing number of sexual partners, not using drugs and alcohol when having sex, and refusal of condomless sex, was examined. Consistent condom use in the past 3 months by Thai males diagnosed with STIs was low across all types of sexual partners (lover 13.8%, casual partner 14.9%, and sex worker 2.5%). Risk reduction self-efficacy (p behavior change intention. Significant predictors of behavior change intention were risk reduction self-efficacy (p behavior change intention variance. Intervention aimed at enhancing motivation and behavioral skills to adopt preventive behaviors should be developed to prevent recurrent STIs, including HIV infection, among heterosexual Thai males diagnosed with STIs.

  7. Neural circuit changes mediating lasting brain and behavioral response to predator stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, Robert E; Blundell, Jacqueline; Burton, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews recent work which points to critical neural circuitry involved in lasting changes in anxiety like behavior following unprotected exposure of rats to cats (predator stress). Predator stress may increase anxiety like behavior in a variety of behavioral tests including: elevated plus maze, light dark box, acoustic startle, and social interaction. Studies of neural transmission in two limbic pathways, combined with path and covariance analysis relating physiology to behavior, suggest long term potentiation like changes in one or both of these pathways in the right hemisphere accounts for stress induced changes in all behaviors changed by predator stress except light dark box and social interaction. Findings will be discussed within the context of what is known about neural substrates activated by predator odor.

  8. Parent readiness to change differs for overweight child dietary and physical activity behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Kyung E; McEachern, Rebecca; Jelalian, Elissa

    2014-10-01

    Parent involvement is important to help overweight children lose weight. However, parent readiness to make changes around child eating and physical activity (PA) behaviors can differ across domains. Using a cross-sectional design, our aim was to examine which factors were associated with parents being in the Action/Maintenance stage of change in each domain. From November 2008 to August 2009, parents of overweight/obese children (n=202) attending a tertiary care obesity clinic in Providence, RI, answered questions assessing their stage of change, beliefs about child health and weight, and provider behaviors. Separate multivariate logistic regression models were created to determine which factors were associated with parent readiness to make changes for child dietary and PA behaviors. Almost 62% of parents were in the Action stage of change for child dietary behaviors, but only 41% were in the Action stage of change for PA behaviors. Parents who believed their own weight was a health problem were less likely to be ready to make changes to their child's dietary behaviors. Physician discussion of strategies was related to readiness to make changes for child dietary behaviors, but not PA behaviors. In the PA domain, parents of younger children were more likely to be ready to make changes. Training health care providers to address PA readiness and be aware of factors influencing dietary and PA readiness may result in more effective conversations with parents and improve behavior change efforts for pediatric weight loss. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. How Do Apps Work? An Analysis of Physical Activity App Users' Perceptions of Behavior Change Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoj, Taylor H; Covey, Emarie L; Jones, Allyn C; Haines, Amanda C; Hall, P Cougar; Crookston, Benjamin T; West, Joshua H

    2017-08-03

    Physical activity apps are commonly used to increase levels of activity and health status. To date, the focus of research has been to determine the potential of apps to influence behavior, to ascertain the efficacy of a limited number of apps to change behavior, and to identify the characteristics of apps that users prefer. The purpose of this study was to identify the mechanisms by which the use of physical activity apps may influence the users' physical activity behavior. This study used a cross-sectional survey of users of health-related physical activity apps during the past 6 months. An electronic survey was created in Qualtrics' Web-based survey software and deployed on Amazon Mechanical Turk. Individuals who had used at least one physical activity app in the past 6 months were eligible to respond. The final sample comprised 207 adults living in the United States. 86.0% (178/207) of respondents were between the ages of 26 and 54 years, with 51.2% (106/207) of respondents being female. Behavior change theory informed the creation of 20 survey items relating to the mechanisms of behavior change. Respondents also reported about engagement with the apps, app likeability, and physical activity behavior. Respondents reported that using a physical activity app in the past 6 months resulted in a change in their attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, and motivation. Engagement with the app (Papp use (P=.03), and app price (P=.01) were related to the reported impact of the behavior change theory or mechanisms of change. The mechanisms of change were associated with self-reported physical activity behaviors (Papps may impact behavior. App developers may wish to incorporate these mechanisms in an effort to increase impact. Practitioners should consider the extent to which behavior change theory is integrated into a particular app when they consider making recommendations to others wishing to increase levels of physical activity.

  10. Facilitating Change: A Process of Renewal for Women Who Have Used Force in Their Intimate Heterosexual Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larance, Lisa Young; Rousson, Ashley

    2016-06-01

    The authors highlight a community's response to women's use of force, detail aspects of intervention strategies, and introduce a conceptual model representing the women's change process. In doing so, they encourage community partnerships, continued intervention innovation, and further research. Their observations suggest an intervention philosophy and approach that women have described as one of personal "renewal." The community's experiences are notable in light of national efforts to effectively meet the needs of female survivors of intimate partner violence who have used force. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Fostering change in back pain beliefs and behaviors: when public education is not enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Douglas P; Deshpande, Sameer; Werner, Erik L; Reneman, Michiel F; Miciak, Maxi A; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2012-11-01

    Mass media campaigns designed to alter societal views and individual behaviors about back pain have been undertaken and evaluated in multiple countries. In contrast to the original Australian campaign, subsequent campaigns have been less successful, with improvements observed in beliefs without the corresponding changes in related behaviors. This article summarizes the results of a literature review, expert panel, and workshop held at the Melbourne International Forum XI: Primary Care Research on Low Back Pain in March 2011 on the role and interplay of various social behavior change strategies, including public education, law and legislation, healthy public policy, and social marketing in achieving a sustained reduction in the societal burden of back pain. Given the complexities inherent to health-related behaviors change, the Rothschild framework is applied in which behavior change strategies are viewed on a continuum from public education at one end through law and health policy at the other. Educational endeavors should likely be augmented with social marketing endeavors and supportive laws and health policy to foster sustained change in outcomes such as work disability and health utilization. Practical suggestions are provided for future interventions aimed at changing back pain-related behaviors. Evaluation of previous back pain mass media campaigns reveals that education alone is unlikely to foster positive and persisting behavioral change without concomitant strategies.

  12. Theory-based behavior change interventions: comments on Hobbis and Sutton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Martin; Ajzen, Icek

    2005-01-01

    Hobbis and Sutton (this issue) suggest that Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) techniques can be used in interventions based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Although this suggestion has merit, CBT is only one of many applicable methods for producing belief and behavior change. Moreover, CBT's primary purpose is to help people carry out intended behaviors, not to influence intentions, and that it is more useful in face-to-face than in community-level interventions. Contrary to Hobbis and Sutton's critique, TPB can accommodate core beliefs or fundamental assumptions, but the theory suggests that interventions targeted at such beliefs are less effective than interventions targeted at behavior specific beliefs.

  13. Seasonal changes in phosphorus competition and allelopathy of a benthic microbial assembly facilitate prevention of cyanobacterial blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yonghong; Wang, Fengwu; Xiao, Xi; Liu, Junzhuo; Wu, Chenxi; Chen, Hong; Kerr, Philip; Shurin, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    Interactions among microbes determine the prevalence of harmful algal blooms that threaten water quality. These interactions can be indirectly mediated by shared resources or consumers, or through interference by the production of allelochemicals. Allelopathic interactions and resource competition have been shown to occur among algae and associated microbes. However, little work has considered seasonal influences on ecosystem structure and function. Here, we report results of our investigations on seasonal changes in the interactions between benthic microbial assemblies and the bloom forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. We show that phosphorus (P) competition and allelopathy by the microbial assembly vary seasonally and inhibit growth of M. aeruginosa. The interactions per unit biomass of the microbial assembly are stronger under winter than summer conditions and inhibit the recruitment of the cyanobacteria, thereby preventing the reoccurrence of cyanobacterial blooms in the following summer. The seasonality of these interactions correlates with changes in composition, metabolic activity and functional diversity of the microbial assembly. Our findings highlight the importance of competitive and allelopathic interactions in regulating the occurrence of harmful algal blooms. Our results also imply that seasonal variation of competition and allelopathy of the microbial assembly might be beneficial to adjust aquatic ecosystem structure and function. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Changes in behavior as side effects in methylphenidate treatment: review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad-Bindl DS

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Doris Susanne Konrad-Bindl,1 Ursula Gresser,1 Barbara Maria Richartz2 1Department of Internal Medicine, University of Munich, Munich, 2Clinic der Jägerwinkel, Bad Wiessee, Germany Background: Our review of the scientific literature focused on an analysis of studies describing instances of methylphenidate treatment leading (or not to behavioral changes in the pediatric, adolescent, and adult populations.Materials and methods: We conducted a literature search in PubMed, Medline, and Google using the keywords “methylphenidate”, “behavioral changes”, “adverse effects”, and “side effects”. A total of 44 studies were identified as reporting on the effects and adverse effects of methylphenidate administration, and were included in the analysis.Results: Five studies specifically set out to study, record, and discuss changes in behavior. Eight studies did not set out to study behavioral effects, but record and discuss them. A total of 28 studies recorded behavioral effects, but failed to discuss these further. Three studies did not include behavioral effects.Conclusion: This review records what data have been published in respect of changes in behavior in association with the use of methylphenidate. While there is some evidence to suggest that methylphenidate causes changes in behavior, the majority of the studies reviewed paid little or no attention to this issue. Based on the available data, it is impossible to determine the point at which such behavioral effects occur. The frequency of occurrence of behavioral effects is also impossible to determine with certainty. Based on the available data, it is not possible to rule out whether behavioral effects may persist or not persist once treatment is discontinued. In conclusion, despite countless publications and extensive administration, especially to children, we have insufficient data to judge the long-term effects and risks of methylphenidate taking. Keywords: methylphenidate, changes

  15. Growth and change in attention problems, disruptive behavior, and achievement from kindergarten to fifth grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Amy; Dowsett, Chantelle

    2014-12-01

    Despite widespread interest in children's adjustment problems, existing research does not provide conclusive evidence regarding the direction of the associations of achievement with classroom attention problems and disruptive behavior over the course of elementary school. Using a nationally representative sample of 16,260 kindergarteners, this study examined the temporal sequence of achievement, classroom attention problems, and disruptive behavior, focusing on how changes in skills and problems unfold across key periods between kindergarten and fifth grade. Results indicate that improvements in attention during the earliest years of schooling predict achievement gains through third grade. However, changes in disruptive behavior do not predict subsequent changes in achievement. Evidence linking changes in achievement to changes in classroom attention problems and disruptive behavior was less consistent. These findings point to the need to develop and examine early interventions that can improve attention skills as a mechanism for improving children's academic trajectories in elementary school.

  16. 7α-Hydroxypregnenolone regulates diurnal changes in sexual behavior of male quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Yuki; Haraguchi, Shogo; Nagino, Koki; Ishikawa, Kei; Fukahori, Yoko; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    In the Japanese quail, 7α-hydroxypregnenolone, a previously undescribed avian neurosteroid, is actively produced in the brain. 7α-Hydroxypregnenolone acts as a novel neuronal activator to stimulate locomotor activity of quail. Therefore, in this study, we determined whether 7α-hydroxypregnenolone changes the expression of sexual behavior in Japanese quail. We first measured diurnal changes in sexual behavior of male quail exposed to a long-day photoperiod. We found that sexual behavior of male quail was high in the morning when endogenous 7α-hydroxypregnenolone level is high. Subsequently, we centrally administered 7α-hydroxypregnenolone in the evening when endogenous 7α-hydroxypregnenolone level is low. In the 30 min after intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection, 7α-hydroxypregnenolone dose dependently increased the frequency of sexual behavior of male quail. However, 7β-hydroxypregnenolone, a stereoisomer of 7α-hydroxypregnenolone, did not effect on the frequency of sexual behavior of male quail. In addition, to confirm the action of 7α-hydroxypregnenolone on sexual behavior, male birds received an ICV injection of ketoconazole, an inhibitor of cytochrome P450s, and behavioral experiments were performed in the morning. Ketoconazole significantly decreased the frequency of sexual behavior of male quail, whereas administration of 7α-hydroxypregnenolone to ketoconazole-treated males increased the frequency of their sexual behavior. These results indicate that 7α-hydroxypregnenolone regulates diurnal changes in sexual behavior of male quail.

  17. Behavior change following self-confrontation: a test of the value-mediation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, J W; Rankin, W L; Greenstein, T N; Kearney, K A

    1977-04-01

    This study presents a reanalysis of data from Rokeach's self-confrontation experiments using path analytic techniques. Contrary to Rokeach's interpretations, findings indicate that behavior changes following self-confrontation are not primarily mediated through changes in value priorities. Rather, the available data suggest that the self-confrontation process involves the resolution of inconsistencies between behaviors and self-conceptions that are revelaed during the treatment session. The authors interpret these findings within the framework of Rokeach's general theory of self-disatisfaction and cognitive-behavioral change. Suggestions for future directions in self-confrontation research are offered.

  18. Selective breeding for a behavioral trait changes digit ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginia H Y Yan

    Full Text Available The ratio of the length of the second digit (index finger divided by the fourth digit (ring finger tends to be lower in men than in women. This 2D:4D digit ratio is often used as a proxy for prenatal androgen exposure in studies of human health and behavior. For example, 2D:4D ratio is lower (i.e. more "masculinized" in both men and women of greater physical fitness and/or sporting ability. Lab mice have also shown variation in 2D:4D as a function of uterine environment, and mouse digit ratios seem also to correlate with behavioral traits, including daily activity levels. Selective breeding for increased rates of voluntary exercise (wheel running in four lines of mice has caused correlated increases in aerobic exercise capacity, circulating corticosterone level, and predatory aggression. Here, we show that this selection regime has also increased 2D:4D. This apparent "feminization" in mice is opposite to the relationship seen between 2D:4D and physical fitness in human beings. The present results are difficult to reconcile with the notion that 2D:4D is an effective proxy for prenatal androgen exposure; instead, it may more accurately reflect effects of glucocorticoids, or other factors that regulate any of many genes.

  19. Beyond Knowledge: Service Learning and Local Climate Change Research Engagement Activities that Foster Action and Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, R.; Mandryk, C.; Gosselin, D. C.; Haney, C.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change engagement requires individuals to understand an abstract and complex topic and realize the profound implications of climate change for their families and local community. In recent years federal agencies have spent millions of dollars on climate change education to prepare a nation for a warming future. The majority of these education efforts are based on a knowledge deficit model. In this view 'educate' means 'provide information'. However cognitive and behavioral research and current action demonstrate that information alone is not enough; knowledge does not necessarily lead to action. Educators are speaking to deaf ears if we rely on passive and abstract information transfer and neglect more persuasive and affective approaches to communication. When climate change is presented abstractly as something that happens in the future to people, environments, animals somewhere else it is easy to discount. People employ two separate systems for information processing: analytical-rational and intuitive-experiential Authentic local research experiences that engage both analytical and experiential information processing systems not only help individuals understand the abstraction of climate change in a concrete and personally experienced manner, but are more likely to influence behavior. Two on-line, graduate-level courses offered within University of Nebraska's Masters of Applied Science program provide opportunities for participants to engage in authentic inquiry based studies climate change's local impacts, and work with K-12 learners in promoting the scientific awareness and behavioral changes that mitigate against the negative impacts of a changing climate. The courses are specifically designed to improve middle and high school (grades 6-12) teachers' content knowledge of climate processes and climate change science in the context of their own community. Both courses provide data-rich, investigative science experiences in a distributed digital

  20. Smells like evolution: the role of chemoreceptor evolution in behavioral change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cande, Jessica; Prud'homme, Benjamin; Gompel, Nicolas

    2013-02-01

    In contrast to physiology and morphology, our understanding of how behaviors evolve is limited. This is a challenging task, as it involves the identification of both the underlying genetic basis and the resultant physiological changes that lead to behavioral divergence. In this review, we focus on chemosensory systems, mostly in Drosophila, as they are one of the best-characterized components of the nervous system in model organisms, and evolve rapidly between species. We examine the hypothesis that changes at the level of chemosensory systems contribute to the diversification of behaviors. In particular, we review recent progress in understanding how genetic changes between species affect chemosensory systems and translate into divergent behaviors. A major evolutionary trend is the rapid diversification of the chemoreceptor repertoire among species. We focus mostly on functional comparative studies involving model species, highlighting examples where changes in chemoreceptor identity and expression are sufficient to provoke changes in neural circuit activity and thus behavior. We conclude that while we are beginning to understand the role that the peripheral nervous system (PNS) plays in behavioral evolution, how the central nervous system (CNS) evolves to produce behavioral changes is largely unknown, and we advocate the need to expand functional comparative studies to address these questions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Have drivers at alcohol outlets changed their behavior after the new traffic law?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel B. De Boni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In an attempt to reduce high levels of traffic crashes, a new legislation was approved in Brazil in 2008. This study aimed to assess behavioral change among drivers who had drunk at alcohol outlets (AO after implementation of the law. Method: A three-stage probability sampling survey was conducted in Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Individuals seen leaving AOs after drinking were approached (n=3,018. Selected drivers (n=683 answered a structured interview, were breathalyzed, and had saliva specimens collected for drug screening. Results: Overall, 60.3% (SE 4.5 of drivers reported they did not change their behavior. Among those who reported behavioral changes, most reported drinking less as their main strategy toward safer driving behavior. Variables independently associated with behavior change included having drunk at a high outlet density area (odds ratio [OR] 1.7 [1.1-2.8] and having a favorable opinion about the law (OR 4.3 [2.1-8.9]. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that awareness of the law has not been enough to promote behavioral change. As most drivers had a favorable opinion of the law and this variable was found to be the strongest predictor of behavior change, efforts to better integrate education and enforcement seem to be pivotal and might be well received by the population.

  2. Family Structure Changes and Children's Health, Behavior, and Educational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    More and more children do not grow up in traditional nuclear families. Instead they grow up in single parent  households or in families with a step-parent. For example, in 1980, almost 83% of all Danish children in the ages 0 to 17 lived with both of their parents, but this number steadily...... structure changes during childhood. More family structure changes implies worse outcomes and might actually be more important than the number of years a child has spent in a single parent household. The age at which the family structure change occurs also seems to be important at least for some outcomes....... decreased to 73% in 2005. Hence it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of "shocks" in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution on children. International studies mainly suggest a negative relationship between non-nuclear family structure and child outcomes. There are two...

  3. Antecedents and consequences of organizational change : 'Institutionalizing' the behavioral theory of the firm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel, FC; Saka - Helmhout, Ayse

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we highlight the conditions under which organizations initiate changes in two distinct institutional contexts. While the focus within behavioral research has been on aspiration-driven organizational change, the effect of institutional dynamics on the probability of change has been giv

  4. Design of video games for children's diet and physical activity behavior change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serious video games (VG) offer new opportunities for promoting health related diet, and physical activity change among children. Games can be designed to use storylines, characters, and behavior change procedures, including modeling (e.g., engaging characters make changes themselves, and face and ov...

  5. Antecedents and consequences of organizational change : 'Institutionalizing' the behavioral theory of the firm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel, FC; Saka - Helmhout, Ayse

    In this paper, we highlight the conditions under which organizations initiate changes in two distinct institutional contexts. While the focus within behavioral research has been on aspiration-driven organizational change, the effect of institutional dynamics on the probability of change has been

  6. Ontogenetic changes in tracheal structure facilitate deep dives and cold water foraging in adult leatherback sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, John; Fraher, John; Fitzgerald, Ed; McLaughlin, Patrick; Doyle, Tom; Harman, Luke; Cuffe, Tracy; Dockery, Peter

    2009-11-01

    Adult leatherbacks are large animals (300-500 kg), overlapping in size with marine pinniped and cetacean species. Unlike marine mammals, they start their aquatic life as 40-50 g hatchlings, so undergo a 10,000-fold increase in body mass during independent existence. Hatchlings are limited to the tropics and near-surface water. Adults, obligate predators on gelatinous plankton, encounter cold water at depth (<1280 m) or high latitude and are gigantotherms that maintain elevated core body temperatures in cold water. This study shows that there are great ontogenetic changes in tracheal structure related to diving and exposure to cold. Hatchling leatherbacks have a conventional reptilian tracheal structure with circular cartilaginous rings interspersed with extensive connective tissue. The adult trachea is an almost continuous ellipsoidal cartilaginous tube composed of interlocking plates, and will collapse easily in the upper part of the water column during dives, thus avoiding pressure-related structural and physiological problems. It is lined with an extensive, dense erectile vascular plexus that will warm and humidify cold inspired air and possibly retain heat on expiration. A sub-luminal lymphatic plexus is also present. Mammals and birds have independently evolved nasal turbinates to fulfil such a respiratory thermocontrol function; for them, turbinates are regarded as diagnostic of endothermy. This is the first demonstration of a turbinate equivalent in a living reptile.

  7. Therapist adherence and organizational effects on change in youth behavior problems one year after multisystemic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenwald, Sonja K; Carter, Rickey E; Chapman, Jason E; Sheidow, Ashli J

    2008-09-01

    The current study investigated the relations among therapist adherence to an evidence-based treatment for youth with serious antisocial behavior (i.e., Multisystemic Therapy), organizational climate and structure, and improvement in youth behavior problems one-year post treatment. Participants were 1979 youth and families treated by 429 therapists across 45 provider organizations in North America. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) results showed therapist adherence predicted improvement in youth behavior. Two structure variables and one climate variable predicted changes in youth behavior, and the climate variable also predicted therapist adherence. No statistical support for formal mediation of organizational effects through adherence was found, though examination of changes in parameter estimates suggest a possible interplay of organizational climate with adherence and youth behavior change.

  8. Reliable Change in Depression during Behavioral Weight Loss Treatment among Women with Major Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, Andrew M.; Whited, Matthew C.; Appelhans, Bradley M.; Schneider, Kristin L; Waring, Molly E.; DeBiasse, Michele A.; Jessica L Oleski; Sybil L. Crawford; Pagoto, Sherry L.

    2013-01-01

    Although behavioral weight loss interventions generally have been shown to improve depressive symptoms, little is known as to whether some people with major depressive disorder experience worsening of depression during a weight loss intervention. We examined rates and predictors of change in depression symptoms among 148 obese women with major depressive disorder who participated in a trial comparing depression treatment plus behavioral weight loss treatment (Behavioral Activation; BA) to beh...

  9. The Use of Virtual Reality to Facilitate Mindfulness Skills Training in Dialectical Behavioral Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nararro-Haro, Maria V.; Hoffman, Hunter G.; Garcia-Palacios, Azucena; Sampaio, Mariana; Alhalabi, Wadee; Hall, Karyn; Linehan, Marsha

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe mental disorder characterized by a dysfunctional pattern of affective instability, impulsivity, and disturbed interpersonal relationships. Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT®) is the most effective treatment for Borderline Personality Disorder, but demand for DBT® far exceeds existing clinical resources. Most patients with BPD never receive DBT®. Incorporating computer technology into the DBT® could help increase dissemination. Immersive Virtual Reality technology (VR) is becoming widely available to mainstream consumers. This case study explored the feasibility/clinical potential of using immersive virtual reality technology to enhance DBT® mindfulness skills training of a 32 year old female diagnosed with BPD. Prior to using VR, the patient experienced difficulty practicing DBT® mindfulness due to her emotional reactivity, and difficulty concentrating. To help the patient focus her attention, and to facilitate DBT® mindfulness skills learning, the patient looked into virtual reality goggles, and had the illusion of slowly “floating down” a 3D computer-generated river while listening to DBT® mindfulness training audios. Urges to commit suicide, urges to self harm, urges to quit therapy, urges to use substances, and negative emotions were all reduced after each VR mindfulness session and VR mindfulness was well accepted/liked by the patient. Although case studies are scientifically inconclusive by nature, results from this feasibility study were encouraging. Future controlled studies are needed to quantify whether VR-enhanced mindfulness training has long term benefits e.g., increasing patient acceptance and/or improving therapeutic outcome. Computerizing some of the DBT® skills treatment modules would reduce cost and increase dissemination. PMID:27853437

  10. The Use of Virtual Reality to Facilitate Mindfulness Skills Training in Dialectical Behavioral Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nararro-Haro, Maria V; Hoffman, Hunter G; Garcia-Palacios, Azucena; Sampaio, Mariana; Alhalabi, Wadee; Hall, Karyn; Linehan, Marsha

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe mental disorder characterized by a dysfunctional pattern of affective instability, impulsivity, and disturbed interpersonal relationships. Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT®) is the most effective treatment for Borderline Personality Disorder, but demand for DBT® far exceeds existing clinical resources. Most patients with BPD never receive DBT®. Incorporating computer technology into the DBT® could help increase dissemination. Immersive Virtual Reality technology (VR) is becoming widely available to mainstream consumers. This case study explored the feasibility/clinical potential of using immersive virtual reality technology to enhance DBT® mindfulness skills training of a 32 year old female diagnosed with BPD. Prior to using VR, the patient experienced difficulty practicing DBT® mindfulness due to her emotional reactivity, and difficulty concentrating. To help the patient focus her attention, and to facilitate DBT® mindfulness skills learning, the patient looked into virtual reality goggles, and had the illusion of slowly "floating down" a 3D computer-generated river while listening to DBT® mindfulness training audios. Urges to commit suicide, urges to self harm, urges to quit therapy, urges to use substances, and negative emotions were all reduced after each VR mindfulness session and VR mindfulness was well accepted/liked by the patient. Although case studies are scientifically inconclusive by nature, results from this feasibility study were encouraging. Future controlled studies are needed to quantify whether VR-enhanced mindfulness training has long term benefits e.g., increasing patient acceptance and/or improving therapeutic outcome. Computerizing some of the DBT® skills treatment modules would reduce cost and increase dissemination.

  11. The use of Virtual Reality to facilitate mindfulness skills training in Dialectical Behavioral Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: A case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V Nararro-Haro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Borderline personality disorder (BPD is a severe mental disorder characterized by a dysfunctional pattern of affective instability, impulsivity, and disturbed interpersonal relationships. Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT® is the most effective treatment for Borderline Personality Disorder, but demand for DBT® far exceeds existing clinical resources. Most patients with BPD never receive DBT®. Incorporating computer technology into the DBT® could help increase dissemination. Immersive Virtual Reality technology (VR is becoming widely available to mainstream consumers. This case study explored the feasibility/clinical potential of using immersive virtual reality technology to enhance DBT® mindfulness skills training of a 32 year old female diagnosed with BPD. Prior to using VR, the patient experienced difficulty practicing DBT® mindfulness due to her emotional reactivity, and difficulty concentrating. To help the patient focus her attention, and to facilitate DBT® mindfulness skills learning, the patient looked into virtual reality goggles, and had the illusion of slowly floating down a 3D computer-generated river while listening to DBT® mindfulness training audios. Urges to suicide, self-harm, urges to quit therapy, urges to use substances, and negative emotions were all reduced after each VR mindfulness session. VR mindfulness was well accepted/liked by the patient, and increased positive emotions. Although case studies are scientifically inconclusive by nature, results from this feasibility study were encouraging. Future controlled studies are needed to quantify whether VR-enhanced mindfulness training has long term benefits e.g., increasing patient acceptance and/or improving therapeutic outcome. Computerizing some of the DBT® skills treatment modules would reduce cost and increase dissemination.

  12. Verbal Bullying Changes among Students Following an Educational Intervention Using the Integrated Model for Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Saloshni; Satorius, Benn K.; de Vries, Hein; Taylor, Myra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bullying behavior in schools can lead to psychosocial problems. School-based interventions are important in raising student awareness, developing their skills and in planning to reduce bullying behavior. Methods: A randomized controlled trial, using a school-based educational intervention to reduce verbal bullying, was conducted among…

  13. Verbal Bullying Changes among Students Following an Educational Intervention Using the Integrated Model for Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Saloshni; Satorius, Benn K.; de Vries, Hein; Taylor, Myra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bullying behavior in schools can lead to psychosocial problems. School-based interventions are important in raising student awareness, developing their skills and in planning to reduce bullying behavior. Methods: A randomized controlled trial, using a school-based educational intervention to reduce verbal bullying, was conducted among…

  14. Motivational Interviewing to Affect Behavioral Change in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Sherry M.; Cooper, R. Lyle; Cassie, Kim McClure

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews and assesses the existing research literature on the efficacy of motivational interviewing (MI) to promote lifestyle changes and improve functioning among older adults confronting serious health challenges. A comprehensive literature review was conducted of intervention studies that tested the use of MI to achieve behavioral…

  15. Changes in Healthy Childhood Lifestyle Behaviors in Japanese Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takahiro; Kasuga, Kosho; Murase, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Background: Unhealthy lifestyles during childhood constitute a public health problem in Japan. However, current health education in Japan is ineffective in counteracting them. Previous studies contend that healthy lifestyles in children vary by academic grade and sex. This study examined changes throughout childhood suggests some intervention…

  16. Self-Efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert

    1977-01-01

    This research presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of "self-efficacy". (Editor/RK)

  17. Changes of chemical and mechanical behavior of torrefied wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Holm, Jens Kai

    2012-01-01

    200 °C there was no obvious structural change of the wheat straw. At 200–250 °C hemicelluloses started to decompose and were totally degraded when torrefied at 300 °C for 2 h, while cellulose and lignin began to decompose at about 270–300 °C. Tensile failure strength and strain energy of oven dried...

  18. Changes of Photosynthetic Behaviors in Kappaphycus alvarezii Infected by Epiphyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Tong; Liu, Jianguo; Liu, Qian; Lin, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Epiphytic filamentous algae (EFA) were noted as a serious problem to reduce the production and quality of K. alvarezii. The morphological studies revealed that the main epiphyte on K. alvarezii was Neosiphonia savatieri in China. Though the harmful effects of EFA on the production of K. alvarezii have been reported, the detailed mechanism of the N. savatieri in limiting the production of K. alvarezii has not been studied yet. The present paper studied the effects of N. savatieri infection on photosynthetic behaviors in K. alvarezii by detecting chlorophyll fluorescence transient in vivo. The results revealed that damage of oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), decrease of active reaction centers (RCs), and the plastoquinone (PQ) pool as well as significant reduction in the performance indexes (PI) of PSII were caused by the infection of N. savatieri. The influence of N. savatieri on photosynthetic activity of K. alvarezii should be one of the important reasons to reduce the production of K. alvarezii infected by N. savatieri.

  19. Harnessing social media for health promotion and behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korda, Holly; Itani, Zena

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and innovative advances in participative Internet communications, referred to as "social media," offer opportunities for modifying health behavior. Social media let users choose to be either anonymous or identified. People of all demographics are adopting these technologies whether on their computers or through mobile devices, and they are increasingly using these social media for health-related issues. Although social media have considerable potential as tools for health promotion and education, these media, like traditional health promotion media, require careful application and may not always achieve their desired outcomes. This article summarizes current evidence and understanding of using social media for health promotion. More important, it discusses the need for evaluating the effectiveness of various forms of social media and incorporating outcomes research and theory in the design of health promotion programs for social media.

  20. Parental changes after involvement in their anxious child's cognitive behavior therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Nielsen, Sara Kerstine

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Specific parental behaviors and cognitions are associated with child anxiety. Studies informing us of the directionality of the associations are lacking. We investigated the effect of parental involvement in children's anxiety treatment on parental behaviors and cognitions. METHOD: Chi......-reported maternal autonomy-granting (non-involved mothers showed a greater increase). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that child anxiety significantly influences parental behaviors and cognitions. Child therapy may successfully change the family system.......OBJECTIVE: Specific parental behaviors and cognitions are associated with child anxiety. Studies informing us of the directionality of the associations are lacking. We investigated the effect of parental involvement in children's anxiety treatment on parental behaviors and cognitions. METHOD......: Children (N=54, 7-12 years) and parents were randomly allocated to different treatment groups (involved, not involved). Observed behavior, self-reported behavior and cognitions were assessed separately for mothers and fathers at pre-, posttreatment and follow-up. RESULTS: There were no differences over...

  1. Video game play, child diet, and physical activity behavior change: A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Video games designed to promote behavior change are a promising venue to enable children to learn healthier behaviors. The purpose is to evaluate the outcome from playing "Escape from Diab" (Diab) and "Nanoswarm: Invasion from Inner Space" (Nano) video games on children's diet, physical activity, an...

  2. Which Combinations of Techniques in Internet Based Interventions Effectively Change Health Behavior? a Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genugten, L. van; Dusseldorp, E.; Webb, T.L.; Empelen, P. van

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many online interventions designed to promote health behaviors combine multiple behavior change techniques (BCTs) and additional modes of delivery (MoD, e.g. text messages) to maximize effectiveness. Also, usability factors may influence effectiveness. This study aims to identify

  3. Burrowing Behavior of a Deposit Feeding Bivalve Predicts Change in Intertidal Ecosystem State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compton, T.J.; Bodnar, W.; Koolhaas, A.; Dekinga, A.; Holthuijsen, S.; Ten Horn, J.; McSweeney, N.; van Gils, J.A.; Piersma, T,

    2016-01-01

    Behavior has a predictive power that is often underutilized as a tool for signaling ecological change. The burrowing behavior of the deposit feeding bivalve Macoma balthica reflects a typical food-safety trade-off. The choice to live close to the sediment surface comes at a risk of predation and is

  4. Burrowing behavior of a deposit feeding bivalve predicts change in intertidal ecosystem state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compton, Tanya J.; Bodnar, Wanda; Koolhaas, Anita; Dekinga, Anne; Holthuijsen, Sander; ten Horn, Job; McSweeney, Niamh; van Gils, Jan; Piersma, Theunis

    2016-01-01

    Behavior has a predictive power that is often underutilized as a tool for signaling ecological change. The burrowing behavior of the deposit feeding bivalve Macoma balthica reflects a typical food-safety trade-off. The choice to live close to the sediment surface comes at a risk of predation and is

  5. Behavioral Sciences in a Changing Army. Proceedings in AMEDD Behavioral Sciences Seminar, 19 - 23 March 1979,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-03-23

    confronting us because we are vitally concerned with many of those issues. In order to help set the stage for that, I’d like to describe where I think Social...complaint concerning thle behavior of a member of (2) Reprmand ;!?is .4sinciatiof stall be inl vt -t. iflJ signo ~d bl, MeO com- 3)Ssesinfo emesi

  6. Player Experiences and Behaviors in a Multiplayer Game: designing game rules to change interdependent behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Vegt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Serious gaming is used as a means for improving organizational teamwork, yet little is known about the effect of individual game elements constituting serious games. This paper presents a game design experiment aimed at generating knowledge on designing game elements for teamwork. In previous work, we suggested that interaction- and goal-driven rules could guide interdependence and teamwork strategies. Based on this finding, for the present experiment we developed two versions of multiplayer Breakout, varying in rule-sets, designed to elicit player strategies of either dependent competition or dependent cooperation. Results showed that the two rule-sets could generate distinct reported player experiences and observable distinct player behaviors that could be further discriminated into four patterns: expected patterns of helping and ignoring, and unexpected patterns of agreeing and obstructing. Classic game theory was applied to understand the four behavior patterns and made us conclude that goal-driven rules steered players towards competition and cooperation. Interaction rules, in contrast, mainly stimulated dependent competitive behavior, e.g. obstructing each other. Since different types of rules thus led to different player behavior, discriminating in game design between interaction- and goal-driven rules seems relevant. Moreover, our research showed that game theory proved to be useful for understanding goal-driven rules.

  7. Mindfulness training applied to addiction therapy: insights into the neural mechanisms of positive behavioral change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garl

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Eric L Garland,1,2 Matthew O Howard,3 Sarah E Priddy,1 Patrick A McConnell,4 Michael R Riquino,1 Brett Froeliger4 1College of Social Work, 2Hunstsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 3School of Social Work, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 4Department of Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA Abstract: Dual-process models from neuroscience suggest that addiction is driven by dysregulated interactions between bottom-up neural processes underpinning reward learning and top-down neural functions subserving executive function. Over time, drug use causes atrophy in prefrontally mediated cognitive control networks and hijacks striatal circuits devoted to processing natural rewards in service of compulsive seeking of drug-related reward. In essence, mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs can be conceptualized as mental training programs for exercising, strengthening, and remediating these functional brain networks. This review describes how MBIs may remediate addiction by regulating frontostriatal circuits, thereby restoring an adaptive balance between these top-down and bottom-up processes. Empirical evidence is presented suggesting that MBIs facilitate cognitive control over drug-related automaticity, attentional bias, and drug cue reactivity, while enhancing responsiveness to natural rewards. Findings from the literature are incorporated into an integrative account of the neural mechanisms of mindfulness-based therapies for effecting positive behavior change in the context of addiction recovery. Implications of our theoretical framework are presented with respect to how these insights can inform the addiction therapy process. Keywords: mindfulness, frontostriatal, savoring, cue reactivity, hedonic dysregulation, reward, addiction

  8. Innovative interventions to promote behavioral change in overweight or obese individuals: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okorodudu, Daniel E; Bosworth, Hayden B; Corsino, Leonor

    2015-05-01

    The overweight and obesity trends have risen over the past few decades, placing significant burdens on health care in terms of increased morbidity and cost. Behavioral change therapy is an effective treatment strategy and includes goal setting, self-monitoring, problem solving, and reinforcement tactics. Traditionally, behavior change therapy has been delivered using face-to-face counseling along with paper and pen recording of dietary intake and physical activity. The current advances in technology provide opportunities to deliver interventions using cellphones, internet, and active video games. These new methods to deliver behavior change for the management and prevention of obesity are being developed in order to increase access, improve convenience, decrease cost, and increase participant engagement. In this review, we present new approaches to promote behavior changes in the management of obesity. Currently available data show promising results. However, future research is needed to address study limitations and implementation challenges of these innovative interventions.

  9. Sexuality on Campus: Changes in Attitudes and Behavior During the 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Milton; Abramowitz, Stephen

    1984-01-01

    Surveyed college students (N=4,885) in 1969, 1973, 1977, and 1981 to examine changes in sexual attitudes and behavior. Results indicated sexual activity and permissiveness increased between 1969 and 1977, especially for women, but moderated by 1981. (JAC)

  10. Issue Paper on Physiological and Behavioral Changes in Pregnant and Lactating Women and Available Exposure Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    This issue paper provides a summary of information from the published literature related to behavioral and physiological changes during pregnancy and lactation that may affect women’s exposure or susceptibility to environmental contaminants, provides potentially useful exposur...

  11. Issue Paper on Physiological and Behavioral Changes in Pregnant and Lactating Women and Available Exposure Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    This issue paper provides a summary of information from the published literature related to behavioral and physiological changes during pregnancy and lactation that may affect women’s exposure or susceptibility to environmental contaminants, provides potentially useful exposur...

  12. Using theory to explore facilitators and barriers to delayed prescribing in Australia: a qualitative study using the Theoretical Domains Framework and the Behaviour Change Wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Lucy; McCullough, Amanda; Del Mar, Chris; Lowe, John

    2017-02-13

    Delayed antibiotic prescribing reduces antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections in trials in general practice, but the uptake in clinical practice is low. The aim of the study was to identify facilitators and barriers to general practitioners' (GPs') use of delayed prescribing and to gain pharmacists' and the public's views about delayed prescribing in Australia. This study used the Theoretical Domains Framework and the Behaviour Change Wheel to explore facilitators and barriers to delayed prescribing in Australia. Forty-three semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with general practitioners, pharmacists and patients were conducted. Responses were coded into domains of the Theoretical Domains Framework, and specific criteria from the Behaviour Change Wheel were used to identify which domains were relevant to increasing the use of delayed prescribing by GPs. The interviews revealed nine key domains that influence GPs' use of delayed prescribing: knowledge; cognitive and interpersonal skills; memory, attention and decision-making processes; optimism; beliefs about consequences; intentions; goals; emotion; and social influences: GPs knew about delayed prescribing; however, they did not use it consistently, preferring to bring patients back for review and only using it with patients in a highly selective way. Pharmacists would support GPs and the public in delayed prescribing but would fill the prescription if people insisted. The public said they would delay taking their antibiotics if asked by their GP and given the right information on managing symptoms and when to take antibiotics. Using a theory-driven approach, we identified nine key domains that influence GPs' willingness to provide a delayed prescription to patients with an acute respiratory infection presenting to general practice. These data can be used to develop a structured intervention to change this behaviour and thus reduce antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections in general practice.

  13. Reinforcement learning and counterfactual reasoning explain adaptive behavior in a changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Paik, Jaehyon; Pirolli, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Animals routinely adapt to changes in the environment in order to survive. Though reinforcement learning may play a role in such adaptation, it is not clear that it is the only mechanism involved, as it is not well suited to producing rapid, relatively immediate changes in strategies in response to environmental changes. This research proposes that counterfactual reasoning might be an additional mechanism that facilitates change detection. An experiment is conducted in which a task state changes over time and the participants had to detect the changes in order to perform well and gain monetary rewards. A cognitive model is constructed that incorporates reinforcement learning with counterfactual reasoning to help quickly adjust the utility of task strategies in response to changes. The results show that the model can accurately explain human data and that counterfactual reasoning is key to reproducing the various effects observed in this change detection paradigm.

  14. Utilizing Electronic Medical Records to Discover Changing Trends of Medical Behaviors Over Time*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liangying; Dong, Wei; He, Chunhua; Duan, Huilong

    2017-01-01

    Summary Objectives Medical behaviors are playing significant roles in the delivery of high quality and cost-effective health services. Timely discovery of changing frequencies of medical behaviors is beneficial for the improvement of health services. The main objective of this work is to discover the changing trends of medical behaviors over time. Methods This study proposes a two-steps approach to detect essential changing patterns of medical behaviors from Electronic Medical Records (EMRs). In detail, a probabilistic topic model, i.e., Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), is firstly applied to disclose yearly treatment patterns in regard to the risk stratification of patients from a large volume of EMRs. After that, the changing trends by comparing essential/critical medical behaviors in a specific time period are detected and analyzed, including changes of significant patient features with their values, and changes of critical treatment interventions with their occurring time stamps. Results We verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach on a clinical dataset containing 12,152 patient cases with a time range of 10 years. Totally, 135 patients features and 234 treatment interventions in three treatment patterns were selected to detect their changing trends. In particular, evolving trends of yearly occurring probabilities of the selected medical behaviors were categorized into six content changing patterns (i.e, 112 growing, 123 declining, 43 up-down, 16 down-up, 35 steady, and 40 jumping), using the proposed approach. Besides, changing trends of execution time of treatment interventions were classified into three occurring time changing patterns (i.e., 175 early-implemented, 50 steady-implemented and 9 delay-implemented). Conclusions Experimental results show that our approach has an ability to utilize EMRs to discover essential evolving trends of medical behaviors, and thus provide significant potential to be further explored for health services redesign and

  15. Neural response to pictorial health warning labels can predict smoking behavioral change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Philip J; Newman-Norlund, Roger D; Baer, Jessica; Thrasher, James F

    2016-11-01

    In order to improve our understanding of how pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) influence smoking behavior, we examined whether brain activity helps to explain smoking behavior above and beyond self-reported effectiveness of HWLs. We measured the neural response in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the amygdala while adult smokers viewed HWLs. Two weeks later, participants' self-reported smoking behavior and biomarkers of smoking behavior were reassessed. We compared multiple models predicting change in self-reported smoking behavior (cigarettes per day [CPD]) and change in a biomarkers of smoke exposure (expired carbon monoxide [CO]). Brain activity in the vmPFC and amygdala not only predicted changes in CO, but also accounted for outcome variance above and beyond self-report data. Neural data were most useful in predicting behavioral change as quantified by the objective biomarker (CO). This pattern of activity was significantly modulated by individuals' intention to quit. The finding that both cognitive (vmPFC) and affective (amygdala) brain areas contributed to these models supports the idea that smokers respond to HWLs in a cognitive-affective manner. Based on our findings, researchers may wish to consider using neural data from both cognitive and affective networks when attempting to predict behavioral change in certain populations (e.g. cigarette smokers). © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Behavioral Ecology of Narwhals in a Changing Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    threshold)? How have these relationships changed over the past two decades of sea ice loss ? Are there population-level differences in sea ice habitat... ice and purported increase in killer whales in the Canadian Arctic , do killer whale catch and observation data from West Greenland follow this trend...ecology of narwhals in an area rapidly being altered by increases in shipping, seismic exploration, and sea ice loss . We anticipate our results will be

  17. Analysis on the Changes in Consumer Behavior and Marketing Countermeasure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Haiyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there’s a huge change in the media use habit, demand and route to get the information for the consumers, and the right of consumers to release information is mostly realized, indicating an actual return of consumer sovereignty. In such a background, it is undoubtedly the best choice for the marketing of enterprise brand to focus on the target people, manage the client relation and increase the socialized videos.

  18. From Teaching to Facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Graaff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    A shift from teaching to learning is characteristic of the introduction of Problem Based Learning (PBL) in an existing school. As a consequence the teaching staff has to be trained in skills like facilitating group work and writing cases. Most importantly a change in thinking about teaching...

  19. Clinical inertia: a common barrier to changing provider prescribing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumie, Christianne L; Elasy, Tom A; Wallston, Kenneth A; Pratt, Susan; Greevy, Robert A; Liu, Xulei; Alvarez, Vincent; Dittus, Robert S; Speroff, Theodore

    2007-05-01

    A cross-sectional content analysis nested within a randomized, controlled trial was conducted to collect information on provider responses to computer alerts regarding guideline recommendations for patients with suboptimal hypertension care. Participants were providers who cared for 1,017 patients with uncontrolled hypertension on a single antihypertensive agent within Veterans Affairs primary care clinics. All reasons for action or inaction were sorted into a framework to explain the variation in guideline adaptation. The 184 negative provider responses to computer alerts contained explanations for not changing patient treatment; 76 responses to the alerts were positive, that is, the provider was going to make a change in antihypertensive regimen. The negative responses were categorized as: inertia of practice (66%), lack of agreement with specific guidelines (5%), patient-based factors (17%), environmental factors (10%), and lack of knowledge (2%). Most of the 135 providers classified as inertia of practice indicated, "Continue current medications and I will discuss at the next visit." The median number of days until the next visit was 45 days (interquartile range, 29 to 78 days). Clinical inertia was the primary reason for failing to engage in otherwise indicated treatment change in a subgroup of patients. A framework was provided as a taxonomy for classification of provider barriers.

  20. A visit to the intensive cares unit: a family-centered culture change to facilitate pediatric visitation in an adult intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Julie Boyer; Piazza, Julie

    2012-01-01

    To guide family adjustment, an effort was made to facilitate pediatric visitation in an adult intensive care unit (ICU). Goals were to improve customer satisfaction and to raise staff comfort level with child visitation. After implementing an open visitation policy, concerns around pediatric visitation in the ICU remained. Fears centered on risks to both patient and child. Literature was reviewed before a book was written entitled A Visit to the ICU. It contained information about what a child visiting the ICU would see, hear, and feel when visiting a loved one. The book provided reassurance for caregivers and children, informing them about what to expect when visiting. The goal of the book was to provide caregivers with a framework for age-appropriate education. Staff education was provided on developmental stages, including a child's understandings of illness and death. Nursing interventions were reviewed and resources provided. A survey demonstrated that the book increased staff comfort level with children visiting the unit, was a positive tool for patients and families, and eased fears among children while helping to facilitate coping mechanisms. The article will describe the practice change of pediatric visitation in an ICU and how it could be applied to other critical care settings.