Nikolai W. F. BODE, A. Jamie WOOD, Daniel W. FRANKS
Full Text Available Group navigation is of great importance for many animals, such as migrating flocks of birds or shoals of fish. One theory states that group membership can improve navigational accuracy compared to limited or less accurate individual navigational ability in groups without leaders (“Many-wrongs principle”. Here, we simulate leaderless group navigation that includes social connections as preferential interactions between individuals. Our results suggest that underlying social networks can reduce navigational errors of groups and increase group cohesion. We use network summary statistics, in particular network motifs, to study which characteristics of networks lead to these improvements. It is networks in which preferences between individuals are not clustered, but spread evenly across the group that are advantageous in group navigation by effectively enhancing long-distance information exchange within groups. We suggest that our work predicts a base-line for the type of social structure we might expect to find in group-living animals that navigate without leaders [Current Zoology 58 (2: 329-341, 2012].
Susan K. Walker
Full Text Available To inform parenting research and aid educators seeking to deliver programs that support effective parenting, this study explored types of information and communications technology (ICT used to fulfill childrearing goals. Mothers’ (N = 1,804 reports of ICT activity frequency were examined from data collected from an online survey. Results suggest that mothers’ ICT use for parenting is less frequent than general use in adulthood. Mothers employ ICT to fulfill parenting goals within and across five domains of the parenting social ecology: (a parent development, (b parent-child relationships, (c child development, (d, family development, and (e culture and community. Several types of ICT activities may strengthen parenting in a single domain, and a single ICT activity may help fulfill multiple domains. Implications for research and for promoting and selecting ICT for effective parent learning and education design are discussed.
Chaverri, Gloriana; Ancillotto, Leonardo; Russo, Danilo
calls are also known to deter predators, repel competitors from foraging patches, attract group mates to roost sites, coordinate foraging activities, and are used during courtship. In addition to sound, visual displays such as wing flapping or hovering may be used during courtship, and swarming around roost sites may serve as a visual cue of roost location. However, visual communication in bats still remains a poorly studied signal modality. Finally, the most common form of tactile communication known in bats is social grooming, which may be used to signal reproductive condition, but also to facilitate and strengthen cooperative interactions. Overall, this review demonstrates the rapid advances made in the study of bat social communication during recent years, and also identifies topics that require further study, particularly those that may allow us to understand adaptation to rapidly changing environmental conditions. © 2018 Cambridge Philosophical Society.
Hulbert, Jack E.
Discusses effective oral communication as a prime requisite for business management success. Both speaking and listening skills are needed to encourage intercommunication, invite feedback, respond to other opinions, and solicit participation to contribute to the manager's decisions for organizational action. (MF)
Naber, A.C.; Enserink, B.
Social media are web-based and mobile technologies that facilitate interaction between organizations, communities and individuals. Important characteristics are that the technologies are ubiquitous, communication instantaneous and that they enable the creation and exchange of user-generated content.
Russell, Robert L
Social communication or pragmatic impairments are characterized and illustrated as involving inappropriate or ineffective use of language and gesture in social contexts. Three clinical vignettes illustrate different pragmatic impairments and the wealth of diagnostic information that can be garnered from observation of a child's social communication behavior. Definitions of, and developmental milestones in, domains of pragmatic competence are provided. Several screening instruments are suggested for use in assessing pragmatic competence within the time-frame of a pediatric examination. Frequent comorbid psychiatric conditions are described and a sample of current neurobiologic research is briefly summarized.
Moore, Susan; And Others
The ability of eight adults with mental retardation (and in some cases cerebral palsy) to communicate using facilitated communication was assessed by a multidisciplinary team. Not one of the subjects demonstrated an ability to communicate using the technique. (JDD)
Case studies are presented of three individuals with severe communication impairments who had been judged to be intellectually impaired but revealed unexpected achievements after training in nonspeech communication. The communication training used facilitation to circumvent hand function impairments. (JDD)
The academic field of crisis communication is more relevant than ever due to the digital media revolution, setting new standards for how to manage criticism and crises. This paper presents a systems theoretical approach to crisis communication in the age of digital media with a special regard...... to social media. The paper shows that the recent changes in the media environment require that organizations be more observant, reflected and responsive to the public opinion. Correspondingly, organizations need to engage in strategic impression management with the aim to be, or to be observed to be, more...... consistent with their communicated values and strategies, thus managing to appear as trustworthy in a hyper-dynamic social surrounding world. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....
Sowden, Hannah; Perkins, Mick; Clegg, Judy
There are many different approaches to intervention aimed at facilitating the social and communicative abilities of children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Behavioural interventions seek to improve the social and communicative abilities of children with ASD through interaction. Recently there has been a move towards naturalistic…
Lunnay, Belinda; Borlagdan, Joseph; McNaughton, Darlene; Ward, Paul
Increasingly, qualitative health researchers might consider using social media to facilitate communication with participants. Ambiguity surrounding the potential risks intrinsic to social media could hinder ethical conduct and discourage use of this innovative method. We used some core principles of traditional human research ethics, that is, respect, integrity, and beneficence, to design our photo elicitation research that explored the social influences of drinking alcohol among 34 underage women in metropolitan South Australia. Facebook aided our communication with participants, including correspondence ranging from recruitment to feeding back results and sharing research data. This article outlines the ethical issues we encountered when using Facebook to interact with participants and provides guidance to researchers planning to incorporate social media as a tool in their qualitative studies. In particular, we raise the issues of privacy and confidentiality as contemporary risks associated with research using social media. © The Author(s) 2014.
How to succeed in facilitating for empowering processes within social work practice is a central topic in both theoretical discussions and regarding its principles in practice. With a particular focus on how dialogical communication can play a part in order to practice empowering social work, through this text the author frames HUSK as a project facilitating the underpinning humanistic approaches in social work. Dialogical communication and its philosophical base is presented and recognized as a means to achieve empowering social work as well as highlighting the importance of the humanistic approach. The author also underscores how HUSK projects in themselves were enabled because of the required collaboration between service users, professionals, and researchers that signified HUSK. This is pinpointed as having potential for a future research agenda as well as pointing at how the outcomes of the projects may impact future social work practice when the goal is to conduct empowering social work.
Snijders, Lysanne; Naguib, Marc
Animal social networks and animal communication networks are key disciplines for understanding animal social behavior, yet these disciplines remain poorly integrated. In this review, we show how communication and social networks are inherently linked, with social signals reflecting and affecting
McNeil, Sara G.; Robin, Bernard R.; Miller, Robert M.
As the Internet evolves into a truly world wide communications medium, the roles of faculty and students at institutions of higher learning are changing. Traditional face-to-face classes are being converted to an online setting, where materials from syllabi to lectures to assignments are available at the click of a mouse. New technological options are challenging and changing the very nature of teaching as faculty migrate from being deliverers of information to facilitators and mentors. Students are also undergoing a transformation from passive recipients to participants in an active learning environment. Interactions are at the heart of this revolution as students and faculty create new methodologies for the online classroom. New types of interactions are emerging between faculty and students, between students and other students and between students and the educational resources they are exploring. As the online teaching and learning environment expands and matures, new social and instructional interactions are replacing the traditional occurrences in face-to-face classrooms. New communication options are also evolving as a critical component of the online classroom. The shift from a synchronous to an asynchronous communication structure has also had a significant impact on the way students and faculty interact. The use of e-mail, listservs and web-based conferencing has given teachers and learners new flexibility and has fostered a climate where learning takes place wherever and whenever it is convenient. HyperGroups, a communication tool that was developed at the University of Houston, allows students and faculty to seamlessly participate in course-related discussions and easily share multimedia resources. This article explores the many issues associated with facilitating interaction, communication and collaboration in online courses.
Full Text Available Social networks visible influence people's ability to interact and communicate. Extending social circles by establishing virtual links involves a number of positive aspects such as: instant access to options for interaction, sharing of information to large communities of people, intensification of acts of communication, high levels of feedback and trust with people with whom we communicate. On the other hand, social networks adversely affects communication by decreasing the interaction face to face, by imposing superficial communications experiences, grammatical and spelling erosion of the language. Therefore, the study aims to capture the spread of social networks, their use and impact on interpersonal communication. More specifically, they look for the answer to the question: what is the nature of interpersonal communication that is found on social networking sites: personal, emotional, private or shared, informal, and public?
T. Stevens; P. Hughes (Peter); D. Williams; I. Craigie; I. Kegel; P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); A.J. Jansen (Jack); M.F. Usrsu; M. Frantzis; N. Farber; M. Lutzky; S. Vogel
htmlabstractThis paper describes a prototype software platform that supports advanced communications services, specifically services enabling effective group-to-group communications with a social purpose, between remote homes. The architecture, the individual components, their interfaces, and the
Leykin, Dmitry; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Lahad, Mooli
Introduction: The extensive use of social media in modern life redefines social interaction and communication. Communication plays an important role in mitigating, or exacerbating, the psychological and behavioral responses to critical incidents and disasters. As recent disasters demonstrated, people tend to converge to social media during and following emergencies. Authorities can then use this media and other computational methods to gain insights from the public, mainly to enhance situational awareness, but also to improve their communication with the public and public adherence to instructions. Methods: The current review presents a conceptual framework for studying psychological aspects of crisis and risk communication using the social media through social computing. Results: Advanced analytical tools can be integrated in the processes and objectives of crisis communication. The availability of the computational techniques can improve communication with the public by a process of Hyper-Targeted Crisis Communication. Discussion: The review suggests that using advanced computational tools for target-audience profiling and linguistic matching in social media, can facilitate more sensitive and personalized emergency communication. PMID:27092290
Leykin, Dmitry; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Lahad, Mooli
The extensive use of social media in modern life redefines social interaction and communication. Communication plays an important role in mitigating, or exacerbating, the psychological and behavioral responses to critical incidents and disasters. As recent disasters demonstrated, people tend to converge to social media during and following emergencies. Authorities can then use this media and other computational methods to gain insights from the public, mainly to enhance situational awareness, but also to improve their communication with the public and public adherence to instructions. The current review presents a conceptual framework for studying psychological aspects of crisis and risk communication using the social media through social computing. Advanced analytical tools can be integrated in the processes and objectives of crisis communication. The availability of the computational techniques can improve communication with the public by a process of Hyper-Targeted Crisis Communication. The review suggests that using advanced computational tools for target-audience profiling and linguistic matching in social media, can facilitate more sensitive and personalized emergency communication.
Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Gummesen, Elisabeth
A person who has dementia may also have aphasia and severe communicative disabilities with the risk of leading to social isolation. This study explored the music therapeutic process with a person with dementia and aphasia in order to understand how music therapy may facilitate communication...
For centuries advances in what we now term media have generated concerns about the effect these advances have on values and morality-books, stage drama, movies, TV, and now computer-based fantasy and Internet-based distribution. These media comprise some of the most powerful agents for developing our fundamental strategies for living. Computer-based fantasy can provide waves of sensations that everyday life does not prepare us for; they create a wow effect. The implications are especially, strong for adolescents. Wow effects come to seem ordinary. We can easily overdose on them with a subsequent dulling of sensibility that motivates one to seek the next level. As the wow effect is numbed, socializing restrictions break down. A psychological strategy of distancing is one defense against enhanced imagery - a strategy of cool as antidote. The wow-cool dipole can foster a role as spectator that inhibits empathy and a fundamental distancing from the self. Technology - the source of our concerns-can also help to counteract them. The most powerful drive in children is to learn mastery of the world. New input and output devices and especially properly designed software can enhance the capacity to learn and to be creative, i.e. to gain mastery over the world. These powerful new modes of communication not only give us great access to the world, they give the world great access to us. We must supplant what is now mostly a passive broadcast system with interactive exploration and two-way communication.
Glaas, Erik; Gammelgaard Ballantyne, Anne; Neset, Tina Simone
with the context of the target audience, provides intelligible information and addresses perceived barriers to adaptation. In this paper we reflect upon criteria for useful climate change communication gained over a three year development process of a web-based tool - VisAdapt™ - aimed at increasing...
Lozano, Sandra C.; Tversky, Barbara
Gestures are a common, integral part of communication. Here, we investigate the roles of gesture and speech in explanations, both for communicators and recipients. Communicators explained how to assemble a simple object, using either speech with gestures or gestures alone. Gestures used for explaining included pointing and exhibiting to indicate…
This master’s thesis study is an explanatory study aiming to formulate a strategy implementation plan for alumni engagement through social media communication for Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences Alumni network. The Haaga-Helia Alumni network currently often loses the contact to international graduates without first being able to involve them in the alumni activities. The network, however, would have a lot to gain from having active alumni, as well as a lot to offer to the alumni...
Mandy, William; Wang, Adele; Lee, Irene; Skuse, David
Background: Social (pragmatic) communication disorder (SPCD) is a new diagnosis introduced by DSM-5, characterised by problems with verbal and nonverbal social communication. It is currently unclear whether SPCD is a valid diagnostic category, because little is known about the characteristics of those who meet its criteria. We sought to identify…
Scheufele, Dietram A
This essay examines the societal dynamics surrounding modern science. It first discusses a number of challenges facing any effort to communicate science in social environments: lay publics with varying levels of preparedness for fully understanding new scientific breakthroughs; the deterioration of traditional media infrastructures; and an increasingly complex set of emerging technologies that are surrounded by a host of ethical, legal, and social considerations. Based on this overview, I discuss four areas in which empirical social science helps clarify intuitive but sometimes faulty assumptions about the social-level mechanisms of science communication and outline an agenda for bench and social scientists--driven by current social-scientific research in the field of science communication--to guide more effective communication efforts at the societal level in the future.
Simon, Elliott W.; And Others
This study of an adolescent with multiple disabilities, including moderate mental retardation, who was reported to engage in validated facilitated communication (FC) found he did not engage in validated FC; performance was equivalent whether food or nonfood reinforcers were used; and the Picture Exchange Communication System was a valid and…
of the subject and the activities, whereas the students will adopt a more passive role. The traditional lecture model is based on a paradigm that views learning as the transmission of information from teacher to student. In addition, the web conference will amplify the role of the teacher in that he/she can....... Such a model must take into consideration that users must get to know and become familiar with the system and that the functions of the system should carefully be matched with social learning activities to enhance the learning of students. The presentation will include a demonstration of the web conference...
Gumucio-Dagron, Alfonso; Tufte, Thomas
for social change. The book is organised in two parts: the first part being cronological, from 1927-1995, and the second part containing 'the contemporary debate' in communication for social change, organised in 5 sub-themes: 1) Popular Culture, Narrative and Identity, 2) Social Movements & Community...
Ihlen, Ø.; Verhoeven, P.; Holtzhausen, D.; Zerfass, A.
Social theory provides strategic communication with a basic understanding of the societal role of the practice, and its ethical and political consequences. This chapter draws out some key conclusions based on a wide reading of social theory approaches. First of all, building on social theory means
Scheufele, Dietram A.
This essay examines the societal dynamics surrounding modern science. It first discusses a number of challenges facing any effort to communicate science in social environments: lay publics with varying levels of preparedness for fully understanding new scientific breakthroughs; the deterioration of traditional media infrastructures; and an increasingly complex set of emerging technologies that are surrounded by a host of ethical, legal, and social considerations. Based on this overview, I discuss four areas in which empirical social science helps clarify intuitive but sometimes faulty assumptions about the social-level mechanisms of science communication and outline an agenda for bench and social scientists—driven by current social-scientific research in the field of science communication—to guide more effective communication efforts at the societal level in the future. PMID:23940341
Full Text Available The communication represents a basic element for the marketing activity that helps companies to achieve their objectives. Building long-term relationships between brands and consumers is one of the most important objectives pursued by marketers. This involves brand communication and creating multiple connections with consumers, even in the online environment. From this point of view, social networks proved to be an effective way of linking brands and consumers online. This paper aims to present some aspects involved by the usage of social networks in brand communication by analyzing several examples of online marketing campaigns implemented on Facebook on the occasion of Valentine's Day by six different brands.
Pedersen, Anders Bro; Hauksson, Einar Bragi; Andersen, Peter Bach
As the power system evolves into a smarter and more flexible state, so must the communication technologies that support it. A key requirement for facilitating the distributed production of future grids is that communication and information are standardized to ensure interoperability. The IEC 61850...... a server using these technologies can be used to interface with DERs as diverse as Electric Vehicles (EVs) and micro Combined Heat and Power (μCHP) units....
This article discusses whether commercial communication in social media is covered by the European opt in-model concerning unsolicited electronic mail for direct marketing purposes found in the directive on privacy and electronic communications (2002/58). It is concluded that messages in social...... the consumer ombudsmen questioned inter alia whether unsolicited commercial communications sent to users’ news feeds should be considered electronic mail or other un-solicited communications for the purposes of direct marketing. This and other related questions are dealt with in this article....... found in the distance selling directive (1997/7). Now, the use of electronic mail for direct marketing purposes in social media must be assessed in accordance with the full harmonisation in the unfair commercial practices directive (2005/29). This directive does not contain a ban on »unsolicited...
Tskhay, Konstantin O; Rule, Nicholas O
It is well known that emotions intersect with obvious social categories (e.g., race), influencing both how targets are categorized and the emotions that are read from their faces. Here, we examined the influence of emotional expression on the perception of less obvious group memberships for which, in the absence of obvious and stable physical markers, emotion may serve as a major avenue for group categorization and identification. Specifically, we examined whether emotions are embedded in the mental representations of sexual orientation and political affiliation, and whether people may use emotional expressions to communicate these group memberships to others. Using reverse correlation methods, we found that mental representations of gay and liberal faces were characterized by more positive facial expressions than mental representations of straight and conservative faces (Study 1). Furthermore, participants were evaluated as expressing more positive emotions when enacting self-defined "gay" and "liberal" versus "straight" and "conservative" facial expressions in the lab (Study 2). In addition, neutral faces morphed with happiness were perceived as more gay than when morphed with anger, and when compared to unmorphed controls (Study 3). Finally, we found that affect facilitated perceptions of sexual orientation and political affiliation in naturalistic settings (Study 4). Together, these studies suggest that emotion is a defining characteristic of person construal that people tend to use both when signaling their group memberships and when receiving those signals to categorize others. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Participation is the new keyword of communication. In the scientific field, communication is a very complex task that can't ignore the careful consideration of the target audience. To minimize the difficulties, it is useful to rely on storytelling: it can greatly benefit from the space offered by social media that can be used to raise awareness and to engage through the sharing of experiences. The marriage between scientific research and social media can take place, as long as you carefully reflect on the roles, strategies and appropriate tools.
Marschner, Linda; Pannasch, Sebastian; Schulz, Johannes
In social communication, the gaze direction of other persons provides important information to perceive and interpret their emotional response. Previous research investigated the influence of gaze by manipulating mutual eye contact. Therefore, gaze and body direction has been changed as a whole...
Full Text Available Social network services (SNSs allow users to share their daily experiences and significant life events with family, friends, and colleagues. However, excessive use of SNSs or dependence upon them can cause a problem known as “SNS fatigue” that is associated with feelings of anxiety and loneliness. In other words, the tighter and stronger the social bonds are through SNSs, the more users feel anxiety and loneliness. We propose a method for providing users with a sense of security and connectedness with others by facilitating loose communication. Loose communication is defined by the presentation of abstract information and passive (one-way communication. By focusing on the physicality and anthropomorphic characteristics of tangible avatars, we investigated a communication support system, Palco, that displays three types of contextual information with respect to the communication partner—emotional state, activity, and location—in a loose manner. Our approach contrasts with typical SNS interaction methods characterized by tight communication with interactivity and concrete information. This paper describes the design and implementation of Palco, as well as its usefulness as a communication tool. The emotional effects on the users are evaluated through a user study with 10 participants over four days. The results imply that Palco can effectively communicate the context of the communication partner, and provide a sense of security.
Morsing, Mette; Spence, Laura J.
approach and we propose for SME managers to investigate Foucault’s notion of “care of the self”. Originality/value: We conceptualize how SBSR is caught in a ‘governmentality dilemma’ where simultaneous expectations to govern others (e.g. through standards) and the self (e.g. through intrinsic motivations......) are confronting owner-managers’ ethos. We explain theoretically how small business managers respond to the challenge when they are required to formalize and display for external surveillance that which would otherwise be informal and part of the non-public or private sphere.......Purpose: Corporate social responsibility communication by small and medium sized enterprises is theorized to form the concept of Small Business Social Responsibility (SBSR) Communication. Design/methodology/approach: This is a conceptual paper that draws on Foucault’s theory of governmentality...
Van den Heuvel, Liza Amc; Spruit, Martijn A; Schols, Jos Mga; Hoving, Ciska; Wouters, Emiel Fm; Janssen, Daisy Ja
The aim of this quantitative, cross-sectional study was to identify barriers and facilitators to end-of-life communication experienced by family caregivers of patients with advanced chronic organ failure and to examine agreement in barriers and facilitators between family caregivers and patients. Patients and family caregivers were interviewed using the barriers and facilitators questionnaire. Agreement was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients for continuous variables and Cohen's kappa for categorical variables. A total of 158 patients and family caregiver dyads were included. The most important barriers for family caregivers were related to uncertainty about expected care and focus on staying alive instead of dying. The facilitators were related to trust in and competence of their physician and earlier experiences with death in their (social) environment. For most barriers and facilitators, agreement between patients and family caregivers was fair to moderate. Differences in barriers and facilitators between patients and family caregivers ask for an individual approach to facilitate end-of-life communication.
Fisher, W W; Thompson, R H; Hagopian, L P; Bowman, L G; Krug, A
Few clinical investigations have addressed the problem of delayed reinforcement. In this investigation, three individuals whose destructive behavior was maintained by positive reinforcement were treated using functional communication training (FCT) with extinction (EXT). Next, procedures used in the basic literature on delayed reinforcement and self-control (reinforcer delay fading, punishment of impulsive responding, and provision of an alternative activity during reinforcer delay) were used to teach participants to tolerate delayed reinforcement. With the first case, reinforcer delay fading alone was effective at maintaining low rates of destructive behavior while introducing delayed reinforcement. In the second case, the addition of a punishment component reduced destructive behavior to near-zero levels and facilitated reinforcer delay fading. With the third case, reinforcer delay fading was associated with increases in masturbation and head rolling, but prompting and praising the individual for completing work during the delay interval reduced all problem behaviors and facilitated reinforcer delay fading.
Full Text Available Virtual social networks have brought about the possibility for open and plural debate, where all those with the necessary literacy skills and means are able to participate in the creation and dissemination of information. By pressing political agents and determining the “agenda” of a lot of the media, users demonstrate that we stand at an ideal platform for creating both real social movements and more or less fleeting events, as manifestos or virtual campaigns. Nonetheless, in order to understand the role of virtual social networks in today’s world, we need to answer some prior questions. Are we facing a new communication model, whereby the product of “disinterested” interactivity creates an aura of confidence in disseminated information, often quite higher that that seen in the “old media”? Will that interactivity be a chance to fight-off citizens’ growing detachment with regard to the “res publica”? Will we find in citizen-made journalism, transmitted through virtual social networks, the consecration of a true fourth power? On the other hand, can we call the distinct collective movements we have seen emerging true “social movements”?The present article aims to examine this and other issues that come to the fore in the intricate social world of cyberspace.
Brooks, Katherine C; Maia, Rafael; Duffy, J Emmett; Hultgren, Kristin M; Rubenstein, Dustin R
Evidence from insects and vertebrates suggests that cooperation may have enabled species to expand their niches, becoming ecological generalists and dominating the ecosystems in which they occur. Consistent with this idea, eusocial species of sponge-dwelling Synalpheus shrimps from Belize are ecological generalists with a broader host breadth and higher abundance than non-eusocial species. We evaluate whether sociality promotes ecological generalism (social conquest hypothesis) or whether ecological generalism facilitates the transition to sociality (social transition hypothesis) in 38 Synalpheus shrimp species. We find that sociality evolves primarily from host generalists, and almost exclusively so for transitions to eusociality. Additionally, sponge volume is more important for explaining social transitions towards communal breeding than to eusociality, suggesting that different ecological factors may influence the independent evolutionary origins of sociality in Synalpheus shrimps. Ultimately, our results are consistent with the social transition hypothesis and the idea that ecological generalism facilitates the transition to sociality. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.
Umami, R.; Budayasa, I. K.; Suwarsono, St.
Teacher’s communication skill plays an important role, one of which is to guide a class discussion for teaching purposes. This study aimed to investigate a teacher’s mathematical communication profile in facilitating and guiding a class discussion. This study is qualitative. A junior teacher of high school (i.e., a teacher with 1 to 5 year teaching experience) teaching mathematics at X-Social Class was selected as the subject of this study. The data was collected by observing the teacher’s mathematical communication in facilitating and guiding a discussion with the rules of sinus as the teaching material, and it was followed by a deep interview. The result showed that the junior teacher facilitated and guided a class discussion include providing responses (answer) addressing students’ difficulties and providing chances for students to propose and explain their ideas and be active in discussion. The junior teacher provides responses at sharp, optimal, and specific manner. In addition, she provides chances for her students to explain their thinking and have a discussion in anticipative, observative, selective, and connective manner. However, the study found that some of high-school teachers develop mathematical communication skills and use them to develop students’ mathematical communication skills.
Wesson, Daniel W
Sniffing is a specialized respiratory behavior that is essential for the acquisition of odors [1-4]. Perhaps not independent of this, sniffing is commonly displayed during motivated [5-7] and social behaviors [8, 9]. No measures of sniffing among interacting animals are available, however, calling into question the utility of this behavior in the social context. From radiotelemetry recordings of nasal respiration, I found that investigation by one rat toward the facial region of a conspecific often elicits a decrease in sniffing frequency in the conspecific. This reciprocal display of sniffing was found to be dependent upon the rat's social status in two separate paradigms, with subordinates reliably decreasing their sniffing frequency upon being investigated in the face by dominant rats. Failure of subordinates to decrease their sniffing frequency shortened the latency for agonistic behavior by dominant rats, reflecting that decreases in sniffing serve as appeasement signals during social interactions. Rats rendered unable to smell persisted in displaying reciprocal sniffing behavior, demonstrating the independence of this behavior from olfaction. Oxytocin treatment in rats with established social hierarchies abolished agonistic behaviors and reciprocal sniffing displays. Together, these findings demonstrate that rodents utilize sniffing behaviors communicatively, not only to collect [6, 10-14] but also to convey information. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rizwan Ali Khadim; Bilal Zafar; Muhammad Younis
Social media has changed the shape of communication strategies in the corporate world. Corporations are using social media to reach their maximum stakeholders in minimum time at different social media forums. Consumers being an important corporate stakeholder hold significant importance in corporate communication strategy. The current study examines the role of social media communication on consumer brand perceptions and their buying behavior. A comprehensive survey is conducted through vario...
Vail, Cynthia O.; Elmore, Shannon Renee
Toy selection is an important role for early childhood teachers. This research-to-practice article describes what research tells us about how toys can affect the social interactions and communication of young children including those with developmental delays.
Bishop, Somer L; Havdahl, Karoline Alexandra; Huerta, Marisela; Lord, Catherine
More refined dimensions of social-communication impairment are needed to elucidate the clinical and biological boundaries of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other childhood onset psychiatric disorders associated with social difficulties, as well as to facilitate investigations in treatment and long-term outcomes of these disorders. This study was intended to identify separable dimensions of clinician-observed social-communication impairments by examining scores on a widely used autism diagnostic instrument. Participants included verbally fluent children ages 3-13 years, who were given a clinical diagnosis of ASD (n = 120) or non-ASD (i.e. ADHD, language disorder, intellectual disability, mood or anxiety disorder; n = 118) following a comprehensive diagnostic assessment. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis examined the factor structure of algorithm items from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), Module 3. Results indicated that a three-factor model consisting of repetitive behaviors and two separate social-communication behavior factors had superior fit compared to a two-factor model that included repetitive behaviors and one social-communication behavior factor. In the three-factor model, impairments in 'Basic Social-Communication' behaviors (e.g. eye contact, facial expressions, gestures) were separated from impairments in 'Interaction quality.' Confirmatory factor analysis in an independent sample of children in the Simons Simplex Collection (SSC) further supported the division of social-communication impairments into these two factors. Scores in Interaction Quality were significantly associated with nonverbal IQ and male sex in the ASD group, and with age in the non-ASD group, while scores in basic social communication were not significantly associated with any of these child characteristics in either diagnostic group. Efforts to conceptualize level, or severity, of social-communication impairment in children with
Yan, Xinyuan; Yong, Xue; Huang, Wenhao; Ma, Yina
Placebo effect refers to beneficial changes induced by the use of inert treatment, such as placebo-induced relief of physical pain and attenuation of negative affect. To date, we know little about whether placebo treatment could facilitate social functioning, a crucial aspect for well-being of a social species. In the present study, we develop and validate a paradigm to induce placebo effects on social trust and approach behavior (social placebo effect), and show robust evidence that placebo treatment promotes trust in others and increases preference for a closer interpersonal distance. We further examine placebo effects in real-life social interaction and show that placebo treatment makes single, but not pair-bonded, males keep closer to an attractive first-met female and perceive less social anxiety in the female. Finally, we show evidence that the effects of placebo treatment on social trust and approach behavior can be as strong as the effect of intranasal administration of oxytocin, a neuropeptide known for its function in facilitating social cognition and behavior. The finding of the social placebo effect extends our understanding of placebo effects on improvement of physical, mental, and social well-being and suggests clinical potentials in the treatment of social dysfunction.
Takayanagi, Yuki; Yoshida, Masahide; Takashima, Akihide; Takanami, Keiko; Yoshida, Shoma; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Nishijima, Ichiko; Sakamoto, Hirotaka; Yamagata, Takanori; Onaka, Tatsushi
Social recognition underlies social behavior in animals, and patients with psychiatric disorders associated with social deficits show abnormalities in social recognition. Oxytocin is implicated in social behavior and has received attention as an effective treatment for sociobehavioral deficits. Secretin receptor-deficient mice show deficits in social behavior. The relationship between oxytocin and secretin concerning social behavior remains to be determined. Expression of c-Fos in oxytocin neurons and release of oxytocin from their dendrites after secretin application were investigated. Social recognition was examined after intracerebroventricular or local injection of secretin, oxytocin, or an oxytocin receptor antagonist in rats, oxytocin receptor-deficient mice, and secretin receptor-deficient mice. Electron and light microscopic immunohistochemical analysis was also performed to determine whether oxytocin neurons extend their dendrites into the medial amygdala. Supraoptic oxytocin neurons expressed the secretin receptor. Secretin activated supraoptic oxytocin neurons and facilitated oxytocin release from dendrites. Secretin increased acquisition of social recognition in an oxytocin receptor-dependent manner. Local application of secretin into the supraoptic nucleus facilitated social recognition, and this facilitation was blocked by an oxytocin receptor antagonist injected into, but not outside of, the medial amygdala. In the medial amygdala, dendrite-like thick oxytocin processes were found to extend from the supraoptic nucleus. Furthermore, oxytocin treatment restored deficits of social recognition in secretin receptor-deficient mice. The results of our study demonstrate that secretin-induced dendritic oxytocin release from supraoptic neurons enhances social recognition. The newly defined secretin-oxytocin system may lead to a possible treatment for social deficits. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Slort, W.; Schweitzer, B.P.M.; Blankenstein, A.H.; Abarshi, E.A.; Riphagen, I.I.; Echteld, M.A.; Aaronson, N.K.; van der Horst, H.E.; Deliens, L.
While effective general practitioner (GP)-patient communication is required for the provision of good palliative care, barriers and facilitators for this communication are largely unknown. We aimed to identify barriers and facilitators for GP-patient communication in palliative care. In a systematic
Slort, W.; Schweitzer, B.P.M.; Blankenstein, A.H.; Abarshi-Fatiregun, E.A.B.; Riphagen, I.; Echteld, M.A.; Aaronson, N.K.; van der Horst, H.E.; Deliens, L.
While effective general practitioner (GP)-patient communication is required for the provision of good palliative care, barriers and facilitators for this communication are largely unknown. We aimed to identify barriers and facilitators for GP-patient communication in palliative care. In a systematic
Araceli Castelló-Martínez, Ph.D.
Full Text Available Online social networks such as Facebook and Twitter have become essential channels in business strategies. Corporate Social Responsibility communication faces new challenges in these spaces of the Web 2.0, where companies can interact with users, generate a brand community, increase their visibility, and strengthen their position in the market. This research study aims to analyse the way companies use the major online social media to communicate their Corporate Social Responsibility programmes. The methodology involves the examination of the presence in online social platforms and the online corporate reputation of ten companies/brands. The results show that companies use these spaces as channels for business and advertising communication, but not so much for Corporate Social Responsibility communication, despite these social media offer many possibilities for interaction and dialogue.
Pescheny, Julia Vera; Pappas, Yannis; Randhawa, Gurch
Social Prescribing is a service in primary care that involves the referral of patients with non-clinical needs to local services and activities provided by the third sector (community, voluntary, and social enterprise sector). Social Prescribing aims to promote partnership working between the health and the social sector to address the wider determinants of health. To date, there is a weak evidence base for Social Prescribing services. The objective of the review was to identify factors that facilitate and hinder the implementation and delivery of SP services based in general practice involving a navigator. We searched eleven databases, the grey literature, and the reference lists of relevant studies to identify the barriers and facilitators to the implementation and delivery of Social Prescribing services in June and July 2016. Searches were limited to literature written in English. No date restrictions were applied. Findings were synthesised narratively, employing thematic analysis. The Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool Version 2011 was used to evaluate the methodological quality of included studies. Eight studies were included in the review. The synthesis identified a range of factors that facilitate and hinder the implementation and delivery of SP services. Facilitators and barriers were related to: the implementation approach, legal agreements, leadership, management and organisation, staff turnover, staff engagement, relationships and communication between partners and stakeholders, characteristics of general practices, and the local infrastructure. The quality of most included studies was poor and the review identified a lack of published literature on factors that facilitate and hinder the implementation and delivery of Social Prescribing services. The review identified a range of factors that facilitate and hinder the implementation and delivery of Social Prescribing services. Findings of this review provide an insight for commissioners, managers, and providers
Halls, Georgia; Cooper, Peter J; Creswell, Cathy
Social communication deficits are prevalent amongst children with anxiety disorders; however whether they are over-represented specifically among children with Social Anxiety Disorder has not been examined. This study set out to examine social communication deficits among children with Social Anxiety Disorder in comparison to children with other forms of anxiety disorder. Parents of 404 children with a diagnosed anxiety disorder completed the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ; Rutter, M., Bailey, A., Lord, C., 2003. The Social Communication Questionnaire - Manual. Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, CA). Children with a diagnosis of Social Anxiety Disorder (n=262) and anxious children without Social Anxiety Disorder (n=142) were compared on SCQ total and subscale scores and the frequency of participants scoring above clinical cut-offs. Children with Social Anxiety Disorder scored significantly higher than anxious children without Social Anxiety Disorder on the SCQ total (t(352)=4.85, p<.001, d=.55, r=.27), Reciprocal Social Interaction (t(351)=4.73, p<.001, d=.55, r=.27), communication (t(344)=3.62, p<.001, d=.43, r=.21) and repetitive, restrictive and stereotyped behaviors subscales (t(353)=3.15, p=.002, d=.37, r=.18). Furthermore, children with Social Anxiety Disorder were three times more likely to score above clinical cut-offs. The participants were a relatively affluent group of predominantly non-minority status. The social communication difficulties measure relied on parental report which could be influenced by extraneous factors. Treatments for Social Anxiety Disorder may benefit from a specific focus on developing social communication skills. Future research using objective assessments of underlying social communication skills is required. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Firn, Janice; Preston, Nancy; Walshe, Catherine
Inpatient, generalist social workers in discharge planning roles work alongside specialist palliative care social workers to care for patients, often resulting in two social workers being concurrently involved in the same patient's care. Previous studies identifying components of effective collaboration, which impacts patient outcomes, care efficiency, professional job satisfaction, and healthcare costs, were conducted with nurses and physicians but not social workers. This study explores ward social workers' perceptions of what facilitates or hinders collaboration with palliative care social workers. Grounded theory was used to explore the research aim. In-depth qualitative interviews with masters trained ward social workers (n = 14) working in six hospitals located in the Midwest, United States were conducted between February 2014 and January 2015. A theoretical model of ward social workers' collaboration with palliative care social workers was developed. The emerging model of collaboration consists of: 1) trust, which is comprised of a) ability, b) benevolence, and c) integrity, 2) information sharing, and 3) role negotiation. Effective collaboration occurs when all elements of the model are present. Collaboration is facilitated when ward social workers' perceptions of trust are high, pertinent information is communicated in a time-sensitive manner, and a flexible approach to roles is taken. The theoretical model of collaboration can inform organisational policy and social work clinical practice guidelines, and may be of use to other healthcare professionals, as improvements in collaboration among healthcare providers may have a positive impact on patient outcomes.
Li, Yan; Coplan, Robert J.; Wang, Yuemin; Yin, Jingtong; Zhu, Jingjing; Gao, Zhuqing; Li, Linhui
The goal of this study was to provide a preliminary evaluation of a social skills and facilitated play early intervention programme to promote social interaction, prosocial behaviours and socio-communicative skills among young extremely shy children in China. Participants were a sample of n = 16 extremely shy young children attending kindergarten…
Wallace, Paul; Howard, Barbara
Students working on a highly collaborative project used social networking technology for community building activities as well as basic project-related communication. Requiring students to work on cross-program projects gives them real-world experience working in diverse, geographically dispersed groups. An application used at Appalachian State…
Charsky, Dennis; Kish, Mary L.; Briskin, Jessica; Hathaway, Sarah; Walsh, Kira; Barajas, Nicolas
Human Communication in Organizations (HCO) is an introductory college course at Ithaca College, typically taken in the freshman year, in which students from a wide variety of majors examine the basic concepts, issues, and uses of organizational communication including communication theory, superior-subordinate and peer relationships, leadership,…
Full Text Available The authors look at the concept of social facilitation as a possible component of Russian social consolidation in the course of social reforms. The article focuses on the results of an empirical study of the levels and characteristics of competence in social facilitation, which is here understood as the ability to apply certain knowledge and systems of skills and as a success rate of actions based on experience in improving the conditions of social development. The study was conducted in the Kaliningrad region in 2012—2013. The data was obtained through a survey of 400 respondents using the authors’ methodology encompassing eight basic elements of competence and a structured interview aimed at a better understanding of the subject of the study and attitudes towards it. The data is compared against the results of a similar study in two regions of central Russia with similar conditions. The results suggest a disharmonic and inconsistent structure of competence in social facilitation, low motivation for social activity in youth, and a narrow range of ideas about possible areas of personal activities in the current conditions. Gender differences are identified in the level and structure of competence. The authors believe that certain differences in competence components identified through mathematical methods are determined by the geographical characteristics of the Kaliningrad region — its exclave nature, a relatively small territory, and proximity to the EU countries. It is stressed that the regional conditions affecting motivation, forms and areas of activities, and structure of experience should be taken into account in selecting means and methods of organising youth activities. They can also serve as a basis for the regional youth policy.
Frey, Lawrence R.; Palmer, David L.
The recent formation of the National Communication Association's Activism and Social Justice Division puts a spotlight on the extent to which instructional communication and instructional communication research have advanced--or even should advance--the goals of social justice. To examine this issue, two of the leading scholars on this topic,…
Mikko T. Tarkiainen; Jonna Häkkilä; Jan Blom; Merja Haveri; Jyri Virtanen
Mobile communication technology offers a potential platform for new types of communication applications. Here, we describe the development and experiences with a mobile group communication application, mCell, that runs on a mobile phone. We present the underlying design implications, the application implementation, and a user study, where three groups used the application for one month. The findings of the user study reveal general user experiences with the application and show different patt...
Rummer, Jodie; Darling, Emily
This was a presentation given to PhD/doctoral candidates at James Cook University introducing them to developing an online presence/identity and strategically using social media to communicate their research and network within their professional communities.
consuming phone resources and privacy leakage ?” We address this challenge via an extensive user study. Next, we ask “How can we detect background apps...not support secret group communications. Furthermore, access to such social networks via mobile platforms raises a series of concerns like leakage of...not support secret group communications. Furthermore, access to such social networks via mobile platforms raises a series of concerns like leakage of
Töllinen, Aarne; Karjaluoto, Heikki
The objective of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework for measuring the effectiveness of social media marketing communications. Specifically, we study whether the existing marketing communications performance metrics are still valid in the changing digitalised communications landscape, or whether it is time to rethink them, or even to devise entirely new metrics. Recent advances in information technology and marketing bring a need to re-examine measurement models. We combine two im...
Golsteijn, C.; Hoven, van den E.A.W.H.
Because most teenagers strive for freedom and try to live autonomously, communication with their parents could be improved. It appeared from a literature review and a diary study that parent-teenager communication primarily addresses teenager-oriented everyday activities. However, it also showed
Ripamonti, Carla Ida; Piccinelli, Claudia; Pessi, Maria Adelaide; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo
The aim of this paper is to show how new technologies may help the communication process in clinical practice in a department providing supportive care to patients undergoing cancer treatment. Communication via Internet chat between the psychologist and a young man who sees chatting on the Internet as a natural and familiar mode of expression was shown to be useful. The Internet link enabled us to open a communication channel with the patient and to have a conversation that would otherwise have been impossible. Although verbal communication is the most important way to communicate among people, Internet communications are certainly an opportunity worth exploring, because they may open up new channels for cancer patients whose ability to speak is restricted. We might imagine using this approach in pediatric oncology, with adolescents and preadolescents, and with young adults like the patient discussed here. The case discussed highlights the enormous difference between the mere transfer of information and genuine communication, the latter involving an encounter with the patient.
VanBuskirk, Shireen Adele
The purpose of this research project is to describe how existing communication technologies are used to foster scientific literacy for secondary students. This study develops a new framework as an analytic tool to categorize the activities of teachers and students involved in scientific literacy to describe what elements of scientific literacy are facilitated by such technologies. Four case studies are analyzed using the framework to describe the scientific literacy initiatives. Data collection at each site included interviews with the teacher, student focus groups, student surveys, and classroom observations. Qualitative analysis of the data provided insight into the learning activities and student experiences in the four cases. This study intentionally provides a platform for student voice. Very few previous empirical studies in the area of scientific literacy include the student experience. This represents a significant gap in the current literature on scientific literacy. An interpretation of scientific literacy that promotes student engagement, interaction, and initiative corresponds to a need to listen to students' perspectives on these experiences. Findings of the study indicated that the classroom activities depended on the teacher's philosophy regarding scientific literacy. Communication technology was ubiquitous; where the teacher did not initiate the use of social media in the classroom, the students did. The goal of supporting scientific literacy in students is an objective that extends beyond the boundaries of classroom walls, and it can be facilitated by technologies that seem both abundant and underutilized. Technology-enhanced pedagogy altered the classroom practices and resulted in more student participation and engagement.
Full Text Available The emergence and spread of Internet communication has led to changes in social relationships, abuse of the Internet and maladaptive behavior. Among the authors who have studied the impact of these changes there is no consensus, and the results of their research are often contradictory. Some authors conclude that Internet communication strengthens networks of its users, while others believe that such communication leads to reduced participation in real social life. In a number of people, excessive use of the Internet adversely affects the mental health and social life and can lead to obsession at the expense of other aspects of life and creating addiction. The greatest risk of negative impacts of online communication is among children and young people. This paper is meant to indicate, the good sides as well as the negative consequences of excessive and non-functional Internet use
Thastum, Mikael; Jensen-Johansen, Mikael Birkelund; Gubba, Lotte
and concerns for the child. Twenty-one children from 15 families and their parents were interviewed. In 13 families the mother was ill, in two the father. Children were aware of the facts of the illness, but there was limited emotional communication between the generations. The children were very observant...... examples of parentification were found. Communication patterns and parental coping seemed to be highly related to the child's coping repertoire. Even though most children seemed to manage rather well, all children were strongly affected by the illness. The `healthiest' adaptation related to factors within...
Grunig, James E.
Communication researchers have studied the role of the change agent -- the professional helper who stimulates change at the individual, group, organizational, or community level. Few recognize, however, that the change agent is a member of a formal organization whose norms and values often diverge from those of the clientele system. This paper…
Communication of climate change (CC) risks is challenging, in particular if global-scale spatially resolved quantitative information is to be conveyed. Typically, visualization of CC risks, which arise from the combination of hazard, exposure and vulnerability, is confined to showing only the hazards in the form of global thematic maps. This paper explores the potential of contiguous value-by-area cartograms, that is, distorted density-equalizing maps, for improving communication of CC risks and the countries' differentiated responsibilities for CC. Two global-scale cartogram sets visualize, as an example, groundwater-related CC risks in 0.5° grid cells, another one the correlation of (cumulative) fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions with the countries' population and gross domestic product. Viewers of the latter set visually recognize the lack of global equity and that the countries' wealth has been built on harmful emissions. I recommend that CC risks are communicated by bivariate gridded cartograms showing the hazard in color and population, or a combination of population and a vulnerability indicator, by distortion of grid cells. Gridded cartograms are also appropriate for visualizing the availability of natural resources to humans. For communicating complex information, sets of cartograms should be carefully designed instead of presenting single cartograms. Inclusion of a conventionally distorted map enhances the viewers' capability to take up the information represented by distortion. Empirical studies about the capability of global cartograms to convey complex information and to trigger moral emotions should be conducted, with a special focus on risk communication.
Drawing from the author's experience teaching online technical communication courses with an embedded service-learning component, this essay opens the discussion to the potential problems involved in designing online service-learning courses and provides practical approaches to integrating service learning into online coursework. The essay…
It was also revealed that mobile phones are used for communicating with friends, family and veterinarians in carrying out financial transactions, finding out livestock prices in the market and information on new grazing areas. The constraints encountered in the use of mobile phones include network outage, high cost of ...
Poell, T.; van Dijck, J.; Atton, C.
While the rise of social media has made activists much less dependent on television and mainstream newspapers, this certainly does not mean that activists have more control over the media environments in which they operate. Media power has neither been transferred to the public, nor to activists for
Belinda Devi Larasati Siswanto
Full Text Available As the windows of information, communication facilitator role in Government Public Relation (GPR serve as all-in-and-out of information from or to publics. For that, this research be held to find about the communication facilitator role on GPR of South Kalimantan Provincial Government. This research intends to knowing communication facilitator role to provide information to people and otherwise. This research uses qualitative approach with descriptive case study method, the data collection through observation and depth interview with informants purposively selection. The research result showing the communication facilitator role in GPR Bureau is not optimal, caused by unavailable information who can be accessed by the public or the otherwise. Government Information which should can be accessed at government official website or at the social media not be optimized by the GPR Bureau well as the Main Information Management and Documentation Officer (IMDO whose role is held by the GPR Bureau of the information that should be accessible through the website, is not available. This contrasts with some Local Work Unit function only a Subsidiary IMDO, but they were ready to provide information to the public through a website managed
Bishop, Somer L.; Havdahl, Karoline Alexandra; Huerta, Marisela; Lord, Catherine
BACKGROUND: More refined dimensions of social-communication impairment are needed to elucidate the clinical and biological boundaries of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other childhood onset psychiatric disorders associated with social difficulties, as well as to facilitate investigations in treatment and long-term outcomes of these disorders.METHODS: This study was intended to identify separable dimensions of clinician-observed social-communication impairments by examining scores on a wi...
Taggart, Tamara; Grewe, Mary Elisabeth; Conserve, Donaldson F; Gliwa, Catherine; Roman Isler, Malika
Social media, including mobile technologies and social networking sites, are being used increasingly as part of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and treatment efforts. As an important avenue for communication about HIV, social media use may continue to increase and become more widespread. The objective of this paper is to present a comprehensive systematic review of the current published literature on the design, users, benefits, and limitations of using social media to communicate about HIV prevention and treatment. This review paper used a systematic approach to survey all literature published before February 2014 using 7 electronic databases and a manual search. The inclusion criteria were (1) primary focus on communication/interaction about HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), (2) discusses the use of social media to facilitate communication, (3) communication on the social media platform is between individuals or a group of individuals rather than the use of preset, automated responses from a platform, (4) published before February 19, 2014, and (5) all study designs. The search identified 35 original research studies. Thirty studies had low or unclear risk of at least one of the bias items in the methodological quality assessment. Among the 8 social media platform types described, short message service text messaging was most commonly used. Platforms served multiple purposes including disseminating health information, conducting health promotion, sharing experiences, providing social support, and promoting medication adherence. Social media users were diverse in geographic location and race/ethnicity; studies commonly reported users aged 18-40 years and users with lower income. Although most studies did not specify whether use was anonymous, studies reported the importance of anonymity in social media use to communicate about HIV largely due to the stigma associated with HIV. The ability to share and receive information about HIV was
Grewe, Mary Elisabeth; Conserve, Donaldson F; Gliwa, Catherine; Roman Isler, Malika
Background Social media, including mobile technologies and social networking sites, are being used increasingly as part of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and treatment efforts. As an important avenue for communication about HIV, social media use may continue to increase and become more widespread. Objective The objective of this paper is to present a comprehensive systematic review of the current published literature on the design, users, benefits, and limitations of using social media to communicate about HIV prevention and treatment. Methods This review paper used a systematic approach to survey all literature published before February 2014 using 7 electronic databases and a manual search. The inclusion criteria were (1) primary focus on communication/interaction about HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), (2) discusses the use of social media to facilitate communication, (3) communication on the social media platform is between individuals or a group of individuals rather than the use of preset, automated responses from a platform, (4) published before February 19, 2014, and (5) all study designs. Results The search identified 35 original research studies. Thirty studies had low or unclear risk of at least one of the bias items in the methodological quality assessment. Among the 8 social media platform types described, short message service text messaging was most commonly used. Platforms served multiple purposes including disseminating health information, conducting health promotion, sharing experiences, providing social support, and promoting medication adherence. Social media users were diverse in geographic location and race/ethnicity; studies commonly reported users aged 18-40 years and users with lower income. Although most studies did not specify whether use was anonymous, studies reported the importance of anonymity in social media use to communicate about HIV largely due to the stigma associated with HIV. The ability to share and
Full Text Available Sogo F Matlala Department of Public Health, University of Limpopo, Sovenga, South Africa Abstract: Pregnancy among secondary school students remains a public health problem and is associated with school dropout as well as poor maternal and child health outcomes. Schools in South Africa no longer expel pregnant students as was the case before 2000. Instead, the government encourages them to remain in class to complete their education, but pregnant students often face stigma, and some drop out of school as a result. To remain in class and access antenatal care, pregnant students require social support from teachers, parents and professional nurses. Unfortunately, teachers, parents and professional nurses support pregnant students on an ad hoc basis, and this calls for a model to facilitate collaborative social support. The purpose of this paper is to present and describe a model to facilitate collaborative social support for pregnant students attending secondary schools in South Africa, using the model description steps of Chinn and Kramer. The model is designed as a tool to enable pregnant students to remain in school, attend antenatal care and in the end, deliver healthy babies. The professional nurse, as a member and leader of the school health team which visits secondary schools to provide a package of school health services, is the agent or facilitator of the model. Keywords: communication, health team, learner pregnancy, maternal and child health, school health services, social network
Amélie J. Reynaud
Full Text Available Social psychology has long established that the mere presence of a conspecific, be it an active co-performer (coaction effect, or a passive spectator (audience effect changes behavior in humans. Yet, the process mediating this fundamental social influence has so far eluded us. Brain research and its nonhuman primate animal model, the rhesus macaque, could shed new light on this long debated issue. For this approach to be fruitful, however, we need to improve our patchy knowledge about social presence influence in rhesus macaques. Here, seven adults (two dyads and one triad performed a simple cognitive task consisting in touching images to obtain food treats, alone versus in presence of a co-performer or a spectator. As in humans, audience sufficed to enhance performance to the same magnitude as coaction. Effect sizes were however 4 times larger than those typically reported in humans in similar tasks. Both findings are an encouragement to pursue brain and behavior research in the rhesus macaque to help solve the riddle of social facilitation mechanisms.
Slort, W; Schweitzer, B P M; Blankenstein, A H; Abarshi, E A; Riphagen, I I; Echteld, M A; Aaronson, N K; van der Horst, He; Deliens, L
While effective general practitioner (GP)-patient communication is required for the provision of good palliative care, barriers and facilitators for this communication are largely unknown. We aimed to identify barriers and facilitators for GP-patient communication in palliative care. In a systematic review seven computerized databases were searched to find empirical studies on GP-patient communication in palliative care. Fifteen qualitative studies and seven quantitative questionnaire studies were included. The main perceived barriers were GPs' lack of availability, and patients' and GPs' ambivalence to discuss 'bad prognosis'. Main perceived facilitators were GPs being available, initiating discussion about several end-of-life issues and anticipating various scenarios. Lack of availability and failure to discuss former mistakes appear to be blind spots of GPs. GPs should be more forthcoming to initiate discussions with palliative care patients about prognosis and end-of-life issues. Empirical studies are needed to investigate the effectiveness of the perceived barriers and facilitators.
Some of the strongest challenges to established communication structures emerge from the development arena. 1 element of the challenges comes from those working to place communication between deprived communities and those providing them expertise at the center of development planning. Communication specialists maintain that human communication is the pivot on which balances the success or failure of the whole process of development as well as individual programs. Yet, the vast majority of development programs are conceived and executed without a serious communication component. Communication personnel are irritated by the approach of planning first, and communicating only after a failure. As more and more after the fact appeals are heard, it is becoming clearer to planners that communication is more than another hardware component consisting of posters, radio messages, and so on, but a central and decisive factor of any program. The attempt to raise communications to a more appropriate place in the development context has been aided greatly by recent evidence of its impact. Among those who must be classified as successful in fully investigating their target group and understanding how to communicate with them are the commercial manufacturers. Their advertising campaigns have revolutionized consumption habits and lifestyles across the world. An increasing number of voices, recognizing the impact of commercial advertising, are advocating that their techniques be adopted in the promotion of social development. Richard Manoff is one experienced advertising man who has used his commercial skills to promote developmental messages. He maintains that there is no idea that cannot be promoted as are commercial products. Changes in communication strategies will not by themselves eliminate the most fundamental problem facing humanity, i.e., the eradication of poverty, but they can contribute to that goal. A comprehensive communication strategy can help awaken people to
Ana Mª Enrique Jiménez
It is often in the social networks where you detect the first signs of a potential crisis situation. Today, many companies decide to be present in social networks to communicate, listen and respond to their audiences openly with immediacy. A simple complaint is visible and propagates through the network in seconds, being capable of generating a negative impact on the corporate image of the organization. The same can happen to the contrary, ie, to praise the performance of a company, which may...
Zeng, Fue; Tao, Ran; Yang, Yanwu; Xie, Tingting
This research aims to explore how social communications of online communities affect users' perception and responses toward social media advertising. We developed a conceptual model based on the SBT, encapsulating 9 constructs and 10 hypothesis extracted from the extant social media advertising literature. Our research outcome proves that social communications can effectively boost users' behaviors to be in accordance with an online social community, thus facilitate their acceptance and responses toward social media advertising, with users' group intention as an intervening factor. From an operational standpoint, it's an effective way to build and maintain social bonds between users and the community by boosting social communications, supporting fluent interpersonal communications. In addition, managers of an online community should elaborate on users' group intentions to increase users' advertising acceptance and response.
Full Text Available This research aims to explore how social communications of online communities affect users’ perception and responses toward social media advertising. We developed a conceptual model based on the SBT, encapsulating 9 constructs and 10 hypothesis extracted from the extant social media advertising literature. Our research outcome proves that social communications can effectively boost users’ behaviors to be in accordance with an online social community, thus facilitate their acceptance and responses toward social media advertising, with users’ group intention as an intervening factor. From an operational standpoint, it’s an effective way to build and maintain social bonds between users and the community by boosting social communications, supporting fluent interpersonal communications. In addition, managers of an online community should elaborate on users’ group intentions to increase users’ advertising acceptance and response.
Zeng, Fue; Tao, Ran; Yang, Yanwu; Xie, Tingting
This research aims to explore how social communications of online communities affect users’ perception and responses toward social media advertising. We developed a conceptual model based on the SBT, encapsulating 9 constructs and 10 hypothesis extracted from the extant social media advertising literature. Our research outcome proves that social communications can effectively boost users’ behaviors to be in accordance with an online social community, thus facilitate their acceptance and responses toward social media advertising, with users’ group intention as an intervening factor. From an operational standpoint, it’s an effective way to build and maintain social bonds between users and the community by boosting social communications, supporting fluent interpersonal communications. In addition, managers of an online community should elaborate on users’ group intentions to increase users’ advertising acceptance and response. PMID:28855879
Gross, Elisheva F.
A majority of U.S. adolescents at least occasionally communicate on the Internet with unknown peers. This study tested the hypothesis that online communication with an unknown peer facilitates recovery from the acute aversive effects of social exclusion and examined whether this benefit may be greater for adolescents compared with young adults. A…
Heinze, J; d'Ettorre, P
Communication in social insects usually serves the good of the whole society and thus increases the inclusive fitness of all individuals. Hence, cheating and dishonesty are not expected when nestmates are to be alarmed or recruited to food sources. However, kin selection predicts a conflict...
AJRH Managing Editor
Tanzania; 2Centre for International Development Initiatives Nijmegen (CIDIN) and ... demographic variables, social networks, knowledge and communication among the couples, whereby a stratified sample of 440 ..... FP method varies with urban- rural and regional ...... Pile JM and Simbakalia C. Tanzania Case Study: A.
Family planning utilization in Tanzania is low. This study was cross sectional. It examined family planning use and socio demographic variables, social networks, knowledge and communication among the couples, whereby a stratified sample of 440 women of reproductive age (18-49), married or cohabiting was studied in ...
Objective: To investigate distinctive communications through social networks which may be associated with population behaviour changes and HIV prevalence declines in Uganda compared to other countries. Methods: We undertook a comparative analysis of demographic and HIV behavioural data collected in ...
Čufer, Matija; Knežević, Anja
Face-to-face communication is of key importance for successful socialization of a person into a society. Social media makes a good complement to such form of communication. Parents and pedagogical workers must be aware of children not replacing face-to-face communication for communication through the social media in the process of education and growing up. Young people nevertheless frequently communicate through the social media. For this reason, we tried to extract positive features of those...
Full Text Available This paper present the role and interaction between communication and Corporate Social Responsibility, strengtheningin the same time that communication it is a key factor to begin and keep a proper Sustainable Development strategy. The importance of communication is essential, taking in consideration the awareness in the interior and in the exterior of organization strategy, ethical, ecological and socio-economical objectives, since information regarding the impact of the company’s activities, products and services as well as regarding the impacts of changes that can supervene in time, can only be provided in this way. Since there are many ways to communicate regarding the actions of CSR, it is important to know what kind of messages and ideas can resonate with a certain audience, considering the stage in which the ISO 26000 standard’s development stands.
Full Text Available Humanities and the sciences have long been considered polar opposites that exist in separate realms of academia and require different cognitive skills. However, neuroscience has brought about renewed interest in what we can learn about the human brain by investigating links between disciplines. For example, studies related to English literature have revealed that the benefits of reading narratives (fiction and nonfiction stories extend far beyond language development and include increased competence in social and emotional functioning. By combining the results of an original dissertation study and a review of past and current research in education, psychology, linguistics, and neuroscience, this essay explores how reading narratives serves as practice for managing emotions and social interactions in everyday life. In fact, several studies suggest that reading narratives strengthens nearly every part of the brain because the brain is designed—or “wired”—to think and learn in terms of narratives, regardless of subject matter. This essay provides several types of support for the claim that reading narratives facilitates social and emotional development. Research discussed includes studies showing that reading narratives is not a solitary activity but “a surprisingly social process” (Krakovsky, 2006, p. 1 and is linked to increased ability to view people and events from multiple perspectives, increased empathy for others, and increased ability to interpret social cues (Atkins, 2000; Courtright, Mackey, & Packard, 2005; Davis, 1980; Greif & Hogan, 1973; Harrison, 2008; Mar, 2004; Mar, Oatley, Hirsh, dela Paz, & Peterson, 2006; Stanovich & West, 1989. Understanding how the brain processes narratives and relates them to real life functioning has important implications for many disciplines, such as psychology, in its attempt to understand and treat post-traumatic stress disorder. This essay, however, focuses on the implications for education
Social and interpersonal support has mostly been carried out face-to-face. However, the internet was able, in the last couple of decades, to facilitate social interactions through a range of computer-mediated communication (CMC) interfaces--from email applications, chat-rooms, forums, instant messages (IM), short text messages (SMS), social…
Social media (SM) is a popular and ubiquitous communication method and as such offers scientists an opportunity to directly interface with the public, improve public perception of science and scientists, and combat the growing tide of scientific misunderstanding and misinformation. It's become increasingly critical for scientists to use their voice and influence to communicate science and address misinformation. More than 60% of US adults get news from SM (1) but studies find that scientists infrequently post about science (2), missing a rich opportunity to combat scientific disinformation. While it may seem like a futile exercise to educate over SM, even passive exposure to new information can change public perceptions and behavior (3). Additionally, scientists, especially early career scientists, have social networks populated largely by non-scientists (2), allowing them an opportunity to speak to an audience that already trusts and values their scientific judgment. Importantly, these networks are often ideologically and politically diverse (4). However, science communication isn't as simple as a presentation of facts, and effective science communication via SM requires both SM competence and science communication proficiency. Thus, a discussion of best practices for both topics would benefit the scientific community. The range of potential topics for discussion is broad and could include scientific storytelling, empathetic communication, crafting a message, using SM to "humanize science", tips and tricks for broad SM information dissemination and how to run an effective SM campaign. (1) Gottfried J, Shearer E. New use across social media platforms: Pew Research Center; 2016. Available from: http://www.journalism.org/2016/05/26/news-use-across-social-media-platforms-2016/. (2) McClain, Craig R., Practices and promises of Facebook for science outreach:Becoming a "Nerd of Trust". PLOS Biology 15(6). 2017; https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2002020(3) Messing S
Carmen Daniela Maier
Full Text Available This article addresses how the multimodal persuasive strategies of corporate social responsibility communication can highlight a company’s commitment to gender empowerment and environmental protection while advertising simultaneously its products. Drawing on an interdisciplinary methodological framework related to CSR communication, multimodal discourse analysis and gender theory, the article proposes a multimodal analysis model through which it is possible to map and explain the multimodal persuasive strategies employed by Coca-Cola company in their community-related films. By examining the semiotic modes’ interconnectivity and functional differentiation, this analytical endeavour expands the existing research work as the usual textual focus is extended to a multimodal one.
Social identity framing (SIF) delineates a process of intergroup communication that leaders may engage in to promote a vision of social change. As a step towards social change, social identity may need to be altered to accommodate a new view of the group, its collective goals, and its place alongside other groups. Thus, social identity content may be deconstructed and reconstructed by the leader en route to change. SIF suggests that this may be achieved through a series of 16 communication tactics, which are largely derived from previous research (Seyranian & Bligh, 2008). This research used an experimental design to test the effectiveness of three SIF communication tactics - inclusion, similarity to followers, and positive social identity - on a number of follower outcomes. Students ( N=246) were randomly assigned to read one of eight possible speeches promoting renewable energy on campus that was ostensibly from a student leader. The speeches were varied to include or exclude the three communication tactics. Following the speech, participants completed a dependent measures questionnaire. Results indicated that similarity to followers and positive social identity did not affect follower outcomes. However, students exposed to inclusion were more likely to indicate that renewable energy was ingroup normative; intend to engage in collective action to bring renewable energy to campus; experience positive emotional reactions towards change; feel more confident about the possibility of change; and to view the leader more positively. The combination of inclusion and positive social identity increased perceptions of charismatic leadership. Perceived leader prototypicality and cognitive elaboration of the leader's message resulted in more favorable attitudes towards renewable energy. Perceived leader prototypicality was also directly related to social identification, environmental values, ingroup injunctive norms, and self-stereotypes. Overall, these results support SIF
Botash, A S; Babuts, D; Mitchell, N; O'Hara, M; Lynch, L; Manuel, J
To review the findings of interdisciplinary team evaluations of children who disclosed sexual abuse via facilitated communication. Case series. Tertiary care hospital outpatient child sexual abuse program in central New York. Between January 1990 and March 1993, 13 children who disclosed sexual abuse via facilitated communication and were referred to a university hospital child abuse referral and evaluation center. The range of previously determined developmental diagnosis included mental retardation, speech delay, and autism. None. Medical records were reviewed for (1) disclosure, (2) physical evidence, (3) child's behavioral and medical history, (4) disclosures by siblings, (5) perpetrator's confession, (6) child protective services determinations, and (7) court findings. Four children had evidence of sexual abuse: two had physical findings consistent with sexual abuse, one also disclosed the allegation verbally, and one perpetrator confessed. These results neither support nor refute validation of facilitated communication. However, many children had other evidence of sexual abuse, suggesting that each child's case should be evaluated without bias.
Jana, Michael; Letsela, Lebohang; Scheepers, Esca; Weiner, Renay
In the wake of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, health communication has played an important role in social and behavior change in HIV prevention and treatment efforts. Despite this significant role, it is not always clear how health communication influences individuals and communities to facilitate social and behavior change. Guided predominantly by Lewin's theory of change in the context of complexity thinking, and supported by qualitative evidence from Soul City Institute's midterm evaluation of the OneLove multimedia campaign in 9 southern African countries, this article illustrates how carefully designed health edutainment communication materials facilitate drivers of social and behavior change. Thus, researched and theory-based health communication aimed at behavior and social change remains an important pillar in HIV prevention and treatment, where personal and social agency remain key.
Assing Hvidt, Elisabeth; Hansen, Dorte Gilså; Ammentorp, Jette
BACKGROUND: General practice recognizes the existential dimension as an integral part of multidimensional patient care alongside the physical, psychological and social dimensions. However, general practitioners (GPs) report substantial barriers related to communication with patients about existen...
Perron, Brian E.; Taylor, Harry O.; Glass, Joseph E.; Margerum-Leys, Jon
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are electronic tools used to convey, manipulate and store information. The exponential growth of Internet access and ICTs greatly influenced social, political, and economic processes in the United States, and worldwide. Regardless of the level of practice, ICTs will continue influencing the careers of social workers and the clients they serve. ICTs have received some attention in the social work literature and curriculum, but we argue that this level of attention is not adequate given their ubiquity, growth and influence, specifically as it relates to upholding social work ethics. Significant attention is needed to help ensure social workers are responsive to the technological changes in the health care system, including the health care infrastructure and use of technology among clients. Social workers also need ICT competencies in order to effectively lead different types of social change initiatives or collaborate with professionals of other disciplines who are using ICTs as part of existing strategies. This paper also identifies potential pitfalls and challenges with respect to the adoption of ICTs, with recommendations for advancing their use in practice, education, and research. PMID:21691444
Brian E. Perron
Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICTs are electronic tools used to convey, manipulate and store information. The exponential growth of Internet access and ICTs greatly influenced social, political, and economic processes in the United States, and worldwide. Regardless of the level of practice, ICTs will continue influencing the careers of social workers and the clients they serve. ICTs have received some attention in the social work literature and curriculum, but we argue that this level of attention is not adequate given their ubiquity, growth and influence, specifically as it relates to upholding social work ethics. Significant attention is needed to help ensure social workers are responsive to the technological changes in the health care system, including the health care infrastructure and use of technology among clients. Social workers also need ICT competencies in order to effectively lead different types of social change initiatives or collaborate with professionals of other disciplines who are using ICTs as part of existing strategies. This paper also identifies potential pitfalls and challenges with respect to the adoption of ICTs, with recommendations for advancing their use in practice, education, and research.
Khandelwal, Nita; Benkeser, David; Coe, Norma B; Engelberg, Ruth A; Curtis, J Randall
In the intensive care unit (ICU), complex decision making by clinicians and families requires good communication to ensure that care is consistent with the patients' values and goals. To assess the economic feasibility of staffing ICUs with a communication facilitator. Data were from a randomized trial of an "ICU communication facilitator" linked to hospital financial records; eligible patients (n = 135) were admitted to the ICU at a single hospital with predicted mortality ≥30% and a surrogate decision maker. Adjusted regression analyses assessed differences in ICU total and direct variable costs between intervention and control patients. A bootstrap-based simulation assessed the cost efficiency of a facilitator while varying the full-time equivalent of the facilitator and the ICU mortality risk. Total ICU costs (mean 22.8k; 95% CI, -42.0k to -3.6k; P = 0.02) and average daily ICU costs (mean, -0.38k; 95% CI, -0.65k to -0.11k; P = 0.006)] were reduced significantly with the intervention. Despite more contacts, families of survivors spent less time per encounter with facilitators than did families of decedents (mean, 25 [SD, 11] min vs. 36 [SD, 14] min). Simulation demonstrated maximal weekly savings with a 1.0 full-time equivalent facilitator and a predicted ICU mortality of 15% (total weekly ICU cost savings, $58.4k [95% CI, $57.7k-59.2k]; weekly direct variable savings, $5.7k [95% CI, $5.5k-5.8k]) after incorporating facilitator costs. Adding a full-time trained communication facilitator in the ICU may improve the quality of care while simultaneously reducing short-term (direct variable) and long-term (total) health care costs. This intervention is likely to be more cost effective in a lower-mortality population.
Chess, Caron; Clarke, Lee
The anthrax attacks of 2001 created risk communication problems that cannot be fully understood without appreciating the dynamics among organizations. Case studies of communication in New Jersey, consisting of interviews with a range of participants, found that existing organizational and professional networks facilitated trust among decisionmakers. This interpersonal trust improved communication among agencies and thereby risk communication with the public. For example, "white powder scares" were a problem even in places without contamination. Professionals' trust in each other was vital for responding productively. Conversely, organizational challenges, including conflict among agencies, hindered communication with key audiences. Although centralization and increased control are often seen as the remedy for communicative confusion, they also can quash the improvisational responses needed during crises.
Full Text Available Interacting with toys and other people is fundamental for developing social communication skills. However, children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD are characterized by having a significant impairment in social interaction, which often leads to deficits in play skills. For this reason, methods of teaching play skills to young children with ASD have been well documented. Although previous studies have examined a variety of instructional strategies for teaching skills, few studies have evaluated the potential of using robotic devices. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether automatic feedback provided by colored lights and vibration via paired robotic devices, COLOLO, facilitates social play behaviors in children with ASD. We also explore how social play relates to social interaction. COLOLO is a system of paired spherical devices covered with soft fabric. All participants in this study were recruited as volunteers through the Department of Psychology at Keio University. The pilot study included three participants diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs; 5- to 6-year-old boys, and compared experimental conditions with and without automatic feedback from the devices (colored lights and vibration. The results indicated that the participants in the condition that included feedback from the devices exhibited increased rates of ball contact and looking at the therapist’s ball, but did not exhibit increased rates of eye contact or positive affect. In the experimental study, a systematic replication of the pilot study was performed with three other participants diagnosed with PDDs (3- to 6-year-old boys, using an A-B-A-B design. Again, the results demonstrated that, in the condition with colored lights and vibration, the children increased ball contact as well as looking at the therapist’s ball. However, the results did not show the effect of automatic feedback consistently for three children. These findings are
Wells, Jenny C.; Sheehey, Patricia H.
Person-centered planning is a process that allows individuals, family members, and friends an opportunity to share information to develop a personal profile and a future vision for an individual. This article describes strategies and technology that teachers can use to promote parents' participation and facilitate communication while maintaining…
Saramäki, Jari; Leicht, E A; López, Eduardo; Roberts, Sam G B; Reed-Tsochas, Felix; Dunbar, Robin I M
The social network maintained by a focal individual, or ego, is intrinsically dynamic and typically exhibits some turnover in membership over time as personal circumstances change. However, the consequences of such changes on the distribution of an ego's network ties are not well understood. Here we use a unique 18-mo dataset that combines mobile phone calls and survey data to track changes in the ego networks and communication patterns of students making the transition from school to university or work. Our analysis reveals that individuals display a distinctive and robust social signature, captured by how interactions are distributed across different alters. Notably, for a given ego, these social signatures tend to persist over time, despite considerable turnover in the identity of alters in the ego network. Thus, as new network members are added, some old network members either are replaced or receive fewer calls, preserving the overall distribution of calls across network members. This is likely to reflect the consequences of finite resources such as the time available for communication, the cognitive and emotional effort required to sustain close relationships, and the ability to make emotional investments.
Madsen, Vibeke Thøis
More and more organizations develop the social media features on their intranet and encourage coworkers to communicate, connect with each other and share knowledge across departmental and geographical distance. The question is however how this internal social media (ISM) influences organizational......-censorship on Internal Social Media: A Case Study of Coworker Communication Behavior in a Danish Bank” explores coworkers’ communication strategies and behavior on ISM. Based on interviews with 24 coworkers in Jyske Bank the article explores if and how self-censorship influence their communication on internal social...... communication and the organization, and the purpose of the dissertation is to explore internal social media and coworkers as communicators on internal social media from a communication perspective to answer the overall research question: Does internal social media create a new kind of participatory...
Bachelor work deals with trends in marketing communication and their focus on solving social problems. Theoretical part generally focuses on the action of the communication and communicating mix in the marketing mix, it describes trend in marketing communication as guerilla marketing and viral marketing. It defines the terms of social marketing, cause related marketing and corporate social responsibility. The practical part describes a nonprofit organization Oxfam International and it also de...
Ana Mª Enrique Jiménez
Full Text Available It is often in the social networks where you detect the first signs of a potential crisis situation. Today, many companies decide to be present in social networks to communicate, listen and respond to their audiences openly with immediacy. A simple complaint is visible and propagates through the network in seconds, being capable of generating a negative impact on the corporate image of the organization. The same can happen to the contrary, ie, to praise the performance of a company, which may affect the creation or strengthening of the good reputation of the company. However, we know that this does not happen with the same intensity. In this paper we analyze the decisions and actions of two opposing companies, Nestlé and Panrico, in front of a possible crisis situation.
Merola, I; Lazzaroni, M; Marshall-Pescini, S; Prato-Previde, E
Cats' (Felis catus) communicative behaviour towards humans was explored using a social referencing paradigm in the presence of a potentially frightening object. One group of cats observed their owner delivering a positive emotional message, whereas another group received a negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate whether cats use the emotional information provided by their owners about a novel/unfamiliar object to guide their own behaviour towards it. We assessed the presence of social referencing, in terms of referential looking towards the owner (defined as looking to the owner immediately before or after looking at the object), the behavioural regulation based on the owner's emotional (positive vs negative) message (vocal and facial), and the observational conditioning following the owner's actions towards the object. Most cats (79 %) exhibited referential looking between the owner and the object, and also to some extent changed their behaviour in line with the emotional message given by the owner. Results are discussed in relation to social referencing in other species (dogs in particular) and cats' social organization and domestication history.
Some communication barriers apply particularly to elderly people. The social barriers to effective communication in old age are the barriers caused by stereotypes of old age/elderly people and the barriers arising from limitations in using mass communication by seniors. Stereotypes of old age/elderly people embrace views regarding old people’s communication skills and the ideas about the correct way of communication with them. Therefore the communication problems of old people are correlated ...
Stanton, Annette L; Thompson, Elizabeth H; Crespi, Catherine M; Link, John S; Waisman, James R
Evidence suggests that expressing emotions related to cancer and receiving interpersonal support can promote psychological and physical health in women diagnosed with breast cancer. However, adaptive expression of feelings and communication with one's social network can pose challenges for patients with cancer. We report on a randomized controlled trial of an intervention, Project Connect Online, for patients with breast cancer to create personal Web sites to chronicle their experience and communicate with their social network. Women (N = 88) diagnosed with breast cancer (any stage, any interval since diagnosis) were randomly assigned to participate in a 3-hour workshop for hands-on creation of personal Web sites with a follow-up call to facilitate Web site use, or to a waiting-list control. Assessed before randomization and 6 months after the intervention, dependent variables included depressive symptoms, positive and negative mood, cancer-related intrusive thoughts, and perceived cancer-related benefits in life appreciation and strengthened relationships. Relative to control participants, women randomly assigned to Project Connect Online evidenced significant benefit 6 months later on depressive symptoms, positive mood, and life appreciation, but not negative mood, perceived strengthened relationships, or intrusive thoughts. Treatment status moderated the intervention effects, such that women currently undergoing medical treatment for cancer benefitted significantly more from the intervention on depressive symptoms and positive mood than did women not receiving treatment. Findings suggest the promise of an intervention to facilitate the ability of women diagnosed with breast cancer to chronicle their experience and communicate with their social network via the Internet.
Randolph, Schenita D; Coakley, Tanya; Shears, Jeffrey; Thorpe, Roland J
African-American males ages 13 through 24 are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), accounting for over half of all HIV infections in this age group in the United States. Clear communication between African-American parents and their youth about sexual health is associated with higher rates of sexual abstinence, condom use, and intent to delay initiation of sexual intercourse. However, little is known about African-American fathers' perceptions of what facilitates and inhibits sexual health communication with their preadolescent and adolescent sons. We conducted focus groups with 29 African-American fathers of sons ages 10-15 to explore perceived facilitators and barriers for father-son communication about sexual health. Participants were recruited from barbershops in metropolitan and rural North Carolina communities highly affected by STIs and HIV, and data were analyzed using content analysis. Three factors facilitated father-son communication: (a) fathers' acceptance of their roles and responsibilities; (b) a positive father-son relationship; and (c) fathers' ability to speak directly to their sons about sex. We also identified three barriers: (a) fathers' difficulty in initiating sexual health discussions with their sons; (b) sons' developmental readiness for sexual health information; and (c) fathers' lack of experience in talking with their own fathers about sex. These findings have implications for father-focused prevention interventions aimed at reducing risky sexual behaviors in adolescent African-American males. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hall, Karinna; Lind, Christopher; Young, Jessica A; Okell, Elise; van Steenbrugge, Willem
Language and memory impairments affect everyday interactions between individuals with dementia and their communication partners. Impaired topic management, which compromises individuals' construction of relevant, meaningful discourse, is commonly reported amongst individuals with dementia. Currently, limited empirical evidence describes the sequential patterns of behaviour comprising topic-management practices in everyday conversation between individuals with dementia and their communication partners. To describe the sequential patterns of behaviour relating to the manifestation of topic-management impairments and facilitative behaviours in everyday interactions between individuals with dementia and their familiar communication partners (FCPs). Three 20-min conversations between individuals with moderate to severe dementia and their FCPs were recorded. Conversation Analysis was used to examine sequences in which topic-management appeared to be impaired. Conversational behaviours that reflected a difficulty in contributing on-topic talk were pervasive in the talk of the three individuals with dementia. FCPs responded to these conversational difficulties by using two categories of facilitative behaviours. The first involved responding to an individual with dementia's explicit repair-initiation by performing repair. In the second category, explicit repair-initiation was absent; instead, the distance of the conversational difficulty from the prior topic-shifting turn mediated the form and outcome of the FCPs' facilitative behaviours. Each category successfully facilitated the individual with dementia to contribute on-topic talk. The findings contribute to a growing understanding of topic-management abilities in everyday interactions involving individuals with dementia. Individuals with dementia took a proactive role in eliciting topic-management support. The FCPs responded with turns that facilitated the individuals with dementia to talk on-topic. Clinically, the
Sacco, Donald F; Brown, Christina M; Young, Steven G; Bernstein, Michael J; Hugenberg, Kurt
Although past research has reliably established unique effects of social exclusion on human cognition and behavior, the current research focuses on the unique effects of social inclusion. Recent evidence indicates that social inclusion leads to enhanced prioritization of reproductive interests. The current study extends these findings by showing that the pursuit of these inclusion-induced reproductive goals occurs in sex-specific ways. Across three experiments, social inclusion led men, but not women, to endorse riskier, more aggressive mating strategies compared to control and socially excluded participants. Specifically, included men were more likely to endorse sexual aggression (Experiment 1), high-risk mate poaching behaviors (Experiment 2), and high-risk mate retention tactics (Experiment 3). These results demonstrate that the experience of social inclusion can affect sex-differentiated preferences for risky mating strategies. © 2011 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc
M. Ursu; P. Stollenmayer; D. Williams; P. Torres; P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); N. Farber; E. Geelhoed
htmlabstractThis article introduces the Vconect project. Vconect (Video Communications for Networked Communities) is a collaborative European research and development project dealing with high-quality enriched video as a medium for mass communication within social communities. The technical
Moraes, Jorge C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
Based on a concrete case, the negotiation of compensation and reparation for environmental damage in the state of Rio de Janeiro, this paper deals with the role of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as main strategic instrument to set up a relationship among state, businesses and the civil society in the process of licensing and deploying gas pipelines. In this kind of process, a few cultural aspects, such as a social pattern based in philanthropy and paternalism, make difficult for any agreement to be reached among the stake holders. As a result, the process of licensing becomes slow and fragile. In some cases, negotiation ends up unsuccessful. This mental model coexists with an imperious need for investments in energy, leading to a hard contradiction between a traditional behavior and the surge of modern consumerism habits. Besides, local legislation and bureaucracy allow for few or no options to solve the conflict. In this context, as will be seen, CSR is a preferential way to establish fruitful dialog. By means of Corporate Social Investments (CSI), it is possible to create a common experience of local development among entrepreneurs, the state and the community, by this breaking communication barriers and providing alternatives to solve the original contradiction. (author)
Pimpare, Stephen; Fast, Jonathan
This article describes two case studies: one is from a graduate course in social work practice evaluation taught by the second author; the other is from an undergraduate political science course in media and politics taught by the first author. These cases describe the way blogs, created by students and the professors, facilitate communications…
Manca, Stefania; Ranier, Maria
Research on scholars' use of social media suggests that these sites are increasingly being used to enhance scholarly communication by strengthening relationships, facilitating collaboration among peers, publishing and sharing research products, and discussing research topics in open and public formats. However, very few studies have investigated…
Okoro, Ephraim A.; Hausman, Angela; Washington, Melvin C.
Digital communication increases students' learning outcomes in higher education. Web 2.0 technologies encourages students' active engagement, collaboration, and participation in class activities, facilitates group work, and encourages information sharing among students. Familiarity with organizational use and sharing in social networks aids…
Lerna, Anna; Esposito, Dalila; Conson, Massimiliano; Russo, Luigi; Massagli, Angelo
Background: The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a common treatment choice for non-verbal children with autism. However, little empirical evidence is available on the usefulness of PECS in treating social-communication impairments in autism. Aims: To test the effects of PECS on social-communicative skills in children with autism,…
Tychsen, Anders; Brolund, Thea; Hitchens, Michael
Multi-player role-playing games form one of the key examples of interactive, emergent and collaborative storytelling systems available. These games and the collaborative stories that they create, are commonly facilitated by a specialized participant, the game master. In the current study, the ver......Multi-player role-playing games form one of the key examples of interactive, emergent and collaborative storytelling systems available. These games and the collaborative stories that they create, are commonly facilitated by a specialized participant, the game master. In the current study......, the verbal communication of game masters in a series of role-playing game sessions is categorized and analyzed depending on form and content, using protocol analysis, establishing a model for the verbal communication of game masters....
Analysis of the data was informed by community health psychology and social capital theory. The findings indicate that at an individual level, the women interviewed had experienced an improved sense of empowerment, both as parents and as women. They also reported increased social support for effective parenting.
Scholz, G.; Dewulf, A.; Pahl-Wostl, C.
Social learning among different stakeholders is often a goal in problem solving contexts such as environmental management. Participatory methods (e.g., group model-building and role playing games) are frequently assumed to stimulate social learning. Yet understanding if and why this assumption is
Political communication on social media is the topic of this dissertation. The Internet and social media platforms have provided participants in the public sphere with new ways to connect, communicate and distribute information. This study examines how and why the three main actor groups within political communication – political actors, media actors and citizens – connect and interact on social media during the electoral process in Norway in 2013. This hybrid media landscape is characterized...
The use of electronic communication (social network) by open and distance students, ... ODL students use face book and whatsapps as their preferred social networks. ... networks distract academic studies and it is expensive to use, also more ...
Schweizer, C. Amanda; Doran, Neal; Myers, Mark G.
Objective: Expectancies about social outcomes for smoking are relevant to college student smokers, who frequently report "social smoking." A new measure, the Social Facilitation Expectancies (SFE) scale, was developed to assess these beliefs. Participants: The SFE was administered to undergraduate college student smokers ("N" =…
Thralls, Charlotte; Blyler, Nancy Roundy
Notes that as teachers integrate social theory into the technical communication classroom, they interpret the connection between writing and culture in different ways. Describes four social pedagogies of writing--the social constructionist, the ideologic, the social cognitive, and the paralogic hermeneutic--distinguishing them by their pedagogic…
Zhang, Yan; Ma, Defu; Cui, Renzhe; Haregot Hilawe, Esayas; Chiang, Chifa; Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Hu, Yonghua; Wang, Peiyu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Aoyama, Atsuko
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the major public health concerns in China. However, little has been known yet about the background social factors that influence lifestyles as possible NCD risk factors. This qualitative study aimed to explore facilitators and barriers of adopting healthy lifestyles among residents in a rural community of China. Three age-stratified focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in Fangshan district of Beijing in 2013. A FGD guide was designed to elicit the participants' perception and experience regarding their lifestyles. The audio-records were transcribed, and data were qualitatively analyzed through thematic approach. Through social capital framework with bonding, bridging, and linking classifications, we identified the following facilitators and barriers to adopt healthy lifestyles. (1) Facilitators: mutual support from family/friends and motivation to participate in regular exercises (bonding); cooperative relationships with community health workers (bridging); and nationwide high level of healthy lifestyle awareness (linking). (2) Barriers: negative influence from family/friends, insufficient support from family/friends, peer pressure and tolerance towards unhealthy lifestyles (bonding); insufficient support from health professionals (bridging); and inequity in allocation of public resources (linking). This study revealed that bonding, bridging and linking social capital would work as facilitators and barriers to adopt healthy lifestyles among rural residents in China.
Kingston, Lindsey N.; MacCartney, Danielle; Miller, Andrea
Human rights education is advanced as a method for promoting social responsibility, with an emphasis on promoting ideals of "global citizenship" among undergraduate students. At the same time, the practice of learning communities is widespread on college campuses for retaining freshmen and promoting student success. However, there is…
However, we show in this article that that the impact of the CWP is not always positive and that the CWP may in some cases result in tensions and contradictions that hinder social cohesion and even cause violence. If not implemented in a consultative participatory manner, the CWP may be a source of conflict rather than of ...
Kirschner, Sebastian; Tomasello, Michael
The human capacity to synchronize body movements to an external acoustic beat enables uniquely human behaviors such as music making and dancing. By hypothesis, these first evolved in human cultures as fundamentally social activities. We therefore hypothesized that children would spontaneously synchronize their body movements to an external beat at…
Full Text Available Surprisingly little is known about the social dimensions of laughter in preschool children. We studied children’s responses to amusing video clips in the presence or absence of peers. The sample consisted of 9 boys and 11 girls aged 31–49 months (M 39.8, SD 4.2 who watched three cartoons under three different conditions: individually, in pairs, or in groups of 6 or 8. The social viewing conditions showed significantly higher numbers of laughs and smiles than the individual viewing condition. On average children laughed eight times as much in company as on their own and smiled almost three times as much. No differences were found between pairs and groups, and no association was found between subjective funniness ratings and group size. This suggests that the presence of even a single social partner can change behavior in response to humorous material. It supports the idea that laughter and smiles are primarily flexible social signals rather than reflexive responses to humor.
Wardle, Margaret C; de Wit, Harriet
±3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") produces "prosocial" effects, such as feelings of empathy and closeness, thought to be important to its abuse and its value in psychotherapy. However, it is not fully understood how MDMA alters basic emotional processes to produce these effects, or whether it produces corresponding changes in actual social behavior. Here, we examined how MDMA affects perceptions of and responses to emotional expressions, and tested its effects on behavior during a social interaction. We also examined whether MDMA's prosocial effects related to a measure of abuse liability. Over three sessions, 36 healthy volunteers with previous ecstasy use received MDMA (0.75, 1.5 mg/kg) and placebo under double-blind conditions. We measured (i) mood and cardiovascular effects, (ii) perception of and psychophysiological responses to emotional expressions, (iii) use of positive and negative words in a social interaction, and (iv) perceptions of an interaction partner. We then tested whether these effects predicted desire to take the drug again. MDMA slowed perception of angry expressions, increased psychophysiological responses to happy expressions, and increased positive word use and perceptions of partner empathy and regard in a social interaction. These effects were not strongly related to desire to take the drug again. MDMA alters basic emotional processes by slowing identification of negative emotions and increasing responses to positive emotions in others. Further, it positively affects behavior and perceptions during actual social interaction. These effects may contribute to the efficacy of MDMA in psychotherapy, but appear less closely related to its abuse potential.
Kordahl, Hilde Lund; Fougner, Marit
Professional health science education includes a common theoretical basis concerning the theory of science, ethics and communication. Former evaluations by first-year students of the bachelor physiotherapy program at Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences (HiOA) show that they find it hard to understand the relation between these particular topics and future professional practice. This challenge is the starting point for a pedagogical development project that aims to develop learning contexts that highlight the relevance of these theoretical concepts. The aim of the study is to explore and present findings on the value of using Sykegrep manual skills classes as an arena in which students can be encouraged to think about, reflect on and appreciate the role and value of the philosophical perspectives that inform their practice and contributes to practise knowledge. A qualitative study with data collection through focus groups was performed and analyzed using thematic content analysis. Eighteen first-year undergraduate students, who had completed the manual skills course, participated in the study. Analysis of the data yielded three categories of findings that can be associated with aspects of philosophy of science, ethics and communication. These are as follows: 1) preconceived understanding of physiotherapy; 2) body knowledge perspectives; and 3) relational aspects of interactions. Undergraduate students' understanding and experience of philosophy of science, ethics and communication may be facilitated by peer collaboration, reflection on intimacy and touch and the ethical aspects of interaction during manual skills training. Practical classes in Sykegrep provide a basis for students' discussions about the body as well as their experiences with the body in the collaborative learning context. The students' reflections on their expectations of manual skills in physiotherapy and experiences of touch and being touched can facilitate an awareness of
Staton-Spicer, Ann Q.; Spicer, Christopher H.
Describes a typology of communication dimensions used by academic chairpersons in the early stages of the socialization process. Four new chairpersons were interviewed, and four functions of communication (informative, integrative, regulative, and innovative) guided data gathering in researching the link between communicator and role…
Ewa Jaska; Agnieszka Werenowska
Searching for information on products and services combined with the growing interest in social media make them important channels of marketing communication and more and more companies see their advertising potential. In order to demonstrate the role of social media in shaping the corporate image and branding the paper discusses the reasons for companies’ interest in this form of communication, its application in the internal communication system as well as the benefits and risks of a brand ...
Blázovics, L.; Varga, C.; Bamford, W.
In this work we are underlining the importance of social mobile networks for upcoming cooperative communication systems. The assumption of this work is that future mobile communication systems will incorporate user cooperation, i.e. a combination of cellular access in parallel with ongoing short...... cases. By the example of the Gedda-Headz gaming community, possible links between cooperative mobile communication and social mobile networks are shown....
As droughts continue to impact businesses and communities throughout the United States, there needs to be a greater emphasis on drought communication through interdisciplinary approaches, risk communication, and digital platforms. The purpose of this research is to provide an overview of the current literature on communicating drought and suggests areas for further improvement. Specifically, this research focuses on communicating drought through social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. It also focuses on the conglomeration of theoretical frameworks within the realm of risk communication, to provide a strong foundation towards future drought communication. This research proposal provides a critical step to advocate for paradigmatic shifts within natural hazard communication.
Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Carr, Themba; Colombi, Costanza; McGuire, Kelly; Dufek, Sarah; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine
Psychometric properties and initial validity of the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC), a measure of treatment-response for social-communication behaviors, are described. The BOSCC coding scheme is applied to 177 video observations of 56 young children with ASD and minimal language abilities. The BOSCC has high to excellent…
and critically discusses insights from instrumental perspectives and from political-normative perspectives (legitimacy, business ethics). It alternatively develops a constructivist communication view on CSR, building on the “communication constitutes organizations” perspective and a non-dualist turn. It argues...... that CSR is a symbolically mediated, communicative event, which, based on the underlying dynamics of moral communication, does not simply produce reputation, but also result in dysfunctional effects....
A. Banerjee; Drew Fudenberg
This paper studies the way that word-of-mouth communication aggregates the information of individual agents. We find that the structure of the communication process determines whether all agents end up making identical choices, with less communication making this conformity more likely. Despite the players' naive decision rules and the stochastic decision environment, word-of-mouth communication may lead all players to adopt the action that is on average superior. These socially efficient out...
Islam, Mohammad Nur
The purpose of this study is to present a new perspective on the current practices in corporate communications and CSR which calls for an integration of social responsibility and communication activities of corporations as an opportunity of competitive advantage. More specifically, this study looks at this subject from the angle of how companies can use communications to achieve CSR goal, while CSR can be a way to attain efficacy in communication. The study is designed to examine the current ...
Chicago Univ., IL. Communication Lab.
The Communication Laboratory, established in 1971, was brought into existence by the world population crisis. Two specializations of the program include: 1) the production of materials for interpersonal and mass media programs that are designed to induce a desired change through persuasive communication, and, 2) research in communication as a…
Ionescu Andreea; Ciceo Andreea Teodora
Consumers are confronted daily with dozens of decisions on buying a product and more than ever they refer to Social Media as the main and most important source of information and impressions from consumers worldwide. This article tackles the issue that companies nowadays still struggle with: understanding, properly using and incorporating Social Media marketing efforts into the overall marketing communications strategy. Moreover, it presents the particularities of communicating through Social...
Jones, Natasha N.
This article argues for the need for a social justice approach to technical communication research and pedagogy. Given previous calls by scholars in technical and professional communication (TPC) for an attention to diversity, inclusion, and equality, the author examines the place and purpose of social justice in TPC and provides useful approaches…
Berg, van den P.E.W.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.
New information and communication technologies (ICTs) have provided new ways of communicating and maintaining social networks. However, relatively little is known on the effect of ICT-use on social interaction. Therefore, this article aims to explore the factors influencing individuals’
Strekalova, Yulia A; Krieger, Janice L
Social media provide a unique channel for disseminating evidence-based information to diverse audiences and organizational and private stakeholders, thus facilitating a dialog about health and health risks. Guided by the social amplification of risk framework, the goal of this study was to assess the level of audience engagement with messages posted on the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Facebook page and evaluate the differences in the audience information behavior toward risk-related and non-risk posts. Data included 1,975 posts published on the NCI Facebook page as well as the corresponding 4,537 comments, 77,298 shares, and 145,462 likes. Links and images were the top two most frequent types of content for both risk-related and non-risk posts, but risk-related messages were more amplified through comments, shares, and likes. Comparing the modality of risk-related messages, videos, contrary to the prediction, were not more effective in attracting audience engagement than images. Finally, comments to risk-related posts did not repeat risk-related language suggesting that future studies should examine risk signal recognition and dissemination as separate behaviors. This study's findings emphasize the importance of focused investigation of message design strategies and message effects on the dissemination and amplification of communication related to health risks.
Eyo, Bassey A.
Examines the dynamics of organizational communication following corporate implementation of quality circles. Describes the rhetorical visions of people at three organizational levels closely associated with quality circles: (1) managers; (2) facilitators who organize the quality circles; and (3) employees. (SR)
Wang, Jack T H; Power, Cheryl J; Kahler, Charlene M; Lyras, Dena; Young, Paul R; Iredell, Jonathan; Robins-Browne, Roy
Science communication is a skill set to be developed through ongoing interactions with different stakeholders across a variety of platforms. Opportunities to engage the general public are typically reserved for senior scientists, but the use of social media in science communication allows all scientists to instantaneously disseminate their findings and interact with online users. The Communication Ambassador program is a social media initiative launched by the Australian Society for Microbiology to expand the online presence and science communication portfolios of early-career scientists. Through their participation in the program, a rotating roster of Australian microbiologists have broadened the online reach of the Society's social media channels as well as their own professional networks by attending and live-tweeting microbiology events throughout the year. We present the Communication Ambassador program as a case study of coordinated social media activity in science communication to the general public, and describe the potential for its applications in science education and training.
Nowak, G; Cole, G; Kirby, S; Freimuth, V; Caywood, C
Influencing consumer behavior is a difficult and often resource-intensive undertaking, with success usually requiring identifying, describing, and understanding target audiences; solid product and/or service positioning relative to competitors; and significant media and communication resources. Integrated marketing communication (IMC) is a new way of organizing and managing persuasive communication tools and functions which involves realigning communications to consider the flow of information from an organization from the viewpoint of end consumers. Although the application of IMC to social marketing remains relatively unexplored, the IMC literature and recent efforts by the US Centers for Disease Prevention and Control suggest that integrated communication approaches have much to offer social marketing and health communication efforts. IMC, IMC and social marketing, and implications of IMC for public and private sector social marketing programs are discussed.
Sharkey, Siobhan; Lloyd, Claire; Tomlinson, Richard; Thomas, Eleanor; Martin, Alice; Logan, Stuart; Morris, Christopher
Communication is a fundamental part of health care, but can be more difficult with disabled children. Disabled children are more frequently admitted to hospital than other children. To explore experiences of ward staff and families to identify barriers and facilitators to effective communication with disabled children whilst inpatients. This was an exploratory qualitative study. We consulted 25 staff working on paediatric wards and 15 parents of disabled children recently admitted to those wards. We had difficulty in recruiting children and evaluating their experiences. Data were collected through interviews and focus groups. A thematic analysis of the data supported by the Framework Approach was used to explore experiences and views about communication. Emerging themes were subsequently synthesised to identify barriers and facilitators to good communication. Barriers to communication included time, professionals not prioritising communication in their role and poor information sharing between parents and professionals. Facilitators included professionals building rapport with a child, good relationships between professionals and parents, professionals having a family-centred approach, and the use of communication aids. Communication with disabled children on the ward was perceived as less than optimal. Parents are instrumental in the communication between their children and professionals. Although aware of the importance of communication with disabled children, staff perceived time pressures and lack of priority given to communicating directly with the child as major barriers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Madsen, Vibeke Thøis
The aim of this paper is to explore to what extend internal social media introduces a new kind of participatory communication in organizations. The paper is based on two explorative studies: A multiple case study in ten Danish organizations and a single case study in a Danish bank. Based on the two...... studies it is proposed that it is possible to distinguish between three different types of communication arenas created by internal social media: A quiet arena, a knowledge sharing arena and a participatory communication arena. Internal social media does not in itself introduce participatory communication....... Different levels of communication might be reached in different types of organizations, and it is only when coworkers perceive a license to critique that organizations will actually develop participatory communication that has the ability to move the organization....
Xu, Jiayun; Yang, Rumei; Wilson, Andrew; Reblin, Maija; Clayton, Margaret F; Ellington, Lee
End of life (EOL) communication is a complex process involving the whole family and multiple care providers. Applications of analysis techniques that account for communication beyond the patient and patient/provider, will improve clinical understanding of EOL communication. To introduce the use of social network analysis to EOL communication data, and to provide an example of applying social network analysis to home hospice interactions. We provide a description of social network analysis using social network analysis to model communication patterns during home hospice nursing visits. We describe three social network attributes (i.e. magnitude, directionality, and reciprocity) in the expression of positive emotion among hospice nurses, family caregivers, and hospice cancer patients. Differences in communication structure by primary family caregiver gender and across time were also examined. Magnitude (frequency) in the expression of positive emotion occurred most often between nurses and caregivers or nurses and patients. Female caregivers directed more positive emotion to nurses, and nurses directed more positive emotion to other family caregivers when the primary family caregiver was male. Reciprocity (mutuality) in positive emotion declined towards day of death, but increased on day of actual patient death. There was variation in reciprocity by the type of positive emotion expressed. Our example demonstrates that social network analysis can be used to better understand the process of EOL communication. Social network analysis can be expanded to other areas of EOL research, such as EOL decision-making and health care teamwork. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Musgrave, Simon; Bradshaw, Julie
Social inclusion policy in Australia has largely ignored key issues of communication for linguistic minorities, across communities and with the mainstream community. In the (now disbanded) Social Inclusion Board's reports (e.g., Social Inclusion Unit, 2009), the emphasis is on the economic aspects of inclusion, while little attention has been paid…
Duchan, J F
We have long treated communication and social assessment as related but separate domains. Theorizing by George Herbert Mead on "the social self" offers an alternative to this conceptual separation and a means of evaluating children's social interaction, social participation, and communication simultaneously. This article describes Mead's thinking and presents a framework for assessing children's social reciprocity, interactive stances, and role participation as they participate in everyday life contexts.
Washington, Karla; Bowland, Sharon; Mueggenburg, Kay; Pederson, Margaret; Otten, Sheila; Renn, Tanya
Professional leaders have identified clear roles for social workers involved in advance care planning (ACP), a facilitated process whereby individuals identify their preferences for future medical care; yet information about effective teaching practices in this area is scant. This study reports on the experiences of 14 social workers who…
Neeman, Naama; Isaac, Thomas; Leveille, Suzanne; Dimonda, Clementina; Shin, Jacob Y; Aronson, Mark D; Freedman, Steven D
Patients often do not fully understand medical information discussed during office visits. This can result in lack of adherence to recommended treatment plans and poorer health outcomes. We developed and implemented a program utilizing an encounter form, which provides structure to the medical interaction and facilitates bidirectional communication and informed decision-making. We conducted a prospective quality improvement intervention at a large tertiary-care academic medical center utilizing the encounter form and studied the effect on patient satisfaction, understanding and confidence in communicating with physicians. The intervention included 108 patients seen by seven physicians in five sub-specialties. Ninety-eight percent of patients were extremely satisfied (77%) or somewhat satisfied (21%) with the program. Ninety-six percent of patients reported being involved in decisions about their care and treatments as well as high levels of understanding of medical information that was discussed during visit. Sixty-nine percent of patients reported that they shared the encounter form with their families and friends. Patients' self-confidence in communicating with their doctors increased from a score of 8.1 to 8.7 post-intervention (P-value = 0.0018). When comparing pre- and post-intervention experiences, only 38% of patients felt that their problems and questions were adequately addressed by other physicians' pre-intervention, compared with 94% post-intervention. We introduced a program to enhance physician-patient communication and found that patients were highly satisfied, more informed and more actively involved in their care. This approach may be an easily generalizable approach to improving physician-patient communication at outpatient visits.
Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility is an example of an approach to management that emphasizes the importance of organization’s influence exerted by the company on a number of diverse groups called stakeholders. CSR sets new functions for social communication. In this paper chosen examples of social activities communication of Polish mining companies has been addressed. The main risks for the use of contemporary forms of communication as well as possibilities which are the results of application of modern management model has been indicated.
van Bruinessen, Inge Renske; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn M; Gouw, Hans; Zijlstra, Josée M; Albada, Akke; van Dulmen, Sandra
This study aims to gain insight into patient-perceived communication barriers and facilitators at different stages after the diagnosis of malignant lymphoma. We have detected patterns to explain when these factors influence communication predominantly. A qualitative approach was applied, derived from the context mapping framework. A total of 28 patients completed a set of assignments about their experiences with provider-patient communication during medical consultations. Subsequently, these patients and nine companions shared their experiences during a semistructured (group) interview, which was recorded on audiotape. The audiotapes and assignments were analysed with MAXQDA software. From the patients' viewpoint, communicating effectively appears to depend on their own attributes (e.g. emotions), the health care professionals' attributes (e.g. attitude) and external factors (e.g. time pressure). Three patient communication states were identified: (i) overwhelmed, passive; (ii) pro-active, self-motivated; and (iii) proficient, empowered. Patients seem to behave differently in the three communication states. This study lists patient-perceived communication barriers and facilitators and identifies three different communication states, which indicate when certain barriers and facilitators are encountered. These findings may support health care professionals to tailor the provision of support and information and remove communication barriers accordingly. Additionally, they provide input for interventions to support patients in effective communication. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bruinessen, I.R. van; Weel-Baumgarten, E.M. van; Gouw, H.; Zijlstra, J.M.; Albada, A.; Dulmen, S. van
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to gain insight into patient-perceived communication barriers and facilitators at different stages after the diagnosis of malignant lymphoma. We have detected patterns to explain when these factors influence communication predominantly. METHOD: A qualitative approach was
Bruinessen, I.R. van; Weel, E.M. van; Gouw, H.; Zijlstra, J.M.; Albada, A.; Dulmen, S. van
Objective: This study aims to gain insight into patient-perceived communication barriers and facilitators at different stages after the diagnosis of malignant lymphoma. We have detected patterns to explain when these factors influence communication predominantly. Method: A qualitative approach was
Full Text Available Abstract Objective In recent years, the importance of social differences in the physician-patient relationship has frequently been the subject of research. A 2002 review synthesised the evidence on this topic. Considering the increasing importance of social inequalities in health care, an actualization of this review seemed appropriate. Methods A systematic search of literature published between 1965 and 2011 on the social gradient in doctor-patient communication. In this review social class was determined by patient's income, education or occupation. Results Twenty original research papers and meta-analyses were included. Social differences in doctor-patient communication were described according to the following classification: verbal behaviour including instrumental and affective behaviour, non-verbal behaviour and patient-centred behaviour. Conclusion This review indicates that the literature on the social gradient in doctor-patient communication that was published in the last decade, addresses new issues and themes. Firstly, most of the found studies emphasize the importance of the reciprocity of communication. Secondly, there seems to be a growing interest in patient's perception of doctor-patient communication. Practice implications By increasing the doctors' awareness of the communicative differences and by empowering patients to express concerns and preferences, a more effective communication could be established.
is to investigate which corporate communication strategy adopted in online social media is more effective to create convergence between corporations' corporate social responsibility (CSR) agenda and stakeholders' social expectations, and thereby, to increase corporate legitimacy. Design/methodology/approach – Using....... Empirical findings show that, even when engaging in a dialogue, communication in social media is still conceived as a marketing practice to convey messages about companies. Originality/value – This paper originally investigates organizational legitimacy in the context of social media by applying advanced...... the entire Twitter social graph, a network analysis was carried out to study the structural properties of the CSR community, such as the level of reciprocity, and advanced data mining techniques, i.e. topic and sentiment analysis, were carried out to investigate the communication dynamics. Findings...
Lerna, Anna; Esposito, Dalila; Conson, Massimiliano; Russo, Luigi; Massagli, Angelo
The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a common treatment choice for non-verbal children with autism. However, little empirical evidence is available on the usefulness of PECS in treating social-communication impairments in autism. To test the effects of PECS on social-communicative skills in children with autism, concurrently taking into account standardized psychometric data, standardized functional assessment of adaptive behaviour, and information on social-communicative variables coded in an unstructured setting. Eighteen preschool children (mean age = 38.78 months) were assigned to two intervention approaches, i.e. PECS and Conventional Language Therapy (CLT). Both PECS (Phases I-IV) and CLT were delivered three times per week, in 30-min sessions, for 6 months. Outcome measures were the following: Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) domain scores for Communication and Reciprocal Social Interaction; Language and Personal-Social subscales of the Griffiths' Mental Developmental Scales (GMDS); Communication and Social Abilities domains of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS); and several social-communicative variables coded in an unstructured setting. Results demonstrated that the two groups did not differ at Time 1 (pre-treatment assessment), whereas at Time 2 (post-test) the PECS group showed a significant improvement with respect to the CLT group on the VABS social domain score and on almost all the social-communicative abilities coded in the unstructured setting (i.e. joint attention, request, initiation, cooperative play, but not eye contact). These findings showed that PECS intervention (Phases I-IV) can improve social-communicative skills in children with autism. This improvement is especially evident in standardized measures of adaptive behaviour and measures derived from the observation of children in an unstructured setting. © 2012 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.
Hartnett, Stephen John
Combining an overview of the history of communication scholarship with lessons learned from 20 years of experience as a prison abolitionist and peace activist, Hartnett argues that the discipline of communication can be enriched intellectually and made more politically relevant by turning our efforts toward community service, problem-based…
Sigman, Stuart J.
Discusses assumptions and criticisms of rule-governed approaches to interpersonal communication research and theory. Outlines a definition of rules that does not require sole reliance on interpersonal actors' statements about their behavior or assumptions of communicator self-awareness. Suggests consideration of rules-based concomitants of…
Bonetti, Luigi; Campbell, Marilyn Anne; Gilmore, Linda
Children and adolescents now communicate online to form and/or maintain relationships with friends, family, and strangers. Relationships in "real life" are important for children's and adolescents' psychosocial development; however, they can be difficult for those who experience feelings of loneliness and/or social anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in usage of online communication patterns between children and adolescents with and without self-reported loneliness and social anxiety. Six hundred twenty-six students ages 10 to 16 years completed a survey on the amount of time they spent communicating online, the topics they discussed, the partners they engaged with, and their purposes for communicating over the Internet. Participants were administered a shortened version of the UCLA Loneliness Scale and an abbreviated subscale of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A). Additionally, age and gender differences in usage of the online communication patterns were examined across the entire sample. Findings revealed that children and adolescents who self-reported being lonely communicated online significantly more frequently about personal and intimate topics than did those who did not self-report being lonely. The former were motivated to use online communication significantly more frequently to compensate for their weaker social skills to meet new people. Results suggest that Internet usage allows them to fulfill critical needs of social interactions, self-disclosure, and identity exploration. Future research, however, should explore whether or not the benefits derived from online communication may also facilitate lonely children's and adolescents' offline social relationships.
Jack, Rachael E.; Schyns, Philippe G.
As a highly social species, humans frequently exchange social information to support almost all facets of life. One of the richest and most powerful tools in social communication is the face, from which observers can quickly and easily make a number of inferences — about identity, gender, sex, age, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, physical health, attractiveness, emotional state, personality traits, pain or physical pleasure, deception, and even social status. With the advent of the digit...
Meredith, Michael J.
Social media offers an exciting new area for our discipline to produce research and pedagogy that is in high demand by students, industry constituents, and other disciplines. This article discusses why business communication scholars should focus on social media as an important stream of study and outlines an MBA course in social media strategy…
Elving, W.; van Vuuren, M.; Bech-Larsen, T.; Frandsen, F.
Organizations need good reputations among their stakeholders. One way of creating a better reputation might be the engagement in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) or Corporate Responsibility (CR) programs. However, since several organizations were greenwashing their communication (suggesting a
Full Text Available People are creatures of habit, favouring the familiar over unpredictability, which causes them to usually follow set patterns or routines. This is especially true for social interaction or communication where people tend to prefer familiar or well...
Key words: Inequality; communication; social design; storytelling ... created unevenness, which can destroy dignity, self-confidence and esteem. .... divides, which involves gaps between groups in awareness, adoption, skills, devices, use and.
Bunting, Morgan; Cagle, John G
Hospital social workers are often the fulcrum of communication between physicians, patients, and families especially when patients are facing life-threatening illness. This study aims to understand the impact of a brief training for hospital social workers. The training is designed to improve communication skills and self-efficacy, as well as lessen fears of death and dying. Repeated-measures tests were used to assess outcomes across three time points. Twenty-nine university-based hospital social workers participated. Results trended in the desired directions. Communication self-efficacy improved immediately following the training, and this was sustained 1 month following training completion. Although participants were relatively experienced, improvement was still demonstrated and maintained suggesting brief communication training is promising for hospital social workers across the career.
Kim, Ar Ryum; Lee, Seung Woo; Seong, Poong Hyun; Park, Jin Kyun
An important aspect of human behavior in nuclear power plants (NPPs) is team interaction since operating NPPs involves the coordination of several team members among and within workplaces. Since operators in main control room (MCR) get a great deal of information through communication to perform a task, communication is one of the important characteristics for team characteristics. Many researchers have been studying how to understand the characteristics of communication. Social network analysis (SNA) which is considered as an objective and easily applicable method has been already applied in many fields to investigate characteristics of team communication. Henttonen (2010) has struggled to perform the research on the impact of social networks in a team and he found some team communication characteristics could be obtained using some properties of SNA. In this paper, SNA is used to understand communication characteristics within operators in NPPs
Gordon, Chad R; Rezzadeh, Kameron S; Li, Andrew; Vardanian, Andrew; Zelken, Jonathan; Shores, Jamie T; Sacks, Justin M; Segovia, Andres L; Jarrahy, Reza
%). Satisfaction with the service was high: 94.2 % of users "enjoyed this software" and and 94.2 % of family/friends "felt more connected to their loved ones during surgery." 92.5 % would "recommend their loved ones sign up for this service". Ninety percent of patients who completed the survey reported "an improved hospital experience". Digital communications platforms can facilitate the immediate transfer of HIPAA-compliant data to patients and their designees. Such systems can greatly improve the level of communication between physicians, patients, and patients' families and caregivers. All types of users, including healthcare professionals, patients, and their loved ones, recorded high levels of satisfaction. Based on these observations, we conclude that mobile digital communications platforms represent a way to harness the power of social media to enhance patient care.
Brill-Maoz, Naama; Maroun, Mouna
This study addressed the question of whether extinction in pairs would have a beneficial effect on extinction of fear conditioning. To that end, we established an experimental setting for extinction in which we trained animals to extinguish contextual fear memory in pairs. Taking advantage of the role of oxytocin (OT) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the mediation of memory extinction and social interaction, we also sought to study its role in social interaction-induced effects on extinction. Our results clearly show that the social presence of another animal in the extinction context facilitates extinction, and that this facilitation is mediated through mPFC-OT. Our results suggest that social interaction may be a positive regulator of fear inhibition, implying that social interaction may be an easy, accessible therapeutic tool for the treatment of fear-associated disorders. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Sigmar, Lucia Stretcher; Hynes, Geraldine E.; Hill, Kathy L.
Incorporating social and emotional skills (EI) training into the business communication curriculum is important for preparing students to function effectively in a global workplace with its complex informal networks, intercultural issues, team emphasis, and participatory leadership. EI skills enhance communication behavior in work groups and…
Simulations have been widely used in crisis and emergency communication for practitioners but have not reached classrooms in higher education. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects that simulations using social media have on the learning of crisis communication among college students. To explore the effects, a real-time crisis…
Travis Paveglio; Matthew S. Carroll; James D. Absher; Todd. Norton
This study uses social constructionism as a basis for understanding the effectiveness of communication about wildfire risk between agency officials and wildland-urban interface (WUI) residents. Risk communication literature demonstrates a welldocumented difference in the way land managers and stakeholders conceptualize risk. This is especially true of fire because...
This article presents a model of marketing communications using social network by sports clubs. It presents the links between the sports club and its environment and uses of the Internet to promote it. The model of communication is composed of the elements responsible for the success of marketing in the web. Article also includes recommendations for using the model in practice.
Full Text Available Introduction: The communication between nurses and patients' families is commun- ication significantly impacts patient well-being as well as the quality and outcome of nursing care, this study aimed to demonstrated the facilitators and barriers which influence the role of communication among Iranian nurses and families member in ICU. Methods: This study was conducted by the grounded theory method. Participants comprised eight registered nurses and ten families. Patients were admitted to the ICU of two large university hospitals in Kerman, Iran. We used non-structured interviews for data collection. All interviews were transcribed verbatim with a simultaneous, constant comparative analysis of the audio tapes performed according to the Strauss and Corbin method (1998. Results: According to data analysis, Facilitative factors between nurses and families' communication consisted of two categories, i spiritual care, emotional support, Participation, notification and consultation and Barriers that were three categories: i misunderstandings regarding treatment ii job and iii patient difficulties.Conclusion: The findings led into the recognition of the important barriers and facilitators in communication between ICU team and the family of the patients. By identification of the barriers and facilitators of communication, establishing new rules and using creative methods in education and establishing the communication of ICU team and rules and using patient-based approach we can have effective communication.
Stanciugelu, I.; Frunzaru, V.; Armas, I.; Duntzer, A.; Stan, S.
Risk management has become a dominant concern of public policy and the ability of government to anticipate the strength and focus of public concerns remains weak. The Social Amplification of Risk Framework (SARF) was designed to assist in this endeavor. It aims to facilitate a greater understanding of the social processes that can mediate between a hazard event and its consequences. SARF identifies categories of mediator/moderator that intervene between risk event and its consequences and suggests a causal and temporal sequence in which they act. Information flows first through various sources and then channels, triggering social stations of amplification, initiating individual station of amplification and precipitating behavioral reactions. The International Risk Governance Council Framework is an interdisciplinary and multilevel approach, linking risk management and risk assessment sphere through communication. This study aims to identify categories of mediator/moderator that intervene between the risk event and its consequences, using a survey on earthquake risk perception addressing population of Bucharest city. Romania has a unique seismic profile in Europe, being the country with the biggest surface affected in case of a serious earthquake. Considering the development of the urban area that took place in the last two decades and the growing number of inhabitants, Bucharest is the largest city in Romania and is exposed to extensive damages in case of an earthquake. The sociological survey has been conducted in December 2009 on a representative sample of the Bucharest population aged 18 and over (N=1376) using one stage sampling design. We used a stratified sample method shearing the investigated populations in six layers according to the six sectors of Bucharest. The respondents were selected using random digit dialling method (RDD) and the questionnaires were administered by research staff with computer assisted telephone interviewing method (CATI). The
Schaefer, Michael; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Rotte, Michael; Denke, Claudia
In the philosophical theory of communicative action, rationality refers to interpersonal communication rather than to a knowing subject. Thus, a social view of rationality is suggested. The theory differentiates between two kinds of rationality, the emancipative communicative and the strategic or instrumental reasoning. Using experimental designs in an fMRI setting, recent studies explored similar questions of reasoning in the social world and linked them with a neural network including prefrontal and parietal brain regions. Here, we employed an fMRI approach to highlight brain areas associated with strategic and communicative reasoning according to the theory of communicative action. Participants were asked to assess different social scenarios with respect to communicative or strategic rationality. We found a network of brain areas including temporal pole, precuneus, and STS more activated when participants performed communicative reasoning compared with strategic thinking and a control condition. These brain regions have been previously linked to moral sensitivity. In contrast, strategic rationality compared with communicative reasoning and control was associated with less activation in areas known to be related to moral sensitivity, emotional processing, and language control. The results suggest that strategic reasoning is associated with reduced social and emotional cognitions and may use different language related networks. Thus, the results demonstrate experimental support for the assumptions of the theory of communicative action.
Full Text Available The impact of social networking is varied from good to bad. Online activities have also been categorized into pros and cons of social networking, either as reported as hiding Internet activities among teenagers or killing loneliness among elderly. In terms of relationships, there have been argument over its closeness and quality of an online relationship in Internet settings. Looking at the contradiction in an innovative interaction between classic community communication and social media, there is an unknown scent of the future struggling and challenging both human communication and relationships in the presence of digital culture. This research uses Diffusion of Innovation to study the wide and continuous spread of digital culture in human communication; and, Media Dependency in learning and structuring the cognitive, affective and behavioral effects of social media on each person uses the media in different ways. This research will be using online survey to gain opinions from a social network site as an update of views and reflection of self-awareness to all levels of people. Social media like Facebook (FB is perceived as a good tool of communication that it is able to bring closeness among the family members. The results show that social media like FB brings positive impact towards family members; it would help to build a better and harmonic society; and, relationships among family members and communication shall be improved and enhanced to the level of a united society.
Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Snyder, Amanda L; Nimon, Joseph P; Arciero, Paul J
This study examined the effect of virtual social facilitation and competitiveness on exercise effort in exergaming older adults. Fourteen exergaming older adults participated. Competitiveness was assessed prior to the start of exercise. Participants were trained to ride a "cybercycle;" a virtual reality-enhanced stationary bike with interactive competition. After establishing a cybercycling baseline, competitive avatars were introduced. Pedaling effort (watts) was assessed. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant group (high vs low competitiveness) × time (pre- to post-avatar) interaction (F[1,12] = 13.1, P = 0.003). Virtual social facilitation increased exercise effort among more competitive exercisers. Exercise programs that match competitiveness may maximize exercise effort.
Chib, Vikram S; Adachi, Ryo; O’Doherty, John P
Abstract Throughout our lives we must perform tasks while being observed by others. Previous studies have shown that the presence of an audience can cause increases in an individual’s performance as compared to when they are not being observed—a phenomenon called ‘social facilitation’. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this effect, in the context of skilled-task performance for monetary incentives, are not well understood. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to monitor brain activity while healthy human participants performed a skilled-task during conditions in which they were paid based on their performance and observed and not observed by an audience. We found that during social facilitation, social signals represented in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) enhanced reward value computations in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). We also found that functional connectivity between dmPFC and ventral striatum was enhanced when participants exhibited social facilitation effects, indicative of a means by which social signals serve to modulate brain regions involved in regulating behavioral motivation. These findings illustrate how neural processing of social judgments gives rise to the enhanced motivational state that results in social facilitation of incentive-based performance. PMID:29648653
Evans, W Douglas; Blitstein, Jonathan L; Davis, Kevin C
To test a social cognitive behavior change model and identify mediators of the effects of the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC) on parent-child sexual communication. Investigators used 5 waves of data from an online randomized controlled trial. Latent variables were developed based on item response theory and confirmatory factor analysis. Structural equation modeling was used to test mediation. Outcome expectations mediated effects of social norms and self-efficacy on sexual communication. Other hypothesized mediators were not confirmed. Interventions to promote parent-child sexual communication should target outcome expectations. Future research should investigate parents' health information seeking.
Eiberger, W; Hügel, H
The spheres covering behaviour disorders, social behaviour and communicative behaviour of speech impaired pupils which until now have been analyzed on a more theoretical level, ought to be studied using psychometric testing procedures and an esperimental observational situation in order to gain base data with which to set up a concrete catalogue of aims (learning program) based on the deficits thereby obtained. The study took place at the special school in Esslinger-Berkheim (Baden-Wurttemberg). By taking into account relevant specialized literature and the results of other studies, the following general hypotheses were advanced, namely, that the communication of speech handicapped children is troubled in respect of its content and relation, and that their social behaviour shows more egoistic than cooperative features. In order to determine social motivations and attitudes, we used Muller's "Social Motivation Test" (SMT) and Jorger's "Group test for the social attitude" (S-E-T). Due to the inconsistency between the attitudes measured by means of psychometric methods and the sbusequent free and genuine behaviour, an observational situation was developed during which the pupils, either in pairs or in groups of four and using puppets, took turns in thinking up a story, discussing the plot, roles, etc. and finally putting on the play. The whole was then analyzed by means of tape recordings and film shots, the interaction of the communicating partners being analyzed and categorized in two separate assessment stages: communicative behaviour and social behaviour. The pragmatic axioms of P. Watzlawick, the communication researcher, functioned as theoretical background. Flanders's linear time diagram was used as assessment system. Communicative and social learning aims were prepared in accordance with confirming hypotheses to enable a "preliminary area" for the practical work in (special) education to be defined. In addition, a rough outline was made of the conditional
Thepsoonthorn, C; Yokozuka, T; Miura, S; Ogawa, K; Miyake, Y
As prior knowledge is claimed to be an essential key to achieve effective education, we are interested in exploring whether prior knowledge enhances communication effectiveness. To demonstrate the effects of prior knowledge, mutual gaze convergence and head nodding synchrony are observed as indicators of communication effectiveness. We conducted an experiment on lecture task between lecturer and student under 2 conditions: prior knowledge and non-prior knowledge. The students in prior knowledge condition were provided the basic information about the lecture content and were assessed their understanding by the experimenter before starting the lecture while the students in non-prior knowledge had none. The result shows that the interaction in prior knowledge condition establishes significantly higher mutual gaze convergence (t(15.03) = 6.72, p < 0.0001; α = 0.05, n = 20) and head nodding synchrony (t(16.67) = 1.83, p = 0.04; α = 0.05, n = 19) compared to non-prior knowledge condition. This study reveals that prior knowledge facilitates mutual gaze convergence and head nodding synchrony. Furthermore, the interaction with and without prior knowledge can be evaluated by measuring or observing mutual gaze convergence and head nodding synchrony.
Kondo, Emiko; Torii, Mayumi; Oba, Izumi; Okamoto, Mai
The issue of drug lag in Japan has been rapidly reduced in recent years, and newly approved drugs now become available on Japanese and international markets at the same time. In this context, the risk management plan (RMP) system was introduced in 2012. RMPs describe important safety concerns recognized by Japan's Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) and marketing authorization holders (MAHs), as well as safety measures that MAHs request healthcare professionals (HCPs) to follow. The publication of RMPs is expected to support the sharing of drug risk management among HCPs during the postmarketing phase. In addition, to encourage risk communication between HCPs and patients, the PMDA website provides drug guides for patients and other information to promote proper understanding of drugs by patients and their families and enable them to identify serious adverse drug reactions at an early stage. However, the results of surveys conducted by the PMDA in FY2014 and FY2015 revealed low levels of awareness of RMPs and drug guides for patients in hospitals and other healthcare institutions. The surveys also showed that information regarding the proper use of drugs from MAHs and the PMDA was not incorporated into practice at healthcare institutions, resulting in the repeated release of identical safety alerts. To facilitate the increased utilization of risk communication tools, the PMDA has been providing and disseminating these tools through its website. This study addresses those efforts and the associated challenges.
Lori, Jody R; Munro, Michelle L; Chuey, Meagan R
Achieving health literacy is a critical step to improving health outcomes and the health of a nation. However, there is a lack of research on health literacy in low-resource countries, where maternal health outcomes are at their worst. To examine the usefulness and feasibility of providing focused antenatal care (FANC) in a group setting using picture cards to improve patient-provider communication, patient engagement, and improve health literacy. An exploratory, mixed methods design was employed to gather pilot data using the Health Literacy Skills Framework. A busy urban district hospital in the Ashanti Region of Ghana was used to gather data during 2014. A facility-driven convenience sample of midwives (n=6) aged 18 years or older, who could speak English or Twi, and had provided antenatal care at the participating hospital during the previous year prior to the start of the study participated in the study. Data were collected using pre-test and post-test surveys, completed three months after the group FANC was implemented. A semi-structured focus group was conducted with four of the participating midwives and the registered nurse providing support and supervision for the study (n=5) at the time of the post-test. Data were analyzed concurrently to gain a broad understanding of patient communication, engagement, and group FANC. There were no significant differences in the mean communication (t(df=3)=0.541, p=0.626) and engagement (t(df=3)=-0.775, p=0.495) scores between the pre- and post-test. However, the focus group revealed the following themes: (a) improved communication through the use of picture cards; (b) enhanced information sharing and peer support through the facilitated group process and; and (c) an improved understanding of patient concerns. The improved communication noted through the use of picture cards and the enhanced information sharing and peer support elicited through the group FANC undoubtedly provided patients with additional tools to invoke
Kendrick, Alice; Fullerton, Jami A.; Kim, Yeo Jung
Although advertising has played a key role in bringing corporate social responsibility (CSR) to the public agenda on behalf of agency clients, little effort has been made to define what social responsibility means in advertising. A national survey of 1,045 advertising and marketing communications students from 176 colleges and universities were…
Cho, Moonhee; Furey, Lauren D.; Mohr, Tiffany
The purpose of this study was to explore what corporations with good reputations communicate on social media. Based on a content analysis of 46 corporate Facebook pages from "Fortune's" "World's Most Admired Companies," this study found that corporations communicate noncorporate social responsibility messages more frequently…
Fernanda Martins Romano
Full Text Available This study investigates the impacts caused by the adoption of the so-called digital social media on strategy and on organizational communication processes of Brazilian companies. To this exploratory study´s effect, key organizational communication executives of varied sectors, large-sized companies were interviewed. The 11 in-depth interviews were based on a semi-structured script and processed applying NVivo software. Results revealed the yet incipient adoption of digital social media in organizational communication strategy shaped in the form of a process undergoing evolution thus posing a corporate challenge. The absence of knowledge concerning platform dynamics, of benchmarks and of specialized professionals were mentioned by interviewees as factors that inhibit said adoption. Despite declaring that digital social media is an irreversible phenomenon, executives fear the potential amplification of communication crises, when sprung from web-based blunders.
Falk, Emily; Scholz, Christin
Opportunities to persuade and be persuaded are ubiquitous. What determines whether influence spreads and takes hold? This review provides an overview of evidence for the central role of subjective valuation in persuasion and social influence for both propagators and receivers of influence. We first review evidence that decisions to communicate information are determined by the subjective value a communicator expects to gain from sharing. We next review evidence that the effects of social influence and persuasion on receivers, in turn, arise from changes in the receiver's subjective valuation of objects, ideas, and behaviors. We then review evidence that self-related and social considerations are two key inputs to the value calculation in both communicators and receivers. Finally, we highlight biological coupling between communicators and receivers as a mechanism through which perceptions of value can be transmitted.
Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L
The landscape of sending and receiving information has changed dramatically in the past 25 years. The communication process is changing from being unidirectional to multidirectional as consumers are becoming active participants by creating, seeking, and sharing information using a variety of channels and devices. The purpose of this article is to describe how this shift in the communication process- where gatekeepers control the creation and content of information and consumers are less active recipients to one that reflects a multidirectional and more dynamic process with participative consumers-will affect the social marketing process. This shift in communication does not represent an option for social marketers so much as a necessity. As professionals respond to this evolving communication model, the practice of social marketing can remain vibrant as a relevant consumer-oriented approach to behavior change.
Bredy, Timothy W.; Barad, Mark
Mice communicate through visual, vocal, and olfactory cues that influence innate, nonassociative behavior. We here report that exposure to a recently fear-conditioned familiar mouse impairs acquisition of conditioned fear and facilitates fear extinction, effects mimicked by both an olfactory chemosignal emitted by a recently fear-conditioned…
Gage-Bouchard, Elizabeth A; LaValley, Susan; Mollica, Michelle; Beaupin, Lynda Kwon
Americans are increasingly using social media (such as Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter) for health-related communication. Much of the previous research on social media and health communication has focused on Facebook groups related to a specific disease or Facebook pages related to an advocacy organization. Less is known about how people communicate about cancer on personal Facebook pages. In this study, we expand upon previous research by examining how cancer caregivers use personal Facebook pages for cancer-related communication. We examined themes in cancer-related exchanges through a content analysis of 12 months of data from 18 publically available Facebook pages hosted by parents of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (15 852 total posts). Six themes emerged: (1) documenting the cancer journey, (2) sharing emotional strain associated with caregiving, (3) promoting awareness and advocacy about pediatric cancer, (4) fundraising, (5) mobilizing support, and (6) expressing gratitude for support. Building upon previous research documenting the increasing use of social media for health-related communication and support, our findings show that personal Facebook pages offer a platform for cancer caregivers to share their cancer-related experiences, promote advocacy and awareness, and mobilize social support. Providers must recognize the importance of social media as a vehicle for support and communication for families of children with cancer. Nurses should educate parents on how to appraise information obtained through Facebook using evidence-based guidelines. Providers can encourage caregivers to use Facebook as a tool for communication, information, and support.
Full Text Available The means of communication, from the most simple and natural ones – such as gestures and voice, to the most complex and developed ones – such as the new electronic media, have constantly brought changes to the society, their own transformation being due to the social environment that generated them. Nowadays, the new media – being in a rapid development unprecedented in the past – is giving new insights of communication and learning to the younger generations which, unlike those formed by elder people, manage to quickly assimilate the changes that occur. The purpose of this article is to provide a framework for public institutions for a better interaction with citizens. It shows the literature that focuses on social media statistics. At the end of our study, it is necessary to refer again to the needs of the organizations in which social communication has its origins, to exit the logic of politics and the media and to completely redefine the relationship between them and the social communication itself. We have treated the terms of the relationship between media and social communication, but it is the case to reiterate the importance of this point. In this context, we have identified the social nature still in embryo of a new relationship between media and educational sector; the more fragile the more difficult it is to overcome the stereotype of the “recreational” media.
The overall objective of this doctoral thesis was to contribute to a better understanding of the role social media can fulfil for the communication of food-related risks and benefits. Social media is the collective name for a number of online applications, including social networks, video- and picture-sharing websites, blogs, and microblogs, that allow users to generate and share information online. As a consequence users now control how information is found and used instead of the producers....
Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Larson, Mia
, offering a few conceptual papers which adopt complexity theories to describe destination development patterns (Russel & Faulkner, 2000, 2004; Zahra & Ryan 2007). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the validity of chaos theory in the context of strategic communications, where new (social) media has...... changed the marketing landscape beyond recognition. The exponential growth of social media platforms has led to weakened marketer control (and greater consumer sovereignty) over information about organisations and their products. In this new communications paradigm (Muniz & Schau 2007), information...... media channels. Social media users serve as gatekeepers, opting for which fluctuations to pay attention to, which to ignore. The challenge is then to establish a framework of unfolding communication patterns on social media which can eventually explain the collective behaviour of bloggers, twitters...
Claypoole, Victoria L; Szalma, James L
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of an independent coactor on vigilance task performance. It was hypothesized that the presence of an independent coactor would improve performance in terms of the proportion of false alarms while also increasing perceived workload and stress. Vigilance, or the ability to maintain attention for extended periods, is of great interest to human factors psychologists. Substantial work has focused on improving vigilance task performance, typically through motivational interventions. Of interest to vigilance researchers is the application of social facilitation as a means of enhancing vigilance. Social facilitation seeks to explain how social presence may improve performance. A total of 100 participants completed a 24-min vigil either alone or in the presence of an independent (confederate) coactor. Participants completed measures of perceived workload and stress. The results indicated that performance (i.e., proportion of false alarms) was improved for those who completed the vigil in the presence of an independent coactor. Interestingly, perceived workload was actually lower for those who completed the vigil in the presence of an independent coactor, although perceived stress was not affected by the manipulation. Authors of future research should extend these findings to other forms of social facilitation and examine vigilance task performance in social contexts in order to determine the utility of social presence for improving vigilance. The use of coactors may be an avenue for organizations to consider utilizing to improve performance because of its relative cost-effectiveness and easy implementation.
Full Text Available Some communication barriers apply particularly to elderly people. The social barriers to effective communication in old age are the barriers caused by stereotypes of old age/elderly people and the barriers arising from limitations in using mass communication by seniors. Stereotypes of old age/elderly people embrace views regarding old people’s communication skills and the ideas about the correct way of communication with them. Therefore the communication problems of old people are correlated with the little and poor communication processes they are participating in. This seems to be a result of impetuses of poor quality sent to seniors by their communication partners. Not only face to face communication but also mass communication is very important for the elderly population. Therefore limitations in using new technologies and new communication channels as well as a limited presence in the mass media of content created by seniors and for seniors have an impact on their life, their well-being, and their interpersonal relationships. These problems are especially important when we faced with the ever growing population of elderly people.
Takaguchi, Taro; Masuda, Naoki; Holme, Petter
Records of social interactions provide us with new sources of data for understanding how interaction patterns affect collective dynamics. Such human activity patterns are often bursty, i.e., they consist of short periods of intense activity followed by long periods of silence. This burstiness has been shown to affect spreading phenomena; it accelerates epidemic spreading in some cases and slows it down in other cases. We investigate a model of history-dependent contagion. In our model, repeated interactions between susceptible and infected individuals in a short period of time is needed for a susceptible individual to contract infection. We carry out numerical simulations on real temporal network data to find that bursty activity patterns facilitate epidemic spreading in our model.
Full Text Available Records of social interactions provide us with new sources of data for understanding how interaction patterns affect collective dynamics. Such human activity patterns are often bursty, i.e., they consist of short periods of intense activity followed by long periods of silence. This burstiness has been shown to affect spreading phenomena; it accelerates epidemic spreading in some cases and slows it down in other cases. We investigate a model of history-dependent contagion. In our model, repeated interactions between susceptible and infected individuals in a short period of time is needed for a susceptible individual to contract infection. We carry out numerical simulations on real temporal network data to find that bursty activity patterns facilitate epidemic spreading in our model.
Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Carr, Themba; Colombi, Costanza; McGuire, Kelly; Dufek, Sarah; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine
Psychometric properties and initial validity of the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC), a measure of treatment-response for social-communication behaviors, are described. The BOSCC coding scheme is applied to 177 video observations of 56 young children with ASD and minimal language abilities. The BOSCC has high to excellent inter-rater and test-retest reliability and shows convergent validity with measures of language and communication skills. The BOSCC Core total demonstrates statistically significant amounts of change over time compared to a no change alternative while the ADOS CSS over the same period of time did not. This work is a first step in the development of a novel outcome measure for social-communication behaviors with applications to clinical trials and longitudinal studies.
Social media, online social networks and apps for smartphones and tablets are changing the way to communicate health and health issues to consumers and health professionals. Google, Facebook, Apple, and other companies have launched tools to make easier the doctor-patient communication, to group patients with similar diseases allowing them to share stories, experiences, and opinions, and to remotely track and monitor users health and wellbeing. However several concerns about patients' and consumers' privacy remain. Doctor-patient communication through e-mail and social media also introduces other ethical and privacy issues that were addressed only by few medical societies with appropriate guidelines and policies. In addition, pharmaceutical companies have started to use social media channels to communicate with doctors, patients and consumers. This type of communication has been only partially regulated by the Food and Drug Administration with the recently published guidelines for industries. Similar concerns exist for health and medical applications for smartphones and tablets for which only few agencies (including Food and Drug Administration) are requiring a formal (even if restricted in typology) validation. It's time for Europe and Italy to adopt appropriate guidelines for the use of the new media in health communication.
Soichiro Matsuda; Soichiro Matsuda; Eleuda Nunez; Masakazu Hirokawa; Junichi Yamamoto; Kenji Suzuki
Interacting with toys and other people is fundamental for developing social communication skills. However, children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are characterized by having a significant impairment in social interaction, which often leads to deficits in play skills. For this reason, methods of teaching play skills to young children with ASD have been well documented. Although previous studies have examined a variety of instructional strategies for teaching skills, few studies have eval...
The Internet has a major impact when it comes to marketing tools, providing new opportunities that were not previously available is the traditional marketing environment. Each traditional communication channel has its obvious advantages and organizations must continue to use it, but the Internet is a channel in constant development, enjoying high attention and being currently used by more than a third of the global population. Knowing the different advantages and disadvantages of both t...
Vanwynsberghe, Hadewijch; Boudry, Elke; Vanderlinde, Ruben; Verdegem, Pieter
Purpose – Based on the social capital theory, we assume that personal and professional experts are both relevant to people’s competence development. However, to date, there is little empirical evidence of how professional experts can support, or impede, people in learning how to deal with social media. The goal of this study is to examine the role and position of social media experts in the distribution of information on social media within the library as organization. Design/ methodology/...
Born, Marieke; Akkerman, Agnes; Thommes, Kirsten
In this article, we investigate how communication and trust networks between employees affect participation in a strike. We analyze whether the strength of network relations is related to congruence in strike behavior using social network data on 59 Dutch workers. We find that private communication
de Laat, M.M.; Vrieling, E.; van den Beemt, A.A.J.; McDonald, J.; Cater-Steel, A.
To understand the organization of social learning by groups in practice, this chapter elaborates on the use of a framework of dimensions and indicators to explore social learning within (prospective) teacher groups. The applied framework that we call the ‘Dimensions of Social Learning (DSL)
Laleh loghmani; Fariba borhani; Abbas Abbaszadeh
Introduction: The communication between nurses and patients' families is commun- ication significantly impacts patient well-being as well as the quality and outcome of nursing care, this study aimed to demonstrated the facilitators and barriers which influence the role of communication among Iranian nurses and families member in ICU. Methods: This study was conducted by the grounded theory method. Participants comprised eight registered nurses and ten families. Patients were admitted to the ...
Workplace learning in continuing interprofessional education (CIPE) can be difficult to facilitate and evaluate, which can create a number of challenges for this type of learning. This article presents an innovative method to foster and investigate workplace learning in CIPE - citizen social science. Citizen social science involves clinicians as co-researchers in the systematic examination of social phenomena. When facilitated by an open-source online social networking platform, clinicians can participate via computer, smartphone, or tablet in ways that suit their needs and preferences. Furthermore, as co-researchers they can help to reveal the dynamic interplay that facilitates workplace learning in CIPE. Although yet to be tested, citizen social science offers four potential benefits: it recognises and accommodates the complexity of workplace learning in CIPE; it has the capacity to both foster and evaluate the phenomena; it can be used in situ, capturing and having direct relevance to the complexity of the workplace; and by advancing both theoretical and methodological debates on CIPE, it may reveal opportunities to improve and sustain workplace learning. By describing an example situated in the youth health sector, this article demonstrates how these benefits might be realised.
Namkoong, Kang; Shah, Dhavan V; Gustafson, David H
This study investigates how social support and family relationship perceptions influence breast cancer patients' online communication networks in a computer-mediated social support (CMSS) group. To examine social interactions in the CMSS group, we identified two types of online social networks: open and targeted communication networks. The open communication network reflects group communication behaviors (i.e., one-to-many or "broadcast" communication) in which the intended audience is not specified; in contrast, the targeted communication network reflects interpersonal discourses (i.e., one-to-one or directed communication) in which the audience for the message is specified. The communication networks were constructed by tracking CMSS group usage data of 237 breast cancer patients who participated in one of two National Cancer Institute-funded randomized clinical trials. Eligible subjects were within 2 months of a diagnosis of primary breast cancer or recurrence at the time of recruitment. Findings reveal that breast cancer patients who perceived less availability of offline social support had a larger social network size in the open communication network. In contrast, those who perceived less family cohesion had a larger targeted communication network in the CMSS group, meaning they were inclined to use the CMSS group for developing interpersonal relationships.
The ability to argue well is a valuable skill for students in both formal and informal learning environments. While many studies have explored the argumentative practices in formal environments and some researchers have developed tools to enhance the argumentative skills, the social argumentation that is occurring in informal spaces has yet to be…
Corporate social responsibility is an approach whereby a company considers the interests of all stakeholders, both within the organisation and in society and applies those interests while developing its strategy and during execution; it offers organisations various opportunities not only to differentiate themselves from ...
Full Text Available This paper aims to identify and analyze the extent to which new media have penetrated the Romanian organizations’ internal communication and have influenced the leadership. We intend also to consider how social media becomes a tool for organizational communication and contributes to the creation of a new kind of leadership associated with open communication. We start from the premise that new media and social media can contribute to the leader’s mission to create around him a vision and makes others to share this vision. In terms of open communication, the external image of organization reflects, in part, leadership practices within the organization. It is about the exercise of the shared collective leadership (Don Tapscott, 1996 that should strengthen the organization position.
Full Text Available If one starts from the assumption that each entity in one way or another have to communicate with consumers, then opportunities offered by the Internet are endless. As such the presence and impact of social media on communication policies of the various entities can be a remarkable one. According to experts in the field, firms thinking in a realistic way try and shall try in the future to benefit from the opportunities offered by this new medium. The aim is to attract a larger number of customers. However invariably the question arises: is the social media indeed the future, and all the existing communication techniques are no longer of any value in a communication?
Carpenter, Jordan; Green, Melanie; Laflam, Jeff
Social media websites such as Facebook are used for relationship development and maintenance often through self-disclosure and sharing of personal information. However, not all forms of social media communication may be equally suitable for this task. This paper explores users' norms about the appropriateness of using private vs. public Facebook messages to communicate different kinds of personal information, and the effectiveness of these types of communication in building relationships. Study 1, a survey, revealed that users endorse conflicting expectations about preferences for receiving information publicly or privately. Study 2, a field experiment testing the effects of private versus public Facebook communications on actual relationship development using participants' own Facebook pages, suggested that private messages lead to greater closeness.
Sergey Petrovich Kushneruk
Full Text Available Some results of the official-and-business texts’ qualities revealed on communication level are presented in this article. The system of axes used for national-and-social evaluations of the business communicative instruments is under analysis. The influences of unstable social-and-cultural conditions on technological and organizational circumstances of document-oriented communication are analyzed. Some results of the out-of-officinal factors origin’ and level’s evaluation in their influence on unified forms and textual peculiarities of communicative acts in the forms of “business papers” are presented.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-44
Full Text Available The Internet has a major impact when it comes to marketing tools, providing new opportunities that were not previously available is the traditional marketing environment. Each traditional communication channel has its obvious advantages and organizations must continue to use it, but the Internet is a channel in constant development, enjoying high attention and being currently used by more than a third of the global population. Knowing the different advantages and disadvantages of both traditional and online marketing, a good marketer may be able to make the right decision when developing integrated marketing strategies.
Leonhardt, Sara Diana; Menzel, Florian; Nehring, Volker; Schmitt, Thomas
Insect life strategies comprise all levels of sociality from solitary to eusocial, in which individuals form persistent groups and divide labor. With increasing social complexity, the need to communicate a greater diversity of messages arose to coordinate division of labor, group cohesion, and concerted actions. Here we summarize the knowledge on prominent messages in social insects that inform about reproduction, group membership, resource locations, and threats and discuss potential evolutionary trajectories of each message in the context of social complexity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The rapid rise and popularization of social media has a profound impact on the society today. The emergence of the social media broadens the channels of communication and the people's vision. Citizens can freely express information such as words and pictures, and freely exchange their views on social media. This study will focus on Sina Weibo which is the most popular social media in China. The purpose of this research is to study how to attract so much attention by protagonist‘s post and thi...
The purpose of this study was to investigate Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as a contribution tool to the future practices of corporate marketing communications. Another aim was to discover the current practices of CSR within corporate marketing communications with a specific focus on corporate and stakeholder value creation gained through this merging of two disciplines. Finally, the possibility of creating future competitive advantages through the use of CSR in marketing communicatio...
Andreea-Maria Tîrziu; Cătălin I. Vrabie
The means of communication, from the most simple and natural ones – such as gestures and voice, to the most complex and developed ones – such as the new electronic media, have constantly brought changes to the society, their own transformation being due to the social environment that generated them. Nowadays, the new media – being in a rapid development unprecedented in the past – is giving new insights of communication and learning to the younger generations which, unlike those f...
Jack, Rachael E; Schyns, Philippe G
As a highly social species, humans frequently exchange social information to support almost all facets of life. One of the richest and most powerful tools in social communication is the face, from which observers can quickly and easily make a number of inferences - about identity, gender, sex, age, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, physical health, attractiveness, emotional state, personality traits, pain or physical pleasure, deception, and even social status. With the advent of the digital economy, increasing globalization and cultural integration, understanding precisely which face information supports social communication and which produces misunderstanding is central to the evolving needs of modern society (for example, in the design of socially interactive digital avatars and companion robots). Doing so is challenging, however, because the face can be thought of as comprising a high-dimensional, dynamic information space, and this impacts cognitive science and neuroimaging, and their broader applications in the digital economy. New opportunities to address this challenge are arising from the development of new methods and technologies, coupled with the emergence of a modern scientific culture that embraces cross-disciplinary approaches. Here, we briefly review one such approach that combines state-of-the-art computer graphics, psychophysics and vision science, cultural psychology and social cognition, and highlight the main knowledge advances it has generated. In the light of current developments, we provide a vision of the future directions in the field of human facial communication within and across cultures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Levin, April R; Fox, Nathan A; Zeanah, Charles H; Nelson, Charles A
To determine the risk of difficulties with social communication and restricted/repetitive behaviors as well as the rate of autism in children institutionalized in early infancy and to assess the impact of a foster care intervention on ameliorating this risk. Children abandoned at birth and raised in institutions in Bucharest, Romania were randomly assigned to a care-as-usual group (institutional care, CAUG), or placed in family-centered foster care (FCG) as part of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP). At approximately 10 years of age, the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) was administered to caregivers of children in both groups as well as to parents of a typically developing community sample (Never-Institutionalized group [NIG]) residing in Bucharest, Romania. Children scoring ≥12 on the SCQ underwent clinical evaluation for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Caregivers of children with a history of institutionalization reported that these children had significantly more deviant behavior than never-institutionalized children on all subdomains of the SCQ (all p communication. Three of 60 CAUG children, 2 of 57 FCG children, and none of the NIG children received a formal ASD diagnosis. Early institutional rearing was associated with an increased risk of social communication difficulties and ASD. A family-centered foster care intervention improved social communication skills. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Madsen, Vibeke Thøis
The aim of this paper is to explore to what extend internal social media introduces a new kind of participatory communication in organizations. The paper is based on two explorative studies: A multiple case study in ten Danish organizations and a single case study in a Danish bank. Based on the t....... Different levels of communication might be reached in different types of organizations, and it is only when coworkers perceive a license to critique that organizations will actually develop participatory communication that has the ability to move the organization....
In education, argumentation has an increasing importance because it can be used to foster learning in various fields including philosophy, history, sciences, and mathematics. Argumentation is also at the heart of scientific inquiry. Many educational technology researchers have been interested in finding out how technologies can be employed to improve students' learning of argumentation. Therefore, many computer-based tools or argumentation systems have been developed to assist students in their acquisition of argumentation skills. While the argumentation systems incorporating online debating tools present a good resource in formal settings, there is limited research revealing what argumentative skills students are portraying in informal online settings without the presence of a moderator. This dissertation investigates the nature of argumentative practices in a massively multiplayer online game where the system successfully incorporates the authentic use of online synchronous communication tools and the patterns that emerge from the interplay between a number of contextual variables including synchronicity, interest, authenticity, and topical knowledge.
de Choudhury, Munmun; Sundaram, Hari; John, Ajita; Seligmann, Doree Duncan
This chapter deals with the analysis of interpersonal communication dynamics in online social networks and social media. Communication is central to the evolution of social systems. Today, the different online social sites feature variegated interactional affordances, ranging from blogging, micro-blogging, sharing media elements (i.e., image, video) as well as a rich set of social actions such as tagging, voting, commenting and so on. Consequently, these communication tools have begun to redefine the ways in which we exchange information or concepts, and how the media channels impact our online interactional behavior. Our central hypothesis is that such communication dynamics between individuals manifest themselves via two key aspects: the information or concept that is the content of communication, and the channel i.e., the media via which communication takes place. We present computational models and discuss large-scale quantitative observational studies for both these organizing ideas. First, we develop a computational framework to determine the "interestingness" property of conversations cented around rich media. Second, we present user models of diffusion of social actions and study the impact of homophily on the diffusion process. The outcome of this research is twofold. First, extensive empirical studies on datasets from YouTube have indicated that on rich media sites, the conversations that are deemed "interesting" appear to have consequential impact on the properties of the social network they are associated with: in terms of degree of participation of the individuals in future conversations, thematic diffusion as well as emergent cohesiveness in activity among the concerned participants in the network. Second, observational and computational studies on large social media datasets such as Twitter have indicated that diffusion of social actions in a network can be indicative of future information cascades. Besides, given a topic, these cascades are often a
Ahmad, Aznan Che; Brown, P. Margaret
This study investigated how the type and duration of early intervention (EI) experience impacts hearing parents' views of the importance of different types of facilitative communication strategies when interacting with their children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH). Sixteen mothers were involved in the study. Respondents were allocated to…
Green, Katherine B.; Towson, Jacqueline A.; Head, Cynthia; Janowski, Brittany; Smith, Laura
Family-centered practices that build caregiver capacity are a central focus of early intervention services for young children with disabilities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of adapting the "Parents Interacting with Infants" (PIWI) facilitated playgroup model to target effective communication strategies for…
Olivares, Rafael A.; Lemberger, Nancy
Provides recommendations for the implementation of the communication, constructivism, and transference of knowledge (CCT) model in the education of English language learners (ELLS). Describes how the CCT model is identified in research studies and suggests specific recommendations to facilitate the implementation of the model in the education of…
One of the human inventions created in order to facilitate life but it became scourge for him is mobile phone. Ignorance on quality of using mobile phone and conscious use of it in inappropriate way will have consequences that it seems that it gradually becomes as social problem and harm. Author of this paper aims to warns ...
Montain, J.; Byrne, J. M.
To what extent do popular social networking channels represent a viable means for disseminating information regarding environmental change to the general public? Are new forms of communication such as YouTube™, Facebook™, MySpace™ and Twitter™ and smart devices such as iPhone™ and BlackBerry™ useful and effective in terms motivating people into social action and behavioural modification; or do they simply pay ‘lip service’ to these pressing environmental issues? This project will explore the background connections between social networking and environmental communication and education; and outline why such tools might be an appropriate way to connect to a broad audience in an efficient and unconventional manner. Further, research will survey the current prevalence of reliable environmental change information on social networking Internet-based media; and finally, suggestions for improved strategies and new directions will be provided.
Miguel Ángel Nicolás
Full Text Available Currently, management of communication in social networks has become an indispensable strategic activity and contributes directly to change the mode of relationship between business and its stakeholders. The first section of this paper presents a brief analysis of the results reported in different specialized national studies in social networks. We analyse the general activities that users prefer to do and activities that users value most brands on networks. If an organization wants to successfully manage their communication in social networks is very important to know the behaviour of the users and design strategies based on their status and economic activity. This paper presents a brief analysis of social branding through the classification of different corporate content posted on their networks.
This paper connects the effects of social media on terror/anti-terror communication with dynamics and consequences of surveillance. Citizens become via social media more independent from mass media and more interconnected. This is also valid when citizens engage in terror/anti-terror communication...... that social media contribute to extending surveillance: by being a temptation for intelligence services, by not resisting state authorities and via constructing threat perceptions among populations which in effect deliver security politicians ‘windows of opportunity’ in order to implement ever more....... However, via social media citizens also become targets of the ‘collect-it-all’ surveillance, which was revealed to the global public in 2013. I argue that due to such surveillance some citizens might start to censor themselves and that surveillance inflicts with a number of human rights. I further argue...
Fehring, Keith A; De Martino, Ivan; McLawhorn, Alexander S; Sculco, Peter K
Physician to physician communication is essential for the transfer of ideas, surgical experience, and education. Social networks and online video educational contents have grown exponentially in recent years changing the interaction among physicians. Social media platforms can improve physician-to-physician communication mostly through video education and social networking. There are several online video platforms for orthopedic surgery with educational content on diagnosis, treatment, outcomes, and surgical technique. Social networking instead is mostly centered on sharing of data, discussion of confidential topics, and job seeking. Quality of educational contents and data confidentiality represent the major drawbacks of these platforms. Orthopedic surgeons must be aware that the quality of the videos should be better controlled and regulated to avoid inaccurate information that may have a significant impact especially on trainees that are more prone to use this type of resources. Sharing of data and discussion of confidential topics should be extremely secure according the HIPAA regulations in order to protect patients' confidentiality.
Tang-Mui Joo; Chan-Eang Teng
The impact of social networking is varied from good to bad. Online activities have also been categorized into pros and cons of social networking, either as reported as hiding Internet activities among teenagers or killing loneliness among elderly. In terms of relationships, there have been argument over its closeness and quality of an online relationship in Internet settings. Looking at the contradiction in an innovative interaction between classic community communication and soci...
Casillas, Christian E.
I explore the role of information and communication in the world of institution-led development. Through a series of case studies from the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua, I present several projects and their implications for uncovering information that may lead to greater local benefit from externally-planned development projects. In order to construct policies and implement projects, development institutions collect, analyze, and simplify information, collapsing messy physical and social realities into narrow sets of metrics. In addition, local stakeholders often aren't privy to the analysis and assumptions of the "expert" planners. An evolved set of methods for dialogue and planning, which focus on sharing available information, can help facilitate outcomes that are more beneficial for targeted groups. Carbon abatement cost curves provide a clear example where the relations of complex social, economic, and environmental systems are reduced to a narrow set of metrics, specifically the cost of carbon mitigation and the total tons reduced. When the carbon abatement cost curve is applied to the community level, it reveals information and allows for conclusions obscured by aggregated national level studies. I show that there are opportunities for augmenting the limited metrics of these cost curves to include those that relate to welfare, beginning to highlight how costs and savings are distributed among stakeholders. In particular, the benefits to the most marginalized groups are heavily dependent on planners taking a pro-poor approach. However, planners typically remain blind to the priorities, capabilities, and values of the target stakeholders. There is a dearth of methods that effectively open up the development expert's black box of project designs, allowing their proposed solutions to be transparent to the target beneficiaries. I address this challenge through the presentation of a participatory modeling process that was utilized with groups of artisanal fishers
King, Sharla; Greidanus, Elaine; Carbonaro, Michael; Drummond, Jane; Patterson, Steven
This study describes the redesign of an interprofessional team development course for health science students. A theoretical model is hypothesized as a framework for the redesign process, consisting of two themes: 1) the increasing trend among post-secondary students to participate in social networking (e.g., Facebook, Second Life) and 2) the need for healthcare educators to provide interprofessional training that results in effective communities of practice and better patient care. The redesign focused on increasing the relevance of the course through the integration of custom-designed technology to facilitate social networking during their interprofessional education. Results suggest that students in an educationally structured social networking environment can be guided to join learning communities quickly and access course materials. More research and implementation work is required to effectively develop interprofessional health sciences communities in a combined face-to-face and on-line social networking context.
King, Jessica E; Plamondon, Jenna; Counts, Debra; Laney, Dawn; Dixon, Shannan DeLany
Delayed discussion about infertility with individuals affected by Turner syndrome (TS) has been found to result in psychological and social harm. The aim of this study was to identify barriers experienced when discussing infertility and determine resource types that may facilitate this conversation. An electronic survey, given to caregivers of girls with TS diagnosed at barriers in having the conversation. Although most individuals did not use resources to facilitate the conversation, they did express interest in additional resources.
Snyder, Amanda L; Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Arciero, Paul J
Grounded in social facilitation theory, this study compared the impact on exercise intensity of a virtual versus a live competitor, when riding a virtual reality-enhanced stationary bike ("cybercycle"). It was hypothesized that competitiveness would moderate effects. Twenty-three female college students were exposed to three conditions on a cybercycle: solo training, virtual competitor, and live competitor. After training without a competitor (solo condition for familiarization with equipment), participants competed against a virtual avatar or live rider (random order of presentation). A repeated-measures analysis revealed a significant condition (virtual/live) by competitiveness (high/low) interaction for exercise intensity (watts). More competitive participants exhibited significantly greater exercise intensity when competing against a live versus virtual competitor. The implication is that live competitors can have an added social facilitation effect and influence exercise intensity, although competitiveness moderates this effect.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate the structural relationship between social influence, motivation and facilitating conditions with the use behaviour of teleworking technology, considering the moderating effect of behavioural intention to utilize teleworking. The research is done according to descriptive method with correlational type. Statistical population is public organizations and the sample was selected using simple random sampling. Data collection tool was questionnaire and experts judged its validity. The reliability of the tool was evaluated using a pre-test of 30 people. The data gathered from a sample of 365 people used to test the hypothesis and conceptual model of the research. By exploratory factor analysis and structural equation model path analysis was done. The results show that social influence, motivation and facilitating conditions have a positive impact on behavioural intention to use teleworking systems and this behavioural intention cause an increase in using behaviour among employees.
This thesis studies Finnish music industry startups’ viewpoints on marketing communica-tions and social media, as well as their views on the future of the music business. Four Finland based music industry startups were interviewed for the study. Separate chapters deal with the framework of the study: marketing communications, social media and music industry. During the past few years a number of startup companies have been established in Finland with the aim of providing online and digit...
Full Text Available Social communication is heavily affected in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. Accordingly, mouse models designed to study the mechanisms leading to these disorders are tested for this phenotypic trait. Test conditions vary between different models, and the effect of these test conditions on the quantity and quality of social interactions and ultrasonic communication is unknown. The present study examines to which extent the habituation time to the test cage as well as the shape/size of the cage influence social communication in freely interacting mice. We tested 8 pairs of male mice in free dyadic social interactions, with two habituation times (20 min and 30 min and three cage formats (rectangle, round, square. We tested the effect of these conditions on the different types of social contacts, approach-escape sequences, follow behavior, and the time each animal spent in the vision field of the other one, as well as on the emission of ultrasonic vocalizations and their contexts of emission. We provide for the first time an integrated analysis of the social interaction behavior and ultrasonic vocalizations. Surprisingly, we did not highlight any significant effect of habituation time and cage shape/size on the behavioral events examined. There was only a slight increase of social interactions with the longer habituation time in the round cage. Remarkably, we also showed that vocalizations were emitted during specific behavioral sequences especially during close contact or approach behaviors. The present study provides a protocol reliably eliciting social contacts and ultrasonic vocalizations in adult male mice. This protocol is therefore well adapted for standardized investigation of social interactions in mouse models of neuropsychiatric disorders.
Madsen, Vibeke Thøis
Purpose: The aim of this article is to explore the extent to which internal social media introduces a new kind of participatory communication within organizations with a capability of influencing and moving the organization. Design/methodology/approach: The article is based on two exploratory stu...
Kramer, Michael W.
This study explores the communication experiences of two volunteer groups involved in the production of community theater musicals. Based on social exchange theory, it examined what group members perceived to be the positive benefits (primarily meeting people and having an opportunity to perform) and the negative costs (primarily disorganization,…
Chen, R.; Davison, R.M.; Ou, Carol
It is important to understand the symbolic meaning of social media perceived by users in a particular communication context, as it may completely deviate from designers’ original intentions. In the exploratory case study of Moon Struck hotel in China, we investigate how customers interpret this
Weiss, Amy L.; Theadore, Geraldine
This article focuses on why and how speech-language pathologists and other professionals can encourage the involvement of parents in teaching social communication skills to their young children. Four main topics are explored: (1) the evidence that many of the children with special needs served by speech-language pathologists and other…
This paper examines connectedness to, communication with and monitoring of unmarried adolescents in Ghana by parents, other adults, friends and key social institutions and the roles these groups play with respect to adolescent sexual activity. The paper draws on 2004 nationally-representative survey data and ...
Ou, C.X.J.; Sia, C.L.; Hui, C.K.
Purpose – Advances in information technology (IT) have resulted in the development of various computer‐mediated communication (CMC) and social networking tools. However, quantifying the benefits of utilizing these tools in the organizational context remains a challenge. In this study, the authors
Conover, Michael D; Davis, Clayton; Ferrara, Emilio; McKelvey, Karissa; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro
Social movements rely in large measure on networked communication technologies to organize and disseminate information relating to the movements' objectives. In this work we seek to understand how the goals and needs of a protest movement are reflected in the geographic patterns of its communication network, and how these patterns differ from those of stable political communication. To this end, we examine an online communication network reconstructed from over 600,000 tweets from a thirty-six week period covering the birth and maturation of the American anticapitalist movement, Occupy Wall Street. We find that, compared to a network of stable domestic political communication, the Occupy Wall Street network exhibits higher levels of locality and a hub and spoke structure, in which the majority of non-local attention is allocated to high-profile locations such as New York, California, and Washington D.C. Moreover, we observe that information flows across state boundaries are more likely to contain framing language and references to the media, while communication among individuals in the same state is more likely to reference protest action and specific places and times. Tying these results to social movement theory, we propose that these features reflect the movement's efforts to mobilize resources at the local level and to develop narrative frames that reinforce collective purpose at the national level.
Francesco La Barbera
Full Text Available The effect of communicating social psychology research findings on ingroup bias in a classroom setting has been investigated. Two hundred and twenty one high school students either read or did not read a brief report about three classical social psychological studies, then completed evaluation scales for the ingroup and the outgroup. Participants’ motivation was manipulated, and the messages were different as regards the congruency between the content and participants’ actual intergroup experience. Results showed that communication exerted a significant effect in reducing ingroup bias for participants in the high motivation/high congruency condition, that is, the communication effect was moderated by the individual’s level of motivation and the content of the arguments proposed in the report. Practical implications of results for education work and stereotype change, limitations of the study, as well as possible directions for future research are discussed.
Khajeheian, Datis; Mirahmadi, Fereshteh
Public relations are undertaking more important role in the marketing communication and advertising. The present paper reports a survey conducted in three Iranian banks’ public relations departments to understand how they use different media in their marketing communications and other related...... functions. A classification of public relations functions including fourteen functions in three categories has taken as research framework and by using a questionnaire, eight media have been asked to rank for each function, includes Television, Radio, Newspaper, Magazine, Classified Ads, Internet Websites......, Social media and finally Mobile and SMS ads. Findings show that traditional media still play a dominant role in media consumption of public relations, while new Web2.0 media consist of Mobile communications and Social networks, have never ranked better than fifth from eight. Some reasons have been argues...
Full Text Available Cay Anderson-Hanley1,2, Amanda L Snyder1, Joseph P Nimon1, Paul J Arciero1,21Healthy Aging and Neuropsychology Lab, Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA; 2Health and Exercise Sciences Department, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY, USAAbstract: This study examined the effect of virtual social facilitation and competitiveness on exercise effort in exergaming older adults. Fourteen exergaming older adults participated. Competitiveness was assessed prior to the start of exercise. Participants were trained to ride a “cybercycle;” a virtual reality-enhanced stationary bike with interactive competition. After establishing a cybercycling baseline, competitive avatars were introduced. Pedaling effort (watts was assessed. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant group (high vs low competitiveness X time (pre- to post-avatar interaction (F[1,12] = 13.1, P = 0.003. Virtual social facilitation increased exercise effort among more competitive exercisers. Exercise programs that match competitiveness may maximize exercise effort.Keywords: exercise, aging, virtual reality, competitiveness, social facilitation, exercise intensity
Social media has transformed the way we think our campaigns and communicate with our audience, but also it changed the way we get in touch with our target and make it react to what we are saying or doing. The objective of this paper is to emphasize that we not only use social media on a personal level, but we’ve transformed it in an important marketing tool for our business. Today we live in online almost as much as we live in the real world. A company without a website and social...
Full Text Available Digital media pose a dual challenge to conventional understandings of political agency. First, digital media destabilize long-held assumptions about the nature of collective action, about social movements and their capacity to effect change. This is because digital media are thought to facilitate more decentralized, dispersed, temporary and individualized forms of political action that subvert the notion of the collective as singular, unified, homogeneous, coherent, and mass. One way of resolving this challenge is to view the collective in looser terms, as a process rather than as a finished product, a conceptualization that can be influence our understanding not only of social movements, but also of other political actors and of society as a whole. Second, digital media highlight the need to take communication seriously in how we conceptualize both collective action and political agency. Placing communication at the centre allows us to develop this looser and more processual understanding of the collective by studying it as a process that is constituted in and through communication. Inspired by organizational communication and particularly the work of Taylor and van Every (2000, this essay proposes a conception of collective action as emerging in conversations and solidified in texts. This conceptualization allows for a more multiplex and variegated view of political agency that takes into account the specific context where agency is exercised and the power that different actors can exert in a communicative process of negotiation, persuasion and claim-making.
St John, C.; Marx, S.; Markowitz, E.
Researchers from the Center for Research on Environmental Decisions (CRED) published "The Psychology of Climate Change Communication: A Guide for Scientists, Journalists, Educators, Political Aides, and the Interested Public" in 2009. This landmark guide provided climate change communicators a synthesis of the social science research that was pertinent to understanding how people think about climate change and how the practice could be improved. In the fall of 2014 this guide will be rereleased, with a new title, and in a partnership between CRED and ecoAmerica. The updated guide addresses how and why Americans respond in certain ways to climate change and explains how communicators can apply best practices to their own work. The guide, which includes research from a range of social science fields including psychology, anthropology, communications, and behavioral economics, is designed to be useful for experienced and novice communicators alike. Included in the guide are strategies to boost engagement, common mistakes to avoid, and best practices that organizations around the world have used to meaningfully engage individuals and groups on climate change. The proposed presentation will provide an overview of the main findings and tips from the 2014 climate change communication guide. It will provide a deeper look at a few of the key points that are crucial for increasing audience engagement with climate change including understanding how identity shapes climate change, how to lead with solutions, and how to bring the impacts of climate change close to home. It will highlight tips for motivating positive behavior change that will lead people down the path toward solutions. Finally, it will address the benefits and challenges associated with producing a communication guide and insight into synthesizing social science research findings into a usable format for a variety of audiences.
Йолита Ричардовна Вайнхардт
Full Text Available Objective: to examine the details of declared activities of social responsibility in the public sector. To achieve the objective the following tasks are formulated: (1 to review the CSR research carried out inLithuania; (2 to analyse the communicative actions of public sector organizations concerning socially responsible activities. Method of work: the article is written using the methods of content analysis, analogy and reflection. Results: Corporate social responsibility (CSR activities focused on external interest groups and their representation are analysed in the article. The survey covers state capital enterprises or enterprises, in which a larger part of the portfolio of shares is owned by the public sector, and educational organizations, the founder of which is the state. The research of CSR carried out in Lithuania in recent years is overviewed and analysis of the way the public sector organizations, which belong to United Nations Global Compact (hereafter GC network communicate their socially responsible activities is provided. It has been found that the membership of the majority of public sector organizations in the GC is rather formal, and insufficient attention is given for communicating socially responsible activities in information carriers, most easily accessible to the user. Application of results: management in the public sector.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-32
This article considers whether the use of specific communication strategies can improve learners' English proficiency in communicative tasks. Japanese college students (n= 62) participated in a 12-week course of English lessons using a communicative approach with strategy training. To investigate the influence of specific strategy use, their…
Social presence is a theory derived from social psychology to explain social interactions in a mediated communication and is defined as the degree to which interlocutors in a communications medium perceive each other as real. This study investigates the effect of computer-mediated communication on the social presence of international students who…
Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Larson, Mia
Since the emerging omnipresence of social media usage in Western societies, marketers have been eager to harness the strategic communication potential of new media (e.g. blogs, wikis, visual content sharing sites and online communities. This is also apparent in event tourism; for instance music...... festivals have proved to be early adopters of Facebook fan sites and Twitter in order to distribute information, campaigns and celebrity rumors to their potential visitors in an inexpensive way. On the other hand, the strategic use of social media has also been hypothesized to be paved with a number...... of challenges. In order to fill a void of empirical studies of managing festival communications, this paper explores how social media is used as a tool for marketing and service innovation. By conducting focus groups and personal interviews with larger music events (Storsjöyran, Way Out West and Roskilde...
Golub, Mari S; Hogrefe, Casey E; Bulleri, Alicia M
Fluoxetine improves social interactions in children with autism, social anxiety and social phobia. It is not known whether this effect is mediated directly or indirectly by correcting the underlying pathology. Genetics may also influence the drug effect. Polymorphisms of the MAOA (monoamine oxidase A) gene interact with fluoxetine to influence metabolic profiles in juvenile monkeys. Juvenile nonhuman primates provide an appropriate model for studying fluoxetine effects and drug*gene interactions in children. Male rhesus monkeys 1-3 years of age living in permanent social pairs were treated daily with a therapeutic dose of fluoxetine or vehicle (n = 16/group). Both members of each social pair were assigned to the same treatment group. They were observed for social interactions with their familiar cagemate over a 2-year dosing period. Subjects were genotyped for MAOA variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphisms categorized for high or low transcription rates (hi-MAOA, low-MAOA). Fluoxetine-treated animals spent 30% more time in social interaction than vehicle controls. Fluoxetine significantly increased the duration of quiet interactions, the most common type of interaction, and also of immature sexual behavior typical of rhesus in this age group. Specific behaviors affected depended on MAOA genotype of the animal and its social partner. When given fluoxetine, hi-MOAO monkeys had more social invitation and initiation behaviors and low-MAOA subjects with low-MAOA partners had more grooming and an increased frequency of some facial and vocal expressive behaviors. Fluoxetine may facilitate social interaction in children independent of remediation of psychopathology. Common genetic variants may modify this effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lundqvist, Daniel; Fogelberg Eriksson, Anna; Ekberg, Kerstin
Previous research has shown that social support is important for health and performance at work, but there is a lack of research regarding managers' social support at work, and if it needs to be improvedOBJECTIVE:To investigate managers' perception of work-related social support, and facilitators and hindrances that influence their seeking of social support at work. Semi-structured interviews with sixty-two managers in two Swedish organizations. Work-related support, which strengthened their managerial image of being competent, was sought from sources within the workplace. Sensitive and personal support, where there was a risk of jeopardizing their image of being competent, was sought from sources outside the workplace. Access to arenas for support (location of the workplace, meetings, and vocational courses) and the managerial role could facilitate their support-seeking, but could also act as hindrances. Because attending different arenas for support were demanding, they refrained from seeking support if the demands were perceived as too high. Different supportive sources are distinguished based on what supportive function they have and in which arenas they are found, in order to preserve the confidence of the closest organization and to maintain the image of being a competent and performing manager.
Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Richman, David M.; Chesnut, Steven Randall; Little, Todd D.
In analyzing data from the National Database for Autism Research, we utilized Mokken scaling techniques as a means of creating a more effective and efficient screening procedure for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) via the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). With a sample of 1,040, approximately 80% (n = 827) of the sample were males while…
Enriquez, Judith Guevarra
In this article, centrality is explored as a measure of computer-mediated communication (CMC) in networked learning. Centrality measure is quite common in performing social network analysis (SNA) and in analysing social cohesion, strength of ties and influence in CMC, and computer-supported collaborative learning research. It argues that measuring…
Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine; Collins, Anna
Purpose: The purposes of this study are to investigate metapragmatic (MP) ability in 6-11-year-old children with social communication disorder (SCD), developmental language disorder (DLD), and typical language development and to explore factors associated with MP explicitation and social understanding (SU). Method: In this cross-sectional study,…
Gersick, Andrew S.; Cheney, Dorothy L.; Schneider, Jennifer M.; Seyfarth, Robert M.; Holekamp, Kay E.
Calls that catalyse group defence, as in the mobbing of predators, appear to facilitate cooperation by recruiting receivers to act collectively. However, even when such signals reliably precede cooperative behaviour, the extent to which the calls function as recruitment signals is unclear. Calls might simply arouse listeners’ attention, setting off a cascade of independent responses to the threat. By contrast, they might convey information, for example, about signaller identity and the nature of a threat that affects receivers’ decisions to participate. We explored this distinction by investigating a possible long-distance recruitment call used by spotted hyaenas. These social carnivores live in fission–fusion clans and individuals disperse widely within their territories. Putative recruitment calls must therefore attract receivers that are distant from the inciting threat and free to opt out of risky collective aggression. Hyaenas compete with lions over food, and neighbouring clans sometimes engage in violent border clashes. These high-stakes contests are decided based on numerical asymmetries, so hyaenas can only protect critical resources if the dispersed clan can converge quickly at conflict sites. We recorded and analysed whoop bouts produced in multiple contexts and found that bouts produced in response to signs of lion–hyaena conflict had shorter inter-whoop intervals than spontaneous ‘display’ bouts. In subsequent field playback experiments, resting hyaenas were significantly more likely to move in response to ‘recruitment’ bouts with shortened intervals than to otherwise identical ‘display’ bouts. Whereas only stimulus type predicted movement, lower-ranked subjects responded most quickly, perhaps because their feeding opportunities depend on arriving early at any kill site. Results demonstrate that hyaenas possess a signal that can reliably recruit allies across long distances, despite moderating effects of individual circumstances on
Stone, Susan; Stark, Martha
Over the years, we have developed a working model of Structured Play Therapy Groups for Preschoolers, an innovative treatment approach designed to address the needs of young children ages 3 to 5 struggling to adjust to the social demands of their preschool classrooms. These short-term therapy groups facilitate development of the young child's social competence and capacity to participate effectively in a classroom environment. Although the literature on therapy groups for children suggests that preschoolers are not yet evolved enough developmentally to engage actively in a group process, our experience indicates otherwise. The model of treatment presented here will therefore challenge that contention with the claim that not only can preschoolers participate in a structured therapy group of peers but they can, by virtue of that very participation, benefit in ways that will prepare them (as they transition from preschool to kindergarten) for the ever-increasing demands of their ever-expanding social milieus.
Full Text Available Social media has transformed the way we think our campaigns and communicate with our audience, but also it changed the way we get in touch with our target and make it react to what we are saying or doing. The objective of this paper is to emphasize that we not only use social media on a personal level, but we’ve transformed it in an important marketing tool for our business. Today we live in online almost as much as we live in the real world. A company without a website and social media presence it does not exists. For researchers and headhunters, social media have become an important tool. So we have to be careful with things we post online, because they can say a lot of things about us and can influence our professional development. The fundaments for this paper are based mainly on the following studies: (1 “Social Media and the Romanian Business Milieu – Impact of Marketing through Social Media on Local Business Environment”, published in October 2013, by Ernst & Young, (2 “Social Media Primetime Survey”, publish by the Romanian consultancy and training company The Connector, (3 “Online Landscape – South-East Europe”, published by Gemius Knowledge, in 2014 and (4 “Online Social Networks”, by Daedalus MillwardBrown, published in 2011. They all show how social media and online development have impacted on traditional media and how companies cannot ignore these new communication and business channels. Studies on social media also showed that internet and mobile platforms are getting more and more popular, that people and companies are drowned into the digital world, communicating through all types of apps and networks. Used wisely, social media can generate greater and faster results with less money than traditional media (print, television, radio, outdoor. The sources used for this paper say that social media is “the it thing” in the 21st century, when almost every person on the planet has a cell phone or access to one
Moorhead, S Anne; Hazlett, Diane E; Harrison, Laura; Carroll, Jennifer K; Irwin, Anthea; Hoving, Ciska
There is currently a lack of information about the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals from primary research. To review the current published literature to identify the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals, and identify current gaps in the literature to provide recommendations for future health communication research. This paper is a review using a systematic approach. A systematic search of the literature was conducted using nine electronic databases and manual searches to locate peer-reviewed studies published between January 2002 and February 2012. The search identified 98 original research studies that included the uses, benefits, and/or limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals. The methodological quality of the studies assessed using the Downs and Black instrument was low; this was mainly due to the fact that the vast majority of the studies in this review included limited methodologies and was mainly exploratory and descriptive in nature. Seven main uses of social media for health communication were identified, including focusing on increasing interactions with others, and facilitating, sharing, and obtaining health messages. The six key overarching benefits were identified as (1) increased interactions with others, (2) more available, shared, and tailored information, (3) increased accessibility and widening access to health information, (4) peer/social/emotional support, (5) public health surveillance, and (6) potential to influence health policy. Twelve limitations were identified, primarily consisting of quality concerns and lack of reliability, confidentiality, and privacy. Social media brings a new dimension to health care as it offers a medium to be used by the public, patients, and health
Full Text Available Role plays have served an instrumental role in social work education by providing opportunities for students to acquire interaction skills. This project tested various online video conferencing tools to facilitate role plays for students who live in different locations and who are unable to be at the same place at the same time. Key features of the technology included the ability to facilitate real-time interaction, compatibility with laptops and Wi-Fi connections, and the ability to record sessions for later viewing and feedback. Method: Case study design. Results: Students were able to use the videoconferencing software with minimal support. Video quality was not always ideal with contributing factors being the time of day students used the software. There were no distinguishable time and effort demands associated with the online video conferencing compared to classroom role plays. Some students found use of the technology caused them to feel disconnected from their peers compared to face-to-face encounters, while other students found the encounter more intimate in that the pressure to perform in front of others was not felt. Implications: Video conferencing is a promising tool to facilitate social work role plays. Future research needs to assess the acquisition of specific skills compared to traditional classroom students.
Garvey, W D
Communication: The Essence of Science provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of scientific communication. This book focuses on those information-exchange activities that take place mainly among scientists actively involved on the research front. Organized into five chapters, this book begins with an overview of the psychologists' description of the communication structure of science. This text then examines the relationship among spanning, connecting, and integrating the various streams of activities involved in the production of information. Other chapters consider some of
Teaching Mendeley achieves the impossible – it gets users excited to learn about organizing and citing their research articles. However, introducing Mendeley to students and faculty goes well beyond assisting them with organizing their references. Students are particularly apt to see the benefits that its social networking features offer, including promoting collaboration, identifying key resources, and facilitating group work. There are benefits for librarians too - the information it provid...
Caron, Jessica Gosnell; Light, Janice
This pilot study aimed to expand the current understanding of how adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy (CP) and complex communication needs use social media. An online focus group was used to investigate the social media experiences of seven individuals with CP who used Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC). Questions posed to the group related to social media: (a) advantages; (b) disadvantages; (c) barriers; (d) supports; and (e) recommendations. Adolescents with CP who use AAC used a range of communication media to participate in daily interactions, including social media. An analysis of the focus group interaction revealed that the participants used social media to: bypass the constraints of face-to-face interactions; communicate for a number of reasons (e.g. maintain relationships, share experiences); and support independent leisure (e.g. playing games, looking at pictures/videos). Despite the advantages, the participants discussed barriers including limitations related to AAC technologies, social media sites and literacy skills. The results suggest that service providers should implement interventions to support social media use, including enhancement of linguistic, operational and strategic competence. Technology manufacturers should focus on improving the designs of AAC apps and social media sites to facilitate access by individuals who require AAC.
Full Text Available Social influences on foraging efforts were examined in domestic chicks by investigating the frequency of runs made to feeders and the amount of pecking to gain food. Single or paired chicks foraged in an I-shaped maze equipped with a millet feeder on each end, that distributed one or two grains at variable intervals. Regardless of when the grain(s were dispensed, chicks ran back and forth between the feeders. Analyses of their movement patterns revealed: (1 running patterns were not directly synchronized with the dispensing of grain(s, (2 running distance was longer in paired chicks than in single chicks, (3 paired chicks partially synchronized their runs between feeders, and (4 social effects were immediate but cumulative after repeated blocks. We further examined the social effects on running by dividing the I-maze into two parallel lanes separated by a transparent wall, so that kleptoparasitic interference of food did not occur. Again, the chicks increased their running speed and were even more synchronized with their partner’s movements, indicating that food competition alone was not responsible for increased foraging effort. The number of pecks to get grains was also assessed under conditions where the food tray was gradually replaced, from an easy one to more difficult ones. When tested in the separated I-maze, paired chicks pecked more in the difficult food situation without increase in the number of gained grains. Results suggest that (i social facilitation leads to increased foraging efforts and (ii the presence of a conspecific is alone may lead to enhanced foraging efforts in chicks. These findings are discussed in terms of possible ecological background of social facilitation.
Lo, Yu-Chun; Chen, Yu-Jen; Hsu, Yung-Chin; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with social communication deficits as one of the core symptoms. Recently, a five-level model for the social communication has been proposed in which white matter tracts corresponding to each level of the model are identified. Given that the model for social communication subserves social language functions, we hypothesized that the tract integrity of the model for social communication may be reduced in ASD, and the reduction may be related to social communication deficits. Sixty-two right-handed boys with ASD and 55 typically developing (TD) boys received clinical evaluations, intelligence tests, the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), and MRI scans. Generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) was measured by diffusion spectrum imaging to indicate the microstructural integrity of the tracts for each level of the social communication model. Group difference in the tract integrity and its relationship with the SCQ subscales of social communication and social interaction were investigated. We found that the GFA values of the superior longitudinal fasciculus III (SLF III, level 1) and the frontal aslant tracts (FAT, level 2) were decreased in ASD compared to TD. Moreover, the GFA values of the SLF III and the FAT were associated with the social interaction subscale in ASD. The tract integrity of the model for social communication is reduced in ASD, and the reduction is associated with impaired social interaction. Our results support that reduced tract integrity of the model for social communication might be a neural substrate of social communication deficits in ASD. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Duran, Robert L.; Kelly, Lynne
Examines whether communicative competence influences perceived task, social, and physical attractiveness. Results indicated that communicative competence accounted for 17 percent, 14 percent and 8 percent of the variance in perceived task, social, and physical attractiveness, respectively. (MM)
Lo, Yu-Chun; Chen, Yu-Jen; Hsu, Yung-Chin; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with social communication deficits as one of the core symptoms. Recently, a five-level model for the social communication has been proposed in which white matter tracts corresponding to each level of the model are identified. Given that the model for social communication…
Curtis, J Randall; Treece, Patsy D; Nielsen, Elizabeth L; Gold, Julia; Ciechanowski, Paul S; Shannon, Sarah E; Khandelwal, Nita; Young, Jessica P; Engelberg, Ruth A
Communication with family of critically ill patients is often poor and associated with family distress. To determine if an intensive care unit (ICU) communication facilitator reduces family distress and intensity of end-of-life care. We conducted a randomized trial at two hospitals. Eligible patients had a predicted mortality greater than or equal to 30% and a surrogate decision maker. Facilitators supported communication between clinicians and families, adapted communication to family needs, and mediated conflict. Outcomes included depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among family 3 and 6 months after ICU and resource use. We identified 488 eligible patients and randomized 168. Of 352 eligible family members, 268 participated (76%). Family follow-up at 3 and 6 months ranged from 42 to 47%. The intervention was associated with decreased depressive symptoms at 6 months (P = 0.017), but there were no significant differences in psychological symptoms at 3 months or anxiety or PTSD at 6 months. The intervention was not associated with ICU mortality (25% control vs. 21% intervention; P = 0.615) but decreased ICU costs among all patients (per patient: $75,850 control, $51,060 intervention; P = 0.042) and particularly among decedents ($98,220 control, $22,690 intervention; P = 0.028). Among decedents, the intervention reduced ICU and hospital length of stay (28.5 vs. 7.7 d and 31.8 vs. 8.0 d, respectively; P Communication facilitators may be associated with decreased family depressive symptoms at 6 months, but we found no significant difference at 3 months or in anxiety or PTSD. The intervention reduced costs and length of stay, especially among decedents. This is the first study to find a reduction in intensity of end-of-life care with similar or improved family distress. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00720200).
Christine Tiffany Cool
Full Text Available Problem: In the aftermath of Typhoon Haiyan, the World Health Organization (WHO Representative Office in the Philippines had no social media presence to share timely, relevant public health information. Context: Risk communication is essential to emergency management for public health message dissemination. As social media sites, such as Facebook, are popular in the Philippines, these were adopted for risk communication during the response to Haiyan. Action and outcome: The WHO Representative Office in the Philippines established Facebook, Twitter and Instagram accounts. Thirty days after these social medial channels were established, a gradual increase in followers was observed. Facebook saw the largest increase in followers which occurred as posted content gradually evolved from general public health information to more pro-active public health intervention and preparedness messaging. This included information on key health interventions encouraging followers to adopt protective behaviours to mitigate public health threats that frequently occur after a disaster. Lessons learnt: During the response to Haiyan, creating a social media presence, raising a follower base and developing meaningful messages and content was possible. This event underscored the importance of building a social media strategy in non-emergency times and supported the value of developing public health messages and content that both educates and interests the general public.
Cool, Christine Tiffany; Claravall, Marie Chantal; Hall, Julie Lyn; Taketani, Keisuke; Zepeda, John Paul; Gehner, Monika; Lawe-Davies, Olivia
In the aftermath of Typhoon Haiyan, the World Health Organization (WHO) Representative Office in the Philippines had no social media presence to share timely, relevant public health information. Risk communication is essential to emergency management for public health message dissemination. As social media sites, such as Facebook, are popular in the Philippines, these were adopted for risk communication during the response to Haiyan. The WHO Representative Office in the Philippines established Facebook, Twitter and Instagram accounts. Thirty days after these social medial channels were established, a gradual increase in followers was observed. Facebook saw the largest increase in followers which occurred as posted content gradually evolved from general public health information to more pro-active public health intervention and preparedness messaging. This included information on key health interventions encouraging followers to adopt protective behaviours to mitigate public health threats that frequently occur after a disaster. During the response to Haiyan, creating a social media presence, raising a follower base and developing meaningful messages and content was possible. This event underscored the importance of building a social media strategy in non-emergency times and supported the value of developing public health messages and content that both educates and interests the general public.
Ockey, Gary J.; Gu, Lin; Keehner, Madeleine
A growing number of stakeholders argue for the use of second language (L2) speaking assessments that measure the ability to orally communicate in real time. A Web-based virtual environment (VE) that allows live voice communication among individuals may have potential for aiding in delivering such assessments. While off-the-shelf voice…
Cheatham, Gregory A.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.
In this article, the authors present parent-educator conversations, which were selected to illustrate common communication patterns and provide links to some of the Division for Early Childhood of the Council for Exceptional Children's recommended practices for communicating and collaborating with parents. Using conversation analysis, researchers…
McMillan, Libba Reed; Burrus, Embry; Willis, Laura; Grabowsky, Adelia
The fast-paced nature of the healthcare setting, coupled with the number of allied professionals involved, demands accurate and concise written communication. It is imperative that written communication between nursing and allied professionals be clear to ensure that the highest quality of care is provided and that patient safety is maintained.…
Tolman, Elizabeth; Asbury, Bryan
Asynchronous discussions are a useful instructional resource in the online communication course. In discussion groups students have the opportunity to actively participate and interact with students and the instructor. Asynchronous communication allows for flexibility because "participants can interact with significant amounts of time between…
Moustakas, K.; Tzovaras, D.; Dybkjaer, L.
Using sign language, speech, and haptics as communication modalities, a virtual treasure-hunting game serves as an entertainment and educational tool for visually-and hearing-impaired users.......Using sign language, speech, and haptics as communication modalities, a virtual treasure-hunting game serves as an entertainment and educational tool for visually-and hearing-impaired users....
Servaes, J.; Lie, R.
This article provides an overview of subdisciplines in the field of Communication for Development and Social Change. Different subdisciplines of communication science are analyzed to assess their connection to the field. Building on these subdisciplines the article reviews health communication,
Lie, R.; Servaes, J.
This article provides an overview of subdisciplines in the field of Communication for Development and Social Change. Different subdisciplines of communication science are analyzed to assess their connection to the field. Building on these subdisciplines the article reviews health communication,
Schultz, F.; Castello, I.; Morsing, M.
The paper introduces the communication view on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), which regards CSR as communicatively constructed in dynamic interaction processes in today's networked societies. Building on the idea that communication constitutes organizations we discuss the potentially
Microsoft is the most socially responsible company in the world, followed by Google on rank 2 and The Walt Disney Company on rank 3 – at least according to the perceptions of 47,000 people from 15 countries that participated in a survey conducted by the consultancy firm Reputation Institute. In this paper I take a critical look at Corporate Social Responsibility in media and communication industries. Within the debate on CSR media are often only discussed in regard to their role of raising aw...
Uzunova, Aleksandra; Franko, Jan
The case company of this project-based thesis is Hauskafe Oy, an SME company located in Espoo, Finland. Following examples of best practices in the field, Hauskafe Oy recognised the need of designing a social media marketing plan that will allow to build the brand, improve customer loyalty and as a final goal – increase the sales. A social media marketing communication plan for Hauskafe Oy is the outcome of this thesis. The theoretical framework of the thesis is a desktop study that discu...
Sprecher, W.M.; Turner, E.
Based on a review of risk communication and related literature, including policy material, this paper describes the newly revamped risk management program of the DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), and some of the risk-related issues being confronted as the high-level waste management program moves forward. It also describes preliminary activities underway in which the OCRWM is developing strategies for risk communication. The authors offer a definition of risk management as comprised by the components of risk assessment and risk communication. The paper explores the discrepant views that experts and nonexperts have with respect to what constitutes a valid risk assessment model. By illustrating differences in the assessment of risk by experts and lay people, the paper demonstrates how these differences can create challenges in communicating risk and making decisions about risk. Finally, the paper discusses ways in which risk communication could be enhance, and elaborates on the OCRWM's commitment to improve its overall risk management efforts
Prelock, Patricia A.; Calhoun, James; Morris, Hope; Platt, Gretchen
This article describes 2 pilot studies partnering early interventionists and families in targeting social communication and joint attention abilities for young children with autism spectrum disorders. Both parent-intervention trainings involved opportunities for interventionists to partner with families. One pilot utilized "More than Words" (MTW;…
Diana-Maria CISMARU; Cristina LEOVARIDIS
Knowledge-based organizations are constructed on intangible assets, such as the expertise and the values of the employees. As a consequence, motivation and professional excellence of employees are the main objectives of management teams. For this type of organizations, considered as true “knowledge systems”, the employees represent the most valuable resource that is not motivated only through financial means, but also through internal communication, autonomy or social rewards. The research of...
ABSTRACT In the framework of the doctoral thesis „Use of Social Media in Corporate Communication in Latvia (2009-2011)” a new theoretical approach to corporate communication in social media was developed which will help companies to successfully organize their communication with target publics in social media and will provide a new social media investigation tool for the researchers. An added communicative value model was developed by the author in the framework of the new t...
Anders, Silke; Heussen, Yana; Sprenger, Andreas; Haynes, John-Dylan; Ethofer, Thomas
Social context plays an important role in human communication. Depending on the nature of the source, the same communication signal might be processed in fundamentally different ways. However, the selective modulation (or "gating") of the flow of neural information during communication is not fully understood. Here, we use multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) and multivoxel connectivity analysis (MVCA), a novel technique that allows to analyse context-dependent changes of the strength interregional coupling between ensembles of voxels, to examine how the human brain differentially gates content-specific sensory information during ongoing perception of communication signals. In a simulated electronic communication experiment, participants received two alternative text messages during fMRI ("happy" or "sad") which they believed had been sent either by their real-life friend outside the scanner or by a computer. A region in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) selectively increased its functional coupling with sensory-content encoding regions in the visual cortex when a text message was perceived as being sent by the participant's friend, and decreased its functional coupling with these regions when a text message was perceived as being sent by the computer. Furthermore, the strength of neural encoding of content-specific information of text messages in the dmPFC was modulated by the social tie between the participant and her friend: the more of her spare time a participant reported to spend with her friend the stronger was the neural encoding. This suggests that the human brain selectively gates sensory information into the relevant network for processing the mental states of others, depending on the source of the communication signal. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ko, Eunjeong; Zúñiga, María Luisa; Peacher, Diana; Palomino, Helen; Watson, Mercedes
Quality of clinician-patient cancer communication is vital to cancer care and survivorship. Racial/ethnic minority patients in rural regions may have unique characteristics including cultural beliefs, language barriers, and low health literacy which require effective cross-cultural cancer communication. Despite the growing US population of racial/ethnic minorities and widespread emphasis on culturally appropriate health communication, little is known about challenges and facilitators of cancer communication among underserved rural Latino cancer patients in the US-Mexico border region. This study conducted secondary data analysis of interview data collected from 22 individual cancer patients living on the US side of the US-Mexico border. Thematic analysis was conducted to explore a priori questions regarding patient experiences with cancer care communication with their providers. Emerging themes included lack of language concordance, patient perspectives on clarity and accuracy of information provided, patient perceptions on provider sensitivity in giving cancer diagnosis, and improving the clinical interpersonal relationship. Practice guidelines are suggested and discussed. These findings illuminate the importance of advancing improvement of cancer communication between clinicians and Spanish language-dominant Latinos.
Akerlof, K.; Johnson, B. B.; Nackerman, C. J.; Maibach, E.
Climate change represents the worst of wicked environmental problems, requiring collaborations among individuals and groups that cross public, private and voluntary sectors on a global scale to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and prepare for impacts. The Climate Communication Consortium of Maryland represents such a collaboration on a state level for the purpose of supporting governments, non-profits, businesses and universities in communicating with the public about climate and energy within the context of multiple frames, such as public health, extreme weather, and coastal resilience. The collaboration was developed using communication research as an organizational framework - providing data from yearly public opinion surveys on Marylanders' attitudes, behaviors and policy support, and a variety of other qualitative and quantitative studies. In this presentation, we will highlight four dimensions of the use of research within collaborative organizational climate communication that can lead to success, or impediments: 1) individual organizational ability and resources for using audience data; 2) the linking of research questions to programmatic development goals and processes; 3) the weighing of audience- versus communicator-oriented values and priorities; and 4) identification of overarching communication objectives that span individual organizational interests. We will illustrate these dimensions using findings from surveys of our member organizations describing the types of barriers organizations face in communicating about climate change effectively, including their use of formative and evaluative research, and will discuss some of the findings from our public opinion and experimental research, illustrating the ways in which these findings influenced programmatic development and were used by Consortium member organizations.
Ryan, R M; Deci, E L
Human beings can be proactive and engaged or, alternatively, passive and alienated, largely as a function of the social conditions in which they develop and function. Accordingly, research guided by self-determination theory has focused on the social-contextual conditions that facilitate versus forestall the natural processes of self-motivation and healthy psychological development. Specifically, factors have been examined that enhance versus undermine intrinsic motivation, self-regulation, and well-being. The findings have led to the postulate of three innate psychological needs--competence, autonomy, and relatedness--which when satisfied yield enhanced self-motivation and mental health and when thwarted lead to diminished motivation and well-being. Also considered is the significance of these psychological needs and processes within domains such as health care, education, work, sport, religion, and psychotherapy.
Murphy, Glen; Salomone, Sonia
While highly cohesive groups are potentially advantageous they are also often correlated with the emergence of knowledge and information silos based around those same functional or occupational clusters. Consequently, an essential challenge for engineering organisations wishing to overcome informational silos is to implement mechanisms that facilitate, encourage and sustain interactions between otherwise disconnected groups. This paper acts as a primer for those seeking to gain an understanding of the design, functionality and utility of a suite of software tools generically termed social media technologies in the context of optimising the management of tacit engineering knowledge. Underpinned by knowledge management theory and using detailed case examples, this paper explores how social media technologies achieve such goals, allowing for the transfer of knowledge by tapping into the tacit and explicit knowledge of disparate groups in complex engineering environments.
Derks, Daantje; Bos, Arjan E R; von Grumbkow, Jasper
This study investigated the role of emoticons in computer-mediated communication (CMC). The study consisted of an online questionnaire about the social motives for emoticon use and an experimental part in which participants (N = 1,251) had to respond to short Internet chats. In these chats, the interaction partner (friend vs. stranger) and the valence of the context (positive vs. negative) were manipulated. Results showed that emoticons are mostly used to express emotion, to strengthen a message, and to express humor. Furthermore, more emoticons were used in communication with friends than in communication with strangers, and more emoticons were used in a positive context than in a negative context. Participants seem to use emoticons in a way similar to facial behavior in face-to-face communication with respect to social context and interaction partner.
Anagnostou, Evdokia; Jones, Nancy; Huerta, Marisela; Halladay, Alycia K.; Wang, Paul; Scahill, Lawrence; Horrigan, Joseph P.; Kasari, Connie; Lord, Cathy; Choi, Dennis; Sullivan, Katherine; Dawson, Geraldine
Social communication impairments are a core deficit in autism spectrum disorder. Social communication deficit is also an early indicator of autism spectrum disorder and a factor in long-term outcomes. Thus, this symptom domain represents a critical treatment target. Identifying reliable and valid outcome measures for social communication across a…
McCormack, Lauren; Sheridan, Stacey; Lewis, Megan; Boudewyns, Vanessa; Melvin, Cathy L; Kistler, Christine; Lux, Linda J; Cullen, Katherine; Lohr, Kathleen N
This review examined how to best communicate and disseminate evidence, including uncertain evidence, to inform health care decisions. The review focused on three primary objectives--comparing the effectiveness of: (1) communicating evidence in various contents and formats that increase the likelihood that target audiences will both understand and use the information (KQ 1); (2) a variety of approaches for disseminating evidence from those who develop it to those who are expected to use it (KQ 2); and (3) various ways of communicating uncertainty-associated health-related evidence to different target audiences (KQ 3). A secondary objective was to examine how the effectiveness of communication and dissemination strategies varies across target audiences, including evidence translators, health educators, patients, and clinicians. We searched MEDLINE®, the Cochrane Library, Cochrane Central Trials Registry, PsycINFO®, and the Web of Science. We used a variety of medical subject headings (MeSH terms) and major headings, and used free-text and title and abstract text-word searches. The search was limited to studies on humans published from 2000 to March 15, 2013, for communication and dissemination, given the prior systematic reviews, and from 1966 to March 15, 2013, for communicating uncertainty. We used standard Evidence-based Practice Center methods of dual review of abstracts, full-text articles, and abstractions, and quality ratings and group consensus to resolve disagreements. We used group consensus to grade strength of evidence. The search identified 4,152 articles (after removing duplicates) for all three KQs. After dual review at the title/abstract stage and full-text review stage, we retained 61 articles that directly (i.e., head to head) compared strategies to communicate and disseminate evidence. Across the KQs, many of the comparisons yielded insufficient evidence to draw firm conclusions. For KQ 1, we found that investigators frequently blend more than
Full Text Available SAMENVATTING Mensen in armoede toegang bieden tot sport? Een studie naar lokaal sociaal sportbeleid Onderzoek heeft aangetoond dat armoede een impact heeft op de kansen voor sportdeelname. Mensen in armoede participeren minder in sport in vergelijking met mensen die gemakkelijk(er rondkomen. Op Vlaams beleidsniveau werden initiatieven genomen om lokale besturen aan te moedigen tot het promoten en faciliteren van sportdeelname voor mensen in armoede. Het is echter nog onduidelijk in welke mate dit ingang vond op lokaal niveau. In deze studie wordt onderzocht in welke mate lokale sportdiensten momenteel initiatieven nemen om sportdeelname bij mensen in armoede te faciliteren, met welke moeilijkheden sportdiensten worden geconfronteerd om dit doel te bereiken, en in welke mate lokaal sociaal sportbeleid tot stand komt door middel van samenwerkingsverbanden tussen de sportsector enerzijds, en de sociale sector anderzijds. De data zijn afkomstig van het Vlaamse Sportdiensten Panel (2014. De resultaten geven onder meer aan dat de publieke sportsector en de sociale sector nog in grote mate twee “gescheiden” werelden zijn. Het blijkt een uitdaging om de afstand tussen beiden te overbruggen. Aanbevelingen voor verder onderzoek en voor de ontwikkeling van een sociaal sportbeleid worden aangereikt. ABSTRACTFacilitating access to sports for people in poverty? A study on local social sports policy Research has shown that living in poverty affects the opportunities for engaging in practicing sports. People in poverty participate less in sports than people who have no (or fewer difficulties making ends meet. At the Flemish policy level, initiatives have been undertaken to ensure that more local sports authorities promote and facilitate participation in sports for people in poverty. However, it remains unclear how these concerns are being translated at the local level. In this study, we investigate the extent to which local sports authorities are currently
Full Text Available The diverse forms of participation in social media raise many methodological and ethical issues that should be acknowledged in research. In this paper, participation in social media is studied by utilising the framework of explicit and implicit participation. The focus is on the communicative and communal aspects of social media. The aim of the paper is to promote the reconsideration of what constitutes participation when online users create connections rather than content. The underlying argument is that research on social media and the development of methods should concentrate more on implicit forms of participation.
Full Text Available In our days, the electronic communication media is important because the communication forms based on interactivity lead the participants in the act of sending and receiving information to become more than simply issuers, listeners or viewers, integrating them into a dynamic system. In this approach, the study paper aims to prove the relationship between personal development and that of society determined by the new interactive communication instruments. At the individual level, training, education, health, interpersonal relationships are easier to be acquired and amplified Also, the local communities, companies, educational institutions or non-profit organizations increasingly approach themselves to the citizens, receive their problems and try to solve them efficiently. On the other hand, the expansion of the modern means of communication became possible by the steadily decreasing costs of information and of the appropriate management technologies. Virtual communities may, however, only partially replace the traditional communities and the direct physical interaction between people, because online connections are made between people, not between places. Moreover, a high degree of interconnection involves the spreading of ideas, links and various discoveries or improvements of some already existing equipment and processes. The content of this study paper is created using secondary sources of information â€“ with limited and also limiting feature â€“ in an office research, the areas of analysis being studied separately. The result of the study paper is to evidence the fact that the interest for the interactive electronic communication is increasing. We support the idea that such communication contributes to business development in a particular field, in the social sector, but it is better to be aware of its less desirable effects from which we can notice the loss of privacy, the identity theft, the aggressive promotion etc. In our
Luesse, Hiershenee B; Paul, Rachel; Gray, Heewon L; Koch, Pamela; Contento, Isobel; Marsick, Victoria
Background Childhood obesity is a major public health concern and families play an important role. Improving strategies to reach parents and directing tailored nutrition education to them is needed. Purpose To investigate the challenges and facilitators to promoting a healthy environment at home and to identify communication preferences to inform intervention strategies for effectively reaching low-income urban minority families. Procedure Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with four groups involving 16 low-income urban parents (94% female; 88% Hispanic/Latino, 12% African American) of elementary school children. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed applying Social Cognitive Theory and using in-vivo coding. Main Findings The most common barriers to parents providing healthy foods to their children were accommodating child preferences and familial opposition. Parents showed intentionality to engage in healthy behaviors, and often shared procedural knowledge for reaching health goals. The analyses of desired communication channels yielded major preferences: tailored information, information provided through multiple mediums, appropriate duration/frequency of messages, and presented from a voice of authority. Conclusion and Implication While parents expressed desires to be healthy, the home food environment presented substantial challenges. Multi-media supports such as workshops, flyers, and text messaging may be useful to facilitate the sharing of information to minimize the tensions between intentionality and reaching desired goals to be healthy. Some parents thought that information received through text messaging could be easily shared and would act as a voice of authority to support child behavior change.
Cynthia Harumy Watanabe Corrêa
Full Text Available The research emphasizes the social appropriation of Information and Communication Technologies by the Brazilian aviation industry, through a case study of communication strategies of TAM on the social networking site Twitter. TAM is a leader in the Brazilian domestic market and gradually conquering its space in Mercosul. This is an exploratory research, based on content analysis of messages sent to the company profile on Twitter, in order to check whether indeed the consolidation of a social network between TAM and its followers. We analyzed all messages posted since July 3, 2009, the date of the first post in the company profile, until the day January 31, 2010. Among the subjects discussed, there was the predominance of information and promotions. The study concludes that, under Twitter, TAM has yet reached a high degree of social interaction with his followers, because the major number of messages is directed to promotional marketing.
Kent, Clement; Azanchi, Reza; Smith, Ben; Formosa, Amanda; Levine, Joel D
Chemical communication mediates social interactions in insects. For the fruit fly, D. melanogaster, the chemical display is a key fitness trait because it leads to mating. An exchange of cues that resembles a dialogue between males and females is enacted by pheromones, chemical signals that pass between individual flies to alter physiology and behavior. Chemical signals also affect the timing of locomotor activity and sleep. We investigated genetic and environmental determinants of chemical communication. To evaluate the role of the social environment, we extracted a chemical blend from individual males selected from groups composed of one genotype and compared these extracts to those from groups of mixed genotypes. To evaluate the role of the physical environment, these comparisons were performed under a light-dark cycle or in constant darkness. Here, we show that chemical signaling is affected by the social environment, light-dark cycle, and genotype as well as the complex interplay of these variables. Gene-by-environment interactions produce highly significant effects on chemical signaling. We also examined individual responses within the groups. Strikingly, the response of one wild-type fly to another is modulated by the genotypic composition of his neighbors. Chemical signaling in D. melanogaster may be a "fickle" trait that depends on the individual's social background.
Ke, Fengfeng; Im, Tami; Xue, Xinrong; Xu, Xinhao; Kim, Namju; Lee, Sungwoong
This phenomenological study explored and described the experiences and perceptions of adult facilitators who facilitated virtual-reality-based social interaction for children with autism. Extensive data were collected from iterative, in-depth interviews; online activities observation; and video analysis. Four salient themes emerged through the…
Yew, Elaine H. J.; Yong, Janice J. Y.
In problem-based learning (PBL), the role of a tutor or facilitator is different from what is typically considered as the role of a traditional teacher. In addition to being a subject-matter expert, the facilitator is also expected to be "socially" and "cognitively congruent". In this study, we analyze the survey responses from…
Kolowitz, Brian J; Lauro, Gonzalo Romero; Venturella, James; Georgiev, Veliyan; Barone, Michael; Deible, Christopher; Shrestha, Rasu
The adoption of social media technologies appears to enhance clinical outcomes through improved communications as reported by Bacigalupe (Fam Syst Heal 29(1):1-14, 2011). The ability of providers to more effectively, directly, and rapidly communicate among themselves as well as with patients should strengthen collaboration and treatment as reported by Bacigalupe (Fam Syst Heal 29(1):1-14, 2011). This paper is a case study in one organization's development of an internally designed and developed social technology solution termed "Unite." The Unite system combines social technologies' features including push notifications, messaging, community groups, and user lists with clinical workflow and applications to construct dynamic provider networks, simplify communications, and facilitate clinical workflow optimization. Modeling Unite as a social technology may ease adoption barriers. Developing a social network that is integrated with healthcare information systems in the clinical space opens the doors to capturing and studying the way in which providers communicate. The Unite system appears to have the potential to breaking down existing communication paradigms. With Unite, a rich set of usage data tied to clinical events may unravel alternative networks that can be leveraged to advance patient care.
Tao, Hui; Songwathana, Praneed; Isaramalai, Sang-Arun; Wang, Qingxi
This study, which is a part of action research, aims to explore how supportive communication can impact individuals' adaptation to a permanent colostomy in a Chinese cultural context. Two Chinese rectal cancer patients with complexity and difficulty in living with a permanent colostomy were selected using a qualitative case study approach. The researcher (H.T.) interacted with the participants along their journey from the preoperative period until the third postoperative month after discharge via face-to-face or telephone interviews. Content analysis was applied. Supportive communication was characterized by "communication as a supportive tool," which consisted of 4 elements: respect, description, empathy, and empowerment. The nursing strategies included (1) developing a collaborative relationship with patients and families; (2) understanding patients' concerns and problems; (3) discussing potential solutions; (4) encouraging patients to take action; (5) bringing out emotional expression; (6) normalizing negative emotions; and (7) protecting hope. The findings of this study informed that supportive communication is a valuable tool for nurses to provide informational and emotional support to Chinese patients in order to enhance their adaptation to living with a permanent colostomy. Developing an operational manual to enhance supportive communication for patients with colostomy is suggested.
How does the massive use of social media in contemporary protests affect the character of activist communication? Moving away from the conceptualization of social media as tools, this research explores how activist social media communication is entangled with and shaped by heterogeneous
Risnawati; Khairinnisa, S.; Darwis, A. H.
The purpose of this study was to develop a CORE model-based worksheet with recitation task that were valid and practical and could facilitate students’ communication skills in Linear Algebra course. This study was conducted in mathematics education department of one public university in Riau, Indonesia. Participants of the study were media and subject matter experts as validators as well as students from mathematics education department. The objects of this study are students’ worksheet and students’ mathematical communication skills. The results of study showed that: (1) based on validation of the experts, the developed students’ worksheet was valid and could be applied for students in Linear Algebra courses; (2) based on the group trial, the practicality percentage was 92.14% in small group and 90.19% in large group, so the worksheet was very practical and could attract students to learn; and (3) based on the post test, the average percentage of ideals was 87.83%. In addition, the results showed that the students’ worksheet was able to facilitate students’ mathematical communication skills in linear algebra course.
Galligan, Linda; Hobohm, Carola; Loch, Birgit
Teaching and learning of mathematics is challenging when lecturer and students are separated geographically. While student engagement and interaction with the course, with other students and with the lecturer is vital to mathematics learning, it is difficult to facilitate this electronically, because of the nature of mathematics. With tablet…
Emery, R J; Sprau, D D; Morecook, R C
Experience gained during a field training exercise with a Medical Reserve Corps unit on the screening of large groups of individuals for possible contamination with radioactive material revealed that while exercise participants were generally attentive to the proper use of protective equipment and detectors, they tended to overlook important basic risk communications aspects. For example, drill participants did not actively communicate with the persons waiting in line for screening, a step which would provide re-assurance, possibly minimize apprehension, and would clarify expectations. When questioned on this issue of risk communication, drill participants were often able to craft ad hoc messages, but the messages were inconsistent and likely would not have significantly helped diminish anxiety and maintain crowd control. Similar difficulties were encountered regarding messaging for persons determined to be contaminated, those departing the screening center, and those to be delivered to the media. Based on these experiences, the need for a suggested list of risk communication points was identified. To address this need, a set of risk communication templates were developed that focused on the issues likely to be encountered in a mass screening event. The points include issues such as the importance of remaining calm, steps for minimizing possible intake or uptake, considerations for those exhibiting acute injuries, expected screening wait times, the process to be followed and the information to be collected, the process to be undertaken for those exhibiting contamination, and symptoms to watch for after departure. Drill participants indicated in follow-up discussions that such pre-established risk communication templates would serve to enhance their ability to assist in times of emergency and noted the potential broader applicably of the approach for use in responses for other disasters types as well.
Full Text Available Knowledge-based organizations are constructed on intangible assets, such as the expertise and the values of the employees. As a consequence, motivation and professional excellence of employees are the main objectives of management teams. For this type of organizations, considered as true “knowledge systems”, the employees represent the most valuable resource that is not motivated only through financial means, but also through internal communication, autonomy or social rewards. The research of Eurofound shows that knowledge-based organizations have a low number of trade unions, while professional associations are more relevant for them. There is no tradition to defend through negotiation the working conditions of employees, thus it is important for managers to use the best practices, in order to increase the employees’ loyalty. We conducted a qualitative research concerning the quality of professional life of employees in five sectors of knowledge-based services: advertising-marketing, IT, banking and finance, research and development, and higher education; 15-20 employees from each sector were interviewed. Some of the questions referred directly to trade unions and affiliation, and also to internal communication. Although the results showed a different situation in each of the five sectors, there are few common characteristics: descendant communication is more frequent than ascendant communication, trade unions were reported as missing, unrepresentative or not very active, and the greatest part of employees in this sector are not affiliated, facts that limits the possibility of maintaining employees’ motivation on long term.
Luo, Ruixue; Xu, Lei; Zhao, Weihua; Ma, Xiaole; Xu, Xiaolei; Kou, Juan; Gao, Zhao; Becker, Benjamin; Kendrick, Keith M
The neuropeptide oxytocin may increase social cohesion by making us more willing to trust others and/or to conform to their opinions. Here we investigated whether intranasal oxytocin can influence acceptance of advice given on solving everyday social problems by either individual expert (psychologist) or non-expert advisors with or without influencing their perceived likeability or trustworthiness. In a double-blind, between-subject, placebo-control design study in 160 male and female subjects, intranasal oxytocin (24IU) only significantly enhanced acceptance of advice given by female psychologists who were rated as the most trustworthy advisors. However, oxytocin itself did not alter either trustworthiness or likeability ratings. The oxytocin effect on acceptance of the female psychologist's advice was not maintained after a week, with subjects mainly reverting to their original solutions. These findings suggest that while oxytocin can transiently increase acceptance of advice from the most trustworthy individuals this is because it makes subjects more likely to conform to their opinions rather than enhancing their perceived trustworthiness or likeability. Thus in every day contexts oxytocin may primarily promote social cohesion by facilitating conformity towards the opinions of the most trusted individuals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Brewer, Jacob S; Bellinger, Seanceray A; Joshi, Prianca; Kleven, Gale A
Current housing guidelines for laboratory rodents include recommendations for enrichment. Working with guinea pigs, we have developed an open-field enrichment paradigm that provides several aspects of this species' natural environment. These naturalistic aspects include access to increased space for exploration, access to western timothy (Phleum pratense L.) hay, and grouping as a herd to facilitate social interaction. To determine the immediate effect on behavior from access to the enriched environment, female guinea pigs from 2 strains, IAF Hairless and NIH Hartley, were observed in both standard home cages and an open-field enriched environment. Subjects were housed with cagemates in pairs for the home-cage observation and were grouped as a herd when in the open-field arena. Behaviors were videorecorded for 1 h and then scored. Salivary cortisol levels were measured both prior to and immediately after behavioral observations. Analyses revealed higher levels of activity and social interaction in the open-field arena compared with the home cage, with no significant change in salivary cortisol levels. These results suggest that exposure to the open-field environment provide increased opportunities for exercise and social enrichment. Although additional studies are needed to determine long-term effects on experimental outcomes, the open-field configuration holds promise as a laboratory enrichment paradigm for guinea pigs.
Pearl, Gill; Cruice, Madeline
People with aphasia can be marginalized by a communicatively inaccessible society. Compounding this problem, routinized exclusion from stroke research leads to bias in the evidence base and subsequent inequalities in service provision. Within the United Kingdom, the Clinical Research Network of the National Institute of Health identified this…
Employers today expect that students will be able to work in teams. Cooperative learning theory addresses how skills such as decision making, problem solving and communication can be learned by individuals in group settings. This paper discusses how cooperative learning can be used in an online and blended environment to increase active learning…
Kossyvaki, Lila; Jones, Glenys; Guldberg, Karen
Previous research has demonstrated that the way adults interact with children with autism can have a great impact on their spontaneous communication. However, to date, few studies have focused on modifying adults' behaviour and even fewer have been conducted in school settings which actively involve teaching staff in designing the intervention.…
Nwosu, Amara Callistus; Monnery, Daniel; Reid, Victoria Louise; Chapman, Laura
Podcasts have the potential to facilitate communication about palliative care with researchers, policymakers and the public. Some podcasts about palliative care are available; however, this is not reflected in the academic literature. Further study is needed to evaluate the utility of podcasts to facilitate knowledge-transfer about subjects related to palliative care. The aims of this paper are to (1) describe the development of a palliative care podcast according to international recommendations for podcast quality and (2) conduct an analysis of podcast listenership over a 14-month period. The podcast was designed according to internationally agreed quality indicators for medical education podcasts. The podcast was published on SoundCloud and was promoted via social media. Data were analysed for frequency of plays and geographical location between January 2015 and February 2016. 20 podcasts were developed which were listened to 3036 times (an average of 217 monthly plays). The Rich Site Summary feed was the most popular way to access the podcast (n=1937; 64%). The mean duration of each podcast was 10 min (range 3-21 min). The podcast was listened to in 68 different countries and was most popular in English-speaking areas, of which the USA (n=1372, 45.2%), UK (n=661, 21.8%) and Canada (n=221, 7.3%) were most common. A palliative care podcast is a method to facilitate palliative care discussion with global audience. Podcasts offer the potential to develop educational content and promote research dissemination. Future work should focus on content development, quality metrics and impact analysis, as this form of digital communication is likely to increase and engage wider society. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Hu, Jiehui; Qi, Song; Becker, Benjamin; Luo, Lizhu; Gao, Shan; Gong, Qiyong; Hurlemann, René; Kendrick, Keith M
In male Caucasian subjects, learning is facilitated by receipt of social compared with non-social feedback, and the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) facilitates this effect. In this study, we have first shown a cultural difference in that male Chinese subjects actually perform significantly worse in the same reinforcement associated learning task with social (emotional faces) compared with non-social feedback. Nevertheless, in two independent double-blind placebo (PLC) controlled between-subject design experiments we found OXT still selectively facilitated learning with social feedback. Similar to Caucasian subjects this OXT effect was strongest with feedback using female rather than male faces. One experiment performed in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging showed that during the response, but not feedback phase of the task, OXT selectively increased activity in the amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and putamen during the social feedback condition, and functional connectivity between the amygdala and insula and caudate. Therefore, OXT may be increasing the salience and reward value of anticipated social feedback. In the PLC group, response times and state anxiety scores during social feedback were associated with signal changes in these same regions but not in the OXT group. OXT may therefore have also facilitated learning by reducing anxiety in the social feedback condition. Overall our results provide the first evidence for cultural differences in social facilitation of learning per se, but a similar selective enhancement of learning with social feedback under OXT. This effect of OXT may be associated with enhanced responses and functional connectivity in emotional memory and reward processing regions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Simoncic, Milan [Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (Slovenia); Zurga, Gordana [Faculty of Organisation Studies in Novo Mesto (Slovenia)
Implications that nuclear technology brings to common physical and social environment, are on daily lists of questions that stakeholders address to owners and operators of nuclear power plants. In this respect, stakeholders expect and demand narrow and explicit answers to concrete questions set. We claim that the acceptability of the NPP in the society can be achieved and maintained also through active communication and trust building between NPP and its stakeholders. A research in this respect was conducted on case of the Krsko NPP, Slovenia. Some institutional and international implications are presented, as well as possible areas for further investigation and research.
Extra-clinical factors about the influences affecting the prescription and use of drugs are reviewed. Special attention is given to regulatory agencies, the pharmaceutical industry, and mass media. The problems and public health consequences of the irrational use of drugs are rarely documented in Latin America. Analysis of these factors, information sources, and rational use of psychotropic drugs will require multiple strategies such as social communication and policy formulation to define goals and objectives related to population information, doctors' and individual citizens' decision making processes, and participation of consumers in improving the use of psychotropic drugs.
Akimov, Alexander G; Egorova, Marina A; Ehret, Günter
Selectivity for processing of species-specific vocalizations and communication sounds has often been associated with the auditory cortex. The midbrain inferior colliculus, however, is the first center in the auditory pathways of mammals integrating acoustic information processed in separate nuclei and channels in the brainstem and, therefore, could significantly contribute to enhance the perception of species' communication sounds. Here, we used natural wriggling calls of mouse pups, which communicate need for maternal care to adult females, and further 15 synthesized sounds to test the hypothesis that neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of adult females optimize their response rates for reproduction of the three main harmonics (formants) of wriggling calls. The results confirmed the hypothesis showing that average response rates, as recorded extracellularly from single units, were highest and spectral facilitation most effective for both onset and offset responses to the call and call models with three resolved frequencies according to critical bands in perception. In addition, the general on- and/or off-response enhancement in almost half the investigated 122 neurons favors not only perception of single calls but also of vocalization rhythm. In summary, our study provides strong evidence that critical-band resolved frequency components within a communication sound increase the probability of its perception by boosting the signal-to-noise ratio of neural response rates within the inferior colliculus for at least 20% (our criterion for facilitation). These mechanisms, including enhancement of rhythm coding, are generally favorable to processing of other animal and human vocalizations, including formants of speech sounds. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bilgehan Gültekin; Tuba Gültekin
Universities have an important role in social education in many aspects. In terms of creating awareness and convincing public about social issues, universities take a leading position for public. The best way to provide public support for social education is to develop public communication campaigns. The aim of this study is to present a public communication model which will be guided in social education practices. The study titled “Importance of public communication campaigns and art activit...
Miller, Kim S; Fasula, Amy M; Dittus, Patricia; Wiegand, Ryan E; Wyckoff, Sarah C; McNair, Lily
The present study examined factors that promote parent-child discussions about sex topics. A sample of 1,066 dyads of African American mothers and their 9-12-year-old children participated completing computer-administered surveys. After controlling for all other covariates, mother's sexual communication responsiveness (i.e., knowledge, comfort, skills, and confidence) was the most consistent predictor of discussions. Mothers with higher responsiveness had significantly increased odds of discussions about abstinence, puberty, and reproduction, based on both mother and child reports. In addition, child's age, pubertal development, readiness to learn about sex, and being female were positively associated with an increase in the odds of discussions in most models. Findings indicate that encouraging parents to talk with their children early may not be sufficient to promote parent-child sex discussions. Parents also need the knowledge, comfort, skills, and confidence to communicate effectively and keep them from avoiding these often difficult and emotional conversations with their children.
Balasubramaniam, Nagadivya; Kujala, Sari; Ayzit, Dicle; Kauppinen, Marjo; Heponiemi, Tarja; Hietapakka, Laura; Kaihlanen, Anu
In recent times, health care professionals (HCP) have come across a number of migrants as their patients. The cultural differences lead to communicational challenges between the migrant patients and health care professionals. Our project aimed to discover HCPs' attitudes, challenges and needs on cross-cultural communication, so that we can develop an e-learning solution that would be helpful for them. By conducting interviews with HCPs, we identified five crucial categories of problems and the current solutions that experienced professionals use to tackle those problems. These interviews also helped us in understanding the motivational factors of HCPs, when using e-learning application. Health care professionals prefer a focus on examples and themes such as death and pain that they face in their everyday work. Changing attitudes by e-learning application is challenging. However, e-learning was recognized as a flexible way for supporting traditional training with HCPs who are busy at work most of the time.
Krysne Kelly de França Oliveira
Full Text Available Introduction: There has been an increase in the number of hearing impaired people with access to higher education. Most of them are young people from a different culture who present difficulties in communication, inter-relationship, and learning in a culture of normal hearing people, because they use a different language, the Brazilian Sign Language - LIBRAS. Objective: The present study aimed to identify the forms of communication used between hearing impaired and normal hearing students, verifying how they can interfere with the learning process of the first. Methods: A qualitative study that used the space of a private university in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará state, Brazil, from February to April 2009. We carried out semi-structured interviews with three hearing impaired students, three teachers, three interpreters, and three normal hearing students. The content of the speeches was categorized and organized by the method of thematic analysis. Results: We verified that the forms of communication used ranged from mime and gestures to writing and drawing, but the most accepted by the hearing impaired students was LIBRAS. As a method of communication, it supports the learning of hearing impaired students, and with the mediation of interpreters, it gives them conditions to settle in their zones of development, according to the precepts of Vygotsky. Conclusion: Thus, we recognize the importance of LIBRAS as predominant language, essential to the full academic achievement of hearing impaired students; however, their efforts and dedication, as well as the interest of institutions and teachers on the deaf culture, are also important for preparing future professionals.
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xiii LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 2G 2nd Generation 3G 3rd Generation 3GPP 3rd Generation Partnership Project 4G 4th...System (UMTS) is the standard that governs 3rd Generation ( 3G ) migration of Global Services for Mobile (GSM) networks. It defines packet-based...network may assist or mitigate. 14. SUBJECT TERMS IEEE, 802.21, Media Independent Handover, mobile , communications, cyber, tactical, buffer, cellular
Full Text Available The recent research and technology development in medical genomics has raised new issues that are profoundly different from those encountered in traditional clinical research for which informed consent was developed. Global initiatives for international collaboration and public participation in genomics research now face an increasing demand for new forms of informed consent which reflect local contexts. This article analyzes informed consent forms (ICFs for genomic research formulated by four selected research programs and institutes in East Asia – the Medical Genome Science Program in Japan, Universiti Sains Malaysia Human Research Ethics Committee in Malaysia, and the Taiwan Biobank and the Taipei Medical University- Joint Institutional Review Board in Taiwan. The comparative text analysis highlights East Asian contexts as distinct from other regions by identifying communicative and social functions of consent forms. The communicative functions include re-contact options and offering interactive support for research participants, and setting opportunities for family or community engagement in the consent process. This implies that informed consent cannot be validated solely with the completion of a consent form at the initial stage of the research, and informed consent templates can facilitate interactions between researchers and participants through (even before and after the research process. The social functions consist of informing participants of possible social risks that include genetic discrimination, sample and data sharing, and highlighting the role of ethics committees. Although international ethics harmonization and the subsequent coordination of consent forms may be necessary to maintain the quality and consistency of consent process for data-intensive international research, it is also worth paying more attention to the local values and different settings that exist where research participants are situated for research in
Yoshizawa, Go; Sasongko, Teguh H; Ho, Chih-Hsing; Kato, Kazuto
The recent research and technology development in medical genomics has raised new issues that are profoundly different from those encountered in traditional clinical research for which informed consent was developed. Global initiatives for international collaboration and public participation in genomics research now face an increasing demand for new forms of informed consent which reflect local contexts. This article analyzes informed consent forms (ICFs) for genomic research formulated by four selected research programs and institutes in East Asia - the Medical Genome Science Program in Japan, Universiti Sains Malaysia Human Research Ethics Committee in Malaysia, and the Taiwan Biobank and the Taipei Medical University- Joint Institutional Review Board in Taiwan. The comparative text analysis highlights East Asian contexts as distinct from other regions by identifying communicative and social functions of consent forms. The communicative functions include re-contact options and offering interactive support for research participants, and setting opportunities for family or community engagement in the consent process. This implies that informed consent cannot be validated solely with the completion of a consent form at the initial stage of the research, and informed consent templates can facilitate interactions between researchers and participants through (even before and after) the research process. The social functions consist of informing participants of possible social risks that include genetic discrimination, sample and data sharing, and highlighting the role of ethics committees. Although international ethics harmonization and the subsequent coordination of consent forms may be necessary to maintain the quality and consistency of consent process for data-intensive international research, it is also worth paying more attention to the local values and different settings that exist where research participants are situated for research in medical genomics. More
Hughes, Anne K; Lewinson, Terri D W
Many women experience changes in sexual health as they age, and discussing these changes with health care providers is an essential component of optimal health management. The purpose of this study was to understand aging women's perspectives about communicating with providers about sexual health. We used the integrative model of behavioral prediction as a theoretical lens to explore women's attitudes, perceived norms, and perceived self-efficacy that promote or inhibit the likelihood of communicating about sexual health. In this theory-based qualitative study, we interviewed 28 community-dwelling older women in the Midwestern United States. Through thematic analysis, we identified both positive and negative attitudes about communicating with providers. Women seemed most inclined to discuss sexual health if they perceived that important patient-provider conditions, such as trust and rapport, were in place. Despite situational obstacles and perceived norms, these women held strong beliefs about their abilities to discuss sexual health topics with providers. © The Author(s) 2014.
Chan, Windy Sy; Leung, Angela Ym
Although much research has been done investigating the roles of social network sites (SNSs) in linking patients and health professionals, there is a lack of information about their uses, benefits, and limitations in connecting health professions only for professional communication. This review aimed to examine the utilization of SNSs for communication among health professionals in (1) frontline clinical practice, (2) professional networks, and (3) education and training to identify areas for future health communication research. This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. A systematic search of the literature published in the last 10 years (January 1, 2007, to March 1, 2017) was performed in March 2017, using the following electronic databases: MEDLINE via OvidSP, EMBASE, CINAHL Complete, and InfoSci-Journals. The searches were conducted using the following defined search terms: "social media" OR "social network" OR "social network site" OR "Facebook" OR "Twitter" OR "Linkedin" OR "Instagram" OR "Weibo" OR "Whatsapp" OR "Telegram" OR "WeChat" AND "health" OR "health profession." Of the 6977 papers retrieved, a total of 33 studies were included in this review. They were exploratory in nature, and the majority used surveys (n=25) and interviews (n=6). All retrieved studies stated that SNSs enhanced effective communication and information sharing. SNSs were used for supporting delivering of clinical services, making referrals, and sharing information. They were beneficial to network building and professional collaboration. SNSs were novel tools to enhance educational interactions among peers, students, instructors, and preceptors. The application of SNSs came with restraints in technical knowledge, concerns on data protection, privacy and liability, issues in professionalism, and data protection. SNSs provide platforms facilitating efficient communication, interactions, and connections among health
Miritello, Giovanna; Lara, Rubén; Moro, Esteban
Recent research has shown the deep impact of the dynamics of human interactions (or temporal social networks) on the spreading of information, opinion formation, etc. In general, the bursty nature of human interactions lowers the interaction between people to the extent that both the speed and reach of information diffusion are diminished. Using a large database of 20 million users of mobile phone calls we show evidence this effect is not homogeneous in the social network but in fact, there is a large correlation between this effect and the social topological structure around a given individual. In particular, we show that social relations of hubs in a network are relatively weaker from the dynamical point than those that are poorer connected in the information diffusion process. Our results show the importance of the temporal patterns of communication when analyzing and modeling dynamical process on social networks.
Walkner, Tammy J; Weare, Andrea M; Tully, Melissa
Social isolation is a problem facing many older women. Isolation can contribute to poor health as adults age without social support. Increased and tailored communication offers service organizations more opportunities to provide social support to these adults. This research examines perceptions of aging to explore communication behaviors, barriers, and opportunities for improved communication and service provision for aging women. Using data from focus groups and interviews, this study finds that participants from community organizations rely on word of mouth and traditional media to communicate with their aging constituents, despite opportunities to use digital communication and to develop communication plans for this population.
Full Text Available Children adopt the social skills required for effective social interaction within their families from the very beginning of their lives, while preschool teachers organize program activities and create a stimulating and pleasant atmosphere in which they can learn and practice. By utilizing educational strategies, the teacher encourages social interaction among kindergarteners and also provides a model for the development of their social skills by demonstrating his/her own characteristics. The aim of this research is to determine the strategies used by teachers to facilitate social interaction among kindergarteners. This survey was conducted throughout February, March, April and May of 2017 using one sample: a preschool teacher in Olga Ban Kindergarten in Pazin. Two measuring instruments were used: the non-participatory observations protocol developed for the purpose of this study was used to record the teacher’s strategies and also the semi structured questionnaire on the teacher’s reflections. In arrangement with the teacher, the observer spent time with the group on approximately twenty occasions and in three different time points lasting for five minutes : 08:35 am (breakfast time, 09:20 am (morning circle, 10:05 am (distribution of materials and activities and observed and noted the strategies used by the teacher. After the data from the teacher’s behavior protocol had been processed and analyzed, the teacher herself was interviewed with focus on her reflections on the collected results. The results show that a preschool teacher in most situations talks to children in conflict, does not punish them, suggests social interaction rather than a command, raises questions with an interest in a child’s thinking, takes note of a child’s ideas, encourages children to express their desires, encourages children to co-operate and suggests means to encourage co-operation, provides an alternative to snitching, encourages children to be patient
This article interprets technical communication research about sex differences according to social role theory, which argues that sex differences are enculturated through experiences associated with social positions in the family and the workplace. It reevaluates technical communication research about sex differences in communicative and…
Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Richman, David M; Chesnut, Steven Randall; Little, Todd D
In analyzing data from the National Database for Autism Research, we utilized Mokken scaling techniques as a means of creating a more effective and efficient screening procedure for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) via the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). With a sample of 1,040, approximately 80% (n = 827) of the sample were males while approximately 20% (n = 213) were females. In regard to ethnicity, approximately 68% of the sample were White/Caucasian, while 7% were African American, 16% were Hispanic, 4% were Asian, and 1% were Native American or American Indian. As the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) states that, "individuals with a well-established DSM-IV diagnosis of autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified should be given the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder," (American Psychiatric Association, 2013, p. 51), the primary labeling difference between the DSM-IV and the DSM-5 would appear to be in identifying social communication disorder as a newly introduced disorder in the DSM-5, which we discuss. Though school psychologists are not dependent on the DSM to the same extent as clinical psychologists to provide services, school psychology is invested in the effective and efficient assessment of ASD. The current study demonstrates how Mokken scaling procedures may be utilized with respect to ASD identification via the SCQ as well as providing information regarding the prevalence of potential social communication disorder as a new disorder and its discrimination with ASD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Swain, Daniel T.; Couzin, Iain D.; Leonard, Naomi Ehrich
We examine the spatial dynamics of individuals in small schools of banded killifish ( Fundulus diaphanus) that exhibit rhythmic, oscillating speed, typically with sustained, coordinated, out-of-phase speed oscillations as they move around a shallow water tank. We show that the relative motion among the fish yields a periodically time-varying network of social interactions that enriches visually driven social communication. The oscillations lead to the regular making and breaking of occlusions, which we term "switching." We show that the rate of convergence to consensus (biologically, the capacity for individuals in groups to achieve effective coordinated motion) governed by the switching outperforms static alternatives, and performs as well as the less practical case of every fish sensing every other fish. We show further that the oscillations in speed yield oscillations in relative bearing between fish over a range that includes the angles previously predicted to be optimal for a fish to detect changes in heading and speed of its neighbors. To investigate systematically, we derive and analyze a dynamic model of interacting agents that move with oscillatory speed. We show that coordinated circular motion of the school leads to systematic cycling of spatial ordering of agents and possibilities for enriched spatial density of measurements of the external environment. Our results highlight the potential benefits of dynamic communication topologies in collective animal behavior, and suggest new, useful control laws for the distributed coordination of mobile robotic networks.
Full Text Available In business world of today, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs play the part of an increasingly important role in the world economy. Currently, SMEs are thought to be the backbone of economic growth in many countries, contributing to the creation of job opportunities and acting as suppliers of goods and services for large organizations. Internationally, various studies are related to the importance of SMEs for a country's development and economic stability. SMEs also play an important role in European economies and their form according to some authors is a pillar of business structure. Academics emphasise in many ways Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR as a mantra for our time, a time which they characterised as 'the era of compassionate capitalism' or 'the age of sustainability'. CSR communication is an important element of the strategic approach to communication, which rests on the idea that enterprises can create a strong identity by implementing a systematic and proactive strategic communication practice within their organisations, establishing the way for 'the building and maintaining of favourable reputations and relationships with key stakeholders'.
Williams, Lisa A; Bartlett, Monica Y
Recent theorizing on the nature and function of gratitude (the find-remind-and-bind theory; Algoe, 2012) stipulates that expressing gratitude should serve to alert previously unacquainted peers to the potential for a high-quality social bond (i.e., a find function). Although the logic of this premise is supported by extant research, it has not, as yet, been tested empirically. In the current study, participants received a note from a previously unacquainted peer that contained an expression of gratitude (or did not) with regard to prior benefits provided by the participant. After providing ratings of the peer and ostensibly completing the study, participants were given an opportunity to spontaneously give their contact information to the peer, which served as a behavioral measure of affiliation. In line with the proposed find function of gratitude expressions, recipients of expressions of gratitude were more likely to extend the effort to continue the relationship with the novel peer by providing that peer with a means to contact them. This experiment also provided evidence that perceptions of interpersonal warmth (e.g., friendliness, thoughtfulness) serve as the mechanism via which gratitude expressions facilitate affiliation: insofar as gratitude expressions signaled interpersonal warmth of the expresser, they prompted investment in the burgeoning social bond. As such, these findings provide the first empirical evidence regarding 1 of the 3 central premises of the find-remind-and-bind theory of gratitude (Algoe, 2012) in the context of novel relationships. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Increasingly, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT health care is becoming an important quality assurance feature of primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare in Britain. While acknowledging these very positive developments, teaching LGBT curricula content is contingent upon having educators understand the complexity of LGBT lives. The study adopted a qualitative mixed method approach. The study investigated how and in what ways barriers and facilitators of providing LGBT medical, health and social care curricula content figure in the accreditation policies and within undergraduate and postgraduate medical and healthcare teaching. This paper illustrates opposing views about curricula inclusion. The evidence presented suggests that LGBT content teaching is often challenged at various points in its delivery. In this respect, we will focus on a number of resistances that sometimes prevents teachers from engaging with and providing the complexities of LGBT curricula content. These include the lack of collegiate, colleague and student cooperation. By investing some time on these often neglected areas of resistance, the difficulties and good practice met by educators will be explored. This focus will make visible how to support medical, health and social care students become aware and confident in tackling contemporaneous health issues for LGBT patients.
Christopher M. Raymond
Full Text Available This study presents a self-assessment tool and process that facilitate community capacity building and social learning for natural resource management. The tool and process provide opportunities for rural landholders and project teams both to self-assess their capacity to plan and deliver natural resource management (NRM programs and to reflect on their capacities relative to other organizations and institutions that operate in their region. We first outline the tool and process and then present a critical review of the pilot in the South Australian Arid Lands NRM region, South Australia. Results indicate that participants representing local, organizational, and institutional tiers of government were able to arrive at a group consensus position on the strength, importance, and confidence of a variety of capacities for NRM categorized broadly as human, social, physical, and financial. During the process, participants learned a lot about their current capacity as well as capacity needs. Broad conclusions are discussed with reference to the iterative process for assessing and reflecting on community capacity.
The high reliability required for Aeronautical components is a major reason for extensive Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation. Here at Langley Research Center (LaRC), there are highly trained and certified personal to conduct such testing to prevent hazards from occurring in the workplace and on the research projects for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The purpose of my studies was to develop a communication source to educate others of the services and equipment offered here. This was accomplished by creating documents that are accessible to all in the industry via the World Wide Web.
Social networking sites (SNS) provide innovative social bonding methods known as social grooming. These have drastically decreased time and distance constraints of social grooming. Here we show two type social grooming (elaborate social grooming and lightweight social grooming) discovered in a model constructed by thirty communication data-sets including face to face, SNS, mobile phones, and Chacma baboons. This demarcation is caused by a trade-off between the number and strength of social re...
Cubeta, Ulyana; Bhattacharya, Deepanjan; Sadtchenko, Vlad
A common distinction between the ordinary glasses formed by melt cooling and the stable amorphous films formed by vapor deposition is the apparent mechanism of their devitrification. Using quasi-adiabatic, fast scanning calorimetry that is capable of heating rates in excess of 105 K s-1, we have investigated the softening kinetics of micrometer-scale, ordinary glass films of methylbenzene and 2-propanol. At the limit of high heating rates, the transformation mechanism of ordinary glasses is identical to that of their stable vapor-deposited counterparts. In both cases, softening is likely to begin at the sample surface and progress into its bulk via a transformation front. Furthermore, such a surface-facilitated mechanism complies with zero-order, Arrhenius rate law. The activation energy barriers for the softening transformation imply that the kinetics must be defined, at least in part, by the initial thermodynamic and structural state of the samples.
more and more social interactions are happening on the on-line. Especially recent uptake of the social network sites (SNSs), such as Facebook (http...Smart phones • Live updates within social networks • Facebook & Twitters Solution: WebMon for Risk Management Need for New WebMon for Social Networks ...Title: Myths on bi-direction communication of Web 2.0 based social networks : Is social network truly interactive
Zheng, Robert Z.; Cheok, Angeline; Khoo, Eng
The current study investigated adolescents' perceptions in online social communication. Three factors were perceived by adolescents as critical to online social communication. These included self-identity, self-confidence, and self-social factors. Results showed significant differences between the factors derived from the current study and those…
Aleman, Melissa Wood; Aleman, Carlos Galvan
A basic premise of social approaches to studying communication is that theories of interpersonal communication and personal relationships are reflexively defined, socially constructed, and historically situated. In contrast to the tradition of psychological models of relational processes and message transmission, social approaches encourage…
The Emerging Media Integration Team at the Department of the Navy Office of Information (CHINFO) has recently put together a Navy Command Social Media Handbook designed to provide information needed to safely and effectively use social media. While not intended to be a comprehensive guide on command use of social media or to take the place of official policy, the Handbook provides a useful guide for navigating a dynamic communications environment. Social media are changing the way information is diffused and decisions are made, especially for Humanitarian Assistance missions when there is increased emphasis on Navy commands to share critical information with other Navy command sites, government, and official NGO (nongovernmental organization) sites like the American Red Cross. In order to effectively use social media to support such missions, the Handbook suggests creating a centralized location to funnel information. This suggests that as the community of interest (COI) grows during a crisis, it will be important to ensure that information is shared with appropriate organizations for different aspects of the mission such as evacuation procedures, hospital sites, location of seaports and airports, and other topics relevant to the mission. For example, in the first 14 days of the U.S. Southern Command's Haiti HA/DR (Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief) mission, the COI grew to over 1,900 users. In addition, operational conditions vary considerably among incidents, and coordination between different groups is often set up in an ad hoc manner. What is needed is a methodology that will help to find appropriate people with whom to share information for particular aspects of a mission during a wide range of events related to the mission. CNA has developed such a methodology and we would like to test it in a small scale lab experiment.
Fung, Suk Chun
Although research has shown that animal-assisted play therapy (AAPT) is associated with increased positive social behaviors in children with autism, the related literature on AAPT and autism is very limited. The study tested the effectiveness of AAPT in increasing the social communication of a boy with autism. The treatment's effects on specific types of social communication were also investigated. An A-B-A single-subject design was adopted to examine treatment effectiveness. Follow-up assessments were made at 1 mo posttreatment. The videotaped treatment sessions were held in the multipurpose room of the participant's school. A 7-y-old boy who had a diagnosis of autism and mild-grade intellectual disability participated in the study. AAPT was implemented in 20-min sessions held 3 ×/wk. The 14 AAPT sessions occurred in 4 phases, covering child-dog relationship building and interaction in the presence of the therapist, with the diminishing presence of the dog occurring in phase 4. Naturally occurring social behaviors were measured in 3 baseline sessions, during the 14 AAPT sessions, during 3 posttreatment sessions, and again during 3 follow-up sessions. Momentary time sampling was used to estimate the frequency of target behaviors, using a 15-s interval. Behavioral categories were checked at every interval during each 20-min session in all 23 sessions. The study showed that the boy's social communication increased during treatment and remained higher than baseline at follow-up. An analysis of specific types of social communication showed that the benefits of AAPT were most apparent in the joint-attention and waiting behaviors. The findings provide support for using AAPT as an intervention to facilitate the social communication of children with autism.
This presentation describes how we share and harvest sets of various OAI metadata, repurpose it through the Ockham Library Network, and demonstrate an alternative to traditional scholarly communication. The Ockham Library Network is a sponsored National Science Foundation Digital Library grant with co-PI's at Emory University, Virginia Tech, Oregon State University, and the University of Notre Dame. One of the purposes of Ockham is to exploit modular, light-weight protocols (such as OAI-PMH and SRW/U) into systems for learning, teaching, and scholarship. To date we have implemented a number of such services: * Ockham Digital Library Services Registry - A distributed directory of digital library services, collections, and agents. The contents of the Registry are described using the same XML schema articulated by the Information Environment Service Registry (IESR), and the records are shared among participating institutions on a peer-to-peer network utilizing OAI to propagate registry records amongst the distri...
van de Velde, Bob; Meijer, Albert; Homburg, Vincent
Social media are becoming increasingly important for communication between government organisations and citizens. Although research on this issue is expanding, the structure of these new communication patterns is still poorly understood. This study contributes to our understanding of these new
Cappella, Joseph N
Simultaneous developments in big data, social media, and computational social science have set the stage for how we think about and understand interpersonal and mass communication. This article explores some of the ways that these developments generate 4 hypothetical "vectors" - directions - into the next generation of communication research. These vectors include developments in network analysis, modeling interpersonal and social influence, recommendation systems, and the blurring of distinctions between interpersonal and mass audiences through narrowcasting and broadcasting. The methods and research in these arenas are occurring in areas outside the typical boundaries of the communication discipline but engage classic, substantive questions in mass and interpersonal communication.
Landry, Susan H; Smith, Karen E; Swank, Paul R
Mothers whose infants varied in early biological characteristics (born at term, n = 120; born at very low birth weight [VLBW], n = 144) were randomized to a target group (n = 133) or developmental feedback comparison group (n = 131) to determine whether learning responsive behaviors would facilitate infant development. The target condition included videotaped examples, problem-solving activities, and mothers' critique of their own behaviors through video procedures across 10 home visits. All target versus comparison mothers showed greater increases across multiple responsiveness behaviors observed in 4 assessments conducted across 6-13 months of age; changes in emotionally supportive behaviors were strongest for target mothers of infants born at VLBW. Increased maternal responsiveness facilitated greater growth in target infants' social, emotional, communication, and cognitive competence, supporting a causal role for responsiveness on infant development. Although benefits were generally comparable across risk groups, aspects of social and emotional skills showed greater change for those born at VLBW. Evidence for responsiveness as a multidimensional construct was provided as well as the importance of different aspects of responsiveness mediating the effect of the intervention on different infant skill domains.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Low and middle income countries are ageing at a much faster rate than richer countries, especially in Asia. This is happening at a time of globalisation, migration, urbanisation, and smaller families. Older people make significant contributions to their families and communities, but this is often undermined by chronic disease and preventable disability. Social participation can help to protect against morbidity and mortality. We argue that social participation deserves much greater attention as a protective factor, and that older people can play a useful role in the prevention and management of chronic conditions. We present, as an example, a low-cost, sustainable strategy that has increased social participation among elders in Sri Lanka. Discussion Current international policy initiatives to address the increasing prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases are focused on cardiovascular disease, diabetes, respiratory disease and cancers, responsible for much premature mortality. Interventions to modify their shared risk factors of high salt and fat diets, inactivity, smoking and alcohol use are advocated. But older people also suffer chronic conditions that primarily affect quality of life, and have a wider range of risk factors. There is strong epidemiological and physiological evidence that social isolation, in particular, is as important a risk factor for chronic diseases as the 'lifestyle' risk factors, yet it is currently neglected. There are useful experiences of inexpensive and sustainable strategies to improve social participation among older people in low and lower middle income countries. Our experience with forming Elders' Clubs with retired tea estate workers in Sri Lanka suggests many benefits, including social support and participation, inter-generational contact, a collective voice, and facilitated access to health promotion activities, and to health care and social welfare services. Summary Policies to
Pogodina A. V.
Full Text Available The article is concerned with the results of the study, subject of which is the submis- sion of the respondents of the different age groups about the social and bold personality. Required property of the respondents was the presence in the Internet environment and participation in various social networks. They assessed social and bold personal- ity in such contexts of communication, as real communication and Internet communication. Analyses were undertaken to determine the structural and content features of emotional and semantic representations of the phenomenon of the social and bold personality, depending on the context of communication, but also the detection of age-sensitive representations of the young respondents (19—35 years, middle-aged respondents (36-55 years and older respondents (from 56 to 70 years. The concept of the “social and bold personality in real communion” is shown to have a high semantic relevance, strongly marked positive emotional coloration and a similar factor structure for respondents of all age groups. The concept of the “social and bold personality in online communication” with a high semantic significance in the perception of the young respondents moves into a zone of moderate and semantic importance in representations of the middle-aged and older respondents. In representations of the respondents of all age groups, the attractiveness of the "social and bold personality in Internet communication" is less than in comparison with the "social and bold personality in the real communication". The age-specific of the social representations about social and bold personality in the real and virtual communication has been analysed in detail.
Töllinen, Aarne; Karjaluoto, Heikki
The objective of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework for measuring the effectiveness of social media marketing communications. With recent advances in information and communications technology, especially in social collaboration technologies, both academics and practitioners rethink whether the existing marketing communications performance metrics are still valid in the changing communications landscape, or is it time to devise entirely new metrics for measuring mar...
Strickland-Marmol, Leah B; Muro-Cacho, Carlos A; Washington, Kay; Foulis, Philip R
- Cancer registrars should work closely with pathologists to ensure compliance with reporting standards. Many registrars, however, have little contact with pathologists, resulting in a lack of "real-time" interaction that is essential for their professional activities and development. - To facilitate registrars' case management, as cancer biology becomes more complex, we developed the ATP (Ask the Pathologist) forum as a place to ask pathology-related questions about neoplasms, such as terminology, biology, histologic classification, extent of disease, molecular markers, and prognostic factors. - Questions posted are reviewed by the ATP multidisciplinary oversight committee, which consists of 3 pathologists, 4 cancer registrars, 1 internal medicine physician, the pathology resident member of the College of American Pathologists Cancer Committee, and 2 medical technologists. The oversight committee may answer the question. Alternatively, the committee may forward the question to a content expert pathologist, determine that the question is better suited for another reference Web site, or both. - Since September 2013, when the ATP forum became available, users have posted 284 questions, of which 48 (17%) related to gastrointestinal tumors, 43 (15%) to breast tumors, and 37 (13%) to general pathology. The average turnaround time, from question posted to response, is 11.1 days. - The ATP forum has had a positive impact in the daily activities of cancer registrars. Of 440 registrars surveyed, more than 90% considered that questions were answered satisfactorily, and one-third reported that ATP answers affected how they managed a given case.
Ionela-Roxana GLĂVAN; Andreea MIRICĂ; Bogdan Narcis FÎRȚESCU
Social media tools are wide spread in web communication and are gaining popularity in the communication process between public institutions and citizens. This study conducts an analysis on how social media is used by Official Statistical Institutes to interact with citizens and disseminate information. A linear regression technique is performed to examine which social media platforms (Twitter or Facebook) is a more effective tool in the communication process in the official statistics area. O...
Kugo, Akihide; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Uda, Akinobu; Wakabayashi, Yasunaga
For the construction of effective knowledge base on safety and non-anxiety for nuclear power, a study on new communication system about social risk information has been initiated by noticing the rapid expansion of Internet in the society. By constructing Internet Website communication system on the geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, we conducted the experiment of communication for verifying the principles such as that the basic technical knowledge and trust, and social ethics are indispensable in this process to close the perception gap between nuclear specialists and the general public. The cognition structural equation model by means of the variables reduction method of multiple regression analysis and by compiling the significant paths by covariance structure analysis was built based on this experimental data. Moreover, by investigating more detailed public subconscious on the high-level radioactive wastes by 'text mining method' with the special reference to the Public Comment in July 2000 and the literature survey, it was found that the freely discussing ideas based on the environmental ethics such as 'fairness in results' and 'fairness in opportunity' from scratch would gain a potential of enhancing the social receptivity. (author)
Hyden, Christel; Allegrante, John P; Cohall, Alwyn T
This study sought to evaluate HIV testing locations in New York City in terms of staff communication of confidentiality policies for adolescent clients. Using the New York State Directory of HIV Counseling and Testing Resources as a sampling frame, this study made telephone contact with 164 public HIV testing locations in New York City and used a semistructured interview to ask questions about confidentiality, parental permission, and parent access to test results. At 48% of locations, either HIV testing was not offered or we were unable to reach a staff member to ask questions about testing options and confidentiality. At the remaining sites, information provided regarding confidentiality, parental consent, and privacy of test results was correct only 69% to 85% of the time. Additionally, 23% of sites successfully contacted offered testing exclusively between 9:00 a.m. and 3:00 p.m. weekdays, when most adolescents are in school. Our findings point to a need for increased training and quality control at the clinical level to ensure that consumers in need of HIV testing are provided with accurate information and accessible services. Furthermore, these results highlight the need for more "patient-centric" sites with enhanced accessibility for potential clients, particularly youth.
Elia, Ramon de [Climate Analysis Team, Consortium Ouranos, Montreal, QC (Canada); Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Centre ESCER, Montreal, QC (Canada)
The objective of this work is to present the basis for a formal language that aims to express in a concise way some fundamental beliefs held within the climate research community. The expression of this set of beliefs takes the form of relations, conjectures or propositions that describe characteristics of different aspects of climate modeling. Examples are constructed using topics that are much discussed within the climate modeling community. The article first introduces, as elements of this formal language, models considered a priori (the model as a code or algorithm) or a posteriori (the model as output), and then presents different relations between these elements. The most important relation is that of dominance, which helps to define the superiority of one model over another based on which model a rational agent will choose. Various kinds of dominance are considered. Also presented in a formal language are propositions and conjectures relating to model development, model calibration and climate change ensemble projections, each of which are held with diverse levels of acceptance within the climate modeling community. In addition, the relevance of defining elements - models - whose existence is improbable, such as bug-free model versions, is discussed. Although the potential value of this language is shown, there remains a need to improve the definitions presented here, as some of them remain unsatisfying. Still, we believe that this attempt may help us not only communicate more clearly but also to better distinguish different schools of thought that currently exist within the community. (orig.)
Albrecht, T L; Bryant, C
Large-scale communication campaigns for health promotion and disease prevention involve analysis of audience demographic and psychographic factors for effective message targeting. A variety of segmentation modeling techniques, including tree-based methods such as Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection and logistic regression, are used to identify meaningful target groups within a large sample or population (N = 750-1,000+). Such groups are based on statistically significant combinations of factors (e.g., gender, marital status, and personality predispositions). The identification of groups or clusters facilitates message design in order to address the particular needs, attention patterns, and concerns of audience members within each group. We review current segmentation techniques, their contributions to conceptual development, and cost-effective decision making. Examples from a major study in which these strategies were used are provided from the Texas Women, Infants and Children Program's Comprehensive Social Marketing Program.
Bailey, James A
With the increase in focus on environmental advertising during the early 1990s, it is surprising that more research has not focused on advertisings effect on influencing and shaping consumer behaviour change. This is seen as crucial in the next few decreased due to a general agreement on the effect that consumers behaviours have on climate change. Communicating this pro-social behaviour change has in recent years diversified into Internet communications and other communication agents, as well...
Bidinotto, Daniele Natália Pacharone Bertolini; Simonetti, Janete Pessuto; Bocchi, Silvia Cristina Mangini
to evaluate the relationship between absences in scheduled appointments and the number of non-communicable chronic diseases and to investigate the relationship between spatial distribution of these diseases and social vulnerability, using geoprocessing. a quantitative study of sequential mixed approach by analyzing 158 medical records of male users to relate the absences and 1250 medical records for geoprocessing. the higher the number of absences in the scheduled medical appointments, the less were the number of non-communicable chronic diseases and the ones listed in the International Classification of Diseases in single men. There were 21 significant geostatistically cases of glucose intolerance in the urban area. Of these, 62% lived in a region with a social vulnerability rating of Very Low, Medium 19%, 14% Low and 5% High. it was observed that the older the men, the greater is the number of chronic diseases and the less they miss scheduled appointments. Regarding the use of geoprocessing, we obtained a significant number of cases of glucose intolerance in urban areas, the majority classified as Very Low social vulnerability. It was possible to relate the spatial distribution of these diseases with the social vulnerability classification; however, it was not possible to perceive a relationship of them with the higher rates of social vulnerability. avaliar a relação entre as faltas em consultas agendadas e o número de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis e averiguar a relação entre distribuição espacial dessas doenças e vulnerabilidade social, utilizando-se o geoprocessamento. estudo quantitativo, de abordagem mista sequencial, sendo analisados 158 prontuários de usuários do sexo masculino para se relacionar as faltas e 1250 prontuários para o geoprocessamento. quanto maior o número de faltas nas consultas médicas agendadas, menores foram a quantidade de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis e as listadas na Classificação Internacional de
Chesnut, Steven R; Wei, Tianlan; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Richman, David M
The current meta-analysis examines the previous research on the utility of the Social Communication Questionnaire as a screening instrument for autism spectrum disorder. Previously published reports have highlighted the inconsistencies between Social Communication Questionnaire-screening results and formal autism spectrum disorder diagnoses. The variations in accuracy resulted in some researchers questioning the validity of the Social Communication Questionnaire. This study systematically examined the accuracy of the Social Communication Questionnaire as a function of the methodological decisions made by researchers screening for autism spectrum disorder over the last 15 years. Findings from this study suggest that the Social Communication Questionnaire is an acceptable screening instrument for autism spectrum disorder (area under the curve = 0.885). Variations in methodological decisions, however, greatly influenced the accuracy of the Social Communication Questionnaire in screening for autism spectrum disorder. Of these methodological variations, using the Current instead of the Lifetime version of the Social Communication Questionnaire resulted in the largest detrimental effect ( d = -3.898), followed by using the Social Communication Questionnaire with individuals younger than 4 years of age ( d = -2.924) and relying upon convenience samples ( d = -4.828 for clinical samples, -2.734 for convenience samples, and -1.422 for community samples). Directions for future research and implications for using the Social Communication Questionnaire to screen for autism spectrum disorder are discussed.
Ashida, Sato; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Goodman, Melody; Schafer, Ellen J
Older individuals play a critical role in disseminating family health history (FHH) information that can facilitate disease prevention among younger family members. This study evaluated the characteristics of older adults and their familial networks associated with two types of communication (have shared and intend to share new FHH information with family members) to inform public health efforts to facilitate FHH dissemination. Information on 970 social network members enumerated by 99 seniors (aged 57 years and older) at 3 senior centers in Memphis, Tennessee, through face-to-face interviews was analyzed. Participants shared FHH information with 27.5% of the network members; 54.7% of children and 24.4% of siblings. Two-level logistic regression models showed that participants had shared FHH with those to whom they provided emotional support (odds ratio [OR] = 1.836) and felt close to (OR = 1.757). Network-members were more likely to have received FHH from participants with a cancer diagnosis (OR = 2.617) and higher familiarity with (OR = 1.380) and importance of sharing FHH with family (OR = 1.474). Participants intended to share new FHH with those who provide tangible support to (OR = 1.804) and were very close to them (OR = 2.112). Members with whom participants intend to share new FHH were more likely to belong to the network of participants with higher perceived severity if family members encountered heart disease (OR = 1.329). Many first-degree relatives were not informed of FHH. Perceptions about FHH and disease risk as well as quality of social relationships may play roles in whether seniors communicate FHH with their families. Future studies may consider influencing these perceptions and relationships.
Hakuno, Yoko; Omori, Takahide; Yamamoto, Jun-Ichi; Minagawa, Yasuyo
In natural settings, infants learn spoken language with the aid of a caregiver who explicitly provides social signals. Although previous studies have demonstrated that young infants are sensitive to these signals that facilitate language development, the impact of real-life interactions on early word segmentation and word-object mapping remains elusive. We tested whether infants aged 5-6 months and 9-10 months could segment a word from continuous speech and acquire a word-object relation in an ecologically valid setting. In Experiment 1, infants were exposed to a live tutor, while in Experiment 2, another group of infants were exposed to a televised tutor. Results indicate that both younger and older infants were capable of segmenting a word and learning a word-object association only when the stimuli were derived from a live tutor in a natural manner, suggesting that real-life interaction enhances the learning of spoken words in preverbal infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pfaller, Joseph B; Gil, Michael A
The capacity for resource monopolization by individuals often dictates the size and composition of animal groups, and ultimately, the adoption of mating strategies. For refuge-dwelling animals, the ability (or inability) of individuals to monopolize refuges should depend on the relative size of the refuge. In theory, groups should be larger and more inclusive when refuges are large, and smaller and more exclusive when refuges are small, regardless of refuge type. We test this prediction by comparing the size and composition of groups of oceanic crabs (Planes minutus) living on plastic flotsam and loggerhead sea turtles. We found that (i) surface area of refuges (barnacle colonies on flotsam and supracaudal space on turtles) is a better predictor of crab number than total surface area and (ii) flotsam and turtles with similar refuge surface area host a similar number (1-2) and composition (adult male-female pairs) of crabs. These results indicate that group size and composition of refuge-dwelling animals are modulated by refuge size and the capacity for refuge monopolization. Moreover, these results suggest that sea turtle symbiosis facilitates social monogamy in oceanic crabs, providing insights into how symbiosis can promote specific mating strategies. © 2016 The Author(s).
Shelton, Wayne; Geppert, Cynthia; Jankowski, Jane
Clinical ethics consultants (CECs) often face some of the most difficult communication and interpersonal challenges that occur in hospitals, involving stressed stakeholders who express, with strong emotions, their preferences and concerns in situations of personal crisis and loss. In this article we will give examples of how much of the important work that ethics consultants perform in addressing clinical ethics conflicts is incompletely conceived and explained in the American Society of Bioethics and Humanities Core Competencies for Healthcare Ethics Consultation and the clinical ethics literature. The work to which we refer is best conceptualized as a specialized type of interviewing, in which the emotional barriers of patients and their families or surrogates can be identified and addressed in light of relevant ethical obligations and values within the context of ethics facilitation. Copyright 2016 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.
This study focuses upon the social organization of innovation. It makes use of insights from knowledge and information systems research, development sociology, management science and applied philosophy and seeks answers to the following questions: What do social actors, individuals and/or organizations, actually do to innovate their practices? How do they organize themselves? Can this be managed or facilitated, and if so, how? The research is exploratory rather than concl...
Gentles, Stephen James; Lokker, Cynthia; McKibbon, K Ann
Pediatric patients with health conditions requiring follow-up typically depend on a caregiver to mediate at least part of the necessary two-way communication with health care providers on their behalf. Health information technology (HIT) and its subset, information communication technology (ICT), are increasingly being applied to facilitate communication between health care provider and caregiver in these situations. Awareness of the extent and nature of published research involving HIT interventions used in this way is currently lacking. This scoping review was designed to map the health literature about HIT used to facilitate communication involving health care providers and caregivers (who are usually family members) of pediatric patients with health conditions requiring follow-up. Terms relating to care delivery, information technology, and pediatrics were combined to search MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL for the years 1996 to 2008. Eligible studies were selected after three rounds of duplicate screening in which all authors participated. Data regarding patient, caregiver, health care provider, HIT intervention, outcomes studied, and study design were extracted and maintained in a Microsoft Access database. Stage of research was categorized using the UK's Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for developing and evaluating complex interventions. Quantitative and qualitative descriptive summaries are presented. We included 104 eligible studies (112 articles) conducted in 17 different countries and representing 30 different health conditions. The most common conditions were asthma, type 1 diabetes, special needs, and psychiatric disorder. Most studies (88, 85%) included children 2 to 12 years of age, and 73 (71%) involved home care settings. Health care providers operated in hospital settings in 96 (92%) of the studies. Interventions featured 12 modes of communication (eg, Internet, intranets, telephone, video conferencing, email, short message service [SMS], and
Сергей Владимирович Сороколетов
Full Text Available In work concepts «the intercultural communicative competence», «a social network», possibilities of use social the Internet of network FaceBook in training of students-linguists are described.
Several Factors of Library Publishing Services Facilitate Scholarly Communication Functions. A Review of: Park, J.-H., & Shim, J. (2011. Exploring how library publishing services facilitate scholarly communication. Journal of Scholarly Publishing, 43(1, 76-89. doi: 10.1353/scp.2011.0038
literature and information-seeking tools, and writing or copyright advisory services. Analysis of awareness function showed search aids and knowledge-sharing platforms to be the main facilitating factors. These include services like metadata application, schema, and standards or scholarly portals enabling knowledge-sharing among scholars.Conclusion – This study identified several services offered by these library publishing programs which can be categorized as facilitators under Roosendaal and Geurt’s (1997 four functions of scholarly communication. The majority of the libraries in the study treated library publishing services as part of broader scholarly communication units or initiatives. Digital publishing (registration function was offered by all programs analyzed in the study, while traditional peer-review services (certification function were not. Widely adopted among programs in the study were the use of social networking tools (awareness function and self-publishing (archiving function. The authors recommend developing services that facilitate peer review and assert the need to provide a knowledge-sharing mechanism within the academic community that facilitates the scholarly communication process.
This article presents the challenges and opportunities of social media for public institutions and argues that the designing and implementing government public relations using social media involves more than merely having another communication channel for publics. I will explain the “social media”, the differences between social media and electronic-Public Relations - E-PR, and the communication between public institutions and journalists. The interviews with journalists or with PR specialist...
Garcia, Sofia F; Hahn, Elizabeth A; Magasi, Susan; Lai, Jin-Shei; Semik, Patrick; Hammel, Joy; Heinemann, Allen W
To describe the development of new self-report measures of social attitudes that act as environmental facilitators or barriers to the participation of people with disabilities in society. A mixed-methods approach included a literature review; item classification, selection, and writing; cognitive interviews and field testing of participants with spinal cord injury (SCI), traumatic brain injury (TBI), or stroke; and rating scale analysis to evaluate initial psychometric properties. General community. Individuals with SCI, TBI, or stroke participated in cognitive interviews (n=9); community residents with those same conditions participated in field testing (n=305). None. Self-report item pool of social attitudes that act as facilitators or barriers to people with disabilities participating in society. An interdisciplinary team of experts classified 710 existing social environment items into content areas and wrote 32 new items. Additional qualitative item review included item refinement and winnowing of the pool prior to cognitive interviews and field testing of 82 items. Field test data indicated that the pool satisfies a 1-parameter item response theory measurement model and would be appropriate for development into a calibrated item bank. Our qualitative item review process supported a social environment conceptual framework that includes both social support and social attitudes. We developed a new social attitudes self-report item pool. Calibration testing of that pool is underway with a larger sample to develop a social attitudes item bank for persons with disabilities. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
LeGary, Robert A., Jr.
This exploratory case study examined the reports by advanced undergraduate students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) of perceived social supports that buffer college-related stress and facilitate academic success. The sample for this study was comprised of 10 advanced undergraduate students who self-identified as having ASD. These participants…
Lane, Justin D.; Gast, David L.; Ledford, Jennifer R.; Shepley, Collin
Young children with disabilities are less likely to display age-appropriate social behaviors than same-age peers with typical social development, especially children who display social-communication delays. In this study, two concurrently operating single case designs were used to evaluate the use of progressive time delay (PTD) to teach children…
Hazlett, Diane E; Harrison, Laura; Carroll, Jennifer K; Irwin, Anthea; Hoving, Ciska
Background There is currently a lack of information about the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals from primary research. Objective To review the current published literature to identify the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals, and identify current gaps in the literature to provide recommendations for future health communication research. Methods This paper is a review using a systematic approach. A systematic search of the literature was conducted using nine electronic databases and manual searches to locate peer-reviewed studies published between January 2002 and February 2012. Results The search identified 98 original research studies that included the uses, benefits, and/or limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals. The methodological quality of the studies assessed using the Downs and Black instrument was low; this was mainly due to the fact that the vast majority of the studies in this review included limited methodologies and was mainly exploratory and descriptive in nature. Seven main uses of social media for health communication were identified, including focusing on increasing interactions with others, and facilitating, sharing, and obtaining health messages. The six key overarching benefits were identified as (1) increased interactions with others, (2) more available, shared, and tailored information, (3) increased accessibility and widening access to health information, (4) peer/social/emotional support, (5) public health surveillance, and (6) potential to influence health policy. Twelve limitations were identified, primarily consisting of quality concerns and lack of reliability, confidentiality, and privacy. Conclusions Social media brings a new dimension to health care as it offers a
Barbaro, Josephine; Dissanayake, Cheryl
Despite behavioral markers of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) being evident within the first year of life, there remains little research on the prospective identification of these children in a community-based setting before 18 months. The aim in the Social Attention and Communication Study was to identify infants and toddlers at risk of an ASD during their first 2 years. A total of 241 Maternal and Child Health nurses were trained on the early signs of ASDs at 8, 12, 18 and 24 months. Using a developmental surveillance approach with a community-based sample, a cohort of 20,770 children was monitored on early social attention and communication behaviors. Those infants/toddlers identified as "at risk" were referred to the Social Attention and Communication Study team from 12 months for developmental and diagnostic assessments at 6 monthly intervals, until 24 months. A total of 216 children were referred, with 110 being further assessed. Of these, 89 children were classified with an ASD at 24 months, and 20 children had developmental and/or language delays, resulting in a Positive Predictive value of 81%. The estimated rate of ASDs in the Social Attention and Communication Study cohort ranged from 1:119 to 1:233 children. Estimated sensitivity ranged from 69% to 83.8%, and estimated specificity ranged from 99.8% to 99.9%. Developmental surveillance of social and communication behaviors, which differ according to the age at which the child is monitored, enables the accurate identification of children at risk for ASDs between 12 and 24 months. Education on the early signs is recommended for all primary health care professionals to facilitate early identification of ASDs.
Johnson, Rhonda; Morales, Robin; Leavitt, Doreen; Carry, Catherine; Kinnon, Dianne; Rideout, Denise; Clarida, Kath
This paper provides highlights of a utilization-focused evaluation of a collaborative Pan-Arctic Inuit Wellness TV Series that was broadcast live in Alaska and Canada in May 2009. This International Polar Year (IPY) communication and outreach project intended to (1) share information on International Polar Year research progress, disseminate findings and explore questions with Inuit in Alaska, Canada and Greenland; (2) provide a forum for Inuit in Alaska, Canada and Greenland to showcase innovative health and wellness projects; (3) ensure Inuit youth and adult engagement throughout; and (4) document and reflect on the overall experience for the purposes of developing and "testing" a participatory communication model. Utilization-focused formative evaluation of the project, with a focus on overall objectives, key messages and lessons learned to facilitate program improvement. Participant observation, surveys, key informant interviews, document review and website tracking. Promising community programs related to 3 themes - men's wellness, maternity care and youth resilience - in diverse circumpolar regions were highlighted, as were current and stillevolving findings from ongoing Arctic research. Multiple media methods were used to effectively deliver and receive key messages determined by both community and academic experts. Local capacity and new regional networks were strengthened. Evidence-based resources for health education and community action were archived in digital formats (websites and DVDs), increasing accessibility to otherwise isolated individuals and remote communities. The Pan-Arctic Inuit Wellness TV Series was an innovative, multi-dimensional communication project that raised both interest and awareness about complex health conditions in the North and stimulated community dialogue and potential for increased collaborative action. Consistent with a communication for social change approach, the project created new networks, increased motivation to act
Hage, Maria; Wortmann, Johan; van Offenbeek, Marjolein; Boonstra, Albert
Purpose – In today’s aging world online communication is often viewed as a means to enhance social connectivity, and therefore well-being, of older adults. However, previous research on the influence of online communication on social connectivity largely disregards older adults, yields conflicting
Wu, Chin-Chin; Chiang, Chung-Hsin
To explore the different developmental trajectories of social-communicative skills in children with autism and typically developing infants, two longitudinal studies were conducted. In Study 1, we examined the developmental sequence of social-communicative skills in 26 typically developing infants when they were 9 months old and reexamined them…
Strid, Karin; Heimann, Mikael; Gillberg, Christopher; Smith, Lars; Tjus, Tomas
Deferred imitation and early social communication skills were compared among speaking and nonspeaking children with autism and children developing typically. Overall, the children with autism showed a lower frequency on measures of deferred imitation and social communication compared with typically developing children. Deferred imitation was…
Ferris, Sharmila Pixy
A substantial number of published articles in speech communication research today is experimental/social scientific in nature. It is only in the past decade that scholars have begun to put the history of communication under the lens. Early advocates of the adoption of the method of social scientific inquiry were J. A. Winans, J. M. O'Neill, and C.…
The purpose of this study was to examine communication skills, interpersonal problem solving skills, and social self-efficacy perception of adolescents and the predictive role of communication skills and interpersonal problem solving skills on social self-efficacy. This study is a quantitative and relational study aimed at examining the…
Chesnut, Steven R.; Wei, Tianlan; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Richman, David M.
The current meta-analysis examines the previous research on the utility of the Social Communication Questionnaire as a screening instrument for autism spectrum disorder. Previously published reports have highlighted the inconsistencies between Social Communication Questionnaire-screening results and formal autism spectrum disorder diagnoses. The…
Bellon-Harn, Monica L.; Harn, William E.
Among characteristics of children diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (AS) are difficulties in social communication. This study describes the social communicative competence of two middle school children with AS participating in conversations in three different situational contexts. The conversations were transcribed and submitted to three kinds of…
Schlee, Regina Pefanis; Harich, Katrin R.
This research is based on two studies that focus on teaching students how to integrate and assess social networking tools in marketing communications. Study 1 examines how students in marketing classes utilize social networking tools and explores their attitudes regarding the use of such tools for marketing communications. Study 2 focuses on an…
Yi, Haeseung; Xiao, Tong; Thomas, Parijatham S; Aguirre, Alejandra N; Smalletz, Cindy; Dimond, Jill; Finkelstein, Joseph; Infante, Katherine; Trivedi, Meghna; David, Raven; Vargas, Jennifer; Crew, Katherine D; Kukafka, Rita
The purpose of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to patient-provider communication when discussing breast cancer risk to aid in the development of decision support tools. Four patient focus groups (N=34) and eight provider focus groups (N=10) took place in Northern Manhattan. A qualitative analysis was conducted using Atlas.ti software. The coding yielded 62.3%-94.5% agreement. The results showed that 1) barriers are time constraints, lack of knowledge, low health literacy, and language barriers, and 2) facilitators are information needs, desire for personalization, and autonomy when communicating risk in patient-provider encounters. These results will inform the development of a patient-centered decision aid (RealRisks) and a provider-facing breast cancer risk navigation (BNAV) tool, which are designed to facilitate patient-provider risk communication and shared decision-making about breast cancer prevention strategies, such as chemoprevention.
Croes, Emmelyn; Antheunis, Marjolijn; Schouten, Alexander; Krahmer, Emiel
The first aim of this study was to analyze video-mediated communication (VMC), in comparison to face-to-face (FTF) communication, and the effect it has on how communicators express nonverbal affiliative behaviors relevant for social attraction. Second, this study aimed to discover whether these
Craig, Francesco; Fanizza, Isabella; Russo, Luigi; Lucarelli, Elisabetta; Alessandro, Lorenzo; Pasca, Maria Grazia; Trabacca, Antonio
The aim of this study was to classify children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) according to Autism Classification System of Functioning: Social Communication (ACSF:SC) criteria, in order to investigate the association between social communication ability, ASD severity, adaptive functioning, cognitive abilities and psychoeducational profile. The severity of social communication impairment was specified through Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5th edition (DSM-5) and ACSF:SC tool. The ADOS-2, Vineland-II and PEP-3 were administered to all participants. We found a positive correlation between DSM-5 levels and ACSF:SC-Typical Performance (r = 0.35; P = 0.007) and ACSF:SC-Capacity (r = 0.31; P = 0.01) levels. Children included in the five levels of ACSF:SC (Typical Performance and Capacity) showed statistically significant differences in ADOS-2 (Social Affect), Vineland-II (Communication and Socialization), and PEP-3 (Communication, motor skills, maladaptive behavior) scores. The results of this study indicate that ACSF:SC provide a better understanding of functional profile of children with ASD based on the social communication abilities. Children with greater severity of social communication showed more difficulty in adaptive behavior and psychoeducational profiles. In conclusion, the ACSF:SC could help clinicians and therapists not only to understand the strength and weakness of preschool children with ASD but also to devise specific treatment in order to promote their social integration. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1249-1258. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wu, Chin-Chin; Chiang, Chung-Hsin
To explore the different developmental trajectories of social-communicative skills in children with autism and typically developing infants, two longitudinal studies were conducted. In Study 1, we examined the developmental sequence of social-communicative skills in 26 typically developing infants when they were 9 months old and reexamined them when they were 12 and 15 months old. The results indicated a reliable developmental sequence of social-communicative skills in infants with typical development. In Study 2, we explored the emergence sequence of social-communicative skills of 23 children with autism and 23 children with developmental delay between the ages of 2 and 4 years. The results demonstrated that the developmental sequence of social-communicative skills in young children with autism and children with developmental delays was different.
This paper explores dynamics of pain communication in the social media platform Tumblr. As a device of health communication, the Tumblr platform brings together a network of behaviors, technologies and media forms through which pain experience is reimaged through and against mainstream biomedical frameworks. The article develops an interpretative approach to analyze how, as social media platforms reorganize affective, emotional, physical and temporal frames of experience, communication about ...
Caron, Jessica; Light, Janice
An online focus group was used to investigate the experiences of nine individuals with cerebral palsy who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) and social media. Information was gathered related to (a) advantages of social media, (b) disadvantages of social media, (c) barriers to successful use, (d) supports to successful use, and (e) recommendations for other individuals using AAC, support personnel, policy makers, and technology developers. Participants primarily chose to focus on social media as a beneficial tool and viewed it as an important form of communication. The participants did describe barriers to social media use (e.g., technology). Despite barriers, all the participants in this study took an active role in learning to use social media. The results are discussed as they relate to themes and with reference to published literature.
Jh, Österholm; L-C, Hydén
The overall aim of the study was to investigate if and how persons with dementia were able to take part in negotiations for formal support, as cases of citizenship as practice The transcripts used for analysis were from 11 assessment meetings conducted in Sweden, in which the formal applicant was a person with dementia. The findings suggest that the actual participation of persons with dementia in assessment meetings varies. Communication problems were found in the meetings to different degrees and were dealt with differently and with various consequences. For those persons with dementia contributing at the same levels as the other participants, there was an attempt at mutual understanding. For those making fewer contributions, the other interlocutors took over the initiative and thus affected the practice of citizenship by persons with dementia in a negative way. The practice of citizenship is situation based and varies depending on all participants. When the person with dementia is able to participate in the conversation, social workers can facilitate for them to overcome communication problems by giving them more time and signaling acceptance. If the person with dementia has great problems in participating, the other participants can find different strategies to at least involve her or him in the conversation. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Despite its almost four decade mainstay, the field of parti-cipatory communication for social change still experiences a definitional and pragmatic problem regarding what exactly participation is (cf. Jacobson & Storey, 2004; Chambers, 1994; Melkote & Steeves, 2001; Rogers, 1976; Lerner, 1964; Schramm, 1964; Servaes, 1995. What remains is a vastly under-theorised field of participatory communication for social change. This article examines the possibility of participatory communication approaching the Habermasian “ideal speech situation” in which people, as communicators, are seen as having a value in their own right and not simply regarded as a means to an end (cf. Habermas, 1984; 1987; 1989. Consistent with the Freirean “liberal pedagogy”, the praxis of dialogical communication or intersubjective communication is seen as putting right the “participative” quality of participatory com-munication (cf. Freire, 1970. For both theorists, transformative action can only occur if reflective and collective learning occurs in linguistically constructed settings where the normative dimensions of truth (logos, rightfulness (ethos and truthfulness (pathos are raised and met in the developmental conversation. This is especially significant in a globalised world and fragmented, post-bourgeois public sphere where debate among developmental stakeholders is becoming more marginal, in-strumentalist, and less public. Based on available analyses of development communication literature, this article proposes that the chosen dialogical approaches share a type of communi-cative behaviour (i.e. action theoretic, rather than representing a particular paradigm or school of thought. This could offer further definitional clarification of proper participatory communi-cation for social change in a post-1994 South Africa.
Sinclair, P. W.
The internet and social media have been a critical vector for misinformation on climate change. Scientists have not always been proactive or effective in utilizing the medium to bring attention to the best science, to correct misinformation and overcome urban myths. Similarly, mainstream journalists have been handicapped in dealing with the wide open nature of the medium, and often muted by editorial concerns or budget restrictions. Independent communicators who are highly motivated can make inroads in this area by using the internet's immediacy and connectivity to consistently connect viewers and readers to reliable information. Over the last 4 years, I have developed a series of you tube videos, made deliberately provocative to engage the internet's confrontational culture, but carefully crafted to bring the best science into the freewheeling community. In doing so, I have won the confidence of leading climate scientists, and in some cases assisted them in clarifying their message. This presentation will share simple tips, useful practices, and effective strategies for making complex material more clear and user friendly, and help scientists better convey the stories hidden in their data.
Wobber, Victoria; Hare, Brian
Relative to non-human primates, domestic dogs possess a number of social skills that seem exceptional-particularly in solving problems involving cooperation and communication with humans. However, the degree to which dogs' unusual skills are contextually specialized is still unclear. Here, we presented dogs with a social problem that did not require them to use cooperative-communicative cues and compared their performance to that of chimpanzees to assess the extent of dogs' capabilities relative to those of non-human primates. We tested the abilities of dogs and chimpanzees to inhibit previously learned responses by using a social and a non-social version of a reversal learning task. In contrast to previous findings in cooperative-communicative social tasks, dogs were not more skilled on the social task than the non-social task, while chimpanzees were significantly better in the social paradigm. Chimpanzees were able to inhibit their prior learning better and more quickly in the social paradigm than they were in the non-social paradigm, while dogs took more time to inhibit what they had learned in both versions of the task. These results suggest that the dogs' sophisticated social skills in using human social cues may be relatively specialized as a result of domestication.
Ivette Soto Velez
Full Text Available Companies around the globe are embracing and adapting social media for many differentintentions: customer service, marketing, internal communications, public relations orcorporate social responsibility, etc. It is now a reality that social media is channging the waystakeholders and companies communicate daily, providing opportunities for collaboration,participation, interactivity, and engagement. Therefore, social media is conceived today inthe corporate world as a strategic communication partner, driving new and uniquepossibilities for organizations to engage stakeholders in conversations. We are witnesses of anew digital era where consumers are becoming active users rather than passive individuals,changing dramatically how society operates. But these useful technological tools areemployed widely and precisely by corporations in order to facilitate and improvecommunications? This research aims to discover the usage of different social mediaplatforms by Puerto Rican companies. A content analysis was performed to the Facebookand Twitter official profiles of the top 400 locally owned Puerto Rican companies of 2009.The principal objective was to find if social media sites were mainly used as a strategic toolfor corporate communication that can enhance stakeholder participation and engagement.Results showed that Puerto Rican companies are not employing social media platforms forimproving communications with different stakeholders, failing to take advantage of theenormous possibilities that social media has for communication./Compañías alrededor del mundo están utilizando los medios sociales para diferentespropósitos: servicio al cliente, mercadeo, comunicaciones internas, relaciones públicas oresponsabilidad social corporativa, etc. Hoy en día es una realidad que los medios socialesestán cambiando la manera en que se comunican las compañías con los distintos públicos deinterés, trayendo consigo oportunidades para la colaboración, el
Chesick, Curtis W.
The digital revolution has created a new ways for society to interact. As technology continues to evolve so does the way culture begins to use it as a channel for communication. Social media has developed as a two way communication tool used by both corporate America as well as individuals. This research begins to look at how Missouri school…
Due to the development of, and the opportunities that social media provides for different groups in society, companies and organizations are encouraged to be present on, and be a part of the new social media landscape. This research examines how five companies and five organizations use social media as a tool to create relationships with individuals, and what role social media plays in the daily communication work. The social media platforms discussed in this research companies and organizati...
Torres, Samantha; de la Riva, Erika E; Tom, Laura S; Clayman, Marla L; Taylor, Chirisse; Dong, Xinqi; Simon, Melissa A
Despite increasing need to boost the recruitment of underrepresented populations into cancer trials and biobanking research, few tools exist for facilitating dialogue between researchers and potential research participants during the recruitment process. In this paper, we describe the initial processes of a user-centered design cycle to develop a standardized research communication tool prototype for enhancing research literacy among individuals from underrepresented populations considering enrollment in cancer research and biobanking studies. We present qualitative feedback and recommendations on the prototype's design and content from potential end users: five clinical trial recruiters and ten potential research participants recruited from an academic medical center. Participants were given the prototype (a set of laminated cards) and were asked to provide feedback about the tool's content, design elements, and word choices during semi-structured, in-person interviews. Results suggest that the prototype was well received by recruiters and patients alike. They favored the simplicity, lay language, and layout of the cards. They also noted areas for improvement, leading to card refinements that included the following: addressing additional topic areas, clarifying research processes, increasing the number of diverse images, and using alternative word choices. Our process for refining user interfaces and iterating content in early phases of design may inform future efforts to develop tools for use in clinical research or biobanking studies to increase research literacy.
Adams, Catherine; Gaile, Jacqueline; Lockton, Elaine; Freed, Jenny
Purpose: This clinical focus article presents an illustration of a complex communication intervention, the Social Communication Intervention Programme (SCIP), as delivered to a child who has a social communication disorder (SCD). The SCIP intervention combined language processing and pragmatic and social understanding therapies in a program of…
Namkoong, Kang; Nah, Seungahn; Record, Rachael A; Van Stee, Stephanie K
This study examines direct and indirect effects of interactive communication in an antismoking social media campaign. To that end, we pose a multitheoretical framework that integrates communication mediation models and the Theory of Planned Behavior. To test the theorized model, we conducted an experiment using a two-group pretest-posttest design. Participants (N = 201) were randomly assigned into two experimental conditions: "campaign message reception only" as a control group and "message reception and social interaction" as a treatment group, in which the participants contributed to the antismoking campaign by posting their own campaign ideas and information they found through mediated and interpersonal communication. The findings show that interactive communication catalyzes the participants' information searching behaviors through diverse communication channels. In turn, increased media use plays a crucial role in changing their attitudes and perceived social norms about smoking behaviors, and eventually reducing smoking intention. This study affirms that the theory of planned behavior is effective in predicting behavioral intention and demonstrates the usefulness of a multitheoretical approach in interactive campaign research on social media.
In this study, we leverage human evaluations, content analysis, and computational modeling to generate a comprehensive analysis of readers’ evaluations of authors’ communication quality in social media with respect to four factors: author credibility, interpersonal attraction, communication competence, and intent to interact. We review previous research on the human evaluation process and highlight its limitations in providing sufficient information for readers to assess authors’ communication quality. From our analysis of the evaluations of 1,000 Twitter authors’ communication quality from 300 human evaluators, we provide empirical evidence of the impact of the characteristics of the reader (demographic, social media experience, and personality), author (profile and social media engagement), and content (linguistic, syntactic, similarity, and sentiment) on the evaluation of an author’s communication quality. In addition, based on the author and message characteristics, we demonstrate the potential for building accurate models that can indicate an author’s communication quality. PMID:29389979
In this study, we leverage human evaluations, content analysis, and computational modeling to generate a comprehensive analysis of readers' evaluations of authors' communication quality in social media with respect to four factors: author credibility, interpersonal attraction, communication competence, and intent to interact. We review previous research on the human evaluation process and highlight its limitations in providing sufficient information for readers to assess authors' communication quality. From our analysis of the evaluations of 1,000 Twitter authors' communication quality from 300 human evaluators, we provide empirical evidence of the impact of the characteristics of the reader (demographic, social media experience, and personality), author (profile and social media engagement), and content (linguistic, syntactic, similarity, and sentiment) on the evaluation of an author's communication quality. In addition, based on the author and message characteristics, we demonstrate the potential for building accurate models that can indicate an author's communication quality.
Fauzilah Md Husain
Full Text Available Fundamental principles of public speaking and appropriate organisational structure of ideas for occupational and social communication are vital aspects for undergraduates as a pathway to overcome employers’ grievances on graduates’ lack of communication skills (Malaysia Education Blueprint, 2015. This study was undertaken to explore the perceptions of a group of ten students at a tertiary institution in Malaysia to see how they utlise the theories and practice of effective communication skills beyond their course entitled “Oral Communication for Social and Occupational Purposes”. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the participants. The study found that these students gained knowledge about effective communication for social and occupational purposes. The findings also indicate that students have benefitted in relation to communication in a formal way especially to higher authorities, and sharpening their communication and presentation skills. However, there were shortcomings that need to be addressed, particularly related to methods of teaching Oral Communication for Social and Occupational Purposes, time constraint in preparing for the tutorial sessions and producing a good quality video. Keywords: Social and Occupational, Communication, Oral skills, Theories and Practice
Esfandiari, Narges; Nouri, Abolghasem; Golparvar, Mohsen; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H
Background: The internet is a phenomena that changes human, specially the younger generation's, life in the 21st century. Online communication is a common way of interacting among adolescents who experience feelings of social anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between social anxiety and online communication in adolescents. Methods: Three hundred and thirty students aged 13-16 years were selected from eight middle and high schools in Isfahan by multistage cluster sampling. Each of them completed a survey on the amount of time they spent communicating online, the topics they discussed, the partners they engaged with and their purpose for communicating over the internet. They also completed the social anxiety scale of adolescents. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple regression. Results: Results of the Pearson analysis showed that online communication has a significant positive relationship with apprehension and fear of negative evaluation (AFNE), and a significant negative relationship with tension and inhibition in social contact (TISC) (P online communication is AFNE, TISC. Conclusions: It is suggested that students from middle school get assessed in terms of the level of social anxiety. Then, the quality and quantity of their online communication should be moderated through group training and consulting and referral to medical centers, if needed. The results of this study may lead to optimal use of online communications and reduce the personal, social and psychological problems of adolescents. PMID:23671769
Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The purpose of this paper is to identify the impact of consumer-brand communication in social media on brand equity, providing conceptual model. Methodology/methods: The model was prepared using methods of comparative and systematic analysis of scientific literature. Scientific aim: The scientific aim of the article to propose the perspective of social media communication impact on brand equity conceptualization. The key factors of consumer engagement in company (brand communication process and amount of consumers created content (non-sponsored content, i.e. content created in interaction with company or brand, and sponsored content, i.e. content created in interaction with company (brand was under consideration. Findings: Our findings attempt to provide a comprehensive understanding of company (brand communication in social media seeking after a positive impact on brand equity dimensions. Theoretical analysis disclosed that it is not enough just to post message in a proper social media channel, it is essential to post appropriate content of the message and to post it in appropriate way in persuasion to engage consumers into communication. The consumer-generated content created in interaction with company and without interaction with company in social media is making impact on brand equity. Conclusions: The study extends the literature by examining communication in social media from company to consumer perspectives in order to disclose changes in marketing communication as source of brand equity in virtual context and to present key factors influencing brand equity in company (brand communication p
Esfandiari, Narges; Nouri, Abolghasem; Golparvar, Mohsen; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H
The internet is a phenomena that changes human, specially the younger generation's, life in the 21(st) century. Online communication is a common way of interacting among adolescents who experience feelings of social anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between social anxiety and online communication in adolescents. Three hundred and thirty students aged 13-16 years were selected from eight middle and high schools in Isfahan by multistage cluster sampling. Each of them completed a survey on the amount of time they spent communicating online, the topics they discussed, the partners they engaged with and their purpose for communicating over the internet. They also completed the social anxiety scale of adolescents. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple regression. Results of the Pearson analysis showed that online communication has a significant positive relationship with apprehension and fear of negative evaluation (AFNE), and a significant negative relationship with tension and inhibition in social contact (TISC) (P communication is AFNE, TISC. It is suggested that students from middle school get assessed in terms of the level of social anxiety. Then, the quality and quantity of their online communication should be moderated through group training and consulting and referral to medical centers, if needed. The results of this study may lead to optimal use of online communications and reduce the personal, social and psychological problems of adolescents.
Slort, Willemjan; Blankenstein, Annette H; Deliens, Luc; van der Horst, Henriëtte E
Effective communication is considered to be essential for the delivery of high-quality care. Communication in palliative care may be particularly difficult, and there is still no accepted set of communication skills for GPs in providing palliative care. To obtain detailed information on facilitators and barriers for GP-patient communication in palliative care, with the aim to develop training programmes that enable GPs to improve their palliative care communication skills. Qualitative study with focus groups, interviews, and questionnaires. GPs with patients receiving palliative care at home, and end-of-life consultants in the Netherlands. GP (n = 20) focus groups discussing facilitators and barriers, palliative care patient (n = 6) interviews regarding facilitators, and end-of-life consultant (n = 22) questionnaires concerning barriers. Facilitators reported by both GPs and patients were accessibility, taking time, commitment, and listening carefully. GPs emphasise respect, while patients want GPs to behave in a friendly way, and to take the initiative to discuss end-of-life issues. Barriers reported by both GPs and end-of-life consultants were: difficulty in dealing with former doctors' delay and strong demands from patients' relatives. GPs report difficulty in dealing with strong emotions and troublesome doctor-patient relationships, while consultants report insufficient clarification of patients' problems, promises that could not be kept, helplessness, too close involvement, and insufficient anticipation of various scenarios. The study findings suggest that the quality of GP-patient communication in palliative care in the Netherlands can be improved. It is recommended that specific communication training programmes for GPs should be developed and evaluated.
Slort, Willemjan; Blankenstein, Annette H; Deliens, Luc; van der Horst, Henriëtte E
Background Effective communication is considered to be essential for the delivery of high-quality care. Communication in palliative care may be particularly difficult, and there is still no accepted set of communication skills for GPs in providing palliative care. Aim To obtain detailed information on facilitators and barriers for GP–patient communication in palliative care, with the aim to develop training programmes that enable GPs to improve their palliative care communication skills. Design of study Qualitative study with focus groups, interviews, and questionnaires. Setting GPs with patients receiving palliative care at home, and end-of-life consultants in the Netherlands. Method GP (n = 20) focus groups discussing facilitators and barriers, palliative care patient (n = 6) interviews regarding facilitators, and end-of-life consultant (n = 22) questionnaires concerning barriers. Results Facilitators reported by both GPs and patients were accessibility, taking time, commitment, and listening carefully. GPs emphasise respect, while patients want GPs to behave in a friendly way, and to take the initiative to discuss end-of-life issues. Barriers reported by both GPs and end-of-life consultants were: difficulty in dealing with former doctors' delay and strong demands from patients' relatives. GPs report difficulty in dealing with strong emotions and troublesome doctor–patient relationships, while consultants report insufficient clarification of patients' problems, promises that could not be kept, helplessness, too close involvement, and insufficient anticipation of various scenarios. Conclusion The study findings suggest that the quality of GP–patient communication in palliative care in the Netherlands can be improved. It is recommended that specific communication training programmes for GPs should be developed and evaluated. PMID:21439174
Christensen, Inger-Marie F.; Dam Laursen, Mette; Bøggild, Jacob
This article accounts for the design of the massive open online course (MOOC) Hans Christian Andersen’s Fairy tales on FutureLearn and reports on the effectiveness of this design in terms of engaging learners in social learning and encouraging a deep approach to learning. A learning pathway...... and increased educator feedback. Course data show that that some learners use the space provided for social interaction and mutual support. A learning pathway that engages learners in discussion and progression from week to week facilitates a deep approach to learning. However, this requires more support from...
Vrocharidou, Anatoli; Efthymiou, Ilias
The present study approaches the Internet as a social space, where university students make use of computer mediated communication (CMC) applications, i.e. e-mail, instant messaging and social network sites, in order to satisfy social and academic needs. We focus on university students, because they represent one of the most avid groups of CMC…
Antopolskaya, Tatyana A.; Zhuravleva, Svetlana S.; Baybakova, Olga Y.
The article reveals the problem of developing the ability of preschool children to socialize. It covers the theoretical aspects of the issue and draws attention to the association between the social communication of preschool children and their ability to interact and intercommunicate as well as the development of their social and emotional…
Davison, R.M.; Ou, C.X.J.; Martinsons, M.G.; Zhao, A.Y.
Social media have transformed social interactions and now look set to transform workplace communications. In this exploratory study, we investigate how employees use and get value from a variety of social networking technologies. The context of this research is 4 software firms located in China.
Postmes, T; Spears, R; Sakhel, K; de Groot, D
Two studies examined hypotheses derived from a Social Identity model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE) as applied to social influence in computer-mediated communication (CMC) in groups. This model predicts that anonymity can increase social influence if a common group identity is salient. In a first
Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E.; Allen, Joseph P.; Evans, Meredyth A.; Hare, Amanda L.
This study examined online communication on social networking web pages in a longitudinal sample of 92 youths (39 male, 53 female). Participants' social and behavioral adjustment was assessed when they were ages 13-14 years and again at ages 20-22 years. At ages 20-22 years, participants' social networking website use and indicators of friendship…
Gleaves, Alan; Walker, Caroline
Research suggests that pre-service teaching students embarking on practice placements encounter affect both in a personal and a professional sense more acutely than at any other time during their professional careers. A few studies emphasise the use of electronic communications in facilitating effective peer and tutor support during these…
Farmer, A D; Bruckner Holt, C E M; Cook, M J; Hearing, S D
The internet has transformed many spheres of society. Most notably the advent of social networking websites, such as MySpace, Bebo and Facebook, have attracted many millions of users worldwide. There are over 350 such sites in operation across the internet. There is a paucity of data in the adult literature examining the medical usage of this interesting facet of modern life. To ascertain whether Facebook has user groups that are connected with common medical conditions, and to classify the user groups that were identified as well as enumerating the number of individual users contained therein. We conducted a search of the entire Facebook website between December 2007 and January 2009. We used medical and lay nomenclature for the most prevalent non-communicable diseases as identified from the World Health Organisation Burden of Disease publication to identify whether they were represented among individual Facebook users and user groups. We identified 290,962 individual users who were part of 757 groups. Patient groups accounted for 47.4%, patient/carer support groups 28.1%, fund raising groups 18.6%, and others 5.8%. Notably, there were other groups containing representations from the scientific research community in addition to educational resources. The groups with the most individual members pertained to malignant neoplasms and cardiovascular disease (141,458 users) consistent with their worldwide prevalence. Facebook is providing a readily accessible portal for patients, carers and healthcare professionals to share their experiences of investigation, diagnosis and management of disease. Furthermore, this technology is being used for research, education and fundraising. Further research is warranted to explore the further potential of this new technology.
Asami, M. [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan)
It is recently, that is, in and after the 1980s that socio-scientific approaches began to be made to studies on `risk`. It started to be made clear that the progress of the scientific technology does not necessarily bring about good news to man, and obvious estrangement has begun to appear between scientific evaluation and social evaluation of risk. The subject of risk communication (RC) study is to tackle a proposition whether the estrangement will continue to exist as estrangement or the estrangement can be made smaller by any means. This paper explains the recent trend of the study. For example, as for how each individual thinks about risk, that is, the risk perception, a new framework is trially being constructed by introduction of the quantitative method using psychometrics. A duty of RC is to serve to bridge the gap between scientific technology and society which are controlled by values which are incompatible with each other. Therefore, RC will be more and more important. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.
Purice Suzana; Enache Elena; Morozan Cristian
In our days, the electronic communication media is important because the communication forms based on interactivity lead the participants in the act of sending and receiving information to become more than simply issuers, listeners or viewers, integrating them into a dynamic system. In this approach, the study paper aims to prove the relationship between personal development and that of society determined by the new interactive communication instruments. At the individual level, training, edu...
While many child mental health issues manifest themselves in primary care, few pediatricians have received mental health training, and their communication with social workers may be limited due to unfamiliarity with mental health professions. The purpose of this study was to use ethnographic interviews to investigate factors affecting communication satisfaction between social workers and pediatricians. The study found that scope of practice issues were a communication barrier. This barrier is significant because health reform may lead social workers and pediatricians to collaborate more frequently in the future.
Hemsley, Bronwyn; Balandin, Susan; Palmer, Stuart; Dann, Stephen
Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) social media research is relatively new, and is built on a foundation of research on use of the Internet and social media by people with communication disabilities. Although the field is expanding to include a range of people who use AAC, there are limitations and gaps in research that will need to be addressed in order to keep pace with the rapid evolution of social media connectivity in assistive communication technologies. In this paper, we consider the aims, scope, and methodologies of AAC social media research, with a focus on social network sites. Lack of detailed attention to specific social network sites and little use of social media data limits the extent to which findings can be confirmed. Increased use of social media data across a range of platforms, including Instagram and YouTube, would provide important insights into the lives of people who use AAC and the ways in which they and their supporters use social media. New directions for AAC social media research are presented in line with those discussed at the social media research symposium at the International Society for Augmentative and Alternative Communication in Toronto, Canada, on August 12, 2016.
Tierney, Cheryl D; Kurtz, Marie; Panchik, Ann; Pitterle, Kathleen
This article provides an analysis of the effectiveness of commonly used interventions for social pragmatic interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and social communication disorders. Several evidence-based social skills interventions are emerging, including peer mentoring, social skills groups, and video modeling. Social stories are effective as supports for improved interactions but generalization is limited. Research supports the need for multimodality and individualized treatment programs. Research validates that video and visual learning is highly effective with children with ASD when utilized with specific, appropriate targets. Multiple studies have shown that picture-based communication systems are effective at improving functional communication with moderate effects on social communication. Despite limitations in research, there is strong evidence in the existing literature for the role of alternative augmentative communication in improving both functional and social communication. Social pragmatic interventions when individualized are effective for improving language, adaptive behavior and social skills.
Marina M Doucerain
Full Text Available Although a substantial amount of cross-cultural psychology research has investigated acculturative stress in general, little attention has been devoted specifically to communication-related acculturative stress. In line with the view that cross-cultural adaptation and second language (L2 learning are social and interpersonal phenomena, the present study examines the hypothesis that migrants' L2 social network size and interconnectedness predict communication-related acculturative stress. The main idea underlying this hypothesis is that L2 social networks play an important role in fostering social and cultural aspects of communicative competence. Specifically, higher interconnectedness may reflect greater access to unmodified natural cultural representations and L2 communication practices, thus fostering communicative competence through observational learning. As such, structural aspects of migrants' L2 social networks may be protective against acculturative stress arising from chronic communication difficulties. Results from a study of first generation migrant students (N=100 support this idea by showing that both inclusiveness and density of the participants' L2 network account for unique variance in communication-related acculturative stress but not in general acculturative stress. These results support the idea that research on cross-cultural adaptation would benefit from disentangling the various facets of acculturative stress and that the structure of migrants' L2 network matters for language related outcomes. Finally, this study contributes to an emerging body of work that attempts to integrate cultural/cross-cultural research on acculturation and research on intercultural communication and second language learning.
Full Text Available This study discusses the changes in character and role of social communication at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Beside itself being the subject of most thorough change under the influence of globalization and new communication technologies, communication became a key agency of social change. Mediation is seen as one of the phenomena that dominates everyday life and a common feature of almost all forms of human communication. Certain features of contemporary communication are also analyzed in greater detail, such as the new media and the culture of new 'intermediaries'. The new media, such as the internet, mobile phone, Youtube and Facebook, beside their intermediary nature, share a number of other features which are discussed in the study. The features of the culture of new intermediaries that are, among others, discussed in the study are media, content or user convergence, intertextuality, decentralization and decontextualization, media democratization, communicational reductionism, visual culture domination, new genres, planetary popularity, personal mass communication, commercialization of privacy, hypersensationalism and others. The study concludes that the new media have permeated all pores of society and became the integral part of social structure for the reason of which citizens must adapt to them. The media are not merely the means of social interaction but the place of social interaction. In other words, society and human communication have been mediatized.
Nilsen, Elizabeth S; Bacso, Sarah A
Given the pivotal role that social interactions play for adolescents' well-being, understanding the factors that influence communication is key. The present study examined relations between adolescents' communicative perspective-taking, executive function skills, and ADHD traits and explored the role communicative perspective-taking plays in peer relations. Data was collected from a community sample of 15 to 19-years-olds (N = 46) in Waterloo, Canada. Two communicative perspective-taking tasks required participants to infer speakers' communicative intentions. A battery of tasks assessed adolescents' working memory and inhibitory control. Elevated ADHD traits were associated with weaker working memory, inhibitory control, and communicative perspective-taking. Working memory was the strongest predictor of communicative perspective-taking. Highlighting the importance of communicative perspective-taking for social interactions, adolescents with weaker skills in this area reported worse peer relations. Findings underscore the importance of communicative perspective-taking for adolescents' social relations and have relevance for understanding the social difficulties faced by adolescents with elevated ADHD traits. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Madell, Dominic; Muncer, Steven
Shyness (or social anxiety) and social phobia can be viewed as two distinct conditions, and this study investigates whether they are related to use of the Internet generally, and for communication purposes. 362 participants from two schools, a college and a university in the Teesside area in England were asked to complete Mattick and Clarke's (1998) Social Phobia (SPS) and Social Interaction Anxiety (SIAS) scales and also answer a questionnaire which asked them about their use of the Internet generally and for communication purposes. The findings from these suggested that social anxiety and social phobia are not highly associated with use of the Internet either in general, or for communication purposes, although minor associations with certain aspects of Internet use are discussed.
Washburn, Anthony N; Morgan, G Scott; Skitka, Linda J
Social psychology is not a very politically diverse area of inquiry, something that could negatively affect the objectivity of social psychological theory and research, as Duarte et al. argue in the target article. This commentary offers a number of checks to help researchers uncover possible biases and identify when they are engaging in hypothesis confirmation and advocacy instead of hypothesis testing.
Kassardjian, Alyne; Taubman, Mitchell; Rudrud, Eric; Leaf, Justin B.; Edwards, Andrew; McEachin, John; Leaf, Ron; Schulze, Kim
Individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder often display deficits in social skills. While research has shown behavioral interventions to be effective in teaching and/or increasing a variety of appropriate social skills, limited research has shown generalization of these skills to the natural setting. The Teaching Interaction procedure…
Lechuga, Vicente M.; Clerc, Laura Norman; Howell, Abigail K.
As student affairs professionals increasingly move toward developing their students into active citizens that are committed to both social justice and systemic change, it is important for these students to have a keen awareness of the basic concepts that underlie social justice. The authors argue that fundamental knowledge about the concepts of…
Hogenstijn, Maarten; Meerman, Martha; Zinsmeister, Joop
Social enterprises and government share the ultimate goal of solving societal problems, which provides a lot of potential for collaboration between the two parties. While the local government level is the most relevant for social enterprises, little research has been done on the relationship between
This dissertation focuses on the social psychological determinants of mobile communication technology use and adoption in an attempt to better understand people’s behavior for adopting and using innovative information and communication technologies. In particular, this study emphasizes the
Model Classrooms, Bellevue, WA.
This document contains the following seven facilitators' skill packets on personal skills: (1) personal hygiene; (2) personal appearance; (3) locker hygiene; (4) dorm cleanliness; (5) punctuality and attendance; (6) responding to supervision; and (7) teamwork. Each packet contains the following sections: definition of personal skills; objective;…
Barakova, E.I.; Gillesen, J.C.C.; Huskens, Bibi; Lourens, T.
This paper proposes an architecture that makes programming of robot behavior of an arbitrary complexity possible for end-users and shows the technical solutions in a way that is easy to understand and generalize to different situations. It aims to facilitate the uptake and actual use of robot
Communicative interactions, despite the mode (e.g., face-to-face, online) rely on the communication skills of each individual participating. Some individuals have significant speech and language impairments and require the use of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) (i.e., signs, speech generating devices) to maximize their communication participation across a variety of on and offline contexts. Use of social media has brought about changes to communication environments, contributing new contexts for engagement. To provide a framework for considering application of engagement theory for interventions around social media use by individuals who use AAC. The author has applied examples from qualitative social media and AAC research to a framework of engagement. No formal data collection was used. Social media use has become a conventional form of communication. Yet recognition of the value of social media (and other electronic modalities) for individuals who use AAC has not been fully translated into practice. The examples used illustrated how the proposed framework can assist in clinical practice and future research directions. Engagement, including the proposed framework for considerations of social media engagement activities, can provide a systematic way to approach social media use for individuals who use AAC.
Linda M. Gallant
Full Text Available Communicative informatics reflects the interactive complexity of web-based communication and a paradigm shift away from mass communication. Three discursive spheres (database and information systems, human computer interaction, and active audiences work together to control online communication openness and its consequences for post-mass media society’s public common. This has implications for communication freedom, creativity, and constraints in an information-based society. Four propositions shed light on how online audience activity is encouraged by and imperative to corporate interests; how audience creativity can create, accept, or reject messages; how the online audience is monitored; and how online rhetoric can produce or inhibit public commons. Evidence shows that social media’s corporate interests can be at odds with online privacy and citizen communication. This tension is explored with a unique focus on rhetoric, argument, and the communication between audience members and Internet-based corporate media by way of digitized communication feedback loops.
The purpose of this study was to investigate what kind of visual messages the Central Association of Scouts and Guides in Finland use in their social media, how the messages are perceived and how they could be optimized. The theoretical part explains the key concepts of social media and how it is used among Finnish youth. The chosen social media platforms, Instagram and Twitter are also looked into, fol-lowed by chapters explaining the science of studying social media monitoring, visual m...
This thesis looks into social media marketing, what relationship public relations has with social media marketing and brand equity. The challenge with utilizing social media marketing is identifying the right tools to use in measuring the success or effectiveness of it. In this thesis I investigate a set of tools a Finnish PR agency could utilize in measuring the effects of their social media marketing efforts on their client’s brand equity. This thesis topics include new media in specifi...
the most commonly-used types of social media in government: Blogs (Wordpress), Social Networks (e.g., Facebook ), Microblogs (e.g., Twitter), Wikis...established a Social Networking Monitoring Center (SNMC) in January 2009.83 The DHS employs civilian contractors to monitor Facebook , Twitter, and other...directive made specific mention of its primary applicability to social networking sites, information sharing websites, Wikis, blogs, and image and
Social Networking : – Facebook – MySpace – Friendster 9/1/2011 Content sharing: -You Tube -Flickr -Vimeo -Photobucket Collaborating/ knowledge...Americans use social media tools and Web sites monthly Social networking is now the #1 activity on the web • Twitter: 54 Million users • Facebook ...anyone you don’t know on Facebook or social networking platforms -Don’t post deployment information, when you’re going on vacation or when
Yamamoto, Masahiro; Jo, Hyerim
Despite the accumulated evidence for the environmental correlates of physical activity, social processes underlying this association are not entirely clear. This study positions communication characterized by weak ties as a social mechanism linking neighborhood walkability with physical exercise. Data from a survey of Chicago residents show that perceived neighborhood walkability is positively related to frequency of weak-tie communication. Frequency of weak-tie communication is related positively to perceived social cohesion and negatively to anonymity, both of which are significantly related to frequency of physical exercise in the neighborhood. Data also show a sequential indirect relationship involving perceived neighborhood walkability, weak-tie communication, anonymity, and physical exercise. Implications are discussed in terms of the role of communication in promoting locality-based physical exercise. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The aim of this paper is thus to investigate social businesses’ communication of identity in their corporate communication. Institutional theory (e.g. DiMaggio & Powel, 1983), and especially the notion of legitimacy (Deephouse and Carter, 2005; Meyer and Rowan, 1977; Suchman, 1995), provides...... responsibility values, or if they are working with two, or even more, different value systems. Accordingly, the assumption put forward by this paper is that a high degree of alignment between identity and social responsibility in the enterprise’s corporate communication will enable the enterprises to communicate...... the frame for understanding and exploring the enterprises’ communication in an organizational context. Hence, through a value-theoretical framework, the study seeks to identify the extent to which these enterprises manage to create alignment between their corporate identity values and their social...
The aim of this thesis was to discover whether social media is an effective marketing communication tactic for Gina Tricot or not. The objective was to find out how customers experience Gina Tricot’s marketing and social media activities and whether social media accounts are able to serve customers as aimed. The case company Gina Tricot is presented in the introduction chapter. The theoretical study focuses on social media marketing and on the transition from traditional outbound marketing to...
Typhina, Eli; Bardon, Robert E.; Gharis, Laurie W.
Many Extension educators are still learning how to effectively integrate social media into their programs. By using the right social media platforms and mobile applications to create engaged, online communities, Extension educators can collaborate with clients to produce and to share information expanding and enhancing their social media and…
Mandeville, Kate L; Harris, Matthew; Thomas, H Lucy; Chow, Yimmy; Seng, Claude
Social media applications such as Twitter, YouTube and Facebook have attained huge popularity, with more than three billion people and organizations predicted to have a social networking account by 2015. Social media offers a rapid avenue of communication with the public and has potential benefits for communicable disease control and surveillance. However, its application in everyday public health practice raises a number of important issues around confidentiality and autonomy. We report here a case from local level health protection where the friend of an individual with meningococcal septicaemia used a social networking site to notify potential contacts.
Use community-based social marketing (CBSM) to facilitate direct neighbor-to-neighbor communication and influence to promote behavior change. In-person communications are often complemented by electronic social media tools.
Wigboldus, DHJ; Spears, R; Semin, GR
The linguistic expectancy bias (LEB) refers to the tendency to describe expectancy consistent information at a higher level of linguistic abstraction than expectancy inconsistent information. Two experiments examined the influence of the social communicative context on the production of this
Zhao, Dongjie; Jiang, Jian; Li, Deyi; Zhang, Haisu; Chen, Guisheng
Aiming at the problem of social communication network evolution, first, topology potential is introduced to measure the local influence among nodes in networks. Second, from the perspective of topology potential distribution the method of network evolution description based on topology potential distribution is presented, which takes the artificial intelligence with uncertainty as basic theory and local influence among nodes as essentiality. Then, a social communication network is constructed by enron email dataset, the method presented is used to analyze the characteristic of the social communication network evolution and some useful conclusions are got, implying that the method is effective, which shows that topology potential distribution can effectively describe the characteristic of sociology and detect the local changes in social communication network.
D. Eberle (David); G.A.J.M. Berens (Guido); T. Li (Ting)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Companies increasingly communicate about corporate social responsibility (CSR) through interactive online media. We examine whether using such media is beneficial to a company's reputation. We conducted an online experiment to examine the impacts of interactivity in
Full Text Available This article presents the challenges and opportunities of social media for public institutions and argues that the designing and implementing government public relations using social media involves more than merely having another communication channel for publics. I will explain the “social media”, the differences between social media and electronic-Public Relations - E-PR, and the communication between public institutions and journalists. The interviews with journalists or with PR specialists in public institutions were focused on the use, the extent of this use, and the perceived value of various social media as sources contributing to agenda building (Cobb, Elder 1983. If journalists are regularly monitoring sites and forums for story ideas and information, it is necessary for PR professionals within each industry to carefully monitor the information placed there and perhaps engage content producers. In this paper, I conclude that social media is an alternative instrument to encourage a two-way communication channel between government and publics. In public relations, the emergence of social media challenges the traditional instruments of government public relations. Responding to the development of information and communication technology (ICT, social media is considered as an alternative communication channel of government public relations efforts.
Ritholz, Marilyn D; Beverly, Elizabeth A; Brooks, Kelly M; Abrahamson, Martin J; Weinger, Katie
Diabetes self-care is challenging and requires effective patient-provider communication to achieve optimal treatment outcomes. This study explored perceptions of barriers and facilitators to diabetes self-care communication during medical appointments. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews with a semistructured interview guide. Thirty-four patients with type 2 diabetes and 19 physicians who treat type 2 diabetes. Physicians described some patients as reluctant to discuss their self-care behaviors primarily because of fear of being judged, guilt, and shame. Similarly, patients described reluctant communication resulting from fear of being judged and shame, particularly shame surrounding food intake and weight. Physicians and patients recommended trust, nonjudgmental acceptance, open/honest communication, and providing patients hope for living with diabetes as important factors for improving self-care communication. Further, patients stressed the clinical benefits of physicians directly addressing poor self-care behaviors while physicians described having few strategies to address these difficulties. Physician-patient self-care communication barriers included patients' reluctance to discuss self-care behaviors and physicians' perceptions of few options to address this reluctance. Treatment recommendations stressed the importance of establishing trusting, nonjudgmental and open patient-provider communication for optimal diabetes treatment. Medical education is needed to improve physicians' strategies for addressing self-care communication during medical appointments. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Andreea Nicoleta VISAN
Full Text Available This paper discusses how multinational employees who are leaving in Bucharest, Romania use social networks as a tool for their everyday tasks and work, and how they want to satisfy their personal development needs by having access to information from these digital platforms. The case study described was conducted in Bucharest in 2017 and followed a results analysis with structured tables and graphs. In the study took part 24 participants who were selected among multinational IT employees in Bucharest. Social networks contribute to employee’s lifelong educational process: besides providing them positive gratification, they also contribute to their personal development and careers growth. Even though all individuals who participated in this study use social networks, more efforts should be done in order for companies in Bucharest to know the benefits of social networks and employee’s opinion about their contribution to lifelong learning.
Lin, Iris Y; Kwantes, Catherine T
This study looked at the extent to which personality and cultural factors predicted participants' perceptions of the importance private interactions played in the workplace. The 134 participants read a vignette (where a new employee socially interacted at low or high levels with co-workers) and completed the Big Five Inventory, Social Axioms Survey, and questions concerning expected workplace experiences. Results indicated employees who engaged in high levels of private interaction with co-workers were expected to be better liked, to receive better performance evaluations, were more likely to receive co-worker assistance, and were thought to be more likely chosen for future projects. However, the personality and social axiom variables studied did not significantly interact with social interaction to influence expectations of workplace outcomes.
Castello, Itziar; Morsing, Mette; Schultz, Friederike
This paper develops a media theoretical extension of the communicative view on corporate social responsibility by elaborating on the characteristics of network societies, arguing that new media increase the speed and connectivity, and lead to higher plurality and the potential polarization...... of reality constructions. We discuss the implications for corporate social responsibility of becoming more polyphonic and sketch the contours of “communicative legitimacy.” Finally, we present this special issue and develop some questions for future research....
Marina M Doucerain; Raheleh eShiri Varnaamkhaasti; Norman eSegalowitz; Norman eSegalowitz; Andrew G Ryder; Andrew G Ryder
Although a substantial amount of cross-cultural psychology research has investigated acculturative stress in general, little attention has been devoted specifically to communication-related acculturative stress. In line with the view that cross-cultural adaptation and second language (L2) learning are social and interpersonal phenomena, the present study examines the hypothesis that migrants' L2 social network size and interconnectedness predict communication-related acculturative stress. The...
Fieseler, Christian; Ranzini, Giulia
This is the accepted and refereed manuscript to the article Purpose: The rise of social media has caused a shift in organizational practices, giving rise, in some cases, to genuinely "mediatized" organizations. With the present paper, we aim to explore how communications managers employ social media to influence their professional impressions. Design: Analyzing a sample of 679 European communications professionals, we explore with factor and cluster analysis these emerging impression ma...
Mistry DR; Verma M; Vyas SN; Kantharia SL
Introduction: New digital media have dramatically altered the communication landscape, especially for youth. “Indian web users spend 26 minutes online each day”. This study is concerned with effect of social networking on youth regarding potential risk, safety, wellbeing & skill development because they are still maturing & forming the ability to attain & implement communication & conflict resolution skill on interpersonal level. Aim & objective: To explore the impact of social networking on ...
The purpose of this research was to determine the marketing communication strategy of children's books through social media in increasing sales. Qualitative research methods with the interpretive paradigm and the phenomenological approach were used in this research. The focus of this research was to observe about the children's books marketing communication strategy using social media, for instance with Facebook and Twitter to attract consumer’s interest in order to increase children's books ...
Gomez Garcia, C.; Tejedor Garcia, E.
Currently, new communication models are being established in the society. Companies, as part of society and as socially responsible entities should be part of these changes and, therefore, adapt themselves to these new models of communication. In one approach and study of this new model, some experiences obtained by Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant are studied, a SWOT analysis of the situation is made and are raised the three main objectives Cofrentes NPP should pursue if it enters in the social networks field. (Author)
Conclusions: It is suggested that students from middle school get assessed in terms of the level of social anxiety. Then, the quality and quantity of their online communication should be moderated through group training and consulting and referral to medical centers, if needed. The results of this study may lead to optimal use of online communications and reduce the personal, social and psychological problems of adolescents.
Esfandiari, Narges; Nouri, Abolghasem; Golparvar, Mohsen; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H
Background: The internet is a phenomena that changes human, specially the younger generation′s, life in the 21 st century. Online communication is a common way of interacting among adolescents who experience feelings of social anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between social anxiety and online communication in adolescents. Methods: Three hundred and thirty students aged 13-16 years were selected from eight middle and high schools in Isfahan by multistage cl...
In this paper, the author considers the alterations that occurred in the international scientific communication. It is mainly technological development that exerts the influence over these alterations – particularly the emergence of new media. The major part of this paper is dedicated to the issue of the use of social networking sites in scientific communication. In her considerations, the author refers to the world-wide research pertaining to social media in the meantime demonstrating the at...
Ng, Jomel W X; Tong, Eddie M W; Sim, Dael L Y; Teo, Samantha W Y; Loy, Xingqi; Giesbrecht, Timo
Past research has established clear support for the prosocial function of gratitude in improving the well-being of others. The present research provides evidence for another hypothesized function of gratitude: the social alignment function, which enhances the tendency of grateful individuals to follow social norms. We tested the social alignment hypothesis of gratitude in 2 studies with large samples. Using 2 different conformity paradigms, participants were subjected to a color judgment task (Experiment 1) and a material consumption task (Experiment 2). They were provided with information showing choices allegedly made by others, but were allowed to state their responses in private. Supporting the social alignment hypothesis, the results showed that induced gratitude increased private conformity. Specifically, participants induced to feel gratitude were more likely to conform to the purportedly popular choice, even if the option was factually incorrect (Experiment 1). This effect appears to be specific to gratitude; induction of joy produced significantly less conformity than gratitude (Experiment 2). We discuss whether the social alignment function provides a behavioral pathway in the role of gratitude in building social relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Nair, T. R. Gopalakrishnan; Subramaniam, Kumarashvari
Effective Communication for marketing is a vital field in business organizations, which is used to convey the details about their products and services to the market segments and subsequently to build long lasting customer relationships. This paper focuses on an emerging component of the integrated marketing communication, ie. social media networking, as it is increasingly becoming the trend. In 21st century, the marketing communication platforms show a tendency to shift towards innovative te...
Fauzilah Md Husain; Malini Ganapathy; Akmar Mohamad
Fundamental principles of public speaking and appropriate organisational structure of ideas for occupational and social communication are vital aspects for undergraduates as a pathway to overcome employers’ grievances on graduates’ lack of communication skills (Malaysia Education Blueprint, 2015). This study was undertaken to explore the perceptions of a group of ten students at a tertiary institution in Malaysia to see how they utlise the theories and practice of effective communication skil...
Husain, Fauzilah Md; Ganapathy, Malini; Mohamed, Akmar
Fundamental principles of public speaking and appropriate organisational structure of ideas for occupational and social communication are vital aspects for undergraduates as a pathway to overcome employers' grievances on graduates' lack of communication skills (Malaysia Education Blueprint, 2015). This study was undertaken to explore the…
Mancil, G. Richmond; Lorah, Elizabeth R.; Whitby, Peggy Schaefer
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the use of the iPod Touch™ as a Speech Generated Device (SGD) for Functional Communication Training (FCT). The evaluation of the effects on problem behavior, the effects on generalization and maintenance of the acquired communication repertoire, and the social initiations of peers between the new SGD (iPod…
Miriam Graciela Miquilena
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research aimed at explaining the system of interactions of social actors in Public Communication of Science and Technology (PCST, in the context of a social web defined by the novel systems of communication sustained on informational and communication technologies. The study’s theoretical framework highlights the strategic importance of a Public Communication which focuses on promoting public appropriation of Science and Technology, going beyond the role of Journalism and Science Communication that informs a qualified public, to one that stablishes a bond with policies and decision making in the area, made with participation of international agencies, governments, producers of science and technology, journalists’ associations, educational institutions, and citizens. The research relies on Explicative Methodology. A revision of pertinent bibliography leads to the conclusion that the system of social interactions mediated by personal, interpersonal and grupal global communications, define the relationships in the communicational exchange of the social actor with regard to public communication of science and technology and policies aimed at its appropriation.
The importance of communication during a school crisis has not changed in the 21st century. What has changed--and quite dramatically since 1999--is the way people communicate. Social media tools are now used in some form by 100 percent of all four-year universities in the United States as a way to reach students, according to a 2011 University of…
Thatcher, Karen L.; Fletcher, Kathryn; Decker, Blair
The critical role of communication in schools cannot be understated. Communication skills are a necessity both in the academic and social atmosphere of the school environment. Unfortunately, there are a large number of children in the schools today identified with speech and language disorders. This special edition of "Psychology in the Schools"…
Hage, Maria Louisa
It is often assumed online communication can enhance older adults’ social connectivity. However, previous studies have indicated two obstacles. First, older adults tend to be late adopters, or laggards. This raises the question how online communication tools can be implemented among a population
Tadic, Valerie; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi
Background: Development of children with congenital visual impairment (VI) has been associated with vulnerable socio-communicative outcomes often bearing striking similarities to those of sighted children with autism. To date, very little is known about language and social communication in children with VI of normal intelligence. Methods: We…
Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Berben, Sivera AA; Teerenstra, Steven; Samsom, Melvin; Schoonhoven, Lisette
-related information for the Dutch population. One in 4 persons wants to communicate with their physician via social media channels and it is expected that this number will further increase. Health care providers should explore new ways of communicating online and should facilitate ways for patients to connect with them. Future research should aim at comparing different patient groups and diseases, describing best practices, and determining cost-effectiveness. PMID:24088272
Van de Belt, Tom H; Engelen, Lucien J L P G; Berben, Sivera A A; Teerenstra, Steven; Samsom, Melvin; Schoonhoven, Lisette
. One in 4 persons wants to communicate with their physician via social media channels and it is expected that this number will further increase. Health care providers should explore new ways of communicating online and should facilitate ways for patients to connect with them. Future research should aim at comparing different patient groups and diseases, describing best practices, and determining cost-effectiveness.
AJRH Managing Editor
media's and consumers' aspirations. (Afr J Reprod Health 2013; 17: ... Keywords: Family Planning, Journalists, Behaviour Change Communication. Introduction ... method approaches, community involvement, as well as building media ...
van Rensburg, Samuel H; Klingensmith, Katherine; McLaughlin, Paige; Qayyum, Zheala; van Schalkwyk, Gerrit I
Social media is an increasingly dominant platform for communication, especially among adolescents. Statements from professional bodies and a growing body of empirical evidence support a role for social media in improving provider-patient interactions. In psychiatry, particular concerns exist about the suitability of this style of communication. Very limited data are available exploring how patients would like to incorporate social media into their communication with their psychiatric providers. We conducted a qualitative study with 20 adolescents attending the Yale Psychiatric Hospital Intensive Outpatient Programme. Interviews were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Participants highlighted how social media could allow for constant access to a mental health provider, provide a less anxiety-provoking mode of communication, and allow for them to be monitored in a more on-going fashion. However, participants also identified many potential risks associated with these applications, including the potential for anxiety if a provider was not able to respond immediately, and a sense that online interactions would be less rich overall. Our findings suggest that adolescents are open to the idea of communicating with mental health providers over social media and are able to describe a number of instances where this could be of value. The risks participants described, as well as concerns raised by existing literature, indicate the need for further work and protocol development in order for social media to be a feasible tool for communication between providers and adolescents with psychiatric illness. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Baixauli-Fortea, I; Rosello-Miranda, B; Berenguer-Forner, C; Colomer-Diago, C; Grau-Sevilla, M D
The difficulties encountered when it comes to social communication are one of the core disorders experienced by persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This problem leads to feelings of loneliness and social exclusion, which negatively affect the quality of life. To review the characteristics of the main interventions in this field in high-functioning ASD. Strategies employed include social stories, comic-strip conversations or videomodelling, and interventions mediated by peers and multicomponent treatments. The design of the programmes used today has evolved towards more ecological approaches that take the family, teachers and companions into account in the treatment. The most recent literature reviews have found evidence of significant improvements following their implementation, which has been reflected in better social competence and lesser feelings of loneliness. The social communication intervention must combine individualised instruction with consideration of the child's environment and the motivation towards communicative interaction.
Robinson, Hayley; Ravikulan, Abhimati; Nater, Urs M; Skoluda, Nadine; Jarrett, Paul; Broadbent, Elizabeth
Social support is known to reduce the negative effects of stress on health, but there is mixed evidence for the effects of social support on wound healing. This study aimed to investigate whether undergoing a task designed to promote social closeness with a fellow participant and being paired with that person during a tape-stripping procedure could reduce stress and improve skin barrier recovery compared to going through tape stripping alone. Seventy-two healthy adults were randomized to either a social closeness condition where participants completed a relationship-building task and tape stripping in pairs or a control condition where they completed tape stripping alone. Skin barrier recovery was measured using transepidermal water loss. Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase were collected at four time points as markers of the endocrine and autonomic stress response. Social closeness had a beneficial effect on skin barrier recovery compared to the control condition, t(54) = 2.86, p = .006, r = .36. Social closeness significantly reduced self-reported stress. The effects of the intervention on skin barrier recovery were moderated by self-reported stress reduction (p = .035). There were no significant differences in cortisol between groups, but alpha-amylase increased significantly more from baseline to after tape stripping in the control group compared to the intervention group. This is the first study to show that social closeness with a person going through a similar unfamiliar procedure can positively influence wound healing. Future research needs to replicate these findings in other wound types and in clinical settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Hillmann, Robert; Trier, Matthias
Previous research suggests the existence of sentiments in online social networks. In comparison to real life human interaction, in which sentiments have been shown to have an influence on human behaviour, it is not yet completely understood which mechanisms explain how sentiments influence users ...... that express the same sentiment polarization. We interpret these findings and suggest future research to advance our currently limited theories that assume perceived and generalized social influence to path-dependent social influence models that consider actual behaviour....
Full Text Available In the context of the Rio Earth Summit numerous international regimes, national policies and organizational guidelines have appeared that help translate the normative demands of sustainable development into political reality. The implementation of these instruments, however, often runs into difficulties or fails entirely. An example is the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD, a progressive approach for the conservation of freshwater that is very unlikely to be implemented by 2015, the target year. We examine in this paper how a recent variation of Gandhian non-violent communication within social entrepreneurship suggests one way to deal with this challenge. Non-violent communication, rooted in Gandhian social action, has long been part of environmental politics. It has undergone a new variation as a mode of communication in the hands of social entrepreneurship initiatives that address urgent social and environmental issues with new, practical ideas. In the conceptual part of this paper, we outline our approach to sustainability, non-violent communication and social entrepreneurship. In a further part, we present data from a trans-disciplinary experiment to illustrate and critically discuss social entrepreneurship as a mode of sustainability communication. The experiment looked at, which is based on French social entrepreneur Roberto Epple’s idea of a Big Jump, is a collaborative campaign that invites young people to take action for water conservation in the context of the WFD.
Lemasson, B H; Anderson, J J; Goodwin, R A
Animals are capable of enhanced decision making through cooperation, whereby accurate decisions can occur quickly through decentralized consensus. These interactions often depend upon reliable social cues, which can result in highly coordinated activities in uncertain environments. Yet information within a crowd may be lost in translation, generating confusion and enhancing individual risk. As quantitative data detailing animal social interactions accumulate, the mechanisms enabling individuals to rapidly and accurately process competing social cues remain unresolved. Here, we model how motion-guided attention influences the exchange of visual information during social navigation. We also compare the performance of this mechanism to the hypothesis that robust social coordination requires individuals to numerically limit their attention to a set of n-nearest neighbours. While we find that such numerically limited attention does not generate robust social navigation across ecological contexts, several notable qualities arise from selective attention to motion cues. First, individuals can instantly become a local information hub when startled into action, without requiring changes in neighbour attention level. Second, individuals can circumvent speed-accuracy trade-offs by tuning their motion thresholds. In turn, these properties enable groups to collectively dampen or amplify social information. Lastly, the minority required to sway a group's short-term directional decisions can change substantially with social context. Our findings suggest that motion-guided attention is a fundamental and efficient mechanism underlying collaborative decision making during social navigation.
Rocío Ortiz Galindo
Full Text Available This work aims to advance in the theoretical analysis of the field of communication and social movements. The article studies the new changes that have emerged in the social Web era. We will review some of the principal works of the literature to observe the communicative strategies in these collectives, which are able to influence in the social change. We will differentiate the area of interpersonal communication (the informal networks and the public communication (the repertoires of collective action. We will use this classification to analyze the communicative strategies which have born in the social cybermovements, in the ICT age.
Full Text Available Employing a systems model, this study presents a content analysis of the Websites of social work academic programs in the United States. A sample of 292 academic programs was extracted from the Baccalaureate Programs' Directors' (BPD online directory of CSWE-accredited social work programs. Of these, 119 were MSW or MSW/BSW programs; the remaining 173 were BSW programs. Although many aspects of Website content were examined, field curriculum was the central focus of this study. The results demonstrate the wide variety of information included on the Websites. MSW and MSW/BSW program Websites offer more information than BSW programs. However, most programs are not making use of the Internet to obtain feedback, create interaction, or provide support. A variety of model Websites are offered to assist social work academic programs develop and maintain their own Websites.
Martin, Angélique; Jacob, Céline; Guéguen, Nicolas
People interact more readily with someone with whom they think they have something in common, but the effect of an incidental similarity has never been examined on social networks. Facebook users were contacted by a stranger who also possessed a Facebook page and who asked them to become his friend. The request message contained one item of similarity, two items of similarity, or none. Compliance to the request was the dependent variable. Increased compliance to the request was found when comparing the two similarity conditions with the control no-similarity condition. However, no difference was found between the two similarity conditions. Similarity appears to foster relationships on social networks.
Full Text Available Communication between consumers is the most important way of communicating value and forming opinions on brands and enterprises. The expansion of communication technologies has made communication between people easier and provided the links with consumers on a radically new basis. Virtual space represents a dominant meeting place for people with similar interests. Thus, virtual consumer communities across the world preferring and committed to same brands have been created. Members are loyal to communities they belong to and participate actively and indirectly in modeling and developing them. By expressing their own opinions and exploring others, consumers influence and help each other in finding solutions for certain situations in buying and consumption. Considering the intensity of the exchange of information, opinions, experience and ideas, one can speak about the expansion of communication messages that are exchanged in the virtual space and social media as transfer channels. These are the media formed by consumers themselves, who control the information communicated through them. Because of the importance of massages exchanged through them and their impact on consumer behavior, social media have an important place in integrated marketing communications. Although enterprises cannot completely control the communication within social media, the efficiency of marketing communication can be realized by providing conditions for friendly, correct, continuous and transparent message exchange between consumers and enterprises as well as between consumers themselves. The paper examines the communication possibilities of social media determining their role and importance in communicating value in the market for the purpose of enhancing consumer loyalty and creating image and professional respectability of the enterprise.
aspects of the community also represent some of the benefits of social media in that, knowledge, once gained, can be stored and retrieved over time...Building trust among various users is an important benefit of social media sites such as APAN. “[DoD International Health Division] IHD member Cdr... social media Web sites. 1. Attributes of a Successful HA/DR Forum To facilitate the collaboration required to effectively respond during a disaster, a